WorldWideScience

Sample records for wild-type mice suggesting

  1. Effect of uremia on HDL composition, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild-type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian A; Bro, Susanne; Bartels, Emil D

    2007-01-01

    Wild-type mice normally do not develop atherosclerosis, unless fed cholic acid. Uremia is proinflammatory and increases atherosclerosis 6- to 10-fold in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This study examined the effect of uremia on lipoproteins, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild...... in cholic acid-fed sham mice. The results suggest that moderate uremia neither induces aortic inflammation nor atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice despite increased LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and altered HDL composition....

  2. Pharmacologic Treatment Assigned for Niemann Pick Type C1 Disease Partly Changes Behavioral Traits in Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Victoria; Thieme, Markus; Holzmann, Carsten; Witt, Martin; Grittner, Ulrike; Rolfs, Arndt; Wree, Andreas

    2016-11-09

    Niemann-Pick Type C1 (NPC1) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Previously, we demonstrated that BALB/c-npc1 nih Npc1 -/- mice treated with miglustat, cyclodextrin and allopregnanolone generally performed better than untreated Npc1 -/- animals. Unexpectedly, they also seemed to accomplish motor tests better than their sham-treated wild-type littermates. However, combination-treated mutant mice displayed worse cognition performance compared to sham-treated ones. To evaluate effects of these drugs in healthy BALB/c mice, we here analyzed pharmacologic effects on motor and cognitive behavior of wild-type mice. For combination treatment mice were injected with allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin weekly, starting at P7. Miglustat injections were performed daily from P10 till P23. Starting at P23, miglustat was embedded in the chow. Other mice were treated with miglustat only, or sham-treated. The battery of behavioral tests consisted of accelerod, Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, open field and hot-plate tests. Motor capabilities and spontaneous motor behavior were unaltered in both drug-treated groups. Miglustat-treated wild-type mice displayed impaired spatial learning compared to sham- and combination-treated mice. Both combination- and miglustat-treated mice showed enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus maze compared to sham-treated mice. Additionally, combination treatment as well as miglustat alone significantly reduced brain weight, whereas only combination treatment reduced body weight significantly. Our results suggest that allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin ameliorate most side effects of miglustat in wild-type mice.

  3. Pharmacologic Treatment Assigned for Niemann Pick Type C1 Disease Partly Changes Behavioral Traits in Wild-Type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Schlegel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C1 (NPC1 is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Previously, we demonstrated that BALB/c-npc1nihNpc1−/− mice treated with miglustat, cyclodextrin and allopregnanolone generally performed better than untreated Npc1−/− animals. Unexpectedly, they also seemed to accomplish motor tests better than their sham-treated wild-type littermates. However, combination-treated mutant mice displayed worse cognition performance compared to sham-treated ones. To evaluate effects of these drugs in healthy BALB/c mice, we here analyzed pharmacologic effects on motor and cognitive behavior of wild-type mice. For combination treatment mice were injected with allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin weekly, starting at P7. Miglustat injections were performed daily from P10 till P23. Starting at P23, miglustat was embedded in the chow. Other mice were treated with miglustat only, or sham-treated. The battery of behavioral tests consisted of accelerod, Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, open field and hot-plate tests. Motor capabilities and spontaneous motor behavior were unaltered in both drug-treated groups. Miglustat-treated wild-type mice displayed impaired spatial learning compared to sham- and combination-treated mice. Both combination- and miglustat-treated mice showed enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus maze compared to sham-treated mice. Additionally, combination treatment as well as miglustat alone significantly reduced brain weight, whereas only combination treatment reduced body weight significantly. Our results suggest that allopregnanolone/cyclodextrin ameliorate most side effects of miglustat in wild-type mice.

  4. Black bear parathyroid hormone has greater anabolic effects on trabecular bone in dystrophin-deficient mice than in wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Sanders, Jennifer L; Condon, Keith W; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donahue, Seth W

    2012-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease that has deleterious consequences in muscle and bone, leading to decreased mobility, progressive osteoporosis, and premature death. Patients with DMD experience a higher-than-average fracture rate, particularly in the proximal and distal femur and proximal tibia. The dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse is a model of DMD that demonstrates muscle degeneration and fibrosis and osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone, an effective anabolic agent for post-menopausal and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, has not been explored for DMD. Black bear parathyroid hormone (bbPTH) has been implicated in the maintenance of bone properties during extended periods of disuse (hibernation). We cloned bbPTH and found 9 amino acid residue differences from human PTH. Apoptosis was mitigated and cAMP was activated by bbPTH in osteoblast cultures. We administered 28nmol/kg of bbPTH 1-84 to 4-week old male mdx and wild type mice via daily (5×/week) subcutaneous injection for 6 weeks. Vehicle-treated mdx mice had 44% lower trabecular bone volume fraction than wild type mice. No changes were found in femoral cortical bone geometry or mechanical properties with bbPTH treatment in wild type mice, and only medio-lateral moment of inertia changed with bbPTH treatment in mdx femurs. However, μCT analyses of the trabecular regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed marked increases in bone volume fraction with bbPTH treatment, with a greater anabolic response (7-fold increase) in mdx mice than wild type mice (2-fold increase). Trabecular number increased in mdx long bone, but not wild type bone. Additionally, greater osteoblast area and decreased osteoclast area were observed with bbPTH treatment in mdx mice. The heightened response to PTH in mdx bone compared to wild type suggests a link between dystrophin deficiency, altered calcium signaling, and bone. These findings support further investigation of PTH as an anabolic

  5. Craniofacial Statistical Deformation Models of Wild-type mice and Crouzon mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterised by the premature fusion of cranial sutures and synchondroses leading to craniofacial growth disturbances. The gene causing the syndrome was discovered approximately a decade ago and recently the first mouse model of the syndrome was generated. In this study, a set...... of Micro CT scannings of the heads of wild-type (normal) mice and Crouzon mice were investigated. Statistical deformation models were built to assess the anatomical differences between the groups, as well as the within-group anatomical variation. Following the approach by Rueckert et al. we built an atlas...

  6. Spatial encoding in spinal sensorimotor circuits differs in different wild type mice strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouenborg Jens

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in the rat have shown that the spatial organisation of the receptive fields of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR system are functionally adapted through experience dependent mechanisms, termed somatosensory imprinting, during postnatal development. Here we wanted to clarify 1 if mice exhibit a similar spatial encoding of sensory input to NWR as previously found in the rat and 2 if mice strains with a poor learning capacity in various behavioural tests, associated with deficient long term potention, also exhibit poor adaptation of NWR. The organisation of the NWR system in two adult wild type mouse strains with normal long term potentiation (LTP in hippocampus and two adult wild type mouse strains exhibiting deficiencies in corresponding LTP were used and compared to previous results in the rat. Receptive fields of reflexes in single hindlimb muscles were mapped with CO2 laser heat pulses. Results While the spatial organisation of the nociceptive receptive fields in mice with normal LTP were very similar to those in rats, the LTP impaired strains exhibited receptive fields of NWRs with aberrant sensitivity distributions. However, no difference was found in NWR thresholds or onset C-fibre latencies suggesting that the mechanisms determining general reflex sensitivity and somatosensory imprinting are different. Conclusion Our results thus confirm that sensory encoding in mice and rat NWR is similar, provided that mice strains with a good learning capability are studied and raise the possibility that LTP like mechanisms are involved in somatosensory imprinting.

  7. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey, E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  8. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey

    2011-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (−/−) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5–6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82–95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 μM) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20–23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: ► C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. ► Wild type and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout littermates

  9. Paternal spatial training enhances offspring's cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity in wild-type but not improve memory deficit in Alzheimer's mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Li, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhouyi; Liu, Yanchao; Gao, Yuan; Tan, Lu; Liu, Enjie; Zhou, Qiuzhi; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Gongping; Chen, Haote; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2017-05-08

    Recent studies suggest that spatial training can maintain associative memory capacity in Tg2576 mice, but it is not known whether the beneficial effects can be inherited from the trained fathers to their offspring. Here, we exposed male wild-type and male 3XTg Alzheimer disease (AD) mice (3-m old) respectively to spatial training for one week and assessed the transgenerational effects in the F1 offspring when they were grown to 7-m old. We found that the paternal spatial training significantly enhanced progeny's spatial cognitive performance and synaptic transmission in wild-type mice. Among several synapse- or memory-associated proteins, we observed that the expression level of synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) was significantly increased in the hippocampus of the paternally trained-offspring. Paternal training increased histone acetylation at the promoter of SYT1 in both fathers' and the offspring's hippocampus, and as well as in the fathers' sperm. Finally, paternal spatial training for one week did not improve memory and synaptic plasticity in 3XTg AD F1 offspring. Our findings suggest paternal spatial training for one week benefits the offspring's cognitive performance in wild-type mice with the mechanisms involving an enhanced transgenerational histone acetylation at SYT1 promoter.

  10. Sex-Specific Diurnal Immobility Induced by Forced Swim Test in Wild Type and Clock Gene Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningyue Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The link between alterations in circadian rhythms and depression are well established, but the underlying mechanisms are far less elucidated. We investigated the circadian characteristics of immobility behavior in wild type (WT mice and mice with mutations in core Clock genes. Methods: All mice were tested with forced swim test (FST at 4 h intervals. Results: These experiments revealed significant diurnal rhythms associated with immobility behavior in both male and female WT mice with sex-different circadian properties. In addition, male mice showed significantly less immobility during the night phase in comparison to female mice. Female Per1Brdm1 mice also showed significant rhythmicity. However, the timing of rhythmicity was very different from that observed in female wild type mice. Male Per1Brdm1 mice showed a pattern of rhythmicity similar to that of wild type mice. Furthermore, female Per1Brdm1 mice showed higher duration of immobility in comparison to male Per1Brdm1 mice in both daytime and early night phases. Neither Per2Brdm1 nor ClockΔ19 mice showed significant rhythmicity, but both female Per2Brdm1 and ClockΔ19 mice had lower levels of immobility, compared to males. Conclusions: This study highlights the differences in the circadian characteristics of immobility induced by FST in WT, ClockΔ19, Per1, and Per2 deficient mice.

  11. Interleukin-1 receptor type I gene-deficient mice are less susceptible to Staphylococcus epidermidis biomaterial-associated infection than are wild-type mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, J. J.; van der Poll, T.; Zaat, S. A.; Murk, J. L.; Weening, J. J.; Dankert, J.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1) were found in tissue surrounding biomaterials infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis. To determine the role of IL-1 in biomaterial-associated infection (BAI), IL-1 receptor type I-deficient (IL-1R(-/-)) and wild-type mice received subcutaneous

  12. A cerebellar learning model of vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation in wild-type and mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopath, Claudia; Badura, Aleksandra; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Brunel, Nicolas

    2014-05-21

    Mechanisms of cerebellar motor learning are still poorly understood. The standard Marr-Albus-Ito theory posits that learning involves plasticity at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses under control of the climbing fiber input, which provides an error signal as in classical supervised learning paradigms. However, a growing body of evidence challenges this theory, in that additional sites of plasticity appear to contribute to motor adaptation. Here, we consider phase-reversal training of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), a simple form of motor learning for which a large body of experimental data is available in wild-type and mutant mice, in which the excitability of granule cells or inhibition of Purkinje cells was affected in a cell-specific fashion. We present novel electrophysiological recordings of Purkinje cell activity measured in naive wild-type mice subjected to this VOR adaptation task. We then introduce a minimal model that consists of learning at the parallel fibers to Purkinje cells with the help of the climbing fibers. Although the minimal model reproduces the behavior of the wild-type animals and is analytically tractable, it fails at reproducing the behavior of mutant mice and the electrophysiology data. Therefore, we build a detailed model involving plasticity at the parallel fibers to Purkinje cells' synapse guided by climbing fibers, feedforward inhibition of Purkinje cells, and plasticity at the mossy fiber to vestibular nuclei neuron synapse. The detailed model reproduces both the behavioral and electrophysiological data of both the wild-type and mutant mice and allows for experimentally testable predictions. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347203-13$15.00/0.

  13. Mid-aged and aged wild-type and progestin receptor knockout (PRKO) mice demonstrate rapid progesterone and 3alpha,5alpha-THP-facilitated lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, C A; Sumida, K; Lydon, J P; O'Malley, B W; Pfaff, D W

    2006-05-01

    Progesterone (P) and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), facilitate sexual behavior of rodents via agonist-like actions at intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) and membrane GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complexes (GBRs), respectively. Given that ovarian secretion of progestins declines with aging, whether or not senescent mice are responsive to progestins was of interest. Homozygous PR knockout (PRKO) or wild-type mice that were between 10-12 (mid-aged) or 20-24 (aged) months of age were administered P or 3alpha,5alpha-THP, and the effect on lordosis were examined. Effects of a progestin-priming regimen that enhances PR-mediated (experiment 1) or more rapid, PR-independent effects of progestins (experiments 2 and 3) on sexual behavior were examined. Levels of P, 3alpha,5alpha-THP, and muscimol binding were examined in tissues from aged mice (experiment 4). Wild-type, but not PRKO, mice were responsive when primed with 17beta-estradiol (E(2); 0.5 microg) and administered P (500 microg, subcutaneously). Mid-aged wild-type mice demonstrated greater increases in lordosis 6 h later compared to their pre-P, baseline test than did aged wild-type mice (experiment 1). Lordosis of younger and older wild-type, but not PRKO, mice was significantly increased within 5 min of intravenous (IV) administration of P (100 ng), compared with E(2)-priming alone (experiment 2). However, wild-type and PRKO mice demonstrated significant increases in lordosis 5 min after IV administration of 3alpha,5alpha-THP, an effect which was more pronounced in mid-aged than in aged animals (100 ng-experiment 3). In tissues from aged wild-type and PRKO mice, levels of P, 3alpha,5alpha-THP, and muscimol binding were increased by P administration (experiment 4). PR binding was lower in the cortex of PRKO than that of wild-type mice. Mid-aged and aged PRKO and wild-type mice demonstrated rapid P or 3alpha,5alpha-THP-facilitated lordosis that may be

  14. Wild-type bone marrow transplant partially reverses neuroinflammation in progranulin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Aloi, Macarena S; Cudaback, Eiron; Josephsen, Samuel R; Rice, Samantha J; Jorstad, Nikolas L; Keene, C Dirk; Montine, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease with devastating changes in behavioral performance and social function. Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the most common causes of inherited FTD due to reduced progranulin expression or activity, including in brain where it is expressed primarily by neurons and microglia. Thus, efforts aimed at enhancing progranulin levels might be a promising therapeutic strategy. Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells are able to engraft in the brain and adopt a microglial phenotype under myeloablative irradiation conditioning. This ability makes BM-derived cells a potential cellular vehicle for transferring therapeutic molecules to the central nervous system. Here, we utilized BM cells from Grn(+/+) (wild type or wt) mice labeled with green fluorescence protein for delivery of progranulin to progranulin-deficient (Grn(-/-)) mice. Our results showed that wt bone marrow transplantation (BMT) partially reconstituted progranulin in the periphery and in cerebral cortex of Grn(-/-) mice. We demonstrated a pro-inflammatory effect in vivo and in ex vivo preparations of cerebral cortex of Grn(-/-) mice that was partially to fully reversed 5 months after BMT. Our findings suggest that BMT can be administered as a stem cell-based approach to prevent or to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Wild Type Bone Marrow Transplant Partially Reverses Neuroinflammation in Progranulin-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Aloi, Macarena S.; Cudaback, Eiron; Josephsen, Samuel R.; Rice, Samantha J.; Jorstad, Nikolas L.; Keene, C. Dirk; Montine, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease with devastating changes in behavioral performance and social function. Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the most common causes of inherited FTD due to reduced progranulin expression or activity, including in brain where it is expressed primarily by neurons and microglia. Thus, efforts aimed at enhancing progranulin levels might be a promising therapeutic strategy. Bone marrow-derived cells are able to engraft in the brain and adopt a microglial phenotype under myeloablative irradiation conditioning. This ability makes bone marrow (BM)-derived cells a potential cellular vehicle for transferring therapeutic molecules to the central nervous system. Here, we utilized BM cells from Grn+/+ (wild type or wt) mice labeled with green fluorescence protein for delivery of progranulin to progranulin deficient (Grn−/−) mice. Our results showed that wt bone marrow transplantation (BMT) partially reconstituted progranulin in the periphery and in cerebral cortex of Grn−/− mice. We demonstrated a pro-inflammatory effect in vivo and in ex vivo preparations of cerebral cortex of Grn−/− mice that was partially to fully reversed five months after BMT. Our findings suggest that BMT can be administered as a stem cell-based approach to prevent or to treat neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25199051

  16. Differential tumor biology effects of double-initiation in a mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis model comparing wild type versus protein kinase Cepsilon overexpression mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafan; Wheeler, Deric L; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N; Verma, Ajit K; Oberley, Terry D

    2007-12-01

    Our previous studies showed that protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon) verexpression in mouse skin resulted in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) elicited by single 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promotion in the absence of preceding papilloma formation as is typically observed in wild type mice. The present study demonstrates that double-DMBA initiation modulates tumor incidence, multiplicity, and latency period in both wild type and PKCepsilon overexpression transgenic (PKCepsilon-Tg) mice. After 17 weeks (wks) of tumor promotion, a reduction in papilloma multiplicity was observed in double- versus single-DMBA initiated wild type mice. Papilloma multiplicity was inversely correlated with cell death indices of interfollicular keratinocytes, indicating decreased papilloma formation was caused by increased cell death and suggesting the origin of papillomas is in interfollicular epidermis. Double-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice had accelerated carcinoma formation and cancer incidence in comparison to single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice. Morphologic analysis of mouse skin following double initiation and tumor promotion showed a similar if not identical series of events to those previously observed following single initiation and tumor promotion: putative preneoplastic cells were observed arising from hyperplastic hair follicles (HFs) with subsequent cancer cell infiltration into the dermis. Single-initiated PKCepsilon-Tg mice exhibited increased mitosis in epidermal cells of HFs during tumor promotion.

  17. Characterization of a sensitive mouse Aβ40 PD biomarker assay for Alzheimer's disease drug development in wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanmei; Hoyte, Kwame; Montgomery, William H; Luk, Wilman; He, Dongping; Meilandt, William J; Zuchero, Y Joy Yu; Atwal, Jasvinder K; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Watts, Ryan J; DeForge, Laura E

    2016-05-01

    Transgenic mice that overexpress human amyloid precursor protein with Swedish or London (APPswe or APPlon) mutations have been widely used for preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development. AD patients, however, rarely possess these mutations or overexpress APP. We developed a sensitive ELISA that specifically and accurately measures low levels of endogenous Aβ40 in mouse plasma, brain and CSF. In wild-type mice treated with a bispecific anti-TfR/BACE1 antibody, significant Aβ reductions were observed in the periphery and the brain. APPlon transgenic mice showed a slightly less reduction, whereas APPswe mice did not have any decrease. This sensitive and well-characterized mouse Aβ40 assay enables the use of wild-type mice for preclinical PK/PD and efficacy studies of potential AD therapeutics.

  18. Effects of social stress and intrauterine position on sexual phenotype in wild-type house mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John G. Vandenbergh; Monica M. Montano

    1991-01-01

    Wild-type house mice were used to test the effect of intrauterine position on anogenital distance (AGD) and to verify whether crowding stress would masculinize female pups, developing at all intrauterine positions, as has been demonstrated in CF-1 mice stressed by restraint, heat, and...

  19. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  20. Differential effects of silver nanoparticles on DNA damage and DNA repair gene expression in Ogg1-deficient and wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallanthighal, Sameera; Chan, Cadia; Murray, Thomas M; Mosier, Aaron P; Cady, Nathaniel C; Reliene, Ramune

    2017-10-01

    Due to extensive use in consumer goods, it is important to understand the genotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and identify susceptible populations. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) excises 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanine (8-oxoG), a pro-mutagenic lesion induced by oxidative stress. To understand whether defects in OGG1 is a possible genetic factor increasing an individual's susceptibly to AgNPs, we determined DNA damage, genome rearrangements, and expression of DNA repair genes in Ogg1-deficient and wild type mice exposed orally to 4 mg/kg of citrate-coated AgNPs over a period of 7 d. DNA damage was examined at 3 and 7 d of exposure and 7 and 14 d post-exposure. AgNPs induced 8-oxoG, double strand breaks (DSBs), chromosomal damage, and DNA deletions in both genotypes. However, 8-oxoG was induced earlier in Ogg1-deficient mice and 8-oxoG levels were higher after 7-d treatment and persisted longer after exposure termination. AgNPs downregulated DNA glycosylases Ogg1, Neil1, and Neil2 in wild type mice, but upregulated Myh, Neil1, and Neil2 glycosylases in Ogg1-deficient mice. Neil1 and Neil2 can repair 8-oxoG. Thus, AgNP-mediated downregulation of DNA glycosylases in wild type mice may contribute to genotoxicity, while upregulation thereof in Ogg1-deficient mice could serve as an adaptive response to AgNP-induced DNA damage. However, our data show that Ogg1 is indispensable for the efficient repair of AgNP-induced damage. In summary, citrate-coated AgNPs are genotoxic in both genotypes and Ogg1 deficiency exacerbates the effect. These data suggest that humans with genetic polymorphisms and mutations in OGG1 may have increased susceptibility to AgNP-mediated DNA damage.

  1. Hepcidin regulation in wild-type and Hfe knockout mice in response to alcohol consumption: evidence for an alcohol-induced hypoxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Mandy L; Murphy, Therese L; Bridle, Kim R; Anderson, Gregory J; Crawford, Darrell H G; Fletcher, Linda M

    2009-08-01

    Expression of Hamp1, the gene encoding the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin, is inappropriately low in HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis and Hfe knockout mice (Hfe(-/-)). Since chronic alcohol consumption is also associated with disturbances in iron metabolism, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on hepcidin mRNA expression in Hfe(-/-) mice. Hfe(-/-) and C57BL/6 (wild-type) mice were pair-fed either an alcohol liquid diet or control diet for up to 8 weeks. The mRNA levels of hepcidin and ferroportin were measured at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and protein expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) was measured by western blot. Hamp1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased and duodenal ferroportin expression was increased in alcohol-fed wild-type mice at 8 weeks. Time course experiments showed that the decrease in hepcidin mRNA was not immediate, but was significant by 4 weeks. Consistent with the genetic defect, Hamp1 mRNA was decreased and duodenal ferroportin mRNA expression was increased in Hfe(-/-) mice fed on the control diet compared with wild-type animals and alcohol further exacerbated these effects. HIF-1alpha protein levels were elevated in alcohol-fed wild-type animals compared with controls. Alcohol may decrease Hamp1 gene expression independently of the HFE pathway possibly via alcohol-induced hypoxia.

  2. Comparison of the Tastes of L-Alanine and Monosodium Glutamate in C57BL/6J Wild Type and T1r3 Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Delay, Eugene R

    2017-09-01

    Previous research showed that L-alanine and monosodium L-glutamate elicit similar taste sensations in rats. This study reports the results of behavioral experiments designed to compare the taste capacity of C57BL/6J wild type and T1r3- mice for these 2 amino acids. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, wild-type mice exhibited greater sensitivity than knockout mice for both L-amino acids, although knockout mice were clearly able to detect both amino acids at 50 mM and higher concentrations. Generalization of CTA between L-alanine and L-glutamate was bidirectionally equivalent for both mouse genotypes, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes in both genotypes. This was verified by the discrimination experiments in which both mouse genotypes performed at or near chance levels at 75 and 150 mM. Above 150 mM, discrimination performance improved, suggesting the taste qualities of the 2 L-amino acids are not identical. No differences between knockout and wild-type mice in discrimination ability were detected. These results indicate that while the T1r3 receptor is important for tasting L-alanine and L-glutamate, other receptors are also important for tasting these amino acids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. IFN-{gamma} enhances neurogenesis in wild-type mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Rona; Nemirovsky, Anna; Harpaz, Idan

    2008-01-01

    the spatial learning and memory performance of the animals. In older mice, the effect of IFN-gamma is more pronounced in both wild-type mice and mice with Alzheimer's-like disease and is associated with neuroprotection. In addition, IFN-gamma reverses the increase in oligodendrogenesis observed in a mouse...... mechanisms can generate immunity to such deficits in neuronal repair. We demonstrate that in contrast to primarily innate immunity cytokines, such as interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the adaptive immunity cytokine IFN-gamma enhances neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult mice and improves...

  4. Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Bruckbauer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca exerts sustained effects resulting in attenuated adiposity, protection against age-related muscle loss and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress in both mouse strains. Although these effects did not alter maximum lifespan, they did suppress early mortality in wild-type mice, but not in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

  5. The In Vivo Granulopoietic Response to Dexamethasone Injection Is Abolished in Perforin-Deficient Mutant Mice and Corrected by Lymphocyte Transfer from Nonsensitized Wild-Type Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Xavier-Elsas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exogenously administered glucocorticoids enhance eosinophil and neutrophil granulocyte production from murine bone-marrow. A hematological response dependent on endogenous glucocorticoids underlies bone-marrow eosinophilia induced by trauma or allergic sensitization/challenge. We detected a defect in granulopoiesis in nonsensitized, perforin-deficient mice. In steady-state conditions, perforin- (Pfp- deficient mice showed significantly decreased bone-marrow and blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts, and colony formation in response to GM-CSF, relative to wild-type controls of comparable age and/or weight. By contrast, peripheral blood or spleen total cell and lymphocyte numbers were not affected by perforin deficiency. Dexamethasone enhanced colony formation by GM-CSF-stimulated progenitors from wild-type controls, but not Pfp mice. Dexamethasone injection increased bone-marrow eosinophil and neutrophil counts in wild-type controls, but not Pfp mice. Because perforin is expressed in effector lymphocytes, we examined whether this defect would be corrected by transferring wild-type lymphocytes into perforin-deficient recipients. Short-term reconstitution of the response to dexamethasone was separately achieved for eosinophils and neutrophils by transfer of distinct populations of splenic lymphocytes from nonsensitized wild-type donors. Transfer of the same amount of splenic lymphocytes from perforin-deficient donors was ineffective. This demonstrates that the perforin-dependent, granulopoietic response to dexamethasone can be restored by transfer of innate lymphocyte subpopulations.

  6. Pulmonary hypertension in wild type mice and animals with genetic deficit in KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wandall-Frostholm

    Full Text Available In vascular biology, endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels contribute to arterial blood pressure regulation by producing membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. The role of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels in the pulmonary circulation is not fully established. Using mice with genetically encoded deficit of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, this study investigated the effect of loss of the channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.Male wild type and KCa3.1-/-/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for four weeks to induce pulmonary hypertension. The degree of pulmonary hypertension was evaluated by right ventricular pressure and assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy. Segments of pulmonary arteries were mounted in a wire myograph for functional studies and morphometric studies were performed on lung sections. Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased lung weight, and increased hematocrit levels in either genotype. The KCa3.1-/-/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX mice developed structural alterations in the heart with increased right ventricular wall thickness as well as in pulmonary vessels with increased lumen size in partially- and fully-muscularized vessels and decreased wall area, not seen in wild type mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia up-regulated the gene expression of the KCa2.3 channel by twofold in wild type mice and increased by 2.5-fold the relaxation evoked by the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activator NS309, whereas the acetylcholine-induced relaxation - sensitive to the combination of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel blockers, apamin and charybdotoxin - was reduced by 2.5-fold in chronic hypoxic mice of either genotype.Despite the deficits of the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels failed to change hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, the up-regulation of KCa2.3-gene expression and increased NS309-induced relaxation in wild-type mice point to a novel mechanism to counteract pulmonary

  7. Spaceflight influences both mucosal and peripheral cytokine production in PTN-Tg and wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L McCarville

    Full Text Available Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS aboard the International Space Station (ISS over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.

  8. The effect of dietary folic acid deficiency on the cytotoxic and mutagenic responses to methyl methanesulfonate in wild-type and in 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase-deficient Aag null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branda, Richard F; O'Neill, J Patrick; Brooks, Elice M; Powden, Cheryl; Naud, Shelly J; Nicklas, Janice A

    2007-02-03

    Folic acid deficiency (FA-) augments DNA damage caused by alkylating agents. The role of DNA repair in modulating this damage was investigated in mice. Weanling wild-type or 3-methyladenine glycosylase (Aag) null mice were maintained on a FA- diet or the same diet supplemented with folic acid (FA+) for 4 weeks. They were then treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), 100mg/kg i.p. Six weeks later, spleen cells were collected for assays of non-selected and 6-thioguanine (TG) selected cloning efficiency to measure the mutant frequency at the Hprt locus. In wild-type mice, there was no significant effect of either MMS treatment or folate dietary content on splenocyte non-selected cloning efficiency. In contrast, non-selected cloning efficiency was significantly higher in MMS-treated Aag null mice than in saline treated controls (diet-gene interaction variable, p=0.04). The non-selected cloning efficiency was significantly higher in the FA+ diet than in the FA- diet group after MMS treatment of Aag null mice. Mutant frequency after MMS treatment was significantly higher in FA- wild-type and Aag null mice and in FA+ Aag null mice, but not in FA+ wild-type mice. For the Aag null mice, mutant frequency was higher in the FA+ mice than in the FA- mice after either saline or MMS treatment. These studies indicate that in wild-type mice treated with MMS, dietary folate content (FA+ or FA-) had no effect on cytotoxicity, but FA- diet increased DNA mutation frequency compared to FA+ diet. In Aag null mice, FA- diet increased the cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents but decreased the risk of DNA mutation.

  9. A comparative study of age-related hearing loss in wild type and insulin-like growth factor I deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Riquelme

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I belongs to the family of insulin-related peptides that fulfils a key role during the late development of the nervous system. Human IGF1 mutations cause profound deafness, poor growth and mental retardation. Accordingly, Igf1−/− null mice are dwarfs that have low survival rates, cochlear alterations and severe sensorineural deafness. Presbycusis (age-related hearing loss is a common disorder associated with aging that causes social and cognitive problems. Aging is also associated with a decrease in circulating IGF-I levels and this reduction has been related to cognitive and brain alterations, although there is no information as yet regarding the relationship between presbycusis and IGF-I biodisponibility. Here we present a longitudinal study of wild type Igf1+/+ and null Igf1−/− mice from 2 to 12 months of age comparing the temporal progression of several parameters: hearing, brain morphology, cochlear cytoarchitecture, insulin-related factors and IGF gene expression and IGF-I serum levels. Complementary invasive and non-invasive techniques were used, including auditory brainstem-evoked response (ABR recordings and in vivo MRI brain imaging. Igf1−/− null mice presented profound deafness at all the ages studied, without any obvious worsening of hearing parameters with aging. Igf1+/+ wild type mice suffered significant age-related hearing loss, their auditory thresholds and peak I latencies augmenting as they aged, in parallel with a decrease in the circulating levels of IGF-I. Accordingly, there was an age-related spiral ganglion degeneration in wild type mice that was not evident in the Igf1 null mice. However, the Igf1−/− null mice in turn developed a prematurely aged stria vascularis reminiscent of the diabetic strial phenotype. Our data indicate that IGF-I is required for the correct development and maintenance of hearing, supporting the idea that IGF-I-based therapies could contribute to

  10. Modulation of ambient temperature promotes inflammation and initiates atherosclerosis in wild type C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Giles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obesity and obesity-associated inflammation is central to a variety of end-organ sequelae including atherosclerosis, a leading cause of death worldwide. Although mouse models have provided important insights into the immunopathogenesis of various diseases, modeling atherosclerosis in mice has proven difficult. Specifically, wild-type (WT mice are resistant to developing atherosclerosis, while commonly used genetically modified mouse models of atherosclerosis are poor mimics of human disease. The lack of a physiologically relevant experimental model of atherosclerosis has hindered the understanding of mechanisms regulating disease development and progression as well as the development of translational therapies. Recent evidence suggests that housing mice within their thermoneutral zone profoundly alters murine physiology, including both metabolic and immune processes. We hypothesized that thermoneutral housing would allow for augmentation of atherosclerosis induction and progression in mice. Methods: ApoE−/− and WT mice were housed at either standard (TS or thermoneutral (TN temperatures and fed either a chow or obesogenic “Western” diet. Analysis included quantification of (i obesity and obesity-associated downstream sequelae, (ii the development and progression of atherosclerosis, and (iii inflammatory gene expression pathways related to atherosclerosis. Results: Housing mice at TN, in combination with an obesogenic “Western” diet, profoundly augmented obesity development, exacerbated atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice, and initiated atherosclerosis development in WT mice. This increased disease burden was associated with altered lipid profiles, including cholesterol levels and fractions, and increased aortic plaque size. In addition to the mild induction of atherosclerosis, we similarly observed increased levels of aortic and white adipose tissue inflammation and increased circulating immune cell expression of pathways

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Cognition, Proton MR Spectroscopy and Synaptic and Neuronal Pathology in Aging Wild-type and AβPPswe-PS1dE9 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Diane; Zerbi, Valerio; Janssen, Carola I. F.; Dederen, Pieter J. W. C.; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Janssen, Anna-Lena; Nobelen, Cindy L. M.; Veltien, Andor; Asten, Jack J.; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a valuable tool in Alzheimer’s disease research, investigating the functional integrity of the brain. The present longitudinal study set out to characterize the neurochemical profile of the hippocampus, measured by single voxel 1H MRS at 7 Tesla, in the brains of AβPPSswe-PS1dE9 and wild-type mice at 8 and 12 months of age. Furthermore, we wanted to determine whether alterations in hippocampal metabolite levels coincided with behavioral changes, cognitive decline and neuropathological features, to gain a better understanding of the underlying neurodegenerative processes. Moreover, correlation analyses were performed in the 12-month-old AβPP-PS1 animals with the hippocampal amyloid-β deposition, TBS-T soluble Aβ levels and high-molecular weight Aβ aggregate levels to gain a better understanding of the possible involvement of Aβ in neurochemical and behavioral changes, cognitive decline and neuropathological features in AβPP-PS1 transgenic mice. Our results show that at 8 months of age AβPPswe-PS1dE9 mice display behavioral and cognitive changes compared to age-matched wild-type mice, as determined in the open field and the (reverse) Morris water maze. However, there were no variations in hippocampal metabolite levels at this age. AβPP-PS1 mice at 12 months of age display more severe behavioral and cognitive impairment, which coincided with alterations in hippocampal metabolite levels that suggest reduced neuronal integrity. Furthermore, correlation analyses suggest a possible role of Aβ in inflammatory processes, synaptic dysfunction and impaired neurogenesis. PMID:23717459

  12. Differences in ultrasonic vocalizations between wild and laboratory California mice (Peromyscus californicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matina C Kalcounis-Rueppell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs emitted by muroid rodents, including laboratory mice and rats, are used as phenotypic markers in behavioral assays and biomedical research. Interpretation of these USVs depends on understanding the significance of USV production by rodents in the wild. However, there has never been a study of muroid rodent ultrasound function in the wild and comparisons of USVs produced by wild and laboratory rodents are lacking to date. Here, we report the first comparison of wild and captive rodent USVs recorded from the same species, Peromyscus californicus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used standard ultrasound recording techniques to measure USVs from California mice in the laboratory (Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center, SC, USA and the wild (Hastings Natural History Reserve, CA, USA. To determine which California mouse in the wild was vocalizing, we used a remote sensing method that used a 12-microphone acoustic localization array coupled with automated radio telemetry of all resident Peromyscus californicus in the area of the acoustic localization array. California mice in the laboratory and the wild produced the same types of USV motifs. However, wild California mice produced USVs that were 2-8 kHz higher in median frequency and significantly more variable in frequency than laboratory California mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The similarity in overall form of USVs from wild and laboratory California mice demonstrates that production of USVs by captive Peromyscus is not an artifact of captivity. Our study validates the widespread use of USVs in laboratory rodents as behavioral indicators but highlights that particular characteristics of laboratory USVs may not reflect natural conditions.

  13. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Brandalise

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  14. Dietary Supplementation of Hericium erinaceus Increases Mossy Fiber-CA3 Hippocampal Neurotransmission and Recognition Memory in Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Gregori, Andrej; Repetti, Margherita; Romano, Chiara; Orrù, Germano; Botta, Laura; Girometta, Carolina; Guglielminetti, Maria Lidia; Savino, Elena; Rossi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells. Until now no investigations have been conducted to assess the impact of this dietary supplementation on brain function in healthy subjects. Therefore, we have faced the problem by considering the effect on cognitive skills and on hippocampal neurotransmission in wild-type mice. In wild-type mice the oral supplementation with H. erinaceus induces, in behaviour test, a significant improvement in the recognition memory and, in hippocampal slices, an increase in spontaneous and evoked excitatory synaptic current in mossy fiber-CA3 synapse. In conclusion, we have produced a series of findings in support of the concept that H. erinaceus induces a boost effect onto neuronal functions also in nonpathological conditions.

  15. A critical role of glutamate transporter type 3 in the learning and memory of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Park, Sang-Hon; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2014-10-01

    Hippocampus-dependent learning and memory are associated with trafficking of excitatory amino acid transporter type 3 (EAAT3) to the plasma membrane. To assess whether this trafficking is an intrinsic component of the biochemical responses underlying learning and memory, 7- to 9-week old male EAAT3 knockout mice and CD-1 wild-type mice were subjected to fear conditioning. Their hippocampal CA1 regions, amygdalae and entorhinal cortices were harvested before, or 30 min or 3 h after the fear conditioning stimulation. We found that EAAT3 knockout mice had worse contextual and tone-related learning and memory than did the wild-type mice. The expression of EAAT3, glutamate receptor (GluR)1 and GluR2 in the plasma membrane and of phospho-GluR1 (at Ser 831) and phospho-CaMKII in the hippocampus of the wild-type mice was increased at 30 min after the fear conditioning stimulation. Similar biochemical changes occurred in the amygdala. Fear conditioning also increased the expression of c-Fos and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in the CA1 regions and of Arc in the entorhinal cortices of the wild-type mice. These biochemical responses were attenuated in the EAAT3 knockout mice. These results suggest that EAAT3 plays a critical role in learning and memory. Our results also provide initial evidence that EAAT3 may have receptor-like functions to participate in the biochemical reactions underlying learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous generation of rapidly transmissible prions in transgenic mice expressing wild-type bank vole prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Stöhr, Jan; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; Grillo, Sunny K; Patel, Smita; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-02-28

    Currently, there are no animal models of the most common human prion disorder, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), in which prions are formed spontaneously from wild-type (WT) prion protein (PrP). Interestingly, bank voles (BV) exhibit an unprecedented promiscuity for diverse prion isolates, arguing that bank vole PrP (BVPrP) may be inherently prone to adopting misfolded conformations. Therefore, we constructed transgenic (Tg) mice expressing WT BVPrP. Tg(BVPrP) mice developed spontaneous CNS dysfunction between 108 and 340 d of age and recapitulated the hallmarks of prion disease, including spongiform degeneration, pronounced astrogliosis, and deposition of alternatively folded PrP in the brain. Brain homogenates of ill Tg(BVPrP) mice transmitted disease to Tg(BVPrP) mice in ∼35 d, to Tg mice overexpressing mouse PrP in under 100 d, and to WT mice in ∼185 d. Our studies demonstrate experimentally that WT PrP can spontaneously form infectious prions in vivo. Thus, Tg(BVPrP) mice may be useful for studying the spontaneous formation of prions, and thus may provide insight into the etiology of sporadic CJD.

  17. On the mechanistic differences of benzene-induced leukemogenesis between wild type and p53 knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Yoko; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Li, Guang-Xun; Kanno, Jun; Inoue, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    Leukemia induction by benzene inhalation was first reported by Le Noire in 1887, described multiple cases of leukemia among Parisian cobblers. However, experimental induction of leukemia by benzene exposure was not succeeded for a hundred years, until Snyder et al. and our group reported it nearly 20 years ago. Nevertheless, the mechanistic background of benzene-induced leukemia was still an enigma until recently a benzene-induced peculiar cell kinetics of the stem/progenitor cells has been elucidated by our study, demonstrated a marked repeated oscillatory decrease in peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) cellularity during and after benzene exposure, which epigenetically preceded and developed the leukemia more than a year later. We utilized the BUUV (bromodeoxyuridine + UV exposure) method to study stem/progenitor cell kinetics during and/or after benzene exposure. Using these methods, we were able to measure the labeling rate, cycling fraction of clonogenic progenitor cells, and other cell cycle parameters. The cycling fraction of stem/progenitor cells was found not to turn into an active hematopoiesis but to remain low during benzene inhalation and further we found evidence that the cycling fraction depression may be mediated in part by a slowing of stem/progenitor cell cycling perse by up-regulation of p21. The benzene induced leukemogenicity between mice carrying wild-type p53 and mice lacking p53 seem to differ from one another. In the case of p53 knockout mouse, DNA damage such as weak mutagenicity and or chromosomal damages are retained, and those damages participated in the induction of a consequent activation of proto-oncogenes and the like, which led cells to further neoplastic changes. In contrast, in the case of wild type mice, a dramatic oscillational change in the cell cycle of the stem cell compartment seems to be an important factor for mice carrying the p53 gene. (author)

  18. Alzheimer’s Disease Mutant Mice Exhibit Reduced Brain Tissue Stiffness Compared to Wild-type Mice in both Normoxia and following Intermittent Hypoxia Mimicking Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Menal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence from patients and animal models suggests that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD and that AD is associated with reduced brain tissue stiffness.AimTo investigate whether intermittent hypoxia (IH alters brain cortex tissue stiffness in AD mutant mice exposed to IH mimicking OSA.MethodsSix-eight month old (B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE985Dbo/J AD mutant mice and wild-type (WT littermates were subjected to IH (21% O2 40 s to 5% O2 20 s; 6 h/day or normoxia for 8 weeks. After euthanasia, the stiffness (E of 200-μm brain cortex slices was measured by atomic force microscopy.ResultsTwo-way ANOVA indicated significant cortical softening and weight increase in AD mice compared to WT littermates, but no significant effects of IH on cortical stiffness and weight were detected. In addition, reduced myelin was apparent in AD (vs. WT, but no significant differences emerged in the cortex extracellular matrix components laminin and glycosaminoglycans when comparing baseline AD and WT mice.ConclusionAD mutant mice exhibit reduced brain tissue stiffness following both normoxia and IH mimicking sleep apnea, and such differences are commensurate with increased edema and demyelination in AD.

  19. Mouse lysozyme-M knockout mice reveal how the self-determinant hierarchy shapes the T cell repertoire against this circulating self antigen in wild-type mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Pratima; Chi, Howard H.; Kim, Hong R.; Clausen, Björn E.; Pederson, Brian; Sercarz, Eli E.; Forster, Irmgard; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied T cell tolerance to defined determinants within ML-M using wild-type (WT; ML-M+/+) and LysMcre (ML-M-/-) C3H (H-2(k)) mice to determine the relative contribution of ML-M-derived epitopes vs those from other self Ags in selection of the ML-M-specific T cell repertoire. ML-M was

  20. Effects of ketoconazole on the biodistribution and metabolism of [{sup 11}C]loperamide and [{sup 11}C]N-desmethyl-loperamide in wild-type and P-gp knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seneca, Nicholas; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Shetty, H. Umesha; Tuan, Edward; Kannan, Pavitra; Taku, Andrew; Innis, Robert B. [Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Pike, Victor W. [Molecular Imaging Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)], E-mail: pikev@mail.nih.gov

    2010-04-15

    Introduction: [{sup 11}C]Loperamide and [{sup 11}C]N-desmethyl-loperamide ([{sup 11}C]dLop) have been proposed as radiotracers for imaging brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. A major route of [{sup 11}C]loperamide metabolism is N-demethylation to [{sup 11}C]dLop. We aimed to test whether inhibition of CYP3A4 with ketoconazole might reduce the metabolism of [{sup 11}C]loperamide and [{sup 11}C]dLop in mice, and thereby improve the quality of these radiotracers. Methods: Studies were performed in wild-type and P-gp knockout (mdr-1a/b -/-) mice. During each of seven study sessions, one pair of mice, comprising one wild-type and one knockout mouse, was pretreated with ketoconazole (50 mg/kg, ip), while another such pair was left untreated. Mice were sacrificed at 30 min after injection of [{sup 11}C]loperamide or [{sup 11}C]dLop. Whole brain and plasma samples were measured for radioactivity and analyzed with radio-high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Ketoconazole increased the plasma concentrations of [{sup 11}C]loperamide and its main radiometabolite, [{sup 11}C]dLop, by about twofold in both wild-type and knockout mice, whereas the most polar radiometabolite was decreased threefold. Furthermore, ketoconazole increased the brain concentrations of [{sup 11}C]loperamide and the radiometabolite [{sup 11}C]dLop by about twofold in knockout mice, and decreased the brain concentrations of the major and most polar radiometabolite in wild-type and knockout mice by 82% and 49%, respectively. In contrast, ketoconazole had no effect on plasma and brain distribution of administered [{sup 11}C]dLop and its radiometabolites in either wild-type or knockout mice, except to increase the low plasma [{sup 11}C]dLop concentration. The least polar radiometabolite of [{sup 11}C]dLop was identified with LC-MS{sup n} as the N-hydroxymethyl analog of [{sup 11}C]dLop and this also behaved as a P-gp substrate. Conclusion: In this study, ketoconazole (50 mg/kg, ip) proved

  1. Attenuated stress response to acute restraint and forced swimming stress in arginine vasopressin 1b receptor subtype (Avpr1b) receptor knockout mice and wild-type mice treated with a novel Avpr1b receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, J A; Craighead, M; O'Carroll, A-M; Lolait, S J

    2010-11-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesised in the parvocellular region of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and released into the pituitary portal vessels acts on the 1b receptor subtype (Avpr1b) present in anterior pituitary corticotrophs to modulate the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is considered the major drive behind ACTH release; however, its action is augmented synergistically by AVP. To determine the extent of vasopressinergic influence in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to restraint and forced swimming stress, we compared the stress hormone levels [plasma ACTH in both stressors and corticosterone (CORT) in restraint stress only] following acute stress in mutant Avpr1b knockout (KO) mice compared to their wild-type controls following the administration of a novel Avpr1b antagonist. Restraint and forced swimming stress-induced increases in plasma ACTH were significantly diminished in mice lacking a functional Avpr1b and in wild-type mice that had been pre-treated with Avpr1b antagonist. A corresponding decrease in plasma CORT levels was also observed in acute restraint-stressed knockout male mice, and in Avpr1b-antagonist-treated male wild-type mice. By contrast, plasma CORT levels were not reduced in acutely restraint-stressed female knockout animals, or in female wild-type animals pre-treated with Avpr1b antagonist. These results demonstrate that pharmacological antagonism or inactivation of Avpr1b causes a reduction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response, particularly ACTH, to acute restraint and forced swimming stress, and show that Avpr1b knockout mice constitute a model by which to study the contribution of Avpr1b to the HPA axis response to acute stressors. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Expanding the body mass range: associations between BMR and tissue morphology in wild type and mutant dwarf mice (David mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Neubronner, Juliane; Rozman, Jan; Stumm, Gabi; Osanger, Andreas; Stoeger, Claudia; Augustin, Martin; Grosse, Johannes; Klingenspor, Martin; Heldmaier, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    We sought to identify associations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) with morphological traits in laboratory mice. In order to expand the body mass (BM) range at the intra-strain level, and to minimize relevant genetic variation, we used male and female wild type mice (C3HeB/FeJ) and previously unpublished ENU-induced dwarf mutant littermates (David mice), covering a body mass range from 13.5 g through 32.3 g. BMR was measured at 30 degrees C, mice were killed by means of CO(2 )overdose, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was subsequently analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), after which mice were dissected into 12 (males) and 10 (females) components, respectively. Across the 44 individuals, 43% of the variation in the basal rates of metabolism was associated with BM. The latter explained 47% to 98% of the variability in morphology of the different tissues. Our results demonstrate that sex is a major determinant of body composition and BMR in mice: when adjusted for BM, females contained many larger organs, more fat mass, and less lean mass compared to males. This could be associated with a higher mass adjusted BMR in females. Once the dominant effects of sex and BM on BMR and tissue mass were removed, and after accounting for multiple comparisons, no further significant association between individual variation in BMR and tissue mass emerged.

  3. Early atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in mice with diet-induced type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E D; Bang, C A; Nielsen, L B

    2009-01-01

    and the median lesion area was 8.0 times higher than in fat-fed wild-type mice (P = 0.001). Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 staining of the aortic endothelium was most pronounced in the fat-fed apoB transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet-induced type 2 diabetes causes early......BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes increase the risk of atherosclerosis. It is unknown to what extent this reflects direct effects on the arterial wall or secondary effects of hyperlipidaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of obesity and type 2 diabetes on the development...

  4. Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead a(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism...... and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued...... the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems...

