WorldWideScience

Sample records for wild-type urokinase receptor

  1. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A polypeptide presenting an epitope cross-reactive with an epitope of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and/or having uPA binding activity, is described.......A polypeptide presenting an epitope cross-reactive with an epitope of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and/or having uPA binding activity, is described....

  2. The urokinase receptor associated protein (uPARAP/endo180)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, L H; Nielsen, B S; Danø, K

    2001-01-01

    of this proteolytic system. uPARAP is a high molecular weight type-1 membrane protein, belonging to the macrophage mannose receptor protein family. On the surface of certain cells, uPARAP forms a ternary complex with the pro-form of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its primary receptor (uPAR). While......The urokinase-mediated plasminogen activation system plays a central role in the extracellular proteolytic degradation reactions in cancer invasion. In this review article we discuss a number of recent findings identifying a new cellular receptor protein, uPARAP, that interacts with components...

  3. Crystal structure of the urokinase receptor in a ligand-free form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xiang; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Yuan, Cai

    2012-01-01

    The urokinase receptor urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a surface receptor capable of not only focalizing urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-mediated fibrinolysis to the pericellular micro-environment but also promoting cell migration and chemotaxis. Consistent with...

  4. The urokinase receptor as a potential target in cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romer, John; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Ploug, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The glycolipid-anchored receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) is essential for cell-surface associated plasminogen activation and is overexpressed at the invasive tumor-stromal microenvironment in many human cancers. In line with this, uPAR and uPA levels in both resected tumor...

  5. The urokinase receptor associated protein (uPARAP/endo180)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, L H; Nielsen, B S; Danø, K

    2001-01-01

    The urokinase-mediated plasminogen activation system plays a central role in the extracellular proteolytic degradation reactions in cancer invasion. In this review article we discuss a number of recent findings identifying a new cellular receptor protein, uPARAP, that interacts with components...... of this proteolytic system. uPARAP is a high molecular weight type-1 membrane protein, belonging to the macrophage mannose receptor protein family. On the surface of certain cells, uPARAP forms a ternary complex with the pro-form of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its primary receptor (uPAR). While...... the biological consequences of this reaction have not yet been verified experimentally, a likely event is ligand internalization because uPARAP is a constitutively recycling internalization receptor. uPARAP also binds at least one component, collagen type V, in the extracellular matrix meshwork, pointing...

  6. Data on the regulation of moesin and merlin by the urokinase receptor (uPAR: Model explaining distal activation of integrins by uPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Degryse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented herein are connected to our research article (doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2017.04.012 [1], in which we investigated the functional connections between the urokinase receptor (uPAR, and the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM proteins, moesin and merlin [1]. Firstly, a model of action is proposed that enlightens how uPAR regulates distal integrins. In addition, data show the effects of expressing wild-type moesin or permanently active T558D mutant of moesin on angiogenesis and morphology of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC. Additional data compare the effects of urokinase (uPA, the main ligand of uPAR on the same cells. Lastly, we provide technical data demonstrating the effects of specific siRNA for moesin and merlin on moesin and merlin expression, respectively. Keywords: Urokinase receptor, Moesin, Merlin, Angiogenesis, siRNA

  7. Cell-surface acceleration of urokinase-catalyzed receptor cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Ploug, M; Behrendt, N

    1997-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) binds to a specific cell-surface receptor, uPAR. On several cell types uPAR is present both in the full-length form and a cleaved form, uPAR(2+3), which is devoid of binding activity. The formation of uPAR(2+3) on cultured U937 cells is either direct...

  8. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey, E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  9. Urokinase-catalysed cleavage of the urokinase receptor requires an intact glycolipid anchor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Pessara,, Ulrich; Holm, A

    2001-01-01

    Urokinase (uPA) has the striking ability to cleave its receptor, uPAR, thereby inactivating the binding potential of this molecule. Here we demonstrate that the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor of uPAR, which is attached to the third domain, is an important determinant in governing...... this reaction, even though the actual cleavage occurs between the first and second domains. Purified full-length GPI-anchored uPAR (GPI-uPAR) proved much more susceptible to uPA-mediated cleavage than recombinant truncated soluble uPAR (suPAR), which lacks the glycolipid anchor. This was not a general...... hydrophobic region. In accordance with this model, when the hydrophobic lipid moiety was removed from the glycolipid anchor by phospholipase C, low concentrations of uPA could no longer cleave the modified GPI-uPAR and the reactivity to the peptide antibody was greatly decreased. Naturally occurring su...

  10. Urokinase plasminogen activator cleaves its cell surface receptor releasing the ligand-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Rønne, E; Solberg, H.

    1992-01-01

    The cellular receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR) is a glycolipid-anchored three-domain membrane protein playing a central role in pericellular plasminogen activation. We have found that urokinase (uPA) can cleave its receptor between domains 1 and 2 generating a cell-associat...

  11. Urokinase receptor forms in serum from non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almasi, Charlotte Elberling; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    To study the prognostic impact of the different forms of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) in serum from 171 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.......To study the prognostic impact of the different forms of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) in serum from 171 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients....

  12. Single amino acid substitutions in the chemotactic sequence of urokinase receptor modulate cell migration and invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Bifulco

    Full Text Available The receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR plays an important role in controlling cell migration. uPAR binds urokinase and vitronectin extracellular ligands, and signals in complex with transmembrane receptors such as Formyl-peptide Receptors (FPRs and integrins. Previous work from this laboratory has shown that synthetic peptides, corresponding to the uPAR(88-92 chemotactic sequence, when carrying the S90P or S90E substitutions, up- or down-regulate cell migration, respectively. To gain mechanistic insights into these opposite cell responses, the functional consequences of S90P and S90E mutations in full-length uPAR were evaluated. First, (HEK-293 embryonic kidney cells expressing uPAR(S90P exhibit enhanced FPR activation, increased random and directional cell migration, long-lasting Akt phosphorylation, and increased adhesion to vitronectin, as well as uPAR/vitronectin receptor association. In contrast, the S90E substitution prevents agonist-triggered FPR activation and internalization, decreases binding and adhesion to vitronectin, and inhibits uPAR/vitronectin receptor association. Also, 293/uPAR(S90P cells appear quite elongated and their cytoskeleton well organized, whereas 293/uPAR(S90E cells assume a large flattened morphology, with random orientation of actin filaments. Interestingly, when HT1080 cells co-express wild type uPAR with uPAR S90E, the latter behaves as a dominant-negative, impairing uPAR-mediated signaling and reducing cell wound repair as well as lung metastasis in nude mice. In contrast, signaling, wound repair and in vivo lung metastasis of HT1080 cells bearing wild type uPAR are enhanced when they co-express uPAR(S90P. In conclusion, our findings indicate that Ser(90 is a critical residue for uPAR signaling and that the S90P and S90E exert opposite effects on uPAR activities. These findings may be accommodated in a molecular model, in which uPAR(S90E and uPAR(S90P are forced into inactive and active

  13. Involvement of the Soluble Urokinase Receptor in Chondrosarcoma Cell Mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Bifulco; Immacolata Longanesi-Cattani; Maria Teresa Masucci; Annarosaria De Chiara; Flavio Fazioli; Gioconda Di Carluccio; Giuseppe Pirozzi; Michele Gallo; Antonello La Rocca; Gaetano Apice; Gaetano Rocco; Maria Vincenza Carriero

    2011-01-01

    High levels of urokinase receptor (uPAR) in tissue and serum of patients with chondrosarcoma correlate with poor prognosis. First, we analyzed the uPAR levels in tissues and plasma of five patients affected by chondrosarcoma. Interestingly, very high levels of uPAR and its soluble forms (SuPAR) were found on tumor cell surfaces and plasma, respectively, of two patients with lung metastases. Therefore, to investigate the role of SuPAR in chondrosaromas, we generated a primary cell culture...

  14. Mitogenic effects of urokinase on melanoma cells are independent of high affinity binding to the urokinase receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, J.L.; Slomp, J.; Bart, A.C.W. de; Quax, P.H.A.; Verheijent, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The structural and functional properties of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) that are involved in the mitogenic effect of this proteolytic enzyme on human melanoma cells M14 and IF6 and the role of the u-PA receptor (u-PAR) in transducing this signal were analyzed. Native u- PA

  15. Conformational regulation of urokinase receptor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Kriegbaum, Mette C

    2011-01-01

    PA per se into the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of uPAR that modulates the function of this receptor. Based on these data, we now propose a model in which the inherent interdomain mobility in uPAR plays a major role in modulating its function. Particularly one uPAR conformation, which is stabilized...

  16. Vectors and methods for recombinant production of uPA-binding fragments of the human urokinase-type plasminogen receptor (uPAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Activation of plasminogen to plasma is inhibited by preventing the binding of a receptor binding form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to a urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in a mammal, thereby preventing the urokinase-type plasminogen activator from converting plasminogen int...... into plasmin. DNA fragments which encode for soluble, active fragments of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator are provided....

  17. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with subclinical organ damage and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, T; Lyngbæk, S; Eugen-Olsen, J

    2011-01-01

    The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a plasma marker of low grade inflammation and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. We wanted to investigate whether suPAR was associated with markers of subclinical organ damage.......The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a plasma marker of low grade inflammation and has been associated with cardiovascular risk. We wanted to investigate whether suPAR was associated with markers of subclinical organ damage....

  18. Data on the regulation of moesin and merlin by the urokinase receptor (uPAR): Model explaining distal activation of integrins by uPAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Bernard; Britto, Mishan; Shan, Chun Xu; Wallace, Robert G; Rochfort, Keith D; Cummins, Philip M; Meade, Gerardene; Murphy, Ronan P

    2017-12-01

    The data presented herein are connected to our research article (doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2017.04.012) [1], in which we investigated the functional connections between the urokinase receptor (uPAR), and the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, moesin and merlin [1]. Firstly, a model of action is proposed that enlightens how uPAR regulates distal integrins. In addition, data show the effects of expressing wild-type moesin or permanently active T558D mutant of moesin on angiogenesis and morphology of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Additional data compare the effects of urokinase (uPA, the main ligand of uPAR) on the same cells. Lastly, we provide technical data demonstrating the effects of specific siRNA for moesin and merlin on moesin and merlin expression, respectively.

  19. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor and Outcomes in Patients with Diabetes on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Christiane; Hayek, Salim S; Wei, Changli; Sever, Sanja; Genser, Bernd; Krane, Vera; Meinitzer, Andreas; März, Winfried; Wanner, Christoph; Reiser, Jochen

    2017-08-07

    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a novel biomarker strongly predictive of cardiovascular outcomes implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels, however, correlate with declining kidney function. It is unclear whether soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels remain associated with outcomes in patients with ESRD. We measured plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels in 1175 patients (mean age =66±8 years old, 54% men) with type 2 diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis participating in the German Diabetes and Dialysis Study followed for a median of 4 years for outcomes including all-cause death, cardiovascular events, and infection-related mortality. Survival analysis was performed using stepwise Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for potential confounders. Also, adjustments were made for inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and leukocyte count) and the oxidative stress marker asymmetric dimethyl arginine to investigate potential mediators of the relationship between soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and outcomes. Median soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels were 10,521 pg/ml (interquartile range, 9105-12,543 pg/ml). When stratified by tertiles, patients with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor >11,633 pg/ml (third tertile) had adjusted 1.6-fold higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.27 to 2.03) compared with those with low soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor to a risk factor model modestly improved risk discrimination for all-cause death (ΔC statistic, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.00 to 0.03) and cardiovascular events (ΔC statistic, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.00 to 0.05). The association of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels with outcomes persists in patients on hemodialysis

  20. Regulation of urokinase receptors in monocytelike U937 cells by phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, R; Kajtaniak, E L; Nielsen, L S

    1989-01-01

    A specific surface receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) recognizes the amino-terminal growth factor-like sequence of uPA, a region independent from and not required for the catalytic activity of this enzyme. The properties of the uPA receptor (uPAR) and the localization and distribu......A specific surface receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) recognizes the amino-terminal growth factor-like sequence of uPA, a region independent from and not required for the catalytic activity of this enzyme. The properties of the uPA receptor (uPAR) and the localization...

  1. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  2. Involvement of the Soluble Urokinase Receptor in Chondrosarcoma Cell Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Bifulco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of urokinase receptor (uPAR in tissue and serum of patients with chondrosarcoma correlate with poor prognosis. First, we analyzed the uPAR levels in tissues and plasma of five patients affected by chondrosarcoma. Interestingly, very high levels of uPAR and its soluble forms (SuPAR were found on tumor cell surfaces and plasma, respectively, of two patients with lung metastases. Therefore, to investigate the role of SuPAR in chondrosaromas, we generated a primary cell culture from a chondrosarcoma tissue overexpressing uPAR on cell surfaces. We found that chondrosarcoma-like primary culture cells release a large amount of SuPAR in the medium. In vitro, SuPAR elicits chondrosarcoma cell migration likely through its uPAR88-92 sequence, since the DII88-183 or DIIDIIR88-284 uPAR domains retain motogen effect whereas DI1-87 or DIII184-284 domains, both lacking the uPAR88-92 sequence, are ineffective. Chondrosarcoma cells cross matrigel in response to SuPAR, and their invasion capability is abrogated by RERF peptide which inhibits uPAR88-92 signalling. These findings assign a role to uPAR in mobilizing chondrosarcoma cells and suggest that RERF peptide may be regarded as a prototype to generate new therapeutics for the chondrosarcoma treatment.

  3. Response to metal stress of Nicotiana langsdorffii plants wild-type and transgenic for the rat glucocorticoid receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Roger; Bogani, Patrizia; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Del Bubba, Massimo; Abollino, Ornella; Giannarelli, Stefania; Spiriti, Maria Michela; Muscatello, Beatrice; Doumett, Saer; Turetta, Clara; Zangrando, Roberta; Zelano, Vincenzo; Buiatti, Marcello

    2013-05-01

    Recently our findings have shown that the integration of the gene coding for the rat gluco-corticoid receptor (GR receptor) in Nicotiana langsdorffii plants induced morphophysiological effects in transgenic plants through the modification of their hormonal pattern. Phytohormones play a key role in plant responses to many different biotic and abiotic stresses since a modified hormonal profile up-regulates the activation of secondary metabolites involved in the response to stress. In this work transgenic GR plants and isogenic wild type genotypes were exposed to metal stress by treating them with 30ppm cadmium(II) or 50ppm chromium(VI). Hormonal patterns along with changes in key response related metabolites were then monitored and compared. Heavy metal up-take was found to be lower in the GR plants. The transgenic plants exhibited higher values of S-abscisic acid (S-ABA) and 3-indole acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid and total polyphenols, chlorogenic acid and antiradical activity, compared to the untransformed wild type plants. Both Cd and Cr treatments led to an increase in hormone concentrations and secondary metabolites only in wild type plants. Analysis of the results suggests that the stress responses due to changes in the plant's hormonal system may derive from the interaction between the GR receptor and phytosteroids, which are known to play a key role in plant physiology and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of formic receptors in soluble urokinase receptor-induced human vascular smooth muscle migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Enrico A; Fu, Yuyang; Davies, Mark G

    2015-05-15

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration in response to urokinase is dependent on binding of the urokinase molecule to the urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR) and cleavage of the receptor. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the soluble uPAR (suPAR) in VSMC migration. Human VSMCs were cultured in vitro. Linear wound and Boyden microchemotaxis assays of migration were performed in the presence of suPAR. Inhibitors to G-protein signaling and kinase activation were used to study these pathways. Assays were performed for mitogen-activated protein kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor activation. suPAR induced concentration-dependent migration of VSMC, which was G protein-dependent and was blocked by Gαi and Gβγ inhibitors. Removal of the full uPAR molecule by incubation of the cells with a phospholipase did not interfere with this response. suPAR induced ERK1/2, p38(MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] activation in a Gαi/Gβγ-dependent manner, and interruption of these signaling pathways prevented suPAR-mediated migration. suPAR activity was independent of plasmin activity. suPAR did not activate epidermal growth factor receptor. Interruption of the low affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPRL1) but not high affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPR) prevented cell migration and activation in response to suPAR. suPAR increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and activity, and this was dependent on the low affinity N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor (FPRL1) and ERK1/2. suPAR induces human smooth muscle cell activation and migration independent of the full uPAR through activation of the G protein-coupled receptor FPRL1, which is not linked to the plasminogen activation cascade. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Urokinase Receptor (uPAR) Facilitates Clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Boukens, Bastiaan J. D.; Coumou, Jeroen; Oei, Anneke; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex F.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van Dam, Alje P.; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol; Levi, Marcel M.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR); however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can

  6. Quantitation of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, E; Behrendt, N; Ploug, M

    1994-01-01

    Binding of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) to a specific cell surface receptor (uPAR) plays a crucial role in proteolysis during tissue remodelling and cancer invasion. An immunosorbent assay for the quantitation of uPAR has now been developed. This assay is based on two monoclonal anti...

  7. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor for Risk Prediction in Patients Admitted with Acute Chest Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Andersson, Charlotte; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) predict mortality in several clinical settings, but the long-term prognostic importance of suPAR in chest pain patients admitted on suspicion of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) is uncertain....

  8. Circulating intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røndbjerg, Tine Thurison; Christensen, Ib J; Lund, Ida K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High levels of circulating forms of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are significantly associated to poor prognosis in cancer patients. Our aim was to determine biological variations and reference intervals of the uPAR forms in blood, and in addition, to test t...

  9. Characterization of the interaction between urinary urokinase and the asialoglycoprotein receptor of liver cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, D.C.; Kaaden, M.E. van der; Groeneveld, E.; Barrett-Bergshoeff, M.M.; Thjc, B. van; Kuiper, J.

    1996-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) is rapidly cleared from the circulation with a half-life of a few minutes. We have previously shown that non-glycosylated recombinant u-PA is recognized by LRP, whereas urinary u-PA is recognized by the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPr) on liver

  10. Expression of urokinase receptors by human trophoblast. A histochemical and ultrastructural analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Mazar, A; Cines, D B

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Through their ability to invade endometrium, remodel the uterine spiral arteries, and sustain placental blood fluidity, trophoblast cells play a central role in establishing and maintaining the integrity of the uteroplacental vasculature. The expression of urokinase receptors by troph...... a physiologic adaptation to diminish local fibrinolysis and limit hemorrhage at parturition....

  11. Structure and ligand interactions of the urokinase receptor (uPAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Hansen, Line V.; Jacobsen, Benedikte

    2008-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR or CD87) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoprotein, which is responsible for focalizing plasminogen activation to the cell surface through its high-affinity binding to the serine protease uPA. This tight interaction (KD less than 1 nM) ...

  12. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (su...

  13. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line Jee Hartmann; Ladelund, Steen; Haupt, Thomas Huneck

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an inflammatory biomarker associated with presence and progression of disease and with increased risk of mortality. We aimed to evaluate the unspecific biomarker suPAR as a prognostic marker in patients admitted to acute care...

  14. Intact and cleaved plasma soluble urokinase receptor in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with oxaliplatin with or without cetuximab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarpgaard, Line S; Christensen, Ib J; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2015-01-01

    Circulating forms of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) are associated with prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. Preclinical studies have shown that uPAR can influence the state of phosphorylation and signalling activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in ...... with FLOX + cetuximab as compared to patients with KRAS wild-type and high levels of suPAR. These results thus support the preclinical findings and should be further tested in an independent clinical data set.......) in a ligand-independent manner. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether plasma soluble intact and cleaved uPAR(I-III)+(II-III) levels could identify a subpopulation of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) where treatment with cetuximab would have a beneficial effect. Plasma samples were...... available from 453 patients treated in the NORDIC VII study. Patients were randomized between FLOX and FLOX + cetuximab. The levels of uPAR(I-III)+(II-III) were determined by time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay. We demonstrated that higher baseline plasma uPAR(I-III)+(II-III) levels were significantly...

  15. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-01-01

    Muscarinic M1/M4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (SD) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those...... effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors (M1-/-, M2-/-, M4-/-), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice...... with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M1/M4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the SD effect of cocaine, while M2-preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the SD effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M1...

  16. Binding of human urokinase-type plasminogen activator to its receptor: residues involved in species specificity and binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quax, P H; Grimbergen, J M; Lansink, M; Bakker, A H; Blatter, M C; Belin, D; van Hinsbergh, V W; Verheijen, J H

    1998-05-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (UPA), particularly when bound to its receptor (UPAR), is thought to play a major role in local proteolytic processes, thus facilitating cell migration as may occur during angiogenesis, neointima and atherosclerotic plaque formation, and tumor cell invasion. To facilitate understanding of the need and function of the UPA/UPAR interaction in cell migration and vascular remodeling, we changed several amino acid residues in UPA so as to interfere with its interaction with its receptor. The receptor-binding domain of UPA has been localized to a region in the growth factor domain between residues 20 and 32. Since the binding of UPA to UPAR appears to be species specific, we used the differences in amino acid sequences in the growth factor domain of UPA between various species to construct a human UPA variant that does not bind to the human UPAR. We substituted Asn22 for its mouse equivalent Tyr by site-directed mutagenesis. This mutant UPA had similar plasminogen activator characteristics as wild-type UPA, including its specific activity and interaction with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. However, no UPA/UPAR complexes could be observed in cross-linking experiments using DFP-treated 125I-labeled mutant UPA and lysates of various cells, including U937 histiocytic lymphoma cells, phorbol myristate acetate-treated human ECs, and mouse LB6 cells transfected with human UPAR cDNA. In direct binding experiments, DFP-treated 125I-labeled mutant UPA could not bind to phorbol myristate acetate-treated ECs, whereas wild-type UPA did bind. Furthermore, a 25-fold excess of wild-type UPA completely prevented the binding of DFP-treated 125I-labeled wild-type UPA to the human receptor on transfected LB6 cells, whereas an equal amount of mutant UPA had only a very small effect. In ligand blotting assays, very weak binding of mutant UPA to human UPAR could be observed. Changing Asn22 into the other amino acid residues alanine or glutamine had no

  17. Rapid Phosphoproteomic Effects of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Wild-Type and ABA Receptor-Deficient A. thaliana Mutants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Stecker, Kelly E.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)1 is a plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth, including seed germination, stomatal aperture size, and cellular drought response. ABA interacts with a unique family of 14 receptor proteins. This interaction leads to the activation of a family of protein kinases, SnRK2s, which in turn phosphorylate substrates involved in many cellular processes. The family of receptors appears functionally redundant. To observe a measurable phenotype, four of the fourteen receptors have to be mutated to create a multilocus loss-of-function quadruple receptor (QR) mutant, which is much less sensitive to ABA than wild-type (WT) plants. Given these phenotypes, we asked whether or not a difference in ABA response between the WT and QR backgrounds would manifest on a phosphorylation level as well. We tested WT and QR mutant ABA response using isotope-assisted quantitative phosphoproteomics to determine what ABA-induced phosphorylation changes occur in WT plants within 5 min of ABA treatment and how that phosphorylation pattern is altered in the QR mutant. We found multiple ABA-induced phosphorylation changes that occur within 5 min of treatment, including three SnRK2 autophosphorylation events and phosphorylation on SnRK2 substrates. The majority of robust ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed were partially diminished in the QR mutant, whereas many smaller ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed in the WT were not responsive to ABA in the mutant. A single phosphorylation event was increased in response to ABA treatment in both the WT and QR mutant. A portion of the discovery data was validated using selected reaction monitoring-based targeted measurements on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These data suggest that different subsets of phosphorylation events depend upon different subsets of the ABA receptor family to occur. Altogether, these data expand our understanding of the model by which the family of ABA receptors directs

  18. A urokinase receptor-associated protein with specific collagen binding properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Jensen, O N; Engelholm, L H

    2000-01-01

    molecular weight urokinase receptor-associated protein. The tryptic peptide mixture derived from a cross-linked complex of pro-urokinase and the latter protein was analyzed by nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometric sequencing. This analysis identified the novel protein as the human homologue of a murine...... membrane-bound lectin with hitherto unknown function. The human cDNA was cloned and sequenced. The protein, designated uPARAP, is a member of the macrophage mannose receptor protein family and contains a putative collagen-binding (fibronectin type II) domain in addition to 8 C-type carbohydrate recognition...... domains. It proved capable of binding strongly to a single type of collagen, collagen V. This collagen binding reaction at the exact site of plasminogen activation on the cell may lead to adhesive functions as well as a contribution to cellular degradation of collagen matrices....

  19. Differential binding of urokinase and peptide antagonists to the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, L H; Behrendt, N

    2001-01-01

    for the invasion of cancer cells, thus making uPAR a potential target for anti-invasive therapy based on binding antagonists. A remarkable property of the uPA-uPAR system is a pronounced species specificity in ligand recognition. We have now cloned and studied uPAR from four primate species and show that even...... though these sequences contain very few substitutions relative to the human uPAR, the receptor protein products differ markedly in terms of ligand selectivity. Thus, a well described competitive peptide antagonist directed against the human uPAR reacts with only one of the monkey receptors (chimpanzee u......PAR), in spite of the fact that uPAR from all of the four species cross-reacts with human uPA. Notably, uPAR from African green monkey, which is completely devoid of reactivity with the peptide, contains only three substitutions relative to chimpanzee uPAR in the molecular regions critical for binding...

  20. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a promising new imaging target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been shown to be of special importance during cancer invasion and metastasis. However, currently, tissue samples are needed for measurement of uPAR expression limiting the potential as a clinical routine. Therefore, non-invasive methods are...... will discuss the potential future clinical application for uPAR imaging as a new imaging biomarker....

  1. Mapping of the vitronectin-binding site on the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Ploug, Michael

    2007-01-01

    PAR and the extracellular matrix protein vitronectin, which is involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility, remains to be clarified. In this study, we have identified the functional epitope on uPAR that is responsible for its interaction with the full-length, extended form of vitronectin by using......The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been implicated as a modulator of several biochemical processes that are active during tumor invasion and metastasis, e.g. extracellular proteolysis, cell adhesion, and cell motility. The structural basis for the high affinity interaction...... between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and uPAR, which focuses cell surface-associated plasminogen activation in vivo, is now thoroughly characterized by site-directed mutagenesis studies and x-ray crystallography. In contrast, the structural basis for the interaction between u...

  2. Rational targeting of the urokinase receptor (uPAR): development of antagonists and non-invasive imaging probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Mette Camilla; Persson, Morten; Haldager, L

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been implicated in a number of human pathologies such as cancer, bacterial infections, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The primary function of this glycolipid-anchored receptor is to focalize uPA-mediat......In the last two decades, the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been implicated in a number of human pathologies such as cancer, bacterial infections, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The primary function of this glycolipid-anchored receptor is to focalize u...

  3. Resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs inhibit activation of both wild-type and T877A mutant androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Johan; Tringali, Corrado; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2017-11-01

    Prostate cancer growth and progression are mainly dependent on androgens and many current prostate cancer treatment options target the synthesis or function of androgens. We have previously reported that resveratrol and synthetic analogs of resveratrol with a higher bioavailability inhibit the synthesis of androgens in human adrenocortical H295R cells. Now we have studied the antiandrogenic properties of resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs in two different prostate cell lines; LNCaP and RWPE. LNCaP carry a T877A mutation in the androgen receptor while RWPE has a wild-type androgen receptor. We found that resveratrol, piceatannol and all studied analogs were able to inhibit a dihydrotestosterone-induced activation of the androgen receptor, showing that they act as antiandrogens. In LNCaP cells, all studied compounds were able to statistically significantly decrease the androgenic signaling in concentrations ≥1μM and the synthetic analogs trimethylresveratrol (RSVTM) and tetramethylpiceatannol (PICTM) were the most potent compounds. RWPE cells were not as responsive to the studied compounds as the LNCaP cells. A statistically significant decrease in the androgenic signaling was observed at concentrations ≤5μM for most compounds and RSVTM was found to be the most potent compound. Further, we studied the effects of resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs on the levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in LNCaP cells and found that all studied compounds decreased the level of PSA and that the synthetic analogs diacetylresveratrol (RSVDA), triacetylresveratrol (RSVTA) and RSVTM were the most potent compounds, decreasing the PSA level by approx. 50% at concentrations ≥10μM. In a cell-free receptor binding assay we were unable to show binding of resveratrol or analogs to the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor, indicating that the observed effects are mediated via other mechanisms than direct ligand competition. We conclude that the resveratrol

  4. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Wild Type Homozygozity of Polymorphisms +896 and +1196 Is Associated with High Gastrin Serum Levels and Peptic Ulcer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanen, Vesa-Matti; Koivurova, Olli-Pekka; Huhta, Heikki; Helminen, Olli; Mäkinen, Johanna M; Karhukorpi, Jari M; Joensuu, Tapio; Koistinen, Pentti O; Valtonen, Jarno M; Niemelä, Seppo E; Karttunen, Riitta A; Karttunen, Tuomo J

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 is a part of the innate immune system and recognizes Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms +896 (rs4986790) and +1196 (rs4986791) in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori related gastroduodenal diseases in relation to gastric secretion and inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms, serum gastrin-17 and pepsinogen I and II concentrations were determined, and gastroscopies with histopathological analyses were performed to 216 dyspeptic patients. As genotype controls, 179 controls and 61 gastric cancer patients were studied. In our study, the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 polymorphisms were in total linkage disequilibrium. The homozygous wild types displayed higher gastrin-17 serum concentrations than the mutants (p = 0.001) and this effect was independent of Helicobacter pylori. The homozygous wild types also displayed an increased risk for peptic ulcers (OR: 4.390). Toll-like receptor 4 genotypes did not show any association with Helicobacter pylori positivity or the features of gastric inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 expression was seen in gastrin and somatostatin expressing cells of antral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Our results suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in gastric acid regulation and that the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 wild type homozygozity increases peptic ulcer risk via gastrin secretion.

  5. The human receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and glycosylation variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Ploug, M

    1990-01-01

    The receptor for human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) was purified from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated U937 cells by temperature-induced phase separation of detergent extracts, followed by affinity chromatography with immobilized diisopropyl fluorophosphate-treated u....... The protein has a high content of cysteine residues. The NH2-terminal sequence is not closely related to any known sequence. The identification of the purified and sequenced protein with the human u-PA receptor is based on the following findings: 1) the ability of the purified protein to bind u-PA and its...

  6. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) facilitates clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    OpenAIRE

    Hovius, Joppe W. R; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; van der Windt, Gerritje J.W.; W Joost Wiersinga; Bastiaan J D Boukens; Jeroen Coumou; Anneke Oei; Regina de Beer; de Vos, Alex F; Veer, Cornelis van 't; van Dam, Alje P.; Penghua Wang; Erol Fikrig; Levi, Marcel M; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.

    2009-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR); however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function. We here demonstrate that uPAR is upregulated on murine and human leukocytes upon exposure to B. burgdorferi bo...

  7. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV) to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Maria; Han, Jung Woo; Kendl, Sabine; Khosravi, Mojtaba; Plattet, Philippe; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a close relative of measles virus (MV), is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM) and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red) adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F) genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2) pfu/ml) in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM). After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5) pfu/ml). Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G) was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L) and Gly to Glu (G71E), and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  8. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  9. Mitogenic effects of urokinase on melanoma cells are independent of high affinity binding to the urokinase receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, J L; Slomp, J; de Bart, A C; Quax, P H; Verheijen, J H

    1998-12-11

    The structural and functional properties of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) that are involved in the mitogenic effect of this proteolytic enzyme on human melanoma cells M14 and IF6 and the role of the u-PA receptor (u-PAR) in transducing this signal were analyzed. Native u-PA purified from urine induced a mitogenic response in quiescent IF6 and M14 cells that ranged from 25 to 40% of the mitogenic response obtained by fetal calf serum. The half-maximum response in M14 and IF6 cells was reached at u-PA concentrations of approximately 35 and 60 nM, respectively. Blocking the proteolytic activity of u-PA resulted in a 30% decrease of the mitogenic effect, whereas inhibition of plasmin activity did not alter the mitogenic effect. No mitogenic response was elicited by low molecular weight u-PA, lacking the growth factor domain and the kringle domain. The ATF domain of u-PA induced a mitogenic response that was similar to complete u-PA. Defucosylated ATF and recombinant u-PA purified from Escherichia coli lacking all post-translational modifications did not induce a mitogenic response. Blocking the interaction of u-PA with u-PAR, using a specific monoclonal antibody, did not alter the mitogenic effect induced by u-PA. The binding of radiolabeled u-PA to M14 and IF6 cells was characterized by high affinity binding mediated by u-PAR and low affinity binding to an unknown binding site. These results demonstrate that proteolytically inactive u-PA is able to induce a mitogenic response in quiescent melanoma cells in vitro by a mechanism that involves the ATF domain but is independent of high affinity binding to u-PAR. Furthermore, it suggests that u-PA is able to bind with low affinity to a hitherto unidentified membrane associated protein that could be involved in u-PA-induced signal transduction.

  10. Prednisolone-induced differential gene expression in mouse liver carrying wild type or a dimerization-defective glucocorticoid receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokter Wim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoids (GCs control expression of a large number of genes via binding to the GC receptor (GR. Transcription may be regulated either by binding of the GR dimer to DNA regulatory elements or by protein-protein interactions of GR monomers with other transcription factors. Although the type of regulation for a number of individual target genes is known, the relative contribution of both mechanisms to the regulation of the entire transcriptional program remains elusive. To study the importance of GR dimerization in the regulation of gene expression, we performed gene expression profiling of livers of prednisolone-treated wild type (WT and mice that have lost the ability to form GR dimers (GRdim. Results The GR target genes identified in WT mice were predominantly related to glucose metabolism, the cell cycle, apoptosis and inflammation. In GRdim mice, the level of prednisolone-induced gene expression was significantly reduced compared to WT, but not completely absent. Interestingly, for a set of genes, involved in cell cycle and apoptosis processes and strongly related to Foxo3a and p53, induction by prednisolone was completely abolished in GRdim mice. In contrast, glucose metabolism-related genes were still modestly upregulated in GRdim mice upon prednisolone treatment. Finally, we identified several novel GC-inducible genes from which Fam107a, a putative histone acetyltransferase complex interacting protein, was most strongly dependent on GR dimerization. Conclusions This study on prednisolone-induced effects in livers of WT and GRdim mice identified a number of interesting candidate genes and pathways regulated by GR dimers and sheds new light onto the complex transcriptional regulation of liver function by GCs.

  11. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is a marker of dysmetabolism in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kofoed, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflects the immune and pro-inflammatory status of the HIV-infected patient. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses suPAR. Independent of the immune response to HAART, suPAR remains elevated in some HIV-infected......Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) reflects the immune and pro-inflammatory status of the HIV-infected patient. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses suPAR. Independent of the immune response to HAART, suPAR remains elevated in some HIV......-HDL-cholesterol and inversely with Rd, NOGM and limb fat (P

  12. Gene mutation characteristics of nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma patients with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor and sensitivity to Tarceva therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Xu, Jie; Xin, Liang; Tian, Ye; Zhan, Zhongli; Qi, Daliang

    2015-08-01

    To explore characteristic gene mutations in nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and sensitivity to Tarceva therapy; to observe the efficacy and safety of Tarceva therapy for NSCLC patients with wild-type EGFR. NSCLC patients with wild-type EGFR and KRAS were selected. Their tumor specimens were assessed for mutations in seven key genes in pathways downstream of EGFR, including HRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, AKT1, MEK1, and PTEN. Then the patients were subjected to Tarceva therapy to explore the relationship between curative effects and any gene mutations. Among 10 cases, one NRAS mutation was detected in one patient who was resistant to Tarceva, and no mutations were detected in the other patients. Seven cases responded to Tarceva; 1 case obtained partial relief, and 6 cases were in stable condition. Patients with wild-type EGFR can also benefit from Tarceva therapy. However, an association between Tarceva therapy sensitivity and mutations in genes downstream of EGFR was not detected.

  13. The urokinase receptor system as strategic therapeutic target: challenges for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The story that led to the discovery of urokinase receptor (uPAR) system started in 1947 with the report of MacFarlane and Pilling who identified but did not named urokinase (uPA). Today, the uPAR system is recognized as one very important actor in tumourigenesis and is even considered as a valuable tumour marker. Its critical functions justify the important effort of translational research that has produced many inhibitors which unfortunately failed to be transferred in the clinic. However, the role of the uPAR system in cancer development should not shade the vital functions of this system in hematopoietic stem cells mobilization, cognitive functions including language development, inflammation, innate immunity, coagulation and fibrinolysis. All these topics are covered in this special theme issue of the journal Current Pharmaceutical Design that comprises 9 reviews written by leading scientists. Other aspects are also embraced by additional articles including the first attempt to depict the complete atlas of the uPAR interactome, and the regulation of the uPAR system by the LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1).

  14. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator-like proteases in teleosts lack genuine receptor-binding epidermal growth factor-like domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, René; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Jensen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Plasminogen activation catalyzed by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays an important role in normal and pathological tissue remodeling processes. Since its discovery in the mid-1980s, the cell membrane-anchored urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been believed to...

  15. The liberated domain I of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor--a new tumour marker in small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almasi, Charlotte E; Drivsholm, Lars; Pappot, Helle

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains poor with a 5-year survival rate of 4-6%. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), high levels of intact and cleaved forms of the receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) are significantly associated with short overall survival. Our ...

  16. The plasma level of soluble urokinase receptor is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia and predicts mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, p; Kronborg, Gitte; Nielsen, H

    2004-01-01

    This multicentre prospective study was conducted to investigate whether the level of the soluble form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated during pneumococcal bacteraemia and is of predictive value in the early stage of the disease. Plasma levels of suPAR were incr...

  17. Cellular receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. Carboxyl-terminal processing and membrane anchoring by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Rønne, E; Behrendt, N

    1991-01-01

    The cellular receptor for human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PAR) is shown by several independent criteria to be a true member of a family of integral membrane proteins, anchored to the plasma membrane exclusively by a COOH-terminal glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol moiety. 1) Amino acid a...

  18. Quantitative PET of human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor with 64Cu-DOTA-AE105

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Morten; Madsen, Jacob; Østergaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Expression levels of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) represent an established biomarker for poor prognosis in a variety of human cancers. The objective of the present study was to explore whether noninvasive PET can be used to perform a quantitative assessment of expression...

  19. Structure-based engineering of species selectivity in the interaction between urokinase and its receptor: implication for preclinical cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Huai, Qing

    2010-01-01

    The high affinity interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its glycolipid-anchored receptor (uPAR) is decisive for cell surface-associated plasminogen activation. Because plasmin activity controls fibrinolysis in a variety of pathological conditions, including cancer...

  20. Biomarkers predicting resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer with wild-type KRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiang Liu,* Jing Hu,* Lei Cheng, Wei Ren, Mi Yang, Baorui Liu, Li Xie, Xiaoping Qian The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: EGFR pathway is an important therapeutic target in human tumors, including metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. The advent of EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies panitumumab and cetuximab has generated promise for the treatment of mCRC and has largely improved patients’ progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS. However, treatment with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies is only effective in a subset of mCRC patients with wild-type KRAS. This indicates that there are other factors affecting the efficacy of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Existing studies have demonstrated that among colorectal cancer patients with wild-type KRAS, harboring mutations of BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, or PTEN-null may demonstrate resistance to anti-EGFR-targeted therapy, and biomarkers detection can provide better-personalized treatment for mCRC patients. How to identify and reverse the secondary resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy is also another great challenge to improve the anti-EGFR efficacy in wild-type KRAS mCRC patients. Finally, both of the molecular mechanisms of response and acquired resistance would be important for the directions of future research. This review focuses on how to further improve the predictive value of anti-EGFR therapies and how to also try and avoid futile treatment for wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer patients. Keywords: colorectal cancer, EGFR, BRAF, RAS, cetuximab, panitumumab

  1. Targeting of peptide conjugated magnetic nanoparticles to urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line; Unmack Larsen, Esben Kjær; Nielsen, Erik Holm

    2013-01-01

    patient prognosis shared by several cancers including breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers. Conjugation of a uPAR specific targeting peptide onto polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated USPIO nanoparticles by click chemistry resulted in a five times higher uptake in vitro in a uPAR positive cell line compared......Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are currently being used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent in vivo, mainly by their passive accumulation in tissues of interest. However, a higher specificity can ideally be achieved when the nanoparticles are targeted...... towards cell specific receptors and this may also facilitate specific drug delivery by an enhanced target-mediated endocytosis. We report efficient peptide-mediated targeting of magnetic nanoparticles to cells expressing the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), a surface biomarker for poor...

  2. The urokinase receptor and its structural homologue C4.4A in human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B; Ploug, M

    2008-01-01

    in the human genome. The structural relationship between the two proteins is, however, not reflected at the functional level. Whereas uPAR has a well-established role in regulating and focalizing uPA-mediated plasminogen activation to the surface of those cells expressing the receptor, the biological function...... of C4.4A remains elusive. Nonetheless, both uPAR and C4.4A have been implicated in human pathologies such as wound healing and cancer. A large body of experimental evidence thus demonstrates that high levels of uPAR in resected tumour tissue as well as in plasma are associated with poor prognosis......The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its structural homologue C4.4A are multidomain members of the Ly6/uPAR/alpha-neurotoxin protein domain family. Both are glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane glycoproteins encoded by neighbouring genes located on chromosome 19q13...

  3. Dynamics of urokinase receptor interaction with Peptide antagonists studied by amide hydrogen exchange and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Danø, Keld

    2004-01-01

    on the peptide ligand. This yields bimodal isotope patterns from which dissociation rate constants can be determined. In addition, the distinct bimodal isotope distributions also allow investigation of the exchange kinetics of receptor-bound peptides providing information about the local structural motions......Using amide hydrogen exchange combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we have in this study determined the number of amide hydrogens on several peptides that become solvent-inaccessible as a result of their high-affinity interaction with the urokinase-type plasminogen activator...... hydrogens in the receptor complex. Interestingly, a naturally occurring O-linked fucose on Thr(18) confers protection of two additional amide hydrogens in GFD when it forms a complex with uPAR. Dissociation of the uPAR-peptide complexes is accompanied by a correlated exchange of nearly all amide hydrogens...

  4. The immune marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with new-onset diabetes in non-smoking women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Andersen, O; Hansen, T W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To explore the putative association of new-onset diabetes and the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which is a new and stable plasma marker of immune function and low-grade inflammation. This association has been previously suggested by using the less sensitive...... individuals). The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor was measured by the ELISA method. To fulfil model assumptions, outcome analyses were stratified by age, and further by smoking, owing to the interaction between the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and smoking on new...

  5. The superoxide scavenger TEMPOL induces urokinase receptor (uPAR expression in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little understanding of the effect that reactive oxygen metabolites have on cellular behavior during the processes of invasion and metastasis. These oxygen metabolites could interact with a number of targets modulating their function such as enzymes involved in basement membrane dissolution, adhesion molecules involved in motility or receptors involved in proliferation. We investigated the effect of increased scavenging of superoxide anions on the expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR in PC-3M human prostate cancer cells. Urokinase receptor is a GPI-linked cell surface molecule which mediates multiple functions including adhesion, proliferation and pericellular proteolysis. Addition of the superoxide scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL to PC-3M cultures stimulated expression of uPAR protein peaking between 48 and 72 hours. Cell surface expression of the uPAR was also increased. Surprisingly, uPAR transcript levels increased only slightly and this mild increase did not coincide with the striking degree of protein increase. This disparity indicates that the TEMPOL effect on uPAR occurs through a post-transcriptional mechanism. TEMPOL presence in PC-3M cultures reduced intracellular superoxide-type species by 75% as assayed by NBT dye conversion; however this reduction significantly diminished within hours following TEMPOL removal. The time gap between TEMPOL treatment and peak uPAR protein expression suggests that reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in prostate cancer cells initiates a multistep pathway which requires several hours to culminate in uPAR induction. These findings reveal a novel pathway for uPAR regulation involving reactive oxygens such as superoxide anion.

  6. Effect of purified, soluble urokinase receptor on the plasminogen-prourokinase activation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Danø, K

    1996-01-01

    of the cascade system. This role of uPAR is generally assumed to be a positioning effect since uPAR-expressing cells exclusively stimulate the activation of cell surface-bound plasminogen (Ellis et al. (1993) Methods Enzymol. 223, 223-233). However, it was recently reported that a recombinant, soluble uPAR (su......The extracellular proteolytic pathway mediated by the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a cascade system, initiated by activation of the zymogen, pro-uPA. Pro-uPA as well as uPA binds to the cellular uPA receptor (uPAR) which has a central function in cell-dependent acceleration...

  7. Identification and characterization of the murine cell surface receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, H.; Løber, D.; Eriksen, J

    1992-01-01

    Cell-binding experiments have indicated that murine cells on their surface have specific binding sites for mouse urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). In contrast to the human system, chemical cross-linking studies with an iodinated ligand did not yield any covalent adducts in the murine...... of this variant yielded a polypeptide with an apparent M(r) of about 30,000, which corresponds to the Mr calculated from the cDNA derived protein sequence of mouse u-PAR. Receptor-bound mouse u-PA could be released by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C treatment, indicating that mouse u-PAR is attached...... to the cell surface by glycosylphosphatidylinositol. Purification of the two mouse u-PAR variant proteins by diisopropylfluorophosphate-inactivated mouse u-PA-Sepharose affinity chromatography yielded two silver-stained bands when analysed by SDS/PAGE, corresponding in electrophoretic mobility to those seen...

  8. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor affects bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Federico; Galbiati, Clara; Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2007-01-01

    reorganization in mature osteoclasts. INTRODUCTION: Urokinase receptor (uPAR) is actively involved in the regulation of important cell functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, and migration. It was previously shown that the major players in bone remodeling, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, express u...... to mechanical tests. UPAR KO calvaria osteoblasts were characterized by proliferation assays, RT-PCR for important proteins secreted during differentiation, and immunoblot for activator protein 1 (AP-1) family members. In vitro osteoclast formation was tested with uPAR KO bone marrow monocytes in the presence...... a proliferative advantage with no difference in apoptosis, higher matrix mineralization, and earlier appearance of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Surface RANKL expression at different stages of differentiation was not altered. AP-1 components, such as JunB and Fra-1, were upregulated in uPAR KO osteoblasts, along...

  9. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor forms in plasma as markers of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik J; Thurison, Tine; Ryndel, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To test if circulating forms of the soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are potential biomarkers of plaque vulnerability. DESIGN AND METHODS:: Plasma concentrations of suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III) and uPAR(I) were measured by time-resolved fluorescence...... immunoassays in Caucasian patients operated for symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis (n=255). Local suPAR release from plaques into the circulation was assessed in plasma passing retrogradely over the plaque in the carotid artery, collected during surgery (n=7). RESULTS:: The suPAR(I-III) (P=0.03) and su......PAR(II-III) (P=0.006) concentrations were higher after ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks, i.e., clinical subgroups associated with poorer prognosis and a less stable plaque phenotype, than after amaurosis fugax. Slightly elevated suPAR(I-III) levels were found in plasma from the carotid lesion...

  10. Identification and characterization of the murine cell surface receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, H; Løber, D; Eriksen, J

    1992-01-01

    system, but in ligand-blotting analysis, two mouse u-PA-binding proteins could be visualized. To confirm that these proteins are the murine counterpart of the human u-PA receptor (u-PAR), a peptide was derived from the murine cDNA clone assigned to represent the murine u-PAR due to cross......Cell-binding experiments have indicated that murine cells on their surface have specific binding sites for mouse urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). In contrast to the human system, chemical cross-linking studies with an iodinated ligand did not yield any covalent adducts in the murine......-hybridization and pronounced sequence similarity with human u-PAR cDNA [Kristensen, P., Eriksen, J., Blasi, F. & Danø, K. (1991) J. Cell Biol. 115, 1763-1771]. A rabbit antiserum raised against this peptide specifically recognized two polypeptide bands with electrophoretic mobilities identical to those identified by ligand...

  11. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor on invasive cancer cells: A prognostic factor in distal gastric adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpizar, Warner Enrique Alpizar; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cancer causing death worldwide. The five-year survival for this malignancy is below 25% and few parameters have shown an impact on the prognosis of the disease. The receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPAR) is involved in extracellular matrix degradation...... by mediating cell surface associated plasminogen activation, and its presence on gastric cancer cells is linked to micrometastasis and poor prognosis. Using immunohistochemistry, the prognostic significance of uPAR was evaluated in tissue samples from a retrospective series of 95 gastric cancer patients. u...... association between the expression of uPAR on tumor cells in the peripheral invasion zone and overall survival of gastric cancer patients (HR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.13-4.14; p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed that uPAR immunoreactivity in cancer cells at the invasive front is an independent prognostic factor...

  12. Inhibition of receptor-bound urokinase by plasminogen-activator inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, Vincent John; Wun, T C; Behrendt, N

    1990-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) binds to a specific receptor on various cell types, the bound molecule retaining its enzymatic activity against plasminogen. We have now investigated whether receptor-bound uPA also retains the ability to react with and be inhibited by plasminogen...... activator inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). uPA bound to its receptor on human U937 monocyte-like cells was inhibited by PAI-1 (in its active form in the presence of vitronectin fragments) with an association rate constant of 4.5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1, which was 40% lower than that obtained for uPA in solution (7.9 x...... 10(6) M-1 s-1). The inhibition of uPA by PAI-2 was decreased to a similar extent by receptor binding, falling from 5.3 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(5) M-1 s-1. Stimulation of U937 cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was accompanied by a further reduction in receptor-bound uPA inhibition by PAI-1...

  13. The receptor for urokinase regulates TLR2 mediated inflammatory responses in neutrophils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored membrane protein, regulates urokinase (uPA protease activity, chemotaxis, cell-cell interactions, and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. uPAR expression is increased in cytokine or bacteria activated cell populations, including macrophages and monocytes. However, it is unclear if uPAR has direct involvement in the response of inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and macrophages, to Toll like receptor (TLR stimulation. In this study, we found that uPAR is required for optimal neutrophil activation after TLR2, but not TLR4 stimulation. We found that the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 induced by TLR2 engagement in uPAR-/- neutrophils was less than that in uPAR+/+ (WT neutrophils. Pretreatment of neutrophils with PI-PLC, which cleaves GPI moieties, significantly decreased TLR2 induced expression of TNF-α in WT neutrophils, but demonstrated only marginal effects on TNF-α expression in PAM treated uPAR-/- neutrophils. IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation were not different in uPAR-/- or WT neutrophils after TLR2 stimulation. However, uPAR is required for optimal p38 MAPK activation after TLR2 engagement. Consistent with the in vitro findings that uPAR modulates TLR2 engagement induced neutrophil activation, we found that pulmonary and systemic inflammation induced by TLR2, but not TLR4 stimulation is reduced in uPAR-/- mice compared to WT counterparts. Therefore, our data suggest that neutrophil associated uPAR could be a potential target for treating acute inflammation, sepsis, and organ injury related to severe bacterial and other microbial infections in which TLR2 engagement plays a major role.

  14. Two distinct expression patterns of urokinase, urokinase receptor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in colon cancer liver metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illemann, Martin; Bird, Nigel; Majeed, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Metastatic growth and invasion by colon cancer cells in the liver requires the ability of the cancer cells to interact with the new tissue environment. Plasmin(ogen) is activated on cell surfaces by urokinase-type PA (uPA), and is regulated by uPAR and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1......). To compare the expression patterns of uPA, uPAR and PAI-1 in colon cancer with that in their liver metastases, we analysed matched samples from 14 patients. In all 14 primary colon cancers, we found upregulation of uPAR, uPA mRNA and PAI-1 in primarily stromal cells at the invasive front. In 5 of the 14......, whereas 8 of the remaining 9 showed direct contact between the cancer cells and the liver parenchyma. We conclude that there are 2 distinct patterns of expression of uPAR, uPA and PAI-1 in colon cancer liver metastases and that these correlate closely with 2 morphological growth patterns. These findings...

  15. Moesin and merlin regulate urokinase receptor-dependent endothelial cell migration, adhesion and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degryse, Bernard; Britto, Mishan; Shan, Chun Xu; Wallace, Robert G; Rochfort, Keith D; Cummins, Philip M; Meade, Gerardene; Murphy, Ronan P

    2017-07-01

    The glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored urokinase receptor (uPAR) has no intracellular domain, but nevertheless initiates signalling through proximal interactions with other membrane receptors including integrins. The relationships between uPAR and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, moesin and merlin have never been explored. Moesin and merlin are versatile membrane-actin links and regulators of receptors signalling, respectively. We show that uPAR controls moesin and merlin, which propagate uPAR-initiated signals and modulate integrin functions, thereby regulating uPAR activity. uPAR rapidly de-phosphorylates moesin and phosphorylates merlin inactivating both proteins, and enhancing cell migration and angiogenesis. Moesin behaves as a molecular switch turning either on or off uPAR signalling through cycles of de-activation/activation, or sustained activation, respectively. Furthermore, moesin is at the crossroads of uPAR-initiated outside-in and inside-out signalling promoting integrin-dependent cell adhesion suggesting that uPAR also activates integrins distally through moesin. Knocking down merlin expression enhanced cell migration and adhesion through different regulation of fibronectin- and vitronectin-binding integrins. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Plasma levels of intact and cleaved urokinase receptor decrease in HIV-1-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Katzenstein, T L; Pedersen, M

    2006-01-01

    Elevated blood levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) measured by ELISA decrease in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As the suPAR ELISA measures both three- and two-domain suPAR [suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III)] an......Elevated blood levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) measured by ELISA decrease in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). As the suPAR ELISA measures both three- and two-domain suPAR [suPAR(I-III), su...... correlation with sTNFrII suggests that the individual plasma suPAR forms are linked to immune activation in HIV-1 infection....

  17. Binding of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator to its cell surface receptor is inhibited by low doses of suramin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1993-01-01

    The multipotent drug suramin, which is currently being studied as an anticancer agent, was found to inhibit the interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) and its cellular receptor. 50% inhibition of binding was obtained with a suramin concentration between 30 and 60...... to the anti-invasive properties of suramin by destroying the cellular potential for localized plasminogen activation and proteolytic matrix degradation....

  18. Oncogenic K-Ras signals through epidermal growth factor receptor and wild-type H-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Keith A; Voong, K Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D; McKenna, W Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J

    2007-04-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor alpha was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers.

  19. Oncogenic K-Ras Signals through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Wild-Type H-Ras to Promote Radiation Survival in Pancreatic and Colorectal Carcinoma Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Keith A.; Voong, K. Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B.; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor α was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. PMID:17460778

  20. Oncogenic K-Ras Signals through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Wild-Type H-Ras to Promote Radiation Survival in Pancreatic and Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A. Cengel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor o was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFRactivated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers.

  1. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a marker for use of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Haastrup

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of depression. A few cross-sectional population-based studies have found that depression is associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (suPAR is known to be a stable marker for inflammation. We investigated the bidirectional association between suPAR levels and use of antidepressants. METHODS: suPAR level was measured in 9305 blood donors and analysed in relation to 5-years follow-up data on purchase of antidepressants and hospital diagnoses of depression from a nationwide Danish register. RESULTS: For men and women without prior use of antidepressants we found a significantly higher risk for incident use of antidepressants with higher suPAR values. For men, the risk of first use of antidepressants increased by 72% from the 1st to the 4th quartile (HR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.11-2.69. For women, it increased by 108% from the 1st to the 4th quartile (HR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.45-2.98. Previous use of antidepressants was also significantly associated with higher suPAR levels (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: High suPAR levels are associated with an increased risk for both previous and future use of antidepressants in healthy men and women. High suPAR are also associated with increased risk for a hospital diagnosis of depression.

  2. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry; Viuff, Anne Grethe; Ullum, Henrik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Werge, Thomas; Vang, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of schizophrenia remains largely unknown but alterations in the immune system may be involved. In addition to the psychiatric symptoms, schizophrenia is also associated with up to 20 years reduction in life span. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a protein that can be measured in blood samples and reflects the levels of inflammatory activity. It has been associated with mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Methods: suPAR levels in patients with schizophrenia were compared to healthy controls from the Danish Blood Donor Study. SuPAR levels were dichotomized at >4.0 ng/ml, which is considered the threshold for low grade inflammation. A multiple logistic regression model was used and adjusted for age, sex, and current smoking. Results: In total we included 1009 subjects, 105 cases with schizophrenia (10.4%) and 904 controls (89.6%). The mean suPAR values were 4.01 ng/ml (SD = 1.43) for the cases vs 1.91 ng/ml (SD = 1.35) for the controls (P 4.0 ng/ml yielded: schizophrenia, OR: 46.15 95% CI 22.69–93.87, P schizophrenia had significantly higher suPAR levels than healthy controls. Further studies are warranted to clarify if elevated suPAR levels are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and/or the increased mortality found in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25154621

  3. A conserved TATA-less proximal promoter drives basal transcription from the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soravia, E; Grebe, A; De Luca, P

    1995-01-01

    have cloned an uPAR DNA segment containing upstream regulatory sequences from both the human and murine genomes. We report that a proximal promoter, contained within 180 bp from the major transcription start sites of the human uPAR gene, drives basal transcription. This region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes......The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) focuses at the cell surface the activation of pro-uPA and, hence, the formation of plasmin, thus enhancing directional extracellular proteolysis. To characterize the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control receptor expression, we...

  4. Pharmacological characterization of homobaclofen on wild type and mutant GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with the GABA(B)2 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Madsen, Bo E.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2001-01-01

    homogenate and in an assay of electrically induced contractions of guinea pig ileum. The results from the two tissues did, however, not correlate very well, and in order to further investigate these discrepancies, we have pharmacologically characterized these enantiomers on recombinant wild type and mutant...

  5. The urokinase receptor (uPAR facilitates clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joppe W R Hovius

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR; however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function. We here demonstrate that uPAR is upregulated on murine and human leukocytes upon exposure to B. burgdorferi both in vitro as well as in vivo. Notably, B. burgdorferi-inoculated C57BL/6 uPAR knock-out mice harbored significantly higher Borrelia numbers compared to WT controls. This was associated with impaired phagocytotic capacity of B. burgdorferi by uPAR knock-out leukocytes in vitro. B. burgdorferi numbers in vivo, and phagocytotic capacity in vitro, were unaltered in uPA, tPA (low fibrinolytic activity and PAI-1 (high fibrinolytic activity knock-out mice compared to WT controls. Strikingly, in uPAR knock-out mice partially backcrossed to a B. burgdorferi susceptible C3H/HeN background, higher B. burgdorferi numbers were associated with more severe carditis and increased local TLR2 and IL-1beta mRNA expression. In conclusion, in B. burgdorferi infection, uPAR is required for phagocytosis and adequate eradication of the spirochete from the heart by a mechanism that is independent of binding of uPAR to uPA or its role in the fibrinolytic system.

  6. The Urokinase Receptor (uPAR) Facilitates Clearance of Borrelia burgdorferi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Boukens, Bastiaan J. D.; Coumou, Jeroen; Oei, Anneke; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex F.; Veer, Cornelis van 't; van Dam, Alje P.; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol; Levi, Marcel M.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; van der Poll, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, has been shown to induce expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR); however, the role of uPAR in the immune response against Borrelia has never been investigated. uPAR not only acts as a proteinase receptor, but can also, dependently or independently of ligation to uPA, directly affect leukocyte function. We here demonstrate that uPAR is upregulated on murine and human leukocytes upon exposure to B. burgdorferi both in vitro as well as in vivo. Notably, B. burgdorferi-inoculated C57BL/6 uPAR knock-out mice harbored significantly higher Borrelia numbers compared to WT controls. This was associated with impaired phagocytotic capacity of B. burgdorferi by uPAR knock-out leukocytes in vitro. B. burgdorferi numbers in vivo, and phagocytotic capacity in vitro, were unaltered in uPA, tPA (low fibrinolytic activity) and PAI-1 (high fibrinolytic activity) knock-out mice compared to WT controls. Strikingly, in uPAR knock-out mice partially backcrossed to a B. burgdorferi susceptible C3H/HeN background, higher B. burgdorferi numbers were associated with more severe carditis and increased local TLR2 and IL-1β mRNA expression. In conclusion, in B. burgdorferi infection, uPAR is required for phagocytosis and adequate eradication of the spirochete from the heart by a mechanism that is independent of binding of uPAR to uPA or its role in the fibrinolytic system. PMID:19461880

  7. ANP-mediated inhibition of distal nephron fractional sodium reabsorption in wild-type and mice overexpressing natriuretic peptide receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Pandey, Kailash N; Navar, L Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) elicits natriuresis; however, the relative contributions of proximal and distal nephron segments to the overall ANP-induced natriuresis have remained uncertain. This study was performed to characterize the effects of ANP on distal nephron sodium reabsorption determined after blockade of the two major distal nephron sodium transporters with amiloride (5 microg/g body wt) plus bendroflumethiazide (12 microg/g body wt) in male anesthetized C57/BL6 and natriuretic peptide receptor-A gene (Npr1) targeted four-copy mice. The lower dose of ANP (0.1 ng x g body wt(-1) x min(-1), n = 6) increased distal sodium delivery (DSD, 2.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 1.6 +/- 0.2 mueq/min, P 0.05), thus limiting the magnitude of the natriuresis. In contrast, the higher dose (0.2 ng x g body wt(-1) x min(-1), n = 6) increased DSD (2.8 +/- 0.3 mueq/min, P ANP increased urinary sodium excretion (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.3 +/- 0.1 mueq/min, P 0.05). These results provide in vivo evidence that ANP-mediated increases in DSD alone exert modest effects on sodium excretion and that inhibition of fractional reabsorption of distal sodium delivery is requisite for the augmented natriuresis in response to the higher dose of ANP or in Npr1 gene-duplicated mice.