  5. Time Courses of Cortical Glucose Metabolism and Microglial Activity Across the Life Span of Wild-Type Mice: A PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, Matthias; Focke, Carola; Blume, Tanja; Peters, Finn; Deussing, Maximilian; Probst, Federico; Jaworska, Anna; Overhoff, Felix; Albert, Nathalie; Lindner, Simon; von Ungern-Sternberg, Barbara; Bartenstein, Peter; Haass, Christian; Kleinberger, Gernot; Herms, Jochen; Rominger, Axel

    2017-12-01

    Contrary to findings in the human brain, 18 F-FDG PET shows cerebral hypermetabolism of aged wild-type (WT) mice relative to younger animals, supposedly due to microglial activation. Therefore, we used dual-tracer small-animal PET to examine directly the link between neuroinflammation and hypermetabolism in aged mice. Methods: WT mice (5-20 mo) were investigated in a cross-sectional design using 18 F-FDG ( n = 43) and translocator protein (TSPO) ( 18 F-GE180; n = 58) small-animal PET, with volume-of-interest and voxelwise analyses. Biochemical analysis of plasma cytokine levels and immunohistochemical confirmation of microglial activity were also performed. Results: Age-dependent cortical hypermetabolism in WT mice relative to young animals aged 5 mo peaked at 14.5 mo (+16%, P mice. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. PBI creams: a spontaneously mutated mouse strain showing wild animal-type reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, C A; Van Driel, K S; Talling, J C; Inglis, I R

    2001-01-01

    PBI creams are mice derived from warfarin-resistant wild stock that has been maintained under laboratory conditions since the 1970s. This study compares their behaviour to that of laboratory mice and wild house and wood mice. Animals were tested in a black/white box and a 2.64x1.4 m runway. In the black/white box, the behaviour of PBI creams was not significantly different from that of house mice and differed most from that of laboratory mice. Notably, the PBI creams showed the greatest activity and escape-orientated behaviours. When animals were approached by the experimenter in the open runway test, the PBI creams had higher flight speeds than both house and wood mice, whilst laboratory mice failed to respond. In the closed runway test where the animals could not escape, the PBI creams, house mice and wood mice all turned and attempted to run past the approaching experimenter, whilst the laboratory mice again failed to react. At the end of this test session, the time taken to catch each animal was recorded. It took less than 5 s to catch laboratory mice but significantly longer to catch the wild strains and the PBI creams (90-100 s for the latter). In these tests, the PBI creams showed wild animal-type reactivity, and as this behaviour has been retained in the laboratory colony for over 30 years, these animals may be useful in the study of the physiological and genetic basis of fear/anxiety in mice.

  7. DNA vaccines encoding proteins from wild-type and attenuated canine distemper virus protect equally well against wild-type virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Kristensen, Birte; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Lund, Morten; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2012-10-01

    Immunity induced by DNA vaccines containing the hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes of wild-type and attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) was investigated in mink (Mustela vison), a highly susceptible natural host of CDV. All DNA-immunized mink seroconverted, and significant levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies were present on the day of challenge with wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccines also primed the cell-mediated memory responses, as indicated by an early increase in the number of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing lymphocytes after challenge. Importantly, the wild-type and attenuated CDV DNA vaccines had a long-term protective effect against wild-type CDV challenge. The vaccine-induced immunity induced by the H and N genes from wild-type CDV and those from attenuated CDV was comparable. Because these two DNA vaccines were shown to protect equally well against wild-type virus challenge, it is suggested that the genetic/antigenic heterogeneity between vaccine strains and contemporary wild-type strains are unlikely to cause vaccine failure.

  8. Aerobic Glycolysis in the Frontal Cortex Correlates with Memory Performance in Wild-Type Mice But Not the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Cerebral Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard A; Tindale, Lauren; Lone, Asad; Singh, Olivia; Macauley, Shannon L; Stanley, Molly; Holtzman, David M; Bartha, Robert; Cumming, Robert C

    2016-02-10

    we detected an age-dependent decline in the expression of aerobic glycolysis enzymes and a concomitant decrease in lactate levels within the frontal cortex of wild-type mice. Improved memory performance in wild-type mice correlated with elevated expression of aerobic glycolysis enzymes. Surprisingly, lactate levels remained elevated with age and increased aerobic glycolysis enzyme expression correlated with poorer memory performance in APP/PS1 mice. These findings suggest that while lactate production is beneficial for memory in the healthy aging brain, it might be detrimental in an Alzheimer's disease context. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361871-08$15.00/0.

  9. Glio-vascular changes during ageing in wild-type and Alzheimer's disease-like APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, C S; Brites, D; Lemere, C A; Brito, M A

    2015-09-16

    Vascular and glial involvement in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), and age-related brain vulnerabilities have been suggested. Therefore, we sought to: (i) investigate which vascular and glial events are evident in ageing and/or AD, (ii) to establish the temporal evolution of vascular and glial changes in AD-like and wild-type (WT) mice and (iii) to relate them to amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide accumulation. We examined immunohistochemically hippocampi and cortex from APP/PS1dE9 and WT C57BL/6 mice along ageing and disease progression (young-adulthood, middle- and old-age). Ageing resulted in the increase in receptor for advanced glycation endproducts expression, as well as the entrance of thrombin and albumin in hippocampal parenchyma. In contrast, the loss of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) positive cells, in both regions, was only related to AD pathogenesis. Hypovascularization was affected by both ageing and AD in the hippocampus, but resulted from the interaction between both factors in the cortex. Astrogliosis was a result of AD in hippocampus and of both factors in cortex, while microgliosis was associated with fibrillar amyloid plaques in AD-like mice and with the interaction between both factors in each of the studied regions. In sum, these data show that senile plaques precede vascular and glial alterations only in hippocampus, whereas in cortex, vascular and glial alterations, namely the loss of PDGFR-β-positive cells and astrogliosis, accompanied the first senile plaques. Hence, this study points to vascular and glial events that co-exist in AD pathogenesis and age-related brain vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 deletion impairs glucose tolerance and exacerbates hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksunes, Lauren M; Reisman, Scott A; Yeager, Ronnie L; Goedken, Michael J; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-04-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) induces a battery of cytoprotective genes after oxidative stress. Nrf2 aids in liver regeneration by altering insulin signaling; however, whether Nrf2 participates in hepatic glucose homeostasis is unknown. Compared with wild-type mice, mice lacking Nrf2 (Nrf2-null) have lower basal serum insulin and prolonged hyperglycemia in response to an intraperitoneal glucose challenge. In the present study, blood glucose, serum insulin, urine flow rate, and hepatic expression of glucose-related genes were quantified in male diabetic wild-type and Nrf2-null mice. Type 1 diabetes was induced with a single intraperitoneal dose (200 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ). Histopathology and serum insulin levels confirmed depleted pancreatic beta-cells in STZ-treated mice of both genotypes. Five days after STZ, Nrf2-null mice had higher blood glucose levels than wild-type mice. Nine days after STZ, polyuria occurred in both genotypes with more urine output from Nrf2-null mice (11-fold) than wild-type mice (7-fold). Moreover, STZ-treated Nrf2-null mice had higher levels of serum beta-hydroxybutyrate, triglycerides, and fatty acids 10 days after STZ compared with wild-type mice. STZ reduced hepatic glycogen in both genotypes, with less observed in Nrf2-null mice. Increased urine output and blood glucose in STZ-treated Nrf2-null mice corresponded with enhanced gluconeogenesis (glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase)- and reduced glycolysis (pyruvate kinase)-related mRNA expression in their livers. Furthermore, the Nrf2 activator oltipraz lowered blood glucose in wild-type but not Nrf2-null mice administered STZ. Collectively, these data indicate that the absence of Nrf2 worsens hyperglycemia in type I diabetic mice and Nrf2 may represent a therapeutic target for reducing circulating glucose levels.

  11. Activation of nicotinic α(7) acetylcholine receptor enhances long term potentation in wild type mice but not in APP(swe)/PS1ΔE9 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderman, Andreas; Mikkelsen, Jens D; West, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    the effect of the partial α(7) nAChR agonist SSR180711 on hippocampal slice preparations from normal wild type (Wt) and APP(swe)/PS1ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) mice. In the hippocampal slices from the 6 months old Wt mice, the application of both nicotine (5μM) and SSR180711 (300nM) resulted in a significant...... enhancement of LTP expressed in area CA1. However, in the Tg mice the application of SSR180711 did not result in an increase in LTP beyond control levels. The amount of binding of the α(7) nAChR ligand 125-I-α-bungarotoxin was not different between in Tg and Wt mice. These findings indicate that the α(7) n......AChR is functionally blocked in the hippocampal neurons, downstream of the α(7) nAChR, and that this is likely due to an interaction between the receptor and Aβ, which leads to changes in LTP....

  12. A Novel 1,4-Dihydropyridine Derivative Improves Spatial Learning and Memory and Modifies Brain Protein Expression in Wild Type and Transgenic APPSweDI Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiba Jansone

    Full Text Available Ca2+ blockers, particularly those capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB, have been suggested as a possible treatment or disease modifying agents for neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer's disease. The present study investigated the effects of a novel 4-(N-dodecyl pyridinium group-containing 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative (AP-12 on cognition and synaptic protein expression in the brain. Treatment of AP-12 was investigated in wild type C57BL/6J mice and transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice (Tg APPSweDI using behavioral tests and immunohistochemistry, as well as mass spectrometry to assess the blood-brain barrier (BBB penetration. The data demonstrated the ability of AP-12 to cross the BBB, improve spatial learning and memory in both mice strains, induce anxiolytic action in transgenic mice, and increase expression of hippocampal and cortical proteins (GAD67, Homer-1 related to synaptic plasticity. The compound AP-12 can be seen as a prototype molecule for use in the design of novel drugs useful to halt progression of clinical symptoms (more specifically, anxiety and decline in memory of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Brain response to traumatic brain injury in wild-type and interleukin-6 knockout mice: a microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian Bjørn; Penkowa, Milena; Borup, Rehannah

    2005-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the brain is one of the leading causes of injury-related death or disability. Brain response to injury is orchestrated by cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, but the full repertoire of responses involved is not well known. We here report the results obtained with microarrays...... in wild-type and IL-6 knockout mice subjected to a cryolesion of the somatosensorial cortex and killed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 days post-lesion. Overall gene expression was analyzed by using Affymetrix genechips/oligonucleotide arrays with approximately 12,400 probe sets corresponding to approximately 10...... in the initial tissue injury and later regeneration of the parenchyma. IL-6 deficiency showed a dramatic effect in the expression of many genes, especially in the 1 day post-lesion timing, which presumably underlies the poor capacity of IL-6 knockout mice to cope with brain damage. The results highlight...

  14. Three Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Latency-Associated Transcript Mutants with Distinct and Asymmetric Effects on Virulence in Mice Compared with Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Guey-Chuen; Esmaili, Daniel; Slanina, Susan M.; Yukht, Ada; Ghiasi, Homayon; Osorio, Nelson; Mott, Kevin R.; Maguen, Barak; Jin, Ling; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript (LAT)-null mutants have decreased reactivation but normal virulence in rabbits and mice. We report here on dLAT1.5, a mutant with LAT nucleotides 76 to 1667 deleted. Following ocular infection of rabbits, dLAT1.5 reactivated at a lower rate than its wild-type parent McKrae (6.1 versus 11.8%; P = 0.0025 [chi-square test]). Reactivation was restored in the marker-rescued virus dLAT1.5R (12.6%; P = 0.53 versus wild type), confirming the importance of the deleted region in spontaneous reactivation. Compared with wild-type or marker-rescued virus, dLAT1.5 had similar or slightly reduced virulence in rabbits (based on survival following ocular infection). In contrast, in mice, dLAT1.5 had increased virulence (P Wechsler, J. Virol. 73:920–929, 1999), had decreased virulence in mice (P = 0.03). In addition, we also found that dLAT371, a LAT mutant that we previously reported to have wild-type virulence in rabbits (G. C. Perng, S. M. Slanina, H. Ghiasi, A. B. Nesburn, and S. L. Wechsler, J. Virol. 70:2014–2018, 1996), had decreased virulence in mice (P < 0.05). Thus, these three mutants, each of which encodes a different LAT RNA, have different virulence phenotypes. dLAT1.5 had wild-type virulence in rabbits but increased virulence in mice. In contrast, LAT2.9A had increased virulence in rabbits but decreased virulence in mice, and dLAT371 had wild-type virulence in rabbits but decreased virulence in mice. Taken together, these results suggest that (i) the 5′ end of LAT and/or a gene that overlaps part of this region is involved in viral virulence, (ii) this virulence appears to have species-specific effects, and (iii) regulation of this virulence may be complex. PMID:11533165

  15. Comparison of Ehrlichia muris Strains Isolated from Wild Mice and Ticks and Serologic Survey of Humans and Animals with E. muris as Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Kawahara, Makoto; Ito, Tadahiko; Suto, Chiharu; Shibata, Shinichiro; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Hata, Kazuhisa; Hirai, Katsuya

    1999-01-01

    In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had...

  16. Transcervical Inoculation with Chlamydia trachomatis Induces Infertility in HLA-DR4 Transgenic and Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia F; Zhong, Guangming; de la Maza, Luis M

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infection-induced infertility in women. Attempts to control this epidemic with screening programs and antibiotic therapy have failed. Currently, a vaccine to prevent C. trachomatis infections is not available. In order to develop an animal model for evaluating vaccine antigens that can be applied to humans, we used C. trachomatis serovar D (strain UW-3/Cx) to induce infertility in mice whose major histocompatibility complex class II antigen was replaced with the human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4). Transcervical inoculation of medroxyprogesterone-treated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with 5 × 10 5 C. trachomatis D inclusion forming units (IFU) induced a significant reduction in fertility, with a mean number of embryos/mouse of 4.4 ± 1.3 compared to 7.8 ± 0.5 for the uninfected control mice ( P < 0.05). A similar fertility reduction was elicited in the wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (4.3 ± 1.4 embryos/mouse) compared to the levels of the WT controls (9.1 ± 0.4 embryos/mouse) ( P < 0.05). Following infection, WT mice mounted more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than HLA-DR4 mice. As determined by vaginal shedding, HLA-DR4 mice were more susceptible to a transcervical C. trachomatis D infection than WT mice. To assess if HLA-DR4 transgenic and WT mice could be protected by vaccination, 10 4 IFU of C. trachomatis D was delivered intranasally, and mice were challenged transcervically 6 weeks later with 5 × 10 5 IFU of C. trachomatis D. As determined by severity and length of vaginal shedding, WT C57BL/6 and HLA-DR4 mice were significantly protected by vaccination. The advantages and limitations of the HLA-DR4 transgenic mouse model for evaluating human C. trachomatis vaccine antigens are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Comparison of Ehrlichia muris strains isolated from wild mice and ticks and serologic survey of humans and animals with E. muris as antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, M; Ito, T; Suto, C; Shibata, S; Rikihisa, Y; Hata, K; Hirai, K

    1999-04-01

    In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan.

  18. Global gene expression profiles of MT knockout and wild-type mice in the condition of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yi; Guo, Jun; Dong, Yansheng; Zhong, Weijian; Xiao, Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Lishi; Peng, Shuangqing

    2011-01-15

    Increasing evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies has indicated that MT exerts protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity; however the underlying precise mechanisms still remain an enigma. Therefore, the present study was designed using MT knockout mice in concert with genomic approaches to explore the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms in terms of the genetic network changes. MT-I/II null (MT⁻/⁻) mice and corresponding wild-type mice (MT+/+) were administrated with a single dose of DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) or equal volume of saline. Animals were sacrificed on the 4th day after DOX administration and samples were collected for further analyses. Global gene expression profiles of cardiac mRNA from two genotype mice revealed that 381 characteristically MT-responsive genes were identified between MT+/+ mice and MT⁻/⁻ mice in response to DOX, including fos, ucp3, car3, atf3, map3k6, etc. Functional analysis implied MAPK signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, etc. might be involved to mediate the protection of DOX cardiomyopathy by MT. Results from the present study not only validated the previously reported possible mechanisms of MT protection against DOX toxicity, but also provided new clues into the molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genotoxicity detected in wild mice living in a highly polluted wetland area in south western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Santiago; Daza, Paula; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Cardenas, Jose Antonio [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Cortes, Felipe [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: cortes@us.es

    2008-06-15

    A field study was carried out in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in an industrial area in the neighbourhood of Huelva city, SW Spain, and in a natural area (Donana National Park) for comparison, to estimate the genetic risk induced by environmental pollution in wild mice. Genotoxic effects in a sentinel organism, the Algerian mice (Mus spretus) free living in the industrial area were compared with animals of the same species living in the natural protected area. The single cell gel electrophoresis, or Comet assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in peripheral blood of mice. Our results clearly show that mice free living in the contaminated area bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The results suggest that the assessing of genotoxicity levels by the Comet assay in wild mice can be used as a valuable test in pollution monitoring and environmental conservation. - We have found an increased genotoxic damage in wild mice in a highly polluted area from industry, mining and agriculture in SW Spain, as assessed by the Comet assay.

  20. Gene expression profiling in wild-type and metallothionein mutant fibroblast cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGELA D ARMENDÁRIZ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of metallothioneins (MT in copper homeostasis is of great interest, as it appears to be partially responsible for the regulation of intracellular copper levels during adaptation to extracellular excess of the metal. To further investigate a possible role of MTs in copper metabolism, a genomics approach was utilized to evaluate the role of MT on gene expression. Microarray analysis was used to examine the effects of copper overload in fibroblast cells from normal and MT I and II double knock-out mice (MT-/-. As a first step, we compared genes that were significantly upregulated in wild-type and MT-/- cells exposed to copper. Even though wild-type and mutant cells are undistinguishable in terms of their morphological features and rates of growth, our results show that MT-/- cells do not respond with induction of typical markers of cellular stress under copper excess conditions, as observed in the wild-type cell line, suggesting that the transcription initiation rate or the mRNA stability of stress genes is affected when there is an alteration in the copper store capacity. The functional classification of other up-regulated genes in both cell lines indicates that a large proportion (>80% belong to two major categories: 1 metabolism; and 2 cellular physiological processes, suggesting that at the transcriptional level copper overload induces the expression of genes associated with diverse molecular functions. These results open the possibility to understand how copper homeostasis is being coordinated with other metabolic pathways.

  1. Ontogeny of SERT Expression and Antidepressant-like Response to Escitalopram in Wild-Type and SERT Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nathan C; Gould, Georgianna G; Koek, Wouter; Daws, Lynette C

    2016-08-01

    Depression is a disabling affective disorder for which the majority of patients are not effectively treated. This problem is exacerbated in children and adolescents for whom only two antidepressants are approved, both of which are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs). Unfortunately SSRIs are often less effective in juveniles than in adults; however, the mechanism(s) underlying age-dependent responses to SSRIs is unknown. To this end, we compared the antidepressant-like response to the SSRI escitalopram using the tail suspension test and saturation binding of [(3)H]citalopram to the serotonin transporter (SERT), the primary target of SSRIs, in juvenile [postnatal day (P)21], adolescent (P28), and adult (P90) wild-type (SERT+/+) mice. In addition, to model individuals carrying low-expressing SERT variants, we studied mice with reduced SERT expression (SERT+/-) or lacking SERT (SERT-/-). Maximal antidepressant-like effects were less in P21 mice relative to P90 mice. This was especially apparent in SERT+/- mice. However, the potency for escitalopram to produce antidepressant-like effects in SERT+/+ and SERT+/- mice was greater in P21 and P28 mice than in adults. SERT expression increased with age in terminal regions and decreased with age in cell body regions. Binding affinity values did not change as a function of age or genotype. As expected, in SERT-/- mice escitalopram produced no behavioral effects, and there was no specific [(3)H]citalopram binding. These data reveal age- and genotype-dependent shifts in the dose-response for escitalopram to produce antidepressant-like effects, which vary with SERT expression, and may contribute to the limited therapeutic response to SSRIs in juveniles and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Dopamine D2 Receptor Is Involved in Alleviation of Type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Yi-Qian; Deng, Qiao-Wen; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human and murine lymphocytes express dopamine (DA) D2-like receptors including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4. However, their roles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are less clear. Here we showed that lymphocyte DRD2 activation alleviates both imbalance of T-helper (Th)17/T-regulatory (Treg) cells and inflamed symptoms in a mouse arthritis model of RA. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was prepared by intradermal injection of chicken collagen type II (CII) in tail base of DBA/1 mice or Drd2 (-/-) C57BL/6 mice. D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole downregulated expression of proinflammatory Th17-related cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 17 and IL-22 but further upregulated expression of anti-inflammatory Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β and IL-10 in lymphocytes in vitro and in ankle joints in vivo in CIA mice. Quinpirole intraperitoneal administration reduced both clinical arthritis score and serum anti-CII IgG level in CIA mice. However, Drd2 (-/-) CIA mice manifested more severe limb inflammation and higher serum anti-CII IgG level and further upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 expression and downregulated TGF-β and IL-10 expression than wild-type CIA mice. In contrast, Drd1 (-/-) CIA mice did not alter limb inflammation or anti-CII IgG level compared with wild-type CIA mice. These results suggest that DRD2 activation is involved in alleviation of CIA symptoms by amelioration of Th17/Treg imbalance.

  3. Wild-type offspring of heterozygous prolactin receptor-null female mice have maladaptive β-cell responses during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Carol

    2013-03-01

    Abstract  β-Cell mass increases during pregnancy in adaptation to the insulin resistance of pregnancy. This increase is accompanied by an increase in β-cell proliferation, a process that requires intact prolactin receptor (Prlr) signalling. Previously, it was found that during pregnancy, heterozygous prolactin receptor-null (Prlr(+/-)) mice had lower number of β-cells, lower serum insulin and higher blood glucose levels than wild-type (Prlr(+/+)) mice. An unexpected observation was that the glucose homeostasis of the experimental mouse depends on the genotype of her mother, such that within the Prlr(+/+) group, the Prlr(+/+) offspring derived from Prlr(+/+) mothers (Prlr(+/+(+/+))) had higher β-cell mass and lower blood glucose than those derived from Prlr(+/-) mothers (Prlr(+/+(+/-))). Pathways that are known to regulate β-cell proliferation during pregnancy include insulin receptor substrate-2, Akt, menin, the serotonin synthetic enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase-1, Forkhead box M1 and Forkhead box D3. The aim of the present study was to determine whether dysregulation in these signalling molecules in the islets could explain the maternal effect on the phenotype of the offspring. It was found that the pregnancy-induced increases in insulin receptor substrate-2 and Akt expression in the islets were attenuated in the Prlr(+/+(+/-)) mice in comparison to the Prlr(+/+(+/+)) mice. The expression of Forkhead box D3, which plays a permissive role for β-cell proliferation during pregnancy, was also lower in the Prlr(+/+(+/-)) mice. In contrast, the pregnancy-induced increases in phospho-Jak2, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 and FoxM1, as well as the pregnancy-associated reduction in menin expression, were comparable between the two groups. There was also no difference in expression levels of genes that regulate insulin synthesis and secretion (i.e. glucose transporter 2, glucokinase and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1) between these two groups. Taken together, these

  4. Intraperitoneal Infection of Wild-Type Mice with Synthetically Generated Mammalian Prion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhe Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prion hypothesis postulates that the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs is an unorthodox protein conformation based agent. Recent successes in generating mammalian prions in vitro with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein provide strong support for the hypothesis. However, whether the pathogenic properties of synthetically generated prion (rec-Prion recapitulate those of naturally occurring prions remains unresolved. Using end-point titration assay, we showed that the in vitro prepared rec-Prions have infectious titers of around 104 LD50/μg. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p. inoculation of wild-type mice with rec-Prion caused prion disease with an average survival time of 210-220 days post inoculation. Detailed pathological analyses revealed that the nature of rec-Prion induced lesions, including spongiform change, disease specific prion protein accumulation (PrP-d and the PrP-d dissemination amongst lymphoid and peripheral nervous system tissues, the route and mechanisms of neuroinvasion were all typical of classical rodent prions. Our results revealed that, similar to naturally occurring prions, the rec-Prion has a titratable infectivity and is capable of causing prion disease via routes other than direct intra-cerebral challenge. More importantly, our results established that the rec-Prion caused disease is pathogenically and pathologically identical to naturally occurring contagious TSEs, supporting the concept that a conformationally altered protein agent is responsible for the infectivity in TSEs.

  5. Dopamine D2 Receptor Is Involved in Alleviation of Type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human and murine lymphocytes express dopamine (DA D2-like receptors including DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4. However, their roles in rheumatoid arthritis (RA are less clear. Here we showed that lymphocyte DRD2 activation alleviates both imbalance of T-helper (Th17/T-regulatory (Treg cells and inflamed symptoms in a mouse arthritis model of RA. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA was prepared by intradermal injection of chicken collagen type II (CII in tail base of DBA/1 mice or Drd2−/− C57BL/6 mice. D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole downregulated expression of proinflammatory Th17-related cytokines interleukin- (IL- 17 and IL-22 but further upregulated expression of anti-inflammatory Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor- (TGF- β and IL-10 in lymphocytes in vitro and in ankle joints in vivo in CIA mice. Quinpirole intraperitoneal administration reduced both clinical arthritis score and serum anti-CII IgG level in CIA mice. However, Drd2−/− CIA mice manifested more severe limb inflammation and higher serum anti-CII IgG level and further upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 expression and downregulated TGF-β and IL-10 expression than wild-type CIA mice. In contrast, Drd1−/− CIA mice did not alter limb inflammation or anti-CII IgG level compared with wild-type CIA mice. These results suggest that DRD2 activation is involved in alleviation of CIA symptoms by amelioration of Th17/Treg imbalance.

  6. Expression of oxidative phosphorylation components in mitochondria of long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Johnson, W Thomas; Rakoczy, Sharlene G

    2012-02-01

    Reduced signaling of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway is associated with extended life span in several species. Ames dwarf mice are GH-deficient and live >50% longer than wild-type littermates. Previously, we have shown that tissues from Ames mice exhibit elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes, less H(2)O(2) production, and lower oxidative damage suggesting that mitochondrial function may differ between genotypes. To explore the relationship between hormone deficiency and mitochondria in mice with extended longevity, we evaluated activity, protein, and gene expression of oxidative phosphorylation components in dwarf and wild-type mice at varying ages. Liver complex I + III activity was higher in dwarf mice compared to wild-type mice. The activity of I + III decreased between 3 and 20 months of age in both genotypes with greater declines in wild-type mice in liver and skeletal muscle. Complex IV activities in the kidney were elevated in 3- and 20-month-old dwarf mice relative to wild-type mice. In Ames mice, protein levels of the 39 kDa complex I subunit were elevated at 20 months of age when compared to wild-type mouse mitochondria for every tissue examined. Kidney and liver mitochondria from 20-month-old dwarf mice had elevated levels of both mitochondrially-encoded and nuclear-encoded complex IV proteins compared to wild-type mice (p dwarf mice. Overall, we found that several components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system were elevated in Ames mice. Mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratios were not different between genotypes despite the marked increase in PGC-1α levels in dwarf mice. The increased OXPHOS activities, along with lower ROS production in dwarf mice, predict enhanced mitochondrial function and efficiency, two factors likely contributing to long-life in Ames mice.

  7. Expression of wild-type Rp1 protein in Rp1 knock-in mice rescues the retinal degeneration phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Liu

    Full Text Available Mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1 gene are a common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP, and have also been found to cause autosomal recessive RP (arRP in a few families. The 33 dominant mutations and 6 recessive RP1 mutations identified to date are all nonsense or frameshift mutations, and almost exclusively (38 out of 39 are located in the 4(th and final exon of RP1. To better understand the underlying disease mechanisms of and help develop therapeutic strategies for RP1 disease, we performed a series of human genetic and animal studies using gene targeted and transgenic mice. Here we report that a frameshift mutation in the 3(rd exon of RP1 (c.686delC; p.P229QfsX35 found in a patient with recessive RP1 disease causes RP in the homozygous state, whereas the heterozygous carriers are unaffected, confirming that haploinsufficiency is not the causative mechanism for RP1 disease. We then generated Rp1 knock-in mice with a nonsense Q662X mutation in exon 4, as well as Rp1 transgenic mice carrying a wild-type BAC Rp1 transgene. The Rp1-Q662X allele produces a truncated Rp1 protein, and homozygous Rp1-Q662X mice experience a progressive photoreceptor degeneration characterized disorganization of photoreceptor outer segments. This phenotype could be prevented by expression of a normal amount of Rp1 protein from the BAC transgene without removal of the mutant Rp1-Q662X protein. Over-expression of Rp1 protein in additional BAC Rp1 transgenic lines resulted in retinal degeneration. These findings suggest that the truncated Rp1-Q662X protein does not exert a toxic gain-of-function effect. These results also imply that in principle gene augmentation therapy could be beneficial for both recessive and dominant RP1 patients, but the levels of RP1 protein delivered for therapy will have to be carefully controlled.

  8. Alterations in gene expression in mutant amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice lacking Niemann-Pick type C1 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Maulik

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease, a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused mostly by mutation in NPC1 gene, is pathologically characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol in brain and other tissues. This is accompanied by gliosis and loss of neurons in selected brain regions, including the cerebellum. Recent studies have shown that NPC disease exhibits intriguing parallels with Alzheimer's disease, including the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and increased levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP-derived β-amyloid (Aβ peptides in vulnerable brain neurons. To evaluate the role of Aβ in NPC disease, we determined the gene expression profile in selected brain regions of our recently developed bigenic ANPC mice, generated by crossing APP transgenic (Tg mice with heterozygous Npc1-deficient mice. The ANPC mice exhibited exacerbated neuronal and glial pathology compared to other genotypes [i.e., APP-Tg, double heterozygous (Dhet, Npc1-null and wild-type mice]. Analysis of expression profiles of 86 selected genes using real-time RT-PCR arrays showed a wide-spectrum of alterations in the four genotypes compared to wild-type controls. The changes observed in APP-Tg and Dhet mice are limited to only few genes involved mostly in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, whereas Npc1-null and ANPC mice showed alterations in the expression profiles of a number of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis, APP metabolism, vesicular trafficking and cell death mechanism in both hippocampus and cerebellum compared to wild-type mice. Intriguingly, ANPC and Npc1-null mice, with some exceptions, exhibited similar changes, although more genes were differentially expressed in the affected cerebellum than the relatively spared hippocampus. The altered gene profiles were found to match with the corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that lack of Npc1 protein can alter the expression profile of selected transcripts as well as proteins, and

  9. Rearing-environment-dependent hippocampal local field potential differences in wild-type and inositol trisphosphate receptor type 2 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mika; Wang, Xiaowen; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Hirase, Hajime; Shinohara, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-15

    Mice reared in an enriched environment are demonstrated to have larger hippocampal gamma oscillations than those reared in isolation, thereby confirming previous observations in rats. To test whether astrocytic Ca 2+ surges are involved in this experience-dependent LFP pattern modulation, we used inositol trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP 3 R2)-knockout (KO) mice, in which IP 3 /Ca 2+ signalling in astrocytes is largely diminished. We found that this experience-dependent gamma power alteration persists in the KO mice. Interestingly, hippocampal ripple events, the synchronized events critical for memory consolidation, are reduced in magnitude and frequency by both isolated rearing and IP 3 R2 deficiency. Rearing in an enriched environment (ENR) is known to enhance cognitive and memory abilities in rodents, whereas social isolation (ISO) induces depression-like behaviour. The hippocampus has been documented to undergo morphological and functional changes depending on these rearing environments. For example, rearing condition during juvenility alters CA1 stratum radiatum gamma oscillation power in rats. In the present study, hippocampal CA1 local field potentials (LFP) were recorded from bilateral CA1 in urethane-anaesthetized mice that were reared in either an ENR or ISO condition. Similar to previous findings in rats, gamma oscillation power during theta states was higher in the ENR group. Ripple events that occur during non-theta periods in the CA1 stratum pyramidale also had longer intervals in ISO mice. Because astrocytic Ca 2+ elevations play a key role in synaptic plasticity, we next tested whether these changes in LFP are also expressed in inositol trisphosphate receptor type 2 (IP 3 R2)-knockout (KO) mice, in which astrocytic Ca 2+ elevations are largely diminished. We found that the gamma power was also higher in IP 3 R2-KO-ENR mice compared to IP 3 R2-KO-ISO mice, suggesting that the rearing-environment-dependent gamma power alteration does not necessarily

  10. Evaluation of Electrical Impedance as a Biomarker of Myostatin Inhibition in Wild Type and Muscular Dystrophy Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Sanchez

    Full Text Available Non-invasive and effort independent biomarkers are needed to better assess the effects of drug therapy on healthy muscle and that affected by muscular dystrophy (mdx. Here we evaluated the use of multi-frequency electrical impedance for this purpose with comparison to force and histological parameters.Eight wild-type (wt and 10 mdx mice were treated weekly with RAP-031 activin type IIB receptor at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 twice weekly for 16 weeks; the investigators were blinded to treatment and disease status. At the completion of treatment, impedance measurements, in situ force measurements, and histology analyses were performed.As compared to untreated animals, RAP-031 wt and mdx treated mice had greater body mass (18% and 17%, p 70 Hz, but not in the mdx animals. In contrast, maximum force normalized by muscle mass was unchanged in the wt animals and lower in the mdx animals by 21% (p < 0.01. Similarly, myofiber size was only non-significantly higher in treated versus untreated animals (8% p = 0.44 and 12% p = 0.31 for wt and mdx animals, respectively.Our findings demonstrate electrical impedance of muscle reproduce the functional and histological changes associated with myostatin pathway inhibition and do not reflect differences in muscle size or volume. This technique deserves further study in both animal and human therapeutic trials.

  11. Human CD46-transgenic mice in studies involving replication-incompetent adenoviral type 35 vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagh, S.; Jong, E. de; Goudsmit, J.; Lecollinet, S.; Gillissen, G.; Vries, M. de; Leuven, K. van; Que, I.; Ouwehand, K.; Mintardjo, R.; Weverling, G.J.; Radošević, K.; Richardson, J.; Eloit, M.; Lowik, C.; Quax, P.; Havenga, M.

    2006-01-01

    Wild-type strains of mice do not express CD46, a high-affinity receptor for human group B adenoviruses including type 35. Therefore, studies performed to date in mice using replication-incompetent Ad35 (rAd35) vaccine carriers may underestimate potency or result in altered vector distribution. Here,

  12. Reactivity of erythron in wild mice of a zone of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, S.V.

    2009-01-01

    The species distinctions on hematological parameters in wild rodents were studied. A number of red cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin of the wild mice from points with exposure dose about 5-6 μGy/h were clearly different from control. Among studied wild mice, the highest sensitivity of hemoglobin to sodium nitrite has been recorded in Clethrionomys glareolus and the lowest one is in Apodemus flavicollis. (authors)

  13. Role of IL-4 in aversion induced by food allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Luana Pereira Antunes; Saldanha, Janaína Cláudia da Silva; Gargiulo, Daniela Longo; Noviello, Maria de Lourdes Meirelles; Brant, Cláudia Caldeira; Reis, Maria Letícia Costa; Souza, Raphaela Mendes Fernandes de; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Souza, Danielle da Glória de; Cara, Denise Carmona

    2010-01-01

    To ascertain the role of IL-4 in aversion to antigen induced by food allergy, wild type and IL-4 deficient BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin and challenged orally with egg white. Sensitized wild type mice had increased production of IL-4 by spleen and mesenteric lymph node cells in vitro, higher levels of serum anti-ovalbumin IgE and IgG1, aversion to ingestion of the antigen and loss of body weight after continuous oral challenge. Intestinal changes in wild type sensitized mice included eosinophil infiltration and increased mucus production. The IL-4 deficiency impaired the development of food allergy and the aversion to antigen, suggesting the involvement of the antigen specific antibodies. When IL-4 deficient mice received serum from sensitized wild type donors, the aversion was restored. These results indicate that production of IL-4 and specific IgE/IgG1 antibodies correlate with aversion to antigen induced by food allergy in mice. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Suppressed retinal degeneration in aged wild type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice by bone marrow transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yang

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is an age-related condition characterized by accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid β peptides (Aβ in brain and retina. Because bone marrow transplantation (BMT results in decreased cerebral Aβ in experimental AD, we hypothesized that BMT would mitigate retinal neurotoxicity through decreased retinal Aβ. To test this, we performed BMT in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mice using green fluorescent protein expressing wild type (wt mice as marrow donors. We first examined retinas from control, non-transplanted, aged AD mice and found a two-fold increase in microglia compared with wt mice, prominent inner retinal Aβ and paired helical filament-tau, and decreased retinal ganglion cell layer neurons. BMT resulted in near complete replacement of host retinal microglia with BMT-derived cells and normalized total AD retinal microglia to non-transplanted wt levels. Aβ and paired helical filament-tau were reduced (61.0% and 44.1% respectively in BMT-recipient AD mice, which had 20.8% more retinal ganglion cell layer neurons than non-transplanted AD controls. Interestingly, aged wt BMT recipients also had significantly more neurons (25.4% compared with non-transplanted aged wt controls. Quantitation of retinal ganglion cell layer neurons in young mice confirmed age-related retinal degeneration was mitigated by BMT. We found increased MHC class II expression in BMT-derived microglia and decreased oxidative damage in retinal ganglion cell layer neurons. Thus, BMT is neuroprotective in age-related as well as AD-related retinal degeneration, and may be a result of alterations in innate immune function and oxidative stress in BMT recipient mice.

  15. Action potentials and ion conductances in wild-type and CALHM1-knockout type II taste cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saung, Wint Thu; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Taste bud type II cells fire action potentials in response to tastants, triggering nonvesicular ATP release to gustatory neurons via voltage-gated CALHM1-associated ion channels. Whereas CALHM1 regulates mouse cortical neuron excitability, its roles in regulating type II cell excitability are unknown. In this study, we compared membrane conductances and action potentials in single identified TRPM5-GFP-expressing circumvallate papillae type II cells acutely isolated from wild-type (WT) and Calhm1 knockout (KO) mice. The activation kinetics of large voltage-gated outward currents were accelerated in cells from Calhm1 KO mice, and their associated nonselective tail currents, previously shown to be highly correlated with ATP release, were completely absent in Calhm1 KO cells, suggesting that CALHM1 contributes to all of these currents. Calhm1 deletion did not significantly alter resting membrane potential or input resistance, the amplitudes and kinetics of Na+ currents either estimated from action potentials or recorded from steady-state voltage pulses, or action potential threshold, overshoot peak, afterhyperpolarization, and firing frequency. However, Calhm1 deletion reduced the half-widths of action potentials and accelerated the deactivation kinetics of transient outward currents, suggesting that the CALHM1-associated conductance becomes activated during the repolarization phase of action potentials. NEW & NOTEWORTHY CALHM1 is an essential ion channel component of the ATP neurotransmitter release mechanism in type II taste bud cells. Its contribution to type II cell resting membrane properties and excitability is unknown. Nonselective voltage-gated currents, previously associated with ATP release, were absent in cells lacking CALHM1. Calhm1 deletion was without effects on resting membrane properties or voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels but contributed modestly to the kinetics of action potentials. PMID:28202574

  16. Minimal Effects of Age and Exposure to a Noisy Environment on Hearing in Alpha9 Nicotinic Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Lauer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested a role of weakened medial olivocochlear (OC efferent feedback in accelerated hearing loss and increased susceptibility to noise. The present study investigated the progression of hearing loss with age and exposure to a noisy environment in medial OC-deficient mice. Alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout (α9KO and wild types were screened for hearing loss using auditory brainstem responses. α9KO mice housed in a quiet environment did not show increased hearing loss compared to wild types in young adulthood and middle age. Challenging the medial OC system by housing in a noisy environment did not increase hearing loss in α9KO mice compared to wild types. ABR wave 1 amplitudes also did not show differences between α9KO mice and wild types. These data suggest that deficient medial OC feedback does not result in early onset of hearing loss.

  17. Targeted overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells improves cerebrovascular reactivity in Ins2Akita-type-1 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurav B; Mohan, Sumathy; Ford, Bridget M; Huang, Lei; Janardhanan, Preethi; Deo, Kaiwalya S; Cong, Linlin; Muir, Eric R; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-06-01

    Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide due to impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity is a leading cause of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Enhancing eNOS activity in diabetes is a potential therapeutic target. This study investigated basal cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity in wild-type mice, diabetic mice (Ins2(Akita+/-)), nondiabetic eNOS-overexpressing mice (TgeNOS), and the cross of two transgenic mice (TgeNOS-Ins2(Akita+/-)) at six months of age. The cross was aimed at improving eNOS expression in diabetic mice. The major findings were: (i) Body weights of Ins2(Akita+/-) and TgeNOS-Ins2(Akita+/-) were significantly different from wild-type and TgeNOS mice. Blood pressure of TgeNOS mice was lower than wild-type. (ii) Basal cerebral blood flow of the TgeNOS group was significantly higher than cerebral blood flow of the other three groups. (iii) The cerebrovascular reactivity in the Ins2(Akita+/-) mice was significantly lower compared with wild-type, whereas that in the TgeNOS-Ins2(Akita+/-) was significantly higher compared with the Ins2(Akita+/-) and TgeNOS groups. Overexpression of eNOS rescued cerebrovascular dysfunction in diabetic animals, resulting in improved cerebrovascular reactivity. These results underscore the possible role of eNOS in vascular dysfunction in the brain of diabetic mice and support the notion that enhancing eNOS activity in diabetes is a potential therapeutic target. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Laboratory and wild-derived mice with multiple loci for production of xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, C A; Hartley, J W; Morse, H C

    1984-07-01

    Mendelian segregation analysis was used to define genetic loci for the induction of infectious xenotropic murine leukemia virus in several laboratory and wild-derived mice. MA/My mice contain two loci for xenotropic virus inducibility, one of which, Bxv -1, is the only induction locus carried by five other inbred strains. The second, novel MA/My locus, designated Mxv -1, is unlinked to Bxv -1 and shows a lower efficiency of virus induction. The NZB mouse carries two induction loci; both are distinct from Bxv -1 since neither is linked to the Pep-3 locus on chromosome 1. Finally, one partially inbred strain derived from the wild Japanese mouse, Mus musculus molossinus, carries multiple (at least three) unlinked loci for induction of xenotropic virus. Although it is probable that inbred strains inherited xenotropic virus inducibility from Japanese mice, our data suggest that none of the induction loci carried by this particular M. m. molossinus strain are allelic with Bxv -1.

  19. Constitutive ω-3 fatty acid production in fat-1 transgenic mice and docosahexaenoic acid administration to wild type mice protect against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Hye-Won; Kang, Jing X; Hahm, Ki Baik; Surh, Young-Joon

    2017-06-10

    Omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are known to have strong anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of ω-3 PUFAs on experimentally induced murine colitis. Intrarectal administration of 2.5% 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) caused inflammation in the colon of wild type mice, but this was less severe in fat-1 transgenic mice that constitutively produce ω-3 PUFAs from ω-6 PUFAs. The intraperitoneal administration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a representative ω-3 PUFA, was also protective against TNBS-induced murine colitis. In addition, endogenously formed and exogenously introduced ω-3 PUFAs attenuated the production of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal in the colon of TNBS-treated mice. The effective protection against inflammatory and oxidative colonic tissue damages in fat-1 and DHA-treated mice was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression and with elevated activation of Nrf2 and upregulation of its target gene, heme oxygenase-1. Taken together, these results provide mechanistic basis of protective action of ω-3 fatty PUFAs against experimental colitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  1. Salivary gland hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 knockout mice is due to primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmuckett, Andrew D; Siefert, Joseph C; Tesiram, Yasvir A; Pinson, David M; Moore, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2). We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice. Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were (≈) 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine-induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s) extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight) and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes) were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation. Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism.

  2. Salivary gland hypofunction in tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase-2 knockout mice is due to primary hypothyroidism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Westmuckett

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification of an unknown number of secreted and membrane proteins mediated by two known Golgi tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases (TPST-1 and TPST-2. We reported that Tpst2-/- mice have mild-moderate primary hypothyroidism, whereas Tpst1-/- mice are euthyroid. While using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to look at the thyroid gland we noticed that the salivary glands in Tpst2-/- mice appeared smaller than in wild type mice. This prompted a detailed analysis to compare salivary gland structure and function in wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2 -/- mice.Quantitative MRI imaging documented that salivary glands in Tpst2-/- females were (≈ 30% smaller than wild type or Tpst1-/- mice and that the granular convoluted tubules in Tpst2-/- submandibular glands were less prominent and were almost completely devoid of exocrine secretory granules compared to glands from wild type or Tpst1-/- mice. In addition, pilocarpine-induced salivary flow and salivary α-amylase activity in Tpst2-/- mice of both sexes was substantially lower than in wild type and Tpst1-/- mice. Anti-sulfotyrosine Western blots of salivary gland extracts and saliva showed no differences between wild type, Tpst1-/-, and Tpst2-/- mice, suggesting that the salivary gland hypofunction is due to factor(s extrinsic to the salivary glands. Finally, we found that all indicators of hypothyroidism (serum T4, body weight and salivary gland hypofunction (salivary flow, salivary α-amylase activity, histological changes were restored to normal or near normal by thyroid hormone supplementation.Our findings conclusively demonstrate that low body weight and salivary gland hypofunction in Tpst2-/- mice is due solely to primary hypothyroidism.

  3. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    , automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using......, the observer traced the sutures on each of the mouse volumes as well. The observer outperforms the automatic approach by approximately 0.1 mm. All mice have similar errors while the suture error plots reveal that suture 1 and 2 are cumbersome, both for the observer and the automatic approach. These sutures can...

  4. Interspecies Variation in the Susceptibility of a Wild-Derived Colony of Mice to Pinworms (Aspiculuris tetraptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ryan C; Murray, Jill K; Campbell, Polly; Nagamori, Yoko; Molnar, Adam; Jackson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Pinworms are common parasites in wild and laboratory rodents. Despite their relative nonpathogenicity in immunocompetent models, pinworm infections add an unwanted variable and may confound some types of research. For this reason, health monitoring programs and biosecurity measures aim to minimize the spread of pinworm infections into colonies free from the organisms. Wild-derived and laboratory strains of mice have shown varied susceptibility to infection with Aspiculuris tetraptera, the most commonly found murine pinworm. In particular, susceptibility is increased in wild-derived mice, young animals, and males. Routine surveillance at our institution revealed pinworm infection (A. tetraptera only) within a colony of multiple, wild-derived species of Mus, although only specific species showed positive results during initial sampling. To assess whether species-associated differences in susceptibility were present, we analyzed fecal egg counts of A. tetraptera in every cage of the colony. Our results revealed significant differences in susceptibility between various species and subspecies of Mus. Egg counts were significantly higher in Mus spicilegus than Mus m. domesticus (WSB/EiJ) and Mus macedonicus. Mus spretus had higher egg counts than M. m. domesticus (WSB/EiJ), M. m. musculus (PWK/PhJ), and M. macedonicus. Egg counts did not differ in regard to age, sex, or number of mice per cage. As wild-derived mouse models continue to compliment research largely based on laboratory strains, it will be important to understand host-parasite interactions and their effects on research, particularly studies evaluating immune responses, behavior, growth, and other physiologic parameters.

  5. The type 2 cannabinoid receptor regulates susceptibility to osteoarthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, A; Börjesson, A E; Salter, D M; Ralston, S H

    2015-09-01

    Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands have been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes but their role in osteoarthritis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (Cnr2) in regulating susceptibility to osteoarthritis in mice. We analysed the severity of knee osteoarthritis as assessed by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system in mice with targeted deletion of Cnr2 (Cnr2(-/-)) and wild type (WT) littermates. Studies were conducted in mice subjected to surgical destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM) and in those with spontaneous age-related osteoarthritis (OA). Osteoarthritis was more severe following DMM in the medial compartment of the knee in Cnr2(-/-) compared with WT mice (mean ± sem score = 4.9 ± 0.5 vs 3.6 ± 0.3; P = 0.017). Treatment of WT mice with the CB2-selective agonist HU308 following DMM reduced the severity of OA in the whole joint (HU308 = 8.4 ± 0.2 vs vehicle = 10.4 ± 0.6; P = 0.007). Spontaneous age related osteoarthritis was also more severe in the medial compartment of the knee in 12-month old Cnr2(-/-) mice compared with WT (5.6 ± 0.5 vs 3.5 ± 0.3, P = 0.008). Cultured articular chondrocytes from Cnr2(-/-) mice produced less proteoglycans in vitro than wild type chondrocytes. These studies demonstrate that the Cnr2 pathway plays a role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis in mice and shows that pharmacological activation of CB2 has a protective effect. Further studies of the role of cannabinoid receptors in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis in man are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on body weight, large intestine indices, and fecal bile acid profile in wild type and IL10-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Ming Kuo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested roles of probiotics and prebiotics on body weight management and intestinal function. Here, the effects of a dietary prebiotic, inulin (50 mg/g diet, and probiotic, Bfidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bb12 (final dose verified at 10(5 colony forming unit (cfu/g diet, comparable to human consumption, were determined separately and in combination in mice using cellulose-based AIN-93G diets under conditions allowed for the growth of commensal bacteria. Continuous consumption of Bb12 and/or inulin did not affect food intake or body, liver, and spleen weights of young and adult mice. Fecal bile acid profiles were determined by nanoESI-MS/MS tandem mass spectrometry. In the presence of inulin, more bacterial deconjugation of taurine from primary bile acids was observed along with an increased cecal weight. Consumption of inulin in the absence or presence of Bb12 also increased the villus cell height in the proximal colon along with a trend of higher bile acid sulfation by intestinal cells. Feeding Bb12 alone at the physiological dose did not affect bile acid deconjugation and had little effect on other intestinal indices. Although interleukin (IL10-null mice are susceptible to enterocolitis, they maintained the same body weight as the wild type mice under our specific pathogen-free housing condition and showed no signs of inflammation. Nevertheless, they had smaller cecum suggesting a mildly compromised intestinal development even before the disease manifestation. Our results are consistent with the notion that dietary factors such as prebiotics play important roles in the growth of intestinal microbiota and may impact on the intestinal health. In addition, fecal bile acid profiling could potentially be a non-invasive tool in monitoring the intestinal environment.

  7. Expression Analysis of cPLA2 Alpha Interacting TIP60 in Diabetic KKAy and Non-Diabetic C57BL Wild-Type Mice: No Impact of Transient and Stable TIP60 Overexpression on Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic Beta-Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Iver Kristiansen; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the expression levels of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2alpha) interacting histone acetyl transferase proteins TIP60alpha and TIP60beta in non-diabetic C57BL wild-type mice and obese type 2 diabetic KKAy model mice. The aim was to test our hypothesis...

  8. Naïve B cells reduce fungal dissemination in Cryptococcus neoformans infected Rag1-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufaud, Chad; Rivera, Johanna; Rohatgi, Soma; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2018-01-01

    IgM and B-1 cell deficient mice exhibit early C. neoformans dissemination from lungs to brain, but a definitive role for B cells in conferring resistance to C. neoformans dissemination has not been established. To address this question, we developed an intranasal (i.n.) C. neoformans infection model in B and T cell deficient Rag1 -/- mice and found they also exhibit earlier fungal dissemination and higher brain CFU than wild-type C57Bl/6 (wild-type) mice. To probe the effect of B cells on fungal dissemination, Rag1 -/- mice were given splenic (intravenously) or peritoneal (intraperitoneally) B cells from wild-type mice and infected i.n. with C. neoformans 7 d later. Mice that received B cells had lung histopathology resembling wild type mice 14 d post-infection, and B-1, not B-2 or T cells in their lungs, and serum and lung IgM and IgG 21 d post-infection. Lung CFU were comparable in wild-type, Rag1 -/-, and Rag1 -/- mice that received B cells 21 d post-infection, but brain CFU were significantly lower in mice that received B cells than Rag1 -/- mice that did not. To determine if natural antibody can promote immunity in our model, we measured alveolar macrophage phagocytosis of C. neoformans in Rag1 -/- mice treated with naive wild-type IgM-sufficient or sIgM -/- IgM-deficient sera before infection. Compared to IgM-deficient sera, IgM-sufficient sera significantly increased phagocytosis. Our data establish B cells are able to reduce early C. neoformans dissemination in mice and suggest natural IgM may be a key mediator of early antifungal immunity in the lungs.

  9. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Methamphetamine- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl- 1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Y; Martin, J L; Ali, S F

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies have suggested a role for the retrograde messenger, nitric oxide (NO), in methamphetamine (METH)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Since evidence supported the involvement of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) isoform in the dopaminergic neurotoxicity, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoform is also associated with METH- and MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The administration of METH (5mg/kg x 3) to iNOS deficient mice [homozygote iNOS(-/-)] and wild type mice (C57BL/6) resulted in significantly smaller depletion of striatal dopaminergic markers in the iNOS(-/-) mice compared with the wild-type mice. METH-induced hyperthermia was also significantly lower in the iNOS(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. In contrast to the outcome of METH administration, MPTP injections (20 mg/kg x 3) resulted in a similar decrease in striatal dopaminergic markers in iNOS(-/-) and wild-type mice. In the set of behavioral experiments, METH-induced locomotor sensitization was investigated. The acute administration of METH (1.0 mg/kg) resulted in the same intensity of locomotor activity in iNOS(-/-) and wild-type mice. Moreover, 68 to 72 h after the exposure to the high-dose METH regimen (5 mg/kg x 3), a marked sensitized response to a challenge injection of METH (1.0 mg/kg) was observed in both the iNOS(-/-) and wild-type mice. The finding that iNOS(-/-) mice were unprotected from MPTP-induced neurotoxicity suggests that the partial protection against METH-induced neurotoxicity observed was primarily associated with the diminished hyperthermic effect of METH seen in the iNOS(-/-) mice. Moreover, in contrast to nNOS deficiency, iNOS deficiency did not affect METH-induced behavioral sensitization. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. BDNF-Deficient Mice Show Reduced Psychosis-Related Behaviors Following Chronic Methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Elizabeth E; Halberstadt, Adam L; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    One of the most devastating consequences of methamphetamine abuse is increased risk of psychosis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been implicated in both psychosis and neuronal responses to methamphetamine. We therefore examined persistent psychosis-like behavioral effects of methamphetamine in brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. Mice were chronically treated with methamphetamine from 6 to 9 weeks of age, and locomotor hyperactivity to an acute D-amphetamine challenge was tested in photocell cages after a 2-week withdrawal period. Methamphetamine-treated wild-type mice, but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, showed locomotor sensitization to acute 3mg/kg D-amphetamine. Qualitative analysis of exploration revealed tolerance to D-amphetamine effects on entropy in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, but not wild-type mice. Chronic methamphetamine exposure induces contrasting profiles of behavioral changes in wild-type and brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, with attenuation of behaviors relevant to psychosis in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. This suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling changes may contribute to development of psychosis in methamphetamine users. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  12. Hepatic toxicity of dronedarone in mice: Role of mitochondrial β-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felser, Andrea; Stoller, Andrea; Morand, Réjane; Schnell, Dominik; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Terracciano, Luigi; Bouitbir, Jamal; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    . Jvs +/− mice are slightly more sensitive for the effect of dronedarone on mitochondrial β-oxidation than wild-type mice. The results suggest that inhibition of mitochondrial β-oxidation is an important mechanism of hepatotoxicity associated with dronedarone

  13. Complement C3 deficiency attenuates chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen M Bauer

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests a role of both innate and adaptive immunity in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The complement system is a key sentry of the innate immune system and bridges innate and adaptive immunity. To date there are no studies addressing a role for the complement system in pulmonary arterial hypertension.Immunofluorescent staining revealed significant C3d deposition in lung sections from IPAH patients and C57Bl6/J wild-type mice exposed to three weeks of chronic hypoxia to induce pulmonary hypertension. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy were increased in hypoxic vs. normoxic wild-type mice, which were attenuated in C3-/- hypoxic mice. Likewise, pulmonary vascular remodeling was attenuated in the C3-/- mice compared to wild-type mice as determined by the number of muscularized peripheral arterioles and morphometric analysis of vessel wall thickness. The loss of C3 attenuated the increase in interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia, but not endothelin-1 levels. In wild-type mice, but not C3-/- mice, chronic hypoxia led to platelet activation as assessed by bleeding time, and flow cytometry of platelets to determine cell surface P-selectin expression. In addition, tissue factor expression and fibrin deposition were increased in the lungs of WT mice in response to chronic hypoxia. These pro-thrombotic effects of hypoxia were abrogated in C3-/- mice.Herein, we provide compelling genetic evidence that the complement system plays a pathophysiologic role in the development of PAH in mice, promoting pulmonary vascular remodeling and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition we demonstrate C3d deposition in IPAH patients suggesting that complement activation plays a role in the development of PAH in humans.

  14. Brucella abortus ΔrpoE1 confers protective immunity against wild type challenge in a mouse model of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jonathan W; Herrou, Julien; Czyz, Daniel M; Cheng, Jason X; Crosson, Sean

    2016-09-30

    The Brucella abortus general stress response (GSR) system regulates activity of the alternative sigma factor, σ(E1), which controls transcription of approximately 100 genes and is required for persistence in a BALB/c mouse chronic infection model. We evaluated the host response to infection by a B. abortus strain lacking σ(E1) (ΔrpoE1), and identified pathological and immunological features that distinguish ΔrpoE1-infected mice from wild-type (WT), and that correspond with clearance of ΔrpoE1 from the host. ΔrpoE1 infection was indistinguishable from WT in terms of splenic bacterial burden, inflammation and histopathology up to 6weeks post-infection. However, Brucella-specific serum IgG levels in ΔrpoE1-infected mice were 5 times higher than WT by 4weeks post-infection, and remained significantly higher throughout the course of a 12-week infection. Total IgG and Brucella-specific IgG levels peaked strongly in ΔrpoE1-infected mice at 6weeks, which correlated with reduced splenomegaly and bacterial burden relative to WT-infected mice. Given the difference in immune response to infection with wild-type and ΔrpoE1, we tested whether ΔrpoE1 confers protective immunity to wild-type challenge. Mice immunized with ΔrpoE1 completely resisted WT infection and had significantly higher serum titers of Brucella-specific IgG, IgG2a and IFN-γ after WT challenge relative to age-matched naïve mice. We conclude that immunization of BALB/c mice with the B. abortus GSR pathway mutant, ΔrpoE1, elicits an adaptive immune response that confers significant protective immunity against WT infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. L-citrulline protects from kidney damage in type 1 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza J Romero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end-stage renal disease, associated with endothelial dysfunction. Chronic supplementation of L-arginine (L-arg, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, failed to improve vascular function. L-citrulline (L-cit supplementation not only increases L-arg synthesis, but also inhibits cytosolic arginase I (Arg I, a competitor of eNOS for the use of L-arg, in the vasculature. Aims. To investigate whether L-cit treatment reduces diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 1 diabetes in mice and rats and to study its effects on arginase II (ArgII function, the main renal isoform. Methods. STZ-C57BL6 mice received L-cit or vehicle supplemented in the drinking water. For comparative analysis, diabetic ArgII knock out mice and L-cit-treated STZ-rats were evaluated. Results. L-cit exerted protective effects in kidneys of STZ-rats, and markedly reduced urinary albumin excretion, tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and kidney hypertrophy, observed in untreated diabetic mice. Intriguingly, L-cit treatment was accompanied by a sustained elevation of tubular ArgII at 16 wks and significantly enhanced plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Diabetic ArgII knock out mice showed greater BUN levels, hypertrophy, and dilated tubules than diabetic wild type mice. Despite a marked reduction in collagen deposition in ArgII knock out mice, their albuminuria was not significantly different from diabetic wild type animals. L-cit also restored NO/ROS balance and barrier function in high glucose-treated monolayers of human glomerular endothelial cells. Moreover, L-cit also has the ability to establish an anti-inflammatory profile, characterized by increased IL-10 and reduced IL-1beta and IL-12(p70 generation in the human proximal tubular cells. Conclusions. L-cit supplementation established an anti-inflammatory profile and significantly preserved the nephron function during type 1

  16. Estrogen receptor-independent catechol estrogen binding activity: protein binding studies in wild-type, Estrogen receptor-alpha KO, and aromatase KO mice tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Brian J; Ansell, Pete J; Newton, Leslie G; Harada, Nobuhiro; Honda, Shin-Ichiro; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Rottinghaus, George E; Welshons, Wade V; Lubahn, Dennis B

    2004-06-01

    Primary evidence for novel estrogen signaling pathways is based upon well-documented estrogenic responses not inhibited by estrogen receptor antagonists. In addition to 17beta-E2, the catechol estrogen 4-hydroxyestradiol (4OHE2) has been shown to elicit biological responses independent of classical estrogen receptors in estrogen receptor-alpha knockout (ERalphaKO) mice. Consequently, our research was designed to biochemically characterize the protein(s) that could be mediating the biological effects of catechol estrogens using enzymatically synthesized, radiolabeled 4-hydroxyestrone (4OHE1) and 4OHE2. Scatchard analyses identified a single class of high-affinity (K(d) approximately 1.6 nM), saturable cytosolic binding sites in several ERalphaKO estrogen-responsive tissues. Specific catechol estrogen binding was competitively inhibited by unlabeled catechol estrogens, but not by 17beta-E2 or the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. Tissue distribution studies indicated significant binding differences both within and among various tissues in wild-type, ERalphaKO, and aromatase knockout female mice. Ligand metabolism experiments revealed extensive metabolism of labeled catechol estrogen, suggesting that catechol estrogen metabolites were responsible for the specific binding. Collectively, our data provide compelling evidence for the interaction of catechol estrogen metabolites with a novel binding protein that exhibits high affinity, specificity, and selective tissue distribution. The extensive biochemical characterization of this binding protein indicates that this protein may be a receptor, and thus may mediate ERalpha/beta-independent effects of catechol estrogens and their metabolites.

  17. Continuous in vivo infusion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) enhances engraftment of syngeneic wild-type cells in Fanca-/- and Fancg-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yue; Ciccone, Samantha; Yang, Feng-Chun; Yuan, Jin; Zeng, Daisy; Chen, Shi; van de Vrugt, Henri J; Critser, John; Arwert, Fre; Haneline, Laura S; Clapp, D Wade

    2006-12-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by bone marrow (BM) failure and cancer susceptibility. Identification of the cDNAs of FA complementation types allows the potential of using gene transfer technology to introduce functional cDNAs as transgenes into autologous stem cells and provide a cure for the BM failure in FA patients. However, strategies to enhance the mobilization, transduction, and engraftment of exogenous stem cells are required to optimize efficacy prior to widespread clinical use. Hypersensitivity of Fancc-/- cells to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a nongenotoxic immune-regulatory cytokine, enhances engraftment of syngeneic wild-type (WT) cells in Fancc-/- mice. However, whether this phenotype is of broad relevance in other FA complementation groups is unresolved. Here we show that primitive and mature myeloid progenitors in Fanca-/- and Fancg-/- mice are hypersensitive to IFN-gamma and that in vivo infusion of IFN-gamma at clinically relevant concentrations was sufficient to allow consistent long-term engraftment of isogenic WT repopulating stem cells. Given that FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG complementation groups account for more than 90% of all FA patients, these data provide evidence that IFN-gamma conditioning may be a useful nongenotoxic strategy for myelopreparation in FA patients.

  18. Reduced emotional and corticosterone responses to stress in μ-opioid receptor knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Soichiro; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Minami, Masabumi; Uhl, George R.; Ishihara, Kumatoshi

    2014-01-01

    The detailed mechanisms of emotional modulation in the nervous system by opioids remain to be elucidated, although the opioid system is well known to play important roles in the mechanisms of analgesia and drug dependence. In the present study, we conducted behavioral tests of anxiety and depression and measured corticosterone concentrations in both male and female μ-opioid receptor knockout (MOP-KO) mice to reveal the involvement of μ-opioid receptors in stress-induced emotional responses. MOP-KO mice entered more and spent more time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with wild-type mice. MOP-KO mice also displayed significantly decreased immobility in a 15 min tail-suspension test compared with wild-type mice. Similarly, MOP-KO mice exhibited significantly decreased immobility on days 2, 3, and 4 in a 6 min forced swim test conducted for 5 consecutive days. The increase in plasma corticosterone concentration induced by tail-suspension, repeated forced swim, or restraint stress was reduced in MOP-KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Corticosterone levels were not different between wild-type and MOP-KO mice before stress exposure. In contrast, although female mice tended to exhibit fewer anxiety-like responses in the tail-suspension test in both genotypes, no significant gender differences were observed in stress-induced emotional responses. These results suggest that MOPs play an important facilitatory role in emotional responses to stress, including anxiety- and depression-like behavior and corticosterone levels. PMID:19596019

  19. Control of acute, chronic, and constitutive hyperammonemia by wild-type and genetically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Charles; Prozzi, Deborah; Viaene, Eric; Moreno, Christophe; Gustot, Thierry; Quertinmont, Eric; Demetter, Pieter; Suain, Valérie; Goffin, Philippe; Devière, Jacques; Hols, Pascal

    2008-10-01

    Hyperammonemia is a common complication of acute and chronic liver diseases. Often accompanied with side effects, therapeutic interventions such as antibiotics or lactulose are generally targeted to decrease the intestinal production and absorption of ammonia. In this study, we aimed to modulate hyperammonemia in three rodent models by administration of wild-type Lactobacillus plantarum, a genetically engineered ammonia hyperconsuming strain, and a strain deficient for the ammonia transporter. Wild-type and metabolically engineered L. plantarum strains were administered in ornithine transcarbamoylase-deficient Sparse-fur mice, a model of constitutive hyperammonemia, in a carbon tetrachloride rat model of chronic liver insufficiency and in a thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure mice model. Constitutive hyperammonemia in Sparse-fur mice and hyperammonemia in a rat model of chronic hepatic insufficiency were efficiently decreased by Lactobacillus administration. In a murine thioacetamide-induced model of acute liver failure, administration of probiotics significantly increased survival and decreased blood and fecal ammonia. The ammonia hyperconsuming strain exhibited a beneficial effect at a lower dose than its wild-type counterpart. Improved survival in the acute liver failure mice model was associated with lower blood ammonia levels but also with a decrease of astrocyte swelling in the brain cortex. Modulation of ammonia was abolished after administration of the strain deficient in the ammonium transporter. Intestinal pH was clearly lowered for all strains and no changes in gut flora were observed. Hyperammonemia in constitutive model or after acute or chronic induced liver failure can be controlled by the administration of L. plantarum with a significant effect on survival. The mechanism involved in this ammonia decrease implicates direct ammonia consumption in the gut.

  20. Impaired Leptomeningeal Collateral Flow Contributes to the Poor Outcome following Experimental Stroke in the Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Yosuke; Nishijima, Yasuo; Lee, Chih Cheng; Yang, Shih Yen; Shi, Lei; An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K.; Tominaga, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    Collateral status is an independent predictor of stroke outcome. However, the spatiotemporal manner in which collateral flow maintains cerebral perfusion during cerebral ischemia is poorly understood. Diabetes exacerbates ischemic brain damage, although the impact of diabetes on collateral dynamics remains to be established. Using Doppler optical coherent tomography, a robust recruitment of leptomeningeal collateral flow was detected immediately after middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in C57BL/6 mice, and it continued to grow over the course of 1 week. In contrast, an impairment of collateral recruitment was evident in the Type 2 diabetic db/db mice, which coincided with a worse stroke outcome compared with their normoglycemic counterpart db/+, despite their equally well-collateralized leptomeningeal anastomoses. Similar to the wild-type mice, both db/+ and db/db mice underwent collateral growth 7 d after MCA stroke, although db/db mice still exhibited significantly reduced retrograde flow into the MCA territory chronically. Acutely induced hyperglycemia in the db/+ mice did not impair collateral flow after stroke, suggesting that the state of hyperglycemia alone was not sufficient to impact collateral flow. Human albumin was efficacious in improving collateral flow and outcome after stroke in the db/db mice, enabling perfusion to proximal MCA territory that was usually not reached by retrograde flow from anterior cerebral artery without treatment. Our results suggest that the impaired collateral status contributes to the exacerbated ischemic injury in mice with Type 2 diabetes, and modulation of collateral flow has beneficial effects on stroke outcome among these subjects. PMID:25740515

  1. Exogenous PTHrP Repairs the Damaged Fracture Healing of PTHrP+/− Mice and Accelerates Fracture Healing of Wild Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinhe; Fang, Xin; Wang, Chun; Ding, Congzhu; Lin, Hua; Liu, Anlong; Wang, Lei; Cao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Bone fracture healing is a complicated physiological regenerative process initiated in response to injury and is similar to bone development. To demonstrate whether an exogenous supply of parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) helps in bone fracture healing, closed mid-diaphyseal femur fractures were created and stabilized with intramedullary pins in eight-week-old wild-type (WT) PTHrP+/+ and PTHrP+/− mice. After administering PTHrP for two weeks, callus tissue properties were analyzed at one, two, and four weeks post-fracture (PF) by various methods. Bone formation–related genes and protein expression levels were evaluated by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and Western blots. At two weeks PF, mineral density of callus, bony callus areas, mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), and protein levels of Runx-2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 decreased in PTHrP+/− mice compared with WT mice. At four weeks PF, total collagen-positive bony callus areas, osteoblast number, ALP-positive areas, and type I collagen-positive areas all decreased in PTHrP+/− mice. At both two and four weeks PF, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase–positive osteoclast number and surface decreased a little in PTHrP+/− mice. The study indicates that exogenous PTHrP provided by subcutaneous injection could redress impaired bone fracture healing, leading to mutation of activated PTHrP by influencing callus areas, endochondral bone formation, osteoblastic bone formation, and bone turnover. PMID:28178186

  2. Exogenous PTHrP Repairs the Damaged Fracture Healing of PTHrP+/− Mice and Accelerates Fracture Healing of Wild Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinhe Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bone fracture healing is a complicated physiological regenerative process initiated in response to injury and is similar to bone development. To demonstrate whether an exogenous supply of parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP helps in bone fracture healing, closed mid-diaphyseal femur fractures were created and stabilized with intramedullary pins in eight-week-old wild-type (WT PTHrP+/+ and PTHrP+/− mice. After administering PTHrP for two weeks, callus tissue properties were analyzed at one, two, and four weeks post-fracture (PF by various methods. Bone formation–related genes and protein expression levels were evaluated by real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and Western blots. At two weeks PF, mineral density of callus, bony callus areas, mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, type I collagen, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2, and protein levels of Runx-2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 decreased in PTHrP+/− mice compared with WT mice. At four weeks PF, total collagen-positive bony callus areas, osteoblast number, ALP-positive areas, and type I collagen-positive areas all decreased in PTHrP+/− mice. At both two and four weeks PF, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase–positive osteoclast number and surface decreased a little in PTHrP+/− mice. The study indicates that exogenous PTHrP provided by subcutaneous injection could redress impaired bone fracture healing, leading to mutation of activated PTHrP by influencing callus areas, endochondral bone formation, osteoblastic bone formation, and bone turnover.

  3. Identification of proteins that regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in murine tumors with wild type p53

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jinsil; Oh, Hae Jin; Kim, Jiyoung; An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Wonwoo [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    In this study, we investigated the molecular factors determining the induction of apoptosis by radiation. Two murine tumors syngeneic to C3H/HeJ mice were used: an ovarian carcinoma OCa-I, and a hepatocarcinoma HCa-I. Both have wild type p53, but display distinctly different radiosensitivity in terms of specific growth delay (12.7 d in OCa-I and 0.3 d in HCa-I) and tumor cure dose 50% (52.6 Gy in OCa-I and >80 Gy in HCa-I). Eight-mm tumors on the thighs of mice were irradiated with 25 Gy and tumor samples were collected at regular time intervals after irradiation. The peak levels of apoptosis were 16.1{+-}0.6% in OCa-I and 0.2{+-}0.0% in HCa-I at 4 h after radiation, and this time point was used for subsequent proteomics analysis. Protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting with a focus on those related to apoptosis. In OCa-I tumors, radiation increased the expression of cytochrome c oxidase and Bcl2/adenovirus E1B-interacting 2 (Nip 2) protein higher than 3-fold. However in HCa-I, these two proteins showed no significant change. The results suggest that radiosensitivity in tumors with wild type p53 is regulated by a complex mechanism. Furthermore, these proteins could be molecular targets for a novel therapeutic strategy involving the regulation of radiosensitivity. (author)

  4. Identification of proteins that regulate radiation-induced apoptosis in murine tumors with wild type p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jinsil; Oh, Hae Jin; Kim, Jiyoung; An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Wonwoo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular factors determining the induction of apoptosis by radiation. Two murine tumors syngeneic to C3H/HeJ mice were used: an ovarian carcinoma OCa-I, and a hepatocarcinoma HCa-I. Both have wild type p53, but display distinctly different radiosensitivity in terms of specific growth delay (12.7 d in OCa-I and 0.3 d in HCa-I) and tumor cure dose 50% (52.6 Gy in OCa-I and >80 Gy in HCa-I). Eight-mm tumors on the thighs of mice were irradiated with 25 Gy and tumor samples were collected at regular time intervals after irradiation. The peak levels of apoptosis were 16.1±0.6% in OCa-I and 0.2±0.0% in HCa-I at 4 h after radiation, and this time point was used for subsequent proteomics analysis. Protein spots were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting with a focus on those related to apoptosis. In OCa-I tumors, radiation increased the expression of cytochrome c oxidase and Bcl2/adenovirus E1B-interacting 2 (Nip 2) protein higher than 3-fold. However in HCa-I, these two proteins showed no significant change. The results suggest that radiosensitivity in tumors with wild type p53 is regulated by a complex mechanism. Furthermore, these proteins could be molecular targets for a novel therapeutic strategy involving the regulation of radiosensitivity. (author)

  5. Role of Fyn-mediated NMDA receptor function in prediabetic neuropathy in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Meng; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes. This study evaluated the role of Fyn kinase and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in the spinal cord in diabetic neuropathy using an animal model of high-fat diet-induced prediabetes. We found that prediabetic wild-type mice exhibited tactile allodynia and thermal hypoalgesia after a 16-wk high-fat diet, relative to normal diet-fed wild-type mice. Furthermore, prediabetic wild-type mice exhibited increased tactile allodynia and thermal hypoalgesia at 24 wk relative to 16 wk. Such phenomena were correlated with increased expression and activation of NR2B subunit of NMDARs, as well as Fyn-NR2B interaction in the spinal cord. Fyn−/− mice developed prediabetes after 16-wk high-fat diet treatment and exhibited thermal hypoalgesia, without showing tactile allodynia or altered expression and activation of NR2B subunit, relative to normal diet-fed Fyn−/− mice. Finally, intrathecal administrations of Ro 25-6981 (selective NR2B subunit-containing NMDAR antagonist) dose-dependently alleviated tactile allodynia, but not thermal hypoalgesia, at 16 and 24 wk in prediabetic wild-type mice. Our results suggested that Fyn-mediated NR2B signaling plays a critical role in regulation of prediabetic neuropathy and that the increased expression/function of NR2B subunit-containing NMDARs may contribute to the progression of neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. PMID:27146985

  6. Effects of ascorbic acid on carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel subsulfide, and on tumor transplants growth in gulonolactone oxidase knock-out mice and wild-type C57BL mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprzak, Kazimierz S. [Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Diwan, Bhalchandra A. [Basic Research Program, Science Applications International Corporation-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Kaczmarek, Monika Z. [Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Logsdon, Daniel L. [Laboratory Animal Sciences Program, Science Applications International Corporation-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Fivash, Mathew J. [Data Management Services, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Salnikow, Konstantin, E-mail: salnikok@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this study was to test a hypothesis that ascorbate depletion could enhance carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel. Homozygous L-gulono- < gamma > -lactone oxidase gene knock-out mice (Gulo-/- mice) unable to produce ascorbate and wild-type C57BL mice (WT mice) were injected intramuscularly with carcinogenic nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}), and observed for the development of injection site tumors for 57 weeks. Small pieces of one of the induced tumors were transplanted subcutaneously into separate groups of Gulo-/- and WT mice and the growth of these tumors was measured for up to 3 months. The two strains of mice differed significantly with regard to (1) Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} carcinogenesis: Gulo-/- mice were 40% more susceptible than WT mice; and (2) transplanted tumors development: Gulo-/- mice were more receptive to tumor growth than WT mice, but only in terms of a much shorter tumor latency; later in the exponential phase of growth, the growth rates were the same. And, with adequate ascorbate supplementation, the two strains were equally susceptible to acute toxicity of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}. Statistically significant effects of dietary ascorbate dosing levels were the following: (1) reduction in ascorbate supplementation increased acute toxicity of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} in Gulo-/- mice; (2) ascorbate supplementation extended the latency of transplanted tumors in WT mice. In conclusion, the lack of endogenous ascorbate synthesis makes Gulo-/- mice more susceptible to Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} carcinogenesis. Dietary ascorbate tends to attenuate acute toxicity of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} and to extend the latency of transplanted tumors. The latter effects may be of practical importance to humans and thus deserve further studies. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascorbate depletion enhances carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gulo-/- mice unable to synthesize ascorbate were used in this study. Black

  7. Effects of ascorbic acid on carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel subsulfide, and on tumor transplants growth in gulonolactone oxidase knock-out mice and wild-type C57BL mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, Kazimierz S.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Kaczmarek, Monika Z.; Logsdon, Daniel L.; Fivash, Mathew J.; Salnikow, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test a hypothesis that ascorbate depletion could enhance carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel. Homozygous L-gulono- -lactone oxidase gene knock-out mice (Gulo−/− mice) unable to produce ascorbate and wild-type C57BL mice (WT mice) were injected intramuscularly with carcinogenic nickel subsulfide (Ni 3 S 2 ), and observed for the development of injection site tumors for 57 weeks. Small pieces of one of the induced tumors were transplanted subcutaneously into separate groups of Gulo−/− and WT mice and the growth of these tumors was measured for up to 3 months. The two strains of mice differed significantly with regard to (1) Ni 3 S 2 carcinogenesis: Gulo−/− mice were 40% more susceptible than WT mice; and (2) transplanted tumors development: Gulo−/− mice were more receptive to tumor growth than WT mice, but only in terms of a much shorter tumor latency; later in the exponential phase of growth, the growth rates were the same. And, with adequate ascorbate supplementation, the two strains were equally susceptible to acute toxicity of Ni 3 S 2 . Statistically significant effects of dietary ascorbate dosing levels were the following: (1) reduction in ascorbate supplementation increased acute toxicity of Ni 3 S 2 in Gulo−/− mice; (2) ascorbate supplementation extended the latency of transplanted tumors in WT mice. In conclusion, the lack of endogenous ascorbate synthesis makes Gulo−/− mice more susceptible to Ni 3 S 2 carcinogenesis. Dietary ascorbate tends to attenuate acute toxicity of Ni 3 S 2 and to extend the latency of transplanted tumors. The latter effects may be of practical importance to humans and thus deserve further studies. -- Highlights: ► Ascorbate depletion enhances carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel. ► Gulo−/− mice unable to synthesize ascorbate were used in this study. ► The reduction in ascorbate levels in Gulo−/− mice increased acute toxicity induced by Ni 3 S 2 .

  8. Distinct mechanisms of axonal globule formation in mice expressing human wild type α-synuclein or dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H ß-synuclein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekigawa Akio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axonopathy is critical in the early pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Axonal swellings such as globules and spheroids are a distinct feature of axonopathy and our recent study showed that transgenic (tg mice expressing DLB-linked P123H β-synuclein (P123H βS were characterized by P123H βS-immunoreactive axonal swellings (P123H βS-globules. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate α-synuclein (αS-immunoreactive axonal swellings (αS-globules in the brains of tg mice expressing human wild-type αS and to compare them with the globules in P123H βS tg mice. Results In αS tg mice, αS-globules were formed in an age-dependent manner in various brain regions, including the thalamus and basal ganglia. These globules were composed of autophagosome-like membranous structures and were reminiscent of P123H βS-globules in P123H βS tg mice. In the αS-globules, frequent clustering and deformation of mitochondria were observed. These changes were associated with oxidative stress, based on staining of nitrated αS and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE. In accord with the absence of mitochondria in the P123H βS-globules, staining of nitrated αS and 4-HNE in these globules was weaker than that for αS-globules. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, the PARK8 of familial PD, was detected exclusively in αS-globules, suggesting a specific role of this molecule in these globules. Conclusions Lysosomal pathology was similarly observed for both αS- and P123H βS-globules, while oxidative stress was associated with the αS-globules, and to a lesser extent with the P123H βS-globules. Other pathologies, such as mitochondrial alteration and LRRK2 accumulation, were exclusively detected for αS-globules. Collectively, both αS- and P123H βS-globules were formed through similar but distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that synuclein

  9. Effect of maternal and post weaning folate supply on gene-specific DNA methylation in the small intestine of weaning and adult Apc+/Min and wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Ann Mckay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports the developmental origins of adult health and disease hypothesis which argues for a causal relationship between adverse early life nutrition and increased disease risk in adulthood. Modulation of epigenetic marks, e.g. DNA methylation and consequential altered gene expression, has been proposed as a mechanism mediating these effects. Via its role as a methyl donor, dietary folate supply may influence DNA methylation. As aberrant methylation is an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC pathogenesis, we hypothesised low maternal and/or post-weaning folate intake may influence methylation of genes involved in CRC development. We investigated the effects of maternal folate depletion during pregnancy and lactation on selected gene methylation in the small intestine (SI of wild type (WT and Apc+/Min mice at weaning and as adults. We also investigated the effects of folate depletion post-weaning on gene methylation in adult mice. Female C57Bl6/J mice were fed low or normal folate diets from mating with Apc+/Min males to the end of lactation. A sub set of offspring were killed at weaning. Remaining offspring were weaned on to low or normal folate diets, resulting in 4 treatment groups of Apc+/Min and WT mice. p53 was more methylated in weaning and adult WT compared with Apc+/Min mice (p>0.001. Igf2 and Apc were hypermethylated in adult Apc+/Mi n compared with WT mice (p=0.004 & p=0.012 respectively. Low maternal folate reduced p53 methylation in adults (p=0.04. Low post-weaning folate increased Apc methylation in Apc+/Min mice only (p=0.008 for interaction. These observations demonstrate that folate depletion in early life can alter epigenetic marks in a gene specific manner. Also, the differential effects of altered folate supply on DNA methylation in WT and Apc+/Min mice suggest that genotype may modulate epigenetic responses to environmental cues and may have implications for the development of personalised nutrition.

  10. Wild-type male offspring of fmr-1+/- mothers exhibit characteristics of the fragile X phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Bojana; Toth, Miklos

    2008-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked disorder caused by the inactivation of the FMR-1 gene with symptoms ranging from impaired cognitive functions to seizures, anxiety, sensory abnormalities, and hyperactivity. Males are more severely affected than heterozygote (H) females, who, as carriers, have a 50% chance of transmitting the mutated allele in each pregnancy. fmr-1 knockout (KO) mice reproduce fragile X symptoms, including hyperactivity, seizures, and abnormal sensory processing. In contrast to the expectation that wild-type (WT) males born to H (fmr-1(+/-)) mothers (H>WT) are behaviorally normal and indistinguishable from WT males born to WT mothers (WT>WT); here, we show that H>WT offspring are more active than WT>WT offspring and that their hyperactivity is similar to male KO mice born to H or KO (fmr-1(-/-)) mothers (H>KO/KO>KO). H>WT mice, however, do not exhibit seizures or abnormal sensory processing. Consistent with their hyperactivity, the effect of the D2 agonist quinpirole is reduced in H>WT as well as in H>KO and KO>KO mice compared to WT>WT offspring, suggesting a diminished feedback inhibition of dopamine release. Our data indicate that some aspects of hyperactivity and associated dopaminergic changes in 'fragile X' mice are a maternal fmr-1 genotype rather than an offspring fmr-1 genotype effect.

  11. Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging of the Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor System with [11C]OMAR ([11C]JHU75528: Improvements in Image Quantification Using Wild-Type and Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Herance

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using positron emission tomography (PET and the tracer [11C]OMAR ([11C]JHU75528, an analogue of rimonabant, to study the brain cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptor system. Wild-type (WT andCB1 knockout (KO animals were imaged at baseline and after pretreatment with blocking doses of rimonabant. Brain uptake in WT animals was higher (50% than in KO animals in baseline conditions. After pretreatment with rimonabant, WT uptake lowered to the level of KO animals. The results of this study support the feasibility of using PET with the radiotracer [11C]JHU75528 to image the brain CB1 receptor system in mice. In addition, this methodology can be used to assess the effect of new drugs in preclinical studies using genetically manipulated animals.

  12. Characteristics of gait ataxia in δ2 glutamate receptor mutant mice, ho15J.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a fundamental, but as yet poorly understood, role in the control of locomotion. Recently, mice with gene mutations or knockouts have been used to investigate various aspects of cerebellar function with regard to locomotion. Although many of the mutant mice exhibit severe gait ataxia, kinematic analyses of limb movements have been performed in only a few cases. Here, we investigated locomotion in ho15J mice that have a mutation of the δ2 glutamate receptor. The cerebellum of ho15J mice shows a severe reduction in the number of parallel fiber-Purkinje synapses compared with wild-type mice. Analysis of hindlimb kinematics during treadmill locomotion showed abnormal hindlimb movements characterized by excessive toe elevation during the swing phase, and by severe hyperflexion of the ankles in ho15J mice. The great trochanter heights in ho15J mice were lower than in wild-type mice throughout the step cycle. However, there were no significant differences in various temporal parameters between ho15J and wild-type mice. We suggest that dysfunction of the cerebellar neuronal circuits underlies the observed characteristic kinematic abnormality of hindlimb movements during locomotion of ho15J mice.

  13. The Cstf2t Polyadenylation Gene Plays a Sex-Specific Role in Learning Behaviors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaryse C Harris

    Full Text Available Polyadenylation is an essential mechanism for the processing of mRNA 3' ends. CstF-64 (the 64,000 Mr subunit of the cleavage stimulation factor; gene symbol Cstf2 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates mRNA polyadenylation site usage. We discovered a paralogous form of CstF-64 called τCstF-64 (Cstf2t. The Cstf2t gene is conserved in all eutherian mammals including mice and humans, but the τCstF-64 protein is expressed only in a subset of mammalian tissues, mostly testis and brain. Male mice that lack Cstf2t (Cstf2t-/- mice experience disruption of spermatogenesis and are infertile, although female fertility is unaffected. However, a role for τCstF-64 in the brain has not yet been determined. Given the importance of RNA polyadenylation and splicing in neuronal gene expression, we chose to test the hypothesis that τCstF-64 is important for brain function. Male and female 185-day old wild type and Cstf2t-/- mice were examined for motor function, general activity, learning, and memory using rotarod, open field activity, 8-arm radial arm maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Male wild type and Cstf2t-/- mice did not show differences in learning and memory. However, female Cstf2t-/- mice showed significantly better retention of learned maze tasks than did female wild type mice. These results suggest that τCstf-64 is important in memory function in female mice. Interestingly, male Cstf2t-/- mice displayed less thigmotactic behavior than did wild type mice, suggesting that Cstf2t may play a role in anxiety in males. Taken together, our studies highlight the importance of mRNA processing in cognition and behavior as well as their established functions in reproduction.

  14. Role of protein kinase C family in the cerebellum-dependent adaptive learning of horizontal optokinetic response eye movements in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutoh, Fumihiro; Katoh, Akira; Ohki, Masafumi; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Tonegawa, Susumu; Nagao, Soichi

    2003-07-01

    Among the subtypes of the Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C (PKC), which play a crucial role in long-term depression (LTD), both alpha and gamma are expressed in the cerebellar floccular Purkinje cells. To reveal the functional differences of PKC subtypes, we examined the adaptability of ocular reflexes of PKCgamma mutant mice, which show mild ataxia and normal LTD. In mutant mice, gains of the horizontal optokinetic eye response (HOKR) were reduced. Adaptation of the HOKR was not affected but its retinal slip dependency was altered in mutant mice. Sustained 1-h sinusoidal screen oscillation, which induced a relatively large amount of retinal slips in both mutant and wild-type mice, increased the HOKR gain in wild-type mice but not in mutant mice. In contrast, exposure to 1 h of sustained slower screen oscillations, which induced relatively small retinal slips in mutant and wild-type mice, increased the HOKR gain in both mutant and wild-type mice. Adaptation of the HOKR of the mutant mice to slow screen oscillation and those of wild-type mice to fast and slow screen oscillations were all abolished by local applications of a PKC inhibitor (chelerythrine) within the flocculi. Electrophysiological and anatomical studies showed no appreciable changes in the sources and magnitudes of climbing fibre inputs, which mediate retinal slip signals to the flocculus in the mutant mice. These results suggest that PKCgamma has a modulatory role in determining retinal slip dependency, and other PKC subtypes, e.g. PKCalpha, may play a crucial role in the adaptation of the HOKR.

  15. Anti-tumor activity of high-dose EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and sequential docetaxel in wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer cell nude mouse xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Ning; Zhang, Qianqian; Fang, Shu; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is still a challenge. This study explored antitumor activity of high-dose icotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) plus sequential docetaxel against wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells-generated nude mouse xenografts. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with wild-type EGFR NSCLC A549 cells and divided into different groups for 3-week treatment. Tumor xenograft volumes were monitored and record...

  16. Angiotensin II type 1a receptor-deficient mice develop angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage without blood pressure increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnol, Anna; Amann, Kerstin; Mandel, Philipp; Hartmann, Christina; Schupp, Nicole

    2017-12-01

    Hypertensive patients have an increased risk of developing kidney cancer. We have shown in vivo that besides elevating blood pressure, angiotensin II causes DNA damage dose dependently. Here, the role of blood pressure in the formation of DNA damage is studied. Mice lacking one of the two murine angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) subtypes, AT1aR, were equipped with osmotic minipumps, delivering angiotensin II during 28 days. Parameters of oxidative stress and DNA damage of kidneys and hearts of AT1aR-knockout mice were compared with wild-type (C57BL/6) mice receiving angiotensin II, and additionally, with wild-type mice treated with candesartan, an antagonist of both AT1R subtypes. In wild-type mice, angiotensin II induced hypertension, reduced kidney function, and led to a significant formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, genomic damage was markedly increased in this group. All these responses to angiotensin II could be attenuated by concurrent administration of candesartan. In AT1aR-deficient mice treated with angiotensin II, systolic pressure was not increased, and renal function was not affected. However, angiotensin II still led to an increase of ROS in kidneys and hearts of these animals. Additionally, genomic damage in the form of double-strand breaks was significantly induced in kidneys of AT1aR-deficient mice. Our results show that angiotensin II induced ROS production and DNA damage even without the presence of AT1aR and independently of blood pressure changes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Dietary cladode powder from wild type and domesticated Opuntia species reduces atherogenesis in apoE knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoby-Salom, Sandra; Guéraud, Françoise; Camaré, Caroline; de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina Barba; Rossignol, Michel; Santos Díaz, María del Socorro; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Dietary intake of Opuntia species may prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to characterize the biological antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Opuntia species and to investigate whether Opuntia cladodes prevent the development of atherosclerosis in vivo, in apoE(-)KO mice. The effects of the two Opuntia species, the wild Opuntia streptacantha and the domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, were tested on the generation of intra- and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and kinetics of the LDL oxidation by murine CRL2181 endothelial cells and on the subsequent inflammatory signaling leading to the adhesion of monocytes on the activated endothelium and the formation of foam cells. Opuntia species blocked the extracellular ROS (superoxide anion) generation and LDL oxidation by CRL2181, as well as the intracellular ROS rise and signaling evoked by the oxidized LDL, including the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFκB, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 adhesion molecules, and the adhesion of monocytes to CRL2181. In vivo, Opuntia significantly reduced the formation of atherosclerotic lesions and the accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal adducts in the vascular wall of apoE-KO mice, indicating that Opuntia cladodes prevent lipid oxidation in the vascular wall. In conclusion, wild and domesticated Opuntia species exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties which emphasize their nutritional benefit for preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Sex differences between CRF1 receptor deficient mice following naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in a conditioned place aversion paradigm: implication of HPA axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Antonio García-Carmona

    Full Text Available Extinction period of positive affective memory of drug taking and negative affective memory of drug withdrawal, as well as the different response of men and women might be important for the clinical treatment of drug addiction. We investigate the role of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type one (CRF1R and the different response of male and female mice in the expression and extinction of the aversive memory.We used genetically engineered male and female mice lacking functional CRF1R. The animals were rendered dependent on morphine by intraperitoneally injection of increasing doses of morphine (10-60 mg/kg. Negative state associated with naloxone (1 mg/kg s.c.-precipitated morphine withdrawal was examined by using conditioned place aversion (CPA paradigm. No sex differences for CPA expression were found in wild-type (n = 29 or CRF1R knockout (KO mice (n = 29. However, CRF1R KO mice presented less aversion score than wild-type mice, suggesting that CRF1R KO mice were less responsive than wild-type to continuous associations between drug administration and environmental stimuli. In addition, CPA extinction was delayed in wild-type and CRF1R KO male mice compared with females of both genotypes. The genetic disruption of the CRF1R pathway decreased the period of extinction in males and females suggesting that CRF/CRF1R is implicated in the duration of aversive memory. Our results also showed that the increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels observed in wild-type (n = 11 mice after CPA expression, were attenuated in CRF1R KO mice (n = 10. In addition, ACTH returned to the baseline levels in males and females once CPA extinction was finished.These results suggest that, at least, CPA expression is partially due to an increase in plasma ACTH levels, through activation of CRF1R, which can return when CPA extinction is finished.

  19. Continuous in vivo infusion of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) enhances engraftment of syngeneic wild-type cells in Fanca–/– and Fancg–/– mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yue; Ciccone, Samantha; Yang, Feng-Chun; Yuan, Jin; Zeng, Daisy; Chen, Shi; van de Vrugt, Henri J.; Critser, John; Arwert, Fre; Haneline, Laura S.; Clapp, D. Wade

    2006-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by bone marrow (BM) failure and cancer susceptibility. Identification of the cDNAs of FA complementation types allows the potential of using gene transfer technology to introduce functional cDNAs as transgenes into autologous stem cells and provide a cure for the BM failure in FA patients. However, strategies to enhance the mobilization, transduction, and engraftment of exogenous stem cells are required to optimize efficacy prior to widespread clinical use. Hypersensitivity of Fancc–/– cells to interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a nongenotoxic immune-regulatory cytokine, enhances engraftment of syngeneic wild-type (WT) cells in Fancc–/– mice. However, whether this phenotype is of broad relevance in other FA complementation groups is unresolved. Here we show that primitive and mature myeloid progenitors in Fanca–/– and Fancg–/– mice are hypersensitive to IFN-γ and that in vivo infusion of IFN-γ at clinically relevant concentrations was sufficient to allow consistent long-term engraftment of isogenic WT repopulating stem cells. Given that FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG complementation groups account for more than 90% of all FA patients, these data provide evidence that IFN-γ conditioning may be a useful nongenotoxic strategy for myelopreparation in FA patients. PMID:16946306

  20. Quantitative analysis by next generation sequencing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK) and of splenic B cells transcriptomes from wild-type and Usp3-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancini, Cesare; Gargiulo, Gaetano; van den Berk, Paul C M; Citterio, Elisabetta

    2016-03-01

    The data described here provide genome-wide expression profiles of murine primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK) and of B cell populations, obtained by high throughput sequencing. Cells are derived from wild-type mice and from mice deficient for the ubiquitin-specific protease 3 (USP3; Usp3Δ/Δ). Modification of histone proteins by ubiquitin plays a crucial role in the cellular response to DNA damage (DDR) (Jackson and Durocher, 2013) [1]. USP3 is a histone H2A deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that regulates ubiquitin-dependent DDR in response to DNA double-strand breaks (Nicassio et al., 2007; Doil et al., 2008) [2], [3]. Deletion of USP3 in mice increases the incidence of spontaneous tumors and affects hematopoiesis [4]. In particular, Usp3-knockout mice show progressive loss of B and T cells and decreased functional potential of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during aging. USP3-deficient cells, including HSCs, display enhanced histone ubiquitination, accumulate spontaneous DNA damage and are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation (Lancini et al., 2014) [4]. To address whether USP3 loss leads to deregulation of specific molecular pathways relevant to HSC homeostasis and/or B cell development, we have employed the RNA-sequencing technology and investigated transcriptional differences between wild-type and Usp3Δ/Δ LSK, naïve B cells or in vitro activated B cells. The data relate to the research article "Tight regulation of ubiquitin-mediated DNA damage response by USP3 preserves the functional integrity of hematopoietic stem cells" (Lancini et al., 2014) [4]. The RNA-sequencing and analysis data sets have been deposited in NCBI׳s Gene Expression Omnibus (Edgar et al., 2002) [5] and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE58495 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE58495). With this article, we present validation of the RNA-seq data set through quantitative real-time PCR and comparative analysis.

  1. Difference in Perseverative Errors during a Visual Attention Task with Auditory Distractors in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Wild Type and Knock-Out Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorratt, Pascal; Delano, Paul H; Delgado, Carolina; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Terreros, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through olivocochlear (OC) neurons. Medial OC neurons make cholinergic synapses with outer hair cells (OHCs) through nicotinic receptors constituted by α9 and α10 subunits. One of the physiological functions of the α9 nicotinic receptor subunit (α9-nAChR) is the suppression of auditory distractors during selective attention to visual stimuli. In a recent study we demonstrated that the behavioral performance of alpha-9 nicotinic receptor knock-out (KO) mice is altered during selective attention to visual stimuli with auditory distractors since they made less correct responses and more omissions than wild type (WT) mice. As the inhibition of the behavioral responses to irrelevant stimuli is an important mechanism of the selective attention processes, behavioral errors are relevant measures that can reflect altered inhibitory control. Errors produced during a cued attention task can be classified as premature, target and perseverative errors. Perseverative responses can be considered as an inability to inhibit the repetition of an action already planned, while premature responses can be considered as an index of the ability to wait or retain an action. Here, we studied premature, target and perseverative errors during a visual attention task with auditory distractors in WT and KO mice. We found that α9-KO mice make fewer perseverative errors with longer latencies than WT mice in the presence of auditory distractors. In addition, although we found no significant difference in the number of target error between genotypes, KO mice made more short-latency target errors than WT mice during the presentation of auditory distractors. The fewer perseverative error made by α9-KO mice could be explained by a reduced motivation for reward and an increased impulsivity during decision making with auditory distraction in KO mice.

  2. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Walker, Danielle; Martinez, Marni; Harris, R Adron

    2006-10-01

    Many studies suggest a role for endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors in regulation of ethanol intake. It is commonly accepted that the kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, dynorphins, produce a dysphoric state and therefore may be responsible for avoidance of alcohol. We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions. Null mutant female, but not male, mice showed significantly lower preference for alcohol and consumed lower amounts of alcohol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild-type littermates. In the same test, knockout mice of both sexes showed a strong reduction of preference for saccharin compared to control mice. In contrast, under conditions of limited (4 h) access (light phase of the light/dark cycle), null mutant mice did not show any differences in consumption of saccharin, but they showed significantly reduced intake of sucrose. To determine the possible cause for reduction of ethanol preference and intake, we studied other ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the preprodynorphin gene. There were no differences between null mutant and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, acute ethanol withdrawal, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. These results indicate that deletion of preprodynorphin leads to substantial reduction of alcohol intake in female mice, and suggest that this is caused by decreased orosensory reward of alcohol (sweet taste and/or palatability).

  3. Abnormal motor phenotype at adult stages in mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárez-López, Soledad; Bosch-García, Daniel; Gómez-Andrés, David; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4) but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone) in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2). To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO) did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice). No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction) and skeletal muscle (33% reduction), but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1) is expressed. The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders.

  4. Abnormal motor phenotype at adult stages in mice lacking type 2 deiodinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Bárez-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4 but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2. To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. AIM: This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. RESULTS: Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice. No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction and skeletal muscle (33% reduction, but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1 is expressed. CONCLUSIONS: The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders.