  8. Cellular receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. Carboxyl-terminal processing and membrane anchoring by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Rønne, E; Behrendt, N

    1991-01-01

    The cellular receptor for human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PAR) is shown by several independent criteria to be a true member of a family of integral membrane proteins, anchored to the plasma membrane exclusively by a COOH-terminal glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol moiety. 1) Amino acid...... acid compositions derived from cDNA sequence and amino acid analysis shows that a polypeptide of medium hydrophobicity is excised from the COOH terminus of the nascent u-PAR. A similar proteolytic processing has been reported for other proteins that are linked to the plasma membrane by a glycosyl...

  9. Difference in Perseverative Errors during a Visual Attention Task with Auditory Distractors in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Wild Type and Knock-Out Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Jorratt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through olivocochlear (OC neurons. Medial OC neurons make cholinergic synapses with outer hair cells (OHCs through nicotinic receptors constituted by α9 and α10 subunits. One of the physiological functions of the α9 nicotinic receptor subunit (α9-nAChR is the suppression of auditory distractors during selective attention to visual stimuli. In a recent study we demonstrated that the behavioral performance of alpha-9 nicotinic receptor knock-out (KO mice is altered during selective attention to visual stimuli with auditory distractors since they made less correct responses and more omissions than wild type (WT mice. As the inhibition of the behavioral responses to irrelevant stimuli is an important mechanism of the selective attention processes, behavioral errors are relevant measures that can reflect altered inhibitory control. Errors produced during a cued attention task can be classified as premature, target and perseverative errors. Perseverative responses can be considered as an inability to inhibit the repetition of an action already planned, while premature responses can be considered as an index of the ability to wait or retain an action. Here, we studied premature, target and perseverative errors during a visual attention task with auditory distractors in WT and KO mice. We found that α9-KO mice make fewer perseverative errors with longer latencies than WT mice in the presence of auditory distractors. In addition, although we found no significant difference in the number of target error between genotypes, KO mice made more short-latency target errors than WT mice during the presentation of auditory distractors. The fewer perseverative error made by α9-KO mice could be explained by a reduced motivation for reward and an increased impulsivity during decision making with auditory distraction in KO mice.

  10. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Is a Predictor of Incident Non-AIDS Comorbidity and All-Cause Mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte M.; Langkilde, Anne; Mejer, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Persistent inflammation and immune activation have been associated with non-AIDS comorbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We aimed to investigate the potential association between soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and incident non-AIDS como......Persistent inflammation and immune activation have been associated with non-AIDS comorbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We aimed to investigate the potential association between soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and incident non...... hazard rates for both non-AIDS comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease, liver disease, and cancer) and all-cause mortality....

  11. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S. [Unite de Neurobiologie Integrative du Systeme Cholinergique, URA CNRS 2182, Institut Pasteur, Departement de Neuroscience, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 4 place du general Leclerc, 91400 Orsay (France); Wiklund, A. [Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity {beta}2-containing nicotinic receptors ({beta}2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the {beta}2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and {beta}2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, {beta}2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via {alpha}7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on {beta}2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  12. Localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor on U937 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S H; Behrendt, N; Danø, K

    1990-01-01

    The binding of human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to the surface of the human monocytic cell line U937 was studied by immunological detection of bound u-PA or binding of biotinylated diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inactivated human u-PA visualized by light or electron microscopy. Untr...

  13. Activation of 5-HT7 serotonin receptors reverses metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity in wild-type and Fmr1 knockout mice, a model of Fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lara; Spatuzza, Michela; D'Antoni, Simona; Bonaccorso, Carmela M; Trovato, Chiara; Musumeci, Sebastiano A; Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Catania, Maria V; Ciranna, Lucia

    2012-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic cause of intellectual disability and autism. Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1 KO) mice, an animal model of FXS, exhibit spatial memory impairment and synapse malfunctioning in the hippocampus, with abnormal enhancement of long-term depression mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR-LTD). The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) modulates hippocampal-dependent learning through serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) and serotonin 7 (5-HT7) receptors; the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We used electrophysiology to test the effects of 5-HT on mGluR-LTD in wild-type and Fmr1 KO mice and immunocytochemistry and biotinylation assay to study related changes of 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor surface expression. Application of 5-HT or 8-OH-DPAT (a mixed 5-HT1A/5-HT7 agonist) reversed mGluR-LTD in hippocampal slices. Reversal of mGluR-LTD by 8-OH-DPAT persisted in the presence of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, was abolished by SB-269970 (5-HT7 receptor antagonist), and was mimicked by LP-211, a novel selective 5-HT7 receptor agonist. Consistently, 8-OH-DPAT decreased mGluR-mediated reduction of AMPA glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit surface expression in hippocampal slices and cultured hippocampal neurons, an effect mimicked by LP-211 and blocked by SB-269970. In Fmr1 KO mice, mGluR-LTD was abnormally enhanced; similarly to wild-type, 8-OH-DPAT reversed mGluR-LTD and decreased mGluR-induced reduction of surface AMPA receptors, an effect antagonized by SB-269970. Serotonin 7 receptor activation reverses metabotropic glutamate receptor-induced AMPA receptor internalization and LTD both in wild-type and in Fmr1 KO mice, correcting excessive mGluR-LTD. Therefore, selective activation of 5-HT7 receptors may represent a novel strategy in the therapy of FXS. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ELISA for complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator and its receptor in lung cancer tissue extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Witte, H; Pappot, H; Brünner, N

    1997-01-01

    A sandwich-type ELISA has been developed for the assessment of complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in extracts of squamous cell lung carcinomas. The assay is based on a combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-uPA antibodies and a biotinylated mouse a......PA:uPAR complexes in lung tumor tissue as well as other types of cancer.......A sandwich-type ELISA has been developed for the assessment of complexes between urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in extracts of squamous cell lung carcinomas. The assay is based on a combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-uPA antibodies and a biotinylated mouse...... anti-uPAR monoclonal antibody (MAb). The detection limit of the assay is approximately 0.5 fmol/ml. A linear dose-response is obtained with up to 40 fmol/ml of uPA:uPAR complexes, while uPA and uPAR separately do not cause any response in the ELISA. A buffer which has been used previously for optimal...

  15. BOLD Imaging in Awake Wild-Type and Mu-Opioid Receptor Knock-Out Mice Reveals On-Target Activation Maps in Response to Oxycodone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Moore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD imaging in awake mice was used to identify differences in brain activity between wild-type, and Mu (µ opioid receptor knock-outs (MuKO in response to oxycodone (OXY. Using a segmented, annotated MRI mouse atlas and computational analysis, patterns of integrated positive and negative BOLD activity were identified across 122 brain areas. The pattern of positive BOLD showed enhanced activation across the brain in WT mice within 15 min of intraperitoneal administration of 2.5 mg of OXY. BOLD activation was detected in 72 regions out of 122, and was most prominent in areas of high µ opioid receptor density (thalamus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, caudate putamen, basal amygdala and hypothalamus, and focus on pain circuits indicated strong activation in major pain processing centers (central amygdala, solitary tract, parabrachial area, insular cortex, gigantocellularis area, ventral thalamus primary sensory cortex and prelimbic cortex. Importantly, the OXY-induced positive BOLD was eliminated in MuKO mice in most regions, with few exceptions (some cerebellar nuclei, CA3 of the hippocampus, medial amygdala and preoptic areas. This result indicates that most effects of OXY on positive BOLD are mediated by the µ opioid receptor (on-target effects. OXY also caused an increase in negative BOLD in WT mice in few regions (16 out of 122 and, unlike the positive BOLD response the negative BOLD was only partially eliminated in the MuKO mice (cerebellum, and in some case intensified (hippocampus. Negative BOLD analysis therefore shows activation and deactivation events in the absence of the µ receptor for some areas where receptor expression is normally extremely low or absent (off-target effects. Together, our approach permits establishing opioid-induced BOLD activation maps in awake mice. In addition, comparison of WT and MuKO mutant mice reveals both on-target and off-target activation events, and set an OXY

  16. Selective suicide gene therapy of colon cancer exploiting the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Amanzadeh, Amir; Zeinali, Sirous

    2010-04-01

    Colon cancer is the third and fourth most prevalent cancer among Iranian men and women, respectively. Suicide gene therapy is one of the alternative therapeutic modalities for cancer. The application of specific promoters for therapeutic genes should decrease the adverse effects of this modality. The combined aims of this study were to design a specific suicide gene therapy construct for colon cancer and study its effect in distinct representatives of transformed and nontransformed cells. The KRAS oncogene signaling pathway is one of the most important signaling pathways activated in colon cancer; therefore, we inserted the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR; PLAUR gene) promoter as one of the upregulated promoters by this pathway upstream of a suicide gene (thymidine kinase [TK]) and a reporter gene (beta-galactosidase, beta-gal [LacZ]). This promoter is a natural combination of different motifs responsive to the RAS signaling pathway, such as the transcription factors AP1 (FOS/JUN), SP1, SP3, and AP2alpha, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB). The reporter plasmid under the control of the uPAR promoter (PUCUPARLacZ) had the ability to express beta-gal in colon cancer cells (human colon adenocarcinoma [SW480] and human colorectal carcinoma [HCT116] cell lines), while it could not express beta-gal in nontransformed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and normal colon cells. After confirming the ability of pUCUPARTK (suicide plasmid) to express TK in SW480 and HCT116 cells by real-time PCR, cytotoxicity assays showed that pUCUPARTK decreased the viability of these cells in the presence of ganciclovir 20 and 40 microg/mL (and higher), respectively. Although M30 CytoDEATH antibody could not detect a significant rate of apoptosis induced by ganciclovir in pUCUPARTK-transfected HCT116 cells, the percentage of stained cells was marked in comparison with untreated cells. While this antibody could detect apoptosis in HCT116 cell line transfected

  17. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels and peripheral arterial disease outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman Tahhan, Ayman; Hayek, Salim S; Sandesara, Pratik; Hajjari, Jamal; Hammadah, Muhammad; O'Neal, Wesley T; Kelli, Heval M; Alkhoder, Ayman; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Ko, Yi-An; Aida, Hiroshi; Gafeer, Mohamad Mazen; Abdelhadi, Naser; Mohammed, Kareem Hosny; Patel, Keyur; Arya, Shipra; Reiser, Jochen; Vaccarino, Viola; Sperling, Laurence; Quyyumi, Arshed

    2017-09-01

    Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of immune activation associated with atherosclerosis. Whether suPAR levels are associated with prevalent peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its adverse outcomes remains unknown and is the aim of the study. SuPAR levels were measured in 5810 patients (mean age 63 years, 63% male, 77% with obstructive coronary artery disease [CAD]) undergoing cardiac catheterization. The presence of PAD (n = 967, 17%) was classified as carotid (36%), lower/upper extremities (30%), aortic (15%) and multisite disease (19%). Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were used to determine independent predictors of prevalent PAD and outcomes including all-cause death, cardiovascular death and PAD-related events after adjustment for age, gender, race, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal function, heart failure history, and obstructive CAD. Plasma suPAR levels were 22.5% (p < 0.001) higher in patients with PAD compared to those without PAD. Plasma suPAR was higher in patients with more extensive PAD (≥2 compared to single site) p < 0.001. After multivariable adjustment, suPAR was associated with prevalent PAD; odds ratio (OR) for highest compared to lowest tertile of 2.0, 95% CI (1.6-2.5) p < 0.001. In Cox survival analyses adjusted for clinical characteristics and medication regimen, suPAR (in the highest vs. lowest tertile) remained an independent predictor of all-cause death [HR 3.1, 95% CI (1.9-5.3)], cardiovascular death [HR 3.5, 95% CI (1.8-7.0)] and PAD-related events [HR = 1.8, 95% CI (1.3-2.6) p < 0.001 for all]. Plasma suPAR level is predictive of prevalent PAD and of incident cardiovascular and PAD-related events. Whether SuPAR measurement can help screen, risk stratify, or monitor therapeutic responses in PAD requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Domain interplay in the urokinase receptor. Requirement for the third domain in high affinity ligand binding and demonstration of ligand contact sites in distinct receptor domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Ronne, E; Dano, K

    1996-01-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a membrane protein comprised of three extracellular domains. In order to study the importance of this domain organization in the ligand-binding process of the receptor we subjected a recombinant, soluble uPAR (suPAR) to specific proteolytic...... by chemical cross-linking, but quantitative binding/competition studies showed that the apparent ligand affinity was 100- to 1000-fold lower than that of the intact suPAR. This loss of affinity was comparable with the loss found after cleavage between the first domain (D1) and D(2 + 3), using chymotrypsin...

  19. A new assay for measurement of the liberated domain I of the urokinase receptor in plasma improves the prediction of survival in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurison, Tine; Lomholt, Anne F; Rasch, Morten G

    2010-01-01

    The liberated domain I of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor [uPAR(I)] is a significant prognostic marker in lung and ovarian cancer, although the uPAR(I) concentration is below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in a substantial proportion of patient samples (Lung Cancer 2005;48:349-55;...

  20. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is in contrast to high-sensitive C-reactive-protein associated with coronary artery calcifications in healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between two markers of low-grade inflammation; soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score detected by cardiac ...

  1. Cell-induced potentiation of the plasminogen activation system is abolished by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the NH2-terminal domain of the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, E; Behrendt, N; Ellis, V

    1991-01-01

    We have raised four monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes within the human cell-surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). One of these antibodies completely abolishes the potentiation of plasmin generation observed upon incubation of the zymogens pro-u-PA an...

  2. A region in urokinase plasminogen receptor domain III controlling a functional association with alpha5beta1 integrin and tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaurasia, Pratima; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio; Liang, Olin D

    2006-01-01

    Highly expressed urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) can interact with alpha5beta1 integrin leading to persistent ERK activation and tumorigenicity. Disrupting this interaction reduces ERK activity, forcing cancer cells into dormancy. We identified a site in uPAR domain III that is in...

  3. Prognostic value of plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in Danish patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (REOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, Farah Diba; Høgdall, Estrid V S; Riisbo, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    The level of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated in tumour tissue from several types of cancer. This is the first study aiming to predict the prognosis for survival by the use of a pre-chemotherapeutic plasma suPAR value in 71 patients with recurrent epithelial...

  4. Usefulness of Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor to Predict Repeat Myocardial Infarction and Mortality in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Marott, Jacob L; Møller, Daniél V

    2012-01-01

    The plasma level of the inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in healthy subjects. The prognostic capability of suPAR, its temporal course, and its relation to plasma C-reactive...

  5. Soluble Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Level Is an Independent Predictor of the Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease and of Future Adverse Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eapen, Danny J; Manocha, Pankaj; Ghasemzedah, Nima

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging inflammatory and immune biomarker. Whether suPAR level predicts the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), and of incident death and myocardial infarction (MI) in subjects with suspected CAD...

  6. Cellular receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. Carboxyl-terminal processing and membrane anchoring by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Rønne, E; Behrendt, N

    1991-01-01

    The cellular receptor for human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PAR) is shown by several independent criteria to be a true member of a family of integral membrane proteins, anchored to the plasma membrane exclusively by a COOH-terminal glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol moiety. 1) Amino acid...... of human U937 cells by trace amounts of purified bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. This soluble form of u-PAR retains the binding specificity toward both u-PA and its amino-terminal fragment holding the receptor-binding domain. 3) Treatment of purified u-PAR with phosphatidylinositol...... acid compositions derived from cDNA sequence and amino acid analysis shows that a polypeptide of medium hydrophobicity is excised from the COOH terminus of the nascent u-PAR. A similar proteolytic processing has been reported for other proteins that are linked to the plasma membrane by a glycosyl...

  7. Involvement of urokinase receptor in the cross-talk between human hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selleri, Carmine; Montuori, Nunzia; Salvati, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in bone marrow (BM) and can be induced to mobilize into the circulation for transplantation. Homing and lodgement into BM of transplanted HSCs are the first critical steps in their engraftment and involve multiple interactions between HSCs and the BM...... microenvironment.uPAR is a three domain receptor (DIDIIDIII) which binds urokinase, vitronectin, integrins. uPAR can be cleaved and shed from the cell surface generating full-length and cleaved soluble forms (suPAR and DIIDIII-suPAR). DIIDIII-suPAR can bind fMLF receptors through the SRSRY sequence (residues 88......-92).We previously reported the involvement of soluble uPAR in HSC mobilization. We now investigate its possible role in HSC homing and engraftment.We show similar levels of circulating full-length suPAR in healthy donors and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients before and after the pre...

  8. The urokinase receptor (uPAR) and the uPAR-associated protein (uPARAP/Endo180)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The breakdown of the barriers formed by extracellular matrix proteins is a pre-requisite for all processes of tissue remodeling. Matrix degradation reactions take part in specific physiological events in the healthy organism but also represent a crucial step in cancer invasion. These degradation...... processes involve a highly organized interplay between proteases and their cellular binding sites as well as specific substrates and internalization receptors. This review article is focused on two components, the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and the uPAR-associated protein (uPARAP, also...... designated Endo180), that are considered crucially engaged in matrix degradation. uPAR and uPARAP have highly diverse functions, but on certain cell types they interact with each other in a process that is still incompletely understood. uPAR is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein...

  9. The soluble form of urokinase receptor promotes angiogenesis through its Ser⁸⁸-Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² chemotactic sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, K; Longanesi-Cattani, I; Gala, M; DI Carluccio, G; Masucci, M T; Pavone, V; Lista, L; Arra, C; Stoppelli, M P; Carriero, M V

    2010-12-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) focuses the proteolytic activity of the urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) on the endothelial cell surface, thus promoting angiogenesis in a protease-dependent manner. The u-PAR may exist in a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored and in a soluble form (soluble u-PAR [Su-PAR]), both including the chemotactic Ser⁸⁸ -Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² internal sequence. To investigate whether Su-PAR may trigger endothelial cell signaling leading to new vessel formation through its chemotactic Ser⁸⁸ -Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² sequence. In this study, the formation of vascular-like structures by human umbilical vein endothelial cells was assessed by using a matrigel basement membrane preparation. First, we found that Su-PAR protein promotes the formation of cord-like structures, and that this ability is retained by the isolated Ser(88) -Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² chemotactic sequence, the maximal effect being reached at 10 nmol L⁻¹ SRSRY peptide (SRSRY). This effect is mediated by the α(v) β₃ vitronectin receptor, is independent of u-PA proteolytic activity, and involves the internalization of the G-protein-coupled formyl-peptide receptor in endothelial cells. Furthermore, exposure of human saphenous vein rings to Su-PAR or SRSRY leads to a remarkable degree of sprouting. Finally, we show that Su-PAR and SRSRY promote a marked response in angioreactors implanted into the dorsal flank of nude mice, retaining 91% and 66%, respectively, of the angiogenic response generated by a mixture of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor type 2. Our results show a new protease-independent activity of Su-PAR that stimulates in vivo angiogenesis through its Ser⁸⁸ -Arg-Ser-Arg-Tyr⁹² chemotactic sequence. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  10. Serum levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with parasitemia in children with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Kofoed, Pe; Fischer, Torge

    2004-01-01

    Serum levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are significantly elevated and of prognostic value in patients suffering from serious infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis. Our objective was to investigate suPAR levels during symptomatic malaria infection and 7...... days after treatment. Children younger than 6 years who presented with fever or other symptoms compatible with malaria were enrolled. Blood films and samples were collected on day 0 and day 7. Twenty-five children were allocated to each of three groups according to the amount of Plasmodium falciparum...... detected in their initial blood film. Children in group 1 had parasite densities in excess of 20 parasites per 200 leucocytes. The median plasma suPAR level was 6.49 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR]: 4.90-7.61) and correlated to parasitemia (Spearman 0.43, P

  11. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a prognostic marker of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botha, Shani; Fourie, Carla M T; Schutte, Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The less familiar marker, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), is known to predict cancer, infections and all......-cause mortality. We determined whether suPAR, CRP and IL-6 are predictive of both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population, highly burdened by cardiovascular disease and HIV infection. METHODS: We included 1425 black South Africans, of which 208 died within five years after baseline data...... collection. EDTA plasma biomarker levels were determined, while all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were used as endpoints. RESULTS: At baseline suPAR, CRP and IL-6 were higher in non-survivors than in survivors (PCRP (HR 1...

  12. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor levels are elevated and associated with complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, S; Lyngbaek, S; Hansen, T W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the associations between suPAR and diabetes, including diabetes duration and complications, in patients with type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS...... diabetes and is associated with diabetes duration and complications independent of other risk factors. suPAR is a potential novel risk marker for the management of diabetes.......: From 2009 to 2011, 667 patients with type 1 diabetes and 51 nondiabetic control subjects were included in a cross-sectional study at Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark. suPAR levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The investigated diabetic...

  13. Elevated levels of soluble urokinase receptor in serum from mycobacteria infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Ravn, P; Hoyer-Hansen, G

    2006-01-01

    In search for a serological marker, which may be used to monitor treatment efficacy in patients with extra-pulmonary mycobacterial infections, serum samples were collected prospectively from patients during a 6-months treatment period. The levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator......). suPAR levels were elevated to more than double (median 7.7 ng/ml, range 5.6-25.8) compared to levels previously reported for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The serum suPAR levels however remained high during the entire treatment period. This may reflect that significant inflammatory activity...

  14. Lysosomal degradation of receptor-bound urokinase-type plasminogen activator is enhanced by its inhibitors in human trophoblastic choriocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Henning; Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Ebbesen, P.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 on the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to its receptor in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. With 125I-labeled ligands in whole-cell binding assays, both uncomplexed u-PA and u-PA-inhibitor......We have studied the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitors PAI-1 and PAI-2 on the binding of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) to its receptor in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR. With 125I-labeled ligands in whole-cell binding assays, both uncomplexed u-PA and u...... for the removal of u-PA after its complex formation with a specific inhibitor. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which receptor-mediated endocytosis is initiated by the binding of a secondary ligand. Full text...

  15. The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/endo180 is coexpressed with its interaction partners urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloprotease-13 during osteogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, L H; Nielsen, B S; Netzel-Arnett, S

    2001-01-01

    ), and collagen V on the cell surface. We have determined the sites of expression of this novel receptor during murine postimplantation development. uPARAP/Endo180 was expressed in all tissues undergoing primary ossification, including the developing bones of the viscerocranium and calvarium that ossify...... intramembranously, and developing long bones undergoing endochondral ossification. uPARAP/Endo180 mRNA was expressed by both immature osteoblasts and by mature osteocalcin-producing osteoblasts-osteocytes, and was coexpressed with MMP-13. Interestingly, osteoblasts also expressed uPAR. Besides bone-forming tissues...

  16. The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein/endo180 is coexpressed with its interaction partners urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and matrix metalloprotease-13 during osteogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, L H; Nielsen, B S; Netzel-Arnett, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    intramembranously, and developing long bones undergoing endochondral ossification. uPARAP/Endo180 mRNA was expressed by both immature osteoblasts and by mature osteocalcin-producing osteoblasts-osteocytes, and was coexpressed with MMP-13. Interestingly, osteoblasts also expressed uPAR. Besides bone-forming tissues......), and collagen V on the cell surface. We have determined the sites of expression of this novel receptor during murine postimplantation development. uPARAP/Endo180 was expressed in all tissues undergoing primary ossification, including the developing bones of the viscerocranium and calvarium that ossify...

  17. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B is a predictor of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma expressing wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Takumi; Ezaki, Junji; Okabe, Naoyuki; Takagi, Hironori; Ozaki, Yuki; Inoue, Takuya; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Muto, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Hoshino, Mika; Osugi, Jun; Shio, Yutaka; Waguri, Satoshi; Tamura, Hirosumi; Imai, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Emi; Yanagisawa, Yuka; Honma, Reiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients with tumors that harbor no targetable driver gene mutation, such as epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) gene mutations, have unfavorable prognosis, and thus, novel therapeutic targets are required. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B ( FAM83B ) is a biomarker for squamous cell lung cancer. FAM83B has also recently been shown to serve an important role in the EGFR signaling pathway. In the present study, the molecular and clinical impact of FAM83B in lung ADC was investigated. Matched tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were obtained from 216 patients who underwent complete lung resection for primary lung ADC and were examined for FAM83B expression using cDNA microarray analysis. The associations between FAM83B expression and clinicopathological parameters, including patient survival, were examined. FAM83B was highly expressed in tumors from males, smokers and in tumors with wild-type EGFR . Multivariate analyses further confirmed that wild-type EGFR tumors were significantly positively associated with FAM83B expression. In survival analysis, FAM83B expression was associated with poor outcomes in disease-free survival and overall survival, particularly when stratified against tumors with wild-type EGFR . Furthermore, FAM83B knockdown was performed to investigate its phenotypic effect on lung ADC cell lines. Gene silencing by FAM83B RNA interference induced growth suppression in the HLC-1 and H1975 lung ADC cell lines. FAM83B may be involved in lung ADC tumor proliferation and can be a predictor of poor survival. FAM83B is also a potential novel therapeutic target for ADC with wild-type EGFR .

  18. Urokinase receptor cleavage correlates with tumor volume in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurison, Tine; Almholt, Kasper; Gårdsvoll, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    are strong prognostic biomarkers in several types of cancer, i.e., high levels of the cleaved uPAR forms indicate poor survival. To better understand the role of uPAR cleavage in cancer, we have designed immunoassays for specific quantification of intact mouse uPAR [muPAR(I-III)] and mouse uPAR domain I [mu......PAR(I)]. The level of muPAR(I) is significantly increased in mammary tumor-bearing mice compared to controls and, notably, there is a strong correlation to tumor volume. In contrast, the tumor volume is only weakly correlated to the level of intact muPAR(I-III), indicating that cleavage of muPAR is a more specific...... marker for cancer than increased expression of muPAR per se. The levels of the muPAR forms are dramatically affected by in vivo challenge with a urokinase -blocking antibody, demonstrating a functional role of uPA in uPAR cleavage. The levels of the muPAR forms are, however, unaffected by u...

  19. Use of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, neutrophils,macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in combination to diagnose infections: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Andersen, Ove; Kronborg, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    department and department of infectious diseases at a university hospital. A multiplex immunoassay measuring soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator (suPAR) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM)-1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was used in parallel...

  20. Risk assessment in sepsis: a new prognostication rule by APACHE II score and serum soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Mylona, Vassiliki; Savva, Athina; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Raftogiannis, Maria; Georgitsi, Marianna; Linnér, Anna; Adamis, George; Antonopoulou, Anastasia; Apostolidou, Efterpi; Chrisofos, Michael; Katsenos, Chrisostomos; Koutelidakis, Ioannis; Kotzampassi, Katerina; Koratzanis, George; Koupetori, Marina; Kritselis, Ioannis; Lymberopoulou, Korina; Mandragos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Androniki; Sundén-Cullberg, Jonas; Mega, Anna; Prekates, Athanassios; Routsi, Christina; Gogos, Charalambos; Treutiger, Carl-Johan; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Dimopoulos, George

    2012-08-08

    Early risk assessment is the mainstay of management of patients with sepsis. APACHE II is the gold standard prognostic stratification system. A prediction rule that aimed to improve prognostication by APACHE II with the application of serum suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) is developed. A prospective study cohort enrolled 1914 patients with sepsis including 62.2% with sepsis and 37.8% with severe sepsis/septic shock. Serum suPAR was measured in samples drawn after diagnosis by an enzyme-immunoabsorbent assay; in 367 patients sequential measurements were performed. After ROC analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis a prediction rule for risk was developed. The rule was validated in a double-blind fashion by an independent confirmation cohort of 196 sepsis patients, predominantly severe sepsis/septic shock patients, from Sweden. Serum suPAR remained stable within survivors and non-survivors for 10 days. Regression analysis showed that APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml were independently associated with unfavorable outcome. Four strata of risk were identified: i) APACHE II APACHE II APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml with mortality 51.7%. This prediction rule was confirmed by the Swedish cohort. A novel prediction rule with four levels of risk in sepsis based on APACHE II score and serum suPAR is proposed. Prognostication by this rule is confirmed by an independent cohort.

  1. Increased Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR Levels in Plasma of Suicide Attempters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Ventorp

    Full Text Available The soluble form of the urokinase receptor, suPAR, has been suggested as a novel biomarker of low-grade inflammation. Activation of the immune system has been proposed to contribute to the development of depression and suicidal behavior. In order to identify depressed and suicidal individuals who could benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment, a reliable biomarker of low-grade inflammation is vital. This study evaluates plasma suPAR levels as a biomarker of low-grade inflammation in patients with major depressive disorder and in patients who recently attempted suicide. The plasma suPAR and an established biomarker, C reactive protein (CRP of suicide attempters (n = 54, depressed patients (n = 19 and healthy controls (n = 19 was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The biomarker attributes of sensitivity and sensibility were evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Both the depressed patients and suicide attempters had increased plasma suPAR. The levels of suPAR discriminated better between controls and suicide attempters than did CRP. In the future, plasma suPAR might be a superior prognosticator regarding outcome of treatment applying conventional antidepressants in conjunction with anti-inflammatory drugs.

  2. Structure-based Engineering of Species Selectivity in the Interaction Between Urokinase and its Receptor: Implication for Preclinical Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L.; Gardsvoll, H; Huai, Q; Huang, M; Ploug, M

    2010-01-01

    The high affinity interaction between the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its glycolipid-anchored receptor (uPAR) is decisive for cell surface-associated plasminogen activation. Because plasmin activity controls fibrinolysis in a variety of pathological conditions, including cancer and wound healing, several intervention studies have focused on targeting the uPA {center_dot} uPAR interaction in vivo. Evaluations of such studies in xenotransplanted tumor models are, however, complicated by the pronounced species selectivity in this interaction. We now report the molecular basis underlying this difference by solving the crystal structure for the murine uPA {center_dot} uPAR complex and demonstrate by extensive surface plasmon resonance studies that the kinetic rate constants for this interaction can be swapped completely between these orthologs by exchanging only two residues. This study not only discloses the structural basis required for a successful rational design of the species selectivity in the uPA {center_dot} uPAR interaction, which is highly relevant for functional studies in mouse models, but it also suggests the possible development of general inhibitors that will target the uPA {center_dot} uPAR interaction across species barriers.

  3. Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Soluble Form of the Urokinase Receptor in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gustafsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been proposed to play a role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Previously, we demonstrated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD have increased plasma levels of the soluble form of the urokinase receptor (suPAR, a marker for low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute exercise would induce inflammatory response characterized by increased suPAR and elucidate whether patients with MDD display altered levels of suPAR in response to acute exercise. A total of 17 patients with MDD and 17 controls were subjected to an exercise challenge. Plasma suPAR (P-suPAR was analyzed before, during, and after exercise. There was a significantly higher baseline P-suPAR in the patients with MDD, and the dynamic changes of P-suPAR during the exercise were significantly lower in the patients with MDD, compared with the controls. This study supports the hypothesis that an activation of systemic inflammatory processes, measured as elevated P-suPAR, is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The study concludes that P-suPAR is influenced by acute exercise, most likely due to release from activated neutrophils.

  4. Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Soluble Form of the Urokinase Receptor in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Anna; Ventorp, Filip; Wisén, Anita Gm; Ohlsson, Lars; Ljunggren, Lennart; Westrin, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been proposed to play a role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Previously, we demonstrated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased plasma levels of the soluble form of the urokinase receptor (suPAR), a marker for low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute exercise would induce inflammatory response characterized by increased suPAR and elucidate whether patients with MDD display altered levels of suPAR in response to acute exercise. A total of 17 patients with MDD and 17 controls were subjected to an exercise challenge. Plasma suPAR (P-suPAR) was analyzed before, during, and after exercise. There was a significantly higher baseline P-suPAR in the patients with MDD, and the dynamic changes of P-suPAR during the exercise were significantly lower in the patients with MDD, compared with the controls. This study supports the hypothesis that an activation of systemic inflammatory processes, measured as elevated P-suPAR, is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The study concludes that P-suPAR is influenced by acute exercise, most likely due to release from activated neutrophils.

  5. Urokinase receptor mediates doxorubicin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell senescence via proteasomal degradation of TRF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodjat, Mahshid; Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna; Kiyan, Yulia

    2013-01-01

    The anthracycline doxorubicin is a widely used effective anti-cancer drug. However, its application and dosage are severely limited due to its cardiotoxicity. The exact mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxic side effects remain poorly understood. Even less is known about the impact of doxorubicin treatment on vascular damage. We found that low doses of doxorubicin induced a senescent response in human primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). We observed that expression of urokinase receptor (uPAR) was upregulated in response to doxorubicin. Furthermore, the level of uPAR expression played a decisive role in developing doxorubicin-induced senescence. uPAR silencing in human VSMC by means of RNA interference as well as uPAR knockout in mouse VSMC resulted in abrogation of doxorubicin-induced cellular senescence. On the contrary, uPAR overexpression promoted VSMC senescence. We further found that proteasomal degradation of telomeric repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) mediates doxorubicin-induced VSMC senescence. Our results demonstrate that uPAR controls the ubiquitin-proteasome system in VSMC and regulates doxorubicin-induced TRF2 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation via this mechanism. Therefore, VSMC senescence induced by low doses of doxorubicin may contribute to vascular damage upon doxorubicin treatment. uPAR-mediated TRF2 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation are further identified as a molecular mechanism underlying this process. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Clinical relevance and cellular source of elevated soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander; Zimmermann, Henning W; Gassler, Nikolaus; Jochum, Christoph; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Bruensing, Jan; Buendgens, Lukas; Dückers, Hanna; Bruns, Tony; Gerken, Guido; Neumann, Ulf P; Adams, David H; Trautwein, Christian; Canbay, Ali; Tacke, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening condition with a high mortality rate. The expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, CD87) and release of its shedded receptor into serum as soluble uPAR (suPAR) have been closely related to immune activation and prognosis in systemic inflammation and cirrhosis. We now aimed at investigating the clinical relevance and cellular source of uPAR and circulating suPAR in ALF. Serum suPAR concentrations were measured in 48 ALF patients and 62 healthy controls from a German liver transplantation centre. Hepatic immune cell subsets and uPAR expression were studied by FACS, qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Circulating suPAR levels were significantly increased in ALF patients, independent from the underlying aetiology, in comparison to controls. Serum suPAR concentrations were closely correlated with parameters reflecting liver cell injury, decreased liver function and the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in ALF patients. By immunohistochemistry from explanted livers, ALF was associated with distinct immune cell accumulation and strong up-regulation of intrahepatic uPAR mRNA expression. CD87 (uPAR) expression was specifically detected on intrahepatic 'non-classical' monocytes (CD14(+) CD16(+) ), NKT and CD56(dim) NK cells isolated from human liver, but not on parenchymal or other non-parenchymal hepatic cell types. Membrane-bound uPAR was rapidly cleaved from monocytes upon inflammatory stimulation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and partially by co-cultured lymphocytes. Similar to its prognostic properties in patients with sepsis or cirrhosis, intrahepatic uPAR activation and serum suPAR concentrations might serve as an interesting biomarker in ALF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Crystal structure of the human urokinase plasminogen activator receptor bound to an antagonist peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llinas, Paola; Le Du, Marie Hélène; Gårdsvoll, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    . This knowledge combined with the discovery of a convergent binding motif shared by the antagonist peptide and uPA allowed us to build a model of the human uPA-uPAR complex. This model reveals that the receptor-binding module of uPA engages the uPAR central cavity, thus leaving the external receptor surface...

  8. Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging of the Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor System with [11C]OMAR ([11C]JHU75528: Improvements in Image Quantification Using Wild-Type and Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Herance

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using positron emission tomography (PET and the tracer [11C]OMAR ([11C]JHU75528, an analogue of rimonabant, to study the brain cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptor system. Wild-type (WT andCB1 knockout (KO animals were imaged at baseline and after pretreatment with blocking doses of rimonabant. Brain uptake in WT animals was higher (50% than in KO animals in baseline conditions. After pretreatment with rimonabant, WT uptake lowered to the level of KO animals. The results of this study support the feasibility of using PET with the radiotracer [11C]JHU75528 to image the brain CB1 receptor system in mice. In addition, this methodology can be used to assess the effect of new drugs in preclinical studies using genetically manipulated animals.

  9. Characterization of low-glycosylated forms of soluble human urokinase receptor expressed in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells after deletion of glycosylation-sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Werner, Finn; Søndergaard, Leif

    2004-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein that is thought to play an active role during cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We have expressed a truncated soluble form of human uPAR using its native signal peptide in stably transfected......PAR-wt. In conclusion, stable expression of suPAR in Drosophila S2 cells offers a convenient and attractive method for the large scale production of homogeneous preparations of several uPAR mutants, which may be required for future attempts to solve the three-dimensional structure of uPAR by X-ray crystallography....

  10. A soluble form of the glycolipid-anchored receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator is secreted from peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Eriksen, J; Plesner, T

    1992-01-01

    The cellular urokinase-type plasminogen-activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein thought to be involved in pericellular proteolysis during cell migration and tumor invasion. In the present study, we have identified and characterized two soluble forms of uPAR which...... by the stem-cell disorder paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and was found in the plasma from these PNH patients as well as in the conditioned medium from cultured PNH leukocytes. Under normal conditions, we find no evidence for any shedding or secretion of a soluble uPA-binding counterpart to human u...

  11. A 55,000-60,000 Mr receptor protein for urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Identification in human tumor cell lines and partial purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L S; Kellerman, G M; Behrendt, N

    1988-01-01

    The iodinated Mr approximately equal to 15,000 amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) molecule bound specifically to the cell surface of all of seven cultured human tumor cell lines studied. Cross-linking of iodinated ATF to the cell surface using...... a bifunctional amino-reactive reagent followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography revealed with the four cell lines studied the occurrence of a single band migrating with an Mr of 70,000-75,000, indicating complex formation with an Mr of 55,000-60,000 u-PA receptor...

  12. Activation of nicotinic α(7) acetylcholine receptor enhances long term potentation in wild type mice but not in APP(swe)/PS1ΔE9 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderman, Andreas; Mikkelsen, Jens D; West, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and binds to the nicotinic α(7) receptor (α(7) nAChR). Little is known about the degree to which the binding of Aβ to the α(7) nAChR influences the role of this receptor in long-term potentiation (LTP), however. We have studied the e...

  13. Enhanced levels of urokinase plasminogen activator and its soluble receptor in common variable immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fevang, Børre; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Yndestad, Arne

    2009-01-01

    receptor (uPAR, suPAR) have complex biological functions involving innate immune defense mechanisms and regulation of inflammation. Based on this dual role, we hypothesized that the uPA system could be affected in CVID, and examined expression of components of the uPA system in subgroups of CVID. All CVID...

  14. The urokinase receptor takes control of cell migration by recruiting integrins and FPR1 on the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gorrasi

    Full Text Available The receptor (uPAR of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA is crucial in cell migration since it concentrates uPA proteolytic activity at the cell surface, binds vitronectin and associates to integrins. uPAR cross-talk with receptors for the formylated peptide fMLF (fMLF-Rs has been reported; however, cell-surface uPAR association to fMLF-Rs on the cell membrane has never been explored in detail. We now show that uPAR co-localizes at the cell-surface and co-immunoprecipitates with the high-affinity fMLF-R, FPR1, in uPAR-transfected HEK-293 (uPAR-293 cells. uPAR/β1 integrin and FPR1/β1 integrin co-localization was also observed. Serum or the WKYMVm peptide (W Pep, a FPR1 ligand, strongly increased all observed co-localizations in uPAR-293 cells, including FPR1/β1 integrin co-localization. By contrast, a low FPR1/β1 integrin co-localization was observed in uPAR-negative vector-transfected HEK-293 (V-293 cells, that was not increased by serum or W Pep stimulations. The role of uPAR interactions in cell migration was then explored. Both uPAR-293 and V-293 control cells efficiently migrated toward serum or purified EGF. However, cell treatments impairing uPAR interactions with fMLF-Rs or integrins, or inhibiting specific cell-signaling mediators abrogated uPAR-293 cell migration, without exerting any effect on V-293 control cells. Accordingly, uPAR depletion by a uPAR-targeting siRNA or uPAR blocking with an anti-uPAR polyclonal antibody in cells constitutively expressing high uPAR levels totally impaired their migration toward serum. Altogether, these results suggest that both uPAR-positive and uPAR-negative cells are able to migrate toward serum; however, uPAR expression renders cell migration totally and irreversibly uPAR-dependent, since it is completely inhibited by uPAR blocking. We propose that uPAR takes control of cell migration by recruiting fMLF-Rs and β1 integrins, thus promoting their co-localization at the cell-surface and

  15. The structure and function of the urokinase receptor, a membrane protein governing plasminogen activation on the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1995-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation processes, resulting from the activation of plasminogen by the specific enzyme, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), take place in the extracellular matrix during cancer invasion as well as in tissue remodelling under certain normal-physiological conditions. The u...

  16. Regulation of urokinase receptors in monocytelike U937 cells by phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, R; Kajtaniak, E L; Nielsen, L S

    1989-01-01

    and distribution of uPA in tumor cells and tissues suggest that the uPA/uPAR interaction may be important in regulating extracellular proteolysis-dependent processes (e.g., invasion, tissue destruction). Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an inducer of U937 cell differentiation to macrophage-like cells, elicits...... in the affinity of the uPAR for uPA, thus uncovering another way of regulating the interaction between uPA and uPAR. In addition, the PMA treatment causes a modification of migration of the cross-linked receptor in mono- and bidimensional gel electrophoresis....

  17. A urokinase receptor-associated protein with specific collagen binding properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Engelholm, L H

    2000-01-01

    membrane-bound lectin with hitherto unknown function. The human cDNA was cloned and sequenced. The protein, designated uPARAP, is a member of the macrophage mannose receptor protein family and contains a putative collagen-binding (fibronectin type II) domain in addition to 8 C-type carbohydrate recognition...... domains. It proved capable of binding strongly to a single type of collagen, collagen V. This collagen binding reaction at the exact site of plasminogen activation on the cell may lead to adhesive functions as well as a contribution to cellular degradation of collagen matrices....

  18. Altered expression of the urokinase receptor homologue, C4.4A, in invasive areas of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.V.; Laerum, O.D.; Illemann, M.

    2008-01-01

    C4.4A is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein with structural homology to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Although C4.4A was identified as a metastasis-associated protein little is known about its actual expression and possible function in malignant disease. In the pre......C4.4A is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein with structural homology to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). Although C4.4A was identified as a metastasis-associated protein little is known about its actual expression and possible function in malignant disease....... In the present study, we have therefore analyzed the expression of C4.4A in 14 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Normal squamous esophageal epithelium shows a strong cell surface associated C4.4A expression in the suprabasal layers, whereas basal cells are negative. Upon transition to dysplasia......, we analyzed the possible coexpression of C4.4A and the gamma 2-chain of LN5 (LN5-gamma 2). Although these proteins are indeed expressed by either neighboring cancer cells or in a few cases even coexpressed by the same cells in the tumor front and metastases, we found no evidence for a general...

  19. [Value of soluble urokinase receptor serum levels in the differential diagnosis between idiopathic and secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Alfons; Jatem, Elías; Quiles, M Teresa; Arbós, M Antonia; Ostos, Helena; Valtierra, Naiara; Carnicer, Clara; Salcedo, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the circulating level of the soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) could be useful for distinguishing idiopathic from secondary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but the results published are conflicting. In this study, we analyse the intraindividual variability and clinical and anatomopathological variables associated with the suPAR levels and if circulating suPAR levels allow the different forms of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) to be distinguished, i.e., idiopathic forms from secondary FSGS, regardless of the presence of nephrotic syndrome and the activity phase. We studied 35 patients affected by idiopathic FSGS and 48 with secondary FSGS (83 in total). We carried out measurements of circulating suPAR at the time of diagnosis and/or after remission and we analysed correlations between suPAR levels and demographic, clinical and biochemical variables. The ability of suPAR to distinguish between both forms of FSGS was analysed by ROC curves and logistic regression analysis. In both forms of FSGS, suPAR levels were independent of proteinuria and the histopathological subtype of FSGS and they were significantly associated with age and renal function. After adjusting for both variables, suPAR levels were significantly higher in patients with idiopathic FSGS, both in the nephrotic syndrome phase and in partial or complete remission. The most sensitive suPAR level (80%) and the most specific (73%) for discriminating between idiopathic and secondary forms was 3443.6 pg/ml (area below curve [ABC] 0.78 ± 0.083, Pdiagnosis of idiopathic FSGS, but the model was poorly adjusted for low risk categories in which it tended to classify primary forms as secondary forms (χ(2) = 11.2 p=.027). SuPAR levels lack sensitivity for differentiating between idiopathic and secondary FSGS. However, suPAR values greater than 4000 ng/ml are highly specific to primary FSGS, and as such, with a morphological FSGS pattern associated with non

  20. Tumour microenvironments induce expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR and concomitant activation of gelatinolytic enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Synnøve Magnussen

    Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells' expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography.We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the regulation of posttranslational

  1. Quantitative method of measuring cancer cell urokinase and metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated urokinase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  2. Urokinase plasminogen receptor and the fibrinolytic complex play a role in nerve repair after nerve crush in mice, and in human neuropathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rivellini

    Full Text Available Remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM is a critical step in peripheral nerve regeneration. In fact, in human neuropathies, endoneurial ECM enriched in fibrin and vitronectin associates with poor regeneration and worse clinical prognosis. Accordingly in animal models, modification of the fibrinolytic complex activity has profound effects on nerve regeneration: high fibrinolytic activity and low levels of fibrin correlate with better nerve regeneration. The urokinase plasminogen receptor (uPAR is a major component of the fibrinolytic complex, and binding to urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA promotes fibrinolysis and cell movement. uPAR is expressed in peripheral nerves, however, little is known on its potential function on nerve development and regeneration. Thus, we investigated uPAR null mice and observed that uPAR is dispensable for nerve development, whereas, loss of uPAR affects nerve regeneration. uPAR null mice showed reduced nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. This was a consequence of reduced fibrinolytic activity and increased deposition of endoneurial fibrin and vitronectin. Exogenous fibrinolysis in uPAR null mice rescued nerve repair after sciatic nerve crush. Finally, we measured the fibrinolytic activity in sural nerve biopsies from patients with peripheral neuropathies. We showed that neuropathies with defective regeneration had reduced fibrinolytic activity. On the contrary, neuropathies with signs of active regeneration displayed higher fibrinolytic activity. Overall, our results suggest that enforced fibrinolysis may facilitate regeneration and outcome of peripheral neuropathies.

  3. Rearing-environment-dependent hippocampal local field potential differences in wild-type and inositol trisphosphate receptor type 2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mika; Wang, Xiaowen; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Hirase, Hajime; Shinohara, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-15

    Mice reared in an enriched environment are demonstrated to have larger hippocampal gamma oscillations than those reared in isolation, thereby confirming previous observations in rats. To test whether astrocytic Ca(2+) surges are involved in this experience-dependent LFP pattern modulation, we used inositol trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3 R2)-knockout (KO) mice, in which IP3 /Ca(2+) signalling in astrocytes is largely diminished. We found that this experience-dependent gamma power alteration persists in the KO mice. Interestingly, hippocampal ripple events, the synchronized events critical for memory consolidation, are reduced in magnitude and frequency by both isolated rearing and IP3 R2 deficiency. Rearing in an enriched environment (ENR) is known to enhance cognitive and memory abilities in rodents, whereas social isolation (ISO) induces depression-like behaviour. The hippocampus has been documented to undergo morphological and functional changes depending on these rearing environments. For example, rearing condition during juvenility alters CA1 stratum radiatum gamma oscillation power in rats. In the present study, hippocampal CA1 local field potentials (LFP) were recorded from bilateral CA1 in urethane-anaesthetized mice that were reared in either an ENR or ISO condition. Similar to previous findings in rats, gamma oscillation power during theta states was higher in the ENR group. Ripple events that occur during non-theta periods in the CA1 stratum pyramidale also had longer intervals in ISO mice. Because astrocytic Ca(2+) elevations play a key role in synaptic plasticity, we next tested whether these changes in LFP are also expressed in inositol trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3 R2)-knockout (KO) mice, in which astrocytic Ca(2+) elevations are largely diminished. We found that the gamma power was also higher in IP3 R2-KO-ENR mice compared to IP3 R2-KO-ISO mice, suggesting that the rearing-environment-dependent gamma power alteration does not necessarily

  4. PLZF-RAR[alpha] fusion proteins generated from the variant t(11; 17)(q23; q21) translocation in acute promyelocytic leukemia inhibit ligand-dependent transactivation of wild-type retinoic acid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Sai-Juan; Wang, Zhen-Yi (Shanghai Second Medical Univ. (China)); Guidez, F.; Rousselot, P.; Agadir, A.; Degos, L.; Chomienne, C. (Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire Hematopoietique, Paris (France)); Zelent, A. (Institute for Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)); Waxman, S. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States))

    1994-02-01

    Recently, the authors described a recurrent variant translocation, t(11;17)(q23;q21), in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) which juxtaposes PLZF, a gene encoding a zinc finger protein, to RARA, encoding retinoic acid receptor [alpha] (RAR[alpha]). They have now cloned cDNAs encoding PLZF-RAR[alpha] chimeric proteins and studied their transactivating activities. In transient-expression assays, both the PLZF(A)-RAR[alpha] and PLZF(B)-RAR[alpha] fusion proteins like the PML-RAR[alpha] protein resulting from the well-known t(15;17) translocation in APL, antagonized endogenous and transfected wild-type RAR[alpha] in the presence of retinoic acid. Cotransfection assays showed that a significant repression of RAR[alpha] transactivation activity was obtained even with a very low PLZF-RAR[alpha]-expressing plasmid concentration. A [open quotes]dominant negative[close quotes] effect was observed with vectors expressing RAR[alpha] and retinoid X receptor [alpha] (RXR[alpha]). These abnormal transactivation properties observed in retinoic acid-sensitive myeloid cells strongly implicate the PLZF-RAR[alpha] fusion proteins in the molecular pathogenesis of APL.

  5. Low co-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and its chaperone heat shock protein 90 is associated with worse prognosis in primary glioblastoma, IDH-wild-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Elsa; Langer, Rupert; Vassella, Erik; Hewer, Ekkehard; Schucht, Philippe; Zlobec, Inti; Berezowska, Sabina

    2017-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a major oncogenic driver in glioblastoma (GBM) without mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene (IDH-wildtype). Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a regulator of the stability of oncogenic proteins including EGFR, thereby acting as a molecular chaperone. We investigated the expression of EGFR and its chaperone HSP90 in GBM, IDH-wildtype. Tissue availability permitted analysis of 237/449 consecutive GBM cases, among them 214 IDH-wildtype (90.3%). The expression of EGFR and HSP90 was analysed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing various tumour regions. The expression intensity (EI), and an expression score (ES) combining the percentage of stained cells with EI were determined for both markers. Overall, there was a positive correlation between EGFR and HSP90 expression (EI; r=0.275, PIDH-wildtype cases, and high expression of EGFR (ES only) was in trend associated with better outcome, but failed to meet statyistical significance (P=0.061). A combination of EGFR and HSP90, however, discriminated between different prognostic groups, with EGFRlow/HSP90low tumours showing the worst prognosis in univariate analysis (P=0.001), and in multivariate analysis including the other relevant prognostic factors age, MGMT status and postoperative treatment [n=76; hazard ratio (HR)=0.571; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.328-0.996; P=0.048]. EGFR expression stratified most pronounced among HSP90low tumours, where the EGFRhigh phenotype was associated with longer survival. Our results reveal a variable reliance on the signalling pathway by EGFR in GBM, IDH-wildtype. Low co-expression was associated with worse prognosis.

  6. High plasma levels of intact and cleaved soluble urokinase receptor reflect immune activation and are independent predictors of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Piironen, Timo; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High blood levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) (bulk measurement of 3-domain and 2-domain suPAR [suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III)], and suPAR(I-III) ligand complexes) strongly predict mortality in HIV-1-infected patients. This study......PAR(I) in 99 HIV patients and 59 healthy individuals. RESULTS: Plasma suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III), and suPAR(I) were increased in HIV patients and increased with HIV disease progression (P hemoglobin were......). In multivariate Cox analysis adjusting for CD4+ count, HIV RNA, beta2-microglobulin, hemoglobin and clinical stage, higher levels of suPAR(I-III) and suPAR(II-III) were independent predictors of increased mortality risk (P

  7. Elevated soluble urokinase receptor values in CSF, age and bacterial meningitis infection are independent and additive risk factors of fatal outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzanakaki, G; Paparoupa, M; Kyprianou, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of cerebrospinal fluid soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) level, infection and age as risk factors for fatal outcome in patients suspected of having meningitis and/or bacteraemia on admission to hospital. A total of 545 cerebrospinal...... fluid samples from patients with clinically suspected meningitis were sent to the Hellenic National Meningitis Reference Laboratory. Ten of 545 (1.83%) patients died. Analysis by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve revealed that both suPAR and age were significant for prediction of fatal...... outcome. Patients with levels of suPAR above the cut-off values and age ≥51 years, or patients in which either Neisseria meningitis or Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected were categorized as high risk patients. The combination of the above three predictors (suPAR, age and infectious agent...

  8. Plasma soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor level is independently associated with coronary microvascular function in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Girum; Corban, Michel T; Hung, Olivia Y

    2015-01-01

    microvascular function. METHODS: Coronary blood flow velocity and plasma suPAR levels were evaluated in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to basal average peak blood flow velocity and coronary microvascular dysfunction...... microvascular function. Larger prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of this novel biomarker and the role of immune dysregulation in coronary microvascular disease.......BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker released from leukocytes and endothelial cells that has been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that plasma suPAR level is an independent predictor of coronary...

  9. Prognostic significance of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor and its cleaved forms in blood from patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almasi, Charlotte Elberling; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2009-01-01

    in lung tumour extracts. Here we analyse uPAR forms in blood from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Preoperatively sampled plasma/serum from 32 patients with NSCLC was analysed. Three time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays (TR-FIAs) measuring intact uPAR(I-III) (TR-FIA 1), uPAR(I-III) + u......Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) cleaves its three-domain cell surface receptor, uPAR, liberating domain I [uPAR(I)] and leaving the cleaved uPAR(II-III) on the cell surface. Both intact and cleaved uPAR can be shed from the cell surface. uPAR(I) was previously shown to be a prognostic factor...

  10. Tumour cell expression of C4.4A, a structural homologue of the urokinase receptor, correlates with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line V.; Skov, Birgit G; Ploug, Michael

    2007-01-01

    expression. In the present study, we therefore explored the possible association between C4.4A expression and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tissue sections from 108 NSCLC patients were subjected to immunohistochemical staining using a polyclonal antibody......PURPOSE: C4.4A expression has been implicated in human cancer progression. This protein is a structural homologue of the urokinase receptor, uPAR, which constitutes a well-established prognostic marker in various human cancers. Nonetheless, little is known about the prognostic significance of C4.4A...... that specifically recognises human C4.4A. Staining frequency and intensity was scored semiquantitatively and grouped into cancers with high and low expression of C4.4A. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated to evaluate the significance of C4.4A expression in prognosis of NSCLC patients. RESULTS: High C4.4A...

  11. Renin angiotensin system blockade reduces urinary levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Theilade, Simone; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with faster decline in kidney function and the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the impact of treatment on plasma and urinary levels of suPAR. We aimed to investigate the impact of renin...... angiotensin system (RAS) single and dual blockade on suPAR levels in patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled crossover trial. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed for suPAR levels. The placebo period was considered reference and all.......1) and urine levels were 4.0 ng/mL (1.1). None of the treatments had significant effects on plasma levels of suPAR compared to placebo. Compared to placebo, irbesartan and combination treatment decreased urinary levels of suPAR significantly (-1.3 ng/mL), while aliskiren did not. In patients with type 2...

  12. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in non-small cell lung cancer as measured by quantitative ELISA and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappot, Helle; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Pyke, Charles

    1997-01-01

    , results in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) studies obtained by quantitative ELISA and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry differ. If the prognostic value of the components of the plasminogen activation system is to be exploited clinically in the future, it is important to choose an easy and valid...... methodology. In the present study we investigated levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-I) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), as quantitated by ELISA in tumour extracts from 64 NSCLC patients (38 squamous cell carcinomas, 26 adenocarcinomas), and compared them to staining...... intensity as semiquantitated by immunohistochemistry for PAI-1 and uPAR on corresponding cryostat sections. A significant association (r = 0.49), P PAI-1 levels measured by ELISA and semiquantitated by immunohistochemistry. No association was found for uPAR. When correlating...

  13. A 55,000-60,000 Mr receptor protein for urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Identification in human tumor cell lines and partial purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L S; Kellerman, G M; Behrendt, N

    1988-01-01

    The iodinated Mr approximately equal to 15,000 amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) molecule bound specifically to the cell surface of all of seven cultured human tumor cell lines studied. Cross-linking of iodinated ATF to the cell surface using...... a bifunctional amino-reactive reagent followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography revealed with the four cell lines studied the occurrence of a single band migrating with an Mr of 70,000-75,000, indicating complex formation with an Mr of 55,000-60,000 u-PA receptor...... protein (u-PA-R). In the human monocyte cell line U937 cultivated in the presence of phorbol ester, the amount of complex was strongly increased, and a fraction of the complex had a slower electrophoretic mobility. Comparison between autoradiograms of reduced and unreduced samples suggests that u...

  14. A new tagging system for production of recombinant proteins in Drosophila S2 cells using the third domain of the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Hansen, Line V.; Jørgensen, Thomas J D

    2007-01-01

    we successfully produced soluble and intact recombinant forms of extracellular proteins such as CD59, C4.4A and vitronectin, as well as a number of truncated domain constructs of these proteins. In conclusion, the present tagging system offers a convenient general method for the robust expression...... chromatography procedure using the immobilized anti-uPAR monoclonal antibody R2. An optional enterokinase cleavage site is included between the various recombinant proteins and the linker region of the tag, which enables generation of highly pure preparations of tag-free recombinant proteins. Using this system......The use of protein fusion tag technology greatly facilitates detection, expression and purification of recombinant proteins, and the demands for new and more effective systems are therefore expanding. We have used a soluble truncated form of the third domain of the urokinase receptor...

  15. Cleaved forms of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in plasma have diagnostic potential and predict postoperative survival in patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henic, E.; Borgfeldt, C.; Christensen, I.J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the plasma level of different forms of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) as discriminators between malignant, borderline, and benign ovarian tumors and as prognostic markers in patients with ovarian cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The different suPAR forms.......011) in multivariate analyses including age and CA125. CONCLUSIONS: High concentration of plasma uPAR(I) is an independent preoperative marker of poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. The combination of plasma suPAR(I-III) + suPAR(II-III) and CA125 discriminates between malignant and benign tumors......-FIA 3 measuring the liberated uPAR(I). Tumors were classified as benign (n = 211), borderline (possibly malignant; n = 30), and well (n = 19), moderately (n = 15), and poorly (n = 60) differentiated malignant. RESULTS: All uPAR forms as well as CA125 were statistically significant in univariate analysis...

  16. Plasminogen activation by receptor-bound urokinase. A kinetic study with both cell-associated and isolated receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, V; Behrendt, N; Danø, K

    1991-01-01

    .67 microM, below the physiological Plg concentration of 2 microM. A concomitant 6-fold reduction in kcat resulted in an increase in the overall catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km, of 5.7-fold. This high affinity Plg activation was abolished in the presence of a Plg-binding antagonist. In contrast to intact...... cells, purified uPA receptor (isolated from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated U937 cells) was observed to partially inhibit uPA-catalyzed Plg activation, although activity against low molecular weight substrates was retained. Therefore, the cellular binding of Plg appears to be of critical...

  17. Mapping the topographic epitope landscape on the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR by surface plasmon resonance and X-ray crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyu Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR or CD87 is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein often expressed in the microenvironment of invasive solid cancers and high levels are generally associated with poor patient prognosis (Kriegbaum et al., 2011 [1]. uPAR is organized as a dynamic modular protein structure composed of three homologous Ly6/uPAR domains (LU.This internally flexible protein structure of uPAR enables an allosteric regulation of the interactions with its two principal ligands: the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA and the provisional matrix protein vitronectin (Vn (Mertens et al., 2012; Gårdsvoll et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2007 [2–4]. The data presented here relates to the non-covalent trapping of one of these biologically relevant uPAR-conformations by a novel class of monoclonal antibodies (Zhao et al., 2015 [5] and to the general mapping of the topographic epitope landscape on uPAR. The methods required to achieve these data include: (1 recombinant expression and purification of a uPAR-hybrid protein trapped in the desired conformation [patent; WO 2013/020898 A12013]; (2 developing monoclonal antibodies with unique specificities using this protein as antigen; (3 mapping the functional epitope on uPAR for these mAbs by surface plasmon resonance with a complete library of purified single-site uPAR mutants (Zhao et al., 2015; Gårdsvoll et al., 2006 [5,6]; and finally (4 solving the three-dimensional structures for one of these mAbs by X-ray crystallography alone and in complex with uPAR [deposited in the PDB database as 4QTH and 4QTI, respectively].