  5. Effects of Aging and Oxidative Stress on Spermatozoa of Superoxide-Dismutase 1- and Catalase-Null Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaratnam, Johanna S; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Advanced paternal age is linked to complications in pregnancy and genetic diseases in offspring. Aging results in excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in spermatozoa; this damage can be transmitted to progeny with detrimental consequences. Although there is a loss of antioxidants with aging, the impact on aging male germ cells of the complete absence of either catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has not been investigated. We used CAT-null (Cat(-/-)) and SOD1-null (Sod(-/-)) mice to determine whether loss of these antioxidants increases germ cell susceptibility to redox dysfunction with aging. Aging reduced fertility and the numbers of Sertoli and germ cells in all mice. Aged Sod(-/-) mice displayed an increased loss of fertility compared to aged wild-type mice. Treatment with the pro-oxidant SIN-10 increased ROS in spermatocytes of aged wild-type and Sod(-/-) mice, while aged Cat(-/-) mice were able to neutralize this ROS. The antioxidant peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) increased with age in wild-type and Cat(-/-) mice but was consistently low in young and aged Sod(-/-) mice. DNA damage and repair markers (γ-H2AX and 53BP1) were reduced with aging and lower in young Sod(-/-) and Cat(-/-) mice. Colocalization of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 suggested active repair in young wild-type mice but reduced in young Cat(-/-) and in Sod(-/-) mice and with age. Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG) increased in young Sod(-/-) mice and with age in all mice. These studies show that aged Sod(-/-) mice display severe redox dysfunction, while wild-type and Cat(-/-) mice have compensatory mechanisms to partially alleviate oxidative stress and reduce age-related DNA damage in spermatozoa. Thus, SOD1 but not CAT is critical to the maintenance of germ cell quality with aging. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. Impaired bone formation in Pdia3 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    Full Text Available 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH2D3] is crucial for normal skeletal development and bone homeostasis. Protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3 mediates 1α,25(OH2D3 initiated-rapid membrane signaling in several cell types. To understand its role in regulating skeletal development, we generated Pdia3-deficient mice and examined the physiologic consequence of Pdia3-disruption in embryos and Pdia3+/- heterozygotes at different ages. No mice homozygous for the Pdia3-deletion were found at birth nor were there embryos after E12.5, indicating that targeted disruption of the Pdia3 gene resulted in early embryonic lethality. Pdia3-deficiency also resulted in skeletal manifestations as revealed by µCT analysis of the tibias. In comparison to wild type mice, Pdia3 heterozygous mice displayed expanded growth plates associated with decreased tether formation. Histomorphometry also showed that the hypertrophic zone in Pdia3+/- mice was more cellular than seen in wild type growth plates. Metaphyseal trabecular bone in Pdia3+/- mice exhibited an age-dependent phenotype with lower BV/TV and trabecular numbers, which was most pronounced at 15 weeks of age. Bone marrow cells from Pdia3+/- mice exhibited impaired osteoblastic differentiation, based on reduced expression of osteoblast markers and mineral deposition compared to cells from wild type animals. Collectively, our findings provide in vivo evidence that PDIA3 is essential for normal skeletal development. The fact that the Pdia3+/- heterozygous mice share a similar growth plate and bone phenotype to nVdr knockout mice, suggests that PDIA3-mediated rapid membrane signaling might be an alternative mechanism responsible for 1α,25(OH2D3's actions in regulating skeletal development.

  7. Perception of sweet taste is important for voluntary alcohol consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y A; Walker, D; Martinez, M; Levine, M; Damak, S; Margolskee, R F

    2008-02-01

    To directly evaluate the association between taste perception and alcohol intake, we used three different mutant mice, each lacking a gene expressed in taste buds and critical to taste transduction: alpha-gustducin (Gnat3), Tas1r3 or Trpm5. Null mutant mice lacking any of these three genes showed lower preference score for alcohol and consumed less alcohol in a two-bottle choice test, as compared with wild-type littermates. These null mice also showed lower preference score for saccharin solutions than did wild-type littermates. In contrast, avoidance of quinine solutions was less in Gnat3 or Trpm5 knockout mice than in wild-type mice, whereas Tas1r3 null mice were not different from wild type in their response to quinine solutions. There were no differences in null vs. wild-type mice in their consumption of sodium chloride solutions. To determine the cause for reduction of ethanol intake, we studied other ethanol-induced behaviors known to be related to alcohol consumption. There were no differences between null and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, severity of acute ethanol withdrawal or conditioned place preference for ethanol. Weaker conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to alcohol in null mice may have been caused by weaker rewarding value of the conditioned stimulus (saccharin). When saccharin was replaced by sodium chloride, no differences in CTA to alcohol between knockout and wild-type mice were seen. Thus, deletion of any one of three different genes involved in detection of sweet taste leads to a substantial reduction of alcohol intake without any changes in pharmacological actions of ethanol.

  8. Mice with GFAP-targeted loss of neurofibromin demonstrate increased axonal MET expression with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weiping; Xing, Rubing; Guha, Abhijit; Gutmann, David H; Sherman, Larry S

    2007-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disease that predisposes patients to peripheral nerve tumors and central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities including low-grade astrocytomas and cognitive disabilities. Using mice with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-targeted Nf1 loss (Nf1(GFAP)CKO mice), we found that Nf1(-/-) astrocytes proliferate faster and are more invasive than wild-type astrocytes. In light of our previous finding that aberrant expression of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase contributes to the invasiveness of human NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, we sought to determine whether MET expression is aberrant in the brains of Nf1 mutant mice. We found that Nf1(-/-) astrocytes express slightly more MET than wild-type cells in vitro, but do not express elevated MET in situ. However, fiber tracts containing myelinated axons in the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebral cortex, and cerebellum express higher than normal levels of MET in older (> or =6 months) Nf1(GFAP)CKO mice. Both Nf1(GFAP)CKO and wild-type astrocytes induced MET expression in neurites of wild-type hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that astrocyte-derived signals may induce MET in Nf1 mutant mice. Because the Nf1 gene product functions as a RAS GTPase, we examined MET expression in the brains of mice with GFAP-targeted constitutively active forms of RAS. MET was elevated in axonal fiber tracts in mice with active K-RAS but not H-RAS. Collectively, these data suggest that loss of Nf1 in either astrocytes or GFAP(+) neural progenitor cells results in increased axonal MET expression, which may contribute to the CNS abnormalities in children and adults with NF1. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musclus L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, F P; Bradfield, A; Redfern, R

    1974-12-01

    The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner.The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils.The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice.

  10. Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, F. P.; Bradfield, A.; Redfern, R.

    1974-01-01

    The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner. The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils. The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice. PMID:4531454

  11. Impairment of Vision in a Mouse Model of Usher Syndrome Type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guilian; Lee, Richard; Ropelewski, Philip; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an Usher syndrome type III mouse model with retinal phenotype. Speed congenic method was used to obtain Clrn1 exon 1 knockout (Clrn1-/-) and Clrn1N48K knockin (Clrn1N48K/N48K) mice under A/J background. To study the retinal functions of these mice, we measured scotopic and photopic ERG responses. To observe if there are any structural abnormalities, we conducted light and transmission electron microscopy of fixed retinal specimens. In 3-month-old Clrn1-/- mice, scotopic b-wave amplitude was reduced by more than 25% at the light intensities from -2.2 to 0.38 log cd·s/m2, but scotopic a-wave amplitudes were comparable to those of age-matched wild type mice at all the light intensities tested. In 9-month-old Clrn1-/- mice, scotopic b-wave amplitudes were further reduced by more than 35%, and scotopic a-wave amplitude also showed a small decline as compared with wild type mice. Photopic ERG responses were comparable between Clrn1-/- and wild type mice. Those electrophysiological defects were not associated with a loss of rods. In Clrn1N48K/N48K mice, both a- and b-wave amplitudes were not discernable from those of wild type mice aged up to 10 months. Mutations that are Clrn1-/- biallelic cause visual defects when placed under A/J background. The absence of apparent rod degeneration suggests that the observed phenotype is due to functional defects, and not due to loss of rods. Biallelic Clrn1N48K/N48K mutations did not cause discernible visual defects, suggesting that Clrn1- allele is more severely dysfunctional than ClrnN48K allele.

  12. Sequence analysis of chromosome 1 revealed different selection patterns between Chinese wild mice and laboratory strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuyi; Hu, Shixian; Chao, Tianzhu; Wang, Maochun; Li, Kai; Zhou, Yuxun; Xu, Hongyan; Xiao, Junhua

    2017-10-01

    Both natural and artificial selection play a critical role in animals' adaptation to the environment. Detection of the signature of selection in genomic regions can provide insights for understanding the function of specific phenotypes. It is generally assumed that laboratory mice may experience intense artificial selection while wild mice more natural selection. However, the differences of selection signature in the mouse genome and underlying genes between wild and laboratory mice remain unclear. In this study, we used two mouse populations: chromosome 1 (Chr 1) substitution lines (C1SLs) derived from Chinese wild mice and mouse genome project (MGP) sequenced inbred strains and two selection detection statistics: Fst and Tajima's D to identify the signature of selection footprint on Chr 1. For the differentiation between the C1SLs and MGP, 110 candidate selection regions containing 47 protein coding genes were detected. A total of 149 selection regions which encompass 7.215 Mb were identified in the C1SLs by Tajima's D approach. While for the MGP, we identified nearly twice selection regions (243) compared with the C1SLs which accounted for 13.27 Mb Chr 1 sequence. Through functional annotation, we identified several biological processes with significant enrichment including seven genes in the olfactory transduction pathway. In addition, we searched the phenotypes associated with the 47 candidate selection genes identified by Fst. These genes were involved in behavior, growth or body weight, mortality or aging, and immune systems which align well with the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice. Therefore, the findings would be helpful for our understanding of the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice and applications for using this new mouse resource (C1SLs) for further genetics studies.

  13. Wnt signaling loss accelerates the appearance of neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease in J20-APP transgenic and wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau protein, synaptic dysfunction, and spatial memory impairment. The Wnt signaling pathway has several key functions in the adult brain and has been associated with AD, mainly as a neuroprotective factor against Aβ toxicity and tau phosphorylation. However, dysfunction of Wnt/β-catenin signaling might also play a role in the onset and development of the disease. J20 APPswInd transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD was treated i.p. with various Wnt signaling inhibitors for 10 weeks during pre-symptomatic stages. Then, cognitive, biochemical and histochemical analyses were performed. Wnt signaling inhibitors induced severe changes in the hippocampus, including alterations in Wnt pathway components and loss of Wnt signaling function, severe cognitive deficits, increased tau phosphorylation and Aβ 1-42 peptide levels, decreased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio and Aβ 1-42 concentration in the cerebral spinal fluid, and high levels of soluble Aβ species and synaptotoxic oligomers in the hippocampus, together with changes in the amount and size of senile plaques. More important, we also observed severe alterations in treated wild-type (WT) mice, including behavioral impairment, tau phosphorylation, increased Aβ 1-42 in the hippocampus, decreased Aβ 1-42 in the cerebral spinal fluid, and hippocampal dysfunction. Wnt inhibition accelerated the development of the pathology in a Tg AD mouse model and contributed to the development of Alzheimer's-like changes in WT mice. These results indicate that Wnt signaling plays important roles in the structure and function of the adult hippocampus and suggest that inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of AD. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 356. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Activating Transcription Factor 5-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Umemura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5 is a member of the CREB/ATF family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. We previously reported that ATF5-deficient (ATF5-/- mice demonstrated abnormal olfactory bulb development due to impaired interneuron supply. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice were less aggressive than ATF5+/+ mice. Although ATF5 is widely expressed in the brain, and involved in the regulation of proliferation and development of neurons, the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the physiological role of ATF5 in the higher brain. We performed a comprehensive behavioral analysis using ATF5-/- mice and wild type littermates. ATF5-/- mice exhibited abnormal locomotor activity in the open field test. They also exhibited abnormal anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark transition test and open field test. Furthermore, ATF5-/- mice displayed reduced social interaction in the Crawley’s social interaction test and increased pain sensitivity in the hot plate test compared with wild type. Finally, behavioral flexibility was reduced in the T-maze test in ATF5-/- mice compared with wild type. In addition, we demonstrated that ATF5-/- mice display disturbances of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in several brain regions. These results indicate that ATF5 deficiency elicits abnormal behaviors and the disturbance of monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the brain. The behavioral abnormalities of ATF5-/- mice may be due to the disturbance of monoamine levels. Taken together, these findings suggest that ATF5-/- mice may be a unique animal model of some psychiatric disorders.

  15. Variations of L- and D-amino acid levels in the brain of wild-type and mutant mice lacking D-amino acid oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Siqi; Wang, Yadi; Weatherly, Choyce A; Holden, Kylie; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2018-05-01

    D-amino acids are now recognized to be widely present in organisms and play essential roles in biological processes. Some D-amino acids are metabolized by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), while D-Asp and D-Glu are metabolized by D-aspartate oxidase (DDO). In this study, levels of 22 amino acids and the enantiomeric compositions of the 19 chiral proteogenic entities have been determined in the whole brain of wild-type ddY mice (ddY/DAO +/+ ), mutant mice lacking DAO activity (ddY/DAO -/- ), and the heterozygous mice (ddY/DAO +/- ) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). No significant differences were observed for L-amino acid levels among the three strains except for L-Trp which was markedly elevated in the DAO +/- and DAO -/- mice. The question arises as to whether this is an unknown effect of DAO inactivity. The three highest levels of L-amino acids were L-Glu, L-Asp, and L-Gln in all the three strains. The lowest L-amino acid level was L-Cys in ddY/DAO +/- and ddY/DAO -/- mice, while L-Trp showed the lowest level in ddY/DAO +/+ mice. The highest concentration of D-amino acid was found to be D-Ser, which also had the highest % D value (~ 25%). D-Glu had the lowest % D value (~ 0.01%) in all the three strains. Significant differences of D-Leu, D-Ala, D-Ser, D-Arg, and D-Ile were observed in ddY/DAO +/- and ddY/DAO -/- mice compared to ddY/DAO +/+ mice. This work provides the most complete baseline analysis of L- and D-amino acids in the brains of ddY/DAO +/+ , ddY/DAO +/- , and ddY/DAO -/- mice yet reported. It also provides the most effective and efficient analytical approach for measuring these analytes in biological samples. This study provides fundamental information on the role of DAO in the brain and may be relevant for future development involving novel drugs for DAO regulation.

  16. Genetic recombination of tick-borne flaviviruses among wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Peter; Roth, Anette; Bergström, Tomas

    2013-06-05

    Genetic recombination has been suggested to occur in mosquito-borne flaviviruses. In contrast, tick-borne flaviviruses have been thought to evolve in a clonal manner, although recent studies suggest that recombination occurs also for these viruses. We re-analyzed the data and found that previous conclusions on wild type recombination were probably falsely drawn due to misalignments of nucleotide sequences, ambiguities in GenBank sequences, or different laboratory culture histories suggestive of recombination events in laboratory. To evaluate if reliable predictions of wild type recombination of tick-borne flaviviruses can be made, we analyzed viral strains sequenced exclusively for this study, and other flavivirus sequences retrieved from GenBank. We detected genetic signals supporting recombination between viruses within the three clades of TBEV-Eu, TBEV-Sib and TBEV-Fe, respectively. Our results suggest that the tick-borne encephalitis viruses may undergo recombination under natural conditions, but that geographic barriers restrict most recombination events to involve only closely genetically related viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-05-17

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice.

  18. Impaired cutaneous wound healing in mice lacking tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iba, Kousuke; Hatakeyama, Naoko; Kojima, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    disruption of the tetranectin gene to elucidate the biological function of tetranectin. In this study, we showed that wound healing was markedly delayed in tetranectin-null mice compared with wild-type mice. A single full-thickness incision was made in the dorsal skin. By 14 days after the incision......, the wounds fully healed in all wild-type mice based on the macroscopic closure; in contrast, the progress of wound healing in the tetranectin null mice appeared to be impaired. In histological analysis, wounds of wild-type mice showed complete reepithelialization and healed by 14 days after the incision....... However, those of tetranectin-null mice never showed complete reepithelialization at 14 days. At 21 days after the injury, the wound healed and was covered with an epidermis. These results supported the fact that tetranectin may play a role in the wound healing process....

  19. Inhibitory Effects of North American Wild Rice on Monocyte Adhesion and Inflammatory Modulators in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Zhao, Ruozhi; Ghazawwi, Nora; Le, Khuong; Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Beta, Trust; Shen, Garry X

    2017-10-18

    The present study examined the effects of wild rice on monocyte adhesion, inflammatory and fibrinolytic mediators in low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout (LDLr-KO) mice. Male LDLr-KO mice received a cholesterol (0.06%, w/w)-supplemented diet with or without white or wild rice (60%, w/w) for 20 weeks. White rice significantly increased monocyte adhesion and abundances of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tissue necrosis factor-α, intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and uPA receptor in aortae and hearts of LDLr-KO mice compared to the control diet. Wild rice inhibited monocyte adhesion to the aorta, atherosclerosis, and abundances of the inflammatory and fibrinolytic regulators in the cardiovascular tissue of LDLr-KO mice compared to white rice. White or wild rice did not significantly alter the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or antioxidant enzymes in plasma. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of wild rice may result from its inhibition on monocyte adhesion and inflammatory modulators in LDLr-KO mice.

  20. Defects in ultrasonic vocalization of cadherin-6 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although some molecules have been identified as responsible for human language disorders, there is still little information about what molecular mechanisms establish the faculty of human language. Since mice, like songbirds, produce complex ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication in several social contexts, they can be good mammalian models for studying the molecular basis of human language. Having found that cadherins are involved in the vocal development of the Bengalese finch, a songbird, we expected cadherins to also be involved in mouse vocalizations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine whether similar molecular mechanisms underlie the vocalizations of songbirds and mammals, we categorized behavioral deficits including vocalization in cadherin-6 knockout mice. Comparing the ultrasonic vocalizations of cadherin-6 knockout mice with those of wild-type controls, we found that the peak frequency and variations of syllables were differed between the mutant and wild-type mice in both pup-isolation and adult-courtship contexts. Vocalizations during male-male aggression behavior, in contrast, did not differ between mutant and wild-type mice. Open-field tests revealed differences in locomotors activity in both heterozygote and homozygote animals and no difference in anxiety behavior. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that cadherin-6 plays essential roles in locomotor activity and ultrasonic vocalization. These findings also support the idea that different species share some of the molecular mechanisms underlying vocal behavior.

  1. BOLD Imaging in Awake Wild-Type and Mu-Opioid Receptor Knock-Out Mice Reveals On-Target Activation Maps in Response to Oxycodone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Moore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD imaging in awake mice was used to identify differences in brain activity between wild-type, and Mu (µ opioid receptor knock-outs (MuKO in response to oxycodone (OXY. Using a segmented, annotated MRI mouse atlas and computational analysis, patterns of integrated positive and negative BOLD activity were identified across 122 brain areas. The pattern of positive BOLD showed enhanced activation across the brain in WT mice within 15 min of intraperitoneal administration of 2.5 mg of OXY. BOLD activation was detected in 72 regions out of 122, and was most prominent in areas of high µ opioid receptor density (thalamus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, caudate putamen, basal amygdala and hypothalamus, and focus on pain circuits indicated strong activation in major pain processing centers (central amygdala, solitary tract, parabrachial area, insular cortex, gigantocellularis area, ventral thalamus primary sensory cortex and prelimbic cortex. Importantly, the OXY-induced positive BOLD was eliminated in MuKO mice in most regions, with few exceptions (some cerebellar nuclei, CA3 of the hippocampus, medial amygdala and preoptic areas. This result indicates that most effects of OXY on positive BOLD are mediated by the µ opioid receptor (on-target effects. OXY also caused an increase in negative BOLD in WT mice in few regions (16 out of 122 and, unlike the positive BOLD response the negative BOLD was only partially eliminated in the MuKO mice (cerebellum, and in some case intensified (hippocampus. Negative BOLD analysis therefore shows activation and deactivation events in the absence of the µ receptor for some areas where receptor expression is normally extremely low or absent (off-target effects. Together, our approach permits establishing opioid-induced BOLD activation maps in awake mice. In addition, comparison of WT and MuKO mutant mice reveals both on-target and off-target activation events, and set an OXY

  2. Cross-experimental analysis of coat color variations and morphological characteristics of the japanese wild mouse, Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taichi A; Iwasa, Masahiro A

    2013-01-01

    There are many coat colors in the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus. On the basis of traditional genetics, there are four loci, A-D, related to coat color expressions. As shown by previous studies, Japanese wild mice have gray backs and white bellies and are assumed to carry the A(w) allele at the A (agouti) locus, which is dominant over any other alleles. However, we collected Japanese wild mice from central Honshu with black coats. To understand this black coat expression, we performed cross experiments concerning the four loci using wild-caught mice and DBA/2 laboratory mice from the standpoint of traditional genetics. The offspring of the current crosses showed the wild type, the blackish type, and the intermediate type from some combinations of parents. Considering the coat colors of the offspring, we did not obtain any evidence that the Japanese wild mice always carry the A(w) allele at the A locus. Furthermore, we were not able to explain the current coat color expressions using the traditional logic with regard to the A-D loci and concluded that it is possible for another locus (loci) to be related to the coat color expressions. On the other hand, skull characteristics and external body measurements of the captured wild mice were fundamentally different from those of DBA/2 and offspring from captured wild mice and DBA/2 combinations. Thus, we concluded that the Japanese wild mice had original criteria from a morphological viewpoint.

  3. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie

    2016-08-01

    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Contribution of CaMKIV to injury and fear- induced ultrasonic vocalizations in adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV is a protein kinase that activates the transcription factor CREB. Our previous work demonstrated that mice lacking CaMKIV had a defect in fear memory while behavioral responses to noxious stimuli were unchanged. Here, we measured ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs before and after fear conditioning and in response to a noxious injection of capsaicin to measure behavioral responses to emotional stimuli. Consistent with previous findings, behavioral nociceptive responses to capsaicin were undistinguishable between wild-type and CaMKIV-/- mice. Wild-type animals showed a selective increase in 50 kHz USVs in response to capsaicin while such an increase was absent in CaMKIV-/- mice. The foot shock given during fear conditioning caused an increase in 30 kHz USVs in both wild-type and CaMKIV-/- mice. When returned to the context one hour later, USVs from the wild-type were significantly decreased. Additionally, the onset of a tone, which had previously been paired with the foot shock, caused a significant decrease in USVs during auditory conditioning. CaMKIV-/- mice showed significantly less reduction in USVs when placed in the same context three days after receiving the shock, consistent with the decrease in freezing reported previously. Our results provide a new approach for investigating the molecular mechanism for emotional vocalization in mice and suggest that CaMKIV dependent signaling pathways play an important role in the emotional response to pain and fear.

  5. Deletion of hepatic FoxO1/3/4 genes in mice significantly impacts on glucose metabolism through downregulation of gluconeogenesis and upregulation of glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Xiong

    Full Text Available Forkhead transcription factors FoxO1/3/4 have pleiotrophic functions including anti-oxidative stress and metabolism. With regard to glucose metabolism, most studies have been focused on FoxO1. To further investigate their hepatic functions, we generated liver-specific FoxO1/3/4 knockout mice (LTKO and examined their collective impacts on glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. As compared to wild-type mice, LTKO mice had lower blood glucose levels under both fasting and non-fasting conditions and they manifested better glucose and pyruvate tolerance on regular chow diet. After challenged by a high-fat diet, wild-type mice developed type 2 diabetes, but LTKO mice remained euglycemic and insulin-sensitive. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we examined the roles of SIRT6 (Sirtuin 6 and Gck (glucokinase in the FoxO-mediated glucose metabolism. Interestingly, ectopic expression of SIRT6 in the liver only reduced gluconeogenesis in wild-type but not LTKO mice whereas knockdown of Gck caused glucose intolerance in both wild-type and LTKO mice. The data suggest that both decreased gluconeogenesis and increased glycolysis may contribute to the overall glucose phenotype in the LTKO mice. Collectively, FoxO1/3/4 transcription factors play important roles in hepatic glucose homeostasis.

  6. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates ischemia-reperfusion injury of the small intestine in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Watanabe

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 recognizes conserved molecular patterns associated with both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and detects some endogenous ligands. Previous studies demonstrated that in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury of the small intestine, the TLR2-dependent signaling exerted preventive effects on the damage in young mice, but did not have a significant effect in neonatal mice. We investigated the role of TLR2 in adult ischemia-reperfusion injury in the small intestine. Wild-type and TLR2 knockout mice at 16 weeks of age were subjected to intestinal I/R injury. Some wild-type mice received anti-Ly-6G antibodies to deplete circulating neutrophils. In wild-type mice, I/R induced severe small intestinal injury characterized by infiltration by inflammatory cells, disruption of the mucosal epithelium, and mucosal bleeding. Compared to wild-type mice, TLR2 knockout mice exhibited less severe mucosal injury induced by I/R, with a 35%, 33%, and 43% reduction in histological grading score and luminal concentration of hemoglobin, and the numbers of apoptotic epithelial cells, respectively. The I/R increased the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and the levels of mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the small intestine of the wild-type mice by 3.3-, 3.2-, and 13.0-fold, respectively. TLR2 deficiency significantly inhibited the I/R-induced increase in MPO activity and the expression of mRNAs for TNF-α and ICAM-1, but did not affect the expression of COX-2 mRNA. I/R also enhanced TLR2 mRNA expression by 2.9-fold. TLR2 proteins were found to be expressed in the epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, and endothelial cells. Neutrophil depletion prevented intestinal I/R injury in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that TLR2 may mediate I/R injury of the small intestine in adult mice via induction of inflammatory

  7. TRIF Differentially Regulates Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation/Fibrosis in MiceSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 signaling is activated through 2 adaptor proteins: MyD88 and TIR-domain containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF. TLR4 and MyD88 are crucial in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and fibrosis. However, the role of TRIF in TLR4-mediated NASH and fibrosis has been elusive. This study investigated the differential roles of TRIF in hepatic steatosis and inflammation/fibrosis. Methods: A choline-deficient amino acid defined (CDAA diet was used for the mouse NASH model. On this diet, the mice develop hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. TLR4 wild-type and TLR4-/- bone marrow chimeric mice and TRIF-/- mice were fed CDAA or a control diet for 22 weeks. Hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were examined. Results: In the CDAA diet–induced NASH, the mice with wild-type bone marrow had higher alanine aminotransferase and hepatic tumor necrosis factor levels than the mice with TLR4-/- bone marrow. The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score showed that both wild-type and TLR4-/- bone marrow chimeras had reduced hepatic steatosis, and that both types of chimeras had similar levels of inflammation and hepatocyte ballooning to whole-body wild-type mice. Notably, wild-type recipients showed more liver fibrosis than TLR4-/- recipients. Although TRIF-/- mice showed reduced hepatic steatosis, these mice showed more liver injury, inflammation, and fibrosis than wild-type mice. TRIF-/- stellate cells and hepatocytes produced more C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1 and C-C motif chemokine ligand than wild-type cells in response to lipopolysaccharide. Consistently, TRIF-/- mice showed increased CXCL1 and CCL3 expression along with neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, which promotes liver inflammation and injury. Conclusions: In TLR4-mediated NASH, different liver cells have distinct roles in hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. TRIF promotes hepatic

  8. Comparative behaviour of lab.-cultured and wild-type Dacus oleae flies in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopy, R.J.; Haniotakis, G.E.; Economopoulos, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    Under field conditions, the authors compared the responses of lab.-type (ca. 85 generations under artificial conditions) and wild-type Dacus oleae flies to host plant colour and odour, host fruit colour and shape, small rectangles of different colours and shades, and McPhail-type traps of different colours baited with different odours. Except for the lab.-type flies being relatively more attracted toward red fruit models and small red rectangles and relatively less attracted toward yellow fruit models and small yellow rectangles than the wild type, the qualitative nature of the responses of the two fly types toward the various experimental treatments was essentially the same. Quantitatively, however, consistently smaller percentages of the released lab.-type than the released wild-type flies were recaptured, suggesting that the mobility, flight pattern, or vigour of the two types of flies may be different. (author)

  9. Reduced ability of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) to activate natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Andrea R.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Earhart, Cathleen A.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Potter, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates endochondrial ossification by activating the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase, natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B). Recently, a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation that causes severe dwarfism in mice was identified. The mutant, called long bone abnormality (lbab), contains a single point mutation that converts an arginine to a glycine in a conserved coding region of the CNP gene, but how this mutation affects CNP activity has not been reported. Here, we determined that thirty to greater than one hundred-fold more CNPlbab was required to activate NPR-B as compared to wild-type CNP in whole cell cGMP elevation and membrane guanylyl cyclase assays. The reduced ability of CNPlbab to activate NPR-B was explained, at least in part, by decreased binding since ten-fold more CNPlbab than wild-type CNP was required to compete with [125I][Tyr0]CNP for receptor binding. Molecular modeling suggested that the conserved arginine is critical for binding to an equally conserved acidic pocket in NPR-B. These results indicate that reduced binding to and activation of NPR-B causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice. PMID:18554750

  10. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S. [Unite de Neurobiologie Integrative du Systeme Cholinergique, URA CNRS 2182, Institut Pasteur, Departement de Neuroscience, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75015 Paris (France); Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 4 place du general Leclerc, 91400 Orsay (France); Wiklund, A. [Section of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity {beta}2-containing nicotinic receptors ({beta}2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the {beta}2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and {beta}2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, {beta}2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via {alpha}7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on {beta}2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  11. Brain activation by short-term nicotine exposure in anesthetized wild-type and beta2-nicotinic receptors knockout mice: a BOLD fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.V.; Changeux, J.P.; Granon, S.; Amadon, A.; Giacomini, E.; Le Bihan, D.; Wiklund, A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The behavioral effects of nicotine and the role of the beta2-containing nicotinic receptors in these behaviors are well documented. However, the behaviors altered by nicotine rely on the functioning on multiple brain circuits where the high-affinity β2-containing nicotinic receptors (β2*nAChRs) are located. Objectives We intend to see which brain circuits are activated when nicotine is given in animals naive for nicotine and whether the β2*nAChRs are needed for its activation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in all brain areas. Materials and methods: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the brain activation evoked by nicotine (1 mg/kg delivered at a slow rate for 45 min) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice and β2 knockout (KO) mice. Results: Acute nicotine injection results in a significant increased activation in anterior frontal, motor, and somatosensory cortices and in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra. Anesthetized mice receiving no nicotine injection exhibited a major decreased activation in all cortical and subcortical structures, likely due to prolonged anesthesia. At a global level, β2 KO mice were not rescued from the globally declining BOLD signal. However, nicotine still activated regions of a meso-cortico-limbic circuit likely via α7 nicotinic receptors. Conclusions: Acute nicotine exposure compensates for the drop in brain activation due to anesthesia through the meso-cortico-limbic network via the action of nicotine on β2*nAChRs. The developed fMRI method is suitable for comparing responses in wild-type and mutant mice. (authors)

  12. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux leads to esophageal cancer in a surgical model with mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoxin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophago-gastroduodenal anastomosis with rats mimics the development of human Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by introducing mixed reflux of gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus. However, use of this rat model for mechanistic and chemopreventive studies is limited due to lack of genetically modified rat strains. Therefore, a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma is needed. Methods We performed reflux surgery on wild-type, p53A135V transgenic, and INK4a/Arf+/- mice of A/J strain. Some mice were also treated with omeprazole (1,400 ppm in diet, iron (50 mg/kg/m, i.p., or gastrectomy plus iron. Mouse esophagi were harvested at 20, 40 or 80 weeks after surgery for histopathological analysis. Results At week 20, we observed metaplasia in wild-type mice (5%, 1/20 and p53A135V mice (5.3%, 1/19. At week 40, metaplasia was found in wild-type mice (16.2%, 6/37, p53A135V mice (4.8%, 2/42, and wild-type mice also receiving gastrectomy and iron (6.7%, 1/15. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma developed in INK4a/Arf+/- mice (7.1%, 1/14, and wild-type mice receiving gastrectomy and iron (21.4%, 3/14. Among 13 wild-type mice which were given iron from week 40 to 80, twelve (92.3% developed squamous cell carcinoma at week 80. None of these mice developed esophageal adenocarcinoma. Conclusion Surgically induced gastroesophageal reflux produced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but not esophageal adenocarcinoma, in mice. Dominant negative p53 mutation, heterozygous loss of INK4a/Arf, antacid treatment, iron supplementation, or gastrectomy failed to promote esophageal adenocarcinoma in these mice. Further studies are needed in order to develop a mouse model of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  14. MGE-derived nNOS+ interneurons promote fear acquisition in nNOS-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Jin; Cao, Bo; Kong, Cheng-Cheng; Yuan, Fang; Li, Jun; Ni, Huan-Yu; Wu, Hai-Yin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yan; Luo, Chun-Xia

    2017-12-02

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) 1 , mainly responsible for NO release in central nervous system (CNS) 2 , plays a significant role in multiple physiological functions. However, the function of nNOS + interneurons in fear learning has not been much explored. Here we focused on the medial ganglionic eminences (MGE) 3 -derived nNOS + interneurons in fear learning. To determine the origin of nNOS + interneurons, we cultured neurons in vitro from MGE, cortex, lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) 4 , caudal ganglionic eminences (CGE) 5 and preoptic area (POA) 6 . The results showed that MGE contained the most abundant precursors of nNOS + interneurons. Moreover, donor cells from E12.5 embryos demonstrated the highest positive rate of nNOS + interneurons compared with other embryonic periods (E11.5, E12, E13, E13.5 and E14). Additionally, these cells from E12.5 embryos showed long axonal and abundant dendritic arbors after 10 days culture, indicating the capability to disperse and integrate in host neural circuits after transplantation. To investigate the role of MGE-derived nNOS + interneurons in fear learning, donor MGE cells were transplanted into dentate gyrus (DG) 7 of nNOS knock-out (nNOS -/- ) or wild-type mice. Results showed that the transplantation of MGE cells promoted the acquisition of nNOS -/- but not the wild-type mice, suggesting the importance of nNOS + neurons in fear acquisition. Moreover, we transplanted MGE cells from nNOS -/- mice or wild-type mice into DG of the nNOS -/- mice and found that only MGE cells from wild-type mice but not the nNOS -/- mice rescued the deficit in acquisition of the nNOS -/- mice, further confirming the positive role of nNOS + neurons in fear learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Akt-mediated cardioprotective effects of aldosterone in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Loubina; Azibani, Feriel; Bihry, Nicolas; Coutance, Guillaume; Polidano, Evelyne; Merval, Régine; Vodovar, Nicolas; Launay, Jean-Marie; Delcayre, Claude; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2014-06-01

    Studies have shown that aldosterone would have angiogenic effects and therefore would be beneficial in the context of cardiovascular diseases. We thus investigated the potential involvement of aldosterone in triggering a cardiac angiogenic response in the context of type-2 diabetes and the molecular pathways involved. Male 3-wk-old aldosterone synthase (AS)-overexpressing mice and their control wild-type (WT) littermates were fed a standard or high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. After 6 mo of diet treatment, mice were euthanized, and cardiac samples were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistology. HFHS diet induced type-2 diabetes in WT (WT-D) and AS (AS-D) mice. VEGFa mRNAs decreased in WT-D (-43%, P<0.05 vs. WT) and increased in AS-D mice (+236%, P< 0.01 vs. WT-D). In WT-D mouse hearts, the proapoptotic p38MAPK was activated (P<0.05 vs. WT and AS-D), whereas Akt activity decreased (-64%, P<0.05 vs. WT). The AS mice, which exhibited a cardiac up-regulation of IGF1-R, showed an increase in Akt phosphorylation when diabetes was induced (P<0.05 vs. WT and AS-D). Contrary to WT-D mice, AS-D mouse hearts did not express inflammatory markers and exhibited a normal capillary density (P<0.05 vs. WT-D). To our knowledge, this is the first study providing new insights into the mechanisms whereby aldosterone prevents diabetes-induced cardiac disorders. © FASEB.

  16. Myg1-deficient mice display alterations in stress-induced responses and reduction of sex-dependent behavioural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Mari-Anne; Abramov, Urho; Lilleväli, Kersti; Luuk, Hendrik; Kurrikoff, Kaido; Raud, Sirli; Plaas, Mario; Innos, Jürgen; Puussaar, Triinu; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero

    2010-02-11

    Myg1 (Melanocyte proliferating gene 1) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed gene, which encodes a protein with mitochondrial and nuclear localization. In the current study we demonstrate a gradual decline of Myg1 expression during the postnatal development of the mouse brain that suggests relevance for Myg1 in developmental processes. To study the effects of Myg1 loss-of-function, we created Myg1-deficient (-/-) mice by displacing the entire coding sequence of the gene. Initial phenotyping, covering a multitude of behavioural, cognitive, neurological, physiological and stress-related responses, revealed that homozygous Myg1 (-/-) mice are vital, fertile and display no gross abnormalities. Myg1 (-/-) mice showed an inconsistent pattern of altered anxiety-like behaviour in different tests. The plus-maze and social interaction tests revealed that male Myg1 (-/-) mice were significantly less anxious than their wild-type littermates; female (-/-) mice showed increased anxiety in the locomotor activity arena. Restraint-stress significantly reduced the expression of the Myg1 gene in the prefrontal cortex of female wild-type mice and restrained female (-/-) mice showed a blunted corticosterone response, suggesting involvement of Myg1 in stress-induced responses. The main finding of the present study was that Myg1 invalidation decreases several behavioural differences between male and female animals that were obvious in wild-type mice, indicating that Myg1 contributes to the expression of sex-dependent behavioural differences in mice. Taken together, we provide evidence for the involvement of Myg1 in anxiety- and stress-related responses and suggest that Myg1 contributes to the expression of sex-dependent behavioural differences.

  17. Human thrombomodulin knock-in mice reveal differential effects of human thrombomodulin on thrombosis and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raife, Thomas J; Dwyre, Denis M; Stevens, Jeff W; Erger, Rochelle A; Leo, Lorie; Wilson, Katina M; Fernández, Jose A; Wilder, Jennifer; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Griffin, John H; Maeda, Nobuyo; Lentz, Steven R

    2011-11-01

    We sought to develop a murine model to examine the antithrombotic and antiinflammatory functions of human thrombomodulin in vivo. Knock-in mice that express human thrombomodulin from the murine thrombomodulin gene locus were generated. Compared with wild-type mice, human thrombomodulin knock-in mice exhibited decreased protein C activation in the aorta (Pknock-in mice compared with wild-type mice (Pknock-in mice (12±3 minutes) than in wild-type mice (31±6 minutes; Pknock-in and wild-type mice after injection of endotoxin. When crossed with apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and fed a Western diet, knock-in mice had a further decrease in protein C activation but did not exhibit increased atherosclerosis. Expression of human thrombomodulin in place of murine thrombomodulin produces viable mice with a prothrombotic phenotype but unaltered responses to systemic inflammatory or atherogenic stimuli. This humanized animal model will be useful for investigating the function of human thrombomodulin under pathophysiological conditions in vivo.

  18. The ESA Mice in Space (MIS) habitat: effects of cage confinement on neuromusculoskeletal structure and function and stress/behavior using wild-type C57Bl/6JRj mice in a modular science reference model (MSRM) test on ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blottner, Dieter; Vico, Laurence; Jamon, D. Berckmansp L. Vicop Y. Liup R. Canceddap M.

    Background: Environmental conditions likely affect physiology and behaviour of mice used for Life Sciences Research on Earth and in Space. Thus, mice habitats with sufficient statistical numbers should be developed for adequate life support and care and that should meet all nesces-sary ethical and scientific requirements needed to successfully perform animal experimentation in Space. Aim of study: We here analysed the effects of cage confinement on the weightbear-ing musculoskeletal system, behaviour and stress of wild-type mice (C57BL/6JRj, 30 g b.wt., total n = 24) housed for 25 days in a prototypical ground-based MSRM (modular science ref-erence module) in the frame of breadboard activities for a fully automated life support habitat called "Mice in Space" (MIS) at the Leuven University, Belgium. Results: Compared with control housing (individually ventilated cages, IVC-mice) the MIS mice revealed no significant changes in soleus muscle size and myofiber distribution (type I vs. II) and quality of bone (3-D microarchitecture and mineralisation of calvaria, spine and femur) determined by confocal and micro-computed tomography. Corticosterone metabolism measured non-invasively (faeces) monitored elevated adrenocortical activity at only start of the MIS cage confinement (day 1). Behavioural tests (i.e., grip strength, rotarod, L/D box, elevated plus-maze, open field, ag-gressiveness) performed subsequently revealed only minor changes in motor performance (MIS vs. controls). Conclusions: The MIS habitat will not, on its own, produce major effects that could confound interpretation of data induced by microgravity exposure on orbit as planned for future biosatellite programmes. Sponsors: ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL

  19. Mice lacking melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 demonstrate increased heart rate associated with altered autonomic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrand, Annika; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Larsdotter, Sara; Mahlapuu, Margit; Andersén, Harriet; Tornell, Jan; Ohlsson, Claes; Snaith, Mike; Morgan, David G A

    2004-10-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) plays an important role in energy balance. The current studies were carried out on a new line of mice lacking the rodent MCH receptor (MCHR1(-/-) mice). These mice confirmed the previously reported lean phenotype characterized by increased energy expenditure and modestly increased caloric intake. Because MCH is expressed in the lateral hypothalamic area, which also has an important role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, heart rate and blood pressure were measured by a telemetric method to investigate whether the increased energy expenditure in these mice might be due to altered autonomic nervous system activity. Male MCHR1(-/-) mice demonstrated a significantly increased heart rate [24-h period: wild type 495 +/- 4 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 561 +/- 8 beats/min (P dark phase: wild type 506 +/- 8 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 582 +/- 9 beats/min (P light phase: wild type 484 +/- 13 vs. MCHR1(-/-) 539 +/- 9 beats/min (P vs. MCHR1(-/-) 113 +/- 0.4 mmHg (P > 0.05)]. Locomotor activity and core body temperature were higher in the MCHR1(-/-) mice during the dark phase only and thus temporally dissociated from heart rate differences. On fasting, wild-type animals rapidly downregulated body temperature and heart rate. MCHR1(-/-) mice displayed a distinct delay in the onset of this downregulation. To investigate the mechanism underlying these differences, autonomic blockade experiments were carried out. Administration of the adrenergic antagonist metoprolol completely reversed the tachycardia seen in MCHR1(-/-) mice, suggesting an increased sympathetic tone.

  20. Difference in Perseverative Errors during a Visual Attention Task with Auditory Distractors in Alpha-9 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Wild Type and Knock-Out Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Jorratt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The auditory efferent system is a neural network that originates in the auditory cortex and projects to the cochlear receptor through olivocochlear (OC neurons. Medial OC neurons make cholinergic synapses with outer hair cells (OHCs through nicotinic receptors constituted by α9 and α10 subunits. One of the physiological functions of the α9 nicotinic receptor subunit (α9-nAChR is the suppression of auditory distractors during selective attention to visual stimuli. In a recent study we demonstrated that the behavioral performance of alpha-9 nicotinic receptor knock-out (KO mice is altered during selective attention to visual stimuli with auditory distractors since they made less correct responses and more omissions than wild type (WT mice. As the inhibition of the behavioral responses to irrelevant stimuli is an important mechanism of the selective attention processes, behavioral errors are relevant measures that can reflect altered inhibitory control. Errors produced during a cued attention task can be classified as premature, target and perseverative errors. Perseverative responses can be considered as an inability to inhibit the repetition of an action already planned, while premature responses can be considered as an index of the ability to wait or retain an action. Here, we studied premature, target and perseverative errors during a visual attention task with auditory distractors in WT and KO mice. We found that α9-KO mice make fewer perseverative errors with longer latencies than WT mice in the presence of auditory distractors. In addition, although we found no significant difference in the number of target error between genotypes, KO mice made more short-latency target errors than WT mice during the presentation of auditory distractors. The fewer perseverative error made by α9-KO mice could be explained by a reduced motivation for reward and an increased impulsivity during decision making with auditory distraction in KO mice.

  1. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Goto-Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  2. Time-place learning and memory persist in mice lacking functional Per1 and Per2 clock genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, C; Van Der Zee, E A; Hut, R A; Gerkema, M P

    2013-12-01

    With time-place learning, animals link a stimulus with the location and the time of day. This ability may optimize resource localization and predator avoidance in daily changing environments. Time-place learning is a suitable task to study the interaction of the circadian system and memory. Previously, we showed that time-place learning in mice depends on the circadian system and Cry1 and/or Cry2 clock genes. We questioned whether time-place learning is Cry specific or also depends on other core molecular clock genes. Here, we show that Per1/Per2 double mutant mice, despite their arrhythmic phenotype, acquire time-place learning similar to wild-type mice. As well as an established role in circadian rhythms, Per genes have also been implicated in the formation and storage of memory. We found no deficiencies in short-term spatial working memory in Per mutant mice compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, both Per mutant and wild-type mice showed similar long-term memory for contextual features of a paradigm (a mild foot shock), measured in trained mice after a 2-month nontesting interval. In contrast, time-place associations were lost in both wild-type and mutant mice after these 2 months, suggesting a lack of maintained long-term memory storage for this type of information. Taken together, Cry-dependent time-place learning does not require Per genes, and Per mutant mice showed no PER-specific short-term or long-term memory deficiencies. These results limit the functional role of Per clock genes in the circadian regulation of time-place learning and memory.

  3. Quantitative analysis by next generation sequencing of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK and of splenic B cells transcriptomes from wild-type and Usp3-knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Lancini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The data described here provide genome-wide expression profiles of murine primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK and of B cell populations, obtained by high throughput sequencing. Cells are derived from wild-type mice and from mice deficient for the ubiquitin-specific protease 3 (USP3; Usp3Δ/Δ. Modification of histone proteins by ubiquitin plays a crucial role in the cellular response to DNA damage (DDR (Jackson and Durocher, 2013 [1]. USP3 is a histone H2A deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB that regulates ubiquitin-dependent DDR in response to DNA double-strand breaks (Nicassio et al., 2007; Doil et al., 2008 [2,3]. Deletion of USP3 in mice increases the incidence of spontaneous tumors and affects hematopoiesis [4]. In particular, Usp3-knockout mice show progressive loss of B and T cells and decreased functional potential of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs during aging. USP3-deficient cells, including HSCs, display enhanced histone ubiquitination, accumulate spontaneous DNA damage and are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation (Lancini et al., 2014 [4]. To address whether USP3 loss leads to deregulation of specific molecular pathways relevant to HSC homeostasis and/or B cell development, we have employed the RNA-sequencing technology and investigated transcriptional differences between wild-type and Usp3Δ/Δ LSK, naïve B cells or in vitro activated B cells. The data relate to the research article “Tight regulation of ubiquitin-mediated DNA damage response by USP3 preserves the functional integrity of hematopoietic stem cells” (Lancini et al., 2014 [4]. The RNA-sequencing and analysis data sets have been deposited in NCBI׳s Gene Expression Omnibus (Edgar et al., 2002 [5] and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE58495 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE58495. With this article, we present validation of the RNA-seq data set through quantitative real-time PCR and comparative analysis. Keywords: B

  4. Mammary tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice is enhanced by X-irradiation with a characteristic age dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuhiko, Imaoka; Mayumi, Nishimura; Shizuko, Kakinuma; Yoshiya, Shimada; Mieko, Okamoto

    2006-01-01

    The ApcM min/+ (Min) mouse is a genetically predisposed model of both intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. We investigated age-related changes in the susceptibility of mice (before, during and after puberty) to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis using this model. Female Min and wild-type mice having the C57BL/6J background were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 2, 5, 7 and 10 weeks and sacrificed at 18 weeks of age. Min mice irradiated at 7 to 10 weeks of age (after puberty) developed mammary tumors with squamous metaplasia, whereas their wild-type litter-mates did not. Interestingly, irradiation of Min mice at 2 to 5 weeks (before and during puberty, respectively) did not induce mammary tumors but rather cystic nodules with metaplasia. The mammary tumors exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin protein and loss of the wild-type Apc allele. Our results show that susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis increases after puberty in Min mice, suggesting that the tumorigenic effect of ionizing radiation targets the lobular-alveolar progenitor cells, which increase in number with age and are controlled by beta-catenin signaling. (author)

  5. Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity is attenuated in transgenic mice with a null mutation for interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladenheim, B; Krasnova, I N; Deng, X; Oyler, J M; Polettini, A; Moran, T H; Huestis, M A; Cadet, J L

    2000-12-01

    Increasing evidence implicates apoptosis as a major mechanism of cell death in methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity. The involvement of a neuroimmune component in apoptotic cell death after injury or chemical damage suggests that cytokines may play a role in METH effects. In the present study, we examined if the absence of IL-6 in knockout (IL-6-/-) mice could provide protection against METH-induced neurotoxicity. Administration of METH resulted in a significant reduction of [(125)I]RTI-121-labeled dopamine transporters in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and cortex as well as depletion of dopamine in the CPu and frontal cortex of wild-type mice. However, these METH-induced effects were significantly attenuated in IL-6-/- animals. METH also caused a decrease in serotonin levels in the CPu and hippocampus of wild-type mice, but no reduction was observed in IL-6-/- animals. Moreover, METH induced decreases in [(125)I]RTI-55-labeled serotonin transporters in the hippocampal CA3 region and in the substantia nigra-reticulata but increases in serotonin transporters in the CPu and cingulate cortex in wild-type animals, all of which were attenuated in IL-6-/- mice. Additionally, METH caused increased gliosis in the CPu and cortices of wild-type mice as measured by [(3)H]PK-11195 binding; this gliotic response was almost completely inhibited in IL-6-/- animals. There was also significant protection against METH-induced DNA fragmentation, measured by the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeled (TUNEL) cells in the cortices. The protective effects against METH toxicity observed in the IL-6-/- mice were not caused by differences in temperature elevation or in METH accumulation in wild-type and mutant animals. Therefore, these observations support the proposition that IL-6 may play an important role in the neurotoxicity of METH.

  6. Resveratrol increases F508del-CFTR dependent salivary secretion in cystic fibrosis mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dhooghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a fatal genetic disease associated with widespread exocrine gland dysfunction. Studies have suggested activating effects of resveratrol, a naturally-occurring polyphenol compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR protein function. We assayed, in F508del-CFTR homozygous (CF and in wild-type mice, the effect of resveratrol on salivary secretion in basal conditions, in response to inhibition by atropine (basal β-adrenergic-dependent component and to stimulation by isoprenaline (CFTR-dependent component. Both components of the salivary secretion were smaller in CF mice than in controls. Two hours after intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (50 mg/kg dissolved in DMSO, the compound was detected in salivary glands. As in both CF and in wild-type mice, DMSO alone increased the response to isoprenaline in males but not in females, the effect of resveratrol was only measured in females. In wild-type mice, isoprenaline increased secretion by more than half. In CF mice, resveratrol rescued the response to isoprenaline, eliciting a 2.5-fold increase of β-adrenergic-stimulated secretion. We conclude that the salivary secretion assay is suitable to test DMSO-soluble CFTR modulators in female mice. We show that resveratrol applied in vivo to mice reaches salivary glands and increases β-adrenergic secretion. Immunolabelling of CFTR in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that the effect is associated with increased CFTR protein expression. Our data support the view that resveratrol is beneficial for treating CF. The salivary secretion assay has a potential application to test efficacy of novel CF therapies.

  7. Wild-Type, but Not Mutant N296H, Human Tau Restores Aβ-Mediated Inhibition of LTP in Tau−/− mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vargas-Caballero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and many forms of frontotemporal dementia (FTD. We recently reported that Aβ-mediated inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP in mice requires tau. Here, we asked whether expression of human MAPT can restore Aβ-mediated inhibition on a mouse Tau−/− background and whether human tau with an FTD-causing mutation (N296H can interfere with Aβ-mediated inhibition of LTP. We used transgenic mouse lines each expressing the full human MAPT locus using bacterial artificial chromosome technology. These lines expressed all six human tau protein isoforms on a Tau−/− background. We found that the human wild-type MAPT H1 locus was able to restore Aβ42-mediated impairment of LTP. In contrast, Aβ42 did not reduce LTP in slices in two independently generated transgenic lines expressing tau protein with the mutation N296H associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD. Basal phosphorylation of tau measured as the ratio of AT8/Tau5 immunoreactivity was significantly reduced in N296H mutant hippocampal slices. Our data show that human MAPT is able to restore Aβ42-mediated inhibition of LTP in Tau−/− mice. These results provide further evidence that tau protein is central to Aβ-induced LTP impairment and provide a valuable tool for further analysis of the links between Aβ, human tau and impairment of synaptic function.

  8. The effects of enhanced zinc on spatial memory and plaque formation in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkous, D.H.; Adlard, P.A.; Wanschura, P.B.; Conko, K.M.; Flinn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable evidence suggesting that metals play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Reports suggest that elevated dietary metals may both precipitate and potentiate an Alzheimer's disease phenotype. Despite this, there remain few studies that have examined the behavioral consequences of elevated dietary metals in wild type and Alzheimer's disease animals. To further investigate this in the current study, two separate transgenic models of AD (Tg2576 and TgCRND8), together with wild type littermates were administered 10 ppm (0.153 mM) Zn. Tg2576 animals were maintained on a zinc-enriched diet both pre- and postnatally until 11 months of age, while TgCRND8 animals were treated for five months following weaning. Behavioral testing, consisting of "Atlantis" and "moving" platform versions of the Morris water maze, were conducted at the end of the study, and tissues were collected for immunohistochemical analysis of amyloid-β burden. Our data demonstrate that the provision of a zinc-enriched diet potentiated Alzheimer-like spatial memory impairments in the transgenic animals and was associated with reduced hippocampal amyloid-β plaque deposits. Zinc-related behavioral deficits were also demonstrated in wild type mice, which were sometimes as great as those present in the transgenic animals. However, zinc-related cognitive impairments in transgenic mice were greater than the summation of zinc effects in the wild type mice and the transgene effects.

  9. Late inflammatory and thrombotic changes in irradiated hearts of C57BL/6 wild-type and atherosclerosis-prone ApoE-deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patties, I.; Glasow, A. [University of Leipzig, Department of Radiation Therapy, Leipzig (Germany); Haagen, J. [University of Technology, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [University of Technology, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); CCC, Medical University/AKH, Department of Radiation Oncology and Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiooncology, Vienna (Austria); Hildebrandt, G. [University of Rostock, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-09-09

    Radiation-induced heart disease represents a late complication of thoracic radiotherapy. We investigated the inflammatory and thrombotic response after local heart irradiation in wild-type and atherosclerosis-prone mice. Atherosclerosis-prone ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 wild-type mice were sacrificed 20, 40, and 60 weeks after irradiation with 0.2, 2, 8, or 16 Gy. The expression of CD31, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), thrombomodulin (TM), and CD45 were quantified by immunofluorescence staining of heart tissue sections. Microvascular density decreased at 40 weeks after 16 Gy in C57BL/6 but not in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. CD31 expression declined in C57BL/6 mice at 40 weeks (8 Gy), but increased in ApoE{sup -/-} mice at 20 (2/8/16 Gy) and 60 weeks (16 Gy). Capillary area decreased in C57BL/6 at 40 weeks (8/16 Gy) but increased in ApoE{sup -/-} mice at 20 weeks (16 Gy). Endocardial VCAM-1 expression remained unchanged. TM-positive capillaries decreased at 40 weeks (8/16 Gy) in C57BL/6 and at 60 weeks (2/16 Gy) in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Leukocyte infiltration transiently rose 40 weeks after 8 Gy (only ApoE{sup -/-}) and 16 Gy. After receiving a low irradiation dose of 0.2 Gy, no significant changes were observed in any of the mouse models. This study demonstrated that local heart irradiation affects microvascular structure and induces inflammatory/thrombotic responses in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thereby, significant prothrombotic changes were found in both strains, although they were progressive in ApoE{sup -/-} mice only. Proinflammatory responses, like the increase of adhesion molecules and leukocyte infiltration, were more pronounced and occurred at lower doses in ApoE{sup -/-} vs. C57BL/6 mice. These findings indicate that metabolic risk factors, such as decreased ApoE lipoproteins, may lead to an enhanced proinflammatory and prothrombotic late response in locally irradiated hearts. (orig.) [German] Strahlungsinduzierte kardiovaskulaere

  10. Alteration of skin wound healing in keratinocyte-specific mediator complex subunit 1 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Fumihito; Nakajima, Takeshi; Inui, Shigeki; Reddy, Janardan K; Itami, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    MED1 (Mediator complex subunit 1) is a co-activator of various transcription factors that function in multiple transcriptional pathways. We have already established keratinocyte-specific MED1 null mice (Med1(epi-/-)) that develop epidermal hyperplasia. Herein, to investigate the function(s) of MED1 in skin wound healing, full-thickness skin wounds were generated in Med1(epi-/-) and age-matched wild-type mice and the healing process was analyzed. Macroscopic wound closure and the re-epithelialization rate were accelerated in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/-) mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. Increased lengths of migrating epithelial tongues and numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis were observed in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/-) mice, whereas wound contraction and the area of α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts in the granulation tissue were unaffected. Migration was enhanced in Med1(epi-/-) keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes in vitro. Immunoblotting revealed that the expression of follistatin was significantly decreased in Med1(epi-/-) keratinocytes. Moreover, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was enhanced before and after treatment of Med1(epi-/-) keratinocytes with activin A in vitro. Cell-cycle analysis showed an increased ratio of S phase cells after activin A treatment of Med1(epi-/-) keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes. These findings indicate that the activin-follistatin system is involved in this acceleration of skin wound healing in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/-) mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing in 6-month-old Med1(epi-/-) mice was significantly delayed with decreased numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis as well as BrdU-positive label retaining cells in hair follicles compared with age-matched wild-type mice. These results agree with our previous observation that hair follicle bulge stem cells are reduced in older Med1(epi-/-) mice, indicating a decreased contribution of hair

  11. Alteration of skin wound healing in keratinocyte-specific mediator complex subunit 1 null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihito Noguchi

    Full Text Available MED1 (Mediator complex subunit 1 is a co-activator of various transcription factors that function in multiple transcriptional pathways. We have already established keratinocyte-specific MED1 null mice (Med1(epi-/- that develop epidermal hyperplasia. Herein, to investigate the function(s of MED1 in skin wound healing, full-thickness skin wounds were generated in Med1(epi-/- and age-matched wild-type mice and the healing process was analyzed. Macroscopic wound closure and the re-epithelialization rate were accelerated in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/- mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. Increased lengths of migrating epithelial tongues and numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis were observed in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/- mice, whereas wound contraction and the area of α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts in the granulation tissue were unaffected. Migration was enhanced in Med1(epi-/- keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes in vitro. Immunoblotting revealed that the expression of follistatin was significantly decreased in Med1(epi-/- keratinocytes. Moreover, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was enhanced before and after treatment of Med1(epi-/- keratinocytes with activin A in vitro. Cell-cycle analysis showed an increased ratio of S phase cells after activin A treatment of Med1(epi-/- keratinocytes compared with wild-type keratinocytes. These findings indicate that the activin-follistatin system is involved in this acceleration of skin wound healing in 8-week-old Med1(epi-/- mice. On the other hand, skin wound healing in 6-month-old Med1(epi-/- mice was significantly delayed with decreased numbers of Ki67-positive cells at the wounded epidermis as well as BrdU-positive label retaining cells in hair follicles compared with age-matched wild-type mice. These results agree with our previous observation that hair follicle bulge stem cells are reduced in older Med1(epi-/- mice, indicating a decreased contribution of hair

  12. Angiotensin II blockade causes acute renal failure in eNOS-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schnermann

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared with wild-type mice, adult endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice (eight months of age have increased blood pressure (BP (126±9 mmHg vs. 100±4 mmHg, and an increased renal vascular resistance (155±16 vs. 65±4 mmHg.min/ml. Renal vascular resistance responses to i.v. administration of noradrenaline were markedly enhanced in eNOS knockout mice. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR of anaesthetised eNOS -/- mice was 324±57 µl/min gKW, significantly lower than the GFR of 761±126 µl/min.gKW in wild-type mice. AT1-receptor blockade with i.v. candesartan (1—1.5 mg/kg reduced arterial blood pressure and renal vascular resistance, and increased renal blood flow (RBF to about the same extent in wild-type and eNOS -/- mice. Candesartan did not alter GFR in wild-type mice (761±126 vs. 720±95 µl/min.gKW, but caused a marked decrease in GFR in eNOS -/- mice (324.5±75.2 vs. 77±18 µl/min.gKW. A similar reduction in GFR of eNOS deficient mice was also caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition. Afferent arteriolar granularity, a measure of renal renin expression, was found to be reduced in eNOS -/- compared with wild-type mice. In chronically eNOS-deficient mice, angiotensin II (Ang II is critical for maintaining glomerular filtration pressure and GFR, presumably through its effect on efferent arteriolar tone.

  13. Bodyweight Assessment of Enamelin Null Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H.-L. Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enam null mice appear to be smaller than wild-type mice, which prompted the hypothesis that enamel defects negatively influence nutritional intake and bodyweight gain (BWG. We compared the BWG of Enam−/− and wild-type mice from birth (D0 to Day 42 (D42. Wild-type (WT and Enam−/− (N mice were given either hard chow (HC or soft chow (SC. Four experimental groups were studied: WTHC, WTSC, NHC, and NSC. The mother’s bodyweight (DBW and the average litter bodyweight (ALBW were obtained from D0 to D21. After D21, the pups were separated from the mother and provided the same type of food. Litter bodyweights were measured until D42. ALBW was compared at 7-day intervals using one-way ANOVA, while the influence of DBW on ALBW was analyzed by mixed-model analyses. The ALBW of Enam−/− mice maintained on hard chow (NHC was significantly lower than the two WT groups at D21 and the differences persisted into young adulthood. The ALBW of Enam−/− mice maintained on soft chow (NSC trended lower, but was not significantly different than that of the WT groups. We conclude that genotype, which affects enamel integrity, and food hardness influence bodyweight gain in postnatal and young adult mice.

  14. Neonatal periostin knockout mice are protected from hyperoxia-induced alveolar simplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Bozyk

    Full Text Available In bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, alveolar septae are thickened with collagen and α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor (TGF-β-positive myofibroblasts. Periostin, a secreted extracellular matrix protein, is involved in TGF-β-mediated fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation. We hypothesized that periostin expression is required for hypoalveolarization and interstitial fibrosis in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice, an animal model for this disease. We also examined periostin expression in neonatal lung mesenchymal stromal cells and lung tissue of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice and human infants with BPD. Two-to-three day-old wild-type and periostin null mice were exposed to air or 75% oxygen for 14 days. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from tracheal aspirates of premature infants. Hyperoxic exposure of neonatal mice increased alveolar wall periostin expression, particularly in areas of interstitial thickening. Periostin co-localized with α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting synthesis by myofibroblasts. A similar pattern was found in lung sections of infants dying of BPD. Unlike wild-type mice, hyperoxia-exposed periostin null mice did not show larger air spaces or α-smooth muscle-positive myofibroblasts. Compared to hyperoxia-exposed wild-type mice, hyperoxia-exposed periostin null mice also showed reduced lung mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin, elastin, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL4. TGF-β treatment increased mesenchymal stromal cell periostin expression, and periostin treatment increased TGF-β-mediated DNA synthesis and myofibroblast differentiation. We conclude that periostin expression is increased in the lungs of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice and infants with BPD, and is required for hyperoxia-induced hypoalveolarization and interstitial fibrosis.

  15. Altered thermogenesis and impaired bone remodeling in Misty mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyl, Katherine J; Bishop, Kathleen A; DeMambro, Victoria E; Bornstein, Sheila A; Le, Phuong; Kawai, Masanobu; Lotinun, Sutada; Horowitz, Mark C; Baron, Roland; Bouxsein, Mary L; Rosen, Clifford J

    2013-09-01

    Fat mass may be modulated by the number of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) in humans and rodents. Bone remodeling is dependent on systemic energy metabolism and, with age, bone remodeling becomes uncoupled and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function declines. To test the interaction between BAT and bone, we employed Misty (m/m) mice, which were reported be deficient in BAT. We found that Misty mice have accelerated age-related trabecular bone loss and impaired brown fat function (including reduced temperature, lower expression of Pgc1a, and less sympathetic innervation compared to wild-type (+/ +)). Despite reduced BAT function, Misty mice had normal core body temperature, suggesting heat is produced from other sources. Indeed, upon acute cold exposure (4°C for 6 hours), inguinal WAT from Misty mice compensated for BAT dysfunction by increasing expression of Acadl, Pgc1a, Dio2, and other thermogenic genes. Interestingly, acute cold exposure also decreased Runx2 and increased Rankl expression in Misty bone, but only Runx2 was decreased in wild-type. Browning of WAT is under the control of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and, if present at room temperature, could impact bone metabolism. To test whether SNS activity could be responsible for accelerated trabecular bone loss, we treated wild-type and Misty mice with the β-blocker, propranolol. As predicted, propranolol slowed trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) loss in the distal femur of Misty mice without affecting wild-type. Finally, the Misty mutation (a truncation of DOCK7) also has a significant cell-autonomous role. We found DOCK7 expression in whole bone and osteoblasts. Primary osteoblast differentiation from Misty calvaria was impaired, demonstrating a novel role for DOCK7 in bone remodeling. Despite the multifaceted effects of the Misty mutation, we have shown that impaired brown fat function leads to altered SNS activity and bone loss, and for the first time that cold

  16. Histidine Decarboxylase Deficiency Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Alkan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has highlighted the role of histamine in inflammation. Since this monoamine has also been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes, we assessed its effect in the nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse model. To this end, we used mice (inactivated knocked out for the gene encoding histidine decarboxylase, the unique histamine-forming enzyme, backcrossed on a NOD genetic background. We found that the lack of endogenous histamine in NOD HDC−/− mice decreased the incidence of diabetes in relation to their wild-type counterpart. Whereas the proportion of regulatory T and myeloid-derived suppressive cells was similar in both strains, histamine deficiency was associated with increased levels of immature macrophages, as compared with wild-type NOD mice. Concerning the cytokine pattern, we found a decrease in circulating IL-12 and IFN-γ in HDC−/− mice, while IL-6 or leptin remained unchanged, suggesting that histamine primarily modulates the inflammatory environment. Paradoxically, exogenous histamine given to NOD HDC−/− mice provided also protection against T1D. Our study supports the notion that histamine is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes, thus providing additional evidence for its role in the regulation of the immune response.

  17. Acute food deprivation reverses morphine-induced locomotion deficits in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Stephan; Lee, Esther; Wasserman, David; Yeomans, John S

    2013-09-01

    Lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), one of two sources of cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), block conditioned place preference (CPP) for morphine in drug-naïve rats. M5 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, expressed by midbrain dopamine neurons, are critical for the ability of morphine to increase nucleus accumbens dopamine levels and locomotion, and for morphine CPP. This suggests that M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to VTA dopamine neurons critically contribute to morphine-induced dopamine activation, reward and locomotion. In the current study we tested whether food deprivation, which reduces PPT contribution to morphine CPP in rats, could also reduce M5 contributions to morphine-induced locomotion in mice. Acute 18-h food deprivation reversed the phenotypic differences usually seen between non-deprived wild-type and M5 knockout mice. That is, food deprivation increased morphine-induced locomotion in M5 knockout mice but reduced morphine-induced locomotion in wild-type mice. Food deprivation increased saline-induced locomotion equally in wild-type and M5 knockout mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that food deprivation reduces the contribution of M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to the VTA in morphine-induced locomotion and increases the contribution of a PPT-independent pathway. The contributions of cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons to the effects of acute food deprivation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Postnatal mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice: Differences revealed from bone remodeling patterns and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Molinero, Amalia; Ventura, Jacint

    2017-08-01

    Comparative information on the variation in the temporospatial patterning of mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice during early postnatal ontogeny is scarce but important to understand variation among wild rodent populations. Here, we compare mandible growth between two ontogenetic series from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, corresponding to two different groups of mice reared under the same conditions: the classical inbred strain C57BL/6J, and Mus musculus domesticus. We characterize the ontogenetic patterns of bone remodeling of the mandibles belonging to these laboratory and wild mice by analyzing bone surface, as well as examine their ontogenetic form changes and bimodular organization using geometric morphometrics. Through ontogeny, the two mouse groups display similar directions of mandible growth, according to the temporospatial distribution of bone remodeling fields. The allometric shape variation of the mandibles of these mice entails the relative enlargement of the ascending ramus. The organization of the mandible into two modules is confirmed in both groups during the last postnatal weeks. However, especially after weaning, the mandibles of wild and laboratory mice differ in the timing and localization of several remodeling fields, in addition to exhibiting different patterns of shape variation and differences in size. The stimulation of dentary bone growth derived from the harder post-weaning diet might account for some features of postnatal mandible growth common to both groups. Nonetheless, a large component of the postnatal growth of the mouse mandible appears to be driven by the inherent genetic programs, which might explain between-group differences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mammary tumorigenesis in APC{sup min/+} mice is enhanced by X-irradiation with a characteristic age dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuhiko, Imaoka; Mayumi, Nishimura; Shizuko, Kakinuma; Yoshiya, Shimada [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Experimental Radiobiology for Children' s Health Research Group, Research, Center for Radiation Protection (Japan); Mieko, Okamoto [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    The ApcM{sup min/+} (Min) mouse is a genetically predisposed model of both intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. We investigated age-related changes in the susceptibility of mice (before, during and after puberty) to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis using this model. Female Min and wild-type mice having the C57BL/6J background were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 2, 5, 7 and 10 weeks and sacrificed at 18 weeks of age. Min mice irradiated at 7 to 10 weeks of age (after puberty) developed mammary tumors with squamous metaplasia, whereas their wild-type litter-mates did not. Interestingly, irradiation of Min mice at 2 to 5 weeks (before and during puberty, respectively) did not induce mammary tumors but rather cystic nodules with metaplasia. The mammary tumors exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin protein and loss of the wild-type Apc allele. Our results show that susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis increases after puberty in Min mice, suggesting that the tumorigenic effect of ionizing radiation targets the lobular-alveolar progenitor cells, which increase in number with age and are controlled by beta-catenin signaling. (author)

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation Suppresses Cytochrome P450 Induction Potential in Mice Treated with Gemfibrozil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cunzhong; Min, Luo; Yang, Julin; Dai, Manyun; Song, Danjun; Hua, Huiying; Xu, Gangming; Gonzalez, Frank J; Liu, Aiming

    2017-09-01

    Gemfibrozil, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is widely used for hypertriglyceridaemia and mixed hyperlipidaemia. Drug-drug interaction of gemfibrozil and other PPARα agonists has been reported. However, the role of PPARα in cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction by fibrates is not well known. In this study, wild-type mice were first fed gemfibrozil-containing diets (0.375%, 0.75% and 1.5%) for 14 days to establish a dose-response relationship for CYP induction. Then, wild-type mice and Pparα-null mice were treated with a 0.75% gemfibrozil-containing diet for 7 days. CYP3a, CYP2b and CYP2c were induced in a dose-dependent manner by gemfibrozil. In Pparα-null mice, their mRNA level, protein level and activity were induced more than those in wild-type mice. So, gemfibrozil induced CYP, and this action was inhibited by activated PPARα. These data suggested that the induction potential of CYPs was suppressed by activated PPARα, showing a potential role of this receptor in drug-drug interactions and metabolic diseases treated with fibrates. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  1. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara H Windahl

    Full Text Available Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2, encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2. 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (-36%, p<0.05 and cortical bone mineral content (-15%, p<0.05 but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05 in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05. Female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels.

  2. Role of neuropsin in parvalbumin immunoreactivity changes in hippocampal basket terminals of mice reared in various environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harumitsu eSuzuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro approaches have suggested that neuropsin (or kallikrein 8/KLK8, which controls gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmission through neuregulin-1 and its receptor (ErbB4, is involved in neural plasticity (Tamura et al., 2012, 2013. In the present study, we examined whether parvalbumin (PV-positive neuronal networks, the majority of which are ErbB4-positive GABAergic interneurons, are controlled by neuropsin in tranquil and stimulated voluntarily behaving mice.PV-immunoreactive fibers surrounding hippocampal pyramidal and granular neurons in mice reared in their home cage were decreased in neuropsin-deficient mice, suggesting that neuropsin controls PV immunoreactivity. One- or two-week exposures of wild mice to novel environments, in which they could behave freely and run voluntarily in a wheel resulted in a marked upregulation of both neuropsin mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. To elucidate the functional relevance of the increase in neuropsin during exposure to a rich environment, the intensities of PV-immunoreactive fibers were compared between neuropsin-deficient and wild-type mice under environmental stimuli. When mice were transferred into novel cages (large cages with toys, the intensity of PV-immunoreactive fibers increased in wild-type mice and neuropsin-deficient mice. Therefore, behavioral stimuli control a neuropsin-independent form of PV immunoreactivity. However, the neuropsin-dependent part of the change in PV-immunoreactive fibers may occur in the stimulated hippocampus because increased levels of neuropsin continued during these enriched conditions.

  3. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  4. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  5. Increased susceptibility to Yersinia enterocolitica Infection of Tff2 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aftab A; Mihalj, Martina; Ratkay, Ivana; Lubka-Pathak, Maria; Balogh, Peter; Klingel, Karin; Bohn, Erwin; Blin, Nikolaus; Baus-Loncar, Mirela

    2012-01-01

    TFF2 is one of the members of the trefoil factor family, known for its role in protection of gastrointestinal epithelia upon injury; however, recent studies suggest that TFF2 could also play an important role in the immune system. In the present study Tff2 deficient and wild type mice were infected by Y. enterocolitica which resulted in a lethal outcome in all Tff2 deficient mice, but not in WT animals. Yersinia invaded Peyer's patches more efficiently as shown by high bacterial titers in the KO mice while wild type mice displayed lower titers and a visible bacterial accumulation in the intestine. Bacterial accumulation in Peyer's patches of Tff2 deficient mice was accompanied by increased recruitment of macrophages. While an increased level of MAC-1 positive cells was observed in the spleens of both Tff2 deficient and WT mice at third day post infection, bacterial dissemination to liver, lung and kidneys was observed only in Tff2 knock-out mice. Analysis of the cellular composition of spleen did not reveal any substantial alteration to WT animals, suggesting possible disregulation of hemopoietic cells involved in immune response to Y. enterocolitica. These new data indicate that Tff2 plays an important role in immune response by protecting the organism from consequences of infection and that Tff2 knock-out mice react adversely to bacterial infections, in this case specifically to Y. enterocolitica. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II and folate deficiencies result in reciprocal protection against cognitive and social deficits in mice: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaevitz, Laura R; Picker, Jonathan D; Rana, Jasmine; Kolodny, Nancy H; Shane, Barry; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne E; Coyle, Joseph T

    2012-06-01

    Interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors underlie a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ) and autism (AD). Due to the complexity and multitude of the genetic and environmental factors attributed to these disorders, recent research strategies focus on elucidating the common molecular pathways through which these multiple risk factors may function. In this study, we examine the combined effects of a haplo-insufficiency of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) and dietary folic acid deficiency. In addition to serving as a neuropeptidase, GCPII catalyzes the absorption of folate. GCPII and folate depletion interact within the one-carbon metabolic pathway and/or of modulate the glutamatergic system. Four groups of mice were tested: wild-type, GCPII hypomorphs, and wild-types and GCPII hypomorphs both fed a folate deficient diet. Due to sex differences in the prevalence of SZ and AD, both male and female mice were assessed on a number of behavioral tasks including locomotor activity, rotorod, social interaction, prepulse inhibition, and spatial memory. Wild-type mice of both sexes fed a folic acid deficient diet showed motor coordination impairments and cognitive deficits, while social interactions were decreased only in males. GCPII mutant mice of both sexes also exhibited reduced social propensities. In contrast, all folate-depleted GCPII hypomorphs performed similarly to untreated wild-type mice, suggesting that reduced GCPII expression and folate deficiency are mutually protective. Analyses of folate and neurometabolite levels associated with glutamatergic function suggest several potential mechanisms through which GCPII and folate may be interacting to create this protective effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Isoflurane Damages the Developing Brain of Mice and Induces Subsequent Learning and Memory Deficits through FASL-FAS Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwen Yi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Isoflurane disrupts brain development of neonatal mice, but its mechanism is unclear. We explored whether isoflurane damaged developing hippocampi through FASL-FAS signaling pathway, which is a well-known pathway of apoptosis. Method. Wild type and FAS- or FASL-gene-knockout mice aged 7 days were exposed to either isoflurane or pure oxygen. We used western blotting to study expressions of caspase-3, FAS (CD95, and FAS ligand (FASL or CD95L proteins, TUNEL staining to count apoptotic cells in hippocampus, and Morris water maze (MWM to evaluate learning and memory. Result. Isoflurane increased expression of FAS and FASL proteins in wild type mice. Compared to isoflurane-treated FAS- and FASL-knockout mice, isoflurane-treated wild type mice had higher expression of caspase-3 and more TUNEL-positive hippocampal cells. Expression of caspase-3 in wild isoflurane group, wild control group, FAS/FASL-gene-knockout control group, and FAS/FASL-gene-knockout isoflurane group showed FAS or FASL gene knockout might attenuate increase of caspase-3 caused by isoflurane. MWM showed isoflurane treatment of wild type mice significantly prolonged escape latency and reduced platform crossing times compared with gene-knockout isoflurane-treated groups. Conclusion. Isoflurane induces apoptosis in developing hippocampi of wild type mice but not in FAS- and FASL-knockout mice and damages brain development through FASL-FAS signaling.

  8. α7-Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: role in early odor learning preference in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Hellier

    Full Text Available Recently, we have shown that mice with decreased expression of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 in the olfactory bulb were associated with a deficit in odor discrimination compared to wild-type mice. However, it is unknown if mice with decreased α7-receptor expression also show a deficit in early odor learning preference (ELP, an enhanced behavioral response to odors with attractive value observed in rats. In this study, we modified ELP methods performed in rats and implemented similar conditions in mice. From post-natal days 5-18, wild-type mice were stroked simultaneously with an odor presentation (conditioned odor for 90 s daily. Control mice were only stroked, exposed to odor, or neither. On the day of testing (P21, mice that were stroked in concert with a conditioned odor significantly investigated the conditioned odor compared to a novel odor, as observed similarly in rats. However, mice with a decrease in α7-receptor expression that were stroked during a conditioned odor did not show a behavioral response to that odorant. These results suggest that decreased α7-receptor expression has a role in associative learning, olfactory preference, and/or sensory processing deficits.

  9. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent, but poorly characterized, effects on the skeleton. The cellular activity of GCs is regulated at a prereceptor level by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11betaHSDs). The type 1 isoform, which predominates in bone, functions as a reductase in intact cells...... and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes...... in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow...

  10. Lacking Ketohexokinase-A Exacerbates Renal Injury in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doke, Tomohito; Ishimoto, Takuji; Hayasaki, Takahiro; Ikeda, Satsuki; Hasebe, Masako; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Kato, Noritoshi; Kosugi, Tomoki; Tsuboi, Naotake; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Johnson, Richard J; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2018-03-28

    Ketohexokinase (KHK), a primary enzyme in fructose metabolism, has two isoforms, namely, KHK-A and KHK-C. Previously, we reported that renal injury was reduced in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice which lacked both isoforms. Although both isoforms express in kidney, it has not been elucidated whether each isoform plays distinct roles in the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The aim of the study is to elucidate the role of KHK-A for DKD progression. Diabetes was induced by five consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 J wild-type mice, mice lacking KHK-A alone (KHK-A KO), and mice lacking both KHK-A and KHK-C (KHK-A/C KO). At 35 weeks, renal injury, inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress were examined. Metabolomic analysis including polyol pathway, fructose metabolism, glycolysis, TCA (tricarboxylic acid) cycle, and NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) metabolism in kidney and urine was done. Diabetic KHK-A KO mice developed severe renal injury compared to diabetic wild-type mice, and this was associated with further increases of intrarenal fructose, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), TCA cycle intermediates levels, and severe inflammation. In contrast, renal injury was prevented in diabetic KHK-A/C KO mice compared to both wild-type and KHK-A KO diabetic mice. Further, diabetic KHK-A KO mice contained decreased renal NAD + level with the increase of renal hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha expression despite having increased renal nicotinamide (NAM) level. These results suggest that KHK-C might play a deleterious role in DKD progression through endogenous fructose metabolism, and that KHK-A plays a unique protective role against the development of DKD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Anti-tumor activity of high-dose EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and sequential docetaxel in wild type EGFR non-small cell lung cancer cell nude mouse xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Zhang, Qianqian; Fang, Shu; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zhehai

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is still a challenge. This study explored antitumor activity of high-dose icotinib (an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) plus sequential docetaxel against wild-type EGFR NSCLC cells-generated nude mouse xenografts. Nude mice were subcutaneously injected with wild-type EGFR NSCLC A549 cells and divided into different groups for 3-week treatment. Tumor xenograft volumes were monitored and recorded, and at the end of experiments, tumor xenografts were removed for Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Compared to control groups (negative control, regular-dose icotinib [IcoR], high-dose icotinib [IcoH], and docetaxel [DTX]) and regular icotinib dose (60 mg/kg) with docetaxel, treatment of mice with a high-dose (1200 mg/kg) of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel for 3 weeks (IcoH-DTX) had an additive effect on suppression of tumor xenograft size and volume (P Icotinib-containing treatments markedly reduced phosphorylation of EGFR, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase B (Akt), but only the high-dose icotinib-containing treatments showed an additive effect on CD34 inhibition (P icotinib plus docetaxel had a similar effect on mouse weight loss (a common way to measure adverse reactions in mice), compared to the other treatment combinations. The study indicate that the high dose of icotinib plus sequential docetaxel (IcoH-DTX) have an additive effect on suppressing the growth of wild-type EGFR NSCLC cell nude mouse xenografts, possibly through microvessel density reduction. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:27852073

  12. Impaired bone healing at tooth extraction sites in CD24-deficient mice: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, Limor; Avivi, Doran; Perez, Marilena; Arber, Nadir; Shapira, Shiran

    2018-01-01

    To use a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to quantify bone healing at maxillary first molar extraction sites, and test the hypothesis that bone healing is impaired in CD24-knockout mice as compared with wild-type C57BL/6J mice. Under ketamine-xylazine general anaesthesia, mice had either extraction of the right maxillary first molar tooth or sham operation. Mice were sacrificed 1 (n = 12/group), 2 (n = 6/group) or 4 (n = 6/group) weeks postoperatively. The right maxillae was disected. Micro-CT was used to quantify differences in bone microstructural features at extrction sites, between CD24-knockout mice and wild-type mice. CD24-Knockout mice displayed impaired bone healing at extraction sites that was manifested as decreased trabecular bone density, and decreased number and thickness of trabeculae. This pilot study suggests that CD24 plays an important role in extraction socket bone healing and may be used as a novel biomarker of bone quality and potential therapeutic target to improve bone healing and density following alveolar bone injury.

  13. Impact of interleukin-6 on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and lung inflammation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izziki Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of various forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH. Recent studies in patients with idiopathic PH or PH associated with underlying diseases suggest a role for interleukin-6 (IL-6. Methods To determine whether endogenous IL-6 contributes to mediate hypoxic PH and lung inflammation, we studied IL-6-deficient (IL-6-/- and wild-type (IL-6+/+ mice exposed to hypoxia for 2 weeks. Results Right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricle hypertrophy, and the number and media thickness of muscular pulmonary vessels were decreased in IL-6-/- mice compared to wild-type controls after 2 weeks' hypoxia, although the pressure response to acute hypoxia was similar in IL-6+/+ and IL-6-/- mice. Hypoxia exposure of IL-6+/+ mice led to marked increases in IL-6 mRNA and protein levels within the first week, with positive IL-6 immunostaining in the pulmonary vessel walls. Lung IL-6 receptor and gp 130 (the IL-6 signal transducer mRNA levels increased after 1 and 2 weeks' hypoxia. In vitro studies of cultured human pulmonary-artery smooth-muscle-cells (PA-SMCs and microvascular endothelial cells revealed prominent synthesis of IL-6 by PA-SMCs, with further stimulation by hypoxia. IL-6 also markedly stimulated PA-SMC migration without affecting proliferation. Hypoxic IL-6-/- mice showed less inflammatory cell recruitment in the lungs, compared to hypoxic wild-type mice, as assessed by lung protein levels and immunostaining for the specific macrophage marker F4/80, with no difference in lung expression of adhesion molecules or cytokines. Conclusion These data suggest that IL-6 may be actively involved in hypoxia-induced lung inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling in mice.

  14. Vitamin K2 biosynthetic enzyme, UBIAD1 is essential for embryonic development of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kimie; Sawada, Natsumi; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Uchino, Yuri; Suhara, Yoshitomo; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio; Okamoto, Tadashi; Tsugawa, Naoko; Kamao, Maya; Funahashi, Nobuaki; Okano, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    UbiA prenyltransferase domain containing 1 (UBIAD1) is a novel vitamin K2 biosynthetic enzyme screened and identified from the human genome database. UBIAD1 has recently been shown to catalyse the biosynthesis of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in zebrafish and human cells. To investigate the function of UBIAD1 in vivo, we attempted to generate mice lacking Ubiad1, a homolog of human UBIAD1, by gene targeting. Ubiad1-deficient (Ubiad1(-/-)) mouse embryos failed to survive beyond embryonic day 7.5, exhibiting small-sized body and gastrulation arrest. Ubiad1(-/-) embryonic stem (ES) cells failed to synthesize vitamin K2 but were able to synthesize CoQ9, similar to wild-type ES cells. Ubiad1(+/-) mice developed normally, exhibiting normal growth and fertility. Vitamin K2 tissue levels and synthesis activity were approximately half of those in the wild-type, whereas CoQ9 tissue levels and synthesis activity were similar to those in the wild-type. Similarly, UBIAD1 expression and vitamin K2 synthesis activity of mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from Ubiad1(+/-) E15.5 embryos were approximately half of those in the wild-type, whereas CoQ9 levels and synthesis activity were similar to those in the wild-type. Ubiad1(-/-) mouse embryos failed to be rescued, but their embryonic lifespans were extended to term by oral administration of MK-4 or CoQ10 to pregnant Ubiad1(+/-) mice. These results suggest that UBIAD1 is responsible for vitamin K2 synthesis but may not be responsible for CoQ9 synthesis in mice. We propose that UBIAD1 plays a pivotal role in embryonic development by synthesizing vitamin K2, but may have additional functions beyond the biosynthesis of vitamin K2.

  15. Effects of Exercise on Progranulin Levels and Gliosis in Progranulin-Insufficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Patel, Aashka R; Roberson, Erik D

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin ( GRN ) are one of the most common genetic causes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder with no available disease-modifying treatments. Through haploinsufficiency, these mutations reduce levels of progranulin, a protein that has neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory effects. Increasing progranulin expression from the intact allele is therefore a potential approach for treating individuals with GRN mutations. Based on the well-known effects of physical exercise on other neurotrophic factors, we hypothesized that exercise might increase brain progranulin levels. We tested this hypothesis in progranulin heterozygous ( Grn + / - ) mice, which model progranulin haploinsufficiency. We housed wild-type and progranulin-insufficient mice in standard cages or cages with exercise wheels for 4 or 7.5 weeks, and then measured brain and plasma progranulin levels. Although exercise modestly increased progranulin in very young (2-month-old) wild-type mice, this effect was limited to the hippocampus. Exercise did not increase brain progranulin mRNA or protein in multiple regions, nor did it increase plasma progranulin, in 4- to 8-month-old wild-type or Grn + / - mice, across multiple experiments and under conditions that increased hippocampal BDNF and neurogenesis. Grn - / - mice were included in the study to test for progranulin-independent benefits of exercise on gliosis. Exercise attenuated cortical microgliosis in 8-month-old Grn - / - mice, consistent with a progranulin-independent, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. These results suggest that exercise may have some modest, nonspecific benefits for FTD patients with progranulin mutations, but do not support exercise as a strategy to raise progranulin levels.

  16. Disruption of NBS1 gene leads to early embryonic lethality in homozygous null mice and induces specific cancer in heterozygous mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurimasa, Akihiro; Burma, Sandeep; Henrie, Melinda; Ouyang, Honghai; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Ito, Hisao; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Little, John B.; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Li, Gloria C.; Chen, David J.

    2002-04-15

    Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive chromosome instability syndrome characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition, with cellular features similar to that of ataxia telangiectasia (AT). NBS results from mutations in the mammalian gene Nbs1 that codes for a 95-kDa protein called nibrin, NBS1, or p95. To establish an animal model for NBS, we attempted to generate NBS1 knockout mice. However, NBS1 gene knockouts were lethal at an early embryonic stage. NBS1 homozygous(-/-) blastocyst cells cultured in vitro showed retarded growth and subsequently underwent growth arrest within 5 days of culture. Apoptosis, assayed by TUNEL staining, was observed in NBSI homozygous(-/-) blastocyst cells cultured for four days. NBSI heterozygous(+/-) mice were normal, and exhibited no specific phenotype for at least one year. However, fibroblast cells from NBSI heterozygous(+/-) mice displayed an enhanced frequency of spontaneous transformation to anchorage-independent growth as compared to NBS1 wild-type(+/+) cells. Furthermore, heterozygous(+/-) mice exhibited a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma after one year compared to wild-type mice, even though no significant differences in the incidence of other tumors such as lung adenocarcinoma and lymphoma were observed. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that NBS1 heterozygosity and reduced NBSI expression induces formation of specific tumors in mice.

  17. Use of tissue-specific microRNA to control pathology of wild-type adenovirus without attenuation of its ability to kill cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Ryan; Chen, Hannah H; Carroll, Fionnadh; Bazan-Peregrino, Miriam; van Rooijen, Nico; Seymour, Leonard W

    2009-05-01

    Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective microRNA expression now affords the possibility of engineering replicating viruses that are attenuated at the RNA level in sites of potential pathology, but retain wild-type replication activity at sites not expressing the relevant microRNA. To assess the usefulness of this approach for the DNA virus adenovirus, we have engineered a hepatocyte-safe wild-type adenovirus 5 (Ad5), which normally mediates significant toxicity and is potentially lethal in mice. To do this, we have included binding sites for hepatocyte-selective microRNA mir-122 within the 3' UTR of the E1A transcription cassette. Imaging versions of these viruses, produced by fusing E1A with luciferase, showed that inclusion of mir-122 binding sites caused up to 80-fold decreased hepatic expression of E1A following intravenous delivery to mice. Animals administered a ten-times lethal dose of wild-type Ad5 (5x10(10) viral particles/mouse) showed substantial hepatic genome replication and extensive liver pathology, while inclusion of 4 microRNA binding sites decreased replication 50-fold and virtually abrogated liver toxicity. This modified wild-type virus retained full activity within cancer cells and provided a potent, liver-safe oncolytic virus. In addition to providing many potent new viruses for cancer virotherapy, microRNA control of virus replication should provide a new strategy for designing safe attenuated vaccines applied across a broad range of viral diseases.

  18. Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in inferior olive neurons are dynamically regulated by P/Q- and T-type calcium channels: a study in mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Daesoo; Urbano, Francisco J; Makarenko, Vladimir; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2010-08-15

    The role of P/Q- and T-type calcium channels in the rhythmic oscillatory behaviour of inferior olive (IO) neurons was investigated in mutant mice. Mice lacking either the CaV2.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1A subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel, or the CaV3.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1G subunit for T-type calcium channel were used. In vitro intracellular recording from IO neurons reveals that the amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal subthreshold oscillations (SSTOs) were reduced in the CaV2.1-/- mice. In the CaV3.1-/- mice, IO neurons also showed altered patterns of SSTOs and the probability of SSTO generation was significantly lower (15%, 5 of 34 neurons) than that of wild-type (78%, 31 of 40 neurons) or CaV2.1-/- mice (73%, 22 of 30 neurons). In addition, the low-threshold calcium spike and the sustained endogenous oscillation following rebound potentials were absent in IO neurons from CaV3.1-/- mice. Moreover, the phase-reset dynamics of oscillatory properties of single neurons and neuronal clusters in IO were remarkably altered in both CaV2.1-/- and CaV3.1-/- mice. These results suggest that both alpha1A P/Q- and alpha1G T-type calcium channels are required for the dynamic control of neuronal oscillations in the IO. These findings were supported by results from a mathematical IO neuronal model that incorporated T and P/Q channel kinetics.

  19. Porphyrin Interactions with Wild Type and Mutant Mouse Ferrochelatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Gloria C.; Franco, Ricardo; Lu, Yi; Ma, Jian-Guo; Shelnutt, John A.

    1999-05-19

    Ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1), the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes Fe2+ chelation into protoporphyrin IX. Resonance Raman and W-visible absorbance spectroscopes of wild type and engineered variants of murine ferrochelatase were used to examine the proposed structural mechanism for iron insertion into protoporphyrin by ferrochelatase. The recombinant variants (i.e., H207N and E287Q) are enzymes in which the conserved amino acids histidine-207 and glutamate-287 of murine ferrochelatase were substituted with asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Both of these residues are at the active site of the enzyme as deduced from the Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure. Addition of free base or metalated porphyrins to wild type ferrochelatase and H207N variant yields a quasi 1:1 complex, possibly a monomeric protein-bound species. In contrast, the addition of porphyrin (either free base or metalated) to E287Q is sub-stoichiometric, as this variant retains bound porphyrin in the active site during isolation and purification. The specificity of porphyrin binding is confirmed by the narrowing of the structure-sensitive resonance Raman lines and the vinyl vibrational mode. Resonance Raman spectra of free base and metalated porphyrins bound to the wild type ferrochelatase indicate a nonplanar distortion of the porphyrin macrocycle, although the magnitude of the distortion cannot be determined without first defining the specific type of deformation. Significantly, the extent of the nonplanar distortion varies in the case of H207N- and E287Q-bound porphyrins. In fact, resonance Raman spectral decomposition indicates a homogeneous ruffled distortion for the nickel protoporphyrin bound to the wild type ferrochelatase, whereas both a planar and ruffled conformations are present for the H207N-bound porphyrin. Perhaps more revealing is the unusual resonance , 3 Raman spectrum of the endogenous E287Q-bound porphyrin, which has

  20. The effect of UVB on flavonoid biosynthesis in wild type and mutant petunia and arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, K.G.; Swinny, E.E.; Markham, K.R.; Winefield, C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Flavonoids may protect plants against damage by UVB radiation. Flavonoid composition and mRNA expression were determined following growth of plants under natural light, and under natural light with low UVB and with enhanced UVB. In wild-type Arabidopsis and Petunia, UVB induced an increase in total levels of flavonols and this was due to an up-regulation of, several genes coding for key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. In addition, UVB induced a higher rate of production of the di-hydroxylated si flavonol, quercetin glycoside than of the mono-hydroxylated equivalent, of kaempferol glycoside. Thus the ratio of quercetin to kaempferol increased with UVB treatment in wild type plants, and this suggests that the flavonoid r 3'hydroxylase (F3'H) enzyme, which converts dihydrokaempferol to dihydroquercetin, may play a key role in plant protection from UVB. Mutant plants of both species lacking this F3'H gene were grown under similar UV conditions. Leaves of the mutant Arabidopsis plant (tt7) did not contain quercetin, even under the enhanced UVB treatment. Under the low UVB treatment the total amount of flavonol was similar to the wild-type (Ler), but with increasing UVB, total flavonol (i.e. kaempferol) levels were significantly higher than in similarly treated wild type plants. In the Petunia F3'H mutant, low levels of quercetin were found even in the low UVB treatment, which indicates this variety may be producing some quercetin via an alternative pathway. Under UVB radiation, total flavonoids increased to levels significantly higher than in similarly treated wild type plants, and most of this material was kaempferol. These observations suggest that quercetin is the preferred protective flavonol in wild type plants, due perhaps to enhanced antioxidant or free radical scavenging activity. In mutant plants lacking the F3'H enzyme, the response is to produce a larger amount of a less effective photoprotectant

  1. Dual role of Fcγ receptors in host defense and disease in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Anne Belperron

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arthritis in mice infected with the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, results from the influx of innate immune cells responding to the pathogen in the joint and is influenced in part by mouse genetics. Production of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells in vitro is largely mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR interaction with Borrelia lipoproteins, yet surprisingly mice deficient in TLR2 or the TLR signaling molecule MyD88 still develop arthritis comparable to that seen in wild type mice after B. burgdorferi infection. These findings suggest that other, MyD88-independent inflammatory pathways can contribute to arthritis expression. Clearance of B. burgdorferi is dependent on the production of specific antibody and phagocytosis of the organism. As Fc receptors (FcγR are important for IgG-mediated clearance of immune complexes and opsonized particles by phagocytes, we examined the role that FcγR play in host defense and disease in B. burgdorferi-infected mice. B. burgdorferi-infected mice deficient in the Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcεRγ-/- mice harbored ~10 fold more spirochetes than similarly infected wild type mice, and this was associated with a transient increase in arthritis severity. While the elevated pathogen burdens seen in B. burgdorferi-infected MyD88-/- mice were not affected by concomitant deficiency in FcγR, arthritis was reduced in FcεRγ-/-MyD88-/- mice in comparison to wild type or single knockout mice. Gene expression analysis from infected joints demonstrated that absence of both MyD88 and FcγR lowers mRNA levels of proteins involved in inflammation, including Cxcl1 (KC, Xcr1 (Gpr5, IL-1beta, and C reactive protein. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for FcγR-mediated immunity in limiting pathogen burden and arthritis in mice during the acute phase of B. burgdorferi infection, and further suggest that this pathway contributes to the arthritis that develops in B. burgdorferi

  2. Comparative analysis of the protein compositions between wild type and body color mutant of helicoverpa armigera adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Chen Jin'e; Liu Yan; Wang Yongqiang; Liu Peigang; Meng Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the fineness and regulation mechanism of body color mutant of Helicoverpa armigera Hbner, the protein composition differences between adult of dominant mutant, recessive mutant and wild type were studied using the SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that the protein composition of the dominant mutant and wild type had little difference. However, there were obvious differences between the recessive mutant and wild-type. Three specific stripe were chosen for mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, and two types of proteins related to energy metabolism and cytoskeleton were identified. These findings suggested that the two types of proteins may be associated with occurrence and regulation of body color mutant traits of H. armigera. (authors)

  3. Inhibition of urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation in CYP2E1-null mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffler, Undi; Dixon, Darlene; Peddada, Shyamal; Ghanayem, Burhan I.

    2005-01-01

    Urethane is a multi-site animal carcinogen and was classified as 'reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.' Urethane is a fermentation by-product and found at appreciable levels in alcoholic beverages and foods such as bread and cheese. Recent work in this laboratory demonstrated for the first time that CYP2E1 is the principal enzyme responsible for urethane metabolism. The current studies were undertaken to assess the relationships between CYP2E1-mediated metabolism and urethane-induced genotoxicity and cell proliferation as determined by induction of micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and expression of Ki-67, respectively, using CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice. Urethane was administered at 0 (vehicle), 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day (p.o.), 5 days/week for 6 weeks. A significant dose-dependent increase in MN was observed in wild-type mice; however, a slight increase was measured in the MN-polychromatic erythrocytes in CYP2E1-null mice treated with 100 mg/kg. A significant increase in the expression of Ki-67 was detected in the livers and the lungs (terminal bronchioles, alveoli, and bronchi) of wild-type mice administered 100 mg urethane/kg in comparison to controls. In contrast, CYP2E1-null mice administered this dose exhibited negligible alterations in Ki-67 expression in the livers and lungs compared to controls. Interestingly, while Ki-67 expression in the forestomach decreased in wild-type mice, it increased in CYP2E1-null mice. Subsequent comparative metabolism studies demonstrated that total urethane-derived radioactivity in the plasma, liver, and lung was significantly higher in CYP2E1-null versus wild-type mice and un-metabolized urethane constituted greater than 83% of the radioactivity in CYP2E1-null mice. Un-metabolized urethane was not detectable in the plasma, liver, and lung of wild-type mice. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that CYP2E1-mediated metabolism of urethane, presumably via epoxide formation, is necessary for the induction of

  4. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard; Earl, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus

  5. Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Americo, Jeffrey L.; Sood, Cindy L.; Cotter, Catherine A.; Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.; Moss, Bernard, E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov; Earl, Patricia L., E-mail: pearl@nih.gov

    2014-01-20

    Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies. - Highlights: • Wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice are susceptible to vaccinia virus and cowpox virus. • Morbidity and mortality from orthopoxviruses are greater in CAST/Ei than BALB/c mice. • Morbidity and mortality from herpes simplex virus type 1 are similar in both mice. • Imaging shows virus spread from nose to lungs, abdominal organs and brain. • Vaccinia virus spreads more rapidly than cowpox virus.