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR gene copy number (GCN correlates with clinical activity of irinotecan-cetuximab in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer: a fluorescence in situ (FISH and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scartozzi Mario

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background K-RAS wild type colorectal tumors show an improved response rate to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Nevertheless 70% to 40% of these patients still does not seem to benefit from this therapeutic approach. FISH EGFR GCN has been previously demonstrated to correlate with clinical outcome of colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. CISH also seemed able to provide accurate EGFR GCN information with the advantage of a simpler and reproducible technique involving immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Based on these findings we investigated the correlation between both FISH and CISH EGFR GCN and clinical outcome in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with irinotecan-cetuximab. Methods Patients with advanced K-RAS wild-type, colorectal cancer receiving irinotecan-cetuximab after failure of irinotecan-based chemotherapy were eligible. A cut-off value for EGFR GCN of 2.6 and 2.12 for FISH and CISH respectively was derived from ROC curve analysis. Results Forty-four patients were available for analysis. We observed a partial remission in 9 (60% and 2 (9% cases with a FISH EGFR GCN ≥ 2.6 and Conclusion FISH and CISH EGFR GCN may both represent effective tools for a further patients selection in K-RAS wild-type colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab.

  19. Molecular proximity of seprase and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor on malignant melanoma cell membranes: dependence on beta1 integrins and the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, Vira V; Kindzelskii, Andrei L; Chen, Wen-Tien; Petty, Howard R

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that several proteolytic enzymes are associated with membrane protrusions at the leading edge of migrating tumor cells. In this study we demonstrate that seprase and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), co-localize in the plasma membrane of LOX malignant melanoma cells. Cells were labeled with fluorochrome-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against seprase and uPAR. Proximity between these two molecules was detected with resonance energy transfer (RET) imaging, single-cell emission spectrophotometry, and single-cell excitation spectrophotometry. Significant RET signals were detected on LOX cells when adherent to uncoated and extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated surfaces. This indicates that seprase and uPAR are within approximately 7 nm in the plasma membrane of LOX cells. When LOX cells adhered to a 3D extracellular-like matrix, seprase-uPAR complexes were found to be associated with invadopodia. Further microscopy experiments demonstrated gelatinolytic activity, a functional attribute of seprase, in association with seprase-uPAR membrane domains. Formation of seprase-uPAR membrane complexes is dependent upon both the cytoskeleton and integrins. Specifically, the involvement of beta(1)-integrins was demonstrated by the inhibition of RET by an inhibitory anti-beta(1)-integrin mAb. Based on these findings, we speculate that formation of heterogeneous lytic domains in the invading membranes of LOX cells increases the efficiency of directed pericellular proteolysis.

  20. Cyclization of the urokinase receptor-derived ser-arg-ser-arg-tyr Peptide generates a potent inhibitor of trans-endothelial migration of monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Munaim Yousif

    Full Text Available The receptor for the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR is a widely recognized master regulator of cell migration and uPAR88-92 is the minimal sequence required to induce cell motility. We and others have previously documented that the uPAR88-92 sequence, even in the form of synthetic linear peptide (SRSRY, interacts with the formyl peptide receptor type 1 (FPR1, henceforth inducing cell migration of several cell lines, including monocytes. FPR1 is mainly expressed by mammalian phagocytic leukocytes and plays a crucial role in chemotaxis. In this study, we present evidence that the cyclization of the SRSRY sequence generates a new potent and stable inhibitor of monocyte trafficking. In rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-2H3/ETFR cells expressing high levels of constitutively activated FPR1, the cyclic SRSRY peptide ([SRSRY] blocks FPR1 mediated cell migration by interfering with both internalization and ligand-uptake of FPR1. Similarly to RBL-2H3/ETFR cells, [SRSRY] competes with fMLF for binding to FPR1 and prevents agonist-induced FPR1 internalization in human monocyte THP-1 cells. Unlike scramble [RSSYR], [SRSRY] inhibits fMLF-directed migration of monocytes in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 0.01 nM. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cell exposure to fMLF gradient causes a marked cytoskeletal re-organization with the formation of F-actin rich pseudopodia that are prevented by the addition of [SRSRY]. Furthermore, [SRSRY] prevents migration of human primary monocytes and trans-endothelial migration of monocytes. Our findings indicate that [SRSRY] is a new FPR1 inhibitor which may suggest the development of new drugs for treating pathological conditions sustained by increased motility of monocytes, such as chronic inflammatory diseases.

  1. An Anti-Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor Antibody (ATN-658 Blocks Prostate Cancer Invasion, Migration, Growth, and Experimental Skeletal Metastasis In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafaat A. Rabbani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR is a multidomain protein that plays important roles in the growth, invasion, and metastasis of a number of cancers. In the present study, we examined the effects of administration of a monoclonal anti-uPAR antibody (ATN-658 on prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. We examined the effect of treatment of ATN-658 on human prostate cancer cell invasion, migration, proliferation, and regulation of intracellular signaling pathways. For in vivo studies, PC-3 cells (1 x 106 were inoculated into the right flank of male Balb C nu/nu mice through subcutaneous or through intratibial route (2 x 105 of male Fox Chase severe combined immunodeficient mice to monitor the effect on tumor growth and skeletal metastasis. Treatment with ATN-658 resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in PC-3 cell invasion and migration without affecting cell doubling time. Western blot analysis showed that ATN-658 treatment decreased the phosphorylation of serine/threonine protein kinase B (AKT, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK without affecting AKT, MAPK, and FAK total protein expression. In in vivo studies, ATN-658 caused a significant decrease in tumor volume and a marked reduction in skeletal lesions as determined by Faxitron x-ray and micro-computed tomography. Immunohistochemical analysis of subcutaneous and tibial tumors showed a marked decrease in the levels of expression of pAKT, pMAPK, and pFAK, consistent with the in vitro observations. Results from these studies provide compelling evidence for the continued development of ATN-658 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate and other cancers expressing uPAR.

  2. Plasma levels of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR and early mortality risk among patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangani Nonzwakazi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR have a strong independent association with HIV-1-related mortality. The practical utility of plasma suPAR in assessing short-term all-cause mortality risk was evaluated in patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART programme in South Africa. Methods An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to measure plasma concentrations of suPAR in patients at the time of enrolment to the ART programme. The association between plasma suPAR concentrations, baseline patient characteristics and cohort outcomes after 4 months of ART were determined. Results Patients (n = 293, 70% female had a median age of 33 years and were followed up for a median of 5 months from enrolment. The median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/μl (IQR = 22–72 and 38% of patients had WHO stage 4 disease. 218 (74% patients remained alive after 4 months of ART; 39 (13% died and 36 (12% were lost to the programme for other reasons. Patients who died had significantly higher plasma suPAR concentrations compared to those who either survived (P 10 suPAR concentrations were significantly associated with lower CD4 cell counts, WHO clinical stage 4 disease and male sex. In multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with death, log10 suPAR concentration was the most strongly associated variable (P Conclusion Plasma suPAR concentration was the strongest independent predictor of short-term mortality risk among patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in this ART programme. However, lack of a discriminatory threshold did not permit this marker to be used to triage patients according to short-term mortality risk.

  3. Serum Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Is Associated with Low Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Elevated Plasma Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ichi Fujita

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR, a biomarker of subclinical levels of inflammation, is significantly correlated with cardiovascular events.We investigated the association between suPAR and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular mass index (LVMI, and plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP among cardiac inpatients.In total, 242 patients (mean age 71.3 ± 9.8 years; 70 women admitted to the cardiology department were enrolled in the study. suPAR was significantly correlated with LVEF (R = -0.24, P 3236 pg/mL was associated with low LVEF ( 300 pg/mL with an odds ratio of 3.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-12.1 and 5.36 (95% CI, 1.32-21.8, respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, log-transformed estimated glomerular filtration rate (log(eGFR, C-reactive protein, and diuretic use. The association between suPAR and LVMI was not statistically significant. In multivariate receiver operating characteristic analysis, addition of log(suPAR to the combination of age, sex, log(eGFR and CRP incrementally improved the prediction of low LVEF (area under the curve [AUC], 0.827 to 0.852, P = 0.046 and BNP ≥ 300 pg/mL (AUC, 0.869 to 0.906; P = 0.029.suPAR was associated with low LVEF and elevated BNP, but not with left ventricular hypertrophy, independent of CRP, renal function, and diuretic use among cardiac inpatients who were not undergoing chronic hemodialysis.

  4. Hemangiosarcoma and its cancer stem cell subpopulation are effectively killed by a toxin targeted through epidermal growth factor and urokinase receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schappa, Jill T; Frantz, Aric M; Gorden, Brandi H; Dickerson, Erin B; Vallera, Daniel A; Modiano, Jaime F

    2013-10-15

    Targeted toxins have the potential to overcome intrinsic or acquired resistance of cancer cells to conventional cytotoxic agents. Here, we hypothesized that EGFuPA-toxin, a bispecific ligand-targeted toxin (BLT) consisting of a deimmunized Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) conjugated to epidermal growth factor and urokinase, would efficiently target and kill cells derived from canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA), a highly chemotherapy resistant tumor, as well as cultured hemangiospheres, used as a surrogate for cancer stem cells (CSC). EGFuPA-toxin showed cytotoxicity in four HSA cell lines (Emma, Frog, DD-1 and SB) at a concentration of ≤100 nM, and the cytotoxicity was dependent on specific ligand-receptor interactions. Monospecific targeted toxins also killed these chemoresistant cells; in this case, a "threshold" level of EGFR expression appeared to be required to make cells sensitive to the monospecific EGF-toxin, but not to the monospecific uPA-toxin. The IC₅₀ of CSCs was higher by approximately two orders of magnitude as compared to non-CSCs, but these cells were still sensitive to EGFuPA-toxin at nanomolar (i.e., pharmacologically relevant) concentrations, and when targeted by EGFuPA-toxin, resulted in death of the entire cell population. Taken together, our results support the use of these toxins to treat chemoresistant tumors such as sarcomas, including those that conform to the CSC model. Our results also support the use of companion animals with cancer for further translational development of these cytotoxic molecules. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  5. Glycosylation profile of a recombinant urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Rahbek-Nielsen, H; Nielsen, P F

    1998-01-01

    migration and tissue remodeling. The uPA receptor is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein belonging to the Ly-6/uPAR superfamily and is the only multidomain member identified so far. We have now purified the three individual domains of a recombinant soluble uPAR variant, expressed in Chinese hamster ovary...

  6. Soluble urokinase receptor levels in plasma during 5 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Katzenstein, Terese L; Piironen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Plasma suPAR decreased after introducing HAART, most pronounced during the first treatment year. The change in plasma suPAR was independent of changes in viral replication and CD4+ cells but it was strongly correlated with plasma levels of the soluble TNF receptor...

  7. The structure and function of the urokinase receptor, a membrane protein governing plasminogen activation on the cell surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1995-01-01

    PA receptor, uPAR, is a cell-surface protein which plays an important role in the localization and regulation of these processes. In the present article a number of established conclusions concerning the structure and function of uPAR are presented, and in addition various models are discussed which might...... with the continuous identification of inhibitory reagents, this knowledge should open the possibility to interfere with the resulting, degradative events....

  8. Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Improves Risk Prediction in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Lorenz; Stojkovic, Stefan; Richter, Bernhard; Sulzgruber, Patrick; Potolidis, Christos; Liebhart, Florian; Mörtl, Deddo; Berger, Rudolf; Goliasch, Georg; Wojta, Johann; Hülsmann, Martin; Niessner, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). SuPAR originates from proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound receptor from activated immune and endothelial cells and reflects the level of immune activation. As inflammation plays a crucial role in the complex pathophysiology of CHF, we hypothesized that suPAR might be a suitable prognostic biomarker in patients with CHF. SuPAR levels were determined in 319 patients with CHF admitted to our outpatient department for heart failure and in a second cohort consisting of 346 patients with CHF, for validation. During a median follow-up time of 3.2 years, 119 patients (37.3%) died. SuPAR was a strong predictor of mortality with a crude hazard ratio (HR) per increase of 1 SD (HR per 1 SD) of 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63 to 2.35; p < 0.001) in univariate analysis and remained significant after comprehensive multivariate adjustment with an adjusted HR per 1 SD of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.83; p = 0.026). SuPAR added prognostic value beyond the multivariate model indicated by improvements in C-statistics (area under the curve: 0.72 vs 0.74, respectively; p = 0.02), the category-free net reclassification index (24.9%; p = 0.032), and the integrated discrimination improvement (0.011; p = 0.05). Validation in the second cohort yielded consistent results. SuPAR is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in patients with CHF, potentially suitable to refine risk assessment in this vulnerable group of patients. Our results emphasize the impact of immune activation on survival in patients with CHF. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In IgA Nephropathy, Glomerulosclerosis Is Associated with Increased Urinary CD80 Excretion and Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor-Positive Podocyturia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Trimarchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Podocyturia may determine the evolution to podocytopenia, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. According to the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN, the S1 lesion describes glomerulosclerosis. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR participates in podocyte attachment, while CD80 increases in glomerulosclerosis. We measured uPAR-positive urinary podocytes and urinary CD80 (uCD80 in controls and in IgAN subjects with M1E0S0T0 and M1E0S1T0 Oxford scores to assess a potential association between podocyturia, inflammation, and glomerulosclerosis. Methods: The groups were as follows: controls (G1, n = 20 and IgAN group (G2, n = 39, subdivided into M1E0S0T0 (G2A, n = 21 and M1E0S1T0 (G2B, n = 18. Among the included variables, we determined uPAR-positive podocytes/gram of urinary creatinine (gUrCr and uCD80 ng/gUrCr. Biopsies with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy <10% were included. Results: Groups were not different in age and gender; urinary protein-creatinine (uP/C ratio, Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation, uPAR-positive podocytes/gUrCr, and uCD80 were significantly increased in G2 versus G1. G2A and G2B were not different in age, gender, hypertension, and follow-up. G2B displayed significantly higher uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, uCD80, and lower CKD-EPI versus G2A. Strong significant correlations were encountered between uCD80 and podocyturia in G2A and G2B. However, when G1 was compared to G2A and G2B separately, the differences with respect to uP/C, uPAR-positive podocytes, and podocyturia were significantly stronger versus G2B than versus G2A. Conclusions: IgAN presents elevated uCD80 excretion and uPAR-positive podocyturia, while CD80 correlates with podocyturia. Glomerulosclerosis (S1 at the time of biopsy is associated with higher uP/C, lower renal function, increased uPAR-positive podocyturia, and CD80 excretion, and is independent of M1. In IgAN, uPAR may

  10. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do, E-mail: ydjung@chonnam.ac.kr

    2012-03-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells

  11. Plasma soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor level is independently associated with coronary microvascular function in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Girum; Corban, Michel T; Hung, Olivia Y; Eshtehardi, Parham; Eapen, Danny J; Al-Kassem, Hatem; Rasoul-Arzrumly, Emad; Gogas, Bill D; McDaniel, Michael C; Pielak, Tomasz; Thorball, Christian W; Sperling, Laurence; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Samady, Habib

    2015-03-01

    Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker released from leukocytes and endothelial cells that has been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that plasma suPAR level is an independent predictor of coronary microvascular function. Coronary blood flow velocity and plasma suPAR levels were evaluated in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) was calculated as the ratio of hyperemic to basal average peak blood flow velocity and coronary microvascular dysfunction was defined as CFR ≤ 2.0 in the setting of a fractional flow reserve value of ≥0.75. Plasma suPAR levels were measured using ELISA technique. The association between suPAR and CFR was investigated using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. In 66 patients, 47% were men, 26% had diabetes, 68% had hypertension and 76% had dyslipidemia. Mean age was 55 ± 12 years and median suPAR level 2.82 (2.08-3.40) ng/mL. Plasma suPAR levels correlated with age (r = 0.31, p = 0.01), body mass index (r = 0.25, p = 0.04) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (r = 0.33, p = 0.009). While median suPAR level was not significantly different in patients with different cardiovascular risk factors, patients on statin therapy had significantly higher suPAR level (p = 0.03). SuPAR correlated negatively with CFR and, after multivariate adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors, medications profiles and hs-CRP, suPAR remained an independent predictor of CFR (B = -0.30, p = 0.04), indicating an independent association between suPAR level and coronary microvascular function. In this cross-sectional study, plasma suPAR level was an independent predictor of coronary microvascular function. Larger prospective clinical trials are warranted to investigate the prognostic value of this novel biomarker and the role of immune dysregulation in coronary microvascular disease

  12. Discrimination of different forms of the murine urokinase plasminogen activator receptor on the cell surface using monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, M.G.; Pass, J.; Illemann, M.

    2008-01-01

    preformed complexes of murine pro-uPA and murine uPAR. In contrast, mR4 recognises domains II-III in uPAR and does not bind preformed pro-uPA-uPAR complexes in similar analyses. Immunofluorescence microscopy of P388D.1 cells revealed that mR3 stained the cells equally well in the presence or absence...... macrophage-like P388D.1 cells, we have now generated and characterised two high-affinity murine mAbs, mR3 and mR4, raised against murine uPAR. mR3 was found to recognise an epitope located in domain I of uPAR. Surface plasmon resonance analyses and cell binding studies revealed that this mAb was able to bind...... of saturation with the amino-terminal fragment of uPA, ATF. However, the signal intensity obtained using another uPAR domain I specific mAb, mR1, was significantly reduced upon ATF saturation. Furthermore, when adding ATF, mR4 selectively stained the cleaved receptor. Applying these newly generated mAbs, we...

  13. Urokinase receptor-associated protein (uPARAP) is expressed in connection with malignant as well as benign lesions of the human breast and occurs in specific populations of stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack Nielsen, Boye; Rank, Fritz; Engelholm, Lars H

    2002-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the uPA receptor (uPAR) are key components in the plasminogen activation system, serving to promote specific events of extracellular matrix degradation in connection with tissue remodeling and cancer invasion. We recently described a new u......PAR-associated protein (uPARAP), an internalization receptor that interacts with the pro-uPA:uPAR complex. In our study, we generated a specific polyclonal peptide antibody against human uPARAP and used it for the localization of uPARAP in different breast lesions. The affinity-purified antibodies specifically...... lesions. Whereas the normal breast tissue was uPARAP-negative, all benign lesions and ductal carcinoma in situ lesions showed immunoreactivity in fibroblast-like cells and myoepithelial cells associated with the lesion. In invasive carcinoma, uPARAP immunoreactivity was limited to tumor...

  14. Urokinase receptor-associated protein (uPARAP) is expressed in connection with malignant as well as benign lesions of the human breast and occurs in specific populations of stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack Nielsen, Boye; Rank, Fritz; Engelholm, Lars H

    2002-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the uPA receptor (uPAR) are key components in the plasminogen activation system, serving to promote specific events of extracellular matrix degradation in connection with tissue remodeling and cancer invasion. We recently described a new u......PAR-associated protein (uPARAP), an internalization receptor that interacts with the pro-uPA:uPAR complex. In our study, we generated a specific polyclonal peptide antibody against human uPARAP and used it for the localization of uPARAP in different breast lesions. The affinity-purified antibodies specifically...... recognized uPARAP in Western blotting and gave a strong signal in immunohistochemistry. The immunohistochemic localization pattern was found to be identical to that of uPARAP mRNA as determined in parallel by in situ hybridization. uPARAP expression was then studied in both benign and malignant breast...

  15. The pro-inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is associated with incident type 2 diabetes among overweight but not obese individuals with impaired glucose regulation: effect modification by smoking and body weight status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heraclides, A.; Jensen, T. M.; Rasmussen, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence links the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), a stable biomarker of systemic immune activation, to several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. suPAR is also associated with adiposity and smoking. We hypothesised that this biomarker would be linked...... to incident type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and that this association would be modified by smoking and body weight status. The study included 1,933 participants with impaired glucose regulation, who were drawn from the Danish arm of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive...... Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION) and for whom data on suPAR, BMI and smoking were available. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds for incident type 2 diabetes per twofold increase in suPAR levels. Interactions between both smoking and body...

  16. Evaluation of alpha 1-antitrypsin and the levels of mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7, urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor and COX-2 for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Bujanda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women in the majority of developed countries. Molecular tests of blood could potentially provide this ideal screening tool. AIM: Our objective was to assess the usefulness of serum markers and mRNA expression levels in the diagnosis of CRC. METHODS: In a prospective study, we measured mRNA expression levels of 13 markers (carbonic anhydrase, guanylyl cyclase C, plasminogen activator inhibitor, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, survivin, tetranectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, cytokeratin 20, thymidylate synthase, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, and CD44 and three proteins in serum (alpha 1 antitrypsin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and activated C3 in 42 patients with CRC and 33 with normal colonoscopy results. RESULTS: Alpha 1-antitrypsin was the serum marker that was most useful for CRC diagnosis (1.79 ± 0.25 in the CRC group vs 1.27 ± 0.25 in the control group, P<0.0005. The area under the ROC curve for alpha 1-antitrypsin was 0.88 (0.79-0.96. The mRNA expression levels of five markers were statistically different between CRC cases and controls: those for which the ROC area was over 75% were MMP7 (0.81 and tetranectin (0.80, COX-2 (0.78, uPAR (0.78 and carbonic anhydrase (0.77. The markers which identified early stage CRC (Stages I and II were alpha 1-antitrypsin, uPAR, COX-2 and MMP7. CONCLUSIONS: Serum alpha 1-antitrypsin and the levels of mRNA expression of MMP7, COX-2 and uPAR have good diagnostic accuracy for CRC, even in the early stages.

  17. Presence of urokinase plasminogen activator, its inhibitor and receptor in small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pappot, H.; Pfeiffer, P.; Grøndahl Hansen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Spreading of cancer cells is dependent on the combined action of several proteolytic enzymes, such as serine proteases, comprising the urokinase pathway of plasminogen activation. Previous studies of lung cancer indicate that expression, localization and prognostic impact of the components...... of the plasminogen activation system differ in the different non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) types, whereas the expression of the components in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has only sparingly been investigated. In the present study we investigate the presence of the components of the plasminogen activation...... and the clinical parameters. This is the first report of a study using a quantitative method to compare levels of the components of the plasminogen activation system in tissue extracts from the two major lung cancer groups. The study shows that uPA, PAI-1 and uPAR are present in SCLC-tissue, suggesting...

  18. Expression of Oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67,p53 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of Oestrogen and progesterone receptors, Ki-67,p53 and bcl-2 proteins, cathepsin D, urokinase plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator-receptors in carcinomas of the female breast in an African population.

  19. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Damaso, M. C. T., Terzi, S. D., Farias, X. A., de Oliveria, C. P., Fraga, M. E. and Couri, S. (2012). Selection of cellulolytic fungi isolated from diverse substrates. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol.55 (4): 513 – 520. Doolotkeldieva, T. D. and Bobusheva, S. T. (2011). Screening of wild type fungal isolates for cellulolytic activity. Microbiol.

  20. Plasticity of TRPM1 expression and localization in the wild type and degenerating mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križaj, David; Huang, Wei; Furukawa, Takahisa; Punzo, Claudio; Xing, Wei

    2010-11-23

    The light response in retinal ON bipolar cells is associated with disinhibition of current flow through cation channels recently identified as type 1 members of the melastatin transient receptor potential (TRPM) family. We determined the developmental expression of Trpm1 in the wild type C57BL/6, DBA/2J, DBA2J-Gpnmb mouse retinas and in Pde6brd1 retinas characterized by degeneration of rod photoreceptors. Trpm1 mRNA in wild type retinas was low at birth but exhibited progressive increases in abundance up to early adulthood at postnatal day 21 (P21). Retinal Trpm1 mRNA content did not decrease following loss of photoreceptors. At P21, TRPM1-immunopositive perikarya migrated into the outer nuclear layer. The TRPM1 protein was trafficked to discrete postsynaptic puncta in wild type retinas whereas in adult Pde6brd1 mouse retinas, TRPM1 translocated to bipolar perikarya and bar-like structures in the distal inner nuclear layer. These findings show that expression and localization of the TRPM1 in the mouse retina is plastic, modulated by use-dependence and availability of sustained excitatory input. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping part of the functional epitope for ligand binding on the receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator by site-directed mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdsvoll, H; Danø, K; Ploug, M

    1999-01-01

    ), Leu(55), Tyr(57), and Leu(66)). The energetic impact of these four alanine substitutions was not caused by gross structural perturbations, since all monoclonal antibodies tested having conformation-dependent epitopes on this domain exhibited unaltered binding kinetics. These sites together...... with a three-dimensional structure for uPAR may provide an appropriate target for rational drug design aimed at developing new receptor binding antagonists with potential application in cancer therapy....

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of erlotinib with or without a c-Met inhibitor tivantinib (ARQ 197) in Asian patients with previously treated stage IIIB/IV nonsquamous nonsmall-cell lung cancer harboring wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (ATTENTION study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, H; Azuma, K; Yamamoto, N; Takahashi, T; Nishio, M; Katakami, N; Ahn, M J; Hirashima, T; Maemondo, M; Kim, S W; Kurosaki, M; Akinaga, S; Park, K; Tsai, C M; Tamura, T; Mitsudomi, T; Nakagawa, K

    2015-10-01

    A previous randomized phase II study demonstrated that the addition of a c-Met inhibitor tivantinib to an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib might prolong progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with previously treated, nonsquamous nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On a subset analysis, the survival benefit was greater in patients with wild-type EGFR (WT-EGFR) than in those with activating EGFR mutations. Herein, this phase III study compared overall survival (OS) between Asian nonsquamous NSCLC patients with WT-EGFR who received erlotinib plus tivantinib (tivantinib group) or erlotinib plus placebo (placebo group). A total of 460 NSCLC patients were planned to be randomized to the tivantinib or placebo group. Primary end point was OS. Secondary end points were PFS, tumor response, and safety. Tissue was collected for biomarker analysis, including c-Met and HGF expression. Enrollment was stopped when 307 patients were randomized, following the Safety Review Committee's recommendation based on an imbalance in the interstitial lung disease (ILD) incidence between the groups. ILD developed in 14 patients (3 deaths) and 6 patients (0 deaths) in the tivantinib and the placebo groups, respectively. In the enrolled patients, median OS was 12.7 and 11.1 months in the tivantinib and the placebo groups, respectively [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.891, P = 0.427]. Median PFS was 2.9 and 2.0 months in the tivantinib and the placebo groups, respectively (HR = 0.719, P = 0.019). The commonly observed grade ≥ 3 adverse events in the tivantinib group were neutropenia (24.3%), leukopenia (18.4%), febrile neutropenia (13.8%), and anemia (13.2%). This study was prematurely terminated due to the increased ILD incidence in the tivantinib group. Although this study lacked statistical power because of the premature termination and did not demonstrate an improvement in OS, our results suggest that tivantinib plus erlotinib might improve PFS than

  3. HER2 Amplification and Cetuximab Efficacy in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Harboring Wild-type RAS and BRAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Ho; Kim, Jihun; Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Dalyong; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Yoon, Young-Kwang; Kim, Deokhoon; Chun, Sung-Min; Park, Yangsoon; Jang, Se Jin; Kim, Tae Won

    2017-09-01

    Cetuximab has shown clinical benefit in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring wild-type RAS. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification may be a mechanism of cetuximab resistance. We evaluated the association between HER2 amplification and cetuximab efficacy in patients with mCRC harboring wild-type RAS and BRAF. Between December 2003 and June 2013, we identified 142 patients with mCRC whose tumors harbored both wild-type exons 2, 3, and 4 in KRAS and NRAS, and wild-type exon 15 in BRAF using high throughput sequencing (OncoMap version 4.0). All patients received cetuximab after oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and fluoropyrimidine failure. HER2 status was determined using immunohistochemistry and silver in situ hybridization (SISH) and correlated with cetuximab efficacy. Of 142 RAS and BRAF wild-type tumors, we observed 7 cases (4.9%) of HER2 amplification by SISH. After a median follow-up of 13.2 months (range, 1.4-78.1 months), median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly different according to HER2 status: 3.1 months in patients with HER2 amplification compared with 5.6 months in those with non-amplified HER2 (hazard ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-6.31; P = .019). Overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between groups, although there was a tendency towards shorter OS in patients with HER2-amplified tumors (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-2.82; 10.1 vs. 13.5 months; P = .488). HER2 amplification is predictive of shorter PFS after cetuximab treatment in patients with mCRC harboring wild-type RAS and BRAF. Further study is warranted for this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intact and cleaved forms of the urokinase receptor enhance discrimination of cancer from non-malignant conditions in patients presenting with symptoms related to colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, A F; Høyer-Hansen, G; Nielsen, H J

    2009-01-01

    plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) was proposed as a marker in CRC patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate the individual molecular forms of suPAR as discriminators in a group of patients undergoing endoscopical examination following symptoms related to colorectal cancer. METHODS: In a case......-control study comprising 308 patients undergoing endoscopical examination following CRC-related symptoms, 77 CRC patients with adenocarcinoma were age and gender matched to: 77 patients with adenomas; 77 with other non-malignant findings, and 77 with no findings. The different uPAR forms were measured...

  5. Porphyrin Interactions with Wild Type and Mutant Mouse Ferrochelatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Gloria C.; Franco, Ricardo; Lu, Yi; Ma, Jian-Guo; Shelnutt, John A.

    1999-05-19

    Ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1), the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes Fe2+ chelation into protoporphyrin IX. Resonance Raman and W-visible absorbance spectroscopes of wild type and engineered variants of murine ferrochelatase were used to examine the proposed structural mechanism for iron insertion into protoporphyrin by ferrochelatase. The recombinant variants (i.e., H207N and E287Q) are enzymes in which the conserved amino acids histidine-207 and glutamate-287 of murine ferrochelatase were substituted with asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Both of these residues are at the active site of the enzyme as deduced from the Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure. Addition of free base or metalated porphyrins to wild type ferrochelatase and H207N variant yields a quasi 1:1 complex, possibly a monomeric protein-bound species. In contrast, the addition of porphyrin (either free base or metalated) to E287Q is sub-stoichiometric, as this variant retains bound porphyrin in the active site during isolation and purification. The specificity of porphyrin binding is confirmed by the narrowing of the structure-sensitive resonance Raman lines and the vinyl vibrational mode. Resonance Raman spectra of free base and metalated porphyrins bound to the wild type ferrochelatase indicate a nonplanar distortion of the porphyrin macrocycle, although the magnitude of the distortion cannot be determined without first defining the specific type of deformation. Significantly, the extent of the nonplanar distortion varies in the case of H207N- and E287Q-bound porphyrins. In fact, resonance Raman spectral decomposition indicates a homogeneous ruffled distortion for the nickel protoporphyrin bound to the wild type ferrochelatase, whereas both a planar and ruffled conformations are present for the H207N-bound porphyrin. Perhaps more revealing is the unusual resonance , 3 Raman spectrum of the endogenous E287Q-bound porphyrin, which has

  6. Prion-Specific Antibodies Produced in Wild-Type Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Andersen, Heidi Gertz

    2015-01-01

    method for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against peptides representing two sites of interest in the bovine prion protein (boPrP), the causative agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease (CJD) in humans, as well...... as a thorough characterization of their reactivity with a range of normal and pathogenic (misfolded) prion proteins. It is demonstrated that immunization of wild-type mice with ovalbumin-conjugated peptides formulated with Freund's adjuvant induces a good immune response, including high levels of specific anti...

  7. The Role of Amplified Wild-Type Neu in the Etiology of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Many human breast cancers have amplified wild-type Neu (Her2) protooncogenes. It is still not known from either human or rodent models if amplified wild-type Neu is involved in the etiology of breast cancer...

  8. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    In the study of craniofacial malformations, the cranial sutures are often of interest. The premature fusion of sutures occurring in e.g. Crouzon and Apert syndrome can lead to asymmetric head shape, enlarged intracranial pressure and blindness. In large population studies of such syndromes......, automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using...... these transformations, any annotation on the atlas can automatically be transformed back to all cases. For this study, two rounds of tracing seven of the cranial sutures, were performed on the atlas by one observer. The average of the two rounds was automatically propagated to all the cases. For validation...

  9. Molecular Targeted Therapy Approaches for BRAF Wild-Type Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnpulle, Romany A N; Johnson, Douglas B; Sosman, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic melanoma have historically had dismal outcomes. The last several years has seen the emergence of effective immune and targeted therapies for metastatic melanoma. Targeted therapies have primarily impacted the 40-50% of patients with BRAF(V600) mutated melanoma. The remainder of patients with advanced melanoma harbor a wide spectrum of mutations other than BRAF(V600) that are associated with unique pathophysiological, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. The treatment of this subset of patients is a challenging problem. In recent years, preclinical and early clinical studies have suggested that inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and parallel signaling networks may have activity in treatment of BRAF(V600) wild-type (WT) melanoma. In this review, we will discuss available and developing therapies for BRAF WT patients with metastatic melanoma, particularly focusing on molecular targeted options for various genetically defined melanoma subsets.

  10. FOLFOXIRI in combination with panitumumab as first-line treatment in quadruple wild-type (KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF) metastatic colorectal cancer patients: a phase II trial by the Gruppo Oncologico Nord Ovest (GONO)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fornaro, L; Lonardi, S; Masi, G; Loupakis, F; Bergamo, F; Salvatore, L; Cremolini, C; Schirripa, M; Vivaldi, C; Aprile, G; Zaniboni, A; Bracarda, S; Fontanini, G; Sensi, E; Lupi, C; Morvillo, M; Zagonel, V; Falcone, A

    2013-01-01

    ...). Panitumumab is effective in some patients with KRAS codon 12-13 wild-type mCRC. KRAS codon 61, HRAS, NRAS, and BRAF V600E mutations might predict resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies...

  11. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, plasminogen activator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients were divided into 4 groups, group I: Included 39 female patients with breast cancer before operation, group II: Included 17 women from group I followed for 6 months after operation, group III: Included 9 women from group I followed for 12 months after operation, group IV: Included 10 female patients with benign ...

  12. Ligand modulation of sidechain dynamics in a wild-type human GPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Lindsay D.; Dikiy, Igor; Chapman, Karen

    2017-01-01

    GPCRs regulate all aspects of human physiology, and biophysical studies have deepened our understanding of GPCR conformational regulation by different ligands. Yet there is no experimental evidence for how sidechain dynamics control allosteric transitions between GPCR conformations. To address...... this deficit, we generated samples of a wild-type GPCR (A2AR) that are deuterated apart from 1H/13C NMR probes at isoleucine δ1 methyl groups, which facilitated 1H/13C methyl TROSY NMR measurements with opposing ligands. Our data indicate that low [Na+] is required to allow large agonist-induced structural...... changes in A2AR, and that patterns of sidechain dynamics substantially differ between agonist (NECA) and inverse agonist (ZM241385) bound receptors, with the inverse agonist suppressing fast ps-ns timescale motions at the G protein binding site. Our approach to GPCR NMR creates a framework for exploring...

  13. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  14. Biosafety of Recombinant and Wild Type Nucleopolyhedroviruses as Bioinsecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Hammock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic Autographa californica (Speyer nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV has been genetically modified to increase its speed of kill. The potential adverse effects of a recombinant AcMNPV (AcAaIT as well as wild type AcMNPV and wild type Spodoptera littoralis NPV (SlNPV were studied. Cotton plants were treated with these viruses at concentrations that were adjusted to resemble the recommended field application rate (4 x 1012 PIBs/feddan, feddan = 4,200 m2 and 3rd instar larvae of S. littoralis were allowed to feed on the contaminated plants. SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and DNA analyses were used to confirm that larvae that fed on these plants were virus-infected. Polyhedra that were purified from the infected larvae were subjected to structural protein analysis. A 32 KDa protein was found in polyhedra that were isolated from all of the viruses. Subtle differences were found in the size and abundance of ODV proteins. Antisera against polyhedral proteins isolated from AcAaIT polyhedra were raised in rabbits. The terminal bleeds from rabbits were screened against four coating antigens (i.e., polyhedral proteins from AcAaIT, AcAaIT from field-infected larvae (AcAaIT-field, AcMNPV, and SlNPV using a two-dimensional titration method with the coated antigen format. Competitive inhibition experiments were conducted in parallel to optimize antibody and coating antigen concentrations for ELISA. The IC50 values for each combination ranged from 1.42 to 163 μg/ml. AcAaIT-derived polyhedrin gave the lowest IC50 value, followed by those of SlNPV, AcAaIT-field, and AcMNPV. The optimized ELISA system showed low cross reactivity for AcMNPV (0.87%, AcAaIT-field (1.2%, and SlNPV (4.0%. Genomic DNAs isolated from AcAaIT that were passaged in larvae of S. littoralis that were reared in the laboratory or field did not show any detectable differences. Albino rats (male and female that were treated with AcAaIT, AcMNPV or SlNPV (either orally or by intraperitoneal

  15. EGFR gene copy number predicts response to anti-EGFR treatment in RAS wild type and RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ålgars, Annika; Sundström, Jari; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Jokilehto, Terhi; Kytölä, Soili; Kaare, Milja; Vainionpää, Reetta; Orpana, Arto; Österlund, Pia; Ristimäki, Ari; Carpen, Olli; Ristamäki, Raija

    2017-02-15

    Anti-EGFR antibodies are used for the treatment of RAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. We previously showed that EGFR gene copy number (GCN) predicts response to anti-EGFR therapy in KRAS exon 2 wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of our study was to analyse the predictive role of EGFR GCN in RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. The material included 102 patients with KRAS exon 2 wild type metastatic colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR ± cytotoxic therapy. Next generation sequencing was used for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA gene mutation analyses. EGFR GCN was analysed by EGFR immunohistochemistry guided automated silver in situ hybridisation. Increased EGFR GCN (≥4.0) predicted a better response and prolonged progression free survival in anti-EGFR treated RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type patients (Log-rank test, p = 0.0004). In contrast, survival of RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type, EGFR GCN below 4.0 patients did not differ from patients with mutant RAS, BRAF or PIK3CA. Our study indicates that EGFR GCN predicts anti-EGFR treatment efficacy in patients with RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wt metastatic CRC. Tumours with EGFR GCN below 4.0 appear to be as refractory to anti-EGFR treatment as tumours with mutation in any of the RAS/RAF/PIK3CA pathway genes. © 2016 UICC.

  16. Ligand modulation of sidechain dynamics in a wild-type human GPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay D; Dikiy, Igor; Chapman, Karen; Rödström, Karin Ej; Aramini, James; LeVine, Michael V; Khelashvili, George; Rasmussen, Søren Gf; Gardner, Kevin H; Rosenbaum, Daniel M

    2017-10-06

    GPCRs regulate all aspects of human physiology, and biophysical studies have deepened our understanding of GPCR conformational regulation by different ligands. Yet there is no experimental evidence for how sidechain dynamics control allosteric transitions between GPCR conformations. To address this deficit, we generated samples of a wild-type GPCR (A 2A R) that are deuterated apart from 1 H/ 13 C NMR probes at isoleucine δ1 methyl groups, which facilitated 1 H/ 13 C methyl TROSY NMR measurements with opposing ligands. Our data indicate that low [Na + ] is required to allow large agonist-induced structural changes in A 2A R, and that patterns of sidechain dynamics substantially differ between agonist (NECA) and inverse agonist (ZM241385) bound receptors, with the inverse agonist suppressing fast ps-ns timescale motions at the G protein binding site. Our approach to GPCR NMR creates a framework for exploring how different regions of a receptor respond to different ligands or signaling proteins through modulation of fast ps-ns sidechain dynamics.

  17. A Ten-Week Biochemistry Lab Project Studying Wild-Type and Mutant Bacterial Alkaline Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, D. Scott

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a 10-week laboratory project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase, in which students purify, quantitate, and perform kinetic assays on wild-type and selected mutants of the enzyme. Students also perform plasmid DNA purification, digestion, and gel analysis. In addition to simply learning important…

  18. Activation Of Wild-Type Hras Suppresses The Earliest Stages Of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Weyandt

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Loss of wild-type Hras promotes the earliest stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis, and moreover results in more rapid progression of the disease. As such, mechanisms leading to activation of wild-type Ras proteins, including but not limited to redox-dependent reactions, may influence the development of pancreatic cancer.

  19. Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, M.; Heydorn, Arne; Ragas, Paula Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Gfp-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants in flow chambers irrigated with citrate minimal medium was characterized by the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and comstat image analysis. Flagella and type IV pili were not necessary...... for P. aeruginosa initial attachment or biofilm formation, but the cell appendages had roles in biofilm development, as wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants formed biofilms with different structures. Dynamics and selection during biofilm formation were investigated by tagging the wild type...... and flagella/type IV mutants with Yfp and Cfp and performing time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy in mixed colour biofilms. The initial microcolony formation occurred by clonal growth, after which wild-type P. aeruginosa bacteria spread over the substratum by means of twitching motility. The wild-type...

  20. Targeting wild-type and mutationally activated FGFR4 in rhabdomyosarcoma with the inhibitor ponatinib (AP24534.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Q Li

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Despite advances in modern therapy, patients with relapsed or metastatic disease have a very poor clinical prognosis. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 (FGFR4 is a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor that is involved in normal myogenesis and muscle regeneration, but not commonly expressed in differentiated muscle tissues. Amplification and mutational activation of FGFR4 has been reported in RMS and promotes tumor progression. Therefore, FGFR4 is a tractable therapeutic target for patients with RMS. In this study, we used a chimeric Ba/F3 TEL-FGFR4 construct to test five tyrosine kinase inhibitors reported to specifically inhibit FGFRs in the nanomolar range. We found ponatinib (AP24534 to be the most potent FGFR4 inhibitor with an IC50 in the nanomolar range. Ponatinib inhibited the growth of RMS cells expressing wild-type or mutated FGFR4 through increased apoptosis. Phosphorylation of wild-type and mutated FGFR4 as well as its downstream target STAT3 was also suppressed by ponatinib. Finally, ponatinib treatment inhibited tumor growth in a RMS mouse model expressing mutated FGFR4. Therefore, our data suggests that ponatinib is a potentially effective therapeutic agent for RMS tumors that are driven by a dysregulated FGFR4 signaling pathway.

  1. Age-dependent arginine phosphokinase activity changes in male vestigial and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G T

    1975-01-01

    The activity of arginine phosphokinase, an important muscle enzyme in insects, was investigated with age in vestigial-winged and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Identical patterns of age-dependent activity changes were observed in the vestigial-winged flies as in the wild-type, even though vestigial-winged flies exhibit a 50% mortality approximately two thirds that of the wild-type as well as being incapable of flight. Results indicate that the age-dependent changes in arginine phosphokinase activity are intrinsically regulated within the cells of the flight muscle.

  2. Auto-Assembling Detoxified Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Hemolysin Mimicking the Wild-Type Cytolytic Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Luigi; Di Palo, Benedetta; Scarselli, Maria; Pozzi, Clarissa; Tomaszewski, Kelly; Galletti, Bruno; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Arcidiacono, Letizia; Mishra, Ravi P N; Mori, Elena; Pallaoro, Michele; Falugi, Fabiana; Torre, Antonina; Fontana, Maria Rita; Soriani, Marco; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; Grandi, Guido; Rappuoli, Rino; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Bagnoli, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla) assembles into heptameric pores on the host cell membrane, causing lysis, apoptosis, and junction disruption. Herein, we present the design of a newly engineered S. aureus alpha-toxin, HlaPSGS, which lacks the predicted membrane-spanning stem domain. This protein is able to form heptamers in aqueous solution in the absence of lipophilic substrata, and its structure, obtained by transmission electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction analysis, resembles the cap of the wild-type cytolytic Hla pore. HlaPSGS was found to be impaired in binding to host cells and to its receptor ADAM10 and to lack hemolytic and cytotoxic activity. Immunological studies using human sera as well as sera from mice convalescent from S. aureus infection suggested that the heptameric conformation of HlaPSGS mimics epitopes exposed by the cytolytic Hla pore during infection. Finally, immunization with this newly engineered Hla generated high protective immunity against staphylococcal infection in mice. Overall, this study provides unprecedented data on the natural immune response against Hla and suggests that the heptameric HlaPSGS is a highly valuable vaccine candidate against S. aureus. Copyright © 2016 Fiaschi et al.

  3. Comparative analysis of hyoscine in wild-type and in vitro grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of hyoscine in wild-type and in vitro grown Datura innoxia by high performance liquid chromatography. Sidra Siddiqui, Anam Khurshid, Sohaib Roomi, Fazeelat Karamat, Asrar Muhammad Khan, Humaira Shaheen, Tayyaba Yasmin ...

  4. Comparison of gene expression between wild type and FUL1/2 knockdown tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, M.; Karlova, R.B.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2012-01-01

    We compared gene expression by microarray analysis between wild type and transgenic sibling progeny from two primary transgenic lines containing a construct for knocking down expression of both tomato fruitfull orthologs, FUL1/TDR4 and FUL2/MBP7.

  5. Maintenance erlotinib in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: cost-effectiveness in EGFR wild-type across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walleser S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silke Walleser,1 Joshua Ray,2 Helge Bischoff,3 Alain Vergnenègre,4 Hubertus Rosery,5 Christos Chouaid,6 David Heigener,7 Javier de Castro Carpeño,8 Marcello Tiseo,9 Stefan Walzer21Health Economic Consultancy, Renens, Switzerland; 2F Hoffmann-La Roche Pharmaceuticals AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Thoracic Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Limoges University Hospital, Limoges, France; 5Assessment-in-Medicine GmbH, Loerrach, Germany; 6Hospital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; 7Hospital Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 8University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 9University Hospital of Parma, Parma, ItalyBackground: First-line maintenance erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC has demonstrated significant overall survival and progression-free survival benefits compared with best supportive care plus placebo, irrespective of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR status (SATURN trial. The cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib in the overall SATURN population has been assessed and published recently, but analyses according to EGFR mutation status have not been performed yet, which was the rationale for assessing the cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib specifically in EGFR wild-type metastatic NSCLC.Methods: The incremental cost per life-year gained of first-line maintenance erlotinib compared with best supportive care in patients with EGFR wild-type stable metastatic NSCLC was assessed for five European countries (the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, and Italy with an area-under-the-curve model consisting of three health states (progression-free survival, progressive disease, death. Log-logistic survival functions were fitted to Phase III patient-level data (SATURN to model progression-free survival and overall survival. The first-line maintenance erlotinib therapy cost (modeled for time to treatment cessation, medication cost in later lines, and

  6. Comparison of the Tastes of L-Alanine and Monosodium Glutamate in C57BL/6J Wild Type and T1r3 Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Delay, Eugene R

    2017-09-01

    Previous research showed that L-alanine and monosodium L-glutamate elicit similar taste sensations in rats. This study reports the results of behavioral experiments designed to compare the taste capacity of C57BL/6J wild type and T1r3- mice for these 2 amino acids. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, wild-type mice exhibited greater sensitivity than knockout mice for both L-amino acids, although knockout mice were clearly able to detect both amino acids at 50 mM and higher concentrations. Generalization of CTA between L-alanine and L-glutamate was bidirectionally equivalent for both mouse genotypes, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes in both genotypes. This was verified by the discrimination experiments in which both mouse genotypes performed at or near chance levels at 75 and 150 mM. Above 150 mM, discrimination performance improved, suggesting the taste qualities of the 2 L-amino acids are not identical. No differences between knockout and wild-type mice in discrimination ability were detected. These results indicate that while the T1r3 receptor is important for tasting L-alanine and L-glutamate, other receptors are also important for tasting these amino acids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Bevacizumab with chemotherapy in patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer: Czech registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubáčková, Kateřina; Bortlíček, Zbyněk; Pikus, Tomáš; Linke, Zdeněk; Pokorná, Petra; Vyzula, Rostislav; Prausová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective analysis investigated the effectiveness of combination therapy with bevacizumab and chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer in the CORECT registry who initiated treatment with bevacizumab between 2008 and 2012 were enrolled. Overall survival and progression-free survival were the main effectiveness end points. A total of 981 patients were enrolled. Median progression-free survival was 11.3 months (95% CI: 10.7-11.8) and median overall survival was 28.4 months (95% CI: 26.2-30.6). The most common adverse events were thromboembolic disease (4%) and hypertension (3.5%). This retrospective analysis shows the effectiveness of bevacizumab with chemotherapy in patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.

  8. Adult IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas should be further stratified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibaidula, Abudumijit; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Shi, Zhifeng; Li, Yanxi; Zhang, Ruiqi; Yang, Rui; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yao, Yu; Zhou, Liangfu; Wu, Jinsong; Chen, Hong; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2017-10-01

    Astrocytoma of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type gene is described as a provisional entity within the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Some groups believe that IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas, when interrogated for other biomarkers, will mostly turn out to be glioblastoma. We hypothesize that not all IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas have very poor outcomes and the group could be substratified prognostically. Seven hundred and eighteen adult WHO grades II and III patients with gliomas from our hospitals were re-reviewed and tested for IDH1/2 mutations. One hundred and sixty-six patients with IDH wild-type cases were identified for further studies, and EGFR and MYB amplifications, mutations of histone H3F3A, TERT promoter (TERTp), and BRAF were examined. EGFR amplification, BRAF, and H3F3A mutations were observed in 13.8%, 6.9%, and 9.5% of patients, respectively, in a mutually exclusive pattern in IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas. TERTp mutations were detected in 26.8% of cases. Favorable outcome was observed in patients with young age, oligodendroglial phenotype, and grade II histology. Independent adverse prognostic values of older age, nontotal resection, grade III histology, EGFR amplification, and H3F3A mutation were confirmed by multivariable analysis. Tumors were further classified into "molecularly" high grade (harboring EGFR, H3F3A, or TERTp) (median overall survival = 1.23 y) and lower grade (lacking all of the 3) (median overall survival = 7.63 y) with independent prognostic relevance. The most favorable survival was noted in molecularly lower-grade gliomas with MYB amplification. Adult IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas are prognostically heterogeneous and do not have uniformly poor prognosis. Clinical information and additional markers, including MYB, EGFR, TERTp, and H3F3A, should be examined to delineate discrete favorable and unfavorable prognostic groups.

  9. Detection by PCR of wild-type canine parvovirus which contaminates dog vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, M; Parrish, C R; Harasawa, R; Gamoh, K; Muramatsu, M; Hirayama, N; Itoh, O

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting wild-type canine parvovirus (CPV) strains which contaminate vaccines for dogs has been developed by PCR. PCR primers which distinguish vaccine strains from the most common, recent strains of wild-type CPV in many countries, including Japan and the United States, were developed. This PCR is based on the differences in nucleotide sequences which determine the two antigenic types of this virus. CPV vaccine strains derived from antigenically old-type virus prevalent in former times were not detected by PCR with differential primers. Detection sensitivity of PCR was 100- to 10,000-fold higher than that of the culture method in Crandell feline kidney cells.

  10. Restoration of membrane excitability in a behavioral mutant of Paramecium caudatum during conjugation and by microinjection of wild- type cytoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    When cells of the behavioral mutant cnrC of Paramecium caudatum were mated with the wild type, phenotype change from CNR (no backward swinning) to wild type in the cnrC mate occurred immediately after the formation of tight pairs. No change of phenotype occurred when cells of cnrA or cnrB were mated with wild type. Phenotypic change from CNR to wild type in cells of cnrC was also induced by microinjection of wild- type cytoplasm. Microinjection of wild-type cytoplasm induced no change in cells of cnrA or cnrB. Phenotypic change in the cnrC mate during conjugation can be explained by cytoplasmic exchange during conjugation, though transfer of membrane sites for excitability through membrane fluidity cannot be ruled out. PMID:7380886

  11. Horizontal and vertical transmission of wild-type and recombinant Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X.C.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.; Werf, van der W.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission plays a central role in the ecology of baculoviruses and the population dynamics of their hosts. Here, we report on the horizontal and vertical transmission dynamics of wild-type Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV-WT) and a genetically modified variant

  12. Liver steatosis study_PFAA treated Wild type and PPAR KO mouse data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data set 1 consists of the experimental data for the Wild Type and PPAR KO animal study and includes data used to prepare Figures 1-4 and Table 1 of the Das et al,...

  13. Calorimetric and spectroscopic investigations of the thermal denaturation of wild type nitrite reductase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirpe, A; Guzzi, R; Wijma, H; Verbeet, MP; Canters, GW; Sportelli, L

    2005-01-01

    Nitrite reductase (NiR) is a multicopper protein, with a trimeric structure containing two types of copper site: type I is present in each subunit whereas type 2 is localized at the subunits interface. The paper reports on the thermal behaviour of wild type NiR from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6. The

  14. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yixin; Xu, Songtao; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Mao, Naiying; Jiang, Xiaohong; Ma, Chao; Lu, Peishan; Wang, Changyin; Liang, Yong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Yang; Dai, Defang; Zheng, Lei; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Zhenying; Wu, Shengwei; Nan, Lijuan; Li, Li; Liang, Xiaofeng; Featherstone, David Alexander; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Xu, Wenbo

    2010-05-25

    Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet) from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.

  15. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lijuan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.

  16. Incidence of arrhythmias and heart rate variability in wild-type rats exposed to social stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, A; De Boer, SF; Westenbroek, C; Maes, FW; Beldhuis, H; Suzuki, T; Koolhaas, JM; Maes, Frans W.

    1997-01-01

    Psychological stressors of different natures can induce different shies of autonomic control on cardiac electrical activity, with either a sympathetic or a parasympathetic prevalence. Arrhythmia occurrence, R-R interval variability, and plasma catecholamine elevations were measured in male wild-type

  17. Pathological Roles of Wild-Type Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Furukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in a Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 gene cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. While it remains controversial how SOD1 mutations lead to onset and progression of the disease, many in vitro and in vivo studies have supported a gain-of-toxicity mechanism where pathogenic mutations contribute to destabilizing a native structure of SOD1 and thus facilitate misfolding and aggregation. Indeed, abnormal accumulation of SOD1-positive inclusions in spinal motor neurons is a pathological hallmark in SOD1-related familial ALS. Furthermore, similarities in clinical phenotypes and neuropathology of ALS cases with and without mutations in sod1 gene have implied a disease mechanism involving SOD1 common to all ALS cases. Although pathogenic roles of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS remain controversial, recent developments of novel SOD1 antibodies have made it possible to characterize wild-type SOD1 under pathological conditions of ALS. Here, I have briefly reviewed recent progress on biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS cases and discussed possible involvement of wild-type SOD1 in a pathomechanism of ALS.

  18. Dissection of symbiosis and organ development by integrated transcriptome analysis of lotus japonicus mutant and wild-type plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Høgslund

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses of plant symbiotic mutants has led to the identification of key genes involved in Rhizobium-legume communication as well as in development and function of nitrogen fixing root nodules. However, the impact of these genes in coordinating the transcriptional programs of nodule development has only been studied in limited and isolated studies. Here, we present an integrated genome-wide analysis of transcriptome landscapes in Lotus japonicus wild-type and symbiotic mutant plants. Encompassing five different organs, five stages of the sequentially developed determinate Lotus root nodules, and eight mutants impaired at different stages of the symbiotic interaction, our data set integrates an unprecedented combination of organ- or tissue-specific profiles with mutant transcript profiles. In total, 38 different conditions sampled under the same well-defined growth regimes were included. This comprehensive analysis unravelled new and unexpected patterns of transcriptional regulation during symbiosis and organ development. Contrary to expectations, none of the previously characterized nodulins were among the 37 genes specifically expressed in nodules. Another surprise was the extensive transcriptional response in whole root compared to the susceptible root zone where the cellular response is most pronounced. A large number of transcripts predicted to encode transcriptional regulators, receptors and proteins involved in signal transduction, as well as many genes with unknown function, were found to be regulated during nodule organogenesis and rhizobial infection. Combining wild type and mutant profiles of these transcripts demonstrates the activation of a complex genetic program that delineates symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The complete data set was organized into an indexed expression directory that is accessible from a resource database, and here we present selected examples of biological questions that can be addressed with this

  19. Dissection of Symbiosis and Organ Development by Integrated Transcriptome Analysis of Lotus japonicus Mutant and Wild-Type Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgslund, Niels; Radutoiu, Simona; Krusell, Lene; Voroshilova, Vera; Hannah, Matthew A.; Goffard, Nicolas; Sanchez, Diego H.; Lippold, Felix; Ott, Thomas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Liboriussen, Poul; Lohmann, Gitte V.; Schauser, Leif; Weiller, Georg F.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Genetic analyses of plant symbiotic mutants has led to the identification of key genes involved in Rhizobium-legume communication as well as in development and function of nitrogen fixing root nodules. However, the impact of these genes in coordinating the transcriptional programs of nodule development has only been studied in limited and isolated studies. Here, we present an integrated genome-wide analysis of transcriptome landscapes in Lotus japonicus wild-type and symbiotic mutant plants. Encompassing five different organs, five stages of the sequentially developed determinate Lotus root nodules, and eight mutants impaired at different stages of the symbiotic interaction, our data set integrates an unprecedented combination of organ- or tissue-specific profiles with mutant transcript profiles. In total, 38 different conditions sampled under the same well-defined growth regimes were included. This comprehensive analysis unravelled new and unexpected patterns of transcriptional regulation during symbiosis and organ development. Contrary to expectations, none of the previously characterized nodulins were among the 37 genes specifically expressed in nodules. Another surprise was the extensive transcriptional response in whole root compared to the susceptible root zone where the cellular response is most pronounced. A large number of transcripts predicted to encode transcriptional regulators, receptors and proteins involved in signal transduction, as well as many genes with unknown function, were found to be regulated during nodule organogenesis and rhizobial infection. Combining wild type and mutant profiles of these transcripts demonstrates the activation of a complex genetic program that delineates symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The complete data set was organized into an indexed expression directory that is accessible from a resource database, and here we present selected examples of biological questions that can be addressed with this comprehensive and powerful

  20. Wild type p53 transcriptionally represses the SALL2 transcription factor under genotoxic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Farkas

    Full Text Available SALL2- a member of the Spalt gene family- is a poorly characterized transcription factor found deregulated in various cancers, which suggests it plays a role in the disease. We previously identified SALL2 as a novel interacting protein of neurotrophin receptors and showed that it plays a role in neuronal function, which does not necessarily explain why or how SALL2 is deregulated in cancer. Previous evidences indicate that SALL2 gene is regulated by the WT1 and AP4 transcription factors. Here, we identified SALL2 as a novel downstream target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the SALL2 gene revealed several putative p53 half sites along the promoter region. Either overexpression of wild-type p53 or induction of the endogenous p53 by the genotoxic agent doxorubicin repressed SALL2 promoter activity in various cell lines. However R175H, R249S, and R248W p53 mutants, frequently found in the tumors of cancer patients, were unable to repress SALL2 promoter activity, suggesting that p53 specific binding to DNA is important for the regulation of SALL2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated binding of p53 to one of the identified p53 half sites in the Sall2 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed in vivo interaction of p53 with the promoter region of Sall2 containing this half site. Importantly, by using a p53ER (TAM knockin model expressing a variant of p53 that is completely dependent on 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen for its activity, we show that p53 activation diminished SALL2 RNA and protein levels during genotoxic cellular stress in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs and radiosensitive tissues in vivo. Thus, our finding indicates that p53 represses SALL2 expression in a context-specific manner, adding knowledge to the understanding of SALL2 gene regulation, and to a potential mechanism for its deregulation in cancer.

  1. Mutant p53 cooperates with knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 to disrupt tubulogenesis in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zhang

    Full Text Available Mutation of the p53 gene is the most common genetic alteration in human malignances and associated clinically with tumor progression and metastasis. To determine the effect of mutant p53 on epithelial differentiation, we developed three-dimensional culture (3-D of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. We found that parental MDCK cells undergo a series of morphological changes and form polarized and growth-arrested cysts with hollow lumen, which resembles branching tubules in vitro. We also found that upon knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 (p53-KD, MDCK cells still form normal cysts in 3-D culture, indicating that p53-KD alone is not sufficient to disrupt cysts formation. However, we found that ectopic expression of mutant R163H (human equivalent R175H or R261H (human equivalent R273H in MDCK cells leads to disruption of cyst polarity and formation of invasive aggregates, which is further compounded by knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53. Consistently, we found that expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT transcription factors (Snail-1, Slug and Twist is altered by mutant p53, which is also compounded by knockdown of wild-type p53. Moreover, the expression level of c-Met, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor and a key regulator of kidney cell tubulogenesis, is enhanced by combined knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 and ectopic expression of mutant R163H or R261H but not by each individually. Together, our data suggest that upon inactivating mutation of the p53 gene, mutant p53 acquires its gain of function by altering morphogenesis and promoting cell migration and invasion in part by upregulating EMT and c-Met.

  2. Urokinase-catalysed cleavage of the urokinase receptor requires an intact glycolipid anchor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Pessara, U; Holm, A

    2001-01-01

    hydrophobic region. In accordance with this model, when the hydrophobic lipid moiety was removed from the glycolipid anchor by phospholipase C, low concentrations of uPA could no longer cleave the modified GPI-uPAR and the reactivity to the peptide antibody was greatly decreased. Naturally occurring su...

  3. Urokinase plasminogen activator system-targeted delivery of nanobins as a novel ovarian cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yilin; Kenny, Hilary A; Swindell, Elden P; Mitra, Anirban K; Hankins, Patrick L; Ahn, Richard W; Gwin, Katja; Mazar, Andrew P; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Lengyel, Ernst

    2013-12-01

    The urokinase system is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and is expressed at low levels in normal cells. To develop a platform for intracellular and targeted delivery of therapeutics in ovarian cancer, we conjugated urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) antibodies to liposomal nanobins. The arsenic trioxide-loaded nanobins had favorable physicochemical properties and the ability to bind specifically to uPA. Confocal microscopy showed that the uPA-targeted nanobins were internalized by ovarian cancer cells, whereas both inductively coupled plasma optical mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses confirmed more than four-fold higher uptake of targeted nanobins when compared with untargeted nanobins. In a coculture assay, the targeted nanobins showed efficient uptake in ovarian cancer cells but not in the normal primary omental mesothelial cells. Moreover, this uptake could be blocked by either downregulating uPA receptor expression in the ovarian cancer cells using short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) or by competition with free uPA or uPA antibody. In proof-of-concept experiments, mice bearing orthotopic ovarian tumors showed a greater reduction in tumor burden when treated with targeted nanobins than with untargeted nanobins (47% vs. 27%; P cancer cells could serve as the foundation for a new targeted cancer therapy using protease receptors. ©2013 AACR.

  4. Antiproliferative effects of TRPV1 ligands on nonspecific and enteroantigen-specific T cells from wild-type and Trpv1 KO mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaáti, Mohammed-Samir; Diemer, Sanne; Hvarness, Tine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with the TRPV1 agonist, capsaicin, was previously shown to protect against experimental colitis in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) T-cell transfer model. Here, we investigate trpv1 gene expression in lymphoid organs and cells from SCID and BALB/c mice to identify....... In addition, capsaicin-induced inhibition of T-cell proliferation of wild-type T cells lacking trpv1 expression suggests that capsaicin inhibits colitogenic T cells in a TRPV1 receptor-independent way, which might be linked to its anti-inflammatory effect....

  5. Rescue of ligand binding of a mutant IGF-I receptor by complementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Arjun Anders; Hinrichsen, Jane; Whittaker, Linda

    2005-01-01

    from a wild-type receptor monomer and a mutant receptor monomer devoid of binding activity. Receptor hybrids were generated by transient co-transfection of cDNAs encoding wild-type and mutant receptors with unique epitope tags. Hybrid receptors were purified from transfected cells by sequential immuno...

  6. Wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration distributions in bacteria of animal origin in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia L Pantozzi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of indicator bacteria isolated from domestic animal feces. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by agar dilution. Interpretative criteria on the basis of wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF or ECV were used according to the 'European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing' (EUCAST data. Results from 237 isolates of Escherichia coli showed reduced susceptibility for ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, the antimicrobials commonly used in intensive breeding of pigs and hens. Regarding all the species of the genus Enterococcus spp., there are only ECOFF or ECV for vancomycin. Of the 173 Enterococcus spp. isolated, only one showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and was classified as 'non-wild-type' (NWT population. This is the first report in Argentina showing data of epidemiological cutoff values in animal bacteria.

  7. Isolation and Translation of Hordein Messenger RNA from Wild Type and Mutant Endosperms in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders Bøving; Ingwersen, J.

    1978-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of four cDNA clones coding for the carboxy-terminal portion of at least two different B1 hordein polypeptides are presented. The open reading frame in the nucleotide sequence of the the largest clone (pc hor2-4, 720 nucleotides) translates into the 181 carboxy-terminal amino.......30 megadaltons. The 11S messenger RNA was translated in vitro into hordein precursor polypeptides which are 2–4 kilodaltons larger than the native hordein polypeptides. The endosperm cell of mutant No. 1508 contained twice as much RNA as the wild type endosperm cell but the same amount of polyadenylated 11S RNA....... The template activity of the latter was 10% of that found for the 11S hordein messenger RNA from the wild type and was limited to translation into one hordein precursor polypeptide....

  8. A ten-week biochemistry lab project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, D Scott

    2016-11-12

    This work describes a 10-week laboratory project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase, in which students purify, quantitate, and perform kinetic assays on wild-type and selected mutants of the enzyme. Students also perform plasmid DNA purification, digestion, and gel analysis. In addition to simply learning important techniques, students acquire novel biochemical data in their kinetic analysis of mutant enzymes. The experiments are designed to build on students' work from week to week in a way that requires them to apply quantitative analysis and reasoning skills, reinforcing traditional textbook biochemical concepts. Students are assessed through lab reports focused on journal style writing, quantitative and conceptual question sheets, and traditional exams. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):555-564, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Sperm morphogenesis in wild-type and fertilization-defective mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Taking advantage of conditions that allow spermatogenesis in vitro, the timing and sequence of morphological changes leading from the primary spermatocyte to the spermatozoon is described by light and electron microscopy. Together with previous studies, this allows a detailed description of the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane changes occurring during spermatozoan morphogenesis. By comparison with wild type, abnormalities in spermatogenesis leading to aberrant infertile spermatozoa are foun...

  10. An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Rotunno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s of sporadic ALS, which accounts for approximately 90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and sporadic ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein to be one such factor that is common to both sporadic and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a toxic conformation that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem sporadic ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to sporadic ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and sporadic ALS.

  11. Wild-type Measles Virus in Brain Tissue of Children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Paola Roxana; Grippo, Jorge; Viegas, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    We studied eight children who had measles at 6 to 10 months of age during the 1998 Argentine measles outbreak and in whom subacute sclerosing panencephalitis developed 4 years later. We report the genetic characterization of brain tissue–associated measles virus samples from three patients. Phylogenetic relationships clustered these viruses with the wild-type D6 genotype isolated during the 1998 outbreak. The children received measles vaccine; however, vaccinal strains were not found. PMID:14609476

  12. Unequal allelic expression of wild-type and mutated β-myosin in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Snigdha; Schultz, Imke; Becker, Edgar; Montag, Judith; Borchert, Bianca; Francino, Antonio; Navarro-Lopez, Francisco; Perrot, Andreas; Özcelik, Cemil; Osterziel, Karl-Josef; McKenna, William J; Brenner, Bernhard; Kraft, Theresia

    2011-11-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is an autosomal dominant disease, which in about 30% of the patients is caused by missense mutations in one allele of the β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) gene (MYH7). To address potential molecular mechanisms underlying the family-specific prognosis, we determined the relative expression of mutant versus wild-type MYH7-mRNA. We found a hitherto unknown mutation-dependent unequal expression of mutant to wild-type MYH7-mRNA, which is paralleled by similar unequal expression of β-MHC at the protein level. Relative abundance of mutated versus wild-type MYH7-mRNA was determined by a specific restriction digest approach and by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Fourteen samples from M. soleus and myocardium of 12 genotyped and clinically well-characterized FHC patients were analyzed. The fraction of mutated MYH7-mRNA in five patients with mutation R723G averaged to 66 and 68% of total MYH7-mRNA in soleus and myocardium, respectively. For mutations I736T, R719W and V606M, fractions of mutated MYH7-mRNA in M. soleus were 39, 57 and 29%, respectively. For all mutations, unequal abundance was similar at the protein level. Importantly, fractions of mutated transcripts were comparable among siblings, in younger relatives and unrelated carriers of the same mutation. Hence, the extent of unequal expression of mutated versus wild-type transcript and protein is characteristic for each mutation, implying cis-acting regulatory mechanisms. Bioinformatics suggest mRNA stability or splicing effectors to be affected by certain mutations. Intriguingly, we observed a correlation between disease expression and fraction of mutated mRNA and protein. This strongly suggests that mutation-specific allelic imbalance represents a new pathogenic factor for FHC.

  13. Metabolism and tissue distribution of sulforaphane in Nrf2 knockout and wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John D; Hsu, Anna; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H; Stevens, Jan F; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Ho, Emily

    2011-12-01

    To determine the metabolism and tissue distribution of the dietary chemoprotective agent sulforaphane following oral administration to wild-type and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice. Male and female wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice were given sulforaphane (5 or 20 μmoles) by oral gavage; plasma, liver, kidney, small intestine, colon, lung, brain and prostate were collected at 2, 6 and 24 h (h). The five major metabolites of sulforaphane were measured in tissues by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Sulforaphane metabolites were detected in all tissues at 2 and 6 h post gavage, with the highest concentrations in the small intestine, prostate, kidney and lung. A dose-dependent increase in sulforaphane concentrations was observed in all tissues except prostate. At 5 μmole, Nrf2(-/-) genotype had no effect on sulforaphane metabolism. Only Nrf2(-/-) females given 20 μmoles sulforaphane for 6 h exhibited a marked increase in tissue sulforaphane metabolite concentrations. The relative abundance of each metabolite was not strikingly different between genders and genotypes. Sulforaphane is metabolized and reaches target tissues in wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice. These data provide further evidence that sulforaphane is bioavailable and may be an effective dietary chemoprevention agent for several tissue sites.

  14. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  15. The genomic termini of wild-type and vaccine strains of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Bankamp, Bettina; Xu, Wenbo; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2006-12-01

    The genomic termini from 18 strains of measles virus (MV) including wild-type MVs from the pre-vaccine period, recent wild-type isolates and various vaccine strains were sequenced. The first 25 nucleotides of the 3' terminus and last 52 nucleotides of the 5' terminus were conserved in all of the viruses examined. Nucleotides 26 and 42 of the 3' leader were A and G, respectively, in all genotype A viruses except Edmonston wild-type (Ed-WT). All non-genotype A viruses and Ed-WT had U in both positions. No consistent substitution pattern was found in the 5' trailer region of the genome. The nucleotide substitutions at positions 26 and 42 in the 3' leader region were introduced into a MV-CAT mini-genome to test for their effect on the production of reporter protein in both a vaccinia T7-driven, plasmid-based replication assay as well as in a helper virus system. Regardless of the source of the polymerase proteins or the natural leader sequence of the helper viruses, the mini-genome 26A42G produced more CAT protein than 26U42U. The nucleotide substitution at 26 had the greatest effect on CAT production. These results indicated that naturally occurring nucleotide variations in the 3' leader region can affect the levels of reporter protein synthesis, and presumably affected the level of replication of the virus.

  16. Codon optimization of the human papillomavirus E7 oncogene induces a CD8+ T cell response to a cryptic epitope not harbored by wild-type E7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix K M Lorenz

    Full Text Available Codon optimization of nucleotide sequences is a widely used method to achieve high levels of transgene expression for basic and clinical research. Until now, immunological side effects have not been described. To trigger T cell responses against human papillomavirus, we incubated T cells with dendritic cells that were pulsed with RNA encoding the codon-optimized E7 oncogene. All T cell receptors isolated from responding T cell clones recognized target cells expressing the codon-optimized E7 gene but not the wild type E7 sequence. Epitope mapping revealed recognition of a cryptic epitope from the +3 alternative reading frame of codon-optimized E7, which is not encoded by the wild type E7 sequence. The introduction of a stop codon into the +3 alternative reading frame protected the transgene product from recognition by T cell receptor gene-modified T cells. This is the first experimental study demonstrating that codon optimization can render a transgene artificially immunogenic through generation of a dominant cryptic epitope. This finding may be of great importance for the clinical field of gene therapy to avoid rejection of gene-corrected cells and for the design of DNA- and RNA-based vaccines, where codon optimization may artificially add a strong immunogenic component to the vaccine.

  17. Stimulus control by 5methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized mice

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, J. C.; Amorosi, D. J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The t...

  18. Evaluation of Electrical Impedance as a Biomarker of Myostatin Inhibition in Wild Type and Muscular Dystrophy Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Sanchez

    Full Text Available Non-invasive and effort independent biomarkers are needed to better assess the effects of drug therapy on healthy muscle and that affected by muscular dystrophy (mdx. Here we evaluated the use of multi-frequency electrical impedance for this purpose with comparison to force and histological parameters.Eight wild-type (wt and 10 mdx mice were treated weekly with RAP-031 activin type IIB receptor at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 twice weekly for 16 weeks; the investigators were blinded to treatment and disease status. At the completion of treatment, impedance measurements, in situ force measurements, and histology analyses were performed.As compared to untreated animals, RAP-031 wt and mdx treated mice had greater body mass (18% and 17%, p 70 Hz, but not in the mdx animals. In contrast, maximum force normalized by muscle mass was unchanged in the wt animals and lower in the mdx animals by 21% (p < 0.01. Similarly, myofiber size was only non-significantly higher in treated versus untreated animals (8% p = 0.44 and 12% p = 0.31 for wt and mdx animals, respectively.Our findings demonstrate electrical impedance of muscle reproduce the functional and histological changes associated with myostatin pathway inhibition and do not reflect differences in muscle size or volume. This technique deserves further study in both animal and human therapeutic trials.

  19. Integrated genomic study of quadruple-WT GIST (KIT/PDGFRA/SDH/RAS pathway wild-type GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Margherita; Astolfi, Annalisa; Urbini, Milena; Indio, Valentina; Santini, Donatella; Heinrich, Michael C; Corless, Christopher L; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Saponara, Maristella; Mandrioli, Anna; Lolli, Cristian; Ercolani, Giorgio; Brandi, Giovanni; Biasco, Guido; Pantaleo, Maria A

    2014-09-20

    About 10-15% of adult gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and the vast majority of pediatric GIST do not harbour KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) mutations (J Clin Oncol 22:3813-3825, 2004; Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 23:15-34, 2009). The molecular biology of these GIST, originally defined as KIT/PDGFRA wild-type (WT), is complex due to the existence of different subgroups with distinct molecular hallmarks, including defects in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex and mutations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), BRAF, or KRAS genes (RAS-pathway or RAS-P).In this extremely heterogeneous landscape, the clinical profile and molecular abnormalities of the small subgroup of WT GIST suitably referred to as quadruple wild-type GIST (quadrupleWT or KITWT/PDGFRAWT/SDHWT/RAS-PWT) remains undefined. The aim of this study is to investigate the genomic profile of KITWT/PDGFRAWT/SDHWT/RAS-PWT GIST, by using a massively parallel sequencing and microarray approach, and compare it with the genomic profile of other GIST subtypes. We performed a whole genome analysis using a massively parallel sequencing approach on a total of 16 GIST cases (2 KITWT/PDGFRAWT/SDHWT and SDHBIHC+/SDHAIHC+, 2 KITWT/PDGFRAWT/SDHAmut and SDHBIHC-/SDHAIHC- and 12 cases of KITmut or PDGFRAmut GIST). To confirm and extend the results, whole-genome gene expression analysis by microarray was performed on 9 out 16 patients analyzed by RNAseq and an additional 20 GIST patients (1 KITWT/PDGFRAWTSDHAmut GIST and 19 KITmut or PDGFRAmut GIST). The most impressive data were validated by quantitave PCR and Western Blot analysis. We found that both cases of quadrupleWT GIST had a genomic profile profoundly different from both either KIT/PDGFRA mutated or SDHA-mutated GIST. In particular, the quadrupleWT GIST tumors are characterized by the overexpression of molecular markers (CALCRL and COL22A1) and of specific oncogenes including tyrosine and cyclin- dependent kinases (NTRK2 and CDK

  20. Wnt activation by wild type and mutant myocilin in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Shen

    Full Text Available Myocilin is a gene linked to the most prevalent form of glaucoma, a major blinding disease. The trabecular meshwork (TM, a specialized eye tissue, is believed to be involved, at least in part, in the development of glaucoma. The Pro³⁷⁰ to Leu (P370L mutation of myocilin is associated with severe glaucoma phenotypes and Gln³⁶⁸ stop (Q368X is the most common myocilin mutation reported. Myocilin, upon overexpression, has been shown to induce phenotypes that include a loss of actin stress fibers, an increase in the cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA activity, as well as a reduction in the RhoA activity. We examined herein whether Wnt signaling pathway is involved in the myocilin phenotypes and whether P370L and Q368X mutants also display biological effects similar to those of the wild type myocilin.Wild type myocilin, when transfected into cultured human TM cells, induced a loss of actin stress fibers as judged by phalloidin staining. Such a loss was averted by treatment of secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling. Consistent with the notion that Wnt pathway mediates the myocilin phenotype, Wnt activation was demonstrated by TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assays. Treatment of human TM cells of a Wnt activator, SB216763, as well as transfection of myocilin P370L and Q368X mutants all resulted in actin stress fiber loss, PKA activation and RhoA inactivation. The PKA elevation was obviated by the sFRP1 treatment, indicating that Wnt signaling was upstream that of PKA.The present study demonstrated that following forced expression of wild type myocilin, Wnt was activated, triggering in turn other myocilin-related alterations. P370L and Q368X mutations induced similar phenotypes, suggesting one possible mechanism how the mutants may lead to TM cell damage and pathology.

  1. Wild-type measles viruses with non-standard genome lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Liu, Chunyu; Rivailler, Pierre; Bera, Jayati; Shrivastava, Susmita; Kirkness, Ewen F; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    The length of the single stranded, negative sense RNA genome of measles virus (MeV) is highly conserved at 15,894 nucleotides (nt). MeVs can be grouped into 24 genotypes based on the highly variable 450 nucleotides coding for the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N-450). Here, we report the genomic sequences of 2 wild-type viral isolates of genotype D4 with genome lengths of 15,900 nt. Both genomes had a 7 nt insertion in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the matrix (M) gene and a 1 nt deletion in the 5' UTR of the fusion (F) gene. The net gain of 6 nt complies with the rule-of-six required for replication competency of the genomes of morbilliviruses. The insertions and deletion (indels) were confirmed in a patient sample that was the source of one of the viral isolates. The positions of the indels were identical in both viral isolates, even though epidemiological data and the 3 nt differences in N-450 between the two genomes suggested that the viruses represented separate chains of transmission. Identical indels were found in the M-F intergenic regions of 14 additional genotype D4 viral isolates that were imported into the US during 2007-2010. Viral isolates with and without indels produced plaques of similar size and replicated efficiently in A549/hSLAM and Vero/hSLAM cells. This is the first report of wild-type MeVs with genome lengths other than 15,894 nt and demonstrates that the length of the M-F UTR of wild-type MeVs is flexible.

  2. Wild-type measles viruses with non-standard genome lengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bankamp

    Full Text Available The length of the single stranded, negative sense RNA genome of measles virus (MeV is highly conserved at 15,894 nucleotides (nt. MeVs can be grouped into 24 genotypes based on the highly variable 450 nucleotides coding for the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N-450. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 2 wild-type viral isolates of genotype D4 with genome lengths of 15,900 nt. Both genomes had a 7 nt insertion in the 3' untranslated region (UTR of the matrix (M gene and a 1 nt deletion in the 5' UTR of the fusion (F gene. The net gain of 6 nt complies with the rule-of-six required for replication competency of the genomes of morbilliviruses. The insertions and deletion (indels were confirmed in a patient sample that was the source of one of the viral isolates. The positions of the indels were identical in both viral isolates, even though epidemiological data and the 3 nt differences in N-450 between the two genomes suggested that the viruses represented separate chains of transmission. Identical indels were found in the M-F intergenic regions of 14 additional genotype D4 viral isolates that were imported into the US during 2007-2010. Viral isolates with and without indels produced plaques of similar size and replicated efficiently in A549/hSLAM and Vero/hSLAM cells. This is the first report of wild-type MeVs with genome lengths other than 15,894 nt and demonstrates that the length of the M-F UTR of wild-type MeVs is flexible.

  3. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW), width of funicles (WFN), seed width (SW) and seed height (SH) were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ) or an abscission-less zone (ALZ) forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def) controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat. PMID:22078070

  4. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayeh Kwadwo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW, width of funicles (WFN, seed width (SW and seed height (SH were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ or an abscission-less zone (ALZ forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat.

  5. Evidence for allosteric variants of wild-type p53, a tumour suppressor protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, A.; Milner, J.

    1990-01-01

    A tumour suppressor function for p53 is indicated in human lung cancer and in carcinoma of the colorectum. Loss of suppressor function, by mutation of the p53 gene, is associated with activation of p53 as an oncogene. The suppressor (wild type) and oncogenic (mutant) forms of the murine p53 protein are distinguishable at the molecular level by reactivity with anti-p53 monoclonal antibodies. For example, activated mutant p53 fails to react with PAb246 (p53-246 degrees). We now demonstrate that...

  6. Lung Cancer Onset in Wild Type Mice Following Bone Marrow Reconstitution with krasv12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Elena; Martin Padura, Ines; Gerbino, Elvira; Orecchioni, Stefania; Fusar Imperatore, Fulvia; Marighetti, Paola; Bertalot, Giovanni; Giuseppe Pelicci, Pier; Bertolini, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A role for bone-marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in tissue repair and malignancy onset has been proposed, but their contribution is still debated. We tested the ability of BMDCs containing the inducible krasV12 oncogene to initiate lung adenocarcinoma. For our experimental strategy, we reconstituted lethally irradiated wild type mice with BMDCs carrying inducible krasV12 and subsequently induced oncogene expression by 4-OHT administration. Epithelial lung lesions, from adenoma to adenocarcinomas, appeared at successive time points. These results show that lung tumors were derived from donor BMDCs and indicate a direct involvement of bone marrow cells in the development of epithelial cancers. PMID:26267334

  7. [The fibrinolytic treatment with urokinase of acute arterial thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, A; Donato di Paola, M; Saccà, A; Cappello, I; D'Addato, M

    1993-01-01

    We present our experiences on 86 patients with acute arterial thrombosis of the legs, undergoing a fibrinolytic treatment with urokinase. Results from the treatment are analyzed according to: the administration way (systemic, locoregional, intrathrombotic), the level of thrombosis (upper or lower legs), the associated morbidity and mortality.

  8. Lack of polymorphism at MC1R wild-type allele and evidence of domestic allele introgression across European wild boar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Vilaça, Sibelle T.; Iacolina, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Domestication promotes the emergence of novel phenotypic and behavioural traits in domesticated animals compared to their wild ancestors. We analysed variation at the melanocortin receptor I (MC1R) and nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 (NR6A1) genes in European wild boar populations...... of hybridization between wild and domestic forms. Most of the wild boars (94%) were homozygous for the European wild-type (E+) MC1R allele. We did not observe any synonymous substitution in the European E+ allele, confirming its monomorphism even in areas known to be hotspots of wild boar genetic diversity....... The remaining wild boars (6%) showed genetic introgression of three different European domestic alleles. No Asian MC1R allele was found in our sample. Furthermore, domestic NR6A1 alleles were observed in 6% of wild boars. Considering jointly the two loci analyzed, 11% of boars, sampled all over Europe, showed...

  9. Mis-trafficking of endosomal urokinase proteins triggers drug-induced glioma nonapoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupuleti, Nagarekha; Grodzki, Ana Cristina; Gorin, Fredric

    2015-04-01

    5-Benzylglycinyl-amiloride (UCD38B) is the parent molecule of a class of anticancer small molecules that kill proliferative and nonproliferative high-grade glioma cells by programmed necrosis. UCD38B intracellularly triggers endocytosis, causing 40-50% of endosomes containing proteins of the urokinase plasminogen activator system (uPAS) to relocate to perinuclear mitochondrial regions. Endosomal "mis-trafficking" caused by UCD38B in human glioma cells corresponds to mitochondrial depolarization with the release and nuclear translocation of apoptotis-inducing factor (AIF) followed by irreversible caspase-independent cell demise. High-content quantification of immunocytochemical colocalization studies identified that UCD38B treatment increased endocytosis of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor (uPAR), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) into the early and late endosomes by 4- to 5-fold prior to AIF nuclear translocation and subsequent glioma demise. PAI-1 was found to comparably relocate with a subset of early and late endosomes in four different human glioma cell lines after UCD38B treatment, followed by caspase-independent, nonapoptotic cell death. Following UCD38B treatment, the receptor guidance protein LRP-1, which is required for endosomal recycling of the uPA receptor to the plasmalemma, remained abnormally associated with PAI-1 in early and late endosomes. The resultant aberrant endosomal recycling increased the total cellular content of the uPA-PAI-1 protein complex. Reversible inhibition of cellular endocytosis demonstrated that UCD38B bypasses the plasmalemmal uPAS complex and directly acts intracellularly to alter uPAS endocytotic trafficking. UCD38B represents a class of small molecules whose anticancer cytotoxicity is a consequence of causing the mis-trafficking of early and late endosomes containing uPAS cargo and leading to AIF-mediated necrotic cell death. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  10. Restoration of Wild-Type Activity to Mutant p53 in Prostate Cancer: A Novel Therapeutic Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manfredi, James

    2006-01-01

    A summary is presented of research performed during the first year of a project to determine feasibility of approaches to restore wild-type transcriptional activity on mutant p53 proteins found in human prostate tumors...

  11. Restoration of Wild-Type Activity to Mutant p53 in Prostate Cancer: A Novel Therapeutic Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manfredi, James J

    2008-01-01

    A summary is presented of research performed during three years of a project to determine feasibility of approaches to restore wild-type transcriptional activity on mutant p53 proteins found in human prostate tumors...

  12. Alteplase vs. urokinase for occluded hemodialysis catheter: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Viviane; Dionízio, Danielle; Bucuvic, Edwa Maria; Castro, João Henrique; Ponce, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Thrombosis of tunneled central venous catheters (CVC) in hemodialysis (HD) patients is common and it can lead to the elimination of vascular sites. To compare the efficacy of alteplase vs. urokinase in reestablishing adequate blood flow through completely occluded vascular catheters. Methods In this randomized study, patients with completely occluded tunneled HD catheters received 40 minutes intracatheter dwell with alteplase (1 mg/mL) or urokinase (5000 IU/mL). Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with occluded catheters achieving post-thrombolytic blood flow of ≥250 mL/min. Safety endpoints included the incidence of hemorrhagic and infectious complications. Findings Eligible adult patients (n = 100) were treated with alteplase (n = 44) or urokinase (n = 56). The two groups were similar in gender (male: 51.8% vs. 56.8%, P = 0.35), age (60 ± 12 vs. 59 ± 13 years, P = 0.71), time on dialysis (678 ± 203 vs. 548 ± 189 days, P = 0.77), diabetes and cardiovascular disease (55.6% vs. 70.4%, P = 0.08 and 17.8% vs. 22.7%, P = 0.38, respectively), jugular vein as main vascular access (54.8% vs. 62.5%, P = 0.57), and time of CVC (278 ± 63 vs. 218 ± 59 days, P = 0.67). Primary success with alteplase and urokinase occurred in 42/44 (95%) vs. 46/56 (82%), P = 0.06. Success was not achieved after the second dose of alteplase and urokinase in 1 and 7 cases, respectively (2% vs. 12%, P = 0.075). Serious adverse effects were not observed in both groups. There was no difference between the two groups in infectious complications (P = 0.94). Discussion Alteplase and urokinase are effective thrombolytic agents for restoring HD catheter patency. Our study has revealed a likely slight superiority of alteplase over urokinase for unblocking central lines, but which has enrolled too few patients to be able to detect a difference of this size. © 2016 International Society for

  13. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L, semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic

  14. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Deficiency Promotes Neoplasmatogenesis in the Colon of Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanavi, Elisavet; Angelopoulou, Katerina; Lavrentiadou, Sophia; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Abas, Zaphiris; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Vlemmas, Ioannis; Erdman, Suzan E.; Poutahidis, Theofilos

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) participates in cancer-related biologic processes, such as wound healing and inflammation. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of uPA deficiency on the long-term outcome of early life episodes of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)–induced colitis in mice. Wild-type (WT) and uPA-deficient (uPA−/−) BALB/c mice were treated with DSS or remained untreated. Mice were necropsied either 1 week or 7 months after DSS treatment. Colon samples were analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. At 7 months, with no colitis evident, half of the uPA−/− mice had large colonic polypoid adenomas, whereas WT mice did not. One week after DSS treatment, there were typical DSS-induced colitis lesions in both WT and uPA−/− mice. The affected colon of uPA−/− mice, however, had features of delayed ulcer re-epithelialization and dysplastic lesions of higher grade developing on the basis of a significantly altered mucosal inflammatory milieu. The later was characterized by more neutrophils and macrophages, less regulatory T cells (Treg), significantly upregulated cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-10, and lower levels of active transforming growth factor–β1 (TGF-β1) compared to WT mice. Dysfunctional Treg, more robust protumorigenic inflammatory events, and an inherited inability to produce adequate amounts of extracellular active TGF-β1 due to uPA deficiency are interlinked as probable explanations for the inflammatory-induced neoplasmatogenesis in the colon of uPA−/− mice. PMID:24913672

  15. Wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration distributions in bacteria of animal origin in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantozzi, Florencia L; Ibar, Mariela P; Nievas, Victorio F; Vigo, Germán B; Moredo, Fabiana A; Giacoboni, Gabriela I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of indicator bacteria isolated from domestic animal feces. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar dilution. Interpretative criteria on the basis of wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF or ECV) were used according to the 'European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing' (EUCAST) data. Results from 237 isolates of Escherichia coli showed reduced susceptibility for ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, the antimicrobials commonly used in intensive breeding of pigs and hens. Regarding all the species of the genus Enterococcus spp., there are only ECOFF or ECV for vancomycin. Of the 173 Enterococcus spp. isolated, only one showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and was classified as 'non-wild-type' (NWT) population. This is the first report in Argentina showing data of epidemiological cutoff values in animal bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of uremia on HDL composition, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild-type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian A; Bro, Susanne; Bartels, Emil D

    2007-01-01

    Wild-type mice normally do not develop atherosclerosis, unless fed cholic acid. Uremia is proinflammatory and increases atherosclerosis 6- to 10-fold in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This study examined the effect of uremia on lipoproteins, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild-ty...... in cholic acid-fed sham mice. The results suggest that moderate uremia neither induces aortic inflammation nor atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice despite increased LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and altered HDL composition.......Wild-type mice normally do not develop atherosclerosis, unless fed cholic acid. Uremia is proinflammatory and increases atherosclerosis 6- to 10-fold in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This study examined the effect of uremia on lipoproteins, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild....... In NX mice fed the Western-type diet (n = 7), the total plasma cholesterol concentration was similar to that in sham mice (n = 11), but on gel filtration the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was increased. HDL from NX mice contained more serum amyloid A and triglycerides and less cholesterol than HDL from sham...

  17. Crystal Structure of Wild-Type Centrin 1 from Mus musculus Occupied by Ca2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Da Som; Hong, Joo Eun; Park, Jung Hee

    2017-10-01

    Mus musculus centrin 1 (MmCen1) is located at the cilium of photoreceptor cells connecting the outer segment through signal transduction components to the metabolically active inner segment. In the cilium, MmCen1 is involved in the translocation of transducin between compartments as a result of photoreceptor activation. In this study, we report the crystal structure of wild-type MmCen1 and its Ca2+-binding properties using structure-based mutagenesis. The crystal structure exhibits three structural features, i.e. four Ca2+ equally occupied at each EF-hand motif, structural changes accompanying helix motion at the N- and C-lobes, and adoption of N-C type dimerization when Ca2+ binds to EF-hand I and II in the N-lobe. The presence of MmCen1 dimers was confirmed in solution by native PAGE. Isothermal titration calorimetry data showed sequential binding of Ca2+ at four independent sites. Mutations S45A and D49A in EF-hand I alone disrupted the Ca2+-binding property of the wild-type protein. Based on the crystal structure of MmCen1, we suggest that a dimerization mode between the N- and C-lobes may be required by Ca2+ binding at the N-lobe.

  18. Recovery of the wild type atomic flexibility in the HIV-1 protease double mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conto, Valderes; Braz, Antônio S K; Perahia, David; Scott, Luis P B

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of drug resistant mutations due to the selective pressure exerted by antiretrovirals, including protease inhibitors (PIs), remains a major problem in the treatment of AIDS. During PIs therapy, the occurrence of primary mutations in the wild type HIV-1 protease reduces both the affinity for the inhibitors and the viral replicative capacity compared to the wild type (WT) protein, but additional mutations compensate for this reduced viral fitness. To investigate this phenomenon from the structural point of view, we combined Molecular Dynamics and Normal Mode Analysis to analyze and compare the variations of the flexibility of C-alpha atoms and the differences in hydrogen bond (h-bond) network between the WT and double mutants. In most cases, the flexibility profile of the double mutants was more often similar to that of the WT than to that of the related single base mutants. All single mutants showed a significant alteration in h-bond formation compared to WT. Most of the significant changes occur in the border between the flap and cantilever regions. We found that all the considered double mutants have their h-bond pattern significantly altered in comparison to the respective single base mutants affecting their flexibility profile that becomes more similar to that of WT. This WT flexibility restoration in the double mutants appears as an important factor for the HIV-1 fitness recovery observed in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential gene expression between wild-type and Gulo-deficient mice supplied with vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that hepatic vitamin C (VC levels in VC deficient mice rescued with high doses of VC supplements still do not reach the optimal levels present in wild-type mice. For this, we used a mouse scurvy model (sfx in which the L-gulonolactone oxidase gene (Gulo is deleted. Six age- (6 weeks old and gender- (female matched wild-type (WT and sfx mice (rescued by administering 500 mg of VC/L were used as the control (WT and treatment (MT groups (n = 3 for each group, respectively. Total hepatic RNA was used in triplicate microarray assays for each group. EDGE software was used to identify differentially expressed genes and transcriptomic analysis was used to assess the potential genetic regulation of Gulo gene expression. Hepatic VC concentrations in MT mice were significantly lower than in WT mice, even though there were no morphological differences between the two groups. In MT mice, 269 differentially expressed transcripts were detected (> twice the difference between MT and WT mice, including 107 up-regulated and 162 down-regulated genes. These differentially expressed genes included stress-related and exclusively/predominantly hepatocyte genes. Transcriptomic analysis identified a major locus on chromosome 18 that regulates Gulo expression. Since three relevant oxidative genes are located within the critical region of this locus we suspect that they are involved in the down-regulation of oxidative activity in sfx mice.

  20. Spatial encoding in spinal sensorimotor circuits differs in different wild type mice strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouenborg Jens

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in the rat have shown that the spatial organisation of the receptive fields of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR system are functionally adapted through experience dependent mechanisms, termed somatosensory imprinting, during postnatal development. Here we wanted to clarify 1 if mice exhibit a similar spatial encoding of sensory input to NWR as previously found in the rat and 2 if mice strains with a poor learning capacity in various behavioural tests, associated with deficient long term potention, also exhibit poor adaptation of NWR. The organisation of the NWR system in two adult wild type mouse strains with normal long term potentiation (LTP in hippocampus and two adult wild type mouse strains exhibiting deficiencies in corresponding LTP were used and compared to previous results in the rat. Receptive fields of reflexes in single hindlimb muscles were mapped with CO2 laser heat pulses. Results While the spatial organisation of the nociceptive receptive fields in mice with normal LTP were very similar to those in rats, the LTP impaired strains exhibited receptive fields of NWRs with aberrant sensitivity distributions. However, no difference was found in NWR thresholds or onset C-fibre latencies suggesting that the mechanisms determining general reflex sensitivity and somatosensory imprinting are different. Conclusion Our results thus confirm that sensory encoding in mice and rat NWR is similar, provided that mice strains with a good learning capability are studied and raise the possibility that LTP like mechanisms are involved in somatosensory imprinting.

  1. In Vitro Root Development in Arabidopsis Thaliana Wild-Type and scr Mutants under Clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.; Sarnatska, V. V.; Talalaiev, A. S.; Ovcharenko, Y. V.

    2008-06-01

    A task of our experiments was to study in vitro rhizogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and scr mutants under slow horizontal clinorotation as a convenient model to clear up a question, whether root morphogenesis de novo will occur normally in simulated microgravity. Two methods for obtaining A. thaliana roots in vitro were used: 1) from the primary callus of leaf origin and 2) directly from leaf explants. Light and electron microscopy and RT-PCR were used for an analysis of the experimental materials. Graviperceptive cells differentiated in roots formed de novo from callus and leaf explants of wild type and scr mutants but did not function under clinorotation. Tissue and cell type patterning in a root proper as well as gene expression in all variants in the control and under clinorotation were similar that gives new evidence on normal morphogenesis in altered gravity. We proposed such model for performing the experiments on board the ISS to study morphogenesis in vitro, including differentiation of graviperceptive cells.

  2. In vitro permissivity of bovine cells for wild-type and vaccinal myxoma virus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foucras Gilles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myxoma virus (MYXV, a leporide-specific poxvirus, represents an attractive candidate for the generation of safe, non-replicative vaccine vector for non-host species. However, there is very little information concerning infection of non-laboratory animals species cells with MYXV. In this study, we investigated interactions between bovine cells and respectively a wild type strain (T1 and a vaccinal strain (SG33 of MYXV. We showed that bovine KOP-R, BT and MDBK cell lines do not support MYXV production. Electron microscopy observations of BT-infected cells revealed the low efficiency of viral entry and the production of defective virions. In addition, infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC occurred at a very low level, even following non-specific activation, and was always abortive. We did not observe significant differences between the wild type strain and the vaccinal strain of MYXV, indicating that SG33 could be used for new bovine vaccination strategies.

  3. The wild type as concept and in experimental practice: A history of its role in classical genetics and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tarquin

    2017-06-01

    Wild types in genetics are specialised strains of laboratory experimental organism which principally serve as standards against which variation is measured. As selectively inbred lineages highly isolated from ancestral wild populations, there appears to be little wild or typical about them. I will nonetheless argue that they have historically been successfully used as stand-ins for nature, allowing knowledge produced in the laboratory to be extrapolated to the natural world. In this paper, I will explore the 19th century origins of the wild type concept, the theoretical and experimental innovations which allowed concepts and organisms to move from wild nature to laboratory domestication c. 1900 (resulting in the production of standardised lab strains), and the conflict among early geneticists between interactionist and atomist accounts of wild type, which would eventually lead to the conceptual disintegration of wild types and the triumph of genocentrism and population genetics. I conclude by discussing how the strategy of using wild type strains to represent nature in the lab has nonetheless survived the downfall of the wild type concept and continues to provide, significant limitations acknowledged, an epistemically productive means of investigating heredity and evolutionary variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity of polymerase proteins of vaccine and wild-type measles virus strains in a minigenome replication assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Kearney, Sean P; Liu, Xin; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2002-07-01

    The relative activities of five measles virus (MV) polymerase (L) proteins were compared in an intracellular, plasmid-based replication assay. When coexpressed with N and P proteins from an attenuated strain, L proteins from two attenuated viruses directed the production of up to eight times more reporter protein from an MV minigenome than the three wild-type L proteins. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the differences in reporter protein production correlated with mRNA transcription levels. Increased activity of polymerases from attenuated viruses equally affected mRNA transcription and minigenome replication. The higher level of transcription may be a consequence of increased template availability or may be an independent effect of the elevated activity of the attenuated polymerases. Coexpression of wild-type L proteins with homologous N and P proteins did not affect the activity of the wild-type polymerases, indicating that the differential activity was a function of the L proteins alone. Use of a minigenome that incorporated two nucleotide changes found in the genomic leader of the three wild-type viruses did not raise the activity of the wild-type L proteins. These data demonstrate that increased polymerase activity differentiates attenuated from wild-type viruses and suggest that functions involved in RNA synthesis contribute to the attenuated phenotype of MV vaccine strains.

  5. Acceleration of the thrombin inactivation of single chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (pro-urokinase) by thrombomodulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munk, G.A.W. de; Groeneveld, E.; Rijken, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro effects of thrombomodulin on the inactivation of single chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) by thrombin were investigated by incubating scu-PA with varying concentrations of human thrombin, in both the absence and presence of soluble rabbit thrombomodulin. 50%

  6. Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID genes and promotes neuronal survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yan-Wei

    2012-05-01

    . Increasing the levels of wild type CREB can, even without inducing synaptic activity, increase pro-survival gene expression and strengthen the neurons’ neuroprotective shield. The observed degradation of CREB protein following NMDA treatment of hippocampal neurons suggests that the known CREB shut-off associated with extrasynaptic NMDA receptor-induced excitotoxicity is followed by CREB proteolysis.

  7. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor during allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, E; Andersen, J; Ostrowski, S R

    2011-01-01

    the course of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Twenty SCT patients were included in the study. suPAR was measured by ELISA in daily taken plasma samples during the pretransplant conditioning with chemotherapy and weekly for 1 month after infusion of the graft. suPAR levels before the start...

  8. Estimation of the Binding Free Energy of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 Protease Wild Type and Mutations Using Free Energy Perturbation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Son Tung; Mai, Binh Khanh; Hiep, Dinh Minh; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-01

    The binding mechanism of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 protease wild type and mutations was studied by the docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energy was calculated using the double-annihilation binding free energy method. It is shown that the binding affinity of AC1NX476 to wild type is higher than not only ritonavir but also darunavir, making AC1NX476 become attractive candidate for HIV treatment. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data as the correlation coefficient between calculated and experimentally measured binding free energies R = 0.993. Residues Asp25-A, Asp29-A, Asp30-A, Ile47-A, Gly48-A, and Val50-A from chain A, and Asp25-B from chain B play a crucial role in the ligand binding. The mutations were found to reduce the receptor-ligand interaction by widening the binding cavity, and the binding propensity is mainly driven by the van der Waals interaction. Our finding may be useful for designing potential drugs to combat with HIV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Proteomic analysis of mycelium and secretome of different Botrytis cinerea wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Raquel; Aloria, Kerman; Valero-Galván, José; Redondo, Inmaculada; Arizmendi, Jesús M; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2014-01-31

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a very damaging phytopathogen of wide host range and environmental persistence. It is difficult to control because of its genetic versatility, expressed in the many phenotypical differences among isolates. The genomes of the B. cinerea B05.10 and T4 strains have been recently sequenced, becoming a model system for necrotrophic pathogens, and thus opening new alternatives for functional genomics analysis. In this work, the mycelium and secreted proteome of six wild-type strains with different host range, and grown in liquid minimal medium, have been analyzed by using complementary gel-based (1-DE and 2-DE) and gel-free/label-free (nUPLC-MS(E)) approaches. We found differences in the protein profiles among strains belonging to both the mycelium and the secretome. A total of 47 and 51 variable proteins were identified in the mycelium and the secretome, respectively. Some of them, such as malate dehydrogenase or peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase from the mycelium, and endopolygalacturonase, aspartic protease or cerato-platanin protein from the secretome have been reported as virulence factors, which are involved in host-tissue invasion, pathogenicity or fungal development. The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is an important phytopathogen of wide host range and environmental persistence, causing substantial economic losses worldwide. In this work, the mycelium and secreted proteome of six B. cinerea wild-type strains with different host range have been analyzed by using complementary gel-based and gel-free/label-free approaches. Fungal genetic versatility was confirmed at the proteome level for both mycelium proteome and secreted proteins. A high number of hypothetical proteins with conserved domains related to toxin compounds or to unknown functions were identified, having qualitative differences among strains. The identification of hypothetical proteins suggests that the B. cinerea strains differ mostly in processes

  10. Transcript profiling reveals expression differences in wild-type and glabrous soybean lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stromvik Martina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichome hairs affect diverse agronomic characters such as seed weight and yield, prevent insect damage and reduce loss of water but their molecular control has not been extensively studied in soybean. Several detailed models for trichome development have been proposed for Arabidopsis thaliana, but their applicability to important crops such as cotton and soybean is not fully known. Results Two high throughput transcript sequencing methods, Digital Gene Expression (DGE Tag Profiling and RNA-Seq, were used to compare the transcriptional profiles in wild-type (cv. Clark standard, CS and a mutant (cv. Clark glabrous, i.e., trichomeless or hairless, CG soybean isoline that carries the dominant P1 allele. DGE data and RNA-Seq data were mapped to the cDNAs (Glyma models predicted from the reference soybean genome, Williams 82. Extending the model length by 250 bp at both ends resulted in significantly more matches of authentic DGE tags indicating that many of the predicted gene models are prematurely truncated at the 5' and 3' UTRs. The genome-wide comparative study of the transcript profiles of the wild-type versus mutant line revealed a number of differentially expressed genes. One highly-expressed gene, Glyma04g35130, in wild-type soybean was of interest as it has high homology to the cotton gene GhRDL1 gene that has been identified as being involved in cotton fiber initiation and is a member of the BURP protein family. Sequence comparison of Glyma04g35130 among Williams 82 with our sequences derived from CS and CG isolines revealed various SNPs and indels including addition of one nucleotide C in the CG and insertion of ~60 bp in the third exon of CS that causes a frameshift mutation and premature truncation of peptides in both lines as compared to Williams 82. Conclusion Although not a candidate for the P1 locus, a BURP family member (Glyma04g35130 from soybean has been shown to be abundantly expressed in the CS line and very

  11. Possible allosteric interactions of monoindazole-substituted P2 cyclic urea analogues with wild-type and mutant HIV-1 protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajni; Bhhatarai, Barun

    2008-10-01

    Our ongoing efforts to understand the difference in the binding pattern of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (HIVPI) with the wild-type and mutant HIV-1 protease (HIVPR) and to provide mechanistic insight are continued further. We report here the results of a recent quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on monoindazole-substituted P2 analogues of cyclic urea HIVPIs. The QSAR models revealed an inverted parabolic relationship between biological activity and calculated molar refractivity (CMR). That is, biological activity first decreases with increase in CMR and at a certain minimum point (inversion point) it suddenly changes and increases with further increase in CMR. CMR is a measure of volume-dependent-polarizability and is an indication of the polar interactions between ligand and receptor. The results seem to be best rationalized by larger molecules inducing a change in a receptor unit that allows for a new mode of interaction. Similar QSAR models were also observed for the biological activity of these molecules tested against a panel of mutant viruses including mutant strains with single amino acid substitution (I84V), double amino acid substitutions (I84V/V82F), and multiple amino acid changes corresponding to mutations observed in clinical isolates of patients treated with Ritonavir®. Interestingly the inversion points for these mutant strains were found larger than for wild-type. The subtle but significant difference in the inversion point indicates change in the shape and size of the binding pocket. Earlier QSAR studies have shown that the correlation of biological activity with an inverted parabola is an indicative of the `allosteric interaction' of the ligands with the receptor. This report presents a detail analysis of these observations.

  12. Modest increased sensitivity to radiation oncogenesis in ATM heterozygous versus wild-type mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilenov, L. B.; Brenner, D. J.; Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Subpopulations that are genetically predisposed to radiation-induced cancer could have significant public health consequences. Individuals homozygous for null mutations at the ataxia telangiectasia gene are indeed highly radiosensitive, but their numbers are very small. Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes (1-2% of the population) have been associated with somewhat increased radiosensitivity for some end points, but none directly related to carcinogenesis. Here, intralitter comparisons between wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts carrying ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) null mutation indicate that the heterozygous cells are more sensitive to radiation oncogenesis than their normal, litter-matched, counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally-significant radiosensitive human subpopulation.

  13. The effects of wild-type and mutant SOD1 on smooth muscle contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Kokić Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we compared the mutated liver copper zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein G93A of the transgenic rat model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS, to wild-type (WT rat SOD1. We examined their enzymatic activities and effects on isometric contractions of uteri of healthy virgin rats. G93A SOD1 showed a slightly higher activity than WT SOD1 and, in contrast to WT SOD1, G93A SOD1 did not induce smooth muscle relaxation. This result indicates that effects on smooth muscles are not related to SOD1 enzyme activity and suggest that heterodimers of G93A SOD1 form an ion-conducting pore that diminishes the relaxatory effects of SOD1. We propose that this type of pathogenic feedback affects neurons in FALS. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173014 i br. 175083

  14. Structural differences between wild-type and fish eye disease mutant of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, Yana; Tchedre, Kissaou T; Nair, Maya P; Pritchard, P Haydn; Lacko, Andras G

    2006-08-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to investigate the conformational changes that occur upon binding of wild type (WT) and mutant (Thr123Ile) lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) to the potential substrates (dioleoyl-phosphatidyl choline [DOPC] and high density lipoprotein [HDL]). For a detailed analysis of structural differences between WT and mutant LCAT, we performed decompositional analysis of a set of tryptophan fluorescence spectra, measured at increasing concentrations of external quenchers (acrylamide and KI). The data obtained show that Thr123Ile mutation in LCAT leads to a conformation that is likely to be more rigid (less mobile/flexible) than that of the WT protein with a redistribution of charged residues around exposed tryptophan fluorophores. We propose that the redistribution of charged residues in mutant LCAT may be a major factor responsible for the dramatically reduced activity of the enzyme with HDL and reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL).

  15. The Phenotypic Effects of Royal Jelly on Wild-Type D. melanogaster Are Strain-Specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie L Morgan

    Full Text Available The role for royal jelly (RJ in promoting caste differentiation of honeybee larvae into queens rather than workers is well characterized. A recent study demonstrated that this poorly understood complex nutrition drives strikingly similar phenotypic effects in Drosophila melanogaster, such as increased body size and reduced developmental time, making possible the use of D. melanogaster as a model system for the genetic analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying RJ and caste differentiation. We demonstrate here that RJ increases the body size of some wild-type strains of D. melanogaster but not others, and report significant delays in developmental time in all flies reared on RJ. These findings suggest that cryptic genetic variation may be a factor in the D. melanogaster response to RJ, and should be considered when attempting to elucidate response mechanisms to environmental changes in non-honeybee species.

  16. Wild-type rabies virus induces autophagy in human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaojiao; Zhu, Shenghe; Hu, Lili; Ye, Pingping; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Qin; Mei, Mingzhu; Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-02

    Different rabies virus (RABV) strains have their own biological characteristics, but little is known about their respective impact on autophagy. Therefore, we evaluated whether attenuated RABV HEP-Flury and wild-type RABV GD-SH-01 strains triggered autophagy. We found that GD-SH-01 infection significantly increased the number of autophagy-like vesicles, the accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-LC3 fluorescence puncta and the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, while HEP-Flury was not able to induce this phenomenon. When evaluating autophagic flux, we found that GD-SH-01 infection triggers a complete autophagic response in the human neuroblastoma cell line (SK), while autophagosome fusion with lysosomes was inhibited in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (NA). In these cells, GD-SH-01 led to apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction while triggering autophagy, and apoptosis could be decreased by enhancing autophagy. To further identify the virus constituent causing autophagy, 5 chimeric recombinant viruses carrying single genes of HEP-Flury instead of those of GD-SH-01 were rescued. While the HEP-Flury virus carrying the wild-type matrix protein (M) gene of RABV triggered LC3-I to LC3-II conversion in SK and NA cells, replacement of genes of nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and glycoprotein (G) produced only minor autophagy. But no one single structural protein of GD-SH-01 induced autophagy. Moreover, the AMPK signaling pathway was activated by GD-SH-01 in SK. Therefore, our data provide strong evidence that autophagy is induced by GD-SH-01 and can decrease apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, the M gene of GD-SH-01 may cooperatively induce autophagy.

  17. Efficient Reassignment of a Frequent Serine Codon in Wild-Type Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joanne M; Reynolds, Noah M; Rivera, Keith; Connolly, Morgan; Guo, Li-Tao; Ling, Jiqiang; Pappin, Darryl J; Church, George M; Söll, Dieter

    2016-02-19

    Expansion of the genetic code through engineering the translation machinery has greatly increased the chemical repertoire of the proteome. This has been accomplished mainly by read-through of UAG or UGA stop codons by the noncanonical aminoacyl-tRNA of choice. While stop codon read-through involves competition with the translation release factors, sense codon reassignment entails competition with a large pool of endogenous tRNAs. We used an engineered pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase to incorporate 3-iodo-l-phenylalanine (3-I-Phe) at a number of different serine and leucine codons in wild-type Escherichia coli. Quantitative LC-MS/MS measurements of amino acid incorporation yields carried out in a selected reaction monitoring experiment revealed that the 3-I-Phe abundance at the Ser208AGU codon in superfolder GFP was 65 ± 17%. This method also allowed quantification of other amino acids (serine, 33 ± 17%; phenylalanine, 1 ± 1%; threonine, 1 ± 1%) that compete with 3-I-Phe at both the aminoacylation and decoding steps of translation for incorporation at the same codon position. Reassignments of different serine (AGU, AGC, UCG) and leucine (CUG) codons with the matching tRNA(Pyl) anticodon variants were met with varying success, and our findings provide a guideline for the choice of sense codons to be reassigned. Our results indicate that the 3-iodo-l-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)/tRNA(Pyl) pair can efficiently outcompete the cellular machinery to reassign select sense codons in wild-type E. coli.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Approach in the Comparison of Wild-Type and Mutant Paraoxonase-1 Apoenzyme Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khadija; Miri, Lamia; Naimi, Adil; Saile, Rachid; El Kharrim, Abderrahmane; Mikou, Afaf; Kettani, Anass

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence linking the mammalian paraoxonase-1 (PON1) loops (L1 and L2) to an increased flexibility and reactivity of its active site with potential substrates. The aim of this work is to study the structural, dynamical, and functional effects of the most flexible regions close to the active site and to determine the impact of mutations on the protein. For both models, wild-type (PON1wild) and PON1 mutant (PON1mut) models, the L1 loop and Q/R and L/M mutations were constructed using MODELLER software. Molecular dynamics simulations of 20 ns at 300 K on fully modeled PON1wild and PON1mut apoenzyme have been done. Detailed analyses of the root-mean-square deviation and fluctuations, H-bonding pattern, and torsion angles have been performed. The PON1wild results were then compared with those obtained for the PON1mut. Our results show that the active site in the wild-type structure is characterized by two distinct movements of opened and closed conformations of the L1 and L2 loops. The alternating and repetitive movement of loops at specific times is consistent with the presence of 11 defined hydrogen bonds. In the PON1mut, these open-closed movements are therefore totally influenced and repressed by the Q/R and L/M mutations. In fact, these mutations seem to impact the PON1mut active site by directly reducing the catalytic core flexibility, while maintaining a significant mobility of the switch regions delineated by the loops surrounding the active site. The impact of the studied mutations on structure and dynamics proprieties of the protein may subsequently contribute to the loss of both flexibility and activity of the PON1 enzyme.

  19. Detection, characterization and inhibition of FGFR-TACC fusions in IDH wild type glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Anna Luisa; Fucci, Alessandra; Frattini, Veronique; Labussiere, Marianne; Mokhtari, Karima; Zoppoli, Pietro; Marie, Yannick; Bruno, Aurelie; Boisselier, Blandine; Giry, Marine; Savatovsky, Julien; Touat, Mehdi; Belaid, Hayat; Kamoun, Aurelie; Idbaih, Ahmed; Houillier, Caroline; Luo, Feng R.; Soria, Jean-Charles; Tabernero, Josep; Eoli, Marica; Paterra, Rosina; Yip, Stephen; Petrecca, Kevin; Chan, Jennifer A.; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Lasorella, Anna; Sanson, Marc; Iavarone, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oncogenic fusions consisting of FGFR and TACC are present in a subgroup of glioblastoma (GBM) and other human cancers and have been proposed as new therapeutic targets. We analyzed frequency, molecular features of FGFR-TACC fusions, and explored the therapeutic efficacy of inhibiting FGFR kinase in GBM and grade-II–III glioma. Experimental Design Overall, 795 gliomas (584 GBM, 85 grade-II–III with wild-type and 126 with IDH1/2 mutation) were screened for FGFR-TACC breakpoints and associated molecular profile. We also analyzed expression of the FGFR3 and TACC3 components of the fusions. The effects of the specific FGFR inhibitor JNJ-42756493 for FGFR3-TACC3-positive glioma were determined in preclinical experiments. Two patients with advanced FGFR3-TACC3-positive GBM received JNJ-42756493 and were assessed for therapeutic response. Results Three of 85 IDH1/2 wild type (3.5%) but none of 126 IDH1/2 mutant grade-II–III glioma harbored FGFR3-TACC3 fusions. FGFR-TACC rearrangements were present in 17 of 584 GBM (2.9%). FGFR3-TACC3 fusions were associated with strong and homogeneous FGFR3 immunostaining. They are mutually exclusive with IDH1/2 mutations and EGFR amplification whereas co-occur with CDK4 amplification. JNJ-42756493 inhibited growth of glioma cells harboring FGFR3-TACC3 in vitro and in vivo. The two patients with FGFR3-TACC3 rearrangements who received JNJ-42756493 manifested clinical improvement with stable disease and minor response, respectively. Conclusions RT-PCR-sequencing is a sensitive and specific method to identify FGFR-TACC-positive patients. FGFR3-TACC3 fusions are associated with uniform intra-tumor expression of the fusion protein. The clinical response observed in the FGFR3-TACC3-positive patients treated with a FGFR inhibitor supports clinical studies of FGFR inhibition in FGFR-TACC-positive patients. PMID:25609060

  20. An Ultra-Violet Tolerant Wild-Type Strain of Melanin-Producing Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinenea, Estibaliz; Salazar, Francisco; Ramirez, Melanie; Ortiz, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most successful biological control agent used in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control. However, the insecticidal activity of the B. thuringiensis formulation is not very stable and rapidly loses its biological activity under field conditions, due to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Melanin is known to absorb radiation therefore photo protection of B. thuringiensis based on melanin has been extensively studied. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find a wild type strain of naturally melanin-producing B. thuringiensis to avoid any mutation or manipulation that can affect the Cry protein content. Materials and Methods: Bacillus thuringiensis strains were isolated from soils of different States of Mexico and pigment extraction was followed by lowering the pH to 2 using 1N HCl. Pigment was characterized by some chemical tests based on its solubility, bleaching by H2O2 and flocculation with FeCl3, and using an Infrared (IR) spectrum. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation experiment was performed to probe the melanin efficacy. Results: ELI52 strain of B. thuringiensis was confirmed to naturally produce melanin. The Cry protein analysis suggested that ELI52 is probably a B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain with toxic activity against the Diptera order of insects. Ultra Violet protection efficacy of melanin was probed counting total viable colonies after UV radiation and comparing the results with the non-producing melanin strain L-DOPA (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) was also detected in the culture. ELI52 strain showed an antagonistic effect over some common bacteria from the environment. Conclusions: ELI52 wild-type strain of B. thuringiensis is a good bio-insecticide that produces melanin with UV-resistance that is probably toxic against the Diptera order of insects and can inhibit the growth of other environmental bacteria. PMID:26421136

  1. Transcriptional profiling of gastric epithelial cells infected with wild type or arginase-deficient Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Songhee H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori causes acute and chronic gastric inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines secreted by cells of the gastric mucosa, including gastric epithelial cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the bacterial arginase, RocF, is involved in inhibiting T cell proliferation and CD3ζ expression, suggesting that arginase could be involved in a more general dampening of the immune response, perhaps by down-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory mediators. Results Global transcriptome analysis was performed on AGS gastric epithelial cells infected for 16 hours with a wild type Helicobacter pylori strain 26695, an arginase mutant (rocF- or a rocF+ complemented strain. H. pylori infection triggered altered host gene expression in genes involved in cell movement, death/growth/proliferation, and cellular function and maintenance. While the wild type strain stimulates host inflammatory pathways, the rocF- mutant induced significantly more expression of IL-8. The results of the microarray were verified using real-time PCR, and the differential levels of protein expression were confirmed by ELISA and Bioplex analysis. MIP-1B was also significantly secreted by AGS cells after H. pylori rocF- mutant infection, as determined by Bioplex. Even though not explored in this manuscript, the impact that the results presented here may have on the development of gastritis, warrant further research to understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between H. pylori RocF and IL-8 induction. Conclusions We conclude that H. pylori arginase modulates multiple host signaling and metabolic pathways of infected gastric epithelial cells. Arginase may play a critical role in anti-inflammatory host responses that could contribute to the ability of H. pylori to establish chronic infections.

  2. Wild-Type P53 Induces Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression Allowing Radioiodide Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Li, Dan; Chen, Zhengqi; Yang, Jian; Ma, Yushui; Cai, Haidong; Shan, Chengxiang; Lv, Zhongwei; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2017-09-29

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer(ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors. Mutations in the p53 gene are common in anaplastic thyroid cancer, but the effects of p53 mutations are yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of p53 in ATC. p53 mutation was detect by immunohistochemistry in ATC tissues. Expression of NIS were measured using immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence in ATC tissues and cell line 8505c. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to examine the effect of wild-type p53 on NIS. Radioiodide uptake assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to detect the role of wild-type p53 on radioiodide uptake.and cell apoptosis in ATC cell line. We showed that the p53 mutation can be detected in ATC tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrated that wild-type p53 transactivated the NIS promoter. In 8505c cells transfected with wild-type p53, treatment with radioiodine resulted in increased radioiodine uptake and increased apoptotic cell death compared with 8505c cells harboring the p53 mutation. In summary, transfection with wild-type p53 can increase the therapeutic effect of radioiodine by regulating the expression of the NIS. The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays multis...... in PBMCs was investigated throughout the acute infections. We observed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses beginning in the prodromal phase, and late inflammatory responses were shared between the wild-type infections.......The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...... multisystemic infection similar to measles virus (MV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) infections in their susceptible natural hosts. The wild-type CDVs investigated provoked marked virulence differences inducing mild versus marked to severe acute disease. The mildly virulent wild-type induced transient lymphopenia...