  6. Impaired lipid accumulation in the liver of Tsc2-heterozygous mice during liver regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obayashi, Yoko, E-mail: youko_oobayashi@ajinomoto.com [Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Campbell, Jean S.; Fausto, Nelson [Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Yeung, Raymond S. [Department of Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •Tuberin phosphorylation correlated with mTOR activation in early liver regeneration. •Liver regeneration in the Tsc2+/− mice was not enhanced. •The Tsc2+/− livers failed to accumulate lipid bodies during liver regeneration. •Mortality rate increased in Tsc2+/− mice after partial hepatectomy. •Tuberin plays a critical role in hepatic lipid accumulation to support regeneration. -- Abstract: Tuberin is a negative regulator of mTOR pathway. To investigate the function of tuberin during liver regeneration, we performed 70% hepatectomy on wild-type and Tsc2+/− mice. We found the tuberin phosphorylation correlated with mTOR activation during early liver regeneration in wild-type mice. However, liver regeneration in the Tsc2+/− mice was not enhanced. Instead, the Tsc2+/− livers failed to accumulate lipid bodies, and this was accompanied by increased mortality. These findings suggest that tuberin plays a critical role in liver energy balance by regulating hepatocellular lipid accumulation during early liver regeneration. These effects may influence the role of mTORC1 on cell growth and proliferation.

  7. A different role of angiotensin II type 1a receptor in the development and hypertrophy of plantaris muscle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Ogawa, Masahito; Watanabe, Ryo; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-02-01

    The role of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors in muscle development and hypertrophy remains unclear. This study was designed to reveal the effects that a loss of AT1 receptors has on skeletal muscle development and hypertrophy in mice. Eight-week-old male AT1a receptor knockout (AT1a(-/-)) mice were used for this experiment. The plantaris muscle to body weight ratio, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and number of muscle fibers of AT1a(-/-) mice was significantly greater than wild type (WT) mice in the non-intervention condition. Next, the functional overload (OL) model was used to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the two triceps muscles consisting of the calf, soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles in mice. After 14 days of OL intervention, the plantaris muscle weight, the amount of fiber, and the fiber area increased. However, the magnitude of the increment of plantaris weight was not different between the two strains. Agtr1a mRNA expression did not change after OL in WT muscle. Actually, the Agt mRNA expression level of WT-OL was lower than WT-Control (C) muscle. An atrophy-related gene, atrogin-1 mRNA expression levels of AT1a(-/-)-C, WT-OL, and AT1a(-/-)-OL muscle were lower than that of WT-C muscle. Our findings suggest that AT1 receptor contributes to plantaris muscle development via atrogin-1 in mice.

  8. Genotype-dependent participation of coat color gene loci in the behavioral traits of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Aya

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate if loci responsible for coat color phenotypes contribute to behavioral characteristics, we specified novel gene loci associated with social exploratory behavior and examined the effects of the frequency of each allele at distinct loci on behavioral expression. We used the F2 generation, which arose from the mating of F1 mice obtained by interbreeding DBA/2 and ICR mice. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the agouti and albino loci affect behavioral traits. A genotype-based analysis revealed that novel exploratory activity was suppressed in a manner dependent on the frequency of the dominant wild-type allele at the agouti, but not albino, locus. The allele-dependent suppression was restricted to colored mice and was not seen in albino mice. The present results suggest that the agouti locus contributes to a particular behavioral trait in the presence of a wild-type allele at the albino locus, which encodes a structural gene for tyrosinase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. APP overexpression prevents neuropathic pain and motoneuron death after peripheral nerve injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; LePecheur, Marie; Marcol, Wiesław; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Paly, Evelyn; London, Jacqueline

    2010-03-16

    Despite general capacity of peripheral nervous system to regenerate, peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete recovery of function and sometimes burdened by neuropathic pain. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) was suggested to play a role in neuronal growth, however, its role in peripheral nerve repair was not studied. The aim of this study was to examine the role of APP overexpression in peripheral nerve regeneration and neuropathic pain-related behavior in mice. Sciatic nerves of APP overexpressing and FVB/N wild-type mice were transected and immediately resutured. Evaluation of motor and sensory function and autotomy was carried out during 4-week follow up. We found no autotomy behavior as well as less significant atrophy of denervated muscles in APP overexpressing animals when compared to wild-type ones. Sciatic nerve function index outcome did not differ between groups. Histological evaluation revealed that the intensity of regeneration features, including GAP-43-positive growth cones and Schwann cells number in the distal stump of the transected nerve, was also similar in both groups. However, the regenerating fibers were organized more chaotically in wild-type mice and neuromas were much more often seen in this group. The number of macrophages infiltrating the injury site was significantly higher in control group. The number of surviving motoneurons was higher in transgenic mice than in control animals. Taken together, our findings suggest that APP overexpression is beneficial for nerve regeneration processes due to better organization of regenerating fibers, increased survival of motoneurons after autotomy and prevention of neuropathic pain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BAX and tumor suppressor TRP53 are important in regulating mutagenesis in spermatogenic cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guogang; Vogel, Kristine S; McMahan, C Alex; Herbert, Damon C; Walter, Christi A

    2010-12-01

    During the first wave of spermatogenesis, and in response to ionizing radiation, elevated mutant frequencies are reduced to a low level by unidentified mechanisms. Apoptosis is occurring in the same time frame that the mutant frequency declines. We examined the role of apoptosis in regulating mutant frequency during spermatogenesis. Apoptosis and mutant frequencies were determined in spermatogenic cells obtained from Bax-null or Trp53-null mice. The results showed that spermatogenic lineage apoptosis was markedly decreased in Bax-null mice and was accompanied by a significantly increased spontaneous mutant frequency in seminiferous tubule cells compared to that of wild-type mice. Apoptosis profiles in the seminiferous tubules for Trp53-null were similar to control mice. Spontaneous mutant frequencies in pachytene spermatocytes and in round spermatids from Trp53-null mice were not significantly different from those of wild-type mice. However, epididymal spermatozoa from Trp53-null mice displayed a greater spontaneous mutant frequency compared to that from wild-type mice. A greater proportion of spontaneous transversions and a greater proportion of insertions/deletions 15 days after ionizing radiation were observed in Trp53-null mice compared to wild-type mice. Base excision repair activity in mixed germ cell nuclear extracts prepared from Trp53-null mice was significantly lower than that for wild-type controls. These data indicate that BAX-mediated apoptosis plays a significant role in regulating spontaneous mutagenesis in seminiferous tubule cells obtained from neonatal mice, whereas tumor suppressor TRP53 plays a significant role in regulating spontaneous mutagenesis between postmeiotic round spermatid and epididymal spermatozoon stages of spermiogenesis.

  11. Prohormone convertase 2 activity is increased in the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin eTein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMutations in WFS1 gene cause Wolfram syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic nerve atrophy and deafness (DIDMOAD. The WFS1 gene product wolframin is located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mice lacking this gene exhibit disturbances in the processing and secretion of peptides, such as vasopressin and insulin. In the brain, high levels of the wolframin protein have been observed in the hippocampus, amygdala and limbic structures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Wfs1 knockout on peptide processing in mouse hippocampus. A peptidomic approach was used to characterize individual peptides in the hippocampus of wild-type and Wfs1 knockout mice. ResultsWe identified 126 peptides in hippocampal extracts and the levels of 10 peptides differed between Wfs1 KO and wild-type mice at P<0.05. The peptide with the largest alteration was little-LEN, which level was 25 times higher in the hippocampus of Wfs1 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Processing (cleavage of little-LEN from the Pcsk1n gene product proSAAS involves prohormone convertase 2 (PC2. Thus, PC2 activity was measured in extracts prepared from the hippocampus of Wfs1 knockout mice. The activity of PC2 in Wfs1 mutant mice was significantly higher (149.9±2.3%, p<0.0001, n=8 than in wild-type mice (100.0±7.0%, n=8. However, Western blot analysis showed that protein levels of 7B2, proPC2 and PC2 were same in both groups, and so were gene expression levels.ConclusionsProcessing of proSAAS is altered in the hippocampus of Wfs1-KO mice, which is caused by increased activity of PC2. Increased activity of PC2 in Wfs1 knockout mice is not caused by alteration in the levels of PC2 protein. Our results suggest a functional link between Wfs1 and PC2. Thus, the detailed molecular mechanism of the role of Wfs1 in the regulation of PC2 activity needs further investigation.

  12. Evaluation of MIC Strip Isavuconazole test for susceptibility testing of wild-type and non-wild-type Aspergillus fumigatus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Verweij, Paul; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2. The essent......We evaluated the MIC Strip Isavuconazole test against EUCAST E.Def 9.3 by using 40 wild-type and 39 CYP51A mutant Aspergillus fumigatus strains. The strip full inhibition endpoint (FIE) and 80% growth inhibition endpoint were determined by two independent readers, reader 1 (R1) and R2...

  13. INTERACTION BETWEEN DELTA OPIOID RECEPTORS AND BENZODIAZEPINES IN CO2- INDUCED RESPIRATORY RESPONSES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Anne H.; Barnes, Dylan C.; Blanchette, Derek R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Klein, Donald F.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    The false-suffocation hypothesis of panic disorder (Klein, 1993) suggested δ-opioid receptors as a possible source of the respiratory dysfunction manifested in panic attacks occurring in panic disorder (Preter and Klein, 2008). This study sought to determine if a lack of δ-opioid receptors in a mouse model affects respiratory response to elevated CO2, and whether the response is modulated by benzodiazepines, which are widely used to treat panic disorder. In a whole-body plethysmograph, respiratory responses to 5% CO2 were compared between δ-opioid receptor knockout mice and wild-type mice after saline, diazepam (1 mg/kg), and alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg) injection. The results show that lack of δ-opioid receptors does not affect normal response to elevated CO2, but does prevent benzodiazepines from modulating that response. Thus, in the presence of benzodiazepine agonists, respiratory responses to elevated CO2 were enhanced in δ-opioid receptor knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. This suggests an interplay between benzodiazepine receptors and δ-opioid receptors in regulating the respiratory effects of elevated CO2, which might be related to CO2 induced panic. PMID:21561601

  14. Transient impairment of the adaptive response to fasting in FXR-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cariou, B; van Harmelen, K; Duran-Sandoval, D; van Dijk, T; Grefhorst, A; Bouchaert, E; Fruchart, JC; Gonzalez, FJ; Kuipers, F; Staels, B

    2005-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been suggested to play a role in gluconeogenesis. To determine whether FXR modulates the response to fasting in vivo, FXR-deficient (FXR-/-) and wild-type mice were submitted to fasting for 48 h. Our results demonstrate that FXR modulates the kinetics of

  15. Prion-Specific Antibodies Produced in Wild-Type Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Andersen, Heidi Gertz

    2015-01-01

    Peptide-specific antibodies produced against synthetic peptides are of high value in probing protein structure and function, especially when working with challenging proteins, including not readily available, non-immunogenic, toxic, and/or pathogenic proteins. Here, we present a straightforward...... method for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against peptides representing two sites of interest in the bovine prion protein (boPrP), the causative agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease (CJD) in humans, as well......-peptide antibodies, even against peptides very homologous to murine protein sequences. In general, using the strategies described here for selecting, synthesizing, and conjugating peptides and immunizing 4-5 mice with 2-3 different peptides, high-titered antibodies reacting with the target protein are routinely...

  16. UV-sensitivity and repair of UV-damage in Salmonella of wild type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratiev, Y.S.; Brukhansky, G.V.; Andreeva, I.V.; Skavronskaya, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    The UV-sensitivity of wild type Salmonella strains has been compared to that of wild type E.coli and its UV-sensitive mutants. Many wild type Salmonella strains are 4-5 times more sensitive than wild type E.coli and their inactivation curve is similar to that for E.coli with a mutation in the polA gene. Alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation has shown a deficiency of these strains in normal excision repair of UV-damaged DNA. This deficiency is not a Salmonella genus feature because one strain as resistant as wild type E.coli was found. This resistant strain showed normal excision repair in alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation experiments. The possible influence of plasmids and mutations in repair genes on the ability of Salmonella to repair UV-damaged DNA is discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. UV-sensitivity and repair of UV-damage in Salmonella of wild type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratiev, Y S; Brukhansky, G V; Andreeva, I V; Skavronskaya, A G [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehpidemiologii i Mikrobiologii

    1977-12-01

    The UV-sensitivity of wild type Salmonella strains has been compared to that of wild type E.coli and its UV-sensitive mutants. Many wild type Salmonella strains are 4-5 times more sensitive than wild type E.coli and their inactivation curve is similar to that for E.coli with a mutation in the polA gene. Alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation has shown a deficiency of these strains in normal excision repair of UV-damaged DNA. This deficiency is not a Salmonella genus feature because one strain as resistant as wild type E.coli was found. This resistant strain showed normal excision repair in alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation experiments. The possible influence of plasmids and mutations in repair genes on the ability of Salmonella to repair UV-damaged DNA is discussed.

  18. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, S.; Pinna, C.; Busnelli, M.; Cinquanta, P.; Rigamonti, E.; Ganzetti, G.S.; Dellera, F.; Sala, A.; Calabresi, L.; Franceschini, G.; Parolini, C.; Chiesa, G.

    2015-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcatwt) and LCAT knockout (LcatKO) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in LcatKO mice (P < 0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in LcatKO mice (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in LcatKO mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcatwt and LcatKO mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. PMID:26254103

  19. Beta2-adrenergic activity modulates vascular tone regulation in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, S; Pinna, C; Busnelli, M; Cinquanta, P; Rigamonti, E; Ganzetti, G S; Dellera, F; Sala, A; Calabresi, L; Franceschini, G; Parolini, C; Chiesa, G

    2015-11-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, generally a predisposing factor for premature coronary heart disease. The evidence of accelerated atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient subjects is however controversial. In this study, the effect of LCAT deficiency on vascular tone and endothelial function was investigated in LCAT knockout mice, which reproduce the human lipoprotein phenotype. Aortas from wild-type (Lcat(wt)) and LCAT knockout (Lcat(KO)) mice exposed to noradrenaline showed reduced contractility in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.005), whereas acetylcholine exposure showed a lower NO-dependent relaxation in Lcat(KO) mice (P<0.05). Quantitative PCR and Western blotting analyses suggested an adequate eNOS expression in Lcat(KO) mouse aortas. Real-time PCR analysis indicated increased expression of β2-adrenergic receptors vs wild-type mice. Aorta stimulation with noradrenaline in the presence of propranolol, to abolish the β-mediated relaxation, showed the same contractile response in the two mouse lines. Furthermore, propranolol pretreatment of mouse aortas exposed to L-NAME prevented the difference in responses between Lcat(wt) and Lcat(KO) mice. The results indicate that LCAT deficiency leads to increased β2-adrenergic relaxation and to a consequently decreased NO-mediated vasodilation that can be reversed to guarantee a correct vascular tone. The present study suggests that LCAT deficiency is not associated with an impaired vascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Aberrant Bone Density in Aging Mice Lacking the Adenosine Transporter ENT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David J.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Lee, Moonnoh R.; Kwong, Hoi K.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months) compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density. PMID:24586402

  1. Aberrant bone density in aging mice lacking the adenosine transporter ENT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hinton

    Full Text Available Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1 is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density.

  2. Increased brain damage after ischaemic stroke in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, S; Bonnefont, J; Julien, S; Marq-Lin, N; Rodriguez, I; Dubois-Dauphin, M; Krause, KH

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The chemokine receptor CCR5 is well known for its function in immune cells; however, it is also expressed in the brain, where its specific role remains to be elucidated. Because genetic factors may influence the risk of developing cerebral ischaemia or affect its clinical outcome, we have analysed the role of CCR5 in experimental stroke. Experimental approach: Permanent cerebral ischaemia was performed by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in wild-type and CCR5-deficient mice. Locomotor behaviour, infarct size and histochemical alterations were analysed at different time points after occlusion. Key results: The cerebral vasculature was comparable in wild-type and CCR5-deficient mice. However, the size of the infarct and the motor deficits after occlusion were markedly increased in CCR5-deficient mice as compared with wild type. No differences between wild-type and CCR5-deficient mice were elicited by occlusion with respect to the morphology and abundance of astrocytes and microglia. Seven days after occlusion the majority of CCR5-deficient mice displayed neutrophil invasion in the infarct region, which was not observed in wild type. As compared with wild type, the infarct regions of CCR5-deficient mice were characterized by increased neuronal death. Conclusions and implications: Lack of CCR5 increased the severity of brain injury following occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. This is of particular interest with respect to the relatively frequent occurrence of CCR5 deficiency in the human population (1–2% of the Caucasian population) and the advent of CCR5 inhibitors as novel drugs. PMID:20423342

  3. Multiple sleep alterations in mice lacking cannabinoid type 1 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvani

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 receptors are highly expressed in the brain and play a role in behavior control. Endogenous cannabinoid signaling is modulated by high-fat diet (HFD. We investigated the consequences of congenital lack of CB1 receptors on sleep in mice fed standard diet (SD and HFD. CB1 cannabinoid receptor knock-out (KO and wild-type (WT mice were fed SD or HFD for 4 months (n = 9-10 per group. Mice were instrumented with electroencephalographic (EEG and electromyographic electrodes. Recordings were performed during baseline (48 hours, sleep deprivation (gentle handling, 6 hours, sleep recovery (18 hours, and after cage switch (insomnia model paradigm, 6 hours. We found multiple significant effects of genotype on sleep. In particular, KO spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS and rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS than WT during the dark (active period but not during the light (rest period, enhancing the day-night variation of wake-sleep amounts. KO had slower EEG theta rhythm during REMS. REMS homeostasis after sleep deprivation was less effective in KO than in WT. Finally, KO habituated more rapidly to the arousing effect of the cage-switch test than WT. We did not find any significant effects of diet or of diet x genotype interaction on sleep. The occurrence of multiple sleep alterations in KO indicates important roles of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in limiting arousal during the active period of the day, in sleep regulation, and in sleep EEG in mice.

  4. Activation of Adiponectin Receptor Regulates Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Expression and Inhibits Lesions in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Qi; Zeng, Peng; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lipei; Chen, Yuanli; Yu, Miao; Ma, Chuanrui; Li, Xiaoju; Li, Yan; Zhang, Rongxin; Zhu, Yan; Miao, Qing Robert; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2017-07-01

    The reduced adiponectin levels are associated with atherosclerosis. Adiponectin exerts its functions by activating adiponectin receptor (AdipoR). Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) degrades LDLR protein (low-density lipoprotein receptor) to increase serum LDL-cholesterol levels. PCSK9 expression can be regulated by PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) or SREBP2 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2). The effects of AdipoR agonists on PCSK9 and LDLR expression, serum lipid profiles, and atherosclerosis remain unknown. At cellular levels, AdipoR agonists (ADP355 and AdipoRon) induced PCSK9 transcription/expression that solely depended on activation of PPAR-responsive element in the PCSK9 promoter. AdipoR agonists induced PPARγ expression; thus, the AdipoR agonist-activated PCSK9 expression/production was impaired in PPARγ deficient hepatocytes. Meanwhile, AdipoR agonists transcriptionally activated LDLR expression by activating SRE in the LDLR promoter. Moreover, AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) was involved in AdipoR agonist-activated PCSK9 expression. In wild-type mice, ADP355 increased PCSK9 and LDLR expression and serum PCSK9 levels, which was associated with activation of PPARγ, AMPKα and SREBP2 and reduction of LDL-cholesterol levels. In contrast, ADP355 reduced PCSK9 expression/secretion in apoE-deficient (apoE -/- ) mice, but it still activated hepatic LDLR, PPARγ, AMPKα, and SREBP2. More importantly, ADP355 inhibited lesions in en face aortas and sinus lesions in aortic root in apoE -/- mice with amelioration of lipid profiles. Our study demonstrates that AdipoR activation by agonists regulated PCSK9 expression differently in wild-type and apoE -/- mice. However, ADP355 activated hepatic LDLR expression and ameliorated lipid metabolism in both types of mice and inhibited atherosclerosis in apoE -/- mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  6. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Carolina R; Beckley, Jacob T; Smothers, Thetford C; Lench, Daniel H; Holseberg, Zack L; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J; Homanics, Gregg E; Woodward, John J

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A) that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl) significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p.) increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg) reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg). In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg) as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  7. Oxidative Stress Induced Age Dependent Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 (Sod1) Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Osama M. A.; Dogru, Murat; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Igarashi, Ayako; Kojima, Takashi; Wakamatsu, Tais Hitomi; Inaba, Takaaki; Shimizu, Takahiko; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate alterations in the meibomian gland (MG) in Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase-1 knockout (Sod1 −/−) mouse. Methods Tear function tests [Break up time (BUT) and cotton thread] and ocular vital staining test were performed on Sod1 −/− male mice (n = 24) aged 10 and 50 weeks, and age and sex matched wild–type (+/+) mice (n = 25). Tear and serum samples were collected at sacrifice for inflammatory cytokine assays. MG specimens underwent Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, Mallory staining for fibrosis, Oil Red O lipid staining, TUNEL staining, immunohistochemistry stainings for 4HNE, 8-OHdG and CD45. Transmission electron microscopic examination (TEM) was also performed. Results Corneal vital staining scores in the Sod1 −/− mice were significantly higher compared with the wild type mice throughout the follow-up. Tear and serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels also showed significant elevations in the 10 to 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Oil Red O staining showed an accumulation of large lipid droplets in the Sod1 −/− mice at 50 weeks. Immunohistochemistry revealed both increased TUNEL and oxidative stress marker stainings of the MG acinar epithelium in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD45 showed increasing inflammatory cell infiltrates from 10 to 50 weeks in the Sod1 −/− mice compared to the wild type mice. TEM revealed prominent mitochondrial changes in 50 week Sod1 −/− mice. Conclusions Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species might play a vital role in the pathogensis of meibomian gland dysfunction. The Sod1 −/− mouse appears to be a promising model for the study of reactive oxygen species associated MG alterations. PMID:25036096

  8. Deletion of the Thyroid Hormone-Activating Type 2 Deiodinase Rescues Cone Photoreceptor Degeneration but Not Deafness in Mice Lacking Type 3 Deiodinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lily; Liu, Hong; St Germain, Donald L; Hernandez, Arturo; Forrest, Douglas

    2017-06-01

    Type 2 deiodinase amplifies and type 3 deiodinase depletes levels of the active form of thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine. Given the opposing activities of these enzymes, we tested the hypothesis that they counteract each other's developmental functions by investigating whether deletion of type 2 deiodinase (encoded by Dio2) modifies sensory phenotypes in type 3 deiodinase-deficient (Dio3-/-) mice. Dio3-/- mice display degeneration of retinal cones, the photoreceptors that mediate daylight and color vision. In Dio2-/- mice, cone function was largely normal but deletion of Dio2 in Dio3-/- mice markedly recovered cone numbers and electroretinogram responses, suggesting counterbalancing roles for both enzymes in cone survival. Both Dio3-/- and Dio2-/- strains exhibit deafness with cochlear abnormalities. In Dio3-/-;Dio2-/- mice, deafness was exacerbated rather than alleviated, suggesting unevenly balanced actions by these enzymes during auditory development. Dio3-/- mice also exhibit an atrophic thyroid gland, low thyroxine, and high triiodothyronine levels, but this phenotype was ameliorated in Dio3-/-;Dio2-/- mice, indicating counterbalancing roles for the enzymes in determining the thyroid hormone status. The results suggest that the composite action of these two enzymes is a critical determinant in visual and auditory development and in setting the systemic thyroid hormone status.

  9. The effect of alcohol and hydrogen peroxide on liver hepcidin gene expression in mice lacking antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase-1 or catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Findik, Duygu Dee; Lu, Sizhao

    2015-05-06

    This study investigates the regulation of hepcidin, the key iron-regulatory molecule, by alcohol and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in glutathione peroxidase-1 (gpx-1(-/-)) and catalase (catalase(-/-)) knockout mice. For alcohol studies, 10% ethanol was administered in the drinking water for 7 days. Gpx-1(-/-) displayed significantly higher hepatic H2O2 levels than catalase(-/-) compared to wild-type mice, as measured by 2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The basal level of liver hepcidin expression was attenuated in gpx-1(-/-) mice. Alcohol increased H2O2 production in catalase(-/-) and wild-type, but not gpx-1(-/-), mice. Hepcidin expression was inhibited in alcohol-fed catalase(-/-) and wild-type mice. In contrast, alcohol elevated hepcidin expression in gpx-1(-/-) mice. Gpx-1(-/-) mice also displayed higher level of basal liver CHOP protein expression than catalase(-/-) mice. Alcohol induced CHOP and to a lesser extent GRP78/BiP expression, but not XBP1 splicing or binding of CREBH to hepcidin gene promoter, in gpx-1(-/-) mice. The up-regulation of hepatic ATF4 mRNA levels, which was observed in gpx-1(-/-) mice, was attenuated by alcohol. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that H2O2 inhibits hepcidin expression in vivo. Synergistic induction of CHOP by alcohol and H2O2, in the absence of gpx-1, stimulates liver hepcidin gene expression by ER stress independent of CREBH.

  10. Deletion of vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) in mice alters behavioral effects of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y.A.; Harris, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is activated by ethanol and this may be important for some of the central and peripheral actions of ethanol. To determine if this receptor has a role in ethanol-mediated behaviors, we studied null mutant mice in which the Trpv1 gene was deleted. Mice lacking this gene showed significantly higher preference for ethanol and consumed more ethanol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild type littermates. Null mutant mice showed shorter duration of loss of righting reflex induced by low doses of ethanol (3.2 and 3.4 g/kg) and faster recovery from motor incoordination induced by ethanol (2 g/kg). However, there were no differences between null mutant and wild type mice in severity of ethanol-induced acute withdrawal (4 g/kg) or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol (2.5 g/kg). Two behavioral phenotypes (decreased sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation and faster recovery from ethanol-induced motor incoordination) seen in null mutant mice were reproduced in wild type mice by injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (10 mg/kg). These two ethanol behaviors were changed in the opposite direction after injection of capsaicin, a selective TRPV1 agonist, in wild type mice. The studies provide the first evidence that TRPV1 is important for specific behavioral actions of ethanol. PMID:19705551

  11. Scanning Ultrasound (SUS Causes No Changes to Neuronal Excitability and Prevents Age-Related Reductions in Hippocampal CA1 Dendritic Structure in Wild-Type Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert John Hatch

    Full Text Available Scanning ultrasound (SUS is a noninvasive approach that has recently been shown to ameliorate histopathological changes and restore memory functions in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Although no overt neuronal damage was reported, the short- and long-term effects of SUS on neuronal excitability and dendritic tree morphology had not been investigated. To address this, we performed patch-clamp recordings from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in wild-type mice 2 and 24 hours after a single SUS treatment, and one week and 3 months after six weekly SUS treatments, including sham treatments as controls. In both treatment regimes, no changes in CA1 neuronal excitability were observed in SUS-treated neurons when compared to sham-treated neurons at any time-point. For the multiple treatment groups, we also determined the dendritic morphology and spine densities of the neurons from which we had recorded. The apical trees of sham-treated neurons were reduced at the 3 month time-point when compared to one week; however, surprisingly, no longitudinal change was detected in the apical dendritic trees of SUS-treated neurons. In contrast, the length and complexity of the basal dendritic trees were not affected by SUS treatment at either time-point. The apical dendritic spine densities were reduced, independent of the treatment group, at 3 months compared to one week. Collectively, these data suggest that ultrasound can be employed to prevent an age-associated loss of dendritic structure without impairing neuronal excitability.

  12. Preclinical efficacy of the MDM2 inhibitor RG7112 in MDM2 amplified and TP53 wild-type glioblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, Maite; Schmitt, Charlotte; Goldwirt, Lauriane; Pelton, Kristine; Haidar, Samer; Levasseur, Camille; Guehennec, Jeremy; Knoff, David; Labussiere, Marianne; Marie, Yannick; Ligon, Azra H.; Mokhtari, Karima; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Sanson, Marc; Alexander, Brian M; Wen, Patrick Y.; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Ligon, Keith L.; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Rationale p53 pathway alterations are key molecular events in glioblastoma (GBM). MDM2 inhibitors increase expression and stability of p53 and are presumed to be most efficacious in patients with TP53 wild-type and MDM2-amplified cancers. However, this biomarker hypothesis has not been tested in patients or patient-derived models for GBM. Methods We performed a preclinical evaluation of RG7112 MDM2 inhibitor, across a panel of 36 patient-derived GBM cell lines (PDCLs), each genetically characterized according to their P53 pathway status. We then performed a pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling of RG7112 distribution in mice and evaluated the therapeutic activity of RG7112 in orthotopic and subcutaneous GBM models. Results MDM2-amplified PDCLs were 44 times more sensitive than TP53 mutated lines that showed complete resistance at therapeutically attainable concentrations (avg. IC50 of 0.52 μM vs 21.9 μM). MDM4 amplified PDCLs were highly sensitive but showed intermediate response (avg. IC50 of 1.2 μM), whereas response was heterogeneous in TP53 wild-type PDCLs with normal MDM2/4 levels (avg. IC50 of 7.7 μM). In MDM2-amplified lines, RG7112 restored p53 activity inducing robust p21 expression and apoptosis. PK profiling of RG7112-treated PDCL intracranial xenografts demonstrated that the compound significantly crosses the blood-brain and the blood-tumor barriers. Most importantly, treatment of MDM2-amplified/TP53 wild-type PDCL-derived model (subcutaneous and orthotopic) reduced tumor growth, was cytotoxic, and significantly increased survival. Conclusion These data strongly support development of MDM2 inhibitors for clinical testing in MDM2-amplified GBM patients. Moreover, significant efficacy in a subset of non-MDM2 amplified models suggests that additional markers of response to MDM2 inhibitors must be identified. PMID:26482041

  13. Cultured cells of the blood-brain barrier from apolipoprotein B-100 transgenic mice: effects of oxidized low-density lipoprotein treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lénárt, Nikolett; Walter, Fruzsina R; Bocsik, Alexandra; Sántha, Petra; Tóth, Melinda E; Harazin, András; Tóth, Andrea E; Vizler, Csaba; Török, Zsolt; Pilbat, Ana-Maria; Vígh, László; Puskás, László G; Sántha, Miklós; Deli, Mária A

    2015-07-17

    The apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) transgenic mouse line is a model of human atherosclerosis. Latest findings suggest the importance of ApoB-100 in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and microvascular/perivascular localization of ApoB-100 protein was demonstrated in the cerebral cortex of ApoB-100 transgenic mice. The aim of the study was to characterize cultured brain endothelial cells, pericytes and glial cells from wild-type and ApoB-100 transgenic mice and to study the effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on these cells. Morphology of cells isolated from brains of wild type and ApoB-100 transgenic mice was characterized by immunohistochemistry and the intensity of immunolabeling was quantified by image analysis. Toxicity of oxLDL treatment was monitored by real-time impedance measurement and lactate dehydrogenase release. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, barrier permeability in triple co-culture blood-brain barrier model and membrane fluidity were also determined after low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or oxLDL treatment. The presence of ApoB-100 was confirmed in brain endothelial cells, while no morphological change was observed between wild type and transgenic cells. Oxidized but not native LDL exerted dose-dependent toxicity in all three cell types, induced barrier dysfunction and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both genotypes. A partial protection from oxLDL toxicity was seen in brain endothelial and glial cells from ApoB-100 transgenic mice. Increased membrane rigidity was measured in brain endothelial cells from ApoB-100 transgenic mice and in LDL or oxLDL treated wild type cells. The morphological and functional properties of cultured brain endothelial cells, pericytes and glial cells from ApoB-100 transgenic mice were characterized and compared to wild type cells for the first time. The membrane fluidity changes in ApoB-100 transgenic cells related to brain microvasculature indicate

  14. Sabin and wild type polioviruses from children who presented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study further confirms the presence of Sabin and wild-type poliovirus among children in Nigeria. The isolation of Sabin strain of poliovirus is advantageous to the polio eradication program as it is capable of inducing natural immunity in susceptible hosts. Transmission of wild-type poliovirus among children ...

  15. Characterization of H7 Influenza A Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Kyu-Jun; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228), no NA stalk deletion (positions 69–73), no C-terminal deletion (positions 218–230) in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10 0.7–1.3EID50/50 µl) in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7–10 dpi, 10 0.7–4.3EID50/50 µl) in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia. PMID:24776918

  16. Characterization of H7 influenza A virus in wild and domestic birds in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Mi Kang

    Full Text Available During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228, no NA stalk deletion (positions 69-73, no C-terminal deletion (positions 218-230 in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10⁰·⁷⁻¹·³ EID₅₀/50 µl in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7-10 dpi, 10⁰·⁷⁻⁴·³EID₅₀/50 µl in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia.

  17. Constitutive expression of tert in thymocytes leads to increased incidence and dissemination of T-cell lymphoma in Lck-Tert mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Flores, Juana M; Blasco, María A

    2004-05-01

    Here we describe a new mouse model with constitutive expression of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (Tert) targeted to thymocytes and peripheral T cells (Lck-Tert mice). Two independent Lck-Tert mouse lines showed higher incidences of spontaneous T-cell lymphoma than the corresponding age-matched wild-type controls, indicating that constitutive expression of Tert promotes lymphoma. Interestingly, T-cell lymphomas in Lck-Tert mice were more disseminated than those in wild-type controls and affected both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues, while nonlymphoid tissues were never affected with lymphoma in age-matched wild-type controls. Importantly, these roles of Tert constitutive expression in promoting tumor progression and dissemination were independent of the role of telomerase in telomere length maintenance, since telomere length distributions on a single-cell basis were identical in Lck-Tert and wild-type thymocytes. Finally, Tert constitutive expression did not interfere with telomere capping in Lck-Tert primary thymocytes, although it resulted in greater chromosomal instability upon gamma irradiation in Lck-Tert primary lymphocytes than in controls, suggesting that Tert overexpression may interfere with the cellular response to DNA damage.

  18. First insights into the protective effects of a recombinant swinepox virus expressing truncated MRP of Streptococcus suis type 2 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongyan; Zhu, Haodan; Lin, Huixing; Xu, Jiarong; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    To explore the potential of the swinepox virus (SPV) as vector for Streptococcus suis vaccines, a vector system was developed for the construction of a recombinant SPV carrying bacterial genes. Using this system, a recombinant virus expressing truncated muramidase-released protein (MRP) of S. suis type 2 (SS2), designated rSPV-MRP, was produced and identified by PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. The rSPV-MRP was found to be only slightly attenuated in PK-15 cells, when compared with the wild-type virus. After immunization intramuscularly with rSPV-MRP, SS2 inactive vaccine (positive control), wild-type SPV (negative control) and PBS (blank control) respectively, all CD1 mice were challenged with a lethal dose or a sublethal dose of SS2 highly virulent strain ZY05719. While SS2 inactive vaccine protected all mice, immunization with rSPV-MRP resulted in 60% survival and protected mice against a lethal dose of the highly virulent SS2 strain, compared with the negative control (P MRP had a significantly reduced bacterial burden in all organs examined, compared to negative controls and blank controls (P MRP-vaccinated group were significantly higher (P MRP provided mice with protection from systemic SS2 infection. If SPV recombinants have the potential as S. suis vaccines for the use in pigs has to be evaluated in further studies.

  19. Impaired Sperm Maturation in Rnase9 Knockout Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmuckett, Andrew D.; Nguyen, Edward B.; Herlea-Pana, Oana M.; Alvau, Antonio; Salicioni, Ana M.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ribonuclease, RNase A family, 9 (RNASE9) is a ribonuclease A superfamily member that is expressed only in the epididymis. It is a small, secreted polypeptide, it lacks ribonuclease activity, and its function(s) is unknown. However, epididymis-specific expression suggests a role in sperm maturation. We generated Rnase9−/− mice to study RNASE9 function in vivo. We confirm that RNASE9 expression is restricted to the epididymis. Within the epididymis, RNASE9 is first detected in midcaput, persists through the distal caput and corpus, and wanes in the cauda. Rnase9−/− mice are born at the expected Mendelian ratio, have normal postnatal growth and development, and have no outwardly apparent phenotype. Spermatogenesis is normal, and Rnase9-null sperm are morphologically normal. Rnase9−/− males have normal fertility in unrestricted mating trials, and fertilization rates in in vitro fertilization assays are indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Visual observations coupled with analyses of sperm velocities shortly after swim out from the corpus shows that motility of Rnase9-null sperm is significantly impaired. However, no differences between wild-type and Rnase9-null sperm are detected by computer-assisted sperm analysis 10–90 min after sperm isolation from the corpus or cauda. Assessment of capacitation-dependent signaling pathways in Rnase9-null sperm showed that, while levels of tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins were normal, there was decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase A substrates upon capacitation compared to wild-type mice. In conclusion, RNASE9 is dispensable for fertility, but the absence of RNASE9 during epididymal transit results in impaired sperm maturation. PMID:24719258

  20. Deletion of T-type calcium channels Cav3.1 or Cav3.2 attenuates endothelial dysfunction in aging mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Anne D; Andersen, Kenneth; Lyngsø, Kristina S

    2018-01-01

    Impairment of endothelial function with aging is accompanied by reduced nitric oxide (NO) production. T-type Cav3.1 channels augment nitric oxide and co-localize with eNOS. Therefore, the hypothesis was that T-type channels contribute to the endothelial dysfunction of aging. Endothelial function...... was determined in mesenteric arteries (perfusion) and aortae (isometric contraction) of young and old wild-type (WT), Cav3.1, and Cav3.2 knockout mice. NO production was measured by fluorescence imaging in mesenteric arteries. With age, endothelium-dependent subsequent dilatation (following depolarization...... significantly reduced in mesenteric arteries of old compared to young WT mice. In Cav3.1(-/-) and Cav3.2(-/-) preparations, NO levels increased significantly with age. Relaxations to acetylcholine were significantly smaller in the aortae of old compared to young WT mice, while such responses were comparable...

  1. Severe systemic toxicity and urinary bladder cytotoxicity and regenerative hyperplasia induced by arsenite in arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokohira, Masanao; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Suzuki, Shugo; Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic (+ 3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) catalyzes reactions which convert inorganic arsenic to methylated metabolites. This study determined whether the As3mt null genotype in the mouse modifies cytotoxic and proliferative effects seen in urinary bladders of wild type mice after exposure to inorganic arsenic. Female wild type C57BL/6 mice and As3mt KO mice were divided into 3 groups each (n = 8) with free access to a diet containing 0, 100 or 150 ppm of arsenic as arsenite (As III ). During the first week of As III exposure, As3mt KO mice exhibited severe and lethal systemic toxicity. At termination, urinary bladders of both As3mt KO and wild type mice showed hyperplasia by light microscopy. As expected, arsenic-containing granules were found in the superficial urothelial layer of wild type mice. In As3mt KO mice these granules were present in all layers of the bladder epithelium and were more abundant and larger than in wild type mice. Scanning electron microscopy of the bladder urothelium of As3mt KO mice treated with 100 ppm As III showed extensive superficial necrosis and hyperplastic changes. In As3mt KO mice, livers showed severe acute inflammatory changes and spleen size and lymphoid areas were decreased compared with wild type mice. Thus, diminished arsenic methylation in As3mt KO mice exacerbates systemic toxicity and the effects of As III on the bladder epithelium, showing that altered kinetic and dynamic behavior of arsenic can affect its toxicity.

  2. Targeted Deletion of Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Flaviano; Huang, Shao-Yi; Sathyasaikumar, Korrapati V.; Notarangelo, Francesca M.; Thomas, Marian A. R.; Tararina, Margarita; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert; Muchowski, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), a pivotal enzyme in the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation, has been suggested to play a major role in physiological and pathological events involving bioactive KP metabolites. To explore this role in greater detail, we generated mice with a targeted genetic disruption of Kmo and present here the first biochemical and neurochemical characterization of these mutant animals. Kmo−/− mice lacked KMO activity but showed no obvious abnormalities in the activity of four additional KP enzymes tested. As expected, Kmo−/− mice showed substantial reductions in the levels of its enzymatic product, 3-hydroxykynurenine, in liver, brain, and plasma. Compared with wild-type animals, the levels of the downstream metabolite quinolinic acid were also greatly decreased in liver and plasma of the mutant mice but surprisingly were only slightly reduced (by ∼20%) in the brain. The levels of three other KP metabolites: kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and anthranilic acid, were substantially, but differentially, elevated in the liver, brain, and plasma of Kmo−/− mice, whereas the liver and brain content of the major end product of the enzymatic cascade, NAD+, did not differ between Kmo−/− and wild-type animals. When assessed by in vivo microdialysis, extracellular kynurenic acid levels were found to be significantly elevated in the brains of Kmo−/− mice. Taken together, these results provide further evidence that KMO plays a key regulatory role in the KP and indicate that Kmo−/− mice will be useful for studying tissue-specific functions of individual KP metabolites in health and disease. PMID:24189070

  3. The Recombination Landscape in Wild House Mice Inferred Using Population Genomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Tom R; Ness, Rob W; Keightley, Peter D

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing variation in the rate of recombination across the genome is important for understanding several evolutionary processes. Previous analysis of the recombination landscape in laboratory mice has revealed that the different subspecies have different suites of recombination hotspots. It is unknown, however, whether hotspots identified in laboratory strains reflect the hotspot diversity of natural populations or whether broad-scale variation in the rate of recombination is conserved between subspecies. In this study, we constructed fine-scale recombination rate maps for a natural population of the Eastern house mouse, Mus musculus castaneus We performed simulations to assess the accuracy of recombination rate inference in the presence of phase errors, and we used a novel approach to quantify phase error. The spatial distribution of recombination events is strongly positively correlated between our castaneus map, and a map constructed using inbred lines derived predominantly from M. m. domesticus Recombination hotspots in wild castaneus show little overlap, however, with the locations of double-strand breaks in wild-derived house mouse strains. Finally, we also find that genetic diversity in M. m. castaneus is positively correlated with the rate of recombination, consistent with pervasive natural selection operating in the genome. Our study suggests that recombination rate variation is conserved at broad scales between house mouse subspecies, but it is not strongly conserved at fine scales. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Acceleration of bone development and regeneration through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in mice heterozygously deficient for GSK-3β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arioka, Masaki; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Sasaki, Masanori; Yoshihara, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Sachio; Takashima, Akihiko; Mori, Yoshihide; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was activated in GSK-3β +/− mice. •The cortical and trabecular bone volumes were increased in GSK-3β +/− mice. •Regeneration of a partial bone defect was accelerated in GSK-3β +/− mice. -- Abstract: Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β plays an important role in osteoblastogenesis by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated whether GSK-3β deficiency affects bone development and regeneration using mice heterozygously deficient for GSK-3β (GSK-3β +/− ). The amounts of β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) in the bone marrow cells of GSK-3β +/− mice were significantly increased compared with those of wild-type mice, indicating that Wnt/β-catenin signals were enhanced in GSK-3β +/− mice. Microcomputed tomography of the distal femoral metaphyses demonstrated that the volumes of both the cortical and trabecular bones were increased in GSK-3β +/− mice compared with those in wild-type mice. Subsequently, to investigate the effect of GSK-3β deficiency on bone regeneration, we established a partial bone defect in the femur and observed new bone at 14 days after surgery. The volume and mineral density of the new bone were significantly higher in GSK-3β +/− mice than those in wild-type mice. These results suggest that bone formation and regeneration in vivo are accelerated by inhibition of GSK-3β, probably through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

  5. Membrane attack complex inhibitor CD59a protects against focal cerebral ischemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nietfeld Wilfried

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complement system is a crucial mediator of inflammation and cell lysis after cerebral ischemia. However, there is little information about the exact contribution of the membrane attack complex (MAC and its inhibitor-protein CD59. Methods Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in young male and female CD59a knockout and wild-type mice. Two models of MCAO were applied: 60 min MCAO and 48 h reperfusion, as well as 30 min MCAO and 72 h reperfusion. CD59a knockout animals were compared to wild-type animals in terms of infarct size, edema, neurological deficit, and cell death. Results and Discussion CD59a-deficiency in male mice caused significantly increased infarct volumes and brain swelling when compared to wild-type mice at 72 h after 30 min-occlusion time, whereas no significant difference was observed after 1 h-MCAO. Moreover, CD59a-deficient mice had impaired neurological function when compared to wild-type mice after 30 min MCAO. Conclusion We conclude that CD59a protects against ischemic brain damage, but depending on the gender and the stroke model used.

  6. Prohibitin-induced obesity leads to anovulation and polycystic ovary in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsana Rao Ande

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, its etiology and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that a transgenic obese mouse (Mito-Ob developed by overexpressing prohibitin in adipocytes develops polycystic ovaries. Initially, the female Mito-Ob mice were equally fertile to their wild-type littermates. The Mito-Ob mice began to gain weight after puberty, became significantly obese between 3-6 months of age, and ∼25% of them had become infertile by 9 months of age. Despite obesity, female Mito-Ob mice maintained glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity similar to their wild-type littermates. Mito-Ob mice showed morphologically distinct polycystic ovaries and elevated estradiol, but normal testosterone and insulin levels. Histological analysis of the ovaries showed signs of impaired follicular dynamics, such as preantral follicular arrest and reduced number, or absence, of corpus luteum. The ovaries of the infertile Mito-Ob mice were closely surrounded by periovarian adipose tissue, suggesting a potential role in anovulation. Collectively, these data suggest that elevated estradiol and obesity per se might lead to anovulation and polycystic ovaries independent of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. As obesity often coexists with other abnormalities known to be involved in the development of PCOS such as insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism, the precise role of these factors in PCOS remains unclear. Mito-Ob mice provide an opportunity to study the effects of obesity on anovulation and ovarian cyst formation independent of the major drivers of obesity-linked PCOS.

  7. The dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 induces tumor regression in a genetically engineered mouse model of PIK3CA wild-type colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Roper

    Full Text Available To examine the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in treatment of PIK3CA wild-type colorectal cancer (CRC.PIK3CA mutant and wild-type human CRC cell lines were treated in vitro with NVP-BEZ235, and the resulting effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and signaling were assessed. Colonic tumors from a genetically engineered mouse (GEM model for sporadic wild-type PIK3CA CRC were treated in vivo with NVP-BEZ235. The resulting effects on macroscopic tumor growth/regression, proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and signaling were examined.In vitro treatment of CRC cell lines with NVP-BEZ235 resulted in transient PI3K blockade, sustained decreases in mTORC1/mTORC2 signaling, and a corresponding decrease in cell viability (median IC(50 = 9.0-14.3 nM. Similar effects were seen in paired isogenic CRC cell lines that differed only in the presence or absence of an activating PIK3CA mutant allele. In vivo treatment of colonic tumor-bearing mice with NVP-BEZ235 resulted in transient PI3K inhibition and sustained blockade of mTORC1/mTORC2 signaling. Longitudinal tumor surveillance by optical colonoscopy demonstrated a 97% increase in tumor size in control mice (p = 0.01 vs. a 43% decrease (p = 0.008 in treated mice. Ex vivo analysis of the NVP-BEZ235-treated tumors demonstrated a 56% decrease in proliferation (p = 0.003, no effects on apoptosis, and a 75% reduction in angiogenesis (p = 0.013.These studies provide the preclinical rationale for studies examining the efficacy of the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in treatment of PIK3CA wild-type CRC.

  8. Desensitization of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice: suppressive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Katsura

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic injection of high doses of antigen into a preimmunized animal results in transient unresponsiveness of cell-mediated immune responses. This phenomenon is known as desensitization. Serum interleukin 2 (IL-2 activity was found transiently in desensitized mice at 3 h after the antigen challenge. These mice could not reveal antigen nonspecific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH 1 d after the challenge. Specific suppression of DTH was observed at later stages. Sera from 3 h desensitized mice showed suppressive effects on DTH in preo immunized mice. Administration of recombinant IL-2 into preimmunized mice led to the failure of development of DTH to antigens. These observations suggest that IL-2 plays an important role in the suppressive environment.

  9. Nonylphenol-mediated CYP induction is PXR-dependent: The use of humanized mice and human hepatocytes suggests that hPXR is less sensitive than mouse PXR to nonylphenol treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Linda C.; Barfield, Christina; Hernandez, Juan P.; Baldwin, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP), a by-product of alkylphenol ethoxylates, is a pervasive surfactant that activates the xenosensing nuclear receptor, the pregnane X-receptor (PXR) in transactivation assays in vitro. We are interested in determining if NP activates PXR in vivo, determining if hPXR and mPXR act similarly, and investigating the role of PXR in protecting individuals from NP. Wild-type (WT), PXR-null, and humanized PXR (hPXR) mice were treated with NP at 0, 50 or 75 mg/kg/day for one week, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction, liver histopathology, and serum NP concentrations were examined. WT mice treated with NP showed induction of Cyp2b, and male-specific induction of Cyp2c and Cyp3a. CYPs were not induced in PXR-null mice, demonstrating that PXR is necessary for NP-mediated CYP induction. CAR-mediated CYP induction was not observed in the PXR-null mice despite previous data demonstrating that NP is also a CAR activator. hPXR mice only showed moderate Cyp induction, suggesting that hPXR is not as sensitive to NP as mPXR in vivo. NP-mediated Cyp3a induction from three human hepatocyte donors was not significant, confirming that hPXR is not very sensitive to NP-mediated CYP induction. Lastly, mice with PXR (mPXR and hPXR) showed lower NP serum concentrations than PXR-null mice treated with NP suggesting that PXR plays a role in decreasing liver toxicity by basally regulating phase I-III detoxification enzymes that promote the metabolism and elimination of NP. In summary, PXR is required for NP-mediated CYP-induction, mPXR mediates greater CYP induction than hPXR in vivo, and the presence of PXR, especially mPXR, is associated with altered histopathology and increased clearance of NP.