  4. Isoform-Specific Effects of Wild-Type Ras Genes on Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie D Weyandt

    Full Text Available The gene KRAS is commonly mutated in lung cancer to encode a constitutively active and oncogenic protein that is well established to initiate and maintain lung tumorigenesis. However, the remaining wild-type KRAS protein, or the other family members HRAS and NRAS, can still be activated in the presence of oncogenic KRAS. Moreover, loss of any one of these three genes has been shown to increase the sensitivity of mice to the carcinogen urethane, which induces Kras mutation-positive early lung lesions. To determine the contribution of progressively disrupting Hras and Nras genes on urethane lung tumorigenesis, mice with different combinations of wild-type and null alleles of Hras and Nras were exposed with urethane and tumor burden was assessed. As previously reported, loss of one allele of Hras increased the sensitivity of mice to this carcinogen, and this effect was further exacerbated by the loss of the second Hras allele. However, loss of one or both alleles of Nras failed to alter tumor burden, either in the absence or presence of Hras, after exposure to urethane. Additionally, no obvious difference between lung lesions in mice with wild-type versus null alleles was detected, suggesting that wild-type Ras proteins may exert a tumor suppressive effects at the time of initiation, although other interpretations are certainly possible. In summary, these data suggest that in some genetic backgrounds inactivation of different wild-type Ras genes can have different effects on urethane-induced lung tumorigenesis.

  5. Isoform-Specific Effects of Wild-Type Ras Genes on Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Jamie D; Carney, John M; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Xu, MengMeng; Counter, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The gene KRAS is commonly mutated in lung cancer to encode a constitutively active and oncogenic protein that is well established to initiate and maintain lung tumorigenesis. However, the remaining wild-type KRAS protein, or the other family members HRAS and NRAS, can still be activated in the presence of oncogenic KRAS. Moreover, loss of any one of these three genes has been shown to increase the sensitivity of mice to the carcinogen urethane, which induces Kras mutation-positive early lung lesions. To determine the contribution of progressively disrupting Hras and Nras genes on urethane lung tumorigenesis, mice with different combinations of wild-type and null alleles of Hras and Nras were exposed with urethane and tumor burden was assessed. As previously reported, loss of one allele of Hras increased the sensitivity of mice to this carcinogen, and this effect was further exacerbated by the loss of the second Hras allele. However, loss of one or both alleles of Nras failed to alter tumor burden, either in the absence or presence of Hras, after exposure to urethane. Additionally, no obvious difference between lung lesions in mice with wild-type versus null alleles was detected, suggesting that wild-type Ras proteins may exert a tumor suppressive effects at the time of initiation, although other interpretations are certainly possible. In summary, these data suggest that in some genetic backgrounds inactivation of different wild-type Ras genes can have different effects on urethane-induced lung tumorigenesis.

  6. Early Change in FDG-PET Signal and Plasma Cell-Free DNA Level Predicts Erlotinib Response in EGFR Wild-Type NSCLC Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Larsen, Anne; Fledelius, Joan; Demuth, Christina

    2016-01-01

    cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as markers of erlotinib response in EGFR-wt patients. METHODS: F-18-FDG-PET/CT scans and blood samples were obtained prior to erlotinib initiation and were repeated after 1 week (PET/CT) and 1 to 4 weeks (blood sample) of treatment. Level of cfDNA was measured by droplet digital...... polymerase chain reaction. Percentage change (%∆) in SULpeak and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on FDG-PET/CT and in plasma cfDNA was correlated to radiological response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Fifty patients were prospectively enrolled. A significant correlation......INTRODUCTION: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a treatment option in the second- or third-line palliative setting in EGFR wild-type (wt) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, response rates are low, and only approximately 25% will achieve...

  7. STRATEGIC-1: A multiple-lines, randomized, open-label GERCOR phase III study in patients with unresectable wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Bonnetain, Franck; Tournigand, Christophe; de Larauze, Marine Hug; de Gramont, Armand; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Paget, Jérôme; Hadengue, Alexandra; Notelet, Dominique; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; André, Thierry; de Gramont, Aimery

    2015-07-04

    The management of unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a comprehensive treatment strategy involving several lines of therapy, maintenance, salvage surgery, and treatment-free intervals. Besides chemotherapy (fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, irinotecan), molecular-targeted agents such as anti-angiogenic agents (bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib) and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agents (cetuximab, panitumumab) have become available. Ultimately, given the increasing cost of new active compounds, new strategy trials are needed to define the optimal use and the best sequencing of these agents. Such new clinical trials require alternative endpoints that can capture the effect of several treatment lines and be measured earlier than overall survival to help shorten the duration and reduce the size and cost of trials. STRATEGIC-1 is an international, open-label, randomized, multicenter phase III trial designed to determine an optimally personalized treatment sequence of the available treatment modalities in patients with unresectable RAS wild-type mCRC. Two standard treatment strategies are compared: first-line FOLFIRI-cetuximab, followed by oxaliplatin-based second-line chemotherapy with bevacizumab (Arm A) vs. first-line OPTIMOX-bevacizumab, followed by irinotecan-based second-line chemotherapy with bevacizumab, and by an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody with or without irinotecan as third-line treatment (Arm B). The primary endpoint is duration of disease control. A total of 500 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to one of the two treatment strategies. The STRATEGIC-1 trial is designed to give global information on the therapeutic sequences in patients with unresectable RAS wild-type mCRC that in turn is likely to have a significant impact on the management of this patient population. The trial is open for inclusion since August 2013. STRATEGIC-1 is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01910610, 23 July, 2013

  8. In vitro visualization and characterization of wild type and mutant IDH homo- and heterodimers using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gemma L; Philip, Beatrice; Guthrie, Matthew R; Cox, James E; Robinson, James P; VanBrocklin, Matthew W; Holmen, Sheri L

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) were recently found in ~80% of WHO grade II-III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. These mutations reduce the enzyme's ability to convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and, instead, confer a novel gain-of-function resulting in the conversion of α-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxglutarate (2-HG). However, IDH mutations exist in a heterozygous state such that a functional wild type allele is retained. Recent data suggest that the ability of mutant IDH1, but not mutant IDH2, to produce 2-HG is dependent on the activity of the retained wild type allele. In this study, we aimed to further our understanding of the interaction and function of wild type and mutant IDH heterodimers utilizing Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC). Dimerization of wild type and mutant IDH monomers conjugated to the N- and C-terminus of Venus protein, respectively, is directly proportional to the amount of fluorescence emitted and can be used as an approach to visualize and assess IDH dimerization. Thus, we utilized this method to visualize IDH homo- and heterodimers and to examine their cellular physiology based on subcellular localization, NADPH production, and 2-HG levels. Our results demonstrate that wild type and mutant IDH1 or IDH2 heterodimers display similar physiological characteristics to that of mutant IDH1 or IDH2 homodimers with the exception of their ability to generate NADPH. IDH1 heterodimers consistently generate NADPH whereas IDH2 heterodimers do not. However, the presence of mutant IDH1 or IDH2 in homo- or heterodimer configurations consistently generates equivalent levels of 2-HG. Our data suggest that the wild type protein is not required for the generation of 2-HG.

  9. The Effect of Microporous Polysaccharide Hemospheres on Wound Healing and Scarring in Wild-Type and db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle J; Cao, Wei; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Levinson, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Hemostasis, the initial phase of wound healing, sets the stage for tissue repair. Microporous polysaccharide hemosphere powder (MPH) is an FDA-approved hemostatic agent that may impact the wound-healing process. This study examined the role of MPH in murine wild-type and diabetic (db/db) wound-healing models and a foreign body response scarring model. The powder was topically applied to excisional wounds in wild-type C57BL/6 mice and db/db mice. The effect of MPH on scarring was evaluated by applying it to the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tube implantation model. In wild-type mice, topically applied MPH increased epithelial thickness. Levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were decreased in MPH-treated wild-type wounds, whereas Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) and transforming growth factor β levels were increased. In db/db mice, topical wound MPH application decreased epithelial thickness and delayed wound closure. The db/db wounds displayed an increased collagen index. The ROCK2 was increased in a similar manner to wild-type mice, whereas α-SMA and transforming growth factor β levels were decreased. The MPH-treated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tube mice showed increased α-SMA levels and depressed ROCK2 levels. There were no changes in histologic parameters of the foreign body response. The results suggest that MPH does not adversely impact wound healing in wild-type mice, both topically and around implants, but prolongs time to closure and diminishes thickness in db/db wounds. The MPH application alters contractile proteins in all wound models. These changes could have downstream effects on the wound healing process, and further investigation into the use of MPH in altered or impaired states of wound healing is warranted.

  10. Effects of salt stress on wild type and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana: Model plant to engineer tolerance towards salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalatbari Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental constraints impairing plant distribution and yield is believed to be salt stress. Additionally, engineered abiotic stress resistance or/and tolerance is considered as an indispensable target in order to enhance plant productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on physiological and morphological of wild type (Columbia-0 and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated under different NaCl concentrations. These salt treatments, including control condition, 50mM and 100mM NaCl were imposed on the plants. Each salt treatment was replicated three times in a complete randomized design with factorial arrangement. Wild type and mutant A.thaliana plants were subjected to the abiotic stress (salinity for up to 11 days to evaluate the parameters of growth, development and water relations. As a result, the performance of wild type plants was stronger than vte4 mutant under different salt treatments. Under control condition, rosette dry weight, maximum quantum efficiency (PSII and specific leaf area obtained the highest values of 13.85 mg, considered, wild type A.thaliana recorded higher value of 0.82 gW/gFW for relative water content (RWC under 50mM NaCl whereas mutant plants gained the value of 0.78 gW/gFW under the same condition. However, root mass fraction indicated an increase for both wild type and vte4 mutant plants after 11 days of salt stress onset. The reduction of water potential was observed for wild type and mutant A.thaliana where it scored -1.3 MPa and -1.4, respectively. As a conclusion, these findings implied that under different salt treatments morphological and physiological responses of wild type and vte4 mutant were affected in which wild type plants showed more tolerance. Lack of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ -TMT gene in vte4 seemed to impair defence mechanism of this mutant against salinity.

  11. Sperm morphogenesis in wild-type and fertilization-defective mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Taking advantage of conditions that allow spermatogenesis in vitro, the timing and sequence of morphological changes leading from the primary spermatocyte to the spermatozoon is described by light and electron microscopy. Together with previous studies, this allows a detailed description of the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane changes occurring during spermatozoan morphogenesis. By comparison with wild type, abnormalities in spermatogenesis leading to aberrant infertile spermatozoa are found in six fertilization-defective (fer) mutants. In fer-1 mutant males, spermatids appear normal, but during spermiogenesis membranous organelles (MO) fail to fuse with the sperm plasma membrane and a short, though motile. pseudopod is formed. In fer-2, fer-3, and fer-4 mutants, spermatids accumulate 48-nm tubules around their nuclei where the centriole and an RNA containing perinuclear halo would normally be. In all three mutants, spermatids still activate to spermatozoa with normal fusion of their MOs, but the pseudopods formed are aberrant in most fer-2 and fer-4 spermatozoa and in some fer-3 spermatozoa. In fer-5 mutant males, spermatozoa do not form. Instead, defective spermatids with crystalline inclusions and abnormal internal laminar membranes accumulate. In fer-6 mutant males, only a few spermatozoa form and these have defective pseudopods. These spermatozoa retain their fibrous bodies, a structure which normally disassembles in the spermatid. The time of appearance of developmental abnormalities in all of these mutants correlates with the temperature-sensitive periods for development of infertility. The observation that each of these mutants has a different and discreet set of morphological defects, a structure which normally disassembles in the spermatid. The time of appearance of developmental abnormalities in all of these mutants correlates with the temperature-sensitive periods for development of infertility. The observation that each of these mutants has a

  12. Differential angiogenic gene expression in TP53 wild-type and mutant ovarian cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Anne Davidson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Underlying mechanisms regulating angiogenesis in ovarian cancer have not been completely elucidated. Evidence suggests that the TP53 tumor suppressor pathway and tumor microenvironment play integral roles. We utilized microarray technology to study the interaction between TP53 mutational status & hypoxia on angiogenic gene expression.Methods: Affymetrix U133A arrays were analyzed for angiogenic gene expression in 19 ovarian cancer cell lines stratified both by TP53 mutation status and A2780 wild-type (wt TP53 vs. mutated (m TP53 cell lines after treatment under hypoxic conditions or with ionizing radiation. Results: Twenty-eight differentially expressed angiogenic genes were identified in the mTP53 cell lines compared to wtTP53 lines. Five genes were upregulated in mTP53 cells: 40% involved in extracellular matrix (ECM degradation (MMP10/15 and 60% in angiogenesis (FGFR3/VEGFA/EPHB4. Twenty-three genes were upregulated in wtTP53: nearly 22% were ECM constituents or involved in ECM degradation; over 40% were growth factors or mediators of angiogenesis. Five genes were upregulated in the A2780mTP53 cells: 40% involved in ECM remodeling (MMP10, ADAMTS1, 40% with pro-angiogenic activity (EFNB2, F2R, and 20% with anti-angiogenic properties (ADAMTS1. Three genes were upregulated in hypoxia treated cells compared to controls: 1 with anti-angiogenic activity (ANGPTL4 and 2 with pro-angiogenic activity (VEGFA, EFNA3. No significant gene fold changes were noted after exposure to radiation.Four genes continued to demonstrate significant differential expression (p≤0.05 after adjusting for multiple comparisons. These genes included ENG upregulation in wild-type lines and upregulation of FGF-20, ADAMTS1 & MMP10 in mTP53 lines.Conclusions: Our exploratory findings indicate that non-overlapping angiogenic pathways may be altered by TP53 mutations and hypoxic conditions in ththe tumor microenvironment. Further evaluation is needed for confirmation.

  13. Comparative whole genome sequence analysis of wild-type and cidofovir-resistant monkeypoxvirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huggins John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We performed whole genome sequencing of a cidofovir {[(S-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxy-propyl cytosine] [HPMPC]}-resistant (CDV-R strain of Monkeypoxvirus (MPV. Whole-genome comparison with the wild-type (WT strain revealed 55 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one tandem-repeat contraction. Over one-third of all identified SNPs were located within genes comprising the poxvirus replication complex, including the DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, mRNA capping methyltransferase, DNA processivity factor, and poly-A polymerase. Four polymorphic sites were found within the DNA polymerase gene. DNA polymerase mutations observed at positions 314 and 684 in MPV were consistent with CDV-R loci previously identified in Vaccinia virus (VACV. These data suggest the mechanism of CDV resistance may be highly conserved across Orthopoxvirus (OPV species. SNPs were also identified within virulence genes such as the A-type inclusion protein, serine protease inhibitor-like protein SPI-3, Schlafen ATPase and thymidylate kinase, among others. Aberrant chain extension induced by CDV may lead to diverse alterations in gene expression and viral replication that may result in both adaptive and attenuating mutations. Defining the potential contribution of substitutions in the replication complex and RNA processing machinery reported here may yield further insight into CDV resistance and may augment current therapeutic development strategies.

  14. Rapid and reliable extraction of genomic DNA from various wild-type and transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Moon-Sik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA extraction methods for PCR-quality DNA from calluses and plants are not time efficient, since they require that the tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by precipitation of the DNA pellet in ethanol, washing and drying the pellet, etc. The need for a rapid and simple procedure is urgent, especially when hundreds of samples need to be analyzed. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method of isolating high-quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification and enzyme digestion from calluses, various wild-type and transgenic plants. Results We developed new rapid and reliable genomic DNA extraction method. With our developed method, plant genomic DNA extraction could be performed within 30 min. The method was as follows. Plant tissue was homogenized with salt DNA extraction buffer using hand-operated homogenizer and extracted by phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1. After centrifugation, the supernatant was directly used for DNA template for PCR, resulting in successful amplification for RAPD from various sources of plants and specific foreign genes from transgenic plants. After precipitating the supernatant, the DNA was completely digested by restriction enzymes. Conclusion This DNA extraction procedure promises simplicity, speed, and efficiency, both in terms of time and the amount of plant sample required. In addition, this method does not require expensive facilities for plant genomic DNA extraction.

  15. Evaluation of short-interfering RNAs treatment in experimental rabies due to wild-type virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appolinario, Camila Michele; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Peres, Marina Gea; Fonseca, Clovis Reynaldo; Vicente, Acacia Ferreira; Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula; Pantoja, José Carlos Figueiredo; Megid, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of short-interfering RNAs targeting the nucleoprotein gene and also the brain immune response in treated and non-treated infected mice. Mice were inoculated with wild-type virus, classified as dog (hv2) or vampire bat (hv3) variants and both groups were treated or left as controls. No difference was observed in the lethality rate between treated and non-treated groups, although clinical evaluation of hv2 infected mice showed differences in the severity of clinical disease (p=0.0006). Evaluation of brain immune response 5 days post-inoculation in treated hv2 group showed no difference among the analyzed genes, whereas after 10 days post-inoculation there was increased expression of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 12, interferon gamma, and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 associated with higher expression of N gene in the same period (prabies treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Animal Personality Relates to Thermal Preference in Wild-Type Zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Sonia; Digka, Nikoletta; MacKenzie, Simon

    2015-06-01

    It has been widely supported that individual animals express different strategies to cope with environmental challenge. In ectothermic species such as fish, individuals must use behavioral thermoregulation mechanisms to optimize physiological performance. In the present study, thermal preference was tested in groups of wild-type zebrafish, Danio rerio, screened for proactive and reactive animal personalities. Three replicate groups of proactive, reactive, and naive randomly sampled non-screened controls were used for the experiments. The frequency distribution of the animals was recorded in a custom-built multichamber tank under both constant temperature (temperature restricted conditions: TR) and a continuous thermal gradient profile (temperature choice: TCh ranging from 21°C to 35°C). Proactive and reactive animal personalities expressed significantly different thermal preferences and general activity within the temperature gradient. Our results show that proactive fish, generally characterized as being more aggressive, bold risk takers, and prone to routine formation, have a preference for higher temperature environments. Reactive fish, which are shy, less risk-prone, and more flexible, favor medium colder temperatures. This is the first report of thermopreferendum in zebrafish where individual animal personality coupled to freedom of thermal choice has been applied to understand variation in individual preferences within a population.

  17. Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Giraldo, Juan P.; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Koman, Volodymyr B.; Sinclair, Rosalie; Lew, Tedrick Thomas Salim; Bisker, Gili; Liu, Pingwei; Strano, Michael S.

    2017-02-01

    Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors--single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal--embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm-1 leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.

  18. Intraperitoneal Infection of Wild-Type Mice with Synthetically Generated Mammalian Prion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhe; McGovern, Gillian; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Fei; Zha, Liang; Jeffrey, Martin; Ma, Jiyan

    2015-07-01

    The prion hypothesis postulates that the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is an unorthodox protein conformation based agent. Recent successes in generating mammalian prions in vitro with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein provide strong support for the hypothesis. However, whether the pathogenic properties of synthetically generated prion (rec-Prion) recapitulate those of naturally occurring prions remains unresolved. Using end-point titration assay, we showed that the in vitro prepared rec-Prions have infectious titers of around 104 LD50/μg. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation of wild-type mice with rec-Prion caused prion disease with an average survival time of 210-220 days post inoculation. Detailed pathological analyses revealed that the nature of rec-Prion induced lesions, including spongiform change, disease specific prion protein accumulation (PrP-d) and the PrP-d dissemination amongst lymphoid and peripheral nervous system tissues, the route and mechanisms of neuroinvasion were all typical of classical rodent prions. Our results revealed that, similar to naturally occurring prions, the rec-Prion has a titratable infectivity and is capable of causing prion disease via routes other than direct intra-cerebral challenge. More importantly, our results established that the rec-Prion caused disease is pathogenically and pathologically identical to naturally occurring contagious TSEs, supporting the concept that a conformationally altered protein agent is responsible for the infectivity in TSEs.

  19. Drought stress-induced compositional changes in tolerant transgenic rice and its wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyong-Hee; Kim, Do-Young; Shin, Hee Jae; Nam, Ki Jung; An, Joo Hee; Pack, In-Soon; Park, Jung-Ho; Jeong, Soon-Chun; Kim, Ho Bang; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2014-06-15

    Comparing well-watered versus deficit conditions, we evaluated the chemical composition of grains harvested from wild-type (WT) and drought-tolerant, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.). The latter had been developed by inserting AtCYP78A7, which encodes a cytochrome P450 protein. Two transgenic Lines, '10B-5' and '18A-4', and the 'Hwayoung' WT were grown under a rainout shelter. After the harvested grains were polished, their levels of key components, including proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins were analysed to determine the effect of watering system and genotype. Drought treatment significantly influenced the levels of some nutritional components in both transgenic and WT grains. In particular, the amounts of lignoceric acid and copper in the WT decreased by 12.6% and 39.5%, respectively, by drought stress, whereas those of copper and potassium in the transgenics rose by 88.1-113.3% and 10.4-11.9%, respectively, under water-deficit conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of short-interfering RNAs treatment in experimental rabies due to wild-type virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Michele Appolinario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the efficacy of short-interfering RNAs targeting the nucleoprotein gene and also the brain immune response in treated and non-treated infected mice. Mice were inoculated with wild-type virus, classified as dog (hv2 or vampire bat (hv3 variants and both groups were treated or leaved as controls. No difference was observed in the lethality rate between treated and non-treated groups, although clinical evaluation of hv2 infected mice showed differences in the severity of clinical disease (p = 0.0006. Evaluation of brain immune response 5 days post-inoculation in treated hv2 group showed no difference among the analyzed genes, whereas after 10 days post-inoculation there was increased expression of 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 12, interferon gamma, and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 associated with higher expression of N gene in the same period (p < 0.0001. In hv2 non-treated group only higher interferon beta expression was found at day 5. The observed differences in results of the immune response genes between treated and non-treated groups is not promising as they had neither impact on mortality nor even a reduction in the expression of N gene in siRNA treated animals. This finding suggests that the use of pre-designed siRNA alone may not be useful in rabies treatment.

  1. Intraperitoneal Infection of Wild-Type Mice with Synthetically Generated Mammalian Prion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhe Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prion hypothesis postulates that the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs is an unorthodox protein conformation based agent. Recent successes in generating mammalian prions in vitro with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein provide strong support for the hypothesis. However, whether the pathogenic properties of synthetically generated prion (rec-Prion recapitulate those of naturally occurring prions remains unresolved. Using end-point titration assay, we showed that the in vitro prepared rec-Prions have infectious titers of around 104 LD50/μg. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p. inoculation of wild-type mice with rec-Prion caused prion disease with an average survival time of 210-220 days post inoculation. Detailed pathological analyses revealed that the nature of rec-Prion induced lesions, including spongiform change, disease specific prion protein accumulation (PrP-d and the PrP-d dissemination amongst lymphoid and peripheral nervous system tissues, the route and mechanisms of neuroinvasion were all typical of classical rodent prions. Our results revealed that, similar to naturally occurring prions, the rec-Prion has a titratable infectivity and is capable of causing prion disease via routes other than direct intra-cerebral challenge. More importantly, our results established that the rec-Prion caused disease is pathogenically and pathologically identical to naturally occurring contagious TSEs, supporting the concept that a conformationally altered protein agent is responsible for the infectivity in TSEs.

  2. Synovial deposition of wild-type transthyretin-derived amyloid in knee joint osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Masayuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Yamazaki, Hideshi; Nawata, Masashi; Katagiri, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    To investigate histological features of deposited amyloid in the synovial tissue and its clinical significance in knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We prospectively enrolled 232 consecutive patients who underwent arthroplasty or total replacement of the knee joint for treatment of OA. Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry were performed in the synovial tissue obtained at surgery. When transthyretin (TTR)-derived amyloid was positive, we analyzed all 4 exons of the TTR gene using the direct DNA sequencing method in order to detect mutations. We analyzed 322 specimens in this study. Twenty-six specimens (8.1%) obtained from 21 patients (5 men and 16 women; mean, 79.0 ± 4.6 years) showed deposition of amyloid, which was positively stained with the anti-TTR antibody. Eighteen patients showed inhomogeneous accumulations of amyloid in the loose connective tissue under the synovial epithelia sometimes with nodule formation, while in the remaining three, small vessels in the adipose tissue were involved. Medical records of these patients revealed nothing remarkable in the clinical course, laboratory data or macroscopic intraarticular findings at surgery. No mutations were detectable in the TTR gene analysis. Wild-type TTR-derived amyloid may affect the synovial tissue as a result of long-term mechanical stress or as a part of senile systemic amyloidosis in approximately 8% of knee joint OA patients. No obvious clinical significance was found in synovial deposition of amyloid.

  3. Ultrastructural analysis of wild type and mutant Drosophila melanogaster using helium ion microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseman, Adam; Nowlin, Kyle; Ashraf, Sarmadia; Yang, Jijin; Lajeunesse, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Insects have evolved numerous adaptations to survive a variety of environmental conditions. Given that the primary interface between insects and the environment is mediated through their skin or cuticle, many of these adaptations are found in extraordinary cuticle diversity both in morphology and structure. Not all of these adaptions manifest themselves in changes in the chemical composition of the cuticle but rather as elaborations of the surface structures of the cuticle. Typically the examination of these micro- and nanoscale structures has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Typically, in order to decrease surface charging and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface, but this layer limits the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. In this paper we use a new technology, helium ion microscopy (HIM) to examine surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant Drosophila. Helium ion microscopy permits high resolution imaging of biological samples without the need for coating. We compare HIM to traditional SEM and demonstrate certain advantages of this type of microscopy, with our focus being high resolution characterization of nanostructures on the cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster and potentially other biological specimens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wild type beta-2 microglobulin and DE loop mutants display a common fibrillar architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Natalello

    Full Text Available Beta-2 microglobulin (β2m is the protein responsible for a pathologic condition known as dialysis related amyloidosis. In recent years an important role has been assigned to the peptide loop linking strands D and E (DE loop in determining β2m stability and amyloid propensity. Several mutants of the DE loop have been studied, showing a good correlation between DE loop geometrical strain, protein stability and aggregation propensity. However, it remains unclear whether the aggregates formed by wild type (wt β2m and by the DE loop variants are of the same kind, or whether the mutations open new aggregation pathways. In order to address this question, fibrillar samples of wt and mutated β2m variants have been analysed by means of atomic force microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The data here reported indicate that the DE loop mutants form aggregates with morphology and structural organisation very similar to the wt protein. Therefore, the main effect of β2m DE loop mutations is proposed to stem from the different stabilities of the native fold. Considerations on the structural role of the DE loop in the free monomeric β2m and as part of the Major Histocompatibility Complex are also presented.

  5. Respiratory patterns reflect different levels of aggressiveness and emotionality in Wild-type Groningen rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory patterns represent a promising physiological index for assessing emotional states in preclinical studies. Since disturbed emotional regulation may lead to forms of excessive aggressiveness, in this study we investigated the hypothesis that rats that differ largely in their level of aggressive behavior display matching alterations in respiration. Respiration was recorded in male high-aggressive (HA, n = 8) and non-aggressive (NA, n = 8) Wild-type Groningen rats using whole-body plethysmography. Subsequently, anxiety-related behaviors were evaluated in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance-approach tests. During respiratory testing, HA rats showed elevated basal respiratory rate, reduced sniffing, exaggerated tachypnoeic response to an acoustic stimulus and a larger incidence of sighs. In addition, HA rats spent less time in the open arms of the plus maze and displayed higher levels of social avoidance behavior compared to NA rats. These findings indicate that HA rats are characterized by alterations in respiratory functioning and behavior that are overall indicative of an anxiety-like phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator in a Human Sarcoma Cellular Model for Metastasis in Athymic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Steffens, G.J., Otting, F., Kim, S.M.A., 131 Frankus, E. and Flohe , L. (1982). Structural relationship between human high and low mass urokinase...W.A., Otting, F., Frankus, E. and Flohe , L. (1982). The complete amino acid sequence of low molecular mass urokinase from human urine. Hoppe-Seyler’s

  7. Identification of enzymes and quantification of metabolic fluxes in the wild type and in a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Two alpha-amylase-producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae, a wild-type strain and a recombinant containing additional copies of the alpha-amylase gene, were characterized,vith respect to enzyme activities, localization of enzymes to the mitochondria or cytosol, macromolecular composition...

  8. Effect of deuterium on the circadian period and metabolism in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Homozygous tau mutant Syrian hamsters (tau-/-) have a free-running circadian period (tau) around 20 h and a proportionally higher metabolic rate compared with wild-type hamsters (tau+/+) with a period of circa 24 h. In this study, we applied deuterium oxide (D2O) to hamsters to test whether

  9. Seasonal variations of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants compared with the diploid wild-type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, T.E.; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    1999-01-01

    Using colchicine we induced tetraploidy in Artemisia annua L. plants. During a vegetation period we monitored the time course of the levels of artemisinin, its direct precursors, the biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes and the essential oil content in the diploid (wild-type) and tetraploid A.

  10. Prephenate dehydratase of the actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica : purification and characterization of wild-type and deregulated mutant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, Gerrit J.W.; Wolters, Diederik J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1995-01-01

    Prephenate dehydratase (PDT) is a key regulatory enzyme in L-phenylalanine biosynthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis methanolica. The PDT protein was purified to homogeneity (1957-fold) from wild-type cells with a final yield of 6.5%. It was characterized as a 150 kDa homotetrameric

  11. A comparative study of cytokinins in caryopsis development in the maize miniature 1 seed mutant and its wild type

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here a comparative developmental profile of cytokinins, both total quantity and diversity of various forms, in relation to cell size, cell number and endoreduplication in developing caryopses of a cell wall invertase-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant and its wild type, Mn1, genotype. ...

  12. Effects of cross-feeding anarchistic and wild type honey bees: anarchistic workers are not queen-like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2003-04-01

    Unlike normal (wild type) honey bee ( Apis mellifera) colonies, 'anarchistic' colonies are characterised by workers that activate their ovaries in the presence of the queen and brood and by the ability of their workers to lay eggs that evade worker policing. In the Cape honey bee ( A. m. capensis), female larvae can manipulate non- capensis nurse workers such that they receive more larval food and develop into worker-queen intermediates or intercastes. We speculated that, in anarchistic colonies, larvae might produce signals that result in excessive feeding of female larvae. Excessively fed female larvae may then develop into reproductively active workers. In this study we cross-fostered anarchistic and wild type brood and investigated the effect of cross-fostering on the amount of food fed to larvae and on the morphology of the resulting workers. We show that anarchistic larvae do not manipulate wild type nurse workers into feeding them more, nor do anarchistic workers develop into worker-queen intermediates. On the contrary, anarchistic larvae are fed less than wild type larvae and anarchistic workers seem to be poor nurses in that they feed larvae less, irrespective of brood genotype.

  13. Purification and cellular localization of wild type and mutated dihydrolipoyltransacetylases from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli expressed in E. coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, Egbert; Westphal, Adrie H.; Veenhuis, Marten; Kok, Arie de

    1992-01-01

    Wild type dihydrolipoyltransacetylase(E2p)-components from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of A. vinelandii or E. coli, and mutants of A. vinelandii E2p with stepwise deletions of the lipoyl domains or the alanine- and proline-rich region between the binding and the catalytic domain have been

  14. Effects of social stress and intrauterine position on sexual phenotype in wild-type house mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John G. Vandenbergh; Monica M. Montano

    1991-01-01

    Wild-type house mice were used to test the effect of intrauterine position on anogenital distance (AGD) and to verify whether crowding stress would masculinize female pups, developing at all intrauterine positions, as has been demonstrated in CF-1 mice stressed by restraint, heat, and...

  15. 5-FU Based Maintenance Therapy in RAS Wild Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer After Induction With FOLFOX Plus Panitumumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Colorectal Adenocarcinoma; RAS Wild Type; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  16. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV...

  17. Candida albicans Als3p is required for wild-type biofilm formation on silicone elastomer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Daniels, Karla J; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Green, Clayton B; Yeater, Kathleen M; Soll, David R; Hoyer, Lois L

    2006-08-01

    Candida albicans ALS3 encodes a large cell-surface glycoprotein that has adhesive properties. Immunostaining of cultured C. albicans germ tubes showed that Als3p is distributed diffusely across the germ tube surface. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of model catheter biofilms grown using a PALS3-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter strain showed GFP production in hyphae throughout the biofilm structure while biofilms grown using a PTPI1-GFP reporter strain showed GFP in both hyphae and yeast-form cells. Model catheter biofilms formed by an als3 Delta/als3 Delta strain were weakened structurally and had approximately half the biomass of a wild-type biofilm. Reintegration of a wild-type ALS3 allele restored biofilm mass and wild-type biofilm structure. Production of an Als3p-Ag alpha 1p fusion protein under control of the ALS3 promoter in the als3 Delta/als3 Delta strain restored some of the wild-type biofilm structural features, but not the wild-type biofilm mass. Despite its inability to restore wild-type biofilm mass, the Als3p-Ag alpha 1p fusion protein mediated adhesion of the als3 Delta/als3 Delta C. albicans strain to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs). The adhesive role of the Als3p N-terminal domain was further demonstrated by blocking adhesion of C. albicans to BECs with immunoglobulin reactive against the Als3p N-terminal sequences. Together, these data suggest that portions of Als3p that are important for biofilm formation may be different from those that are important in BEC adhesion, and that Als3p may have multiple functions in biofilm formation. Overexpression of ALS3 in an efg1 Delta/efg1 Delta strain that was deficient for filamentous growth and biofilm formation resulted in growth of elongated C. albicans cells, even under culture conditions that do not favour filamentation. In the catheter biofilm model, the ALS3 overexpression strain formed biofilm with a mass similar to that of a wild-type control. However, C. albicans cells in the

  18. Immunoproteasome-deficiency has no effects on NK cell education, but confers lymphocytes into targets for NK cells in infected wild-type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary J G van Helden

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are part of the innate immune system and contribute to the eradication of virus infected cells and tumors. NK cells express inhibitory and activating receptors and their decision to kill a target cell is based on the balance of signals received through these receptors. MHC class I molecules are recognized by inhibitory receptors, and their presence during NK cell education influences the responsiveness of peripheral NK cells. We here demonstrate that mice with reduced MHC class I cell surface expression, due to deficiency of immunoproteasomes, have responsive NK cells in the periphery, indicating that the lower MHC class I levels do not alter NK cell education. Following adoptive transfer into wild-type (wt recipients, immunoproteasome-deficient splenocytes are tolerated in naive but rejected in virus-infected recipients, in an NK cell dependent fashion. These results indicate that the relatively low MHC class I levels are sufficient to protect these cells from rejection by wt NK cells, but that this tolerance is broken in infection, inducing an NK cell-dependent rejection of immunoproteasome-deficient cells.

  19. Disappearance of GFP-positive hepatocytes transplanted into the liver of syngeneic wild-type rats pretreated with retrorsine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Wang, Yongchun; Fu, Yingxin; Wesson, Russell N; Lin, Qing; Montgomery, Robert A; Enzan, Hideaki; Sun, Zhaoli

    2014-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a widely used molecular tag to trace transplanted cells in rodent liver injury models. The differing results from various previously reported studies using GFP could be attributed to the immunogenicity of GFP. Hepatocytes were obtained from GFP-expressing transgenic (Tg) Lewis rats and were transplanted into the livers of wild-type Lewis rats after they had undergone a partial hepatectomy. The proliferation of endogenous hepatocytes in recipient rats was inhibited by pretreatment with retrorsine to enhance the proliferation of the transplanted hepatocytes. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes into GFP-Tg rat liver was also performed for comparison. All biopsy specimens taken seven days after transplantation showed engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes, with the numbers of transplanted hepatocytes increasing until day 14. GFP-positive hepatocytes in wild-type rat livers were decreased by day 28 and could not be detected on day 42, whereas the number of wild-type hepatocytes steadily increased in GFP-Tg rat liver. Histological examination showed degenerative change of GFP-positive hepatocytes and the accumulation of infiltrating cells on day 28. PCR analysis for the GFP transgene suggested that transplanted hepatocytes were eliminated rather than being retained along with the loss of GFP expression. Both modification of the immunological response using tacrolimus and bone marrow transplantation prolonged the survival of GFP-positive hepatocytes. In contrast, host immunization with GFP-positive hepatocytes led to complete loss of GFP-positive hepatocytes by day 14. GFP-positive hepatocytes isolated from GFP-Tg Lewis rats did not survive long term in the livers of retrorsine-pretreated wild-type Lewis rats. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon most likely involves an immunological reaction against GFP. The influence of GFP immunogenicity on cell transplantation models should be considered in planning in vivo experiments

  20. Evolution after introduction of a novel metabolic pathway consistently leads to restoration of wild-type physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Michael Carroll

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms cope with physiological stressors through acclimatizing mechanisms in the short-term and adaptive mechanisms over evolutionary timescales. During adaptation to an environmental or genetic perturbation, beneficial mutations can generate numerous physiological changes: some will be novel with respect to prior physiological states, while others might either restore acclimatizing responses to a wild-type state, reinforce them further, or leave them unchanged. We examined the interplay of acclimatizing and adaptive responses at the level of global gene expression in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 engineered with a novel central metabolism. Replacing central metabolism with a distinct, foreign pathway resulted in much slower growth than wild-type. After 600 generations of adaptation, however, eight replicate populations founded from this engineered ancestor had improved up to 2.5-fold. A comparison of global gene expression in wild-type, engineered, and all eight evolved strains revealed that the vast majority of changes during physiological adaptation effectively restored acclimatizing processes to wild-type expression states. On average, 93% of expression perturbations from the engineered strain were restored, with 70% of these occurring in perfect parallel across all eight replicate populations. Novel changes were common but typically restricted to one or a few lineages, and reinforcing changes were quite rare. Despite this, cases in which expression was novel or reinforced in parallel were enriched for loci harboring beneficial mutations. One case of parallel, reinforced changes was the pntAB transhydrogenase that uses NADH to reduce NADP(+ to NADPH. We show that PntAB activity was highly correlated with the restoration of NAD(H and NADP(H pools perturbed in the engineered strain to wild-type levels, and with improved growth. These results suggest that much of the evolved response to genetic perturbation was a consequence rather than a

  1. Anthelmintic effect of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta on wild-type and Levamisole-resistant Caenorhabditis elegans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Vázquez, Denia M; Mayoral-Peña, Zyanya; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Arellano-Carbajal, Fausto

    2017-04-18

    Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta have been used traditionally to treat gastrointestinal parasites, but their active metabolites and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. To evaluate the anthelmintic potential of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta extracts on Levamisole-sensitive and Levamisole-resistant strains of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (PGE) and Tagetes erecta (TEE) were assayed on locomotion and egg-laying behaviors of the wild-type (N2) and Levamisole-resistant (CB193) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. Both extracts paralyzed wild-type and Levamisole-resistant nematodes in a dose-dependent manner. In wild-type worms, TEE 25mg/mL induced a 75% paralysis after 8h of treatment and PGE 25mg/mL induced a 100% paralysis after 4h of treatment. PGE exerted a similar paralyzing effect on N2 wild-type and CB193 Levamisole-resistant worms, while TEE only partially paralyzed CB193 worms. TEE 25mg/mL decreased N2 egg-laying by 65% with respect to the untreated control, while PGE did it by 40%. Psidium guajava leaves and Tagetes erecta flower-heads possess hydrosoluble compounds that block the motility of Caenorhabditis elegans by a mechanism different to that of the anthelmintic drug Levamisole. Effects are also observable on oviposition, which was diminished in the wild-type worms. The strong anthelmintic effects in crude extracts of these plants warrants future work to identify their active compounds and to elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene expression profiling of the retina after transcorneal electrical stimulation in wild-type Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Gabriel; Schäferhoff, Karin; Fischer, Manuel D; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca; Bolz, Sylvia; Naycheva, Lubka; Röck, Tobias; Bonin, Michael; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Zrenner, Eberhart; Schatz, Andreas; Gekeler, Florian

    2011-09-29

    Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) has been beneficial in several neurodegenerative ocular diseases, but the exact mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TES on the retinas of wild-type Brown Norway (BN) rats by gene expression profiling and to assess its effects on retinal function and morphology. TES was applied to BN wild-type rat retinas in vivo for 1 hour (1-ms biphasic pulses at 20 Hz; 200 μA). RNA was isolated and processed for microarray-based profiling 4 hours after TES; differentially expressed genes from TES compared with those from sham-treated animals were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the effect of TES was assessed at the structural and functional levels using electroretinography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and immunohistochemistry. Transcriptome changes associated with TES versus sham-stimulated BN wild-type retina were identified. Four hundred ninety genes were differentially expressed in TES and included potentially neuroprotective genes such as Bax or members of the tumor necrosis factor family (Tnfrsf11b, Tnrsf12a, Tnfsf13b, Tnfsf13). ERG recordings showed physiological retinal function after TES, and structural in vivo and ex vivo studies revealed intact retinal anatomy. These results demonstrate that TES applied to the retina of the wild-type BN rats induces distinct transcriptome level changes and may help in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying TES. In addition, TES treatment indicates no negative effect on structure and function of the wild-type BN retina up to 35 hours after application.

  3. Stimulus control by 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J C; Amorosi, D J; Rice, Kenner C; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-09-01

    In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The two groups did not differ in their rate of acquisition of stimulus control. When tested with bufotenine, no 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding was observed. In contrast, the more lipid soluble analog of bufotenine, acetylbufotenine, was followed by an intermediate level of responding. The combination of harmaline with 5-MeO-DMT yielded a statistically significant increase in 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice; a comparable increase occurred in wild-type mice. In addition, it was noted that harmaline alone was followed by a significant degree of 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. It is concluded that wild-type and Tg-CYPD2D6 mice do not differ in terms of acquisition of stimulus control by 5-MeO-DMT or in their response to bufotenine and acetylbufotenine. In both groups of mice, harmaline was found to enhance the stimulus effects of 5-MeO-DMT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stimulus control by 5methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. C.; Amorosi, D. J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The two groups did not differ in their rate of acquisition of stimulus control. When tested with bufotenine, no 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding was observed. In contrast, the more lipid soluble analog of bufotenine, acetylbufotenine, was followed by an intermediate level of responding. The combination of harmaline with 5-MeO-DMT yielded a statistically significant increase in 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice; a comparable increase occurred in wild-type mice. In addition, it was noted that harmaline alone was followed by a significant degree of 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. It is concluded that wild-type and Tg-CYPD2D6 mice do not differ in terms of acquisition of stimulus control by 5-MeO-DMT or in their response to bufotenine and acetylbufotenine. In both groups of mice, harmaline was found to enhance the stimulus effects of 5-MeO-DMT. PMID:21624387

  5. [Study of the effect of 2 inhibitors of nucleotide synthesis, aminopterin and fluorodeoxyuridine, on wild type strains and vestigial mutants in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Menn, A; Silber, J; Goux, J M

    1983-01-01

    Two inhibitors of nucleotide metabolism, aminopterin and FUdR, were tested on a wild type strain, on two mutant strains: vg and vgnp, and on a vg strain with the wild type genetic background. Without inhibitors, a lengthening of the developing time was observed for the mutant strains compared to the wild type. With aminopterin, larval mortality and lengthening of developing time are significantly higher in the wild type than in the mutant strains. Mutant strains seemed to be resistant to low concentrations of FUdR. The hypothesis of a perturbed pyrimidine metabolism in the mutants seems to be confirmed.

  6. Enzyme replacement in a human model of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA in vitro and its biodistribution in the cartilage of wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Dvorak-Ewell

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase (GALNS, an enzyme that degrades keratan sulfate (KS. Currently no therapy for MPS IVA is available. We produced recombinant human (rhGALNS as a potential enzyme replacement therapy for MPS IVA. Chinese hamster ovary cells stably overexpressing GALNS and sulfatase modifying factor-1 were used to produce active ( approximately 2 U/mg and pure (>or=97% rhGALNS. The recombinant enzyme was phosphorylated and was dose-dependently taken up by mannose-6-phosphate receptor (K(uptake = 2.5 nM, thereby restoring enzyme activity in MPS IVA fibroblasts. In the absence of an animal model with a skeletal phenotype, we established chondrocytes isolated from two MPS IVA patients as a disease model in vitro. MPS IVA chondrocyte GALNS activity was not detectable and the cells exhibited KS storage up to 11-fold higher than unaffected chondrocytes. MPS IVA chondrocytes internalized rhGALNS into lysosomes, resulting in normalization of enzyme activity and decrease in KS storage. rhGALNS treatment also modulated gene expression, increasing expression of chondrogenic genes Collagen II, Collagen X, Aggrecan and Sox9 and decreasing abnormal expression of Collagen I. Intravenous administration of rhGALNS resulted in biodistribution throughout all layers of the heart valve and the entire thickness of the growth plate in wild-type mice. We show that enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human GALNS results in clearance of keratan sulfate accumulation, and that such treatment ameliorates aberrant gene expression in human chondrocytes in vitro. Penetration of the therapeutic enzyme throughout poorly vascularized, but clinically relevant tissues, including growth plate cartilage and heart valve, as well as macrophages and hepatocytes in wild-type mouse, further supports development of rhGALNS as enzyme replacement therapy for

  7. Sexual dimorphism in oxidant-induced adaptive homeostasis in multiple wild-type D. melanogaster strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Laura C D; Wong, Sarah; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2017-12-15

    Sexual dimorphism includes the physical and reproductive differences between the sexes, including differences that are conserved across species, ranging from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Sex-dependent variations in adaptive homeostasis, and adaptive stress responses may offer insight into the underlying mechanisms for male and female survival differences and into differences in chronic disease incidence and severity in humans. Earlier work showed sex-specific differences in adaptive responses to oxidative stressors in hybrid laboratory strains of D. melanogaster. The present study explored whether this phenomenon is also observed in wild-type D. melanogaster strains Oregon-R (Or-R) and Canton-S (Ca-S), as well as the common mutant reference strain w[1118], in order to better understand whether such findings are descriptive of D. melanogaster in general. Flies of each strain were pretreated with non-damaging, adaptive concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or of different redox cycling agents (paraquat, DMNQ, or menadione). Adaptive homeostasis, and changes in the expression of the Proteasome and overall cellular proteasomal proteolytic capacity were assessed. Redox cycling agents exhibited a male-specific adaptive response, whereas H2O2 exposure provoked female-specific adaptation. These findings demonstrate that different oxidants can elicit sexually dimorphic adaptive homeostatic responses in multiple fly strains. These results (and those contained in a parallel study [1]) highlight the need to address sex as a biological variable in fundamental science, clinical research, and toxicology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spaceflight influences both mucosal and peripheral cytokine production in PTN-Tg and wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L McCarville

    Full Text Available Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS aboard the International Space Station (ISS over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.

  9. Differences in Establishment of Persistence of Vaccine and Wild Type Rubella Viruses in Fetal Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Perelygina

    Full Text Available Both wild type (WT and vaccine rubella virus (RV can pass through the placenta to infect a human fetus, but only wtRV routinely causes pathology. To investigate possible reasons for this, we compared establishment of persistence of wtRV and RA27/3 vaccine strains in fetal endothelial cells. We showed that yields of RA27/3 and wtRV were similar after the first round of replication, but then only vaccine-infected cultures went through a crisis characterized by partial cell loss and gradual decline of virus titer followed by recovery and establishment of persistent cultures with low levels of RA27/3 secretion. We compared various steps of virus replication, but we were unable to identify changes, which might explain the 2-log difference in RA27/3 and wtRV yields in persistently infected cultures. Whole genome sequencing did not reveal selection of virus variants in either the wtRV or RA27/3 cultures. Quantitative single-cell analysis of RV replication by in situ hybridization detected, on average, 1-4 copies of negative-strand RNA and ~50 copies of positive-strand genomic RNA in cells infected with both vaccine and WT viruses. The distinct characteristics of RA27/3 replication were the presence of large amounts of negative-strand RV RNA and RV dsRNA at the beginning of the crisis and the accumulation of high amounts of genomic RNA in a subpopulation of infected cells during crisis and persistence. These results suggest that RA27/3 can persist in fetal endothelial cells, but the characteristics of persistence and mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of persistence are different from wtRV.

  10. Differences in Establishment of Persistence of Vaccine and Wild Type Rubella Viruses in Fetal Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelygina, Ludmila; Adebayo, Adebola; Metcalfe, Maureen; Icenogle, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Both wild type (WT) and vaccine rubella virus (RV) can pass through the placenta to infect a human fetus, but only wtRV routinely causes pathology. To investigate possible reasons for this, we compared establishment of persistence of wtRV and RA27/3 vaccine strains in fetal endothelial cells. We showed that yields of RA27/3 and wtRV were similar after the first round of replication, but then only vaccine-infected cultures went through a crisis characterized by partial cell loss and gradual decline of virus titer followed by recovery and establishment of persistent cultures with low levels of RA27/3 secretion. We compared various steps of virus replication, but we were unable to identify changes, which might explain the 2-log difference in RA27/3 and wtRV yields in persistently infected cultures. Whole genome sequencing did not reveal selection of virus variants in either the wtRV or RA27/3 cultures. Quantitative single-cell analysis of RV replication by in situ hybridization detected, on average, 1-4 copies of negative-strand RNA and ~50 copies of positive-strand genomic RNA in cells infected with both vaccine and WT viruses. The distinct characteristics of RA27/3 replication were the presence of large amounts of negative-strand RV RNA and RV dsRNA at the beginning of the crisis and the accumulation of high amounts of genomic RNA in a subpopulation of infected cells during crisis and persistence. These results suggest that RA27/3 can persist in fetal endothelial cells, but the characteristics of persistence and mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of persistence are different from wtRV.

  11. Largely different contents of terpenoids in beef red-flesh tangerine and its wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyun; Liu, Cuihua; He, Min; Li, Jinqiang; Cai, Yongqiang; Ma, Yuhua; Xu, Juan

    2017-02-03

    Niurouhong (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Niurouhong) (NRH) is a spontaneous beef-red flesh mutant with distinctive flavor compared with its wild type orange-red flesh Zhuhongju (ZHJ). To illustrate the biochemical mechanism of its special flesh color and flavor, fruits at commercial mature stage were used to profile the volatiles in the flavedo and determine the levels of carotenoids, limonoid aglycones and phytohormones in the juice sacs in two seasons. Our results showed the content of total volatile terpenoids in NRH was 1.27-fold that in ZHJ. The components of volatiles were found to be common between the two tangerines. This result indicates that the distinctive flavor of NRH might not be derived from the presence/absence of specific volatiles; instead, it was derived from the altered concentrations or balance of α-citral, β-citral, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, (S)-3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl) and n-hexadecanoic acid. Analyses of the contents of total and specific carotenoids indicated that the beef-red color of NRH flesh might be largely attributed to the over accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. However, lower ABA level was found in NRH than in ZHJ, reflecting a possible feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis on carotenogenesis and the balance in the metabolism among terpenoids. Collectively, our study suggested that the MEP pathway was enhanced in NRH tangerine. However, a certain unknown co-regulatory mechanism might be present in the metabolism pathway of secondary metabolites (especially terpenoids) in beef-red flesh mutant. Our study provides new insights into the regulatory network of terpenoid metabolism and mutation mechanism of red-fleshed citrus.

  12. Interactions between wild-type and mutant Ras genes in lung and skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, M D; Rosario, R D; Westcott, P M K; Banta, K L; Balmain, A

    2013-08-22

    Ras oncogenes (Hras, Kras and Nras) are important drivers of carcinogenesis. However, tumors with Ras mutations often show loss of the corresponding wild-type (WT) allele, suggesting that proto-oncogenic forms of Ras can function as a suppressor of carcinogenesis. In vitro studies also suggest that WT Ras proteins can suppress the tumorigenic properties of alternate mutant Ras family members, but in vivo evidence for these heterologous interactions is lacking. We have investigated the genetic interactions between different combinations of mutant and WT Ras alleles in vivo using carcinogen-induced lung and skin carcinogenesis in mice with targeted deletion of different Ras family members. The major suppressor effect of WT Kras is observed only in mutant Kras-driven lung carcinogenesis, where loss of one Kras allele led to increased tumor number and size. Deletion of one Hras allele dramatically reduced the number of skin papillomas with Hras mutations, consistent with Hras as the major target of mutation in these tumors. However, skin carcinoma numbers were very similar, suggesting that WT Hras functions as a suppressor of progression from papillomas to invasive squamous carcinomas. In the skin, the Kras proto-oncogene functions cooperatively with mutant Hras to promote papilloma development, although the effect is relatively small. In contrast, the Hras proto-oncogene attenuated the activity of mutant Kras in lung carcinogenesis. Interestingly, loss of Nras increased the number of mutant Kras-induced lung tumors, but decreased the number of mutant Hras-induced skin papillomas. These results show that the strongest suppressor effects of WT Ras are only seen in the context of mutation of the cognate Ras protein, and only relatively weak effects are detected on tumor development induced by mutations in alternative family members. The data also underscore the complex and context-dependent nature of interactions between proto-oncogenic and oncogenic forms of different

  13. Spaceflight influences both mucosal and peripheral cytokine production in PTN-Tg and wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, Justin L; Clarke, Sandra T; Shastri, Padmaja; Liu, Yi; Kalmokoff, Martin; Brooks, Stephen P J; Green-Johnson, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt) and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg) were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.

  14. Noncanonical DNA motifs as transactivation targets by wild type and mutant p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Jordan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-specific binding by the human p53 master regulator is critical to its tumor suppressor activity in response to environmental stresses. p53 binds as a tetramer to two decameric half-sites separated by 0-13 nucleotides (nt, originally defined by the consensus RRRCWWGYYY (n = 0-13 RRRCWWGYYY. To better understand the role of sequence, organization, and level of p53 on transactivation at target response elements (REs by wild type (WT and mutant p53, we deconstructed the functional p53 canonical consensus sequence using budding yeast and human cell systems. Contrary to early reports on binding in vitro, small increases in distance between decamer half-sites greatly reduces p53 transactivation, as demonstrated for the natural TIGER RE. This was confirmed with human cell extracts using a newly developed, semi-in vitro microsphere binding assay. These results contrast with the synergistic increase in transactivation from a pair of weak, full-site REs in the MDM2 promoter that are separated by an evolutionary conserved 17 bp spacer. Surprisingly, there can be substantial transactivation at noncanonical (1/2-(a single decamer and (3/4-sites, some of which were originally classified as biologically relevant canonical consensus sequences including PIDD and Apaf-1. p53 family members p63 and p73 yielded similar results. Efficient transactivation from noncanonical elements requires tetrameric p53, and the presence of the carboxy terminal, non-specific DNA binding domain enhanced transactivation from noncanonical sequences. Our findings demonstrate that RE sequence, organization, and level of p53 can strongly impact p53-mediated transactivation, thereby changing the view of what constitutes a functional p53 target. Importantly, inclusion of (1/2- and (3/4-site REs greatly expands the p53 master regulatory network.

  15. Wild-type APC predicts poor prognosis in microsatellite-stable proximal colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, Robert N; Christie, Michael; Mouradov, Dmitri; Sakthianandeswaren, Anuratha; Li, Shan; Love, Christopher; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Molloy, Peter L; Jones, Ian T; McLaughlin, Stephen; Ward, Robyn L; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Moore, James; Burgess, Antony W; Busam, Dana; Zhao, Qi; Strausberg, Robert L; Lipton, Lara; Desai, Jayesh; Gibbs, Peter; Sieber, Oliver M

    2015-09-15

    APC mutations (APC-mt) occur in ∼70% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but their relationship to prognosis is unclear. APC prognostic value was evaluated in 746 stage I-IV CRC patients, stratifying for tumour location and microsatellite instability (MSI). Microarrays were used to identify a gene signature that could classify APC mutation status, and classifier ability to predict prognosis was examined in an independent cohort. Wild-type APC microsatellite stable (APC-wt/MSS) tumours from the proximal colon showed poorer overall and recurrence-free survival (OS, RFS) than APC-mt/MSS proximal, APC-wt/MSS distal and APC-mt/MSS distal tumours (OS HR⩾1.79, P⩽0.015; RFS HR⩾1.88, P⩽0.026). APC was a stronger prognostic indicator than BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53, CpG island methylator phenotype or chromosomal instability status (P⩽0.036). Microarray analysis similarly revealed poorer survival in MSS proximal cancers with an APC-wt-like signature (P=0.019). APC status did not affect outcomes in MSI tumours. In a validation on 206 patients with proximal colon cancer, APC-wt-like signature MSS cases showed poorer survival than APC-mt-like signature MSS or MSI cases (OS HR⩾2.50, P⩽0.010; RFS HR⩾2.14, P⩽0.025). Poor prognosis APC-wt/MSS proximal tumours exhibited features of the sessile serrated neoplasia pathway (P⩽0.016). APC-wt status is a marker of poor prognosis in MSS proximal colon cancer.

  16. Quantitation of circulating wild-type alpha-1-antitrypsin in heterozygous carriers of the S and Z deficiency alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, L J; Karras, R M; Katzmann, J A; Murray, D L; Snyder, M R

    2015-08-05

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency disease results from mutations in the A1AT gene. Controversy exists in regards to treatment of heterozygous carriers of the S and Z deficiency alleles. Quantitation of allelic expression has not been possible with standard laboratory methods. Here we show that the recently described method for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of A1AT tryptic peptides can differentiate between mutated (S and Z) and wild-type (non-S and non-Z) proteins allowing for quantitation of circulating allelic expression in heterozygous patients. Serum (244 M/M, 61 M/Z, and 63 M/S) was combined with isotopically labeled peptide standards, digested with trypsin, and quantitated by LC-MS/MS. Total and allele-specific A1AT quantitation was performed by comparison of peptide peak height ratios to a standard curve for each peptide. Linear regression was used to compare results and central 95(th) percentile intervals were calculated using parametric analysis. Quantitation of circulating wild-type A1AT based on the proteotypic and allelic (non-S and non-Z) peptides was validated in M/M patients. Proteotypic peptide concentrations correlated linearly with quantitation by non-Z and non-S peptides [slopes (Spearman correlation coefficient) of 1.09 (0.89) and 0.98 (0.80), respectively]. Allele-specific quantitation showed significant differences in wild-type protein expression in M/Z and M/S patients. Although average total A1AT concentration was lower for M/Z patients, the percentage of wild-type protein in M/Z patients was significantly higher at 82 % (55- > 95 %) compared to 63 % (43-83 %) for M/S heterozygotes. In a cohort of M/Z patients with sufficient total A1AT (≥80 mg/dL), half had insufficient wild-type protein that could have clinical implications for pulmonary dysfunction. For the first time, a method to quantitate A1AT allele protein expression is described. Given the wide range of circulating wild-type protein

  17. Wild-type phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a bacterial class II PRS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardala Breda

    Full Text Available The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS. Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of P(i. ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of P(i would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure

  18. Pathology of wild-type and toxin-independent Bacillus anthracis meningitis in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assa Sittner

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic meningitis is considered a complication of anthrax and was reported in about 50% of deadly cases in humans and non-human primates (NHP. Recently we demonstrated in Guinea pigs and rabbits that 100% of the B. anthracis-infected animals presented histopathology of meningitis at the time of death, some without any sign of hemorrhage. A similar pathology was observed in animals that succumbed following infection with the toxin deficient mutant, thus indicating that anthrax meningitis is a toxin-independent phenomenon. In this manuscript we describe a histopathological study of the B. anthracis infection of the central nervous system (CNS. Though we could find sporadic growth of the bacteria around blood vessels in the cortex, we report that the main infiltration route is the choroid plexus. We found massive destruction of entire sections of the choroid plexus coupled with massive aggregation of bacilli in the ventricles, in close proximity to the parenchyma. The choroid plexus also contained significant amounts of intravascular bacterial aggregates, often enclosed in what appear to be fibrin-like clots. The high concentration of these aggregates in areas of significant tissue destruction combined with the fact that capsular B. anthracis bacteria have a low tendency to adhere to endothelial cells, might suggest that these clots are used as an adherence mechanism by the bacteria. The major histopathological finding is meningitis. We find massive bacterial growth in the meninges without evidence of encephalitis, even when the bacteria emerge from a parenchymal blood vessel. Erythrocytes were present within the meningeal space but no clear vasculitis could be detected. Histology of the brain stem indicates meningitis, edema and hemorrhages that might explain death from suffocation due to direct damage to the respiratory center. All of these processes are toxin-independent, since they were observed following infection with either the wild

  19. PHEX mimetic (SPR4-peptide corrects and improves HYP and wild type mice energy-metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesya V Zelenchuk

    Full Text Available PHEX or DMP1 mutations cause hypophosphatemic-rickets and altered energy metabolism. PHEX binds to DMP1-ASARM-motif to form a complex with α5β3 integrin that suppresses FGF23 expression. ASARM-peptides increase FGF23 by disrupting the PHEX-DMP1-Integrin complex. We used a 4.2 kDa peptide (SPR4 that binds to ASARM-peptide/motif to study the DMP1-PHEX interaction and to assess SPR4 for the treatment of energy metabolism defects in HYP and potentially other bone-mineral disorders.Subcutaneously transplanted osmotic pumps were used to infuse SPR4-peptide or vehicle (VE into wild-type mice (WT and HYP-mice (PHEX mutation for 4 weeks.SPR4 partially corrected HYP mice hypophosphatemia and increased serum 1.25(OH2D3. Serum FGF23 remained high and PTH was unaffected. WT-SPR4 mice developed hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia with increased PTH, FGF23 and 1.25(OH2D3. SPR4 increased GAPDH HYP-bone expression 60× and corrected HYP-mice hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. HYP-VE serum uric-acid (UA levels were reduced and SPR4 infusion suppressed UA levels in WT-mice but not HYP-mice. SPR4 altered leptin, adiponectin, and sympathetic-tone and increased the fat mass/weight ratio for HYP and WT mice. Expression of perlipin-2 a gene involved in obesity was reduced in HYP-VE and WT-SPR4 mice but increased in HYP-SPR4 mice. Also, increased expression of two genes that inhibit insulin-signaling, ENPP1 and ESP, occurred with HYP-VE mice. In contrast, SPR4 reduced expression of both ENPP1 and ESP in WT mice and suppressed ENPP1 in HYP mice. Increased expression of FAM20C and sclerostin occurred with HYP-VE mice. SPR4 suppressed expression of FAM20C and sclerostin in HYP and WT mice.ASARM peptides and motifs are physiological substrates for PHEX and modulate osteocyte PHEX-DMP1-α5β3-integrin interactions and thereby FGF23 expression. These interactions also provide a nexus that regulates bone and energy metabolism. SPR4 suppression of sclerostin and

  20. IFN-{gamma} enhances neurogenesis in wild-type mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Rona; Nemirovsky, Anna; Harpaz, Idan

    2008-01-01

    the spatial learning and memory performance of the animals. In older mice, the effect of IFN-gamma is more pronounced in both wild-type mice and mice with Alzheimer's-like disease and is associated with neuroprotection. In addition, IFN-gamma reverses the increase in oligodendrogenesis observed in a mouse...... model of Alzheimer's disease. We demonstrate that limited amounts of IFN-gamma in the brain shape the neuropoietic milieu to enhance neurogenesis, possibly representing the normal function of the immune system in controlling brain inflammation and repair.-Baron, R., Nemirovsky, A., Harpaz, I., Cohen, H......., Owens, T., Monsonego, A. IFN-gamma enhances neurogenesis in wild-type mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease....

  1. Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Elena; Gorbi, Gessica; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara; Di Toppi, Luigi Sanita; Corradi, Maria Grazia

    2004-07-14

    Two strains of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus with different sensitivity to hexavalent chromium were compared for their tolerance of cadmium, by means of growth and recovery tests, and determination of cysteine, reduced glutathione and phytochelatin content, after short-term exposure to various cadmium concentrations (from 1.125 to 27 {mu}M). Growth experiments showed that, after 7-day treatments with cadmium, the chromium-tolerant strain reached a significantly higher cell density and, after 24-h exposure to Cd, was able to resume growth significantly better than the wild type. Constitutive level of cysteine was higher in the chromium-tolerant strain, while glutathione levels were similar in the two strains. The higher content of cysteine and the maintenance of both reduced glutathione and phytochelatin high levels in the presence of cadmium, support the higher cadmium co-tolerance of the chromium-tolerant strain in comparison with the wild type one.

  2. Differential suppression by protease inhibitors and cytokines of apoptosis induced by wild-type p53 and cytotoxic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Lotem, J; Sachs, L.

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis induced in myeloid leukemic cells by wild-type p53 was suppressed by different cleavage-site directed protease inhibitors, which inhibit interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme-like, granzyme B and cathepsins B and L proteases. Apoptosis was also suppressed by the serine and cysteine protease inhibitor N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) [corrected], but not by other serine or cysteine protease inhibitors including N alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK), E64, ...

  3. Full Genome Sequence-Based Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piccirillo

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV. Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains. Genomes of three ILTV field isolates from outbreaks occurred in Italy in 1980, 2007 and 2011, and two commercial chicken embryo origin (CEO vaccines were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences technology. The comparison with the Serva genome showed that 35 open reading frames (ORFs differed across the five genomes. Overall, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 27 amino acid differences in 19 ORFs and two insertions in the UL52 and ORFC genes were identified. Similarity among the field strains and between the field and the vaccine strains ranged from 99.96% to 99.99%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship among them, as well. This study generated data on genomic variation among Italian ILTV strains revealing that, even though the genetic variability of the genome is well conserved across time and between wild-type and vaccine strains, some mutations may help in differentiating among them and may be involved in ILTV virulence/attenuation. The results of this study can contribute to the understanding of the molecular bases of ILTV pathogenicity and provide genetic markers to differentiate between wild-type and vaccine strains.

  4. Full Genome Sequence-Based Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Alessandra; Lavezzo, Enrico; Niero, Giulia; Moreno, Ana; Massi, Paola; Franchin, Elisa; Toppo, Stefano; Salata, Cristiano; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains. Genomes of three ILTV field isolates from outbreaks occurred in Italy in 1980, 2007 and 2011, and two commercial chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences technology. The comparison with the Serva genome showed that 35 open reading frames (ORFs) differed across the five genomes. Overall, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 27 amino acid differences in 19 ORFs and two insertions in the UL52 and ORFC genes were identified. Similarity among the field strains and between the field and the vaccine strains ranged from 99.96% to 99.99%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship among them, as well. This study generated data on genomic variation among Italian ILTV strains revealing that, even though the genetic variability of the genome is well conserved across time and between wild-type and vaccine strains, some mutations may help in differentiating among them and may be involved in ILTV virulence/attenuation. The results of this study can contribute to the understanding of the molecular bases of ILTV pathogenicity and provide genetic markers to differentiate between wild-type and vaccine strains.

  5. Wild-Type Hras Suppresses the Earliest Stages of Tumorigenesis in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie D Weyandt

    Full Text Available Oncogenic, activating mutations in KRAS initiate pancreatic cancer. There are, however, two other Ras family members, Nras and Hras, which can be activated in the presence of oncogenic Kras. The role of these wild-type Ras proteins in cancer remains unclear, as their disruption has been shown to enhance or inhibit tumorigenesis depending upon the context. As pancreatic cancer is critically dependent upon Ras signaling, we tested and now report that loss of Hras increases tumor load and reduces survival in an oncogenic Kras-driven pancreatic adenocarcinoma mouse model. These effects were traced to the earliest stages of pancreatic cancer, suggesting that wild-type Hras may suppress tumor initiation. In normal cells, activated Ras can suppress proliferation through p53-dependent mechanisms. We find that the tumor suppressive effects of Hras are nullified in a homozygous mutant p53 background. As such, loss of wild-type Hras fosters the earliest stages of pancreatic cancer in a p53-dependent manner.

  6. BRAF wild-type melanoma in situ arising in a BRAF V600E mutant dysplastic nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jean-Marie; Lin, Lynlee L; Lambie, Duncan; Flewell-Smith, Ross; Jagirdar, Kasturee; Schaider, Helmut; Sturm, Richard A; Prow, Tarl W; Soyer, H Peter

    2015-04-01

    The BRAF V600E mutation accounts for the majority of BRAF mutations found in cutaneous melanoma and is also commonly found in nevi. We used dermoscopy-targeted sampling and a microbiopsy device coupled with DNA sequence analysis to highlight BRAF V600E heterogeneity within a multicomponent melanocytic proliferation. This sampling technique demonstrates the prospect of in vivo application in a clinical setting. A man in his 50s with Fitzpatrick skin type II presented with an irregularly pigmented melanocytic lesion on his back that met melanoma-specific dermoscopic criteria, and diagnostic shave excision of the lesion was performed. Histopathologic analysis revealed a melanoma in situ arising in a dysplastic nevus. Dermoscopy-targeted microbiopsy specimens were taken across the lesion, and genotyping was carried out on extracted DNA samples for BRAF and NRAS mutations. The melanoma in situ showed only BRAF wild-type results, while the dysplastic nevus showed both BRAF wild-type and BRAF V600E mutations. Sequencing in all DNA samples revealed NRAS wild-type genotype. Dermoscopy-targeted sampling and genotyping of a melanoma in situ arising in a dysplastic nevus revealed a phenotype-genotype paradox that confounds the exclusive significance of BRAF and NRAS mutations in melanoma pathogenesis. Further studies are required to investigate the importance of other candidate genes linked to melanomagenesis.

  7. Determination of mutated genes in the presence of wild-type DNA by using molecular beacons as probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghua; Ai, Junjie; Gu, Qiaorong; Gao, Qiang; Qi, Honglan; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2017-03-01

    Low-abundance mutations in the presence of wild-type DNA can be determined using molecular beacon (MB) as probe. A MB is generally used as DNA probe because it can distinguish single-base mismatched target DNA from fully matched target DNA. However, the probe can not determine low-abundance mutations in the presence of wild-type DNA. In this study, this limitation is addressed by enhancing the stability of unpaired base-containing dsDNA with a hydrogen-bonding ligand, which was added after hybridization of the MB to the target DNA. The ligand formed hydrogen bonds with unpaired bases and stabilized the unpaired base-containing dsDNA if target DNA is mutated one. As a result, more MBs were opened by the mutant genes in the presence of the ligand and a further increase in the fluorescence intensity was obtained. By contrast, fluorescence intensity did not change if target DNA is wild-type one. Consequent increase in the fluorescence intensity of the MB was regarded as a signal derived from mutant genes. The proposed method was applied in synthetic template systems to determine point mutation in DNA obtained from PCR analysis. The method also allows rapid and simple discrimination of a signal if it is originated in the presence of mutant gene or alternatively by a lower concentration of wild gene.

  8. Genetic variability and mRNA editing frequencies of the phosphoprotein genes of wild-type measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, B; Lopareva, E N; Kremer, J R; Tian, Y; Clemens, M S; Patel, R; Fowlkes, A L; Kessler, J R; Muller, C P; Bellini, W J; Rota, P A

    2008-08-01

    The sequences of the nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes are routinely used for molecular epidemiologic studies of measles virus (MV). However, the amount of genetic diversity contained in other genes of MV has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this report, the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) genes from 34 wild-type strains representing 15 genotypes of MV were analyzed and found to be almost as variable as the H genes but less variable than the N genes. Deduced amino acid sequences of the three proteins encoded by the P gene, P, V and C, demonstrated considerably higher variability than the H proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed the same tree topography for the P gene sequences as previously seen for the N and H genes. RNA editing of P gene transcripts affects the relative ratios of P and V proteins, which may have consequences for pathogenicity. Wild-type isolates produced more transcripts with more than one G insertion; however, there was no significant difference in the use of P and V open reading frames, suggesting that the relative amounts of P and V proteins in infected cells would be similar for both vaccine and wild-type strains.

  9. Regulation of interferon signaling by the C and V proteins from attenuated and wild-type strains of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Judith M; Bankamp, Bettina; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2008-04-25

    The C and V proteins of the measles virus (MV) have been shown to block the signaling of type I and II interferon (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma). The relative contribution of the C and V proteins to the inhibition of IFN signaling and the extent to which this activity differs in attenuated or wild-type strains of MV remains undefined. This study presents a comparison of the IFN-antagonist activities of C and V proteins from four attenuated and two wild-type strains of MV. The V proteins were more potent inhibitors of IFN-inducible reporter gene expression than the C proteins, and this effect was unrelated to whether the protein originated from an attenuated or wild-type strain. The results also demonstrated the importance of the tyrosine at position 110 in the inhibition of IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling by the V protein, and identified a non-recombinant MV expressing a V protein that was impaired due to a mutation at this residue.

  10. A Caenorhabditis elegans wild type defies the temperature-size rule owing to a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Kammenga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectotherms rely for their body heat on surrounding temperatures. A key question in biology is why most ectotherms mature at a larger size at lower temperatures, a phenomenon known as the temperature-size rule. Since temperature affects virtually all processes in a living organism, current theories to explain this phenomenon are diverse and complex and assert often from opposing assumptions. Although widely studied, the molecular genetic control of the temperature-size rule is unknown. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans wild-type N2 complied with the temperature-size rule, whereas wild-type CB4856 defied it. Using a candidate gene approach based on an N2 x CB4856 recombinant inbred panel in combination with mutant analysis, complementation, and transgenic studies, we show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3 leads to mutation F96L in the encoded calpain-like protease. This mutation attenuates the ability of CB4856 to grow larger at low temperature. Homology modelling predicts that F96L reduces TRA-3 activity by destabilizing the DII-A domain. The data show that size adaptation of ectotherms to temperature changes may be less complex than previously thought because a subtle wild-type polymorphism modulates the temperature responsiveness of body size. These findings provide a novel step toward the molecular understanding of the temperature-size rule, which has puzzled biologists for decades.

  11. Transfection of wild-type CFTR into cystic fibrosis lymphocytes restores chloride conductance at G1 of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, R D; Bubien, J K; Drumm, M L; Zheng, T; Peiper, S C; Collins, F S; Kirk, K L; Frizzell, R A; Rado, T A

    1992-01-01

    We complemented the Cl- conductance defect in cystic fibrosis lymphocytes by transfection with wild-type cDNA for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Stable transfectants were selected and subjected to molecular and functional analyses. We detected expression of endogenous CFTR mRNA in several CF and non-CF lymphoid cell lines by PCR. Expression from cDNA in the transfectants was demonstrated by amplifying vector-specific sequences. Both fluorescence and patch-clamp assays showed that transfectants expressing wild-type CFTR acquired properties previously associated with Cl- conductance (GCl) regulation in non-CF lymphocytes: (i) GCl was elevated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, (ii) cells fixed at G1 increase GCl in response to increased cellular cAMP or Ca2+, (iii) agonist-induced increases in GCl were lost as the cells progressed to the S phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle and agonist dependent regulation of GCl was not observed in CF lymphocytes transfected with CFTR cDNA containing stop codons in all reading frames at exon 6. Our findings indicate that lymphocytes express functional CFTR since wild-type CFTR corrects the defects in Cl- conductance regulation found in CF lymphocytes. Evaluation of the mechanism of this novel, CFTR-mediated regulation of GCl during cell cycling should provide further insights into the function of CFTR. Images PMID:1372253

  12. Chitin synthase-deficient mutant of Fusarium oxysporum elicits tomato plant defence response and protects against wild-type infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Martín-Urdíroz, Magdalena; Roncero, María Isabel González; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roldán, María Del Carmen Ruiz

    2010-07-01

    A mutant of the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, deficient in class V chitin synthase, has been shown previously to be nonvirulent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of its avirulence could be the elicitation of the induced plant defence response, leading to the restriction of fungal infection. Co-inoculation of tomato plants with the wild-type strain and the DeltachsV mutant resulted in a significant reduction in symptom development, supporting a protective mechanism exerted by the mutant. The ability of the mutant to penetrate and colonize plant tissues was determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as fluorescence microscopy using green fluorescent protein- or cherry fluorescent protein-labelled fungal strains. The extent of wild-type strain colonization in co-inoculated plants decreased steadily throughout the infection process, as shown by the quantification of fungal biomass using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The hypothesis that defence responses are activated by the DeltachsV mutant was confirmed by the analysis of plant pathogenesis-related genes using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tomato plants inoculated with the DeltachsV mutant showed a three fold increase in endochitinase activity in comparison with wild-type inoculated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that the perturbation of fungal cell wall biosynthesis results in elicitation of the plant defence response during the infection process.

  13. The Ly49E receptor inhibits the immune control of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Filtjens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT cells, is triggered by uPA. Therefore, we compared wild type (WT to Ly49E knockout (KO mice for their control of experimental T. cruzi infection. Our results show that young, i.e. 4- and 6-week-old, Ly49E KO mice control the infection better than WT mice, indicated by a lower parasite load and less cachexia. The beneficial effect of Ly49E depletion is more obvious in 4-week-old male than in female mice and weakens in 8-week-old mice. In young mice, the lower T. cruzi parasitemia in Ly49E KO mice is paralleled by higher IFN-γ production compared to their WT controls. Our data indicate that Ly49E receptor expression inhibits the immune control of T. cruzi infection. This is the first demonstration that the inhibitory Ly49E receptor can interfere with the immune response to a pathogen in vivo.

  14. Increased expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator system by Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Susan; Duval, Cedric; Sammut, Stephen J.; Steele, Islay; Pritchard, D. Mark; Atherton, John C.; Argent, Richard H.; Dimaline, Rod; Dockray, Graham J.; Varro, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, but the relevant pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. We now report that H. pylori stimulates the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and its receptor (uPAR) in gastric epithelial cells and the consequences for epithelial cell proliferation. Real-time PCR of biopsies from gastric corpus, but not antrum, showed significantly increased PAI-1, uPA, and uPAR in H. pylori-positive patients. Transfection of primary human gastric epithelial cells with uPA, PAI-1, or uPAR promoters in luciferase reporter constructs revealed expression of all three in H+/K+ATPase- and vesicular monoamine transporter 2-expressing cells; uPA was also expressed in pepsinogen- and uPAR-containing trefoil peptide-1-expressing cells. In each case expression was increased in response to H. pylori and for uPA, but not PAI-1 or uPAR, required the virulence factor CagE. H. pylori also stimulated soluble and cell surface-bound uPA activity, and both were further increased by PAI-1 knockdown, consistent with PAI-1 inhibition of endogenous uPA. H. pylori stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, which was inhibited by uPA immunoneutralization and uPAR knockdown; exogenous uPA also stimulated proliferation that was further increased after PAI-1 knockdown. The proliferative effects of uPA were inhibited by immunoneutralization of the EGF receptor and of heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) by the mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197 and an EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. H. pylori induction of uPA therefore leads to epithelial proliferation through activation of HB-EGF and is normally inhibited by concomitant induction of PAI-1; treatments directed at inhibition of uPA may slow the progression to gastric cancer. PMID:18599586

  15. Mycoplasma fermentans binds to and invades HeLa cells: involvement of plasminogen and urokinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavlovich, Amichai; Katzenell, Avigail; Tarshis, Mark; Higazi, Abd A-R; Rottem, Shlomo

    2004-09-01

    Adherence of Mycoplasma fermentans to HeLa cells followed saturation kinetics, required a divalent cation, and was enhanced by preincubation of the organism at 37 degrees C for 1 h in a low-osmolarity solution. Proteolytic digestion, choline phosphate, or anti-choline phosphate antibodies partially inhibited the adherence, supporting the notion that M. fermentans utilizes at least two surface components for adhesion, a protease-sensitive surface protein and a phosphocholine-containing glycolipid. Plasminogen binding to M. fermentans greatly increased the maximal adherence of the organism to HeLa cells. Anti-plasminogen antibodies and free plasminogen inhibited this increase. These observations suggest that in the presence of plasminogen the organism adheres to novel sites on the HeLa cell surface, which are apparently plasminogen receptors. Plasminogen-bound M. fermentans was detected exclusively on the cell surface of the infected HeLa cells. Nevertheless, plasminogen binding in the presence of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) promoted the invasion of HeLa cells by M. fermentans. The latter finding indicates that the invasiveness of M. fermentans does not result from binding plasminogen but from activation of the bound plasminogen to plasmin. Cholesterol depletion and sequestration with beta-cyclodextrin and filipin, respectively, did not affect the capacity of M. fermentans to adhere, but invasion of HeLa cells by uPA-activated plasminogen-bound M. fermentans was impaired, suggesting that lipid rafts are implicated in M. fermentans entry.

  16. Transcriptomic Insights into the Response of Placenta and Decidua Basalis to the CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Stimulation in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice and Wild-Type Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Rui Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine infection is one of the most frequent causes of miscarriage. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN can mimic intrauterine infection. CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption was observed consistently in the NK-cell deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD mice but not in the wild-type (WT mice. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of differential pregnancy outcomes, differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the placenta and decidua basalis was revealed by RNA-Seq with CpG ODN or control ODN treatment. Common DEGs in the WT and NOD mice were enriched in antimicrobial/antibacterial humoral responses that may be activated as a primary response to bacterial infection. The susceptibility to CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption in the NOD mice might mainly be attributed to M1 macrophage polarization and the immunodeficient status, such as the down-regulation in antigen processing and presentation, allograft rejection, and natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, the WT mice with normal immune systems could activate multiple immune responses and be resistant to CpG ODN-induced embryo-resorption, such as M2 macrophage differentiation and activation regulated by complement component C1q and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathways. Collectively, this study suggests that the immunodeficient status of NOD mice and the macrophage polarization regulated by C1q and PPAR signaling might be the basis for differential pregnancy outcomes between the NOD and WT mice.

  17. Changes in polyphenol and sugar concentrations in wild type and genetically modified Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann in response to water and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancillotti, Claudia; Bogani, Patrizia; Biricolti, Stefano; Calistri, Elisa; Checchini, Leonardo; Ciofi, Lorenzo; Gonnelli, Cristina; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    In this study wild type Nicotiana langsdorffii plants were genetically transformed by the insertion of the rat gene (gr) encoding the glucocorticoid receptor or the rolC gene and exposed to water and heat stress. Water stress was induced for 15 days by adding 20% PEG 6000 in the growth medium, whereas the heat treatment was performed at 50 °C for 2 h, after that a re-growing capability study was carried out. The plant response to stress was investigated by determining electrolyte leakage, dry weight biomass production and water content. These data were evaluated in relation to antiradical activity and concentrations of total polyphenols, selected phenolic compounds and some soluble sugars, as biochemical indicators of metabolic changes due to gene insertion and/or stress treatments. As regards the water stress, the measured physiological parameters evidenced an increasing stress level in the order rolC heat stress, electrolyte leakage data were only in partial agreement with the re-growing capability study. In fact, according to this latter evaluation, gr was the genotype less affected by the heat shock. In this regard, sugars and especially phenolic compounds are informative of the long-term effects due to heat shock treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic consumption of Annona muricata juice triggers and aggravates cerebral tau phosphorylation in wild-type and MAPT transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottscholl, Robert; Haegele, Marlen; Jainsch, Britta; Xu, Hong; Respondek, Gesine; Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Bony, Emilie; Le Ven, Jessica; Guérineau, Vincent; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Champy, Pierre; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Yamada, Elizabeth S; Höglinger, Günter U

    2016-11-01

    In the pathogenesis of tauopathies, genetic and environmental factors have been identified. While familial clustering led to the identification of mutations in MAPT encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau, the high incidence of a sporadic tauopathy endemic in Guadeloupe was linked to the plant-derived mitochondrial complex I inhibitor annonacin. The interaction of both factors was studied in the present work in a realistic paradigm over a period of 12 months. Mice over-expressing either human wild-type tau or R406W mutant tau as well as non-transgenic mice received either regular drinking water or commercially available tropical fruit juice made of soursop (Annona muricata L.) as dietary source of neurotoxins. HPLC-MS analysis of this juice identified several Annonaceous acetogenins, mainly annonacin (16.2 mg/L), and 41 isoquinoline alkaloids (18.0 mg/L, mainly asimilobine and reticuline). After 12 month of juice consumption, several brain regions showed an increased number of neurons with phosphorylated tau in the somatodendritic compartment of R406W mice and, to a much lesser extent, of non-transgenic mice and mice over-expressing human wild-type tau. Moreover, juice drinking was associated with a reduction in synaptophysin immunoreactivity, as well as an increase in 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) reactivity in all three genotypes. The increase in 3NT suggests that Annona muricata juice promotes the generation of reactive nitrogen species. This study provides first experimental evidence that long-lasting oral ingestion of a widely consumed environmental factor can induce somatodendritic accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in mice expressing rodent or human wild-type tau, and can accelerate tau pathology in R406W-MAPT transgenic mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin genes of wild-type measles virus circulating in china, 1993-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songtao; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993-2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10(-3) substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China.

  20. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cell–cell spread of wild-type and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanji, Boghuma Kabisen; Pillay, Deenan

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disseminates between T cells either by cell-free infection or by highly efficient direct cell–cell spread. The high local multiplicity that characterizes cell–cell infection causes variability in the effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs applied as single agents. Whereas protease inhibitors (PIs) are effective inhibitors of HIV-1 cell–cell and cell-free infection, some reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) show reduced potency; however, antiretrovirals are not administered as single agents and are used clinically as combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Here we explored the efficacy of PI- and RTI-based cART against cell–cell spread of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 strains. Using a quantitative assay to measure cell–cell spread of HIV-1 between T cells, we evaluated the efficacy of different clinically relevant drug combinations. We show that combining PIs and RTIs improves the potency of inhibition of HIV-1 and effectively blocks both cell-free and cell–cell spread. Combining drugs that alone are poor inhibitors of cell–cell spread markedly improves HIV-1 inhibition, demonstrating that clinically relevant combinations of ART can inhibit this mode of HIV-1 spread. Furthermore, comparison of wild-type and drug-resistant viruses reveals that PI- and RTI-resistant viruses have a replicative advantage over wild-type virus when spreading by cell–cell means in the presence of cART, suggesting that in the context of inadequate drug combinations or drug resistance, cell–cell spread could potentially allow for ongoing viral replication. PMID:28141491

  1. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cell-cell spread of wild-type and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanji, Boghuma Kabisen; Pillay, Deenan; Jolly, Clare

    2017-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disseminates between T cells either by cell-free infection or by highly efficient direct cell-cell spread. The high local multiplicity that characterizes cell-cell infection causes variability in the effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs applied as single agents. Whereas protease inhibitors (PIs) are effective inhibitors of HIV-1 cell-cell and cell-free infection, some reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) show reduced potency; however, antiretrovirals are not administered as single agents and are used clinically as combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Here we explored the efficacy of PI- and RTI-based cART against cell-cell spread of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 strains. Using a quantitative assay to measure cell-cell spread of HIV-1 between T cells, we evaluated the efficacy of different clinically relevant drug combinations. We show that combining PIs and RTIs improves the potency of inhibition of HIV-1 and effectively blocks both cell-free and cell-cell spread. Combining drugs that alone are poor inhibitors of cell-cell spread markedly improves HIV-1 inhibition, demonstrating that clinically relevant combinations of ART can inhibit this mode of HIV-1 spread. Furthermore, comparison of wild-type and drug-resistant viruses reveals that PI- and RTI-resistant viruses have a replicative advantage over wild-type virus when spreading by cell-cell means in the presence of cART, suggesting that in the context of inadequate drug combinations or drug resistance, cell-cell spread could potentially allow for ongoing viral replication.

  2. Novel software for analysis of root gravitropism: comparative response patterns of Arabidopsis wild-type and axr1 seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    In an earlier study (Evans, Ishikawa & Estelle 1994, Planta 194, 215-222) we used a video digitizer system to compare the kinetics of auxin action on root elongation in wild-type seedlings and seedlings of auxin response mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. We have since modified the system software to allow determination of elongation on opposite sides of vertical or gravistimulated roots and to allow continuous measurement of the angle of orientation of sequential subsections of the root during the response. We used this technology to compare the patterns of differential growth that generate curvature in roots of the Columbia ecotype and in the mutants axr1-3, axr1-12 and axr2, which show reduced gravitropic responsiveness and reduced sensitivity to inhibition by auxin. The pattern of differential growth during gravitropism differed in roots of wild-type and axr1 seedlings. In wild-type roots, initial curvature resulted from differential inhibition of elongation in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This was followed by an acceleration of elongation along the top side of the DEZ. In roots of axr1-3, curvature resulted from differential stimulation of elongation whereas in roots of axr1-12 the response was variable. Roots of axr2 did not exhibit gravitropic curvature. The observation that the pattern of differential growth causing curvature is dramatically altered by a change in sensitivity to auxin is consistent with the classical Cholodny-Went theory of gravitropism which maintains that differential growth patterns induced by gravistimulation are mediated primarily by gravi-induced shifts in auxin distribution. The new technology introduced with this report allows automated determination of stimulus response patterns in the small but experimentally popular roots of Arabidopsis.

  3. DNA beta-amyloid(1-42) trimer immunization for Alzheimer disease in a wild-type mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Qu, Bao-Xi; Fu, Min; Eagar, Todd N; Stüve, Olaf; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2009-10-28

    DNA beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta42) trimer immunization was developed to produce specific T helper 2 cell (T(H)2)-type antibodies to provide an effective and safe therapy for Alzheimer disease (AD) by reducing elevated levels of Abeta42 peptide that occur in the brain of patients with AD. To compare the immune response in wild-type mice after immunization with DNA Abeta42 trimer and Abeta42 peptide. Wild-type mice received either 4 microg of DNA Abeta42 trimer immunization administered with gene gun (n = 8) or intraperitoneal injection of 100 microg of human Abeta42 peptide with the adjuvant Quil A (n = 8). Titers, epitope mapping, and isotypes of the Abeta42-specific antibodies were analyzed. Antibody titers, mapping of binding sites (epitopes), isotype profiles of the Abeta42-specific antibodies, and T-cell activation. DNA Abeta42 trimer immunization resulted in antibody titers with a mean of 15 microg per milliliter of plasma. The isotype profile of the antibodies differed markedly. A predominant IgG1 antibody response was found in the DNA-immunized mice, indicating a T(H)2 type of immune response (IgG1/IgG2a ratio of 10). The peptide-immunized mice showed a mixed T(H)1/T(H)2 immune response (IgG1/IgG2a ratio of 1) (P < .001). No increased T-cell proliferation was observed in the DNA-immunized mice (P = .03). In this preliminary study in a wild-type mouse model, DNA Abeta42 trimer immunization protocol produced a T(H)2 immune response and appeared to have low potential to cause an inflammatory T-cell response.

  4. Comparative Gene Expression and Phenotype Analyses of Skeletal Muscle from Aged Wild-Type and PAPP-A-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Bale, Laurie K.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) have extended lifespan associated with decreased incidence and severity of degenerative diseases of age, such as cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. In this study, the effect of PAPP-A deficiency on aging skeletal muscle was investigated. Whole-genome expression profiling was performed on soleus muscles from 18-month-old wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice of the same sex and from the same litter (?womb-mates?) to identify...

  5. Panitumumab and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in Platinum-Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer With KRAS Wild-Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Pallisgård, Niels

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) supplemented with panitumumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Major eligibility criteria were relapsed ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with platinum-resistant disease, measurable disease by GCIG CA125 criteria and KRAS wild......OBJECTIVE: The increasing number of negative trials for ovarian cancer treatment has prompted an evaluation of new biologic agents, which in combination with chemotherapy may improve survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild-type ovarian...

  6. Panitumumab and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer with KRAS wild-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Lund, Bente

    , and head and neck cancer. No previous studies have evaluated the effect of panitumumab in OC based on KRAS mutation status. Methods: Eligibility criteria are confirmed stage I-IV primary epithelial ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with progression either during or within 6 months after end...... to a total of 33 patients. At present, 15 patients have been enrolled. The primary endpoint is to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild- type OC patients treated with PLD supplemented with panitumumab. Translational research is included as a secondary endpoint and tumor tissue...

  7. Effects of the Kava Chalcone Flavokawain A Differ in Bladder Cancer Cells with Wild-type versus Mutant p53

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R.; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G1 arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated wi...

  8. Metabolic tumor burden as marker of outcome in advanced EGFR wild-type NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Larsen, Anne; Fledelius, Joan; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Accurate estimation of the prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is essential before initiation of palliative treatment; especially in the second and third-line setting. This study was conducted in order to evaluate tumor burden measured on an 2'-deoxy-2...... with shorter PFS and OS in advanced EGFR wild-type NSCLC patients treated with second or third-line erlotinib. Metabolic tumor burden is a highly promising clinical tool that may allow better patient selection for palliative treatment in the future....

  9. Perseveration by NK1R-/- ('knockout') mice is blunted by doses of methylphenidate that affect neither other aspects of their cognitive performance nor the behaviour of wild-type mice in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Young, Jared W; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-09-01

    The underlying cause(s) of abnormalities expressed by patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have yet to be delineated. One factor that has been associated with increased vulnerability to ADHD is polymorphism(s) of TACR1, which is the human equivalent of the rodent NK1 (substance P-preferring) receptor gene (Nk1r). We have reported previously that genetically altered mice, lacking functional NK1R (NK1R-/-), express locomotor hyperactivity, which was blunted by the first-line treatment for ADHD, methylphenidate. Here, we compared the effects of this psychostimulant (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on the behaviour of NK1R-/- mice and their wild types in the 5-Choice Continuous Performance Test, which emulates procedures used to study attention and response control in ADHD patients. Methylphenidate increased total trials (a measure of 'productivity') completed by wild types, but not by NK1R-/- mice. Conversely, this drug reduced perseveration by NK1R-/- mice, but not by wild types. Other drug-induced changes in key behaviours were not genotype dependent, especially at the highest dose: for example, % omissions (an index of inattentiveness) was increased, whereas % false alarms and % premature responses (measures of impulsivity) declined in both genotypes, indicating reduced overall response. These findings are discussed in the context of the efficacy of methylphenidate in the treatment of ADHD. Moreover, they lead to several testable proposals. First, methylphenidate does not improve attention in a subgroup of ADHD patients with a functional deficit of TACR1. Second, these patients do not express excessive false alarms when compared with other groups of subjects, but they do express excessive perseveration, which would be ameliorated by methylphenidate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miseon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose has been shown to protect bacterial cells from environmental stress. Its uptake and osmoprotective effect in Clostridium perfringens were investigated by comparing wild type C. perfringens ATCC 13124 with a fluoroquinolone- (gatifloxacin- resistant mutant. In a chemically defined medium, trehalose and sucrose supported the growth of the wild type but not that of the mutant. Microarray data and qRT-PCR showed that putative genes for the phosphorylation and transport of sucrose and trehalose (via phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems, PTS and some regulatory genes were downregulated in the mutant. The wild type had greater tolerance than the mutant to salts and low pH; trehalose and sucrose further enhanced the osmotolerance of the wild type to NaCl. Expression of the trehalose-specific PTS was lower in the fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant. Protection of C. perfringens from environmental stress could therefore be correlated with the ability to take up trehalose.

  11. Rhizosphere bacteria affected by transgenic potatoes with antibacterial activities compared with the effects of soil, wild-type potatoes, vegetation stage and pathogen exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Hodl, [No Value; Poll, C; Kandeler, E; Gerzabek, MH; van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to analyze a potential effect of genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial compounds (attacin/cecropin, T4 lysozyme) and their nearly isogenic, nontransformed parental wild types on rhizosphere bacterial communities. To compare plant

  12. Gene Expression Profiling in Wild-Type and PPAR-Null Mice Exposed to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Reveals PPAR-Independent Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B. Rosen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS is a perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA and a persistent environmental contaminant found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Although blood levels of PFOS have begun to decline, health concerns remain because of the long half-life of PFOS in humans. Like other PFAAs, such as, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, PFOS is an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR and exhibits hepatocarcinogenic potential in rodents. PFOS is also a developmental toxicant in rodents where, unlike PFOA, its mode of action is independent of PPAR. Wild-type (WT and PPAR-null (Null mice were dosed with 0, 3, or 10 mg/kg/day PFOS for 7 days. Animals were euthanized, livers weighed, and liver samples collected for histology and preparation of total RNA. Gene profiling was conducted using Affymetrix 430_2 microarrays. In WT mice, PFOS induced changes that were characteristic of PPAR transactivation including regulation of genes associated with lipid metabolism, peroxisome biogenesis, proteasome activation, and inflammation. PPAR-independent changes were indicated in both WT and Null mice by altered expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, inflammation, and xenobiotic metabolism. Such results are similar to studies done with PFOA and are consistent with modest activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, and possibly PPAR and/or PPAR/. Unique treatment-related effects were also found in Null mice including altered expression of genes associated with ribosome biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Of interest was up-regulation of Cyp7a1, a gene which is under the control of various transcription regulators. Hence, in addition to its ability to modestly activate PPAR, PFOS induces a variety of PPAR-independent effects as well.

  13. The Small Colony Variant Of Listeria Monocytogenes Is More Tolerant To Antibiotics And Grows Better Within Caco-2 Epithelial Cells Than The Wild Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Thomas; Gram, Lone; Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard

    2015-01-01

    tolerant of 20mM H2O2 as compared to the wild type, with 6.3 log10 CFU/ml and 3.7 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. The SCV E18 had lower survival rate in unactivated macrophages, however, it was able to survive and multiply to almost 100-fold higher CFU/ml than the wild type in CaCo-2 epithelial cells...

  14. Comparative Transcriptome of Wild Type and Selected Strains of the Microalgae Tisochrysis lutea Provides Insights into the Genetic Basis, Lipid Metabolism and the Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Carrier; Matthieu Garnier; Loïc Le Cunff; Gaël Bougaran; Ian Probert; Colomban de Vargas; Erwan Corre; Jean-Paul Cadoret; Bruno Saint-Jean

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The applied exploitation of microalgae cultures has to date almost exclusively involved the use of wild type strains, deposited over decades in dedicated culture collections. Concomitantly, the concept of improving algae with selection programs for particular specific purposes is slowly emerging. Studying since a decade an economically and ecologically important haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea (Tiso), we took advantage of the availability of wild type (Tiso-Wt) and select...

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of current wild-type canine distemper viruses from South Africa: lineage Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woma, Timothy Y; van Vuuren, Moritz; Bosman, Ana-Mari; Quan, Melvyn; Oosthuizen, Marinda

    2010-07-14

    There are no reports of CDV isolations in southern Africa, and although CDV is said to have geographically distinct lineages, molecular information of African strains has not yet been documented. Viruses isolated in cell cultures were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the complete H gene was sequenced and phylogenetically analysed with other strains from GenBank. Phylogenetic comparisons of the complete H gene of CDV isolates from different parts of the world (available in GenBank) with wild-type South African isolates revealed nine clades. All South African isolates form a separate African clade of their own and thus are clearly separated from the American, European, Asian, Arctic and vaccine virus clades. It is likely that only the 'African lineage' of CDV may be circulating in South Africa currently, and the viruses isolated from dogs vaccinated against CDV are not the result of reversion to virulence of vaccine strains, but infection with wild-type strains. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic background and environmental conditions drive metabolic variation in wild type and transgenic soybean (Glycine max) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Shir, Ofer M; Yu, Yang; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profiles and composition of storage reserves of agricultural crop seeds are strongly regulated by heritable and environmental factors. Yet, very little is known about the genetic and environmental determinants of adaptive metabolic variation amongst wild type as well as transgenic seed populations derived from the same genetic background, grown under natural field conditions. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of natural environmental conditions on wild type and transgenic soybean seeds expressing a feedback-insensitive form of cystathionine γ-synthase, a methionine main regulatory enzyme. The seeds were grown in four geographically distinct habitats in China and then assayed for primary metabolic profiles using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, morphological traits and storage reserve accumulation. The analyses revealed changes in the levels of primary metabolites which evidently exhibited high correlation to methionine regardless of changes in environmental conditions. The environment, however, constituted a major determinant of metabolic profiles amongst seeds, as much more metabolites were observed to be affected by this variable, particularly along the north-to-south latitudinal gradient. The observations suggest that metabolic variation amongst seeds grown under natural field conditions depends upon the complex relationships existing amongst their genetic background and the environmental conditions characterizing their cultivation areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Validation of Genetically Matched Wild Type Strain and Lysyl Oxidase- Like 1 Knockout Mouse Model of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couri, Bruna M.; Borazjani, Ali; Lenis, Andrew T.; Balog, Brian; Kuang, Mei; Lin, Dan Li; Damaser, Margot S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Lysyl oxidase-like 1 knockout (Loxl1−/−) mice demonstrate deficient elastin homeostasis associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). To further investigate the pathophysiology of POP in these animals, a genetically-matched homozygous positive (Loxl1+/+) or wild type strain is needed. This study sought to create and validate genetically-matched Loxl1+/+ and Loxl1−/− strains. Methods Female Loxl1−/− mice were backcrossed with male wild-type mice. The resultant heterozygous mice were bred to produce Loxl1+/+ and Loxl1−/− mice, whose genotype was confirmed by RT-PCR. Multiparous female Loxl1−/− (n=7) and Loxl1+/+ (n=9) mice were assessed for POP weekly for 12 weeks after their first vaginal delivery. POP was compared between groups using a Kaplan Meier survival curve with pvaginas as determined by area within the lumen and total cross-sectional tissue area. Striated muscle fibers of the urethra in Loxl1−/− mice were less organized, shorter, and thinner than in Loxl1+/+ mice. Conclusions Genetically-matched Loxl1−/− and Loxl1+/+ strains can be reliably created by a backcross method and differentiate in their prolapse phenotype. Loxl1−/− mice demonstrate pathology primarily characterized by enlargement of the vagina. Further studies are needed to elucidate the cause of this finding. PMID:25181380

  18. Monomeric CXCL12 outperforms its dimeric and wild type variants in the promotion of human endothelial progenitor cells' function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuang; Li, Yaning; Yuan, Fang; Qu, Meijie; Song, Yaying; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Yongting

    2017-06-24

    CXCL12 overexpression improves neurobehavioral recovery during post-ischemic stroke through multiple mechanisms including promoting endothelial progenitor cells function in animal models. It has been proposed that the monomer and dimer forms possess differential chemotactic and regulatory function. The aim of present study is to explore whether a monomeric or dimeric CXCL12 plays a different role in the endothelial progenitor cells proliferation, migration, and tube-formation in vitro. In this study, we transferred monomeric, dimeric and wild type CXCL12 gene into endothelial progenitor cells via lentiviral vectors. We investigated endothelial progenitor cells function following the interaction of CXCL12/CXCR4 or CXCL12/CXCR7 and downstream signaling pathways. Our results showed that the monomeric CXCL12 transfected endothelial progenitor cells had enhanced ability in cell proliferation, migration, and tube-formation compared to that in dimeric or wild type controls (p function of migration, but not proliferation or tube-formation, was significantly reduced in the monomeric CXCL12 transfected endothelial progenitor cells when the cells were pre-treated with either CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 or siCXCR7 (p function was partially regulated by CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL12/CXCR7 signal pathways. Our study demonstrated that monomeric CXCL12 was the fundamental form, which played important roles in endothelial progenitor cells' proliferation, migration, and tube-formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mature leaf concentrate of Sri Lankan wild type Carica papaya Linn. modulates nonfunctional and functional immune responses of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Chanika Dilumi; Gunasekera, Dinara S; De Silva, Nuwan; Jayawardena, Kithmini Kawya Mandakini; Udagama, Preethi Vidya

    2017-04-26

    The leaf concentrate of Carica papaya is a traditionally acclaimed immunomodulatory remedy against numerous diseases; nonetheless comprehensive scientific validation of this claim is limited. The present study thus investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Carica papaya mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of the Sri Lankan wild type cultivar using nonfunctional and functional immunological assays. Wistar rats (N = 6/ group) were orally gavaged with 3 doses (0.18, 0.36 and 0.72 ml/100g body weight) of the MLCC once daily for 3 consecutive days. Selected nonfunctional (enumeration of immune cells and cytokine levels) and functional (cell proliferation and phagocytic activity) immunological parameters, and acute toxic effects were determined using standard methods. Effect of the MLCC (31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) on ex vivo proliferation of bone marrow cells (BMC) and splenocytes (SC), and in vitro phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages (PMs), and their corresponding cytokine responses were evaluated. The phytochemical profile of the MLCC was established using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LS-MS) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Counts of rat platelets, total leukocytes, lymphocyte and monocyte sub populations, and BMCs were significantly augmented by oral gavage of the MLCC (p papaya Sri Lankan wild type cultivar is orally active, safe and effectively modulates nonfunctional and functional immunological parameters of rats that unequivocally corroborate the traditional medical claims.

  20. Screening and Expression of a Silicon Transporter Gene (Lsi1) in Wild-Type Indica Rice Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Rambod; Kalhori, Nahid; Atabaki, Narges

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent elements in the soil. It is beneficial for plant growth and development, and it contributes to plant defense against different stresses. The Lsi1 gene encodes a Si transporter that was identified in a mutant Japonica rice variety. This gene was not identified in fourteen Malaysian rice varieties during screening. Then, a mutant version of Lsi1 was substituted for the native version in the three most common Malaysian rice varieties, MR219, MR220, and MR276, to evaluate the function of the transgene. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of Lsi1 in the three transgenic rice varieties. Silicon concentrations in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type plants. Transgenic varieties showed significant increases in the activities of the enzymes SOD, POD, APX, and CAT; photosynthesis; and chlorophyll content; however, the highest chlorophyll A and B levels were observed in transgenic MR276. Transgenic varieties have shown a stronger root and leaf structure, as well as hairier roots, compared to the wild-type plants. This suggests that Lsi1 plays a key role in rice, increasing the absorption and accumulation of Si, then alters antioxidant activities, and improves morphological properties. PMID:28191468

  1. Interhomolog recombination and loss of heterozygosity in wild-type and Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM)-deficient mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Jeannine R; Stark, Jeremy M; Oh, Jin; Bojilova, Ekaterina; Yusa, Kosuke; Horie, Kyoji; Takeda, Junji; Jasin, Maria

    2011-07-19

    Genomic integrity often is compromised in tumor cells, as illustrated by genetic alterations leading to loss of heterozygosity (LOH). One mechanism of LOH is mitotic crossover recombination between homologous chromosomes, potentially initiated by a double-strand break (DSB). To examine LOH associated with DSB-induced interhomolog recombination, we analyzed recombination events using a reporter in mouse embryonic stem cells derived from F1 hybrid embryos. In this study, we were able to identify LOH events although they occur only rarely in wild-type cells (≤2.5%). The low frequency of LOH during interhomolog recombination suggests that crossing over is rare in wild-type cells. Candidate factors that may suppress crossovers include the RecQ helicase deficient in Bloom syndrome cells (BLM), which is part of a complex that dissolves recombination intermediates. We analyzed interhomolog recombination in BLM-deficient cells and found that, although interhomolog recombination is slightly decreased in the absence of BLM, LOH is increased by fivefold or more, implying significantly increased interhomolog crossing over. These events frequently are associated with a second homologous recombination event, which may be related to the mitotic bivalent structure and/or the cell-cycle stage at which the initiating DSB occurs.

  2. MLL fusion proteins preferentially regulate a subset of wild-type MLL target genes in the leukemic genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Wu, George; Mi, Shuangli; He, Fuhong; Wu, Jun; Dong, Jingfang; Luo, Roger T.; Mattison, Ryan; Kaberlein, Joseph J.; Prabhakar, Shyam; Ji, Hongkai

    2011-01-01

    MLL encodes a histone methyltransferase that is critical in maintaining gene expression during embryonic development and hematopoiesis. 11q23 translocations result in the formation of chimeric MLL fusion proteins that act as potent drivers of acute leukemia. However, it remains unclear what portion of the leukemic genome is under the direct control of MLL fusions. By comparing patient-derived leukemic cell lines, we find that MLL fusion-bound genes are a small subset of that recognized by wild-type MLL. In an inducible MLL-ENL model, MLL fusion protein binding and changes in H3K79 methylation are limited to a specific portion of the genome, whereas wild-type MLL distributes to a much larger set of gene loci. Surprisingly, among 223 MLL-ENL–bound genes, only 12 demonstrate a significant increase in mRNA expression on induction of the fusion protein. In addition to Hoxa9 and Meis1, this includes Eya1 and Six1, which comprise a heterodimeric transcription factor important in several developmental pathways. We show that Eya1 has the capacity to immortalize hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro and collaborates with Six1 in hematopoietic transformation assays. Altogether, our data suggest that MLL fusions contribute to the development of acute leukemia through direct activation of a small set of target genes. PMID:21518926

  3. Inhibition of HIV type 1 infectivity by coexpression of a wild-type and a defective glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Losman, B; Schønning, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    -fold. When the same ratio of plasmids was tested in COS-1 cells the inhibition of HIV-1 was an order of magnitude less than observed in 293 cells. COS-1 and 293 cells differed in that only 293 cells displayed saturation of virus production with respect to the envelope protein. Our data fit a simple......An amino acid substitution (D --> K) in the C3 region of HIV-1 gp120 has previously been shown to inhibit binding of virions to CD4+ cells. We have introduced the same mutation into the HIV-1 isolate LAV-I(BRU), in which the mutation is denoted D373K. Here we show that the D373K envelope protein...... is processed and incorporated into virus particles, but that D373K virions have no detectable infectivity (below 0.1% relative to wild type). When D373K and the wild-type envelope gene were cotransfected in 293 cells at a 4:1 ratio, the resultant infectivity of the HIV-1 supernatant was reduced more than 100...

  4. Discovery of an inhibitor of the production of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin in wild-type cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardas Morkunas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyocyanin is a small molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infections by this notorious opportunistic pathogen. The inhibition of pyocyanin production has been identified as an attractive antivirulence strategy for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Herein, we report the discovery of an inhibitor of pyocyanin production in cultures of wild-type P. aeruginosa which is based around a 4-alkylquinolin-2(1H-one scaffold. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported example of pyocyanin inhibition by a compound based around this molecular framework. The compound may therefore be representative of a new structural sub-class of pyocyanin inhibitors, which could potentially be exploited in in a therapeutic context for the development of critically needed new antipseudomonal agents. In this context, the use of wild-type cells in this study is notable, since the data obtained are of direct relevance to native situations. The compound could also be of value in better elucidating the role of pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa infections. Evidence suggests that the active compound reduces the level of pyocyanin production by inhibiting the cell–cell signalling mechanism known as quorum sensing. This could have interesting implications; quorum sensing regulates a range of additional elements associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa and there is a wide range of other potential applications where the inhibition of quorum sensing is desirable.

  5. Comparison of the proteomes of three yeast wild type strains: CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.; Mose Larsen, P.; Blomberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Yeast deletion strains created during gene function analysis projects very often show drastic phenotypic differences depending on the genetic background used. These results indicate the existence of important molecular differences between the CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 wild type strains. To charact......Yeast deletion strains created during gene function analysis projects very often show drastic phenotypic differences depending on the genetic background used. These results indicate the existence of important molecular differences between the CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 wild type strains....... To characterise these differences we have compared the protein expression levels between CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 strains using twodimensional gel electrophoresis and identified selected proteins by mass spectrometric analysis. We have found that FY1679 and W303 strains are more similar to each other than...... to the CEN.PK2 strain. This study identifies 62 proteins that are differentially expressed between the strains and provides a valuable source of data for the interpretation of yeast mutant phenotypes observed in CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 strains....

  6. Discovery of an inhibitor of the production of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin in wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkunas, Bernardas; Gal, Balint; Galloway, Warren R J D; Hodgkinson, James T; Ibbeson, Brett M; Tan, Yaw Sing; Welch, Martin; Spring, David R

    2016-01-01

    Pyocyanin is a small molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infections by this notorious opportunistic pathogen. The inhibition of pyocyanin production has been identified as an attractive antivirulence strategy for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Herein, we report the discovery of an inhibitor of pyocyanin production in cultures of wild-type P. aeruginosa which is based around a 4-alkylquinolin-2(1H)-one scaffold. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported example of pyocyanin inhibition by a compound based around this molecular framework. The compound may therefore be representative of a new structural sub-class of pyocyanin inhibitors, which could potentially be exploited in in a therapeutic context for the development of critically needed new antipseudomonal agents. In this context, the use of wild-type cells in this study is notable, since the data obtained are of direct relevance to native situations. The compound could also be of value in better elucidating the role of pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa infections. Evidence suggests that the active compound reduces the level of pyocyanin production by inhibiting the cell-cell signalling mechanism known as quorum sensing. This could have interesting implications; quorum sensing regulates a range of additional elements associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa and there is a wide range of other potential applications where the inhibition of quorum sensing is desirable.

  7. Comparative study on fermentation performance in the genome shuffled Candida versatilis and wild-type salt tolerant yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Hou, Li-Hua; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jin-Fu; Lu, Fu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The fermentation performance of a genome-shuffled strain of Candida versatilis S3-5, isolated for improved tolerance to salt, and wild-type (WT) strain were analysed. The fermentation parameters, such as growth, reducing sugar, ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds, were detected during soy sauce fermentation process. The results showed that ethanol produced by the genome shuffled strain S3-5 was increasing at a faster rate and to a greater extent than WT. At the end of the fermentation, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid formed in tricarboxylic acid cycle after S3-5 treatment elevated by 39.20%, 6.85% and 17.09% compared to WT, respectively. Moreover, flavour compounds such as phenethyl acetate, ethyl vanillate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl myristate, ethyl pentadecanoate, ethyl palmitate and phenylacetaldehyde produced by S3-5 were 2.26, 2.12, 2.87, 34.41, 6.32, 13.64, 2.23 and 78.85 times as compared to WT. S3-5 exhibited enhanced metabolic ability as compared to the wild-type strain, improved conversion of sugars to ethanol, metabolism of organic acid and formation of volatile compounds, especially esters, Moreover, S3-5 might be an ester-flavour type salt-tolerant yeast. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Inhibition of HIV type 1 infectivity by coexpression of a wild-type and a defective glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Losman, B; Schønning, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    An amino acid substitution (D --> K) in the C3 region of HIV-1 gp120 has previously been shown to inhibit binding of virions to CD4+ cells. We have introduced the same mutation into the HIV-1 isolate LAV-I(BRU), in which the mutation is denoted D373K. Here we show that the D373K envelope protein......-fold. When the same ratio of plasmids was tested in COS-1 cells the inhibition of HIV-1 was an order of magnitude less than observed in 293 cells. COS-1 and 293 cells differed in that only 293 cells displayed saturation of virus production with respect to the envelope protein. Our data fit a simple...... is processed and incorporated into virus particles, but that D373K virions have no detectable infectivity (below 0.1% relative to wild type). When D373K and the wild-type envelope gene were cotransfected in 293 cells at a 4:1 ratio, the resultant infectivity of the HIV-1 supernatant was reduced more than 100...

  9. Gene Expression Analysis Indicates Divergent Mechanisms in DEN-Induced Carcinogenesis in Wild Type and Bid-Deficient Livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changshun; Yan, Shengmin; Khambu, Bilon; Chen, Xiaoyun; Dong, Zheng; Luo, Jianhua; Michalopoulos, George K; Wu, Shangwei; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Bid is a Bcl-2 family protein. In addition to its pro-apoptosis function, Bid can also promote cell proliferation, maintain S phase checkpoint, and facilitate inflammasome activation. Bid plays important roles in tissue injury and regeneration, hematopoietic homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Bid participates in hepatic carcinogenesis but the mechanism is not fully understood. Deletion of Bid resulted in diminished tumor burden and delayed tumor progression in a liver cancer model. In order to better understand the Bid-regulated events during hepatic carcinogenesis we performed gene expression analysis in wild type and bid-deficient mice treated with a hepatic carcinogen, diethylnitrosamine. We found that deletion of Bid caused significantly fewer alterations in gene expression in terms of the number of genes affected and the number of pathways affected. In addition, the expression profiles were remarkably different. In the wild type mice, there was a significant increase in the expression of growth regulation-related and immune/inflammation response-related genes, and a significant decrease in the expression of metabolism-related genes, both of which were diminished in bid-deficient livers. These data suggest that Bid could promote hepatic carcinogenesis via growth control and inflammation-mediated events.

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated metabolism of catechol estrogens: comparison of wild-type and variant COMT isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawling, S; Roodi, N; Mernaugh, R L; Wang, X; Parl, F F

    2001-09-15

    The oxidative metabolism of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) to catechol estrogens (2-OHE2, 4-OHE2, 2-OHE1, and 4-OHE1) and estrogen quinones has been postulated to be a factor in mammary carcinogenesis. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the methylation of catechol estrogens to methoxy estrogens, which simultaneously lowers the potential for DNA damage and increases the concentration of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2), an antiproliferative metabolite. We expressed two recombinant forms of COMT, the wild-type (108Val) and a common variant (108Met), to determine whether their catalytic efficiencies differ with respect to catechol estrogen inactivation. The His-tagged proteins were purified by nickel-nitrilo-triacetic acid chromatography and analyzed by electrophoresis and Western immunoblot. COMT activity was assessed by determining the methylation of 2-OHE2, 4-OHE2, 2-OHE1, and 4-OHE1, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for quantitation of the respective methoxy products. In the case of 2-OHE2 and 2-OHE1, methylation occurred at 2-OH and 3-OH groups, resulting in the formation of 2-MeOE2 and 2-OH-3-MeOE2, and 2-MeOE1 and 2-OH-3-MeOE1, respectively. In contrast, in the case of 4-OHE2 and 4-OHE1, methylation occurred only at the 4-OH group, yielding 4-MeOE2 and 4-MeOE1, respectively. Individual and competition experiments revealed the following order of product formation: 4-MeOE2 > 4-MeOE1 > 2-MeOE2 > 2-MeOE1 > 2-OH-3-MeOE1 > 2-OH-3-MeOE2. The variant isoform differed from wild-type COMT by being thermolabile, leading to 2-3-fold lower levels of product formation. MCF-7 breast cancer cells with the variant COMT 108Met/Met genotype also displayed 2-3-fold lower catalytic activity than ZR-75 breast cancer cells with the wild-type COMT 108Val/Val genotype. Thus, inherited alterations in COMT catalytic activity are associated with significant differences in catechol estrogen and methoxy estrogen levels and, thereby, may contribute to interindividual

  11. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants Are Parasitic Genotypes in a Wild-Type Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population of Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Delia; Castillejo, Juan I.; Caballero, Primitivo

    1998-01-01

    A wild-type nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolate from Spodoptera exigua from Florida (Se-US2) is a variant of the SeMNPV type strain since it has a unique DNA profile but is closely related to other known geographical isolates of SeMNPV. It consists of several genotypic variants, of which seven were identified in a Se-US2 virus stock by a modification of the in vivo cloning method developed by Smith and Crook (Virology 166:240–244, 1988). The US2A variant was the most prevalent genotype, and it was designated the prototype Se-US2 variant, while four of the variants (US2B, US2D, US2F, and US2H) were found at low frequency. US2C and US2E were also very abundant, and their diagnostic bands were easily observed in wild-type isolate restriction endonuclease patterns. The analysis of each variant, compared to the prototype US2A, showed that US2B and US2H presented minor differences, while US2D and US2F contained slightly larger insertions or deletions. Variants US2C and US2E contained major deletions of 21.1 and 14 kb, respectively, mapping at the same genomic region (between 14.5 and 30.2 map units [m.u.] and between 12.8 and 23 m.u., respectively). This is the first report of such deletion mutants in a natural baculovirus population. Variants US2A, US2B, US2D, US2F, and US2H were isolated as pure genotypes, but we failed to clone US2C and US2E in vivo. When these two variants appeared without apparent contamination with any other variant, they lost their pathogenicity for Spodoptera exigua larvae. A further biological characterization showed evidence that these two naturally occurring deletion mutants act as parasitic genotypes in the virus population. Bioassay data also demonstrated that pure US2A is significantly more pathogenic against second-instar S. exigua larvae than the wild-type isolate. The need for precise genotypic characterization of a baculovirus prior to its development as a bioinsecticide is discussed. PMID:9797293

  12. Genetic Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Genes of Wild-Type Measles Virus Circulating in China, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    Background China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Principal Findings Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993–2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10−3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. Conclusions Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China. PMID

  13. Genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin genes of wild-type measles virus circulating in china, 1993-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993-2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn, which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10(-3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in

  14. Transcriptional regulatory program in wild-type and retinoblastoma gene-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Jacob B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many molecular regulators of adipogenesis have been identified a comprehensive catalogue of components is still missing. Recent studies showed that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb was expressed in the cell cycle and late cellular differentiation phase during adipogenesis. To investigate this dual role of pRb in the early and late stages of adipogenesis we used microarrays to perform a comprehensive systems-level analysis of the common transcriptional program of the classic 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs, and retinoblastoma gene-deficient MEFs (Rb-/- MEFs. Findings Comparative analysis of the expression profiles of 3T3-L1 cells and wild-type MEFs revealed genes involved specifically in early regulation of the adipocyte differentiation as well as secreted factors and signaling molecules regulating the later phase of differentiation. In an attempt to identify transcription factors regulating adipogenesis, bioinformatics analysis of the promoters of coordinately and highly expressed genes was performed. We were able to identify a number of high-confidence target genes for follow-up experimental studies. Additionally, combination of experimental data and computational analyses pinpointed a feedback-loop between Pparg and Foxo1. To analyze the effects of the retinoblastoma protein at the transcriptional level we chose a perturbated system (Rb-/- MEFs for comparison to the transcriptional program of wild-type MEFs. Gene ontology analysis of 64 deregulated genes showed that the Rb-/- MEF model exhibits a brown(-like adipocyte phenotype. Additionally, the analysis results indicate a different or additional role for pRb family member involvement in the lineage commitment. Conclusion In this study a number of commonly modulated genes during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and MEFs, potential transcriptional regulation mechanisms, and differentially regulated targets during adipocyte

  15. Application of Molecular Modeling to Urokinase Inhibitors Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Sulimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA plays an important role in the regulation of diverse physiologic and pathologic processes. Experimental research has shown that elevated uPA expression is associated with cancer progression, metastasis, and shortened survival in patients, whereas suppression of proteolytic activity of uPA leads to evident decrease of metastasis. Therefore, uPA has been considered as a promising molecular target for development of anticancer drugs. The present study sets out to develop the new selective uPA inhibitors using computer-aided structural based drug design methods. Investigation involves the following stages: computer modeling of the protein active site, development and validation of computer molecular modeling methods: docking (SOL program, postprocessing (DISCORE program, direct generalized docking (FLM program, and the application of the quantum chemical calculations (MOPAC package, search of uPA inhibitors among molecules from databases of ready-made compounds to find new uPA inhibitors, and design of new chemical structures and their optimization and experimental examination. On the basis of known uPA inhibitors and modeling results, 18 new compounds have been designed, calculated using programs mentioned above, synthesized, and tested in vitro. Eight of them display inhibitory activity and two of them display activity about 10 μM.