  10. Critical role of IFN-gamma in CFA-mediated protection of NOD mice from diabetes development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiko; Kodaka, Tetsuro; Kato, Takako; Kanagawa, Edith M; Kanagawa, Osami

    2009-11-01

    IFN-gamma signaling-deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop diabetes with similar kinetics to those of wild-type NOD mice. However, the immunization of IFN-gamma signaling-deficient NOD mice with CFA failed to induce long-term protection, whereas wild-type NOD mice receiving CFA remained diabetes-free. CFA also failed to protect IFN-gamma receptor-deficient (IFN-gammaR(-/-)) NOD mice from the autoimmune rejection of transplanted islets, as it does in diabetic NOD mice, and from disease transfer by spleen cells from diabetic NOD mice. These data clearly show that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma is necessary for the CFA-mediated protection of NOD mice from diabetes. There is no difference in the T(h)1/T(h)17 balance between IFN-gammaR(-/-) NOD and wild-type NOD mice. There is also no difference in the total numbers and percentages of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lymph node CD4(+) T-cell populations between IFN-gammaR(-/-) NOD and wild-type NOD mice. However, pathogenic T cells lacking IFN-gammaR are resistant to the suppressive effect of Treg cells, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, it is likely that CFA-mediated protection against diabetes development depends on a change in the balance between Treg cells and pathogenic T cells, and IFN-gamma signaling seems to control the susceptibility of pathogenic T cells to the inhibitory activity of Treg cells.

  11. Masking responses to light in period mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-10-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1(-/-) and Per2(-/-) mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator.

  12. Host and Pathogen Copper-Transporting P-Type ATPases Function Antagonistically during Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Khan, Aslam; Shanbhag, Vinit; Cavet, Jennifer S; Chan, Jefferson; Weisman, Gary A; Petris, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Copper is an essential yet potentially toxic trace element that is required by all aerobic organisms. A key regulator of copper homeostasis in mammalian cells is the copper-transporting P-type ATPase ATP7A, which mediates copper transport from the cytoplasm into the secretory pathway, as well as copper export across the plasma membrane. Previous studies have shown that ATP7A-dependent copper transport is required for killing phagocytosed Escherichia coli in a cultured macrophage cell line. In this investigation, we expanded on these studies by generating Atp7a LysMcre mice, in which the Atp7a gene was specifically deleted in cells of the myeloid lineage, including macrophages. Primary macrophages isolated from Atp7a LysMcre mice exhibit decreased copper transport into phagosomal compartments and a reduced ability to kill Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium compared to that of macrophages isolated from wild-type mice. The Atp7a LysMcre mice were also more susceptible to systemic infection by S Typhimurium than wild-type mice. Deletion of the S Typhimurium copper exporters, CopA and GolT, was found to decrease infection in wild-type mice but not in the Atp7a LysMcre mice. These studies suggest that ATP7A-dependent copper transport into the phagosome mediates host defense against S Typhimurium, which is counteracted by copper export from the bacteria via CopA and GolT. These findings reveal unique and opposing functions for copper transporters of the host and pathogen during infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Role of fructose and fructokinase in acute dehydration-induced vasopressin gene expression and secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song 宋志林, Zhilin; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Lanaspa-Garcia, Miguel A; Oppelt, Sarah A; Kuwabara, Masanari; Jensen, Thomas; Milagres, Tamara; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Ishimoto, Takuji; Garcia, Gabriela E; Johnson, Ginger; MacLean, Paul S; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela; Tolan, Dean R; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Fructose stimulates vasopressin in humans and can be generated endogenously by activation of the polyol pathway with hyperosmolarity. We hypothesized that fructose metabolism in the hypothalamus might partly control vasopressin responses after acute dehydration. Wild-type and fructokinase-knockout mice were deprived of water for 24 h. The supraoptic nucleus was evaluated for vasopressin and markers of the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway. The posterior pituitary vasopressin and serum copeptin levels were examined. Hypothalamic explants were evaluated for vasopressin secretion in response to exogenous fructose. Water restriction increased serum and urine osmolality and serum copeptin in both groups of mice, although the increase in copeptin in wild-type mice was larger than that in fructokinase-knockout mice. Water-restricted, wild-type mice showed an increase in vasopressin and aldose reductase mRNA, sorbitol, fructose and uric acid in the supraoptic nucleus. In contrast, fructokinase-knockout mice showed no change in vasopressin or aldose reductase mRNA, and no changes in sorbitol or uric acid, although fructose levels increased. With water restriction, vasopressin in the pituitary of wild-type mice was significantly less than that of fructokinase-knockout mice, indicating that fructokinase-driven vasopressin secretion overrode synthesis. Fructose increased vasopressin release in hypothalamic explants that was not observed in fructokinase-knockout mice. In situ hybridization documented fructokinase mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Acute dehydration activates the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the hypothalamus and partly drives the vasopressin response. Exogenous fructose increases vasopressin release in hypothalamic explants dependent on fructokinase. Nevertheless, circulating vasopressin is maintained and urinary concentrating is not impaired. This study increases our understanding of the

  14. Role of hypoxia inducing factor-1β in alcohol-induced autophagy, steatosis and liver injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Min Ni

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol causes liver hypoxia and steatosis, which eventually develops into alcoholic liver disease (ALD. While it has been known that alcohol consumption activates hepatic hypoxia inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α, conflicting results regarding the role of HIF-1α in alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice have been reported. In the present study, we aimed to use hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice to eliminate the possible compensatory effects of the single knockout of the 1α subunit of HIF to study the role of HIFs in ALD. C57BL/6 wild type mice were treated with acute ethanol to mimic human binge drinking. Matched wild-type and hepatocyte specific HIF-1β knockout mice were also subjected to a recently established Gao-binge alcohol model to mimic chronic plus binge conditions, which is quite common in human alcoholics. We found that acute alcohol treatment increased BNIP3 and BNIP3L/NIX expression in primary cultured hepatocytes and in mouse livers, suggesting that HIF may be activated in these models. We further found that hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice developed less steatosis and liver injury following the Gao-binge model or acute ethanol treatment compared with their matched wild type mice. Mechanistically, protection against Gao-binge treatment-induced steatosis and liver injury was likely associated with increased FoxO3a activation and subsequent induction of autophagy in hepatocyte-specific HIF-1β knockout mice.

  15. Effects of genetic deficiency of cyclooxygenase-1 or cyclooxygenase-2 on functional and histological outcomes following traumatic brain injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheff Stephen W

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of acute CNS injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI. Although prostaglandin lipid mediators of inflammation contribute to a variety of inflammatory responses, their importance in neuroinflammation is not clear. There are conflicting reports as to the efficacy of inhibiting the enzymes required for prostaglandin formation, cyclooxygenase (COX -1 and COX-2, for improving outcomes following TBI. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of the COX isoforms in contributing to pathological processes resulting from TBI by utilizing mice deficient in COX-1 or COX-2. Results Following a mild controlled cortical impact injury, the amount of cortical tissue loss, the level of microglial activation, and the capacity for functional recovery was compared between COX-1-deficient mice or COX-2-deficient mice, and their matching wild-type controls. The deficiency of COX-2 resulted in a minor (6%, although statistically significant, increase in the sparing of cortical tissue following TBI. The deficiency of COX-1 resulted in no detectable effect on cortical tissue loss following TBI. As determined by 3[H]-PK11195 autoradiography, TBI produced a similar increase in microglial activation in multiple brain regions of both COX-1 wild-type and COX-1-deficient mice. In COX-2 wild-type and COX-2-deficient mice, TBI increased 3[H]-PK11195 binding in all brain regions that were analyzed. Following injury, 3[H]-PK11195 binding in the dentate gyrus and CA1 region of the hippocampus was greater in COX-2-deficient mice, as compared to COX-2 wild-type mice. Cognitive assessment was performed in the wild-type, COX-1-deficient and COX-2-deficient mice following 4 days of recovery from TBI. There was no significant cognitive effect that resulted from the deficiency of either COX-1 or COX-2, as determined by acquisition and spatial memory retention testing in a Morris water maze

  16. Aging-associated renal disease in mice is fructokinase dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Milagres, Tamara; Hernando, Ana Andres; Jensen, Thomas; Miyazaki, Makoto; Doke, Tomohito; Hayasaki, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Marumaya, Shoichi; Long, David A; Garcia, Gabriela E; Kuwabara, Masanari; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Kang, Duk-Hee; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-10-01

    Aging-associated kidney disease is usually considered a degenerative process associated with aging. Recently, it has been shown that animals can produce fructose endogenously, and that this can be a mechanism for causing kidney damage in diabetic nephropathy and in association with recurrent dehydration. We therefore hypothesized that low-level metabolism of endogenous fructose might play a role in aging-associated kidney disease. Wild-type and fructokinase knockout mice were fed a normal diet for 2 yr that had minimal (renal injury was amplified by provision of high-salt diet for 3 wk, as noted by the presence of glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix expansion, and alpha smooth muscle actin expression, and with segmental thrombi. Fructokinase knockout mice were protected from renal injury both at baseline and after high salt intake (3 wk) compared with wild-type mice. This was associated with higher levels of active (phosphorylated serine 1177) endothelial nitric oxide synthase in their kidneys. These studies suggest that aging-associated renal disease might be due to activation of specific metabolic pathways that could theoretically be targeted therapeutically, and raise the hypothesis that aging-associated renal injury may represent a disease process as opposed to normal age-related degeneration.

  17. Tubular overexpression of gremlin induces renal damage susceptibility in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Droguett

    Full Text Available A growing number of patients are recognized worldwide to have chronic kidney disease. Glomerular and interstitial fibrosis are hallmarks of renal progression. However, fibrosis of the kidney remains an unresolved challenge, and its molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Gremlin is an embryogenic gene that has been shown to play a key role in nephrogenesis, and its expression is generally low in the normal adult kidney. However, gremlin expression is elevated in many human renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and chronic allograft nephropathy. Several studies have proposed that gremlin may be involved in renal damage by acting as a downstream mediator of TGF-β. To examine the in vivo role of gremlin in kidney pathophysiology, we generated seven viable transgenic mouse lines expressing human gremlin (GREM1 specifically in renal proximal tubular epithelial cells under the control of an androgen-regulated promoter. These lines demonstrated 1.2- to 200-fold increased GREM1 expression. GREM1 transgenic mice presented a normal phenotype and were without proteinuria and renal function involvement. In response to the acute renal damage cause by folic acid nephrotoxicity, tubule-specific GREM1 transgenic mice developed increased proteinuria after 7 and 14 days compared with wild-type treated mice. At 14 days tubular lesions, such as dilatation, epithelium flattening and hyaline casts, with interstitial cell infiltration and mild fibrosis were significantly more prominent in transgenic mice than wild-type mice. Tubular GREM1 overexpression was correlated with the renal upregulation of profibrotic factors, such as TGF-β and αSMA, and with increased numbers of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, our results suggest that GREM1-overexpressing mice have an increased susceptibility to renal damage, supporting the involvement of gremlin in renal damage

  18. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity.Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice.Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice.Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  19. Role of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling in depression and dietary intake of glucoraphanin confers stress resilience in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Wei; Zhang, Ji-chun; Ishima, Tamaki; Dong, Chao; Yang, Chun; Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Han, Mei; Wu, Jin; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Ushida, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Keap1-Nrf2 system plays a key role in inflammation which is involved in depression. We found lower expression of Keap1 and Nrf2 proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus in mice with depression-like phenotype compared to control mice. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Nrf2 knock-out (KO) mice were higher than those of wild-type mice, suggestive of enhanced inflammation in KO mice. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophi...

  20. Female nursing partner choice in a population of wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicola; Lindholm, Anna K; Dobay, Akos; Halloran, Olivia; Manser, Andri; König, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Communal nursing in house mice is an example of cooperation where females pool litters in the same nest and indiscriminately nurse own and other offspring despite potential exploitation. The direct fitness benefits associated with communal nursing shown in laboratory studies suggest it to be a selected component of female house mice reproductive behaviour. However, past studies on communal nursing in free-living populations have debated whether it is a consequence of sharing the same nest or an active choice. Here using data from a long-term study of free-living, wild house mice we investigated individual nursing decisions and determined what factors influenced a female's decision to nurse communally. Females chose to nurse solitarily more often than expected by chance, but the likelihood of nursing solitarily decreased when females had more partners available. While finding no influence of pairwise relatedness on partner choice, we observed that females shared their social environment with genetically similar individuals, suggesting a female's home area consisted of related females, possibly facilitating the evolution of cooperation. Within such a home area females were more likely to nest communally when the general relatedness of her available options was relatively high. Females formed communal nests with females that were familiar through previous associations and had young pups of usually less than 5 days old. Our findings suggest that communal nursing was not a by-product of sharing the same nesting sites, but females choose communal nursing partners from a group of genetically similar females, and ultimately the decision may then depend on the pool of options available. Social partner choice proved to be an integrated part of cooperation among females, and might allow females to reduce the conflict over number of offspring in a communal nest and milk investment towards own and other offspring. We suggest that social partner choice may be a general

  1. Differential Muscle Involvement in Mice and Humans Affected by McArdle Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L

    2016-01-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which leads to impaired glycogen breakdown. We investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects muscle physiology, morphology, and glucose metabolism in 20-week-old McArdle mice and compared the findings...... to those in McArdle disease patients. Muscle contractions in the McArdle mice were affected by structural degeneration due to glycogen accumulation, and glycolytic muscles fatigued prematurely, as occurs in the muscles of McArdle disease patients. Homozygous McArdle mice showed muscle fiber disarray...... no substitution for the missing muscle isoform. In the mice, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were invariably more damaged than the quadriceps muscles. This may relate to a 7-fold higher level of myophosphorylase in TA compared to quadriceps in wild-type mice and suggests higher glucose turnover in the TA. Thus...

  2. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in wild-type and ada mutants of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Pal, B.C.; Foote, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    O 6 -Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is induced in Escherichia coli during growth in low levels of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. We have developed a sensitive assay for quantitating low levels of this activity with a synthetic DNA substrate containing 3 H-labeled O 6 -methylguanine as the only modified base. Although both wild-type and adaptation-deficient (ada) mutants of E. coli contained low but comparable numbers (from 13 to 60) of the enzyme molecules per cell, adaptation treatment caused a significant increase of the enzyme in the wild type but not in the ada mutants, suggesting that the ada mutation is in a regulatory locus and not in the structural gene for the methyltransferase

  3. Regulation of ENaC in mice lacking renal insulin receptors in the collecting duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Tengis S.; Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Levchenko, Vladislav; Li, Lijun; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M.; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is one of the central effectors involved in regulation of salt and water homeostasis in the kidney. To study mechanisms of ENaC regulation, we generated knockout mice lacking the insulin receptor (InsR KO) specifically in the collecting duct principal cells. Single-channel analysis in freshly isolated split-open tubules demonstrated that the InsR-KO mice have significantly lower ENaC activity compared to their wild-type (C57BL/6J) littermates when animals were fed either normal or sodium-deficient diets. Immunohistochemical and Western blot assays demonstrated no significant changes in expression of ENaC subunits in InsR-KO mice compared to wild-type littermates. Insulin treatment caused greater ENaC activity in split-open tubules isolated from wild-type mice but did not have this effect in the InsR-KO mice. Thus, these results suggest that insulin increases ENaC activity via its own receptor affecting the channel open probability. To further determine the mechanism of the action of insulin on ENaC, we used mouse mpkCCDc14 principal cells. Insulin significantly augmented amiloride-sensitive transepithelial flux in these cells. Pretreatment of the mpkCCDc14 cells with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (LY294002; 10 μM) or mTOR (PP242; 100 nM) inhibitors precluded this effect. This study provides new information about the importance of insulin receptors expressed in collecting duct principal cells for ENaC activity.—Pavlov, T. S., Ilatovskaya, D. V., Levchenko, V., Li, L., Ecelbarger, C. M., Staruschenko, A. Regulation of ENaC in mice lacking renal insulin receptors in the collecting duct. PMID:23558339

  4. Impaired long-term memory retention and working memory in sdy mutant mice with a deletion in Dtnbp1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Keizo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1: dysbindin-1 gene is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Genetic variations in DTNBP1 are associated with cognitive functions, general cognitive ability and memory function, and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia including negative symptoms and cognitive decline. Since reduced expression of dysbindin-1 has been observed in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia, the sandy (sdy mouse, which has a deletion in the Dtnbp1 gene and expresses no dysbindin-1 protein, could be an animal model of schizophrenia. To address this issue, we have carried out a comprehensive behavioral analysis of the sdy mouse in this study. Results In a rotarod test, sdy mice did not exhibit motor learning whilst the wild type mice did. In a Barnes circular maze test both sdy mice and wild type mice learned to selectively locate the escape hole during the course of the training period and in the probe trial conducted 24 hours after last training. However, sdy mice did not locate the correct hole in the retention probe tests 7 days after the last training trial, whereas wild type mice did, indicating impaired long-term memory retention. A T-maze forced alternation task, a task of working memory, revealed no effect of training in sdy mice despite the obvious effect of training in wild type mice, suggesting a working memory deficit. Conclusion Sdy mouse showed impaired long-term memory retention and working memory. Since genetic variation in DTNBP1 is associated with both schizophrenia and memory function, and memory function is compromised in patients with schizophrenia, the sdy mouse may represent a useful animal model to investigate the mechanisms of memory dysfunction in the disorder.

  5. Resistance of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Y; Gandia, C; Huang, P L; Ali, S F

    1998-03-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant that produces dopaminergic neurotoxicity manifested by a decrease in the levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding sites in the nigrostriatal system. We have recently reported that blockade of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) isoform by 7-nitroindazole provides protection against METH-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss Webster mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a neurotoxic dose of METH on mutant mice lacking the nNOS gene [nNOS(-/-)] and wild-type controls. In addition, we sought to investigate the behavioral outcome of exposure to a neurotoxic dose of METH. Homozygote nNOS(-/-), heterozygote nNOS(+/-) and wild-type animals were administered either saline or METH (5 mg/kg x 3). Dopamine, DOPAC and HVA levels, as well as DAT binding site levels, were determined in striatal tissue derived 72 h after the last METH injection. This regimen of METH given to nNOS(-/-) mice affected neither the tissue content of dopamine and its metabolites nor the number of DAT binding sites. Although a moderate reduction in the levels of dopamine (35%) and DAT binding sites (32%) occurred in striatum of heterozygote nNOS(+/-) mice, a more profound depletion of the dopaminergic markers (up to 68%) was observed in the wild-type animals. METH-induced hyperthermia was observed in all animal strains examined except the nNOS(-/-) mice. Investigation of the animals' spontaneous locomotor activity before and after administration of the neurotoxic dose of METH (5 mg/kg x 3) revealed no differences. A low dose of METH (1.0 mg/kg) administered to naive animals (nNOS(-/-) and wild-type) resulted in a similar intensity of locomotor stimulation. However, 68 to 72 h after exposure to the high-dose METH regimen, a marked sensitized responses to a challenge METH injection was observed in the wild-type mice but not in the nNOS(-/-) mice. Taken together, these results

  6. Deficiency in monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mice delays regeneration of peripheral nerves following sciatic nerve crush

    KAUST Repository

    Morrison, Brett M.; Tsingalia, Akivaga; Vidensky, Svetlana; Lee, Youngjin; Jin, Lin; Farah, Mohamed H.; Lengacher, Sylvain; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Pellerin, Luc; Rothsteinb, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve regeneration following injury occurs spontaneously, but many of the processes require metabolic energy. The mechanism of energy supply to axons has not previously been determined. In the central nervous system, monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), expressed in oligodendroglia, is critical for supplying lactate or other energy metabolites to axons. In the current study, MCT1 is shown to localize within the peripheral nervous system to perineurial cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and Schwann cells by MCT1 immunofluorescence in wild-type mice and tdTomato fluorescence in MCT1 BAC reporter mice. To investigate whether MCT1 is necessary for peripheral nerve regeneration, sciatic nerves of MCT1 heterozygous mice are crushed and peripheral nerve regeneration was quantified electrophysiologically and anatomically. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recovery is delayed from a median of 21. days in wild-type mice to greater than 38. days in MCT1 heterozygote mice. In fact, half of the MCT1 heterozygote mice have no recovery of CMAP at 42. days, while all of the wild-type mice recovered. In addition, muscle fibers remain 40% more atrophic and neuromuscular junctions 40% more denervated at 42. days post-crush in the MCT1 heterozygote mice than wild-type mice. The delay in nerve regeneration is not only in motor axons, as the number of regenerated axons in the sural sensory nerve of MCT1 heterozygote mice at 4. weeks and tibial mixed sensory and motor nerve at 3. weeks is also significantly reduced compared to wild-type mice. This delay in regeneration may be partly due to failed Schwann cell function, as there is reduced early phagocytosis of myelin debris and remyelination of axon segments. These data for the first time demonstrate that MCT1 is critical for regeneration of both sensory and motor axons in mice following sciatic nerve crush.

  7. The effect of constitutive over-expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 on the cognitive function in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ankang; Yuan, Honghua; Wu, Lianlian; Chen, Renjin; Chen, Quangang; Zhang, Tengye; Wang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Peng; Zhu, Xiaorong

    2016-01-15

    The neurotrophic factor insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 promotes neurogenesis in the mammalian brain and provides protection against brain injury. However, studies regarding the effects of IGF-1 on cognitive function in aged mice remain limited. We investigated the effects of overexpression of IGF-1 specifically in neural stem cells of the hippocampal dentate gyrus on the recognitive function in 18-month-old transgenic mice. Immunohistocytochemistry and Nissl staining revealed the increased population of BrdU-positive cells as well as the upregulated expression of Nestin and neuronal nuclei (NeuN), respective markers for neural progenitors and neurons, in the hippocampus of the aged IGF-1 transgenic mice versus the wild-type, suggesting that IGF-1 overexpression promotes neurogenesis. In addition, the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), the phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were enhanced in the transgenic mice than in the wild-type. Transgenic mice also showed superior performance in the Morris water maze and step-down memory tests to their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, the learning and memory abilities of transgenic mice were significantly undermined with the blockage of CaMKII and ERK signaling pathway. Accordingly, our findings indicated that IGF-1 may mitigate the aged-associated cognitive decline via promoting neurogenesis in the hippocampus and activating CaMKII and ERK signaling by binding with IGF-1R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Histomorphometric Parameters of the Growth Plate and Trabecular Bone in Wild-Type and Trefoil Factor Family 3 (Tff3)-Deficient Mice Analyzed by Free and Open-Source Image Processing Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Stolnik, Dunja; Lovrić, Ivana; Baus Lončar, Mirela

    2017-08-01

    Trefoil factor family 3 (Tff3) peptide is present during intrauterine endochondral ossification in mice, and its deficiency affects cancellous bone quality in secondary ossification centers of mouse tibiae. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze parameters describing the growth plate and primary ossification centers in tibiae of 1-month-old wild-type and Tff3 knock-out mice (n=5 per genotype) by using free and open-source software. Digital photographs of the growth plates and trabecular bone were processed by open-source computer programs GIMP and FIJI. Histomorphometric parameters were calculated using measurements made with FIJI. Tff3 knock-out mice had significantly smaller trabecular number and significantly larger trabecular separation. Trabecular bone volume, trabecular bone surface, and trabecular thickness showed no significant difference between the two groups. Although such histomorphological differences were found in the cancellous bone structure, no significant differences were found in the epiphyseal plate histomorphology. Tff3 peptide probably has an effect on the formation and quality of the cancellous bone in the primary ossification centers, but not through disrupting the epiphyseal plate morphology. This work emphasizes the benefits of using free and open-source programs for morphological studies in life sciences.

  9. Wild-type MIC distributions for aminoglycoside and cyclic polypeptide antibiotics used for treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juréen, P; Angeby, K; Sturegård, E; Chryssanthou, E; Giske, C G; Werngren, J; Nordvall, M; Johansson, A; Kahlmeter, G; Hoffner, S; Schön, T

    2010-05-01

    The aminoglycosides and cyclic polypeptides are essential drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, underscoring the need for accurate and reproducible drug susceptibility testing (DST). The epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) separating wild-type susceptible strains from non-wild-type strains is an important but rarely used tool for indicating susceptibility breakpoints against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established wild-type MIC distributions on Middlebrook 7H10 medium for amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, capreomycin, and viomycin using 90 consecutive clinical isolates and 21 resistant strains. Overall, the MIC variation between and within runs did not exceed +/-1 MIC dilution step, and validation of MIC values in Bactec 960 MGIT demonstrated good agreement. Tentative ECOFFs defining the wild type were established for all investigated drugs, including amikacin and viomycin, which currently lack susceptibility breakpoints for 7H10. Five out of seven amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were classified as susceptible to capreomycin according to the current critical concentration (10 mg/liter) but were non-wild type according to the ECOFF (4 mg/liter), suggesting that the critical concentration may be too high. All amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were clearly below the ECOFF for viomycin, and two of them were below the ECOFF for streptomycin, indicating that these two drugs may be considered for treatment of amikacin-resistant strains. Pharmacodynamic indices (peak serum concentration [Cmax]/MIC) were more favorable for amikacin and viomycin compared to kanamycin and capreomycin. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of establishing wild-type MIC distributions for improving the quality of drug susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  10. STUDIES ON WILD HOUSE MICE .4. ON THE HEREDITY OF TESTOSTERONE AND READINESS TO ATTACK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOORTMERSSEN, GA; BENUS, RF; SLUYTER, F

    1992-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the role of the Y chromosome in the development of aggression in wild house mice. The aggression-eliciting property of testosterone depends not only on circulating adult testosterone, but also on perinatal sensitization of the central nervous system to this steroid.

  11. Generation and analysis of knock-in mice carrying pseudohypoaldosteronism type II-causing mutations in the cullin 3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Yuya; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sohara, Eisei; Mori, Takayasu; Inoue, Yuichi; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Eriko; Ohta, Akihito; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2015-10-21

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is a hereditary hypertensive disease caused by mutations in four different genes: with-no-lysine kinases (WNK) 1 and 4, Kelch-like family member 3 (KLHL3), and cullin 3 (Cul3). Cul3 and KLHL3 form an E3 ligase complex that ubiquitinates and reduces the expression level of WNK4. PHAII-causing mutations in WNK4 and KLHL3 impair WNK4 ubiquitination. However, the molecular pathogenesis of PHAII caused by Cul3 mutations is unclear. In cultured cells and human leukocytes, PHAII-causing Cul3 mutations result in the skipping of exon 9, producing mutant Cul3 protein lacking 57 amino acids. However, whether this phenomenon occurs in the kidneys and is responsible for the pathogenesis of PHAII in vivo is unknown. We generated knock-in mice carrying a mutation in the C-terminus of intron 8 of Cul3, c.1207-1G>A, which corresponds to a PHAII-causing mutation in the human Cul3 gene. Heterozygous Cul3(G(-1)A/+) knock-in mice did not exhibit PHAII phenotypes, and the skipping of exon 9 was not evident in their kidneys. However, the level of Cul3 mRNA expression in the kidneys of heterozygous knock-in mice was approximately half that of wild-type mice. Furthermore, homozygous knock-in mice were nonviable. It suggested that the mutant allele behaved like a knockout allele and did not produce Cul3 mRNA lacking exon 9. A reduction in Cul3 expression alone was not sufficient to develop PHAII in the knock-in mice. Our findings highlighted the pathogenic role of mutant Cul3 protein and provided insight to explain why PHAII-causing mutations in Cul3 cause kidney-predominant PHAII phenotypes. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Amyloid β Is Not the Major Factor Accounting for Impaired Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice Overexpressing Amyloid Precursor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Pan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult hippocampal neurogenesis was impaired in several Alzheimer's disease models overexpressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP. However, the effects of wild-type hAPP on adult neurogenesis and whether the impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis was caused by amyloid β (Aβ or APP remained unclear. Here, we found that neurogenesis was impaired in the dentate gyrus (DG of adult mice overexpressing wild-type hAPP (hAPP-I5 compared with controls. However, the adult hippocampal neurogenesis was more severely impaired in hAPP-I5 than that in hAPP-J20 mice, which express similar levels of hAPP mRNA but much higher levels of Aβ. Furthermore, reducing Aβ levels did not affect the number of doublecortin-positive cells in the DG of hAPP-J20 mice. Our results suggested that hAPP was more likely an important factor inhibiting adult neurogenesis, and Aβ was not the major factor affecting neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of hAPP mice.

  13. Germline mutation rates at tandem repeat loci in DNA-repair deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Ruth C.; Miccoli, Laurent; Buul, Paul P.W. van; Burr, Karen L.-A.; Duyn-Goedhart, Annemarie van; Angulo, Jaime F.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2004-01-01

    Mutation rates at two expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci were studied in the germline of non-exposed and irradiated severe combined immunodeficient (scid) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1 -/- ) deficient male mice. Non-exposed scid and PARP -/- male mice showed considerably elevated ESTR mutation rates, far higher than those in wild-type isogenic mice and other inbred strains. The irradiated scid and PARP-1 -/- male mice did not show any detectable increases in their mutation rate, whereas significant ESTR mutation induction was observed in the irradiated wild-type isogenic males. ESTR mutation spectra in the scid and PARP-1 -/- strains did not differ from those in the isogenic wild-type strains. Considering these data and the results of previous studies, we propose that a delay in repair of DNA damage in scid and PARP-1 -/- mice could result in replication fork pausing which, in turn, may affect ESTR mutation rate in the non-irradiated males. The lack of mutation induction in irradiated scid and PARP-1 -/- can be explained by the high cell killing effects of irradiation on the germline of deficient mice

  14. Acceleration of bone development and regeneration through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in mice heterozygously deficient for GSK-3β

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arioka, Masaki [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi, E-mail: yanaga@clipharm.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Global Medical Science Education Unit, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sasaki, Masanori [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshihara, Tatsuya; Morimoto, Sachio [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Takashima, Akihiko [Department of Aging Neurobiology, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Oobu (Japan); Mori, Yoshihide [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sasaguri, Toshiyuki [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was activated in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice. •The cortical and trabecular bone volumes were increased in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice. •Regeneration of a partial bone defect was accelerated in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice. -- Abstract: Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β plays an important role in osteoblastogenesis by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated whether GSK-3β deficiency affects bone development and regeneration using mice heterozygously deficient for GSK-3β (GSK-3β{sup +/−}). The amounts of β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) in the bone marrow cells of GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice were significantly increased compared with those of wild-type mice, indicating that Wnt/β-catenin signals were enhanced in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice. Microcomputed tomography of the distal femoral metaphyses demonstrated that the volumes of both the cortical and trabecular bones were increased in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice compared with those in wild-type mice. Subsequently, to investigate the effect of GSK-3β deficiency on bone regeneration, we established a partial bone defect in the femur and observed new bone at 14 days after surgery. The volume and mineral density of the new bone were significantly higher in GSK-3β{sup +/−} mice than those in wild-type mice. These results suggest that bone formation and regeneration in vivo are accelerated by inhibition of GSK-3β, probably through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  15. Effects of Exercise on Progranulin Levels and Gliosis in Progranulin-Insufficient Mice1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E.; Patel, Aashka R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Loss-of-function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are one of the most common genetic causes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder with no available disease-modifying treatments. Through haploinsufficiency, these mutations reduce levels of progranulin, a protein that has neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory effects. Increasing progranulin expression from the intact allele is therefore a potential approach for treating individuals with GRN mutations. Based on the well-known effects of physical exercise on other neurotrophic factors, we hypothesized that exercise might increase brain progranulin levels. We tested this hypothesis in progranulin heterozygous (Grn+/−) mice, which model progranulin haploinsufficiency. We housed wild-type and progranulin-insufficient mice in standard cages or cages with exercise wheels for 4 or 7.5 weeks, and then measured brain and plasma progranulin levels. Although exercise modestly increased progranulin in very young (2-month-old) wild-type mice, this effect was limited to the hippocampus. Exercise did not increase brain progranulin mRNA or protein in multiple regions, nor did it increase plasma progranulin, in 4- to 8-month-old wild-type or Grn+/− mice, across multiple experiments and under conditions that increased hippocampal BDNF and neurogenesis. Grn−/−mice were included in the study to test for progranulin-independent benefits of exercise on gliosis. Exercise attenuated cortical microgliosis in 8-month-old Grn−/−mice, consistent with a progranulin-independent, anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. These results suggest that exercise may have some modest, nonspecific benefits for FTD patients with progranulin mutations, but do not support exercise as a strategy to raise progranulin levels. PMID:26361634

  16. Increased transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel expression in hypertrophic heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Schulz, Nico

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels in hypertrophic hearts from transgenic mice showing overexpression of the catalytic subunit alpha of protein phosphatase 2A alpha (PP2Ac alpha) with wild-type mice and with TRPV1-...... alpha transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice and TRPV1-/- mice (8.6±1.3mg/g; 5.4±0.3mg/g; and 5.4±0.4mg/g; respectively; p...

  17. Lack of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 in mice results in gait abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidan, Georgette L; Duerschmied, Daniel; Dillon, Gregory M; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Hampton, Thomas G; Wong, Siu Ling; Voorhees, Jaymie R; Wagner, Denisa D

    2013-01-01

    The role of peripheral serotonin in nervous system development is poorly understood. Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) is expressed by non-neuronal cells including enterochromaffin cells of the gut, mast cells and the pineal gland and is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of peripheral serotonin. Serotonin released into circulation is taken up by platelets via the serotonin transporter and stored in dense granules. It has been previously reported that mouse embryos removed from Tph1-deficient mothers present abnormal nervous system morphology. The goal of this study was to assess whether Tph1-deficiency results in behavioral abnormalities. We did not find any differences between Tph1-deficient and wild-type mice in general motor behavior as tested by rotarod, grip-strength test, open field and beam walk. However, here we report that Tph1 (-/-) mice display altered gait dynamics and deficits in rearing behavior compared to wild-type (WT) suggesting that tryptophan hydroxylase-1 expression has an impact on the nervous system.

  18. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity but is dispensable for skeletal muscle regeneration in adult mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Meadows

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most prevalent inherited childhood muscle disorder in humans. mdx mice exhibit a similar pathophysiology to the human disorder allowing for an in-depth investigation of DMD. Myogenin, a myogenic regulatory factor, is best known for its role in embryonic myogenesis, but its role in adult muscle maintenance and regeneration is still poorly understood. Here, we generated an mdx:Myog(flox/flox mouse harboring a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase transgene, which was used to conditionally delete Myog during adult life. After tamoxifen treatment, three groups of mice were created to study the effects of Myog deletion: mdx:Myog(flox/flox mice (mdx, Myog(flox/flox mice (wild-type, and mdx:Myog(floxΔ/floxΔ:Cre-ER mice (mdx:Myog-deleted. mdx:Myog-deleted mice exhibited no adverse phenotype and behaved normally. When run to exhaustion, mdx:Myog-deleted mice demonstrated an enhanced capacity for exercise compared to mdx mice, running nearly as far as wild-type mice. Moreover, these mice showed the same signature characteristics of muscle regeneration as mdx mice. Unexpectedly, we found that myogenin was dispensable for muscle regeneration. Factors associated with muscle fatigue, metabolism, and proteolysis were significantly altered in mdx:Myog-deleted mice, and this might contribute to their increased exercise capacity. Our results reveal novel functions for myogenin in adult muscle and suggest that reducing Myog expression in other muscle disease models may partially restore muscle function.

  19. Histamine-dependent behavioral response to methamphetamine in 12-month-old male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Summer F.; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) use is a growing problem across the United States. Effects of MA include hyperactivity and increased anxiety. Using a mouse model system, we examined behavioral performance in the open field and elevated zero maze and shock-startle response of 12-month-old wild-type mice injected with MA once (1mg/kg) 30 min prior to behavioral testing. MA treatment resulted in behavioral sensitization in the open field, consistent with studies in younger mice. There was an increased activity in the elevated zero maze and an increased shock-startle response 30 and 60 min post-injection. Since histamine mediates some effects of MA in the brain, we assessed whether 12-month-old mice lacking histidine decarboxylase (Hdc−/−), the enzyme required to synthesize histamine, respond differently to MA than wild-type (Hdc+/+) mice. Compared to saline treatment, acute and repeated MA administration increased activity in the open field and measures of anxiety, though more so in Hdc−/− than Hdc+/+ mice. In the elevated zero maze, opposite effects of MA on activity and measures of anxiety were seen in Hdc+/+ mice. In contrast, MA similarly increased the shock-startle response in Hdc−/− and Hdc+/+ mice, compared to saline-treated genotype-matched mice. These results are similar to those in younger mice suggesting that the effects are not age-dependent. Overall, single or repeated MA treatment causes histamine-dependent changes in 12-month-old mice in the open field and elevated zero-maze, but not in the shock-startle response. PMID:21466792

  20. Hindlimb Skeletal Muscle Function and Skeletal Quality and Strength in +/G610C Mice With and Without Weight-Bearing Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youngjae; Carleton, Stephanie M; Gentry, Bettina A; Yao, Xiaomei; Ferreira, J Andries; Salamango, Daniel J; Weis, MaryAnn; Oestreich, Arin K; Williams, Ashlee M; McCray, Marcus G; Eyre, David R; Brown, Marybeth; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2015-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous heritable connective tissue disorder associated with reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fragility. Bone is inherently mechanosensitive, with bone strength being proportional to muscle mass and strength. Physically active healthy children accrue more bone than inactive children. Children with type I OI exhibit decreased exercise capacity and muscle strength compared with healthy peers. It is unknown whether this muscle weakness reflects decreased physical activity or a muscle pathology. In this study, we used heterozygous G610C OI model mice (+/G610C), which model both the genotype and phenotype of a large Amish OI kindred, to evaluate hindlimb muscle function and physical activity levels before evaluating the ability of +/G610C mice to undergo a treadmill exercise regimen. We found +/G610C mice hindlimb muscles do not exhibit compromised muscle function, and their activity levels were not reduced relative to wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice were also able to complete an 8-week treadmill regimen. Biomechanical integrity of control and exercised wild-type and +/G610C femora were analyzed by torsional loading to failure. The greatest skeletal gains in response to exercise were observed in stiffness and the shear modulus of elasticity with alterations in collagen content. Analysis of tibial cortical bone by Raman spectroscopy demonstrated similar crystallinity and mineral/matrix ratios regardless of sex, exercise, and genotype. Together, these findings demonstrate +/G610C OI mice have equivalent muscle function, activity levels, and ability to complete a weight-bearing exercise regimen as wild-type mice. The +/G610C mice exhibited increased femoral stiffness and decreased hydroxyproline with exercise, whereas other biomechanical parameters remain unaffected, suggesting a more rigorous exercise regimen or another exercise modality may be required to improve bone quality of OI mice. © 2015 American Society for Bone

  1. Mechanical Forces Exacerbate Periodontal Defects in Bsp-null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenjaya, Y.; Foster, B.L.; Nociti, F.H.; Ao, M.; Holdsworth, D.W.; Hunter, G.K.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, cell attachment, and hydroxyapatite-nucleating properties. BSP expression in mineralized tissues is upregulated at onset of mineralization. Bsp-null (Bsp-/-) mice exhibit reductions in bone mineral density, bone turnover, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. Furthermore, Bsp-/- mice have marked periodontal tissue breakdown, with a lack of acellular cementum leading to periodontal ligament detachment, extensive alveolar bone and tooth root resorption, and incisor malocclusion. We hypothesized that altered mechanical stress from mastication contributes to periodontal destruction observed in Bsp-/- mice. This hypothesis was tested by comparing Bsp-/- and wild-type mice fed with standard hard pellet diet or soft powder diet. Dentoalveolar tissues were analyzed using histology and micro–computed tomography. By 8 wk of age, Bsp-/- mice exhibited molar and incisor malocclusion regardless of diet. Bsp-/- mice with hard pellet diet exhibited high incidence (30%) of severe incisor malocclusion, 10% lower body weight, 3% reduced femur length, and 30% elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity compared to wild type. Soft powder diet reduced severe incisor malocclusion incidence to 3% in Bsp-/- mice, supporting the hypothesis that occlusal loading contributed to the malocclusion phenotype. Furthermore, Bsp-/- mice in the soft powder diet group featured normal body weight, long bone length, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity, suggesting that tooth dysfunction and malnutrition contribute to growth and skeletal defects reported in Bsp-/- mice. Bsp-/- incisors also erupt at a slower rate, which likely leads to the observed thickened dentin and enhanced mineralization of dentin and enamel toward the apical end. We propose that the decrease in eruption rate is due to a lack of acellular cementum and associated defective periodontal attachment. These data demonstrate the importance of BSP

  2. Prednisolone-induced differential gene expression in mouse liver carrying wild type or a dimerization-defective glucocorticoid receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokter Wim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoids (GCs control expression of a large number of genes via binding to the GC receptor (GR. Transcription may be regulated either by binding of the GR dimer to DNA regulatory elements or by protein-protein interactions of GR monomers with other transcription factors. Although the type of regulation for a number of individual target genes is known, the relative contribution of both mechanisms to the regulation of the entire transcriptional program remains elusive. To study the importance of GR dimerization in the regulation of gene expression, we performed gene expression profiling of livers of prednisolone-treated wild type (WT and mice that have lost the ability to form GR dimers (GRdim. Results The GR target genes identified in WT mice were predominantly related to glucose metabolism, the cell cycle, apoptosis and inflammation. In GRdim mice, the level of prednisolone-induced gene expression was significantly reduced compared to WT, but not completely absent. Interestingly, for a set of genes, involved in cell cycle and apoptosis processes and strongly related to Foxo3a and p53, induction by prednisolone was completely abolished in GRdim mice. In contrast, glucose metabolism-related genes were still modestly upregulated in GRdim mice upon prednisolone treatment. Finally, we identified several novel GC-inducible genes from which Fam107a, a putative histone acetyltransferase complex interacting protein, was most strongly dependent on GR dimerization. Conclusions This study on prednisolone-induced effects in livers of WT and GRdim mice identified a number of interesting candidate genes and pathways regulated by GR dimers and sheds new light onto the complex transcriptional regulation of liver function by GCs.

  3. APP/SOD1 overexpressing mice present reduced neuropathic pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; LePecheur, Marie; Marcol, Wiesław; Olakowska, Edyta; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; London, Jacqueline

    2011-07-15

    There are controversies regarding pain expression in mentally disabled people, including Down syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to examine neuropathic pain-related behavior and peripheral nerve regeneration in mouse model of Down syndrome. Sciatic nerves of double transgenic mice, overexpressing both amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) genes, and FVB/N wild type mice were transected and immediately resutured. Evaluation of autotomy and functional recovery was carried out during 4-week follow-up. We found markedly less severe autotomy in transgenic animals, although the onset of autotomy was significantly delayed in control mice. Interestingly, neuroma formation at the injury site was significantly more prominent in transgenic animals. Sciatic function index outcome was better in transgenic mice than in wild-type group. Histological evaluation revealed no statistically significant differences in the number of GAP-43-positive growth cones and macrophages in the distal stump of the transected nerve between groups. However, in transgenic animals, the regenerating axons were arranged more chaotically. The number of Schwann cells in the distal stump of the transected nerves was significantly lower in transgenic mice. The number of surviving motoneurons was markedly decreased in transgenic group. We measured also the atrophy of denervated muscles and found it decreased in APP/SOD1 overexpressing mice. Taken together, in this model of Down syndrome, we observed increased neuroma formation and decreased autotomy after peripheral nerve injury. Our findings suggest that APP/SOD1 overexpressing mice are less sensitive for neuropathic pain associated with neuroma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell-extrinsic defective lymphocyte development in Lmna(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Scott Hale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes all A-type lamins, result in a variety of human diseases termed laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice appear normal at birth but become runted as early as 2 weeks of age and develop multiple tissue defects that mimic some aspects of human laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice also display smaller spleens and thymuses. In this study, we investigated whether altered lymphoid organ sizes are correlated with specific defects in lymphocyte development.Lmna(-/- mice displayed severe age-dependent defects in T and B cell development which coincided with runting. Lmna(-/- bone marrow reconstituted normal T and B cell development in irradiated wild-type recipients, driving generation of functional and self-MHC restricted CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Transplantation of Lmna(-/- neonatal thymus lobes into syngeneic wild-type recipients resulted in good engraftment of thymic tissue and normal thymocyte development.Collectively, these data demonstrate that the severe defects in lymphocyte development that characterize Lmna(-/- mice do not result directly from the loss of A-type lamin function in lymphocytes or thymic stroma. Instead, the immune defects in Lmna(-/- mice likely reflect indirect damage, perhaps resulting from prolonged stress due to the striated muscle dystrophies that occur in these mice.

  5. Leptin Increases Striatal Dopamine D2 Receptor Binding in Leptin-Deficient Obese (ob/ob) Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaffly, J.; Michaelides, M.; Wang, G-J.; Pessin, J.E.; Volkow, N.D.; Thanos, P.K.

    2010-06-01

    Peripheral and central leptin administration have been shown to mediate central dopamine (DA) signaling. Leptin-receptor deficient rodents show decreased DA D2 receptor (D2R) binding in striatum and unique DA profiles compared to controls. Leptin-deficient mice show increased DA activity in reward-related brain regions. The objective of this study was to examine whether basal D2R-binding differences contribute to the phenotypic behaviors of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, and whether D2R binding is altered in response to peripheral leptin treatment in these mice. Leptin decreased body weight, food intake, and plasma insulin concentration in ob/ob mice but not in wild-type mice. Basal striatal D2R binding (measured with autoradiography [{sup 3}H] spiperone) did not differ between ob/ob and wild-type mice but the response to leptin did. In wild-type mice, leptin decreased striatal D2R binding, whereas, in ob/ob mice, leptin increased D2R binding. Our findings provide further evidence that leptin modulates D2R expression in striatum and that these effects are genotype/phenotype dependent.

  6. Wild-Type MIC Distributions for Aminoglycoside and Cyclic Polypeptide Antibiotics Used for Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juréen, P.; Ängeby, K.; Sturegård, E.; Chryssanthou, E.; Giske, C. G.; Werngren, J.; Nordvall, M.; Johansson, A.; Kahlmeter, G.; Hoffner, S.; Schön, T.

    2010-01-01

    The aminoglycosides and cyclic polypeptides are essential drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, underscoring the need for accurate and reproducible drug susceptibility testing (DST). The epidemiological cutoff value (ECOFF) separating wild-type susceptible strains from non-wild-type strains is an important but rarely used tool for indicating susceptibility breakpoints against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we established wild-type MIC distributions on Middlebrook 7H10 medium for amikacin, kanamycin, streptomycin, capreomycin, and viomycin using 90 consecutive clinical isolates and 21 resistant strains. Overall, the MIC variation between and within runs did not exceed ±1 MIC dilution step, and validation of MIC values in Bactec 960 MGIT demonstrated good agreement. Tentative ECOFFs defining the wild type were established for all investigated drugs, including amikacin and viomycin, which currently lack susceptibility breakpoints for 7H10. Five out of seven amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were classified as susceptible to capreomycin according to the current critical concentration (10 mg/liter) but were non-wild type according to the ECOFF (4 mg/liter), suggesting that the critical concentration may be too high. All amikacin- and kanamycin-resistant isolates were clearly below the ECOFF for viomycin, and two of them were below the ECOFF for streptomycin, indicating that these two drugs may be considered for treatment of amikacin-resistant strains. Pharmacodynamic indices (peak serum concentration [Cmax]/MIC) were more favorable for amikacin and viomycin compared to kanamycin and capreomycin. In conclusion, our data emphasize the importance of establishing wild-type MIC distributions for improving the quality of drug susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:20237102

  7. Mutant INS-gene induced diabetes of youth: proinsulin cysteine residues impose dominant-negative inhibition on wild-type proinsulin transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a syndrome of Mutant INS-gene-induced Diabetes of Youth (MIDY, derived from one of 26 distinct mutations has been identified as a cause of insulin-deficient diabetes, resulting from expression of a misfolded mutant proinsulin protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Genetic deletion of one, two, or even three alleles encoding insulin in mice does not necessarily lead to diabetes. Yet MIDY patients are INS-gene heterozygotes; inheritance of even one MIDY allele, causes diabetes. Although a favored explanation for the onset of diabetes is that insurmountable ER stress and ER stress response from the mutant proinsulin causes a net loss of beta cells, in this report we present three surprising and interlinked discoveries. First, in the presence of MIDY mutants, an increased fraction of wild-type proinsulin becomes recruited into nonnative disulfide-linked protein complexes. Second, regardless of whether MIDY mutations result in the loss, or creation, of an extra unpaired cysteine within proinsulin, Cys residues in the mutant protein are nevertheless essential in causing intracellular entrapment of co-expressed wild-type proinsulin, blocking insulin production. Third, while each of the MIDY mutants induces ER stress and ER stress response; ER stress and ER stress response alone appear insufficient to account for blockade of wild-type proinsulin. While there is general agreement that ultimately, as diabetes progresses, a significant loss of beta cell mass occurs, the early events described herein precede cell death and loss of beta cell mass. We conclude that the molecular pathogenesis of MIDY is initiated by perturbation of the disulfide-coupled folding pathway of wild-type proinsulin.

  8. Aging-associated changes in motor axon voltage-gated Na+ channel function in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Rosberg, Mette Romer; Alvarez Herrero, Susana

    2016-01-01

    the functional impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular aging on motor axon function with particular emphasis on Nav1.8. We compared tibial nerve conduction and excitability measures by threshold tracking in 12 months (mature) and 20 months (aged) wild-type (WT) mice...... expression was found by immunohistochemistry. The depolarizing excitability features were absent in Nav1.8 null mice, and they were counteracted in WT mice by a Nav1.8 blocker. Our data suggest that alteration in voltage-gated Na+ channel isoform expression contributes to changes in motor axon function...

  9. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression: Comparing 'humanized' mouse lines and wild-type mice; comparing human and mouse hepatoma-derived cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Shigeyuki; Endo, Kaori; Ishida, Yuji; Tateno, Chise; Makishima, Makoto; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Nebert, Daniel W.

    2009-01-01

    Human and rodent cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes sometimes exhibit striking species-specific differences in substrate preference and rate of metabolism. Human risk assessment of CYP substrates might therefore best be evaluated in the intact mouse by replacing mouse Cyp genes with human CYP orthologs; however, how 'human-like' can human gene expression be expected in mouse tissues? Previously a bacterial-artificial-chromosome-transgenic mouse, carrying the human CYP1A1 C YP1A2 locus and lacking the mouse Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 orthologs, was shown to express robustly human dioxin-inducible CYP1A1 and basal versus inducible CYP1A2 (mRNAs, proteins, enzyme activities) in each of nine mouse tissues examined. Chimeric mice carrying humanized liver have also been generated, by transplanting human hepatocytes into a urokinase-type plasminogen activator(+/+) s evere-combined-immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) line with most of its mouse hepatocytes ablated. Herein we compare basal and dioxin-induced CYP1A mRNA copy numbers, protein levels, and four enzymes (benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, acetanilide 4-hydroxylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase) in liver of these two humanized mouse lines versus wild-type mice; we also compare these same parameters in mouse Hepa-1c1c7 and human HepG2 hepatoma-derived established cell lines. Most strikingly, mouse liver CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities are between 38- and 170-fold higher than human CYP1A1-specific enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA), whereas mouse versus human CYP1A2 enzyme activities (per unit of mRNA) are within 2.5-fold of one another. Moreover, both the mouse and human hepatoma cell lines exhibit striking differences in CYP1A mRNA levels and enzyme activities. These findings are relevant to risk assessment involving human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 substrates, when administered to mice as environmental toxicants or drugs.

  10. Consumption of fig fruits grown in Oman can improve memory, anxiety, and learning skills in a transgenic mice model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash, Selvaraju; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Braidy, Nady; Al-Jabri, Ahood; Vaishnav, Ragini; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia in the elderly. Several reports have suggested neurotoxic effects of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) and role of oxidative stress in AD. Figs are rich in fiber, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, potassium, calcium, vitamin K, and are a good source of proanthocyanidins and quercetin which demonstrate potent antioxidant properties. We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with 4% figs grown in Oman on the memory, anxiety, and learning skills in APPsw/Tg2576 (Tg mice) mice model for AD. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4 months and after 15 months using the Morris water maze test, rota-rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open-field test. Tg mice that were fed a control diet without figs showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial, position discrimination learning ability, and motor coordination compared to the wild-type control mice on the same diet, and Tg mice fed on 4% fig diet supplementation for 15 months. Our results suggest that dietary supplementation of figs may be useful for the improvement of cognitive and behavioral deficits in AD.

  11. Atp1a3-deficient heterozygous mice show lower rank in the hierarchy and altered social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, H; Ikeda, K; Kawakami, K

    2017-10-23

    Atp1a3 is the Na-pump alpha3 subunit gene expressed mainly in neurons of the brain. Atp1a3-deficient heterozygous mice (Atp1a3 +/- ) show altered neurotransmission and deficits of motor function after stress loading. To understand the function of Atp1a3 in a social hierarchy, we evaluated social behaviors (social interaction, aggression, social approach and social dominance) of Atp1a3 +/- and compared the rank and hierarchy structure between Atp1a3 +/- and wild-type mice within a housing cage using the round-robin tube test and barbering observations. Formation of a hierarchy decreases social conflict and promote social stability within the group. The hierarchical rank is a reflection of social dominance within a cage, which is heritable and can be regulated by specific genes in mice. Here we report: (1) The degree of social interaction but not aggression was lower in Atp1a3 +/- than wild-type mice, and Atp1a3 +/- approached Atp1a3 +/- mice more frequently than wild type. (2) The frequency of barbering was lower in the Atp1a3 +/- group than in the wild-type group, while no difference was observed in the mixed-genotype housing condition. (3) Hierarchy formation was not different between Atp1a3 +/- and wild type. (4) Atp1a3 +/- showed a lower rank in the mixed-genotype housing condition than that in the wild type, indicating that Atp1a3 regulates social dominance. In sum, Atp1a3 +/- showed unique social behavior characteristics of lower social interaction and preference to approach the same genotype mice and a lower ranking in the hierarchy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  12. Female preproenkephalin-knockout mice display altered emotional responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnauth, A.; Schuller, A.; Morgan, M.; Chan, J.; Ogawa, S.; Pintar, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Pfaff, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in sexual behavior, palatable intake, fear, and anxiety. The present study examined whether ovariectomized female transgenic preproenkephalin-knockout (PPEKO) mice and their wild-type and heterozygous controls displayed alterations in fear and anxiety paradigms, sucrose intake, and lordotic behavior. To examine stability of responding, three squads of the genotypes were tested across seasons over a 20-month period. In a fear-conditioning paradigm, PPEKO mice significantly increased freezing to both fear and fear + shock stimuli relative to controls. In the open field, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and traversed significantly less distance in the center of an open field than wild-type controls. Further, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and tended to be less active on the light side of a dark–light chamber than controls, indicating that deletion of the enkephalin gene resulted in exaggerated responses to fear or anxiety-provoking environments. These selective deficits were observed consistently across testing squads spanning 20 months and different seasons. In contrast, PPEKO mice failed to differ from corresponding controls in sucrose, chow, or water intake across a range (0.0001–20%) of sucrose concentrations and failed to differ in either lordotic or female approach to male behaviors when primed with estradiol and progesterone, thereby arguing strongly for the selectivity of a fear and anxiety deficit which was not caused by generalized and nonspecific debilitation. These transgenic data strongly suggest that opioids, and particularly enkephalin gene products, are acting naturally to inhibit fear and anxiety. PMID:11172058

  13. Radon inhalation suppresses nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Etani, Reo; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the suppressive effects of radon inhalation against nephropathy in C57BL/6J mice with type-1 diabetes induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg weight, given five times). Four weeks after diabetes induction, the diabetic mice were continuously treated with inhaled radon-222 of 2000 Bq/m3 or air only (sham) for four weeks. The results showed that radon inhalation did not affect type-1 diabetic symptoms such as body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia. However, diabetic mice treated with radon showed lower urinary albumin excretion and fibrotic change in renal glomeruli compared with diabetic mice not treated with radon. Furthermore, renal superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content were significantly higher in diabetic mice treated with radon than in diabetic mice not treated with radon. These findings suggested that radon inhalation enhanced renal antioxidants activities, resulting in the suppression of diabetic nephropathy. This study may contribute to the development of a novel approach in the treatment of nephropathy for diabetic patients. (author)

  14. Intrinsic functional defects of type 2 innate lymphoid cells impair innate allergic inflammation in promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF)-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Philip A; Constantinides, Michael G; McDonald, Benjamin D; Urban, Joseph F; Sperling, Anne I; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-02-01

    The transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is transiently expressed during development of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) but is not present at the mature stage. We hypothesized that PLZF-deficient ILC2s have functional defects in the innate allergic response and represent a tool for studying innate immunity in a mouse with a functional adaptive immune response. We determined the consequences of PLZF deficiency on ILC2 function in response to innate and adaptive immune stimuli by using PLZF(-/-) mice and mixed wild-type:PLZF(-/-) bone marrow chimeras. PLZF(-/-) mice, wild-type littermates, or mixed bone marrow chimeras were treated with the protease allergen papain or the cytokines IL-25 and IL-33 or infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis to induce innate type 2 allergic responses. Mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin-alum, followed by intranasal challenge with ovalbumin alone, to induce adaptive TH2 responses. Lungs were analyzed for immune cell subsets, and alveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for ILC2-derived cytokines. In addition, ILC2s were stimulated ex vivo for their capacity to release type 2 cytokines. PLZF-deficient lung ILC2s exhibit a cell-intrinsic defect in the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to innate stimuli, resulting in defective recruitment of eosinophils and goblet cell hyperplasia. In contrast, the adaptive allergic inflammatory response to ovalbumin and alum was unimpaired. PLZF expression at the innate lymphoid cell precursor stage has a long-range effect on the functional properties of mature ILC2s and highlights the importance of these cells for innate allergic responses in otherwise immunocompetent mice. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  15. Impairments in cognition and neural precursor cell proliferation in mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta ePardo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBrain glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 is hyperactive in several neurological conditions that involve impairments in both cognition and neurogenesis. This raises the hypotheses that hyperactive GSK3 may directly contribute to impaired cognition, and that this may be related to deficiencies in neural precursor cells (NPC. To study the effects of hyperactive GSK3 in the absence of disease influences, we compared adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and performance in three cognitive tasks in male and female wild-type mice and GSK3 knockin mice, which express constitutively active GSK3. NPC proliferation was ~40% deficient in both male and female GSK3 knockin mice compared with wild-type mice. Environmental enrichment (EE increased NPC proliferation in male, but not female, GSK3 knockin mice and wild-type mice. Male and female GSK3 knockin mice exhibited impairments in novel object recognition, temporal order memory, and coordinate spatial processing compared with gender-matched wild-type mice. EE restored impaired novel object recognition and temporal ordering in both sexes of GSK3 knockin mice, indicating that this repair was not dependent on NPC proliferation, which was not increased by EE in female GSK3 knockin mice. Acute 1 hr pretreatment with the GSK3 inhibitor TDZD-8 also improved novel object recognition and temporal ordering in male and female GSK3 knockin mice. These findings demonstrate that hyperactive GSK3 is sufficient to impair adult hippocampal NPC proliferation and to impair performance in three cognitive tasks in both male and female mice, but these changes in NPC proliferation do not directly regulate novel object recognition and temporal ordering tasks.

  16. Reversibility of hepatocyte nuclear modifications in mice fed on genetically modified soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malatesta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, the reports on the effects of a genetically modified (GM diet are scanty and heterogeneous; in particular, no direct evidence has so far been reported that GM food may affect human or animal health. Hepatocytes represent a suitable model for monitoring the effects of a GM diet, the liver potentially being a primary target. In a previous study, we demonstrated that some modifications occur in hepatocyte nuclei of mice fed on GM soybean. In order to elucidate whether such modifications can be reversed, in the present study, 3 months old mice fed on GM soybean since their weaning were submitted to a diet containing wild type soybean only, for one month. In parallel, to investigate the influence of GM soybean on adult individuals, mice fed on wild type soybean were changed to a GM diet, for the same time. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrated that a one-month diet reversion can influence some nuclear features in adult mice, restoring typical characteristics of controls in GM-fed animals, and inducing in control mice modifications similar to those observed in animals fed on GM soybean from weaning. This suggests that the modifications related to GM soybean are potentially reversible, but also that some modifications are inducible in adult organisms in a short time.

  17. Masking Responses to Light in Period Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1−/− and Per2−/− mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice. Furthermore, Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1−/−/Per2−/− SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator. PMID:21793695

  18. An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Rotunno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s of sporadic ALS, which accounts for approximately 90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and sporadic ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein to be one such factor that is common to both sporadic and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a toxic conformation that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem sporadic ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to sporadic ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and sporadic ALS.

  19. Anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice lacking the CD157/BST1 gene, a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eLopatina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available CD157, known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ADP-ribosyl cyclase that supports the survival and function of B-lymphocytes and hematopoietic or intestinal stem cells. Although CD157/Bst1 is a risk locus in Parkinson’s disease (PD, little is known about the function of CD157 in the nervous system and contribution to PD progression. Here, we show that no apparent motor dysfunction was observed in young knockout (CD157-/- male mice under less aging-related effects on behaviors. CD157-/- mice exhibited anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors compared with wild-type mice. These behaviors were rescued through treatment with anti-psychiatric drugs and oxytocin. CD157 was weakly expressed in the amygdala and c-Fos immunoreactivity was less evident in CD157-/- mice than in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that CD157 plays a role as a neuro-regulator and suggest a potential role in pre-motor symptoms in PD.

  20. Phenotypic characterization of Grm1crv4 mice reveals a functional role for the type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor in bone mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Ilaria; Mattinzoli, Deborah; Otescu, Lavinia Alexandra; Bossi, Simone; Ikehata, Masami; Gentili, Chiara; Cangemi, Giuliana; Gatti, Cinzia; Emionite, Laura; Messa, Piergiorgio; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Rastaldi, Maria Pia; Riccardi, Daniela; Puliti, Aldamaria

    2017-01-01

    Recent increasing evidence supports a role for neuronal type signaling in bone. Specifically glutamate receptors have been found in cells responsible for bone remodeling, namely the osteoblasts and the osteoclasts. While most studies have focused on ionotropic glutamate receptors, the relevance of the metabotropic glutamate signaling in bone is poorly understood. Specifically type 1 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1) receptors are expressed in bone, but the effect of its ablation on skeletal development has never been investigated. Here we report that Grm1 crv4/crv4 mice, homozygous for an inactivating mutation of the mGlu1 receptor, and mainly characterized by ataxia and renal dysfunction, exhibit decreased body weight, bone length and bone mineral density compared to wild type (WT) animals. Blood analyses of the affected mice demonstrate the absence of changes in circulating factors, such as vitamin D and PTH, suggesting renal damage is not the main culprit of the skeletal phenotype. Cultures of osteoblasts lacking functional mGlu1 receptors exhibit less homogeneous collagen deposition than WT cells, and present increased expression of osteocalcin, a marker of osteoblast maturation. These data suggest that the skeletal damage is directly linked to the absence of the receptor, which in turn leads to osteoblasts dysfunction and earlier maturation. Accordingly, skeletal histomorphology suggests that Grm1 crv4/crv4 mice exhibit enhanced bone maturation, resulting in premature fusion of the growth plate and shortened long bones, and further slowdown of bone apposition rate compared to the WT animals. In summary, this work reveals novel functions of mGlu1 receptors in the bone and indicates that in osteoblasts mGlu1 receptors are necessary for production of normal bone matrix, longitudinal bone growth, and normal skeletal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanisms Inducing Low Bone Density in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo, Anna; Del Fattore, Andrea; Capulli, Mattia; Carvello, Francesco; De Pasquale, Loredana; Ferrari, Serge; Pierroz, Dominique; Morandi, Lucia; De Simone, Michele; Rucci, Nadia; Bertini, Enrico; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Teti, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and dystrophic MDX mice were investigated in this study for their bone phenotype and systemic regulators of bone turnover. Micro–computed tomographic (µCT) and histomorphometric analyses showed reduced bone mass and higher osteoclast and bone resorption parameters in MDX mice compared with wild-type mice, whereas osteoblast parameters and mineral apposition rate were lower. In a panel of circulating pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines evaluated in the MDX sera, interleukin 6 (IL-6) was increased compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, DMD patients showed low bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores and high bone-resorption marker and serum IL-6. Human primary osteoblasts from healthy donors incubated with 10% sera from DMD patients showed decreased nodule mineralization. Many osteogenic genes were downregulated in these cultures, including osterix and osteocalcin, by a mechanism blunted by an IL-6-neutralizing antibody. In contrast, the mRNAs of osteoclastogenic cytokines IL6, IL11, inhibin-βA, and TGFβ2 were increased, although only IL-6 was found to be high in the circulation. Consistently, enhancement of osteoclastogenesis was noted in cultures of circulating mononuclear precursors from DMD patients or from healthy donors cultured in the presence of DMD sera or IL-6. Circulating IL-6 also played a dominant role in osteoclast formation because ex vivo wild-type calvarial bones cultured with 10% sera of MDX mice showed increase osteoclast and bone-resorption parameters that were dampen by treatment with an IL-6 antibody. These results point to IL-6 as an important mediator of bone loss in DMD and suggest that targeted anti-IL-6 therapy may have a positive impact on the bone phenotype in these patients. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research PMID:21509823

  2. Environmental factors regulate Paneth cell phenotype and host susceptibility to intestinal inflammation in Irgm1-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison R. Rogala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD represents a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestinal tract. Several susceptibility genes have been linked to CD, though their precise role in the pathogenesis of this disorder remains unclear. Immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM is an established risk allele in CD. We have shown previously that conventionally raised (CV mice lacking the IRGM ortholog, Irgm1 exhibit abnormal Paneth cells (PCs and increased susceptibility to intestinal injury. In the present study, we sought to utilize this model system to determine if environmental conditions impact these phenotypes, as is thought to be the case in human CD. To accomplish this, wild-type and Irgm1−/− mice were rederived into specific pathogen-free (SPF and germ-free (GF conditions. We next assessed how these differential housing environments influenced intestinal injury patterns, and epithelial cell morphology and function in wild-type and Irgm1−/− mice. Remarkably, in contrast to CV mice, SPF Irgm1−/− mice showed only a slight increase in susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-induced inflammation. SPF Irgm1−/− mice also displayed minimal abnormalities in PC number and morphology, and in antimicrobial peptide expression. Goblet cell numbers and epithelial proliferation were also unaffected by Irgm1 in SPF conditions. No microbial differences were observed between wild-type and Irgm1−/− mice, but gut bacterial communities differed profoundly between CV and SPF mice. Specifically, Helicobacter sequences were significantly increased in CV mice; however, inoculating SPF Irgm1−/− mice with Helicobacter hepaticus was not sufficient to transmit a pro-inflammatory phenotype. In summary, our findings suggest the impact of Irgm1-deficiency on susceptibility to intestinal inflammation and epithelial function is critically dependent on environmental influences. This work establishes the importance of Irgm1−/− mice as a model to elucidate host

  3. Differential glucose metabolism in mice and humans affected by McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L

    2016-01-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is a disease caused by myophosphorylase deficiency leading to "blocked" glycogen breakdown. A significant but varying glycogen accumulation in especially distal hind limb muscles of mice affected by McArdle disease has recently been demonstrated......, which could lead to lower glycogen accumulation. In comparison, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and soleus had massive glycogen accumulation, but few, if any, changes or adaptations in glucose metabolism compared with wild-type mice. The findings suggest plasticity in glycogen metabolism....... In this study, we investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects glucose metabolism in hind limb muscle of 20-wk-old McArdle mice and vastus lateralis muscles from patients with McArdle disease. Western blot analysis and activity assay demonstrated that glycogen synthase was inhibited in glycolytic muscle...

  4. Activation Of Wild-Type Hras Suppresses The Earliest Stages Of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Weyandt

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Loss of wild-type Hras promotes the earliest stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis, and moreover results in more rapid progression of the disease. As such, mechanisms leading to activation of wild-type Ras proteins, including but not limited to redox-dependent reactions, may influence the development of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Nfib hemizygous mice are protected from hyperoxic lung injury and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vasantha H S; Chaker El Khoury, Joseph; Gronostajski, Richard; Wang, Huamei; Nielsen, Lori; Ryan, Rita M

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear Factor I ( Nfi) genes encode transcription factors essential for the development of organ systems including the lung. Nfib null mice die at birth with immature lungs. Nfib hemizygous mice have reduced lung maturation with decreased survival. We therefore hypothesized that these mice would be more sensitive to lung injury and would have lower survival to hyperoxia. Adult Nfib hemizygous mice and their wild-type (Wt) littermates were exposed to 100% O 2 for 89, 80, 72 and 66 h for survival studies with lung outcome measurements at 66 h. Nfib hemizygous and Wt controls were also studied in RA at 66 h. Cell counts and cytokines were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); lung sections examined by histopathology; lung angiogenic and oxidative stress gene expression assessed by real-time PCR Unexpectedly, Nfib hemizygous mice (0/14-0%) had significantly lower mortality compared to Wt mice (10/22-45%) at 80 h of hyperoxia ( P  mice exposed to hyperoxia. New vessel formation, edema, congestion, and alveolar hemorrhage were noted on histopathology at 72 and 80 h in wild-type mice. Nfib hemizygous lungs had significant downregulation of genes involved in redox signaling and inflammatory pathways. Adult Nfib hemizygous mice are relatively resistant to hyperoxia compared to wild-type littermates. Mechanisms contributing to this resistance are not clear; however, transcription factors such as Nfib may regulate cell survival and play a role in modulating postnatal lung development. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  6. T-cell-dependent control of acute Giardia lamblia infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S M; Nash, T E

    2000-01-01

    We have studied immune mechanisms responsible for control of acute Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris infections in adult mice. Association of chronic G. lamblia infection with hypogammaglobulinemia and experimental infections of mice with G. muris have led to the hypothesis that antibodies are required to control these infections. We directly tested this hypothesis by infecting B-cell-deficient mice with either G. lamblia or G. muris. Both wild-type mice and B-cell-deficient mice eliminated the vast majority of parasites between 1 and 2 weeks postinfection with G. lamblia. G. muris was also eliminated in both wild-type and B-cell-deficient mice. In contrast, T-cell-deficient and scid mice failed to control G. lamblia infections, as has been shown previously for G. muris. Treatment of wild-type or B-cell-deficient mice with antibodies to CD4 also prevented elimination of G. lamblia, confirming a role for T cells in controlling infections. By infecting mice deficient in either alphabeta- or gammadelta-T-cell receptor (TCR)-expressing T cells, we show that the alphabeta-TCR-expressing T cells are required to control parasites but that the gammadelta-TCR-expressing T cells are not. Finally, infections in mice deficient in production of gamma interferon or interleukin 4 (IL-4) and mice deficient in responding to IL-4 and IL-13 revealed that neither the Th1 nor the Th2 subset is absolutely required for protection from G. lamblia. We conclude that a T-cell-dependent mechanism is essential for controlling acute Giardia infections and that this mechanism is independent of antibody and B cells.

  7. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  8. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. → The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [ 14 C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [ 14 C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather

  9. Cystathionine-gamma-lyase deficient mice are protected against the development of multiorgan failure and exhibit reduced inflammatory response during burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akbar; Druzhyna, Nadiya; Szabo, Csaba

    2017-08-01

    Considering the role of H 2 S in critical illness, the aim of this study was to compare the outcome of burn in wild-type mice and in mice deficient in CSE, one of the principal mammalian H 2 S-generating enzymes. Animals were subjected to scald burn. Outcome variables included indices of organ injury, clinical chemistry parameters and plasma levels of inflammatory mediators. Plasma levels of H 2 S significantly increased in response to burn in wild-type mice, but remained unchanged in CSE -/- mice. Expression of the three H 2 S-producing enzymes (CSE, CBS and 3-MST) in the lung and liver, and the capacity of tissue homogenates to produce H 2 S, however, was not affected by burn. In CSE deficient mice there was a significant amelioration of burn-induced accumulation of myeloperoxidase levels in heart, lung, liver and kidney and significantly lower degree of malon dialdehyde accumulation in the heart, lung and kidney than in wild-type mice. CSE deficient mice, compared to wild-type mice, showed a significant attenuation of the burn-induced elevation in circulating alkaline aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, indicative of protective effects of CSE deficiency against burn-induced hepatic, and renal functional impairment. Multiple burn-induced inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12) were significantly lower in the plasma of CSE -/- animals after burn than in the plasma of wild-type controls subjected to burns. In conclusion, CSE deficiency improves organ function and attenuates the inflammatory response in a murine model of burn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuropeptide Y deficiency attenuates responses to fasting and high-fat diet in obesity-prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiralben R; Qi, Yong; Hawkins, Evan J; Hileman, Stanley M; Elmquist, Joel K; Imai, Yumi; Ahima, Rexford S

    2006-11-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates feeding and weight gain, but deletion of the NPY gene does not affect food intake and body weight in mice bred on a mixed genetic background. We reasoned that the orexigenic action of NPY would be evident in C57Bl/6J mice susceptible to obesity. NPY deficiency has no significant effect in mice fed a normal rodent diet. However, energy expenditure is elevated during fasting, and hyperphagia and weight gain are blunted during refeeding. Expression of agouti-related peptide (AGRP) in the hypothalamus is increased in NPY knockout (NPYko) than wild-type mice, but unlike wild type there is no further increase in AGRP when NPYko mice are fasted. Moreover, NPYko mice have higher oxygen consumption and uncoupling protein-1 expression in brown adipose tissue during fasting. The failure of an increase in orexigenic peptides and higher thermogenesis may contribute to attenuation of weight gain when NPYko mice are refed. C57Bl/6J mice lacking NPY are also less susceptible to diet-induced obesity (DIO) as a result of reduced feeding and increased energy expenditure. The resistance to DIO in NPYko mice is associated with a reduction in nocturnal feeding and increased expression of anorexigenic hypothalamic peptides. Insulin, leptin, and triglyceride levels increase with adiposity in both wild-type and NPYko mice.

  11. Maturation Stage Enamel Malformations in Amtn and Klk4 Null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Stephanie M.; Chun, Yong-Hee P.; Ganss, Bernhard; Hu, Yuanyuan; Richardson, Amelia S; Schmitz, James E.; Fajardo, Roberto; Yang, Jie; Hu, Jan C-C.; Simmer, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) and kallikrein-4 (KLK4) are secreted proteins specialized for enamel biomineralization. We characterized enamel from wild-type, Amtn−/−, Klk4−/−, Amtn+/−Klk4+/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice to gain insights into AMTN and KLK4 functions during amelogenesis. All of the null mice were healthy and fertile. The mandibular incisors in Amtn−/−, Klk4−/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice were chalky-white and chipped. No abnormalities except in enamel were observed, and no significant differences were detected in enamel thickness or volume, or in rod decussation. Micro-computed tomography (µCT) maximum intensity projections localized the onset of enamel maturation in wild-type incisors distal to the first molar, but mesial to this position in Amtn−/−, Klk4−/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice, demonstrating a delay in enamel maturation in Amtn−/− incisors. Micro-CT detected significantly reduced enamel mineral density (2.5 and 2.4 gHA/cm3) in the Klk4−/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice respectively, compared with wild-type enamel (3.1 gHA/cm3). Backscatter scanning electron microscopy showed that mineral density progressively diminished with enamel depth in the Klk4−/− and Amtn−/−Klk4−/− mice. Knoop hardness of Amtn−/− outer enamel was significantly reduced relative to the wild-type and was not as hard as the middle or inner enamel. Klk4−/− enamel hardness was significantly reduced at all levels, but the outer enamel was significantly harder than the inner and middle enamel. Thus the hardness patterns of the Amtn−/− and Klk4−/− mice were distinctly different, while the Amtn−/−Klk4−/− outer enamel was not as hard as in the Amtn−/− and Klk4−/− mice. We conclude that AMTN and KLK4 function independently, but are both necessary for proper enamel maturation. PMID:26620968

  12. Early and rapid development of insulin resistance, islet dysfunction and glucose intolerance after high-fat feeding in mice overexpressing phosphodiesterase 3B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walz, Helena A; Härndahl, Linda; Wierup, Nils

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate islet adaptation to insulin resistance leads to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. Here we investigate whether beta-cell cAMP is crucial for islet adaptation and prevention of glucose intolerance in mice. Mice with a beta-cell-specific, 2-fold overexpression of the c......AMP-degrading enzyme phosphodiesterase 3B (RIP-PDE3B/2 mice) were metabolically challenged with a high-fat diet. We found that RIP-PDE3B/2 mice early and rapidly develop glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, as compared with wild-type littermates, after 2 months of high-fat feeding. This was evident from...... did not reveal reduced insulin sensitivity in these tissues. Significant steatosis was noted in livers from high-fat-fed wild-type and RIP-PDE3B/2 mice and liver triacyl-glycerol content was 3-fold higher than in wild-type mice fed a control diet. Histochemical analysis revealed severe islet...

  13. Production and purification of anti-bacterial biometabolite from wild-type Lactobacillus, isolated from fermented bamboo shoot: future suggestions and a proposed system for secondary metabolite onsite recovery during continuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-02-01

    Wild-type lactobacillus isolated form Khorisa, a fermented bamboo shoot product of Assam, India were evaluated for production anti-bacterial secondary biometabolites, against Staphylococcus aureus. Submerged fermentation technique was used for the production of secondary anti-microbial biometabolite by a single wild-type lactobacillus strain, which tested positive for the release of anti-bacterial factor(s). Crude cell-free supernatant was obtained, followed by extraction in water-immiscible solvents viz., chloroform, hexane, petroleum ether. Chloroform extract of cell-free crude supernatant showed maximum yield (0.054 g/ml) and inhibited all indicator bacterial strains viz., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Yields of hexane and petroleum ether extract were 0.052 and 0.026 g/ml, respectively. Minimum lethal dose concentration assay of the chloroform extract showed LDmin values at 27, 1.68, and 1.68 mg/ml for E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus, respectively. Kill time for all the indicator bacterial strains were less than 12 h. The efficacy of the anti-bacterial substance seemed to depend on the presence of organic acids, particularly lactic acid. Conceptual-based suggestion for the development of an onsite secondary metabolites recovery system during continuous fermentation has also been attempted.

  14. Inhibition of the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) by the deletion of the p50 subunit of NF-κB in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glauert, Howard P.; Tharappel, Job C.; Banerjee, Subhashis; Chan, Nelson L.S.; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Eun Y.; Robertson, Larry W.; Spear, Brett T.

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental chemicals that bioaccumulate and have hepatic tumor promoting activity in rodents. The present study examined the effect of deleting the p50 subunit of NF-κB on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in mice. Both wild-type and p50-/- male mice were injected i.p. with diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 90 mg/kg) and then subsequently injected biweekly with 20 i.p. injections of PCB-153 (300 μmol/kg/injection). p50 deletion decreased the tumor incidence in both PCB- and vehicle-treated mice, whereas PCB-153 slightly (P = 0.09) increased the tumor incidence in wild-type and p50-/- mice. PCB-153 increased the total tumor volume in both wild-type and p50-/- mice, but the total tumor volume was not affected by p50 deletion in either PCB- or vehicle-treated mice. The volume of tumors that were positive for glutamine synthetase (GS), which is indicative of mutations in the beta-catenin gene, was increased in both wild-type and p50-/- mice administered PCB-153 compared to vehicle controls, and inhibited in p50-/- mice compared to wild-type mice (in both PCB- and vehicle-treated mice). The volume of tumors that were negative for GS was increased in p50-/- mice compared to wild-type mice but was not affected by PCB-153. PCB-153 increased cell proliferation in normal hepatocytes in wild-type but not p50-/- mice; this increase was inhibited in p50-/- mice. In hepatic tumors, the rate of cell proliferation was much higher than in normal hepatocytes, but was not affected by PCB treatment or p50 deletion. The rate of apoptosis, as measured by the TUNEL assay, was not affected by PCB-153 or p50 deletion in normal hepatocytes. In hepatic tumors, the rate of apoptosis was lower than in normal hepatocytes; PCB-153 slightly (P = 0.10) increased apoptosis in p50-/- but not wild-type mice; p50 deletion had no effect. Taken together, these data indicate that the absence of

  15. Increased skin barrier disruption by sodium lauryl sulfate in mice expressing a constitutively active STAT6 in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaSilva, Sonia C; Sahu, Ravi P; Konger, Raymond L; Perkins, Susan M; Kaplan, Mark H; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic, chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that the ability of Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) to regulate skin barrier function may be a predisposing factor for AD development. The present studies examined the ability of increased Th2 activity to affect cutaneous barrier function in vivo and epidermal thickening. Mice that express a constitutively active Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6VT) have increased Th2 cells and a predisposition to allergic inflammation were used in these studies, they demonstrate that topical treatment with the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) caused increased transepidermal water loss and epidermal thickening in STAT6VT mice over similarly treated wild-type mice. The proliferation marker Ki-67 was increased in the epidermis of STAT6VT compared to the wild-type mice. However, these differences do not appear to be linked to the addition of an irritant as control-treated STAT6VT skin also exhibited elevated Ki-67 levels, suggesting that the increased epidermal thickness in SLS-treated STAT6VT mice is primarily driven by epidermal cell hypertrophy rather than an increase in cellular proliferation. Our results suggest that an environment with increased Th2 cytokines results in abnormal responses to topical irritants.

  16. Deficiency of heat shock transcription factor 1 suppresses heat stress-associated increase in slow soleus muscle mass of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Y; Egawa, T; Yokoyama, S; Nakai, A; Sugiura, T; Ohira, Y; Yoshioka, T; Goto, K

    2015-12-01

    Effects of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) deficiency on heat stress-associated increase in slow soleus muscle mass of mice were investigated. Both HSF1-null and wild-type mice were randomly assigned to control and heat-stressed groups. Mice in heat-stressed group were exposed to heat stress (41 °C for 60 min) in an incubator without anaesthesia. Significant increase in wet and dry weights, and protein content of soleus muscle in wild-type mice was observed seven days after the application of the heat stress. However, heat stress had no impact on soleus muscle mass in HSF1-null mice. Neither type of mice exhibited much effect of heat stress on HSF mRNA expression (HSF1, HSF2 and HSF4). On the other hand, heat stress upregulated heat shock proteins (HSPs) at the mRNA (HSP72) and protein (HSP72 and HSP110) levels in wild-type mice, but not in HSF1-null mice. The population of Pax7-positive nuclei relative to total myonuclei of soleus muscle in wild-type mice was significantly increased by heat stress, but not in HSF1-null mice. Furthermore, the absence of HSF1 gene suppressed heat stress-associated phosphorylation of Akt and p70 S6 kinase (p-p70S6K) in soleus muscle. Heat stress-associated increase in skeletal muscle mass may be induced by HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response that activates muscle satellite cells and Akt/p70S6K signalling pathway. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Neuronal modulation of lung injury induced by polymeric hexamethylene diisocyanate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.-T.; Poovey, Halet G.; Rando, Roy J.; Hoyle, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate biuret trimer (HDI-BT) is a nonvolatile isocyanate that is a component of polyurethane spray paints. HDI-BT is a potent irritant that when inhaled stimulates sensory nerves of the respiratory tract. The role of sensory nerves in modulating lung injury following inhalation of HDI-BT was assessed in genetically manipulated mice with altered innervation of the lung. Knockout mice with a mutation in the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), which have decreased innervation by nociceptive nerve fibers, and transgenic mice expressing nerve growth factor (NGF) from the lung-specific Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) promoter, which have increased innervation of the airways, were exposed to HDI-BT aerosol and evaluated at various times after exposure. NGFR knockout mice exhibited significantly more, and CCSP-NGF transgenic mice exhibited significantly less injury and inflammation compared with wild-type mice, indicative of a protective effect of nociceptive nerves on the lung following HDI-BT inhalation. Transgenic mice overexpressing the tachykinin 1 receptor (Tacr1) in lung epithelial cells also showed less severe injury and inflammation compared with wild-type mice after HDI-BT exposure, establishing a role for released tachykinins acting through Tacr1 in mediating at least part of the protective effect. Treatment of lung fragments from Tacr1 transgenic mice with the Tacr1 ligand substance P resulted in increased cAMP accumulation, suggesting this compound as a possible signaling mediator of protective effects on the lung following nociceptive nerve stimulation. The results indicate that sensory nerves acting through Tacr1 can exert protective or anti-inflammatory effects in the lung following isocyanate exposure

  18. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1 encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariaconcetta Sicurella

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2 are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat. In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ, induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1

  19. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicurella, Mariaconcetta; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Volpi, Ilaria; Berto, Elena; Finessi, Valentina; Destro, Federica; Manservigi, Roberto; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara; Caputo, Antonella; Gavioli, Riccardo; Marconi, Peggy C

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat). In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ), induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1 infection and

  20. Neural androgen receptors affect the number of surviving new neurones in the adult dentate gyrus of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, A; Duarte-Guterman, P; Hamson, D K; Ibrahim, M; Monks, D A; Galea, L A M

    2018-04-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs in many mammalian species. In rats, the survival of new neurones within the hippocampus is modulated by the action of androgen via the androgen receptor (AR); however, it is not known whether this holds true in mice. Furthermore, the evidence is mixed regarding whether androgens act in neural tissue or via peripheral non-neural targets to promote new neurone survival in the hippocampus. We evaluated whether the action of androgen via AR underlies the survival of new neurones in mice, and investigated whether increasing AR selectively in neural tissue would increase new neurone survival in the hippocampus. We used the cre-loxP system to overexpress AR only in neural tissues (Nestin-AR). These males were compared with wild-type males, as well as control males with 1 of the 2 mutations required for overexpression. Mice were gonadectomised and injected with the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and for 37 days (following BrdU injection), mice were treated with oil or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Using immunohistochemistry, proliferation (Ki67) and survival (BrdU) of new neurones were both evaluated in the dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus. Dihydrotestosterone treatment increased the survival of new neurones in the entire hippocampus in wild-type mice and control mice that only have 1 of 2 necessary mutations for transgenic expression. However, DHT treatment did not increase the survival of new neurones in mice that overexpressed AR in neural tissue. Cell proliferation (Ki67) and cell death (pyknotic cells) were not affected by DHT treatment in wild-type or transgenic males. These results suggest that androgens act via neural AR to affect hippocampal neurogenesis by promoting cell survival; however, the relationship between androgen dose and new neurone survival is nonlinear. © 2018 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. Chronic Trichuris muris infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine and exacerbates tumour formation in APC min/+ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S Hayes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+ mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.

  2. Yokukansankachimpihange increased body weight but not food-incentive motivation in wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Takuya; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; F Tanaka, Kenji; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-08-01

    Yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH), a traditional Japanese medicine, is widely used for the amelioration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia with digestive dysfunction. Regardless of its successful use for digestive dysfunction, the effect of YKSCH on body weight was unknown. Furthermore, if YKSCH increased body weight, it might increase motivation according to Kampo medicine theory. Therefore, we investigated whether YKSCH had the potential to increase body weight and enhance motivation in mice. To address this, C57BL/6J mice were used to evaluate the long-term effect of YKSCH on body weight and food-incentive motivation. As part of the evaluation, we optimized an operant test for use over the long-term. We found that feeding mice YKSCH-containing chow increased body weight, but did not increase their motivation to food reward. We propose that YKSCH may be a good treatment option for preventing decrease in body weight in patients with dementia.

  3. Impaired clearance of influenza A virus in obese, leptin receptor deficient mice is independent of leptin signaling in the lung epithelium and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A Radigan

    Full Text Available During the recent H1N1 outbreak, obese patients had worsened lung injury and increased mortality. We used a murine model of influenza A pneumonia to test the hypothesis that leptin receptor deficiency might explain the enhanced mortality in obese patients.We infected wild-type, obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db and non-obese mice with tissue specific deletion of the leptin receptor in the lung epithelium (SPC-Cre/LepR fl/fl or macrophages and alveolar type II cells (LysM-Cre/Lepr fl/fl with influenza A virus (A/WSN/33 [H1N1] (500 and 1500 pfu/mouse and measured mortality, viral clearance and several markers of lung injury severity.The clearance of influenza A virus from the lungs of mice was impaired in obese mice globally deficient in the leptin receptor (db/db compared to normal weight wild-type mice. In contrast, non-obese, SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl had improved viral clearance after influenza A infection. In obese mice, mortality was increased compared with wild-type mice, while the SP-C-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl and LysM-Cre+/+/LepR fl/fl mice exhibited improved survival.Global loss of the leptin receptor results in reduced viral clearance and worse outcomes following influenza A infection. These findings are not the result of the loss of leptin signaling in lung epithelial cells or macrophages. Our results suggest that factors associated with obesity or with leptin signaling in non-myeloid populations such as natural killer and T cells may be associated with worsened outcomes following influenza A infection.

  4. Generation of transgenic mice producing fungal xylanase in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    express exogenous digestive enzymes, since a single- stomached animal, such as a pig, can secret .... transgenic founder mice; 1 to15 are fifteen wild-type founder mice; M, marke; β-actin, endogenous control. (C) Identification of transgenic mice by ... 61.48±0.34%), gross energy digestibility (WT vs. TG = 68.79±0.51% vs.

  5. Increased Melanoma Growth and Metastasis Spreading in Mice Overexpressing Placenta Growth Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, Marcella; De Luca, Naomi; Riccioni, Teresa; Ciucci, Alessandro; Orecchia, Angela; Lacal, Pedro Miguel; Ruffini, Federica; Pesce, Maurizio; Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Failla, Cristina Maria

    2006-01-01

    Placenta growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor family, plays an important role in adult pathological angiogenesis. To further investigate PlGF functions in tumor growth and metastasis formation, we used transgenic mice overexpressing PlGF in the skin under the control of the keratin 14 promoter. These animals showed a hypervascularized phenotype of the skin and increased levels of circulating PlGF with respect to their wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice and controls were inoculated intradermally with B16-BL6 melanoma cells. The tumor growth rate was fivefold increased in transgenic animals compared to wild-type mice, in the presence of a similar percentage of tumor necrotic tissue. Tumor vessel area was increased in transgenic mice as compared to controls. Augmented mobilization of endothelial and hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow was observed in transgenic animals, possibly contributing to tumor vascularization. The number and size of pulmonary metastases were significantly higher in transgenic mice compared to wild-type littermates. Finally, PlGF promoted tumor cell invasion of the extracellular matrix and increased the activity of selected matrix metalloproteinases. These findings indicate that PlGF, in addition to enhancing tumor angiogenesis and favoring tumor growth, may directly influence melanoma dissemination. PMID:16877362

  6. No dramatic age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in Bcl-2 over-expression mice or Bax null mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlemiller Kevin K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Age-related decline of neuronal function is associated with age-related structural changes. In the central nervous system, age-related decline of cognitive performance is thought to be caused by synaptic loss instead of neuronal loss. However, in the cochlea, age-related loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs is consistently observed in a variety of species, including humans. Since age-related loss of these cells is a major contributing factor to presbycusis, it is important to study possible molecular mechanisms underlying this age-related cell death. Previous studies suggested that apoptotic pathways were involved in age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. In the present study, we examined the role of Bcl-2 gene in age-related hearing loss. In one transgenic mouse line over-expressing human Bcl-2, there were no significant differences between transgenic mice and wild type littermate controls in their hearing thresholds during aging. Histological analysis of the hair cells and SGNs showed no significant conservation of these cells in transgenic animals compared to the wild type controls during aging. These data suggest that Bcl-2 overexpression has no significant effect on age-related loss of hair cells and SGNs. We also found no delay of age-related hearing loss in mice lacking Bax gene. These findings suggest that age-related hearing loss is not through an apoptotic pathway involving key members of Bcl-2 family.

  7. Unimpaired dendritic cell functions in MVP/LRP knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossink, Marieke H; de Groot, Jan; van Zon, Arend; Fränzel-Luiten, Erna; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L; Sonneveld, Pieter; Scheper, Rik J; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2003-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) act as mobile sentinels of the immune system. By stimulating T lymphocytes, DCs are pivotal for the initiation of both T- and B-cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, ribonucleoprotein particles (vaults) were found to be involved in the development and/or function of human DCs. To further investigate the role of vaults in DCs, we examined the effects of disruption of the major vault protein (MVP/LRP) on the development and antigen-presenting capacity of DCs, using our MVP/LRP knockout mouse model. Mononuclear bone marrow cells were isolated from wild-type and knockout mice and stimulated to differentiate to DCs. Like human DCs, the wild-type murine DC cultures strongly expressed MVP/LRP. Nevertheless, the MVP/LRP-deficient DCs developed normally and showed similar expression levels of several DC surface markers. No differences were observed in in vitro studies on the antigen uptake and presenting capacities of the wild-type and MVP/LRP knockout DCs. Moreover, immunization of the MVP/LRP-deficient mice with several T-cell antigens led to responses similar to those observed in the wild-type mice, indicating that the in vivo DC migration and antigen-presentation capacities are intact. Moreover, no differences were observed in the induction of the T cell-dependent humoral responses and orally induced peripheral T-cell tolerance. In conclusion, vaults are not required for primary DC functions. Their abundance in DCs may, however, still reflect basic roles in myeloid cell proliferation and DC development.

  8. A speculated ribozyme site in the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcript gene is not essential for a wild-type reactivation phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Dale; Singh, Sukhpreet; Osorio, Nelson; Hsiang, Chinhui; Jiang, Xianzhi; Jin, Ling; Jones, Clinton; Wechsler, Steven L

    2010-01-01

    During herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) latency in sensory neurons, LAT (latency-associated transcript) is the only abundantly expressed viral gene. LAT plays an important role in the HSV-1 latency-reactivation cycle, because LAT deletion mutants have a significantly decreased reactivation phenotype. Based solely on sequence analysis, it was speculated that LAT encodes a ribozyme that plays an important role in how LAT enhances the virus’ reactivation phenotype. Because LAT ribozyme activity has never been reported, we decided to test the converse hypothesis, namely, that this region of LAT does not encode a ribozyme function important for LAT’s ability to enhance the reactivation phenotype. We constructed a viral mutant (LAT-Rz) in which the speculated ribozyme consensus sequence was altered such that no ribozyme was encoded. We report here that LAT-Rz had a wild-type reactivation phenotype in mice, confirming the hypothesis that the speculated LAT ribozyme is not a dominant factor in stimulating the latency-reactivation cycle in mice. PMID:18982533

  9. Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Finding significant growth in mice with craniofacial dysmorphology caused by the Crouzon mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2010-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterized by growth disturbances caused by premature fusion of the cranial growth zones. A mouse model with mutation Fgfr2C342Y, equivalent to the most common Crouzon syndrome mutation (henceforth called the Crouzon mouse model), has a phenotype showing many parallels to t...... used micro-CT scans of 4-week-old mice (N=5) and 6-week-old mice (N=10) with Crouzon syndrome (Fgfr2 C342Y/+) were compared to control groups of 4-week-old wild-type mice (N=5) and 6-week-old wild-type mice (N=10), respectively....

  10. D4 receptor deficiency in mice has limited effects on impulsivity and novelty seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, C M; Gubner, N R; Wilhelm, C J; Mitchell, S H; Grandy, D K

    2008-09-01

    Alleles of the human dopamine D(4) receptor (D(4)R) gene (DRD4.7) have repeatedly been found to correlate with novelty seeking, substance abuse, pathological gambling, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). If these various psychopathologies are a result of attenuated D(4)R-mediated signaling, mice lacking D(4)Rs (D(4)KO) should be more impulsive than wild-type (WT) mice and exhibit more novelty seeking. However, in our study, D(4)KO and WT mice showed similar levels of impulsivity as measured by delay discounting performance and response inhibition on a Go/No-go test, suggesting that D(4)R-mediated signaling may not affect impulsivity. D(4)KO mice were more active than WT mice in the first 5 min of a novel open field test, suggesting greater novelty seeking. For both genotypes, more impulsive mice habituated less in the novel open field. These data suggest that the absence of D(4)Rs is not sufficient to cause psychopathologies associated with heightened impulsivity and novelty seeking.

  11. An anticholinergic reverses motor control and corticostriatal LTD deficits in Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mai T; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Cheetham, Chad C; Lu, Jun; Vo, Viet; Lovinger, David M; Li, Yuqing

    2012-01-15

    DYT1 early-onset generalized torsion dystonia is an inherited movement disorder associated with mutations in DYT1 that codes for torsinA protein. The most common mutation seen in this gene is a trinucleotide deletion of GAG. We previously reported a motor control deficit on a beam-walking task in our Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in heterozygous mice. In this report we show the reversal of this motor deficit with the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl (THP), a drug commonly used to treat movement problems in dystonia patients. THP also restored the reduced corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD) observed in these mice. Corticostriatal LTD has long been known to be dependent on D2 receptor activation. In this mouse model, striatal D2 receptors were expressed at lower quantities in comparison to wild-type mice. Furthermore, the mice were also partially resistant to FPL64176, an agonist of L-type calcium channels that have been previously reported to cause severe dystonic-like symptoms in wild-type mice. Our findings collectively suggest that altered communication between cholinergic interneurons and medium spiny neurons is responsible for the LTD deficit and that this synaptic plasticity modification may be involved in the striatal motor control abnormalities in our mouse model of DYT1 dystonia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of GAD67 and Dlx5 in the taste buds of mice genetically lacking Mash1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito-Shingaki, Ayae; Seta, Yuji; Toyono, Takashi; Kataoka, Shinji; Kakinoki, Yasuaki; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Toyoshima, Kuniaki

    2014-06-01

    It has been reported that a subset of type III taste cells express glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)67, which is a molecule that synthesizes gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and that Mash1 could be a potential regulator of the development of GABAnergic neurons via Dlx transcription factors in the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the expression of GAD67 and Dlx in the embryonic taste buds of the soft palate and circumvallate papilla using Mash1 knockout (KO)/GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. In the wild-type animal, a subset of type III taste cells contained GAD67 in the taste buds of the soft palate and the developing circumvallate papilla, whereas GAD67-expressing taste bud cells were missing from Mash1 KO mice. A subset of type III cells expressed mRNA for Dlx5 in the wild-type animals, whereas Dlx5-expressing cells were not evident in the apical part of the circumvallate papilla and taste buds in the soft palate of Mash1 KO mice. Our results suggest that Mash1 is required for the expression of GAD67 and Dlx5 in taste bud cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Comparative metabolic profiling of mce1 operon mutant vs wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Adriano; Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Marjanovic, Olivera; Nomura, Daniel K; Riley, Lee W

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis disrupted in a 13-gene operon (mce1) accumulates free mycolic acids (FM) in its cell wall and causes accelerated death in mice. Here, to more comprehensively analyze differences in their cell wall lipid composition, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to compare the lipid profiles of wild-type and mce1 operon mutant strains. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified >400 distinct lipids significantly altered in the mce1 mutant compared to wild type. These lipids included decreased levels of saccharolipids and glycerophospholipids, and increased levels of alpha-, methoxy- and keto mycolic acids (MA), and hydroxyphthioceranic acid. The mutant showed reduced expression of mmpL8, mmpL