  16. Effects of phorbol ester on mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase activity in wild-type and phorbol ester-resistant EL4 thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, K C; Homma, M K; Licciardi, K A; Seger, R; Ahn, N G; Peterson, M J; Krebs, E G; Meier, K E

    1993-08-05

    Phorbol ester-sensitive and -resistant EL4 thymoma cell lines differ in their ability to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to phorbol ester. Treatment of wild-type EL4 cells with phorbol ester results in the rapid activations of MAPK and pp90rsk kinase, a substrate for MAPK, while neither kinase is activated in response to phorbol ester in variant EL4 cells. This study examines the activation of MAPK kinase (MAPKK), an activator of MAPK, in wild-type and variant EL4 cells. Phosphorylation of a 40-kDa substrate, identified as MAPK, was observed following in vitro phosphorylation reactions using cytosolic extracts or Mono Q column fractions prepared from phorbol ester-treated wild-type EL4 cells. MAPKK activity coeluted with a portion of the inactive MAPK upon Mono Q anion-exchange chromatography, permitting detection of the MAPKK activity in fractions containing both kinases. This MAPKK activity was present in phorbol ester-treated wild-type cells, but not in phorbol ester-treated variant cells or in untreated wild-type or variant cells. The MAPKK from wild-type cells was able to activate MAPK prepared from either wild-type or variant cells. MAPKK activity could be stimulated in both wildtype and variant EL4 cells in response to treatment of cells with okadaic acid. These results indicate that the failure of variant EL4 cells to activate MAP kinase in response to phorbol ester is due to a failure to activate MAPKK. Therefore, the step that confers phorbol ester resistance to variant EL4 cells lies between the activation of protein kinase C and the activation of MAPKK.

  17. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Shang-jin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV. A pair of primers (P1 and P4 specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV, canine parvovirus (CPV, canine coronavirus (CCV, rabies virus (RV, or canine adenovirus (CAV. The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.

  18. Biotransformation of cinnamyl alcohol to rosavins by non-transformed wild type and hairy root cultures of Rhodiola kirilowii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech-Baran, Marta; Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Krajewska-Patan, Anna; Wyrwał, Anna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

    2014-03-01

    Non-transformed wild type (NTWT) and hairy root cultures of Rhodiola kirilowii were grown in medium supplemented with 2.5 mM cinnamyl alcohol as a precursor and/or sucrose (1 %) on the day of inoculation or on the 14th day of culture. Rosarin, rosavin, and rosin were produced by NTWT root culture but only rosarin and rosavin by hairy roots. Approximately 80 and 95 % of the glycosides were released into the medium for NTWT and hairy root cultures, respectively. The highest rosavin yield, 505 ± 106 mg/l, was in hairy root culture when cinnamyl alcohol was applied on the day of inoculation with the addition of sucrose on the 14th day of culture. For rosin production, supplementation with cinnamyl alcohol alone on day 14 was more favourable with the highest amount 74 ± 10 mg/l in NTWT root culture. Only traces of rosarin were detected.

  19. Transcriptional regulatory program in wild-type and retinoblastoma gene-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts during adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakim-Weber, Robab; Krogsdam, Anne-M; Jørgensen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    (Rb-/- MEFs). FINDINGS: Comparative analysis of the expression profiles of 3T3-L1 cells and wild-type MEFs revealed genes involved specifically in early regulation of the adipocyte differentiation as well as secreted factors and signaling molecules regulating the later phase of differentiation...... of 64 deregulated genes showed that the Rb-/- MEF model exhibits a brown(-like) adipocyte phenotype. Additionally, the analysis results indicate a different or additional role for pRb family member involvement in the lineage commitment. CONCLUSION: In this study a number of commonly modulated genes...... during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and MEFs, potential transcriptional regulation mechanisms, and differentially regulated targets during adipocyte differentiation of Rb-/- MEFs could be identified. These data and the analysis provide a starting point for further experimental studies to identify target...

  20. Kuru prions and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions have equivalent transmission properties in transgenic and wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Desbruslais, Melanie; Fox, Katie; Cooper, Sharon; Cronier, Sabrina; Asante, Emmanuel A; Mead, Simon; Brandner, Sebastian; Hill, Andrew F; Collinge, John

    2008-03-11

    Kuru provides our principal experience of an epidemic human prion disease and primarily affected the Fore linguistic group of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Kuru was transmitted by the practice of consuming dead relatives as a mark of respect and mourning (transumption). To date, detailed information of the prion strain type propagated in kuru has been lacking. Here, we directly compare the transmission properties of kuru prions with sporadic, iatrogenic, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) prions in Prnp-null transgenic mice expressing human prion protein and in wild-type mice. Molecular and neuropathological data from these transmissions show that kuru prions are distinct from variant CJD and have transmission properties equivalent to those of classical (sporadic) CJD prions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that kuru originated from chance consumption of an individual with sporadic CJD.

  1. Kuru prions and sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease prions have equivalent transmission properties in transgenic and wild-type mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Desbruslais, Melanie; Fox, Katie; Cooper, Sharon; Cronier, Sabrina; Asante, Emmanuel A.; Mead, Simon; Brandner, Sebastian; Hill, Andrew F.; Collinge, John

    2008-01-01

    Kuru provides our principal experience of an epidemic human prion disease and primarily affected the Fore linguistic group of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Kuru was transmitted by the practice of consuming dead relatives as a mark of respect and mourning (transumption). To date, detailed information of the prion strain type propagated in kuru has been lacking. Here, we directly compare the transmission properties of kuru prions with sporadic, iatrogenic, and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) prions in Prnp-null transgenic mice expressing human prion protein and in wild-type mice. Molecular and neuropathological data from these transmissions show that kuru prions are distinct from variant CJD and have transmission properties equivalent to those of classical (sporadic) CJD prions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that kuru originated from chance consumption of an individual with sporadic CJD. PMID:18316717

  2. High-Throughput Functional Screening of Steroid Substrates with Wild-Type and Chimeric P450 Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Urban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The promiscuity of a collection of enzymes consisting of 31 wild-type and synthetic variants of CYP1A enzymes was evaluated using a series of 14 steroids and 2 steroid-like chemicals, namely, nootkatone, a terpenoid, and mifepristone, a drug. For each enzyme-substrate couple, the initial steady-state velocity of metabolite formation was determined at a substrate saturating concentration. For that, a high-throughput approach was designed involving automatized incubations in 96-well microplate with sixteen 6-point kinetics per microplate and data acquisition using LC/MS system accepting 96-well microplate for injections. The resulting dataset was used for multivariate statistics aimed at sorting out the correlations existing between tested enzyme variants and ability to metabolize steroid substrates. Functional classifications of both CYP1A enzyme variants and steroid substrate structures were obtained allowing the delineation of global structural features for both substrate recognition and regioselectivity of oxidation.

  3. Neuromuscular control of a single twitch muscle in wild type and mutant Drosophila, measured with an ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jennifer; Brunger, Holly; Middleton, C Adam; Hill, Julia A; Sevdali, Maria; Sweeney, Sean T; Sparrow, John C; Elliott, Christopher J H

    2008-06-01

    How do deficits in neuronal growth, aging or synaptic function affect the final, mechanical output of a single muscle twitch? We address this in vivo (indeed in situ) with a novel ergometer that records the output of a large specialised muscle, the Drosophila jump muscle. Here, we describe in detail the ergometer, its construction and use. We evaluated the ergometer by showing that adult fly jump muscle output varies little between 3 h and 7 days; but newly eclosed flies produce only 65%. In a mutant with little octopamine (Tbetah), jump muscle performance is reduced by 28%. The initial responses of synaptic growth mutants (highwire and spinster) do not differ from wild type, as expected on the homeostatic hypothesis. However, responses in highwire mutations gradually decline following repeated stimuli, suggesting physiological as well as anatomical abnormalities. We conclude that the assay is robust, sensitive and reliable with a good throughput.

  4. Interleukin-33 induces urokinase in human endothelial cells--possible impact on angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, S; Kaun, C; Heinz, M; Krychtiuk, K A; Rauscher, S; Lemberger, C E; de Martin, R; Gröger, M; Petzelbauer, P; Huk, I; Huber, K; Wojta, J; Demyanets, S

    2014-06-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) plays a pivotal role in extracellular proteolysis and is thought to be critically involved in the modulation of angiogenesis. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, which is thought to act as danger signal that is released from cells after injury. IL-33 is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases and previously was shown to induce angiogenesis and inflammatory activation of endothelial cells. We investigated the impact of IL-33 on u-PA in endothelial cells as a new possible function for IL-33. We could demonstrate that IL-33 upregulated u-PA mRNA expression and protein production in human coronary artery and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner via interaction with its receptor ST2 and activation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway but independent of autocrine IL-1-induced effects. The hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor simvastatin abrogated the IL-33-induced increase in u-PA, thus providing further evidence for pleiotropic effects of statins. IL-33 induced u-PA-dependent capillary-like tube formation and vessel sprouting. In human carotid atherosclerotic plaques (n = 16), u-PA mRNA positively correlated with IL-33 mRNA expression (r = 0.780, P < 0.001). Furthermore, IL-33 and u-PA protein were detected in endothelial cells in these samples using fluorescence immunohistochemistry. We hypothesize that IL-33, representing a danger signal that is released after tissue damage, in addition to its role in the inflammatory activation of endothelial cells, is involved in u-PA-driven angiogenesis, a process that has been shown before to be linked to inflammation in various pathologies. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  5. Effects of the Kava Chalcone Flavokawain A Differ in Bladder Cancer Cells with Wild-type versus Mutant p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R.; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G1 arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated with the down-regulation of SKP2 and then increased the stability of the p27/KIP1 protein. The accumulation of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1 was independent of cell cycle position and thus not a result of the cell cycle arrest. In contrast, flavokawain A induced a G2-M arrest in six p53 mutant-type, high-grade bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UMUC3, TCCSUP, 5637, HT1376, and HT1197). Flavokawain A significantly reduced the expression of CDK1-inhibitory kinases, Myt1 and Wee1, and caused cyclin B1 protein accumulation leading to CDK1 activation in T24 cells. Suppression of p53 expression by small interfering RNA in RT4 cells restored Cdc25C expression and down-regulated p21/WAF1 expression, which allowed Cdc25C and CDK1 activation and then led to a G2-M arrest and an enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by flavokawain A. Consistently, flavokawain A also caused a pronounced CDK1 activation and G2-M arrest in p53 knockout but not in p53 wild-type HCT116 cells. This selectivity of flavokawain A for inducing a G2-M arrest in p53-defective cells deserves further investigation as a new mechanism for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:19138991

  6. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  7. Effects of the kava chalcone flavokawain A differ in bladder cancer cells with wild-type versus mutant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

    2008-11-01

    Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G(1) arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated with the down-regulation of SKP2, which then increased the stability of the p27/KIP1 protein. The accumulation of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1 was independent of cell cycle position and thus not a result of the cell cycle arrest. In contrast, flavokawain A induced a G(2)-M arrest in six p53 mutant-type, high-grade bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UMUC3, TCCSUP, 5637, HT1376, and HT1197). Flavokawain A significantly reduced the expression of CDK1-inhibitory kinases, Myt1 and Wee1, and caused cyclin B1 protein accumulation leading to CDK1 activation in T24 cells. Suppression of p53 expression by small interfering RNA in RT4 cells restored Cdc25C expression and down-regulated p21/WAF1 expression, which allowed Cdc25C and CDK1 activation, which then led to a G(2)-M arrest and an enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by flavokawain A. Consistently, flavokawain A also caused a pronounced CDK1 activation and G(2)-M arrest in p53 knockout but not in p53 wild-type HCT116 cells. This selectivity of flavokawain A for inducing a G(2)-M arrest in p53-defective cells deserves further investigation as a new mechanism for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.

  8. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing ‘humanized’ mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how “human-like” can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1_CYP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+)_severe-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs. PMID:19285097

  9. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of wild-type EGFR amplification and EGFRvIII mutation in CSF-derived extracellular vesicles of glioblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Javier M; Skog, Johan; Akers, Johnny; Li, Hongying; Komotar, Ricardo; Jensen, Randy; Ringel, Florian; Yang, Isaac; Kalkanis, Steven; Thompson, Reid; LoGuidice, Lori; Berghoff, Emily; Parsa, Andrew; Liau, Linda; Curry, William; Cahill, Daniel; Bettegowda, Chetan; Lang, Frederick F; Chiocca, E Antonio; Henson, John; Kim, Ryan; Breakefield, Xandra; Chen, Clark; Messer, Karen; Hochberg, Fred; Carter, Bob S

    2017-10-19

    RNAs within extracellular vesicles (EVs) have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for patients with cancer and are identified in a variety of biofluids. Glioblastomas (GBMs) release EVs containing RNA into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here we describe a multi-institutional study of RNA extracted from CSF-derived EVs of GBM patients to detect the presence of tumor-associated amplifications and mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). CSF and matching tumor tissue were obtained from patients undergoing resection of GBMs. We determined wild-type (wt)EGFR DNA copy number amplification, as well as wtEGFR and EGFR variant (v)III RNA expression in tumor samples. We also characterized wtEGFR and EGFRvIII RNA expression in CSF-derived EVs. EGFRvIII-positive tumors had significantly greater wtEGFR DNA amplification (P = 0.02) and RNA expression (P = 0.03), and EGFRvIII-positive CSF-derived EVs had significantly more wtEGFR RNA expression (P = 0.004). EGFRvIII was detected in CSF-derived EVs for 14 of the 23 EGFRvIII tissue-positive GBM patients. Conversely, only one of the 48 EGFRvIII tissue-negative patients had the EGFRvIII mutation detected in their CSF-derived EVs. These results yield a sensitivity of 61% and a specificity of 98% for the utility of CSF-derived EVs to detect an EGFRvIII-positive GBM. Our results demonstrate CSF-derived EVs contain RNA signatures reflective of the underlying molecular genetic status of GBMs in terms of wtEGFR expression and EGFRvIII status. The high specificity of the CSF-derived EV diagnostic test gives us an accurate determination of positive EGFRvIII tumor status and is essentially a less invasive "liquid biopsy" that might direct mutation-specific therapies for GBMs.

  11. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors versus chemotherapy in EGFR wild-type pre-treated advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer in daily practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Pascale; Brosseau, Solenn; Mazières, Julien; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Beau-Faller, Michèle; Mosser, Jean; Wislez, Marie; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Besse, Benjamin; Rouquette, Isabelle; Debieuvre, Didier; Escande, Fabienne; Westeel, Virginie; Audigier-Valette, Clarisse; Missy, Pascale; Langlais, Alexandra; Morin, Frank; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Zalcman, Gérard

    2017-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are approved for second-line treatment of EGFR wild-type (EGFR-wt) nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, results from randomised trials performed to compare EGFR-TKIs with chemotherapy in this population did not show any survival benefit. In the era of immunotherapy, many drugs are approved for second-line treatment of EGFR-wt NSCLC and there is a need to reassess the role of EGFR-TKIs in this setting. The Biomarkers France study is a large nationwide cohort of NSCLC patients tested for EGFR mutations. We used this database to collect clinical, biological, treatment and outcome data on EGFR-wt patients who received second-line treatment with either EGFR-TKIs or chemotherapy. Among 1278 patients, 868 received chemotherapy and 410 received an EGFR-TKI. Median overall survival and progression-free survival were longer with chemotherapy than with an EGFR-TKI. Overall survival was 8.38 versus 4.99 months, respectively (hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.59–0.83; p<0.0001) and progression-free survival was 4.30 versus 2.83 months, respectively (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.77; p<0.0001). This study is helpful to guide a multiline treatment strategy for EGFR-wt NSCLC patients. Immunotherapy is approved for second-line treatment. For third-line treatment, chemotherapy results in longer overall survival and progression-free survival, and should be preferred to EGFR-TKIs. PMID:28798090

  12. Assessment of Fibrinolysis in Sepsis Patients with Urokinase Modified Thromboelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Mauro; Zacchetti, Lucia; L'Acqua, Camilla; Cressoni, Massimo; Anzoletti, Massimo Boscolo; Bader, Rossella; Protti, Alessandro; Consonni, Dario; D'Angelo, Armando; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Impairment of fibrinolysis during sepsis is associated with worse outcome. Early identification of this condition could be of interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a modified point-of-care viscoelastic hemostatic assay can detect sepsis-induced impairment of fibrinolysis and to correlate impaired fibrinolysis with morbidity and mortality. This single center observational prospective pilot study was performed in an adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary academic hospital. Forty consecutive patients admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock were included. Forty healthy individuals served as controls. We modified conventional kaolin activated thromboelastography (TEG) adding urokinase to improve assessment of fibrinolysis in real time (UK-TEG). TEG, UK-TEG, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), d-dimer, DIC scores and morbidity (rated with the SOFA score) were measured upon ICU admission. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of mortality at ICU discharge. UK-TEG revealed a greater impairment of fibrinolysis in sepsis patients compared to healthy individuals confirmed by PAI-1. TAFI was not different between sepsis patients and healthy individuals. 18/40 sepsis patients had fibrinolysis impaired according to UK-TEG and showed higher SOFA score (8 (6-13) vs 5 (4-7), p = 0.03), higher mortality (39% vs 5%, p = 0.01) and greater markers of cellular damage (lactate levels, LDH and bilirubin). Mortality at ICU discharge was predicted by the degree of fibrinolysis impairment measured by UK-TEG Ly30 (%) parameter (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.93-0.98, p = 0.003). Sepsis-induced impairment of fibrinolysis detected at UK-TEG was associated with increased markers of cellular damage, morbidity and mortality.

  13. Zinc phthalocyanine conjugated with the amino-terminal fragment of urokinase for tumor-targeting photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Peng; Chen, Jincan; Chen, Hongwei; Hu, Ping; Chen, Xueyuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Yunmei; Zheng, Ke; Zhou, Shanyong; Li, Rui; Chen, Song; Liu, Jianyong; Xue, Jinping; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted much interest for the treatment of cancer due to the increased incidence of multidrug resistance and systemic toxicity in conventional chemotherapy. Phthalocyanine (Pc) is one of main classes of photosensitizers for PDT and possesses optimal photophysical and photochemical properties. A higher specificity can ideally be achieved when Pcs are targeted towards tumor-specific receptors, which may also facilitate specific drug delivery. Herein, we develop a simple and unique strategy to prepare a hydrophilic tumor-targeting photosensitizer ATF-ZnPc by covalently coupling zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) to the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), a fragment responsible for uPA receptor (uPAR, a biomarker overexpressed in cancer cells), through the carboxyl groups of ATF. We demonstrate the high efficacy of this tumor-targeting PDT agent for the inhibition of tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Our in vivo optical imaging results using H22 tumor-bearing mice show clearly the selective accumulation of ATF-ZnPc in tumor region, thereby revealing the great potential of ATF-ZnPc for clinical applications such as cancer detection and guidance of tumor resection in addition to photodynamic treatment. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perturbation of auxin homeostasis by overexpression of wild-type IAA15 results in impaired stem cell differentiation and gravitropism in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Da-Wei; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Hong, Li-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Aux/IAAs interact with auxin response factors (ARFs) to repress their transcriptional activity in the auxin signaling pathway. Previous studies have focused on gain-of-function mutations of domain II and little is known about whether the expression level of wild-type Aux/IAAs can modulate auxin homeostasis. Here we examined the perturbation of auxin homeostasis by ectopic expression of wild-type IAA15. Root gravitropism and stem cell differentiation were also analyzed. The transgenic lines were less sensitive to exogenous auxin and exhibited low-auxin phenotypes including failures in gravity response and defects in stem cell differentiation. Overexpression lines also showed an increase in auxin concentration and reduced polar auxin transport. These results demonstrate that an alteration in the expression of wild-type IAA15 can disrupt auxin homeostasis.

  15. Perturbation of auxin homeostasis by overexpression of wild-type IAA15 results in impaired stem cell differentiation and gravitropism in roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Yan

    Full Text Available Aux/IAAs interact with auxin response factors (ARFs to repress their transcriptional activity in the auxin signaling pathway. Previous studies have focused on gain-of-function mutations of domain II and little is known about whether the expression level of wild-type Aux/IAAs can modulate auxin homeostasis. Here we examined the perturbation of auxin homeostasis by ectopic expression of wild-type IAA15. Root gravitropism and stem cell differentiation were also analyzed. The transgenic lines were less sensitive to exogenous auxin and exhibited low-auxin phenotypes including failures in gravity response and defects in stem cell differentiation. Overexpression lines also showed an increase in auxin concentration and reduced polar auxin transport. These results demonstrate that an alteration in the expression of wild-type IAA15 can disrupt auxin homeostasis.

  16. Changes in fatty acid content and composition between wild type and CsHMA3 overexpressing Camelina sativa under heavy-metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won; Feng, Yufeng; Kim, Hyojin; Suh, Mi Chung; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Under heavy-metal stress, CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic Camelina plants displayed not only a better quality, but also a higher quantity of unsaturated fatty acids in their seeds compared with wild type. Camelina sativa L. belongs to the Brassicaceae family and is frequently used as a natural vegetable oil source, as its seeds contain a high content of fatty acids. In this study, we observed that, when subjected to heavy metals (Cd, Co, Zn and Pb), the seeds of CsHMA3 (Heavy-Metal P1B-ATPase 3) transgenic lines retained their original golden yellow color and smooth outline, unlike wild-type seeds. Furthermore, we investigated the fatty acids content and composition of wild type and CsHMA3 transgenic lines after heavy metal treatments compared to the control. The results showed higher total fatty acid amounts in seeds of CsHMA3 transgenic lines compared with those in wild-type seeds under heavy-metal stresses. In addition, the compositions of unsaturated fatty acids-especially 18:1 (oleic acid), 18:2 (linoleic acid; only in case of Co treatment), 18:3 (linolenic acid) and 20:1 (eicosenoic acid)-in CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic lines treated with heavy metals were higher than those of wild-type seeds under the same conditions. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents in wild-type leaves and roots when treated with heavy metal were higher than in CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic lines. These results indicate that overexpression of CsHMA3 affects fatty acid composition and content-factors that are responsible for the fuel properties of biodiesel-and can alleviate ROS accumulation caused by heavy-metal stresses in Camelina. Due to these factors, we propose that CsHMA3 transgenic Camelina can be used for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil as well as for oil production.

  17. After a cold conditioning swim, UCP2-deficient mice are more able to defend against the cold than wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Ramy E; Kovács, Katalin J; Nunez, Myra G; Larson, Alice A

    2014-08-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is widely distributed throughout the body including the brain, adipose tissue and skeletal muscles. In contrast to UCP1, UCP2 does not influence resting body temperature and UCP2-deficient (-/-) mice have normal thermoregulatory responses to a single exposure to cold ambient temperatures. Instead, UCP2-deficient mice are more anxious, exhibit anhedonia and have higher circulating corticosterone than wild type mice. To test the possible role of UCP2 in depressive behavior we exposed UCP2-deficient and wild type mice to a cold (26°C) forced swim and simultaneously measured rectal temperatures during and after the swim. The time that UCP2-deficient mice spent immobile did not differ from wild type mice and all mice floated more on day 2. However, UCP2-deficient mice were more able to defend against the decrease in body temperature during a second daily swim at 26°C than wild type mice (area under the curve for wild type mice: 247.0±6.4; for UCP2-deficient mice: 284.4±3.8, Pthermoregulation of wild type mice during a second swim at 26°C correlated with their greater immobility whereas defense against the warmth during a swim at 41°C correlated better with greater immobility of UCP2-deficient mice. Together these data indicate that while the lack of UCP2 has no acute effect on body temperature, UCP2 may inhibit rapid improvements in defense against cold, in contrast to UCP1, whose main function is to promote thermogenesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The role of primary tumour sidedness, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR promoter methylation in RAS/BRAF wild-type colorectal cancer patients receiving irinotecan/cetuximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurtas, Laura; Puzzoni, Marco; Giampieri, Riccardo; Ziranu, Pina; Pusceddu, Valeria; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Cremolini, Chiara; Masi, Gianluca; Gelsomino, Fabio; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Loretelli, Cristian; Meriggi, Fausto; Zaniboni, Alberto; Falcone, Alfredo; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario

    2017-07-25

    The data from randomised trials suggested that primary tumour sidedness could represent a prognostic and predictive factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, particularly during treatment with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. However, an in-deep molecular selection might overcome the predictive role of primary tumour location in this setting. We conducted a retrospective analysis in which tumour samples from RAS/BRAF wild-type (WT) metastatic CRC patients treated with second-third-line irinotecan/cetuximab were analysed for EGFR gene copy number (GCN) and promoter methylation. Study objective was to evaluate the correlation of tumour sidedness, EGFR promoter methylation and EGFR GCN with clinical outcome. Median follow-up duration was 14.3 months. Eighty-eight patients were included in the study, 27.3% had right-sided CRC, 72.7% had left-sided CRC; 36.4% had EGFR GCNcancer (RSCRC) were associated with reduced overall response rate (ORR) (4.2% for RSCRC vs 35.9% for left sided colorectal cancer (LSCRC), P=0.0030), shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (3.0 vs 6.75 months, P<0.0001) and shorter overall survival (OS) (8 vs 13.6 months, P<0.0001). EGFR GCN<2.12 tumours were associated with reduced ORR (6.2% for EGFR GCN<2.12 vs 39.3% for EGFR GCN⩾2.12 tumours, P=0.0009), shorter PFS (3.5 vs 6.5 months, P=0.0006) and shorter OS (8.5 vs 14.0 months, P<0.0001). Epidermal growth factor receptor-methylated tumours were associated with reduced ORR (9.1% for methylated vs 45.5% for unmethylated, P=0.0001), shorter PFS (3 vs 7.67 months, P<0.0001) and shorter OS (8 vs 17 months, P<0.0001). At multivariate analysis, EGFR GCN and EGFR promoter methylation maintained their independent role for ORR (respectively P=0.0082 and 0.0025), PFS (respectively P=0.0048 and<0.0001) and OS (respectively P=0.0001 and<0.0001). In our study, an accurate molecular selection based on an all RAS and BRAF analysis along with EGFR GCN and EGFR promoter methylation status

  19. Recombinant Wild-Type and Edmonston Strain Measles Viruses Bearing Heterologous H Proteins: Role of H Protein in Cell Fusion and Host Cell Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Miyajima, Naoko; Kobune, Fumio; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi; Tashiro, Masato

    2002-01-01

    Wild-type measles virus (MV) isolated from B95a cells has a restricted host cell specificity and hardly replicates in Vero cells, whereas the laboratory strain Edmonston (Ed) replicates in a variety of cell types including Vero cells. To investigate the role of H protein in the differential MV host cell specificity and cell fusion activity, H proteins of wild-type MV (IC-B) and Ed were coexpressed with the F protein in Vero cells. Cell-cell fusion occurred in Vero cells when Ed H protein, but...

  20. Relationship of actin and tubulin distribution to bud growth in wild- type and morphogenetic-mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of actin in wild-type cells and in morphogenetic mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was explored by staining cells with fluorochrome-labeled phallotoxins after fixing and permeabilizing the cells by several methods. The actin appeared to be localized in a set of cortical spots or patches, as well as in a network of cytoplasmic fibers. Bundles of filaments that may possibly correspond to the fibers visualized by fluorescence were observed with the electron microscope. The putative actin spots were concentrated in small and medium-sized buds and at what were apparently the sites of incipient bud formation on unbudded cells, whereas the putative actin fibers were generally oriented along the long axes of the mother-bud pairs. In several morphogenetic mutants that form multiple, abnormally elongated buds, the actin patches were conspicuously clustered at the tips of most buds, and actin fibers were clearly oriented along the long axes of the buds. There was a strong correlation between the occurrence of active growth at particular bud tips and clustering of actin spots at those same tips. Near the end of the cell cycle in wild- type cells, actin appeared to concentrate (as a cluster of spots or a band) in the neck region connecting the mother cell to its bud. Observations made using indirect immunofluorescence with a monoclonal anti-yeast-tubulin antibody on the morphogenetic mutant cdc4 (which forms multiple, abnormally elongated buds while the nuclear cycle is arrested) revealed the surprising occurrence of multiple bundles of cytoplasmic microtubules emanating from the one duplicated spindle-pole body per cell. It seems that most or all of the buds contain one or more of these bundles of microtubules, which often can be seen to extend to the very tips of the buds. These observations are consistent with the hypotheses that actin, tubulin, or both may be involved in the polarization of growth and localization of cell-wall deposition

  1. Combination of cetuximab and PP242 synergistically suppress the progression of wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lei Cheng,1,* Zuguang Xia,2,3,* Xinyu Bian,1 Guangchao Li,4 Jing Hu,1 Ya Cao,5 Qing Wang,1 Xiaoping Qian1 1Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 3Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 5Department of Biological Science and Technology and State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been shown to be overactive in human colorectal cancer, but the first-generation mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, has failed to show clinical efficacy against colorectal cancer. On the other hand, although the second-generation mTOR inhibitor, PP242, has exerted substantial efficacy, it was revealed that independent inhibition by PP242 was transient, which could lead to positive-feedback loop to EGFR. Using wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer cells as models, we investigate the treatment efficacy of a widely used anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, and PP242, alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Results of cell viability assays confirmed the synergistic inhibitory effect of PP242 and cetuximab on the survival of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of cancer-cell invasion and proliferation was also significantly inhibited by the combination therapy when compared with cetuximab or PP242 alone. Interestingly, the percentage of CD44-positive cancer cells was substantially decreased by the combination therapy in comparison with PP242 alone through fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The growth of cancer stem-like cell spheres in vitro was

  2. Modeling and Validation of the Ecological Behavior of Wild-Type Listeria monocytogenes and Stress-Resistant Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metselaar, Karin I; Abee, Tjakko; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous response upon stress exposure which can be partially attributed to the presence of stable stress-resistant variants. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and their corresponding trade-offs on population composition under different environmental conditions. A set of stress robustness and growth parameters of the wild type (WT) and an rpsU deletion variant was obtained and used to model their growth behavior under combined mild stress conditions and to model their kinetics under single- and mixed-strain conditions in a simulated food chain. Growth predictions for the WT and the rpsU deletion variant matched the experimental data generally well, although some deviations from the predictions were observed. The data highlighted the influence of the environmental conditions on the ratio between the WT and variant. Prediction of performance in the simulated food chain proved to be challenging. The trend of faster growth and lower stress robustness for the WT than for the rpsU variant in the different steps of the chain was confirmed, but especially for the inactivation steps and the time needed to resume growth after an inactivation step, the experimental data deviated from the model predictions. This report provides insights into the conditions which can select for stress-resistant variants in industrial settings and discusses their potential persistence in food processing environments. Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous stress response which can partially be attributed to the presence of genetic variants. These stress-resistant variants survive better under severe conditions but have, on the other hand, a reduced growth rate. To date, the ecological behavior and potential impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants is not fully understood. In this study, we quantitatively assessed growth and inactivation behavior of wild-type L

  3. Activation of microglia induces symptoms of Parkinson's disease in wild-type, but not in IL-1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko; Ishii, Atsuko; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Shioda, Seiji; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum. The initial factor that triggers neurodegeneration is unknown; however, inflammation has been demonstrated to be significantly involved in the progression of PD. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the activation of microglia and the decline of motor function using IL-1 knockout (KO) mice. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was stereotaxically injected into the SN of mice brains as a single dose or a daily dose for 5 days (5 mg/2 ml/injection, bilaterally). Animal behavior was assessed with the rotarod test at 2 hr and 8, 15 and 22 days after the final LPS injection. LPS treatment induced the activation of microglia, as demonstrated by production of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α as well as a change in microglial morphology. The number of cells immunoreactive for 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NT), which are markers for oxidative insults, increased in the SN, and impairment of motor function was observed after the subacute LPS treatment. Cell death and aggregation of α-synuclein were observed 21 and 30 days after the final LPS injection, respectively. Behavioral deficits were observed in wild-type and TNFα KO mice, but IL-1 KO mice behaved normally. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression was attenuated by LPS treatment in wild-type and TNFα KO mice but not in IL-1 KO mice. The subacute injection of LPS into the SN induces PD-like pathogenesis and symptoms in mice that mimic the progressive changes of PD including the aggregation of α-synuclein. LPS-induced dysfunction of motor performance was accompanied by the reduced gene expression of TH. These findings suggest that activation of microglia by LPS causes functional changes such as dopaminergic neuron attenuation in an IL-1-dependent manner

  4. A sensitive bioimmunoassay for thrombin-cleaved two-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, E.A.M.; Nauland, U.; Dooijewaard, G.; Rijken, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T). Little is known about the physiological importance of tcu-PA/T. To examine the occurrence of tcu-PA/T in vivo, we developed a sensitive and specific bioimmunoassay (BIA)

  5. Selection and characterization of camelid nanobodies towards urokinase-type plasminogen activator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarek, Jakub; Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2015-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a trypsin-like serine protease that plays a vital role in extracellular conversion of inactive plasminogen into catalytically active plasmin. Activated plasmin facilitates the release of several proteolytic enzymes, which control processes like perice...

  6. Antigenic differences between vaccine and circulating wild-type mumps viruses decreases neutralization capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantak, M; Lang-Balija, M; Ivancic-Jelecki, J; Košutić-Gulija, T; Ljubin-Sternak, S; Forcic, D

    2013-06-01

    A recent resurgence of mumps in doubly vaccinated cohorts has been observed, identifying genotype G as the current predominant genotype. In this study, the neutralization efficacy of guinea pig sera immunized with three vaccine viruses: L-Zagreb, Urabe AM9 and JL5, was tested against seven mumps viruses: three vaccine strains and four wild-type strains (two of genotype G, one of genotype C, one of genotype D) isolated during 1998-2011. All sera neutralized all viruses although at different levels. The neutralization efficiency of sera decreases several fold by temporal order of virus isolation. Therefore, we concluded that gradual evolution of mumps viruses, rather than belonging to a certain genotype, results in an antigenic divergence from the vaccine strains that decrease the neutralization capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies. Moreover, the amino-acid sequence alignment revealed three new potentially relevant regions for escape from neutralization, i.e. 113-130, 375-403 and 440-443.

  7. Effect of maysin on wild-type, deltamethrin-resistant, and Bt-resistant Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Brian G; Liang, Gemei; Guo, Yuyuan

    2003-06-01

    Larvae of the Old World corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), were fed diets containing lyophilized silks from maize genotypes expressing varying levels of maysin, a flavone glycoside known to be toxic to the New World corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie. Three different H. armigera colonies were tested: a wild-type colony (96-S), a colony selected for resistance to deltamethrin (Del-R), and a colony selected for resistance to the Cry1Ac protoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-R). A colony of H. zea was also tested as a control. High-maysin silk diets significantly slowed the growth and arrested the development of larvae from all H. armigera colonies compared with low-maysin silk diets, maysin-lacking silk diets, and no-silk control diets. The effects on the H. armigera and H. zea colonies were similar across maysin levels, although H. zea is a larger insect than H. armigera and this overall size difference was observed. Among the H. armigera colonies, maysin effects were generally similar, although 7-d-old Del-R larvae were significantly smaller than 7-d-old Bt-R and 96-S larvae for one no-silk control and two maysin-containing silk treatments. The toxic effect of maysin on the Bt-R and Del-R colonies suggests that physiological mechanisms of H. armigera resistance to Cry1Ac and deltamethrin do not confer cross-resistance to maysin.

  8. Melatonin enhances cold tolerance in drought-primed wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is involved in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. To explore the roles of melatonin played as well as its association with abscisic acid (ABA) in a process of drought priming-induced cold tolerance (DPICT), a wild-type barley and its ABA-deficient mutant Az34 counterpart were selected for comparison, in which the effects of melatonin application (either foliarly or rhizospherically) and/or drought priming on the cold tolerance of both types of barleys were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the early drought priming induced an increase of endogenous melatonin production, which is not ABA dependent. In addition, exogenously applied melatonin resulted in higher ABA concentration in the drought-primed plants than in the nonprimed plants when exposed to cold stress, indicating that ABA responded in a drought-dependent manner. The interplay of melatonin and ABA leads to plants maintaining better water status. Drought priming-induced melatonin accumulation enhanced the antioxidant capacity in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which sustained the photosynthetic electron transport in photosynthetic apparatus of the plants under cold stress. These results suggest that the exogenous melatonin application enhances the DPICT by modulating subcellular antioxidant systems and ABA levels in barley. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Younger age at the time of first metastasis in BRAF-mutated compared to BRAF wild-type melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jean, Melanie; Quereux, Gaëlle; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Peuvrel, Lucie; Brocard, Anabelle; Vallee, Audrey; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Khammari, Amir; Denis, Marc G; Dréno, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between BRAF mutations and the patient clinical profile is still under question. The objective of the present study was to correlate the BRAF mutation status in primary and metastatic melanomas with the clinicopathological profile, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 367 melanoma samples from 278 patients were screened for their BRAF status using a combination of allele-specific amplification and DNA sequencing. Two or three tissue samples from the same patient were available for 74 patients. The clinicopathological characteristics were tested for their association with the BRAF mutation using the Fisher's or Pearson's χ2 test. Log-rank tests and Cox models were used for survival analyses. BRAF mutation was found in 152 samples (41.4%). Ten of the 74 patients with several tissue samples (13.5%) had discordant BRAF mutation results. BRAF-mutated patients were significantly younger at the time of primary melanoma and first diagnosis of metastasis than BRAF wild-type patients but with no difference in DFS and OS. According to our results, a primary melanoma with BRAF mutation is not associated with a more aggressive illness.

  10. Effects of Kamikihito and Unkei-to on Sleep Behavior of Wild Type and Parkinson Model in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumpei Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and it is associated with sleep behavior disorders. In Drosophila melanogaster disease model, human α-synuclein A30P overexpressing flies (A30P PD model have been shown for levy body aggregation and movement disorders. We measured sleep rhythms in the A30P PD model flies using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring system and found that they develop sleep defects at 20 days after eclosion. Furthermore, the total amount of sleep is significantly reduced in middle-aged PD model flies and the reduction has been attributed to nighttime sleep. The number and length of sleep bouts also decreased in middle-aged A30P PD model flies. Feeding of the oriental traditional herbal medicines (Kampo, Kamikihito and Unkei-to significantly ameliorate the level of sleep defects in A30P PD model flies. The Kamikihito and Unkei-to recovered 60-min sleep bouts number in the A30P PD model flies to the level of young (5 days after eclosion flies. Kamikihito recovered sleep both in wild-type and PD model flies. Unkei-to ameliorates not only sleep but also motor function in PD model flies. The data suggest that Kamikihito and Unkei-to might be useful for the sleep defects in human PD patients as well as healthy human.

  11. ARID1A alterations are associated with FGFR3-wild type, poor-prognosis, urothelial bladder tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Balbás-Martínez

    Full Text Available Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC is heterogeneous at the clinical, pathological, genetic, and epigenetic levels. Exome sequencing has identified ARID1A as a novel tumor suppressor gene coding for a chromatin remodeling protein that is mutated in UBC. Here, we assess ARID1A alterations in two series of patients with UBC. In the first tumor series, we analyze exons 2-20 in 52 primary UBC and find that all mutant tumors belong to the aggressive UBC phenotype (high grade non-muscle invasive and muscle invasive tumors (P = 0.05. In a second series (n = 84, we assess ARID1A expression using immunohistochemistry, a surrogate for mutation analysis, and find that loss of expression increases with higher stage/grade, it is inversely associated with FGFR3 overexpression (P = 0.03 but it is not correlated with p53 overexpression (P = 0.30. We also analyzed the expression of cytokeratins in the same set of tumor and find, using unsupervised clustering, that tumors with ARID1A loss of expression are generally KRT5/6-low. In this patient series, loss of ARID1A expression is also associated with worse prognosis, likely reflecting the higher prevalence of losses found in tumors of higher stage and grade. The independent findings in these two sets of patients strongly support the notion that ARID1A inactivation is a key player in bladder carcinogenesis occurring predominantly in FGFR3 wild type tumors.

  12. Comparison of transcriptomes of wild-type and isothiazolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Shi, Qing-Shan; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Xie, Xiao-Bao

    2016-06-01

    Isothiazolone biocides (such as Kathon) are widely used in a variety of industrial and domestic applications. However, the mechanisms through which bacteria develop resistance to these biocides are not completely clear. A better understanding of these mechanisms can contribute to optimal use of these biocides. In this study, transcription profiles of a Kathon-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa-R) and the wild-type strain were determined using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. RNA-Seq generated 18,657,896 sequence reads aligned to 7093 genes. In all, 1550 differently expressed genes (DEGs, log2 ratio ≥1, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001) were identified, of which 482 were up-regulated and 1068 were down-regulated. Most Kathon-induced genes were involved in metabolic and cellular processes. DEGs significantly enriched nitrogen metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. In addition, Pa-R showed cross-resistance to triclosan and ciprofloxacin and showed repressed pyocyanin production. These results may improve our understanding of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa against isothiazolones, and provide insight into the development of more efficient isothiazolones.

  13. Kinetic modeling of batch fermentation for Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant and wild type strains of Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Cox, Chris D

    2013-11-01

    The extent of inhibition of two strains of Clostridium thermocellum by a Populus hydrolysate was investigated. A Monod-based model of wild type (WT) and Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant (PM) strains of the cellulolytic bacterium C. thermocellum was developed to quantify growth kinetics in standard media and the extent of inhibition to a Populus hydrolysate. The PM was characterized by a higher growth rate (μmax=1.223 vs. 0.571 h(-1)) and less inhibition (KI,gen=0.991 vs. 0.757) in 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate compared to the WT. In 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate inhibition of PM increased slightly (KI,gen=0.888), whereas the WT was strongly inhibited and did not grow in a reproducible manner. Of the individual inhibitors tested, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was the most inhibitory, followed by galacturonic acid. The PM did not have a greater ability to detoxify the hydrolysate than the WT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium systemic infection of wild type and immune-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Oshota

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica are a threat to public health. Current vaccines are not fully effective. The ability to grow in infected tissues within phagocytes is required for S. enterica virulence in systemic disease. As the infection progresses the bacteria are exposed to a complex host immune response. Consequently, in order to continue growing in the tissues, S. enterica requires the coordinated regulation of fitness genes. Bacterial gene regulation has so far been investigated largely using exposure to artificial environmental conditions or to in vitro cultured cells, and little information is available on how S. enterica adapts in vivo to sustain cell division and survival. We have studied the transcriptome, proteome and metabolic flux of Salmonella, and the transcriptome of the host during infection of wild type C57BL/6 and immune-deficient gp91-/-phox mice. Our analyses advance the understanding of how S. enterica and the host behaves during infection to a more sophisticated level than has previously been reported.

  15. Transcriptome Profiling of Wild-Type and pga-Knockout Mutant Strains Reveal the Role of Exopolysaccharide in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan Shanmugam

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides have a diverse set of functions in most bacteria including a mechanistic role in protecting bacteria against environmental stresses. Among the many functions attributed to the exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, immune evasion and colonization have been studied most extensively. The exopolysaccharide produced by many Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacteria including the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is the homopolymer of β(1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Recently, we reported that the PGA-deficient mutant of A. actinomycetemcomitans failed to colonize or induce bone resorption in a rat model of periodontal disease, and the colonization genes, apiA and aae, were significantly down regulated in the mutant strain. To understand the role of exopolysaccharide and the pga locus in the global expression of A. actinomycetemcomitans, we have used comparative transcriptome profiling to identify differentially expressed genes in the wild-type strain in relation to the PGA-deficient strain. Transcriptome analysis revealed that about 50% of the genes are differently expressed (P 1.5. Our study demonstrated that the absence of the pga locus affects the genes involved in peptidoglycan recycling, glycogen storage, and virulence. Further, using confocal microscopy and plating assays, we show that the viability of pga mutant strain is significantly reduced during biofilm growth. Thus, this study highlights the importance of pga genes and the exopolysaccharide in the virulence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  16. Acyl-CoA synthetase activity links wild-type but not mutant a-Synuclein to brain arachidonate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Mikhail; Rosenberger, Thad; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2006-01-01

    Because alpha-synuclein (Snca) has a role in brain lipid metabolism, we determined the impact that the loss of alpha-synuclein had on brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) metabolism in vivo using Snca-/- mice. We measured [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 incorporation and turnover kinetics in brain phospholipids using...... an established steady-state kinetic model. Liver was used as a negative control, and no changes were observed between groups. In Snca-/- brains, there was a marked reduction in 20:4n-6-CoA mass and in microsomal acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl) activity toward 20:4n-6. Microsomal Acsl activity was completely restored...... after the addition of exogenous wild-type mouse or human alpha-synuclein, but not by A30P, E46K, and A53T forms of alpha-synuclein. Acsl and acyl-CoA hydrolase expression was not different between groups. The incorporation and turnover of 20:4n-6 into brain phospholipid pools were markedly reduced...

  17. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren

    2015-12-01

    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Near-perfect infectivity of wild-type AAV as benchmark for infectivity of recombinant AAV vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltner, N; Kohlbrenner, E; Clément, N; Weber, T; Linden, R M

    2010-07-01

    Viral vectors derived from adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are widely used for gene transfer both in vitro and in vivo. The increasing use of AAV as a gene transfer vector, as well as recently shown immunological complications in clinical trials, highlight the necessity to define the specific activity of vector preparations beyond current standards. In this report, we determined the infectious, physical and genome-containing particle titers of several wild-type AAV type 2 (wtAAV2) and recombinant AAV type 2 (rAAV2) preparations that were produced and purified by standard methods. We found that the infectivity of wtAAV2 approaches a physical-to-infectious particle ratio of one. This near-perfect physical-to-infectious particle ratio defines a 'ceiling' for the theoretically achievable quality of recombinant AAV vectors. In comparison, for rAAV2, only approximately 50 out of 100 viral particles contained a genome and, more strikingly, only approximately 1 of the 100 viral particles was infectious. Our findings suggest that current strategies for rAAV vector design, production and/or purification should be amenable to improvements. Ultimately, this could result in the generation of near-perfect vector particles, a prospect with significant implications for gene therapy.

  19. Comparative proteomic analysis on wild type and nitric oxide-overproducing mutant (nox1) of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; He, Jun-Xian; Xiao, Qiang; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-01-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a ubiquitous signal molecule plays an important role in plant development and growth. Here, we compared the proteomic changes between NO-overproducing mutant (nox1) and wild-type (WT) of Arabidopsis thaliana using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF MS. We successfully identified 59 differentially expressed proteins in nox1 mutant, which are predicted to play potential roles in specific cellular processes, such as post-translational modification, energy production and conversion, metabolism, transcription and signal transduction, cell rescue and defense, development and differentiation. Particularly, expression levels of five anti-oxidative enzymes were altered by the mutation; and assays of their respective enzymatic activities indicated an enhanced level of oxidative stress in nox1 mutant. Finally, some important proteins were further confirmed at transcriptional level using quantitative real-time PCR revealing the systemic changes between WT and nox1. The result suggests that obvious morphological changes in the nox1 mutant may be regulated by different mechanisms and factors, while excess endogenous NO maybe one of the possible reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ARID1A alterations are associated with FGFR3-wild type, poor-prognosis, urothelial bladder tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbás-Martínez, Cristina; Rodríguez-Pinilla, María; Casanova, Ariel; Domínguez, Orlando; Pisano, David G; Gómez, Gonzalo; Lloreta, Josep; Lorente, José A; Malats, Núria; Real, Francisco X

    2013-01-01

    Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is heterogeneous at the clinical, pathological, genetic, and epigenetic levels. Exome sequencing has identified ARID1A as a novel tumor suppressor gene coding for a chromatin remodeling protein that is mutated in UBC. Here, we assess ARID1A alterations in two series of patients with UBC. In the first tumor series, we analyze exons 2-20 in 52 primary UBC and find that all mutant tumors belong to the aggressive UBC phenotype (high grade non-muscle invasive and muscle invasive tumors) (P = 0.05). In a second series (n = 84), we assess ARID1A expression using immunohistochemistry, a surrogate for mutation analysis, and find that loss of expression increases with higher stage/grade, it is inversely associated with FGFR3 overexpression (P = 0.03) but it is not correlated with p53 overexpression (P = 0.30). We also analyzed the expression of cytokeratins in the same set of tumor and find, using unsupervised clustering, that tumors with ARID1A loss of expression are generally KRT5/6-low. In this patient series, loss of ARID1A expression is also associated with worse prognosis, likely reflecting the higher prevalence of losses found in tumors of higher stage and grade. The independent findings in these two sets of patients strongly support the notion that ARID1A inactivation is a key player in bladder carcinogenesis occurring predominantly in FGFR3 wild type tumors.

  1. Proteomic profiling of phosphoproteins and glycoproteins responsive to wild-type alpha-synuclein accumulation and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathingal, Jayanarayan; Ko, Li-wen; Cusack, Bernadette; Yen, Shu-Hui

    2009-01-01

    A tetracycline inducible transfectant cell line (3D5) capable of producing soluble and sarkosyl-insoluble assemblies of wild-type human alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) upon differentiation with retinoic acid was used to study the impact of α-Syn accumulation on protein phosphorylation and glycosylation. Soluble proteins from 3D5 cells, with or without the induced α-Syn expression were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and staining of gels with dyes that bind to proteins (Sypro ruby), phosphoproteins (Pro-Q diamond) and glycoproteins (Pro-Q emerald). Phosphoproteins were further confirmed by binding to immobilized metal ion affinity column. α-Syn accumulation caused differential phosphorylation and glycosylation of 16 and 12, proteins, respectively, whose identity was revealed by mass spectrometry. These proteins, including HSP90, have diverse biological functions including protein folding, signal transduction, protein degradation and cytoskeletal regulation. Importantly, cells accumulating α-Syn assemblies with different abilities to bind thioflavin S displayed different changes in phosphorylation and glycosylation. Consistent with the cell-based studies, we demonstrated a reduced level of phosphorylated HSP90 α/β in the substantia nigra of subjects with Parkinson’s disease as compared to normal controls. Together, the results indicate that α-Syn accumulation causes complex cellular responses, which if persist may compromise cell viability. PMID:19027885

  2. Aggregates Assembled from Overexpression of Wild Type α-Synuclein Are Not Toxic to Human Neuronal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Li-wen; Ko, Hwai-hwa C.; Lin, Wen-Lang; Kulathingal, Jayanranyan G.; Yen, Shu-Hui C.

    2009-01-01

    Filamentous α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates form Lewy bodies (LBs), the neuropathologic hallmarks of Parkinson disease and related α-synucleinopathies. To model Lewy body-associated neurodegeneration, we generated transfectant human neuronal type cells (clone 3D5) in which expression of human wild-type α-syn is regulated by the tetracycline off (TetOff)-inducible mechanism. Retinoic acid-elicited differentiation promoted assembly of α-syn aggregates after TetOff induction in 3D5 cells. The aggregates accumulated 14 days after TetOff induction were primarily soluble and showed augmented thioflavin affinity with concomitant phosphorylation and nitration of α-syn. Extension of the induction led to the formation of sarkosyl-insoluble aggregates that appeared concurrently with thioflavin-positive inclusions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the inclusions consist of dense bundles of 8- to 12-nm α-syn fibrils that congregate in the perikarya and resemble LBs. Most importantly, accumulation of soluble and insoluble aggregates after TetOff induction for 14 and 28 days was reversible and did not compromise the viability of the cells or their subsequent survival. Thus, this chemically defined culture paradigm provides a useful means to elucidate how oxidative injuries and other insults that are associated with aging promote α-syn to self-assemble or interact with other molecules leading to neuronal degeneration in α-synucleinopathies. PMID:18957893

  3. Differentiation between wild-type and vaccines strains of varicella zoster virus (VZV) based on four single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L; Xu, S; Maple, P A C; Xu, W; Brown, K E

    2017-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection (chickenpox) results in latency and subsequent reactivation manifests as shingles. Effective attenuated vaccines (vOka) are available for prevention of both illnesses. In this study, an amplicon-based sequencing method capable of differentiating between VZV wild-type (wt) strains and vOka vaccine is described. A total of 44 vesicular fluid specimens collected from 43 patients (16 from China and 27 from the UK) with either chickenpox or shingles were investigated, of which 10 had received previous vaccination. Four sets of polymerase chain reactions were set up simultaneously with primers amplifying regions encompassing four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), '69349-106262-107252-108111'. Nucleotide sequences were generated by Sanger sequencing. All samples except one had a wt SNP profile of 'A-T-T-T'. The sample collected from a patient who received vaccine 7-10 days ago, along with VZV vaccine preparations, Zostavax and Baike-varicella gave a SNP profile 'G-C-C-C'. The results show that this method can distinguish vaccine-derived virus from wt viruses from main four clades, (clades 1-4) and should be of utility worldwide.

  4. Elevated BCRP/ABCG2 expression confers acquired resistance to gefitinib in wild-type EGFR-expressing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs is strongly associated with activating EGFR mutations. Although not as sensitive as patients harboring these mutations, some patients with wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR remain responsive to EGFR TKIs, suggesting that the existence of unexplored mechanisms renders most of wtEGFR-expressing cancer cells insensitive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that acquired resistance of wtEGFR-expressing cancer cells to an EGFR TKI, gefitinib, is associated with elevated expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2, which in turn leads to gefitinib efflux from cells. In addition, BCRP/ABCG2 expression correlates with poor response to gefitinib in both cancer cell lines and lung cancer patients with wtEGFR. Co-treatment with BCRP/ABCG2 inhibitors enhanced the anti-tumor activity of gefitinib. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, BCRP/ABCG2 expression may be a predictor for poor efficacy of gefitinib treatment, and targeting BCRP/ABCG2 may broaden the use of gefitinib in patients with wtEGFR.

  5. Deletion of znuA virulence factor attenuates Brucella abortus and confers protection against wild-type challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghong; Becker, Todd; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W

    2006-07-01

    znuA is known to be an important factor for survival and normal growth under low Zn(2+) concentrations for Escherichia coli, Haemophilus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pasteurella multocida. We hypothesized that the znuA gene present in Brucella melitensis 16 M would be similar to znuA in B. abortus and questioned whether it may also be an important factor for growth and virulence of Brucella abortus. Using the B. melitensis 16 M genome sequence, primers were designed to construct a B. abortus deletion mutant. A znuA knockout mutation in B. abortus 2308 (DeltaznuA) was constructed and found to be lethal in low-Zn(2+) medium. When used to infect macrophages, DeltaznuA B. abortus showed minimal growth. Further study with DeltaznuA B. abortus showed that its virulence in BALB/c mice was attenuated, and most of the bacteria were cleared from the spleen within 8 weeks. Protection studies confirmed the DeltaznuA mutant as a potential live vaccine, since protection against wild-type B. abortus 2308 challenge was as effective as that obtained with the RB51 or S19 vaccine strain.

  6. EPR analysis of cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin and mutants in comparison to horse heart myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Trandafir, Florin; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal large differences between the ferric ((13)C-)cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin (NGB) and its H64Q and F28L point mutants and the cyanide complexes of mammalian myo- and haemoglobin. The point mutations, which involve residues comprising the distal haem pocket in NGB, induce smaller, but still significant changes, related to changes in the stabilization of the cyanide ligand. Furthermore, for the first time, the full (13)C hyperfine tensor of the cyanide carbon of cyanide-ligated horse heart myoglobin (hhMb) was determined using Davies ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance). Disagreement of these experimental data with earlier predictions based on (13)C NMR data and a theoretical model reveal significant flaws in the model assumptions. The same ENDOR procedure allowed also partial determination of the corresponding (13)C hyperfine tensor of cyanide-ligated NGB and H64QNGB. These (13)C parameters differ significantly from those of cyanide-ligated hhMb and challenge our current theoretical understanding of how the haem environment influences the magnetic parameters obtained by EPR and NMR in cyanide-ligated haem proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding the body mass range: associations between BMR and tissue morphology in wild type and mutant dwarf mice (David mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Neubronner, Juliane; Rozman, Jan; Stumm, Gabi; Osanger, Andreas; Stoeger, Claudia; Augustin, Martin; Grosse, Johannes; Klingenspor, Martin; Heldmaier, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    We sought to identify associations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) with morphological traits in laboratory mice. In order to expand the body mass (BM) range at the intra-strain level, and to minimize relevant genetic variation, we used male and female wild type mice (C3HeB/FeJ) and previously unpublished ENU-induced dwarf mutant littermates (David mice), covering a body mass range from 13.5 g through 32.3 g. BMR was measured at 30 degrees C, mice were killed by means of CO(2 )overdose, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was subsequently analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), after which mice were dissected into 12 (males) and 10 (females) components, respectively. Across the 44 individuals, 43% of the variation in the basal rates of metabolism was associated with BM. The latter explained 47% to 98% of the variability in morphology of the different tissues. Our results demonstrate that sex is a major determinant of body composition and BMR in mice: when adjusted for BM, females contained many larger organs, more fat mass, and less lean mass compared to males. This could be associated with a higher mass adjusted BMR in females. Once the dominant effects of sex and BM on BMR and tissue mass were removed, and after accounting for multiple comparisons, no further significant association between individual variation in BMR and tissue mass emerged.

  8. Differential composition of culture supernatants from wild-type Brucella abortus and its isogenic virB mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino, M Victoria; Comerci, Diego J; Wagner, Mary Ann; Eschenbrenner, Michel; Mujer, Cesar V; Ugalde, Rodolfo A; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C; Delvecchio, Vito G

    2009-07-01

    The virB genes coding type IV secretion system are necessary for the intracellular survival and replication of Brucella spp. In this study, extracellular proteins from B. abortus 2308 (wild type, WT) and its isogenic virB10 polar mutant were compared. Culture supernatants harvested in the early stationary phase were concentrated and subjected to 2D electrophoresis. Spots present in the WT strain but absent in the virB10 mutant (differential spots) were considered extracellular proteins released in a virB-related manner, and were identified by MALDI-TOF analysis and matching with Brucella genomes. Among the 11 differential proteins identified, DnaK chaperone (Hsp70), choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH) and a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) were chosen for further investigation because of their homology with extracellular and/or virulence factors from other bacteria. The three proteins were obtained in recombinant form and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared. By Western blot with these mAbs, the three proteins were detected in supernatants from the WT but not in those from the virB10 polar mutant or from strains carrying non-polar mutations in virB10 or virB11 genes. These results suggest that the expression of virB genes affects the extracellular release of DnaK, PPIase and CGH, and possibly other proteins from B. abortus.

  9. Data set for comparison of cellular dynamics between human AAVS1 locus-modified and wild-type cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeomi Mizutani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes cellular dynamics, such as migration speed and mobility of the cytoskeletal protein, of wild-type human fibroblast cells and cells with a modified adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19. Insertion of exogenous gene into the AAVS1 locus has been conducted in recent biological researches. Previously, our data showed that the AAVS1-modification changes cellular contractile force (Mizutani et al., 2015 [1]. To assess if this AAVS1-modification affects cell migration, we compared cellular migration speed and turnover of cytoskeletal protein in human fibroblasts and fibroblasts with a green fluorescent protein gene knocked-in at the AAVS1 locus in this data article. Cell nuclei were stained and changes in their position attributable to cell migration were analyzed. Fluorescence recovery was observed after photobleaching for the fluorescent protein-tagged myosin regulatory light chain. Data here are related to the research article “Transgene Integration into the Human AAVS1 Locus Enhances Myosin II-Dependent Contractile Force by Reducing Expression of Myosin Binding Subunit 85” [1].

  10. Quantitative inner membrane proteome datasets of the wild-type and the Δmin mutant of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh-Yuen Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data that were obtained through measuring the impact of the Min oscillation on membrane proteins in Escherichia coli by quantitative protemoics analysis. We isolated inner membranes from the wild-type and mutant strains to generate proteomics datasets based on NanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ method. The datasets included the raw spectral files from four sample replicates and the processed files using Proteome Discoverer that contained a total of 40,072 MS/MS spectra with confident peptide identifier (FDR<0.01 and the peak intensity of the reporter ions. The data was further filtered, which resulted in an inner membrane proteome of unique proteins with quantitation. Proteins of interest, that show significant difference in protein abundance of the mutant membrane, were isolated through statistical filtering. The data is related to “Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals the Min system of Escherichia coli modulates reversible protein association with the inner membrane” (Lee et al., 2016 [1].

  11. Spontaneous generation of rapidly transmissible prions in transgenic mice expressing wild-type bank vole prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Stöhr, Jan; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; Grillo, Sunny K; Patel, Smita; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-02-28

    Currently, there are no animal models of the most common human prion disorder, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), in which prions are formed spontaneously from wild-type (WT) prion protein (PrP). Interestingly, bank voles (BV) exhibit an unprecedented promiscuity for diverse prion isolates, arguing that bank vole PrP (BVPrP) may be inherently prone to adopting misfolded conformations. Therefore, we constructed transgenic (Tg) mice expressing WT BVPrP. Tg(BVPrP) mice developed spontaneous CNS dysfunction between 108 and 340 d of age and recapitulated the hallmarks of prion disease, including spongiform degeneration, pronounced astrogliosis, and deposition of alternatively folded PrP in the brain. Brain homogenates of ill Tg(BVPrP) mice transmitted disease to Tg(BVPrP) mice in ∼35 d, to Tg mice overexpressing mouse PrP in under 100 d, and to WT mice in ∼185 d. Our studies demonstrate experimentally that WT PrP can spontaneously form infectious prions in vivo. Thus, Tg(BVPrP) mice may be useful for studying the spontaneous formation of prions, and thus may provide insight into the etiology of sporadic CJD.

  12. A diacidic motif determines unconventional secretion of wild-type and ALS-linked mutant SOD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, David; Brouwers, Nathalie; Duran, Juan M; Mora, Gabriel; Curwin, Amy J; Malhotra, Vivek

    2017-08-09

    The nutrient starvation-specific unconventional secretion of Acb1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires ESCRT-I, -II, and -III and Grh1. In this study, we report that another signal sequence lacking cytoplasmic protein, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and its mutant form linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is also secreted by yeast upon nutrient starvation in a Grh1- and ESCRT-I-, -II-, and -III-dependent process. Our analyses reveal that a conserved diacidic motif (Asp-Glu) in these proteins is necessary for their export. Importantly, secretion of wild-type human SOD1 and the ALS-linked mutant in human cells also require the diacidic residues. Altogether, these findings reveal information encoded within the cytoplasmic proteins required for their unconventional secretion and provide a means to unravel the significance of the cytoplasmic versus the secreted form of mutant SOD1 in the pathology of ALS. We also propose how cells, based on a signal-induced change in cytoplasmic physiology, select a small pool of a subset of cytoplasmic proteins for unconventional secretion. © 2017 Cruz-Garcia et al.

  13. Inactivation of single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator by thrombin in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat, E A; Levi, M; Bos, R; Haverkate, F; Lassen, M R; de Maat, M P; Rijken, D C

    1999-08-01

    Thrombin cleaves single-chain urokinase-type plasminogen activator (scu-PA) into a virtually inactive two-chain form (tcu-PA/T), a process that may protect a blood clot from early fibrinolysis. It is not known under what circumstances tcu-PA/T can be generated in vivo. We have studied the occurrence of tcu-PA/T in human subjects with a varying degree of hypercoagulability. tcu-PA/T was assessed in the plasma of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), endotoxin-treated volunteers, patients with unstable angina pectoris, and patients selected for hip replacement. Relationships between tcu-PA/T and several markers reflecting thrombin generation were examined. tcu-PA/T was observed only in the plasma of patients with DIC and was associated with all thrombin markers and with scu-PA and urokinase antigen. Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 and urokinase antigen were independent predictors of tcu-PA/T. The fact that tcu-PA/T could not be detected in the other three groups was explained by a lower extent of thrombin generation, a greater inhibition of thrombin by antithrombin, or less available urokinase antigen in these groups. The contribution of scu-PA to total urokinase antigen was decreased in the patients with DIC because of inactivation by thrombin, which may be an additional explanation for the inadequate fibrinolysis observed in these patients. These findings show that scu-PA can be inactivated in the circulation under severe pathophysiologic circumstances and that the process of inactivation depends not only on the generation of thrombin but also on the control of thrombin activity by its inhibitor antithrombin.

  14. Spontaneous human squamous cell carcinomas are killed by a human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone recognizing a wild-type p53-derived peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Hald, J; Guldberg, Per

    1996-01-01

    A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone generated in vitro from the peripheral blood of a healthy HLA-A2-positive individual against a synthetic p53 protein-derived wild-type peptide (L9V) was shown to kill squamous carcinoma cell lines derived from two head and neck carcinomas, which expressed mutant...

  15. Alcoholic fermentation by wild-type Hansenula polymorpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus recombinant strains with an elevated level of intracellular glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Kurylenko, Olena O; Sibirny, Vladimir A; Ubiyvovk, Vira M; Penninckx, Michel; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-11-01

    The ability of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of the thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha to produce ethanol during alcoholic fermentation of glucose was compared between wild-type strains and recombinant strains possessing an elevated level of intracellular glutathione (GSH) due to overexpression of the first gene of GSH biosynthesis, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, or of the central regulatory gene of sulfur metabolism, MET4. The analyzed strains of H. polymorpha with an elevated pool of intracellular GSH were found to accumulate almost twice as much ethanol as the wild-type strain during glucose fermentation, in contrast to GSH1-overexpressing S. cerevisiae strains, which also possessed an elevated pool of GSH. The ethanol tolerance of the GSH-overproducing strains was also determined. For this, the wild-type strain and transformants with an elevated GSH pool were compared for their viability upon exposure to exogenous ethanol. Unexpectedly, both S. cerevisiae and H. polymorpha transformants with a high GSH pool proved more sensitive to exogenous ethanol than the corresponding wild-type strains.

  16. Anticancer Effects of 15d-Prostaglandin-J(2) in Wild-Type and Doxorubicin-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells : Novel Actions on SIRT1 and HDAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Edwin; Winkel, Peter; Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai

    2011-01-01

    15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin-J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), an arachidonic metabolite and a natural PPAR gamma agonist, is known to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, we investigated new therapeutic potentials of 15d-PGJ(2) by determining its anticancer effects in wild-type and

  17. Expression and targeting of a 47 kDa integral peroxisomal membrane protein of Candida boidinii in wild type and a peroxisome-deficient mutant of Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, G.J.; Waterham, H.R.; Vrieling, E.G.; Goodman, J.M.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1993-01-01

    A 47 kDa integral peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP47) of Candida boidinii was expressed in wild type (WT) and a temperature-sensitive (Ts6) peroxisome-deficient (per) mutant of Hansenula polymorpha. The subcellular location of PMP47 appeared to be dependent on the level of expression. At low

  18. TP53 Mutation Status of Tubo-ovarian and Peritoneal High-grade Serous Carcinoma with a Wild-type p53 Immunostaining Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kiyong; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse and strong nuclear p53 immunoreactivity and a complete lack of p53 expression are regarded as indicative of missense and nonsense mutations, respectively, of the TP53 gene. Tubo-ovarian and peritoneal high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is characterized by aberrant p53 expression induced by a TP53 mutation. However, our experience with some HGSC cases with a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern led us to comprehensively review previous cases and investigate the TP53 mutational status of the exceptional cases. We analyzed the immunophenotype of 153 cases of HGSC and performed TP53 gene sequencing analysis in those with a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern. Immunostaining revealed that 109 (71.3%) cases displayed diffuse and strong p53 expression (missense mutation pattern), while 39 (25.5%) had no p53 expression (nonsense mutation pattern). The remaining five cases of HGSC showed a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern. Direct sequencing analysis revealed that three of these cases harbored nonsense TP53 mutations and two had novel splice site deletions. TP53 mutation is almost invariably present in HGSC, and p53 immunostaining can be used as a surrogate marker of TP53 mutation. In cases with a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern, direct sequencing for TP53 mutational status can be helpful to confirm the presence of a TP53 mutation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptation of photosystem II to high and low light in wild-type and triazine-resistant Canola plants: analysis by a fluorescence induction algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.; Vredenberg, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Plants of wild-type and triazine-resistant Canola (Brassica napus L.) were exposed to very high light intensities and after 1 day placed on a laboratory table at low light to recover, to study the kinetics of variable fluorescence after light, and after dark-adaptation. This cycle was repeated

  20. Overexpression of wild-type creatine transporter (SLC6A8) restores creatine uptake in primary SLC6A8-deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Efraim H; Muñoz, Cristina Martínez; Degrauw, Ton J; Jakobs, Cor nelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2006-01-01

    In the study reported, we prove that mutations in the SLC6A8 gene are responsible for SLC6A8 deficiency, a cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome (CCDS), since overexpression of the wild-type SLC6A8 open reading frame (ORF) restores the creatine uptake profile in SLC6A8-deficient fibroblasts.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grapefruit with the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Citrus tristeza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Duncan was transformed with constructs coding for the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) for exploring replicase-mediated pathogen-derived resistance (RM-PDR). The RdRp gene was amplified from CTV genome and used to gener...

  2. Comparative Quantitative Studies on the Microvasculature of the Heart of a Highly Selected Meat-Type and a Wild-Type Turkey Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Masri, Salah; Kattanek, Maria; Richardson, Kenneth C; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Plendl, Johanna; Hünigen, Hana

    2017-01-01

    In this study the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the heart of a fast growing, meat-type turkey line (British United turkeys BUT Big 6) and a wild-type turkey line (Canadian Wild turkey) were compared. At 8 and 16 weeks of age, 10 birds of each genotype and sex were sampled. The body mass and heart mass of the meat-type turkey both increased at a faster rate than those of the wild-type turkey. However in both turkey lines, the relative heart mass decreased slightly with age, the decrease was statistically significant only in the male turkeys. Furthermore meat-type turkeys had a significantly (p meat-type turkeys. The number of capillaries in the left ventricular wall increased significantly (p meat-type turkeys there were no significant changes, capillary numbers being 2989 per mm2 at age 8 weeks and 2915 per mm2 at age 16 weeks. Correspondingly the area occupied by capillaries in the myocardium increased in wild-type turkeys from 8.59% at the age of 8 weeks to 9.15% at 16 weeks, whereas in meat-type turkeys this area decreased from 10.4% at 8 weeks to 9.95% at 16 weeks. Our results indicate a mismatch in development between body mass and heart mass and a compromised cardiac capillary density and architecture in the meat-type turkeys in comparison to the wild-type turkeys.

  3. An approach to prevent aggregation during the purification and crystallization of wild type acyl coenzyme A : Isopenicillin N acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Hensgens, Charles M.H.; Laan, Jan Metske van der; Sutherland, John D.; Hart, Darren J.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2005-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A: isopenicillin N acyltransferase (AT) from Penicillium chrysogenum is an enzyme of interest for the biosynthesis of β-lactam antibiotics. Severe aggregation problems with wild type AT have, however, prevented significant progress in the structure–function analysis of this enzyme for

  4. Biological activity and safety of adenoviral vector-expressed wild-type p53 after intratumoral injection in melanoma and breast cancer patients with p53-overexpressing tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dummer, R; Bergh, J; Karlsson, Y; Horovitz, JA; Mulder, NH; Huinin, DT; Burg, G; Hofbauer, G; Osanto, S

    p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human cancer. Gene transfer of a wild-type (wt) p53 gene reverses the loss of normal p53 function in vitro and in vivo. A phase I dose escalation study of single intratumoral (i.t.) injection of a replication-defective adenoviral expression vector

  5. Contrasting colonization and plant growth promoting capacity between wild type and gfp-derative of the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 in hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens N.; van der Lelie D.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, D.; Timmermans, J.-P.; Prinsen, E.; Van Oevelen, S.; D" Haen, J.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-06-09

    This study aims to investigate the colonization of poplar by the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 and its capacity to promote plant growth. Poplar cuttings were inoculated with P. putida W619 (wild-type or gfp-labelled). The colonization of both strains was investigated and morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to evaluate plant growth promotion. Inoculation with P. putida W619 (wild-type) resulted in remarkable growth promotion, decreased activities of antioxidative defence related enzymes, and reduced stomatal resistance, all indicative of improved plant health and growth in comparison with the non-inoculated cuttings. In contrast, inoculation with gfp-labelled P. putida W619 did not promote growth; it even had a negative effect on plant health and growth. Furthermore, compared to the wildtype strain, colonization by the gfp-labelled P. putida W619::gfp1 was much lower; it only colonized the rhizosphere and root cortex while the wild-type strain also colonized the root xylem vessels. Despite the strong plant growth promoting capacity of P. putida W619 (wild-type), after gfp labelling its growth promoting characteristics disappeared and its colonization capacity was strongly influenced; for these reasons gfp labelling should be applied with sufficient caution.

  6. Identification of a Novel Scaffold for Allosteric Inhibition of Wild Type and Drug Resistant HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase by Fragment Library Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitmann, M.; Elinder, M; Seeger, C; Brandt, P; de Esch, I.J.P.; Danielson, U.H.

    2011-01-01

    A novel scaffold inhibiting wild type and drug resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1RT) has been identified in a library consisting of 1040 fragments. The fragments were significantly different from already known non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase

  7. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Aller, A.I.; Canton, E.; Castanon-Olivares, L.R.; Chowdhary, A.; Cordoba, S.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Govender, N.; Hagen, F.; Illnait-Zaragozi, M.T.; Johnson, E.; Kidd, S.; Lass-Florl, C.; Lockhart, S.R.; Martins, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Melhem, M.S.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M.A.; Schell, W.A.; St-Germain, G.; Trilles, L.; Turnidge, J.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex versus fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole are not available. We established ECVs for these species and agents based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions. A total of 2,985 to

  8. PURIFICATION AND CELLULAR-LOCALIZATION OF WILD-TYPE AND MUTATED DIHYDROLIPOYLTRANSACETYLASES FROM AZOTOBACTER-VINELANDII AND ESCHERICHIA-COLI EXPRESSED IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHULZE, E; WESTPHAL, AH; VEENHUIS, M; DEKOK, A

    1992-01-01

    Wild type dihydrolipoyltransacetylase(E2p)-components from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of A. vinelandii or E. coli, and mutants of A. vinelandii E2p with stepwise deletions of the lipoyl domains or the alanine- and proline-rich region between the binding and the catalytic domain have been

  9. Rotavirus A genotype G1P[8]: a novel method to distinguish wild-type strains from the Rotarix® vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L Rose

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses are important enteric pathogens for humans and animals. Group A rotaviruses (RV-A are the most common agents of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children and vaccination is the most effective method to reduce RV-A-associated diseases. G1P[8], the most prevalent RV-A genotype worldwide, is included in the RV-A vaccine Rotarix®. The discrimination between wild-type G1P[8] and vaccine G1P[8] strains is an important topic in the study of RV-A epidemiology to manage outbreaks and to define control measures for vaccinated children. In this study, we developed a novel method to segregate the wild-type and vaccine strains using restriction endonucleases. The dsRNA from the Rotarix® vaccine was sequenced and the NSP3 gene was selected as the target gene. The vaccine strain has a restriction pattern that is different than that of wild-type RV-A G1P[8] isolates after digestion with the restriction endonuclease BspHI. This pattern could be used as a marker for the differentiation of wild-type G1P[8] strains from the vaccine strain.

  10. Wheat streak mosaic virus Coat Protein Deletion Mutants Elicit More Severe Symptoms Than Wild-Type Virus in Multiple Cereal Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Elowsky, Christian; Graybosch, Robert A

    2017-12-01

    Previously, we reported that coat protein (CP) of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) (genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) tolerates deletion of amino acids 36 to 84 for efficient systemic infection of wheat. In this study, we demonstrated that WSMV mutants with deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 but not of 36 to 57 induced severe chlorotic streaks and spots, followed by acute chlorosis in wheat, maize, barley, and rye compared with mild to moderate chlorotic streaks and mosaic symptoms by wild-type virus. Deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 from the WSMV genome accelerated cell-to-cell movement, with increased accumulation of genomic RNAs and CP, compared with the wild-type virus. Microscopic examination of wheat tissues infected by green fluorescent protein-tagged mutants revealed that infection by mutants lacking CP amino acids 58 to 84 caused degradation of chloroplasts, resulting in acute macroscopic chlorosis. The profile of CP-specific proteins was altered in wheat infected by mutants causing acute chlorosis, compared with mutants eliciting wild-type symptoms. All deletion mutants accumulated CP-specific major protein similarly to that in wild-type virus; however, mutants that elicit acute chlorosis failed to accumulate a 31-kDa minor protein compared with wild-type virus or mutants lacking amino acids 36 to 57. Taken together, these data suggest that deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 from the WSMV genome enhanced accumulation of CP and genomic RNA, altered CP-specific protein profiles, and caused severe symptom phenotypes in multiple cereal hosts.

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggy T Sikulu-Lord

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances. The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501, whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284 and 78% (N = 229, respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253, 83% (N = 277 and 78% (N = 234, respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs.

  12. Enhanced production of L-phenylalanine in Corynebacterium glutamicum due to the introduction of Escherichia coli wild-type gene aroH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanzhi; Zhang, Junli; Kang, Zhen; Du, Guocheng; Yu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tianwen; Chen, Jian

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic engineering is a powerful tool which has been widely used for producing valuable products. For improving L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) accumulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum, we have investigated the target genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways. The genes involved in the biosynthesis of L-Phe were found to be strictly regulated genes by feedback inhibition. As a result, overexpression of the native wild-type genes aroF, aroG or pheA resulted in a slight increase of L-Phe. In contrast, overexpression of aroF (wt) or pheA (fbr) from E. coli significantly increased L-Phe production. Co-overexpression of aroF (wt) and pheA (fbr) improved the titer of L-Phe to 4.46 ± 0.06 g l⁻¹. To further analyze the target enzymes in the aromatic amino acid synthesis pathway between C. glutamicum and E. coli, the wild-type gene aroH from E. coli was overexpressed and evaluated in C. glutamicum. As predicted, upregulation of the wild-type gene aroH resulted in a remarkable increase of L-Phe production. Co-overexpression of the mutated pheA (fbr) and the wild-type gene aroH resulted in the production of L-Phe up to 4.64 ± 0.09 g l⁻¹. Based on these results we conclude that the wild-type gene aroH from E. coli is an appropriate target gene for pathway engineering in C. glutamicum for the production of aromatic amino acids.

  13. CRF1 receptor-deficiency increases cocaine reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contarino, Angelo; Kitchener, Pierre; Vallée, Monique; Papaleo, Francesco; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    Stimulant drugs produce reward but also activate stress-responsive systems. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress-responsive systems are activated by stimulant drugs. However, their role in stimulant drug-induced reward remains poorly understood. Herein, we report that CRF1 receptor-deficient (CRF1-/-), but not wild-type, mice show conditioned place preference (CPP) responses to a relatively low cocaine dose (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, wild-type, but not CRF1-/-, mice display CPP responses to a relatively high cocaine dose (20 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that CRF1 receptor-deficiency alters the rewarding effects of cocaine. Acute pharmacological antagonism of the CRF1 receptor by antalarmin also eliminates cocaine reward. Nevertheless, CRF1-/- mice display higher stereotypy responses to cocaine than wild-type mice. Despite the very low plasma corticosterone concentration, CRF1-/- mice show higher nuclear glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in the brain region of the hippocampus than wild-type mice. Full rescue of wild-type-like corticosterone and GR circadian rhythm and level in CRF1-/- mice by exogenous corticosterone does not affect CRF1 receptor-dependent cocaine reward but induces stereotypy responses to cocaine. These results indicate a critical role for the CRF1 receptor in cocaine reward, independently of the closely related HPA axis activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of telomerase promoter mutations to mark specific molecular subsets with reciprocal clinical behavior in IDH mutant and IDH wild-type diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyerli, Cemaliye B; Yüksel, Şirin; Can, Özge; Erson-Omay, E Zeynep; Oktay, Yavuz; Coşgun, Erdal; Ülgen, Ege; Erdemgil, Yiğit; Sav, Aydın; von Deimling, Andreas; Günel, Murat; Yakıcıer, M Cengiz; Pamir, M Necmettin; Özduman, Koray

    2017-06-16

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have established that hemispheric diffuse gliomas may be grouped into subsets on the basis of molecular markers; these subsets are loosely correlated with the histopathological diagnosis but are strong predictors of clinical tumor behavior. Based on an analysis of molecular and clinical parameters, the authors hypothesized that mutations of the telomerase promoter (TERTp-mut) mark separate oncogenic programs among isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and/or 2 (IDH) mutant (IDH-mut) and IDH wild-type (IDH-wt) diffuse gliomas independent of histopathology or WHO grade. METHODS Four molecular subsets of the combined statuses of IDH and TERT-promoter mutations (double mutant, IDH only, TERT only, and double negative) were defined. Differences in age, anatomical location, molecular genetics, and survival rates in a surgical cohort of 299 patients with a total of 356 hemispheric diffuse gliomas (WHO Grade II, III, or IV) were analyzed. RESULTS TERTp-mut were present in 38.8% of IDH-mut and 70.2% of IDH-wt gliomas. The mutational status was stable in each patient at 57 recurrence events over a 2645-month cumulative follow-up period. Among patients with IDH-mut gliomas, those in the double-mutant subset had better survival and a lower incidence of malignant degeneration than those in the IDH-only subset. Of patients in the double-mutant subset, 96.3% were also positive for 1p/19q codeletions. All patients with 1p/19q codeletions had TERTp-mut. In patients with IDH-mut glioma, epidermal growth factor receptor or phosphatase and tensin homolog mutations were not observed, and copy-number variations were uncommon. Among IDH-wt gliomas, the TERT-only subset was associated with significantly higher age, higher Ki-67 labeling index, primary glioblastoma-specific oncogenic changes, and poor survival. The double-negative subset was genetically and biologically heterogeneous. Survival analyses (Kaplan-Meier, multivariate, and regression-tree analyses) confirmed that

  15. Lead uptake increases drought tolerance of wild type and transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba) overexpressing gsh 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuilov, Sladjana; Lang, Friedericke; Djukic, Matilda; Djunisijevic-Bojovic, Danijela; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-09-01

    Growth and development of plants largely depends on their adaptation ability in a changing climate. This is particularly true on heavy metal contaminated soils, but the interaction of heavy metal stress and climate on plant performance has not been intensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to elucidate if transgenic poplars (Populus tremula x P. alba) with enhanced glutathione content possess an enhanced tolerance to drought and lead (Pb) exposure (single and in combination) and if they are good candidates for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil. Lead exposure reduced growth and biomass accumulation only in above-ground tissue of wild type poplar, although most of lead accumulated in the roots. Drought caused a decline of the water content rather than reduced biomass production, while Pb counteracted this decline in the combined exposure. Apparently, metals such as Pb possess a protective function against drought, because they interact with abscisic acid dependent stomatal closure. Lead exposure decreased while drought increased glutathione content in leaves of both plant types. Lead accumulation was higher in the roots of transgenic plants, presumably as a result of chelation by glutathione. Water deprivation enhanced Pb accumulation in the roots, but Pb was subject to leakage out of the roots after re-watering. Transgenic plants showed better adaptation under mild drought plus Pb exposure partially due to improved glutathione synthesis. However, the transgenic plants cannot be considered as a good candidate for phytoremediation of Pb, due to its small translocation to the shoots and its leakage out of the roots upon re-watering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell lineage of timed cohorts of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and Tbx6 mutant embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Concepcion

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tbx6 is a T-box transcription factor with multiple roles in embryonic development as evidenced by dramatic effects on mesoderm cell fate determination, left/right axis determination, and somite segmentation in mutant mice. The expression of Tbx6 is restricted to the primitive streak and presomitic mesoderm, but some of the phenotypic features of mutants are not easily explained by this expression pattern. We have used genetically-inducible fate mapping to trace the fate of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and mutant embryos to explain some of the puzzling features of the mutant phenotype. We created an inducible Tbx6-creERT2 transgenic mouse in which cre expression closely recapitulates endogenous Tbx6 expression both temporally and spatially. Using a lacZ-based Cre reporter and timed tamoxifen injections, we followed temporally overlapping cohorts of cells that had expressed Tbx6 and found contributions to virtually all mesodermally-derived embryonic structures as well as the extraembryonic allantois. Contribution to the endothelium of major blood vessels may account for the embryonic death of homozygous mutant embryos. In mutant embryos, Tbx6-creERT2-traced cells contributed to the abnormally segmented anterior somites and formed the characteristic ectopic neural tubes. Retention of cells in the mutant tail bud indicates a deficiency in migratory behavior of the mutant cells and the presence of Tbx6-creERT2-traced cells in the notochord, a node derivative provides a possible explanation for the heterotaxia seen in mutant embryos.

  17. Wild-type and mutant p53 mediate cisplatin resistance through interaction and inhibition of active caspase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Jacqueline L.Y.; Saidin, Suzan; Lane, David P.; Leong, Sai Mun; Noll, Jacqueline E.; Neilsen, Paul M.; Phua, Yi Ting; Gabra, Hani; Lim, Tit Meng

    2013-01-01

    The p53 gene has been implicated in many cancers due to its frequent mutations as well as mutations in other genes whose proteins directly affect p53’s functions. In addition, high expression of p53 [wild-type (WT) or mutant] has been found in the cytoplasm of many tumor cells, and studies have associated these observations with more aggressive tumors and poor prognosis. Cytoplasmic mis-localization of p53 subsequently reduced its transcriptional activity and this loss-of-function (LOF) was used to explain the lack of response to chemotherapeutic agents. However, this hypothesis seemed inadequate in explaining the apparent selection for tumor cells with high levels of p53 protein, a phenomenon that suggests a gain-of-function (GOF) of these mis-localized p53 proteins. In this study, we explored whether the direct involvement of p53 in the apoptotic response is via regulation of the caspase pathway in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate that p53, when present at high levels in the cytoplasm, has an inhibitory effect on caspase-9. Concurrently, knockdown of endogenous p53 caused an increase in the activity of caspase-9. p53 was found to interact with the p35 fragment of caspase-9, and this interaction inhibits the caspase-9 activity. In a p53-null background, the high-level expression of both exogenous WT and mutant p53 increased the resistance of these cells to cisplatin, and the data showed a correlation between high p53 expression and caspase-9 inhibition. These results suggest the inhibition of caspase-9 as a potential mechanism in evading apoptosis in tumors with high-level p53 expression that is cytoplasmically localized. PMID:23255126

  18. SDHA loss of function mutations in a subset of young adult wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italiano Antoine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A subset of KIT/PDGFRA wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors (WT GIST have been associated with alteration of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH complex II function. A recent report identified four non-syndromic, KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST harboring compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SDHA encoding the main subunit of the SDH complex II. Methods Next generation sequencing was applied on five pediatric and one young adult WT GIST, by whole exome capture and SOLiD 3-plus system sequencing. The putative mutations were first confirmed by Sanger sequencing and then screened on a larger panel of 11 pediatric and young adult WT GIST, including 5 in the context of Carney triad. Results A germline p.Arg31X nonsense SDHA mutation was identified in one of the six cases tested by SOLiD platform. An additional p.D38V missense mutation in SDHA exon 2 was identified by Sanger sequencing in the extended KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST patients cohort. Western blotting showed loss of SDHA expression in the two cases harboring SDHA mutations, while expression being retained in the other WT GIST tumors. Results were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry for both SDHA and SDHB, which showed a concurrent loss of expression of both proteins in SDHA-mutant lesions, while the remaining WT tumors showed only loss of SDHB expression. Conclusions Germline and/or somatic aberrations of SDHA occur in a small subset of KIT/PDGFRA WT GISTs, outside the Carney’s triad and are associated with loss of both SDHA and SDHB protein expression. Mutations of the SDH complex II are more particularly associated with KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST occurring in young adults. Although pediatric GIST consistently display alterations of SDHB protein expression, further molecular studies are needed to identify the crucial genes involved in their tumorigenesis.

  19. Structure and Biosynthesis of Branched Wax Compounds on Wild Type and Wax Biosynthesis Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, Lucas; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    The cuticle is a waxy composite that protects the aerial organs of land plans from non-stomatal water loss. The chemical make-up of the cuticular wax mixture plays a central role in defining the water barrier, but structure-function relationships have not been established so far, in part due to gaps in our understanding of wax structures and biosynthesis. While wax compounds with saturated, linear hydrocarbon tails have been investigated in detail, very little is known about compounds with modified aliphatic tails, which comprise substantial portions of some plant wax mixtures. This study aimed to investigate the structures, abundances and biosynthesis of branched compounds on the species for which wax biosynthesis is best understood: Arabidopsis thaliana. Microscale derivatization, mass spectral interpretation and organic synthesis identified homologous series of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on flowers and leaves, respectively. These comprised approximately 10-15% of wild type wax mixtures. The abundances of both branched wax constituents and accompanying unbranched compounds were reduced on the cer6, cer3 and cer1 mutants but not cer4, indicating that branched compounds are in part synthesized by the same machinery as unbranched compounds. In contrast, the abundances of unbranched, but not branched, wax constituents were reduced on the cer2 and cer26 mutants, suggesting that the pathways to both types of compounds deviate in later steps of chain elongation. Finally, the abundances of branched, but not unbranched, wax compounds were reduced on the cer16 mutant, and the (uncharacterized) CER16 protein may therefore be controlling the relative abundances of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on Arabidopsis surfaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Hsp90 prevents interaction between CHIP and HERG proteins to facilitate maturation of wild-type and mutant HERG proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Chisato; Li, Peili; Kurata, Yasutaka; Hoshikawa, Yoshiko; Morikawa, Kumi; Maharani, Nani; Higaki, Katsumi; Sasano, Tetsuro; Notsu, Tomomi; Ishido, Yuko; Miake, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Nakai, Akira; Murata, Shigeo; Yoshida, Akio; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hiraoka, Masayasu; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    We examined the role of Hsp90 in expression and maturation of wild-type (WT) and mutant ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) proteins by using Hsp90 inhibitors, geldanamycin (GA) and radicicol, and Hsp90 overexpression. The proteins were expressed in HEK293 cells or collected from HL-1 mouse cardiomyocytes, and analysed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. GA and radicicol suppressed maturation of HERG-FLAG proteins and increased their immature forms. Co-expression of Hsp90 counteracted the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors and suppressed ubiquitination of HERG proteins. Overexpressed Hsp90 also inhibited the binding of endogenous C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) to HERG-FLAG proteins. Hsp90-induced increase of functional HERG proteins was verified by their increased expression on the cell surface and enhanced HERG channel currents. CHIP overexpression decreased both mature and immature forms of HERG-FLAG proteins in cells treated with GA. Hsp90 facilitated maturation of endogenous ERG proteins, whereas CHIP decreased both forms of ERG proteins in HL-1 cells. Mutant HERG proteins harbouring disease-causing missense mutations were mainly in the immature form and had a higher binding capacity to CHIP than the WT; Hsp90 overexpression suppressed this association. Overexpressed Hsp90 increased the mature form of HERG(1122fs/147) proteins, reduced its ubiquitinated form, increased its immunoreactivity in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the plasma membrane, and increased the mutant-mediated membrane current. CHIP overexpression decreased the immature form of HERG(1122fs/147) proteins. Enhancement of HERG protein expression through Hsp90 inhibition of CHIP binding might be a novel therapeutic strategy for long QT syndrome 2 caused by trafficking abnormalities of HERG proteins.

  1. Relationships among body mass, brain size, gut length, and blood tryptophan and serotonin in young wild-type mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatevosyan Maggie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The blood hyperserotonemia of autism is one of the most consistent biological findings in autism research, but its causes remain unclear. A major difficulty in understanding this phenomenon is the lack of information on fundamental interactions among the developing brain, gut, and blood in the mammalian body. We therefore investigated relationships among the body mass, the brain mass, the volume of the hippocampal complex, the gut length, and the whole-blood levels of tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in young, sexually immature wild-type mice. Results Three-dimensional reconstructions of the hippocampal complex were obtained from serial, Nissl-stained sections and the gut was allowed to attain its maximal relaxed length prior to measurements. The tryptophan and 5-HT concentrations in the blood were assessed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the sex of mice was confirmed by genotyping. Statistical analysis yielded information about correlative relationships among all studied variables. It revealed a strong negative correlation between blood 5-HT concentration and body mass and a strong negative correlation between the brain mass/body mass ratio and gut length. Also, a negative correlation was found between the volume of the hippocampal complex and blood tryptophan concentration. Conclusion The study provides information on the covariance structure of several central and peripheral variables related to the body serotonin systems. In particular, the results indicate that body mass should be included as a covariate in studies on platelet 5-HT levels and they also suggest a link between brain growth and gut length.

  2. Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas M Kristensen

    Full Text Available Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead α(2 (KD AMPK mice and wild type (WT littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins.

  3. Investigating the Structure and Dynamics of the PIK3CA Wild-Type and H1047R Oncogenic Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlaki, Maria; Lazani, Vasiliki; Christoforidis, Savvas; Agianian, Bogos; Cournia, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    The PIK3CA gene is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human cancers. It encodes p110α, the catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PI3Kα), which activates signaling cascades leading to cell proliferation, survival, and cell growth. The most frequent mutation in PIK3CA is H1047R, which results in enzymatic overactivation. Understanding how the H1047R mutation causes the enhanced activity of the protein in atomic detail is central to developing mutant-specific therapeutics for cancer. To this end, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) experiments and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for both wild-type (WT) and H1047R mutant proteins. An expanded positive charge distribution on the membrane binding regions of the mutant with respect to the WT protein is observed through MD simulations, which justifies the increased ability of the mutated protein variant to bind to membranes rich in anionic lipids in our SPR experiments. Our results further support an auto-inhibitory role of the C-terminal tail in the WT protein, which is abolished in the mutant protein due to loss of crucial intermolecular interactions. Moreover, Functional Mode Analysis reveals that the H1047R mutation alters the twisting motion of the N-lobe of the kinase domain with respect to the C-lobe and shifts the position of the conserved P-loop residues in the vicinity of the active site. These findings demonstrate the dynamical and structural differences of the two proteins in atomic detail and propose a mechanism of overactivation for the mutant protein. The results may be further utilized for the design of mutant-specific PI3Kα inhibitors that exploit the altered mutant conformation. PMID:25340423

  4. Comparative thoracic anatomy of the wild type and wingless (wg1cn1) mutant of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms are crucial for our understanding of gene regulatory networks, physiological processes and ontogeny. With modern molecular genetic techniques allowing the rapid generation of different Drosophila melanogaster mutants, efficient in-depth morphological investigations become an important issue. Anatomical studies can elucidate the role of certain genes in developmental processes and point out which parts of gene regulatory networks are involved in evolutionary changes of morphological structures. The wingless mutation wg1 of D. melanogaster was discovered more than 40 years ago. While early studies addressed the external phenotype of these mutants, the documentation of the internal organization was largely restricted to the prominent indirect flight muscles. We used SEM micrographs, histological serial sections, μ-computed tomography, CLSM and 3D reconstructions to study and document the thoracic skeletomuscular system of the wild type and mutant. A recently introduced nomenclature for the musculature of neopteran insects was applied to facilitate comparisons with closely or more distantly related taxa. The mutation is phenotypically mainly characterized by the absence of one or both wings and halteres. The wing is partly or entirely replaced by duplications of mesonotal structures, whereas the haltere and its associated muscles are completely absent on body sides showing the reduction. Both the direct and indirect mesothoracic flight muscles are affected by loss and reorientation of bundles or fibers. Our observations lead to the conclusion that the wingless mutation causes a homeotic transformation in the imaginal discs of wings and halteres with a direct effect on the development of skeletal structures and an indirect effect on the associated muscular system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV vaccine 17D stands as a “gold standard” for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation.

  6. Difluoromethyl ketones: Potent inhibitors of wild type and carbamate-insensitive G119S mutant Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Eugene; Wong, Dawn M; Tong, Fan; Körber, Florian; Gross, Aaron D; Islam, Rafique; Viayna, Elisabet; Mutunga, James M; Li, Jianyong; Totrov, Maxim M; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Carlier, Paul R

    2015-10-15

    Malaria is a devastating disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and current vector control measures are threatened by emerging resistance mechanisms. With the goal of developing new, selective, resistance-breaking insecticides we explored α-fluorinated methyl ketones as reversible covalent inhibitors of Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase (AgAChE). Trifluoromethyl ketones 5 demonstrated remarkable volatility in microtiter plate assays, but 5c,e-h exhibited potent (1-100 nM) inhibition of wild type (WT) AgAChE and weak inhibition of resistant mutant G119S mutant AgAChE. Fluoromethyl ketones 10c-i exhibited submicromolar to micromolar inhibition of WT AgAChE, but again only weakly inhibited G119S AgAChE. Interestingly, difluoromethyl ketone inhibitors 9c and 9g had single digit nanomolar inhibition of WT AgAChE, and 9g had excellent potency against G119S AgAChE. Approach to steady-state inhibition was quite slow, but after 23 h incubation an IC50 value of 25.1 ± 1.2 nM was measured. We attribute the slow, tight-binding G119S AgAChE inhibition of 9g to a balance of steric size and electrophilicity. However, toxicities of 5g, 9g, and 10g to adult A. gambiae in tarsal contact, fumigation, and injection assays were lower than expected based on WT AgAChE inhibition potency and volatility. Potential toxicity-limiting factors are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ontogeny of SERT Expression and Antidepressant-like Response to Escitalopram in Wild-Type and SERT Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nathan C; Gould, Georgianna G; Koek, Wouter; Daws, Lynette C

    2016-08-01

    Depression is a disabling affective disorder for which the majority of patients are not effectively treated. This problem is exacerbated in children and adolescents for whom only two antidepressants are approved, both of which are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs). Unfortunately SSRIs are often less effective in juveniles than in adults; however, the mechanism(s) underlying age-dependent responses to SSRIs is unknown. To this end, we compared the antidepressant-like response to the SSRI escitalopram using the tail suspension test and saturation binding of [(3)H]citalopram to the serotonin transporter (SERT), the primary target of SSRIs, in juvenile [postnatal day (P)21], adolescent (P28), and adult (P90) wild-type (SERT+/+) mice. In addition, to model individuals carrying low-expressing SERT variants, we studied mice with reduced SERT expression (SERT+/-) or lacking SERT (SERT-/-). Maximal antidepressant-like effects were less in P21 mice relative to P90 mice. This was especially apparent in SERT+/- mice. However, the potency for escitalopram to produce antidepressant-like effects in SERT+/+ and SERT+/- mice was greater in P21 and P28 mice than in adults. SERT expression increased with age in terminal regions and decreased with age in cell body regions. Binding affinity values did not change as a function of age or genotype. As expected, in SERT-/- mice escitalopram produced no behavioral effects, and there was no specific [(3)H]citalopram binding. These data reveal age- and genotype-dependent shifts in the dose-response for escitalopram to produce antidepressant-like effects, which vary with SERT expression, and may contribute to the limited therapeutic response to SSRIs in juveniles and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Bone turnover in wild type and pleiotrophin-transgenic mice housed for three months in the International Space Station (ISS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tavella

    Full Text Available Bone is a complex dynamic tissue undergoing a continuous remodeling process. Gravity is a physical force playing a role in the remodeling and contributing to the maintenance of bone integrity. This article reports an investigation on the alterations of the bone microarchitecture that occurred in wild type (Wt and pleiotrophin-transgenic (PTN-Tg mice exposed to a near-zero gravity on the International Space Station (ISS during the Mice Drawer System (MDS mission, to date, the longest mice permanence (91 days in space. The transgenic mouse strain over-expressing pleiotrophin (PTN in bone was selected because of the PTN positive effects on bone turnover. Wt and PTN-Tg control animals were maintained on Earth either in a MDS payload or in a standard vivarium cage. This study revealed a bone loss during spaceflight in the weight-bearing bones of both strains. For both Tg and Wt a decrease of the trabecular number as well as an increase of the mean trabecular separation was observed after flight, whereas trabecular thickness did not show any significant change. Non weight-bearing bones were not affected. The PTN-Tg mice exposed to normal gravity presented a poorer trabecular organization than Wt mice, but interestingly, the expression of the PTN transgene during the flight resulted in some protection against microgravity's negative effects. Moreover, osteocytes of the Wt mice, but not of Tg mice, acquired a round shape, thus showing for the first time osteocyte space-related morphological alterations in vivo. The analysis of specific bone formation and resorption marker expression suggested that the microgravity-induced bone loss was due to both an increased bone resorption and a decreased bone deposition. Apparently, the PTN transgene protection was the result of a higher osteoblast activity in the flight mice.

  9. Gap Junctional Blockade Stochastically Induces Different Species-Specific Head Anatomies in Genetically Wild-Type Girardia dorotocephala Flatworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Emmons-Bell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The shape of an animal body plan is constructed from protein components encoded by the genome. However, bioelectric networks composed of many cell types have their own intrinsic dynamics, and can drive distinct morphological outcomes during embryogenesis and regeneration. Planarian flatworms are a popular system for exploring body plan patterning due to their regenerative capacity, but despite considerable molecular information regarding stem cell differentiation and basic axial patterning, very little is known about how distinct head shapes are produced. Here, we show that after decapitation in G. dorotocephala, a transient perturbation of physiological connectivity among cells (using the gap junction blocker octanol can result in regenerated heads with quite different shapes, stochastically matching other known species of planaria (S. mediterranea, D. japonica, and P. felina. We use morphometric analysis to quantify the ability of physiological network perturbations to induce different species-specific head shapes from the same genome. Moreover, we present a computational agent-based model of cell and physical dynamics during regeneration that quantitatively reproduces the observed shape changes. Morphological alterations induced in a genomically wild-type G. dorotocephala during regeneration include not only the shape of the head but also the morphology of the brain, the characteristic distribution of adult stem cells (neoblasts, and the bioelectric gradients of resting potential within the anterior tissues. Interestingly, the shape change is not permanent; after regeneration is complete, intact animals remodel back to G. dorotocephala-appropriate head shape within several weeks in a secondary phase of remodeling following initial complete regeneration. We present a conceptual model to guide future work to delineate the molecular mechanisms by which bioelectric networks stochastically select among a small set of discrete head morphologies

  10. Bacterial endotoxin enhances colorectal cancer cell adhesion and invasion through TLR-4 and NF-kappaB-dependent activation of the urokinase plasminogen activator system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2009-05-19

    Perioperative exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is associated with accelerated metastatic colorectal tumour growth. LPS directly affects cells through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and the transcription factor NF-kappaB. The urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) system is intimately implicated in tumour cell extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions fundamental to tumour progression. Thus we sought to determine if LPS directly induces accelerated tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system and to elucidate the cellular pathways involved. Human colorectal tumour cell lines were stimulated with LPS. u-PA concentration, u-PA activity, active u-PA, surface urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and TLR-4 expression were assessed by ELISA, colorimetric assay, western blot analysis and flow cytometry respectively. In vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion were analysed by vitronectin adhesion assay and ECM invasion chambers. u-PA and u-PAR function was inhibited with anti u-PA antibodies or the selective u-PA inhibitors amiloride or WXC-340, TLR-4 by TLR-4-blocking antibodies and NF-kappaB by the selective NF-kappaB inhibitor SN-50. LPS upregulates u-PA and u-PAR in a dose-dependent manner, enhancing in vitro tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion by >40% (P<0.01). These effects were ameliorated by u-PA and u-PAR inhibition. LPS activates NF-kappaB through TLR-4. TLR-4 and NF-kappaB inhibition ameliorated LPS-enhanced u-PA and u-PAR expression, tumour cell vitronectin adhesion and ECM invasion. LPS promotes tumour cell ECM adhesion and invasion through activation of the u-PA system in a TLR-4- and NF-kappaB-dependent manner.

  11. Black bear parathyroid hormone has greater anabolic effects on trabecular bone in dystrophin-deficient mice than in wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Sanders, Jennifer L; Condon, Keith W; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donahue, Seth W

    2012-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease that has deleterious consequences in muscle and bone, leading to decreased mobility, progressive osteoporosis, and premature death. Patients with DMD experience a higher-than-average fracture rate, particularly in the proximal and distal femur and proximal tibia. The dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse is a model of DMD that demonstrates muscle degeneration and fibrosis and osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone, an effective anabolic agent for post-menopausal and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, has not been explored for DMD. Black bear parathyroid hormone (bbPTH) has been implicated in the maintenance of bone properties during extended periods of disuse (hibernation). We cloned bbPTH and found 9 amino acid residue differences from human PTH. Apoptosis was mitigated and cAMP was activated by bbPTH in osteoblast cultures. We administered 28nmol/kg of bbPTH 1-84 to 4-week old male mdx and wild type mice via daily (5×/week) subcutaneous injection for 6 weeks. Vehicle-treated mdx mice had 44% lower trabecular bone volume fraction than wild type mice. No changes were found in femoral cortical bone geometry or mechanical properties with bbPTH treatment in wild type mice, and only medio-lateral moment of inertia changed with bbPTH treatment in mdx femurs. However, μCT analyses of the trabecular regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed marked increases in bone volume fraction with bbPTH treatment, with a greater anabolic response (7-fold increase) in mdx mice than wild type mice (2-fold increase). Trabecular number increased in mdx long bone, but not wild type bone. Additionally, greater osteoblast area and decreased osteoclast area were observed with bbPTH treatment in mdx mice. The heightened response to PTH in mdx bone compared to wild type suggests a link between dystrophin deficiency, altered calcium signaling, and bone. These findings support further investigation of PTH as an anabolic

  12. Transcervical Inoculation with Chlamydia trachomatis Induces Infertility in HLA-DR4 Transgenic and Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia F; Zhong, Guangming; de la Maza, Luis M

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infection-induced infertility in women. Attempts to control this epidemic with screening programs and antibiotic therapy have failed. Currently, a vaccine to prevent C. trachomatis infections is not available. In order to develop an animal model for evaluating vaccine antigens that can be applied to humans, we used C. trachomatis serovar D (strain UW-3/Cx) to induce infertility in mice whose major histocompatibility complex class II antigen was replaced with the human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4). Transcervical inoculation of medroxyprogesterone-treated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with 5 × 105C. trachomatis D inclusion forming units (IFU) induced a significant reduction in fertility, with a mean number of embryos/mouse of 4.4 ± 1.3 compared to 7.8 ± 0.5 for the uninfected control mice (P < 0.05). A similar fertility reduction was elicited in the wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (4.3 ± 1.4 embryos/mouse) compared to the levels of the WT controls (9.1 ± 0.4 embryos/mouse) (P < 0.05). Following infection, WT mice mounted more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than HLA-DR4 mice. As determined by vaginal shedding, HLA-DR4 mice were more susceptible to a transcervical C. trachomatis D infection than WT mice. To assess if HLA-DR4 transgenic and WT mice could be protected by vaccination, 104 IFU of C. trachomatis D was delivered intranasally, and mice were challenged transcervically 6 weeks later with 5 × 105 IFU of C. trachomatis D. As determined by severity and length of vaginal shedding, WT C57BL/6 and HLA-DR4 mice were significantly protected by vaccination. The advantages and limitations of the HLA-DR4 transgenic mouse model for evaluating human C. trachomatis vaccine antigens are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Expression of wild-type Rp1 protein in Rp1 knock-in mice rescues the retinal degeneration phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Liu

    Full Text Available Mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1 gene are a common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP, and have also been found to cause autosomal recessive RP (arRP in a few families. The 33 dominant mutations and 6 recessive RP1 mutations identified to date are all nonsense or frameshift mutations, and almost exclusively (38 out of 39 are located in the 4(th and final exon of RP1. To better understand the underlying disease mechanisms of and help develop therapeutic strategies for RP1 disease, we performed a series of human genetic and animal studies using gene targeted and transgenic mice. Here we report that a frameshift mutation in the 3(rd exon of RP1 (c.686delC; p.P229QfsX35 found in a patient with recessive RP1 disease causes RP in the homozygous state, whereas the heterozygous carriers are unaffected, confirming that haploinsufficiency is not the causative mechanism for RP1 disease. We then generated Rp1 knock-in mice with a nonsense Q662X mutation in exon 4, as well as Rp1 transgenic mice carrying a wild-type BAC Rp1 transgene. The Rp1-Q662X allele produces a truncated Rp1 protein, and homozygous Rp1-Q662X mice experience a progressive photoreceptor degeneration characterized disorganization of photoreceptor outer segments. This phenotype could be prevented by expression of a normal amount of Rp1 protein from the BAC transgene without removal of the mutant Rp1-Q662X protein. Over-expression of Rp1 protein in additional BAC Rp1 transgenic lines resulted in retinal degeneration. These findings suggest that the truncated Rp1-Q662X protein does not exert a toxic gain-of-function effect. These results also imply that in principle gene augmentation therapy could be beneficial for both recessive and dominant RP1 patients, but the levels of RP1 protein delivered for therapy will have to be carefully controlled.

  14. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of pteridine reductase in wild-type and antimony-resistant Leishmania lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Moreira, Douglas; Ferreira, Rafael Fernandes; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-01-01

    Pteridine reductase (PTR1) is an NADPH-dependent reductase that participates in the salvage of pteridines, which are essential to maintain growth of Leishmania. In this study, we performed the molecular characterization of ptr1 gene in wild-type (WTS) and SbIII-resistant (SbR) lines from Leishmania guyanensis (Lg), Leishmania amazonensis (La), Leishmania braziliensis (Lb) and Leishmania infantum (Li), evaluating the chromosomal location, mRNA levels of the ptr1 gene and PTR1 protein expression. PFGE results showed that the ptr1 gene is located in a 797 kb chromosomal band in all Leishmania lines analyzed. Interestingly, an additional chromosomal band of 1070 kb was observed only in LbSbR line. Northern blot results showed that the levels of ptr1 mRNA are increased in the LgSbR, LaSbR and LbSbR lines. Western blot assays using the polyclonal anti-LmPTR1 antibody demonstrated that PTR1 protein is more expressed in the LgSbR, LaSbR and LbSbR lines compared to their respective WTS counterparts. Nevertheless, no difference in the level of mRNA and protein was observed between the LiWTS and LiSbR lines. Functional analysis of PTR1 enzyme was performed to determine whether the overexpression of ptr1 gene in the WTS L. braziliensis and L. infantum lines would change the SbIII-resistance phenotype of transfected parasites. Western blot results showed that the expression level of PTR1 protein was increased in the transfected parasites compared to the non-transfected ones. IC50 analysis revealed that the overexpression of ptr1 gene in the WTS L. braziliensis line increased 2-fold the SbIII-resistance phenotype compared to the non-transfected counterpart. Furthermore, the overexpression of ptr1 gene in the WTS L. infantum line did not change the SbIII-resistance phenotype. These results suggest that the PTR1 enzyme may be implicated in the SbIII-resistance phenotype in L. braziliensis line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential Host Immune Responses after Infection with Wild-Type or Lab-Attenuated Rabies Viruses in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Zhenguang; Leyson, Christina M.; Cooper, Tanya L.; Platt, Simon R.; Harvey, Stephen B.; Hooper, Douglas C.; Faber, Milosz; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) induces encephalomyelitis in humans and animals. One of the major problems with rabies is that the infected individuals most often do not develop virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA). In this study we have investigated the host immune response to RABV infection in dogs, using a live-attenuated (TriGAS) or a wild-type (wt) (DRV-NG11) RABV isolated from a rabid dog. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental infection of dogs with TriGAS induced high levels of VNA in the serum, whereas wt RABV infection did not. Dogs infected with TriGAS developed antibodies against the virus including its glycoprotein, whereas dogs infected with DRV-NG11 only developed rabies antibodies that are presumably specific for the nucleoprotein, (N) and not the glycoprotein (G). We show that infection with TriGAS induces early activation of B cells in the draining lymph nodes and persistent activation of DCs and B cells in the blood. On the other hand, infection with DRV-NG11 fails to induce the activation of DCs and B cells and further reduces CD4 T cell production. Further, we show that intrathecal (IT) immunization of TriGAS not only induced high levels of VNA in the serum but also in the CSF while intramuscular (IM) immunization of TriGAS induced VNA only in the serum. In addition, high levels of total protein and WBC were detected in the CSF of IT immunized dogs, indicating the transient enhancement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, which is relevant to the passage of immune effectors from periphery into the CNS. Conclusions/Significance IM infection of dogs with TriGAS induced the production of serum VNA whereas, IT immunization of TriGAS in dogs induces high levels of VNA in the periphery as well as in the CSF and transiently enhances BBB permeability. In contrast, infection with wt DRV-NG11 resulted in the production of RABV-reactive antibodies but VNA and antibodies specific for G were absent. As a consequence, all of the dogs infected with wt DRV

  16. Prognosis and Clinicopathologic Features of Patients With Advanced Stage Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) Mutant and IDH Wild-Type Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Lipika; Govindan, Aparna; Sheth, Rahul A; Nardi, Valentina; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Faris, Jason E; Clark, Jeffrey W; Ryan, David P; Kwak, Eunice L; Allen, Jill N; Murphy, Janet E; Saha, Supriya K; Hong, Theodore S; Wo, Jennifer Y; Ferrone, Cristina R; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Chong, Dawn Q; Deshpande, Vikram; Borger, Darrell R; Iafrate, A John; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Zheng, Hui; Zhu, Andrew X

    2015-09-01

    Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic impact of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), and limited data exist in patients with advanced-stage disease. Similarly, the clinical phenotype of patients with advanced IDH mutant (IDHm) ICC has not been characterized. In this study, we report the correlation of IDH mutation status with prognosis and clinicopathologic features in patients with advanced ICC. Patients with histologically confirmed advanced ICC who underwent tumor mutational profiling as a routine part of their care between 2009 and 2014 were evaluated. Clinical and pathological data were collected by retrospective chart review for patients with IDHm versus IDH wild-type (IDHwt) ICC. Pretreatment tumor volume was calculated on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 104 patients with ICC who were evaluated, 30 (28.8%) had an IDH mutation (25.0% IDH1, 3.8% IDH2). The median overall survival did not differ significantly between IDHm and IDHwt patients (15.0 vs. 20.1 months, respectively; p = .17). The pretreatment serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level in IDHm and IDHwt patients was 34.5 and 118.0 U/mL, respectively (p = .04). Age at diagnosis, sex, histologic grade, and pattern of metastasis did not differ significantly by IDH mutation status. The IDH mutation was not associated with prognosis in patients with advanced ICC. The clinical phenotypes of advanced IDHm and IDHwt ICC were similar, but patients with IDHm ICC had a lower median serum CA19-9 level at presentation. Previous studies assessing the prognostic impact of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) mainly focused on patients with early-stage disease who have undergone resection. These studies offer conflicting results. The target population for clinical trials of IDH inhibitors is patients with unresectable or metastatic disease, and the current study is the first to

  17. Parallel screening of wild-type and drug-resistant targets for anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Cheng Hsu

    Full Text Available Infection with influenza virus is a major public health problem, causing serious illness and death each year. Emergence of drug-resistant influenza virus strains limits the effectiveness of drug treatment. Importantly, a dual H275Y/I223R mutation detected in the pandemic influenza A 2009 virus strain results in multidrug resistance to current neuraminidase (NA drugs. Therefore, discovery of new agents for treating multiple drug-resistant (MDR influenza virus infections is important. Here, we propose a parallel screening strategy that simultaneously screens wild-type (WT and MDR NAs, and identifies inhibitors matching the subsite characteristics of both NA-binding sites. These may maintain their potency when drug-resistant mutations arise. Initially, we analyzed the subsite of the dual H275Y/I223R NA mutant. Analysis of the site-moiety maps of NA protein structures show that the mutant subsite has a relatively small volume and is highly polar compared with the WT subsite. Moreover, the mutant subsite has a high preference for forming hydrogen-bonding interactions with polar moieties. These changes may drive multidrug resistance. Using this strategy, we identified a new inhibitor, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RB19, an anthraquinone dye, which inhibited WT NA and MDR NA with IC(50 values of 3.4 and 4.5 µM, respectively. RB19 comprises a rigid core scaffold and a flexible chain with a large polar moiety. The former interacts with highly conserved residues, decreasing the probability of resistance. The latter forms van der Waals contacts with the WT subsite and yields hydrogen bonds with the mutant subsite by switching the orientation of its flexible side chain. Both scaffolds of RB19 are good starting points for lead optimization. The results reveal a parallel screening strategy for identifying resistance mechanisms and discovering anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors. We believe that this strategy may be applied to other diseases with high

  18. Experimental Support for the Ecoimmunity Theory: Distinct Phenotypes of Nonlymphocytic Cells in SCID and Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochayon, David E; Baranovski, Boris M; Malkin, Peter; Schuster, Ronen; Kalay, Noa; Ben-Hamo, Rotem; Sloma, Ido; Levinson, Justin; Brazg, Jared; Efroni, Sol; Lewis, Eli C; Nevo, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Immune tolerance toward "self" is critical in multiple immune disorders. While there are several mechanisms to describe the involvement of immune cells in the process, the role of peripheral tissue cells in that context is not yet clear. The theory of ecoimmunity postulates that interactions between immune and tissue cells represent a predator-prey relationship. A lifelong interaction, shaped mainly during early ontogeny, leads to selection of nonimmune cell phenotypes. Normally, therefore, nonimmune cells that evolve alongside an intact immune system would be phenotypically capable of evading immune responses, and cells whose phenotype falls short of satisfying this steady state would expire under hostile immune responses. This view was supported until recently by experimental evidence showing an inferior endurance of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-derived pancreatic islets when engrafted into syngeneic immune-intact wild-type (WT) mice, relative to islets from WT. Here we extend the experimental exploration of ecoimmunity by searching for the presence of the phenotypic changes suggested by the theory. Immune-related phenotypes of islets, spleen, and bone marrow immune cells were determined, as well as SCID and WT nonlymphocytic cells. Islet submass grafting was performed to depict syngeneic graft functionality. Islet cultures were examined under both resting and inflamed conditions for expression of CD40 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I/II and release of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, and insulin. Results depict multiple pathways that appear to be related to the sculpting of nonimmune cells by immune cells; 59 SCID islet genes displayed relative expression changes compared with WT islets. SCID cells expressed lower tolerability to inflammation and higher levels of immune-related molecules, including MHC class I. Accordingly, islets exhibited a marked increase in insulin release upon

  19. Adsorption of β-galactosidase of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius on wild type and mutants spores of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirec Teja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus subtilis spore has long been used as a surface display system with potential applications in a variety of fields ranging from mucosal vaccine delivery, bioremediation and biocatalyst development. More recently, a non-recombinant approach of spore display has been proposed and heterologous proteins adsorbed on the spore surface. We used the well-characterized β-galactosidase from the thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius as a model to study enzyme adsorption, to analyze whether and how spore-adsorption affects the properties of the enzyme and to improve the efficiency of the process. Results We report that purified β-galactosidase molecules were adsorbed to purified spores of a wild type strain of B. subtilis retaining ca. 50% of their enzymatic activity. Optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were not altered by the presence of the spore, that protected the adsorbed β-galactosidase from exposure to acidic pH conditions. A collection of mutant strains of B. subtilis lacking a single or several spore coat proteins was compared to the isogenic parental strain for the adsorption efficiency. Mutants with an altered outermost spore layer (crust were able to adsorb 60-80% of the enzyme, while mutants with a severely altered or totally lacking outer coat adsorbed 100% of the β-galactosidase molecules present in the adsorption reaction. Conclusion Our results indicate that the spore surface structures, the crust and the outer coat layer, have an negative effect on the adhesion of the β-galactosidase. Electrostatic forces, previously suggested as main determinants of spore adsorption, do not seem to play an essential role in the spore-β-galactosidase interaction. The analysis of mutants with altered spore surface has shown that the process of spore adsorption can be improved and has suggested that such improvement has to be based on a better understanding of the spore surface structure

  20. Effective primary isolation of wild-type canine distemper virus in MDCK, MV1 Lu and Vero cells without nucleotide sequence changes within the entire haemagglutinin protein gene and in subgenomic sections of the fusion and phospho protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednicky, John A; Meehan, Thomas P; Kinsel, Michael J; Dubach, Jean; Hungerford, Laura L; Sarich, Nicolene A; Witecki, Kelley E; Braid, Michael D; Pedrak, Casandra; Houde, Christiane M

    2004-06-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an important pathogen of many carnivores. We are developing a field-based model of morbillivirus virulence and pathogenesis through a study of distemper in naturally infected free-ranging raccoons. The isolation of CDV from raccoon tissues is essential for this work. CDV has often been isolated from animals only after co-cultivation of infected tissues with peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from specific pathogen-free dogs or similar methods. We explored the utility and consequences of a simpler and cheaper alternative: CDV isolation in Vero, MDCK, and MV1 Lu cells. Virus growth was detected first in MDCK cells, whereas viral cytopathic effects were most obvious in Vero cells. CDV growth in MV1 Lu cells was relatively protracted and occurred without the formation of cytopathic effects. In primary CDV isolates, the entire nucleotide sequence of the receptor binding haemagglutinin (H) gene, and subgenomic fusion (F) and phospho (P) protein gene sequences corresponding to nt 5399-5733 and 2132-2563 of CDV reference strain Onderstepoort, respectively, were identical to those in matched infected tissues. Virus isolation confirmed the presence of CDV in instances where RT-PCR failed to detect CDV in infected tissues. Different viral phenotypes and genotypes were detected. The conservation of H gene sequences in primary CDV isolates suggests that MDCK, MV1 Lu, and Vero cells express proper receptors for wild-type CDV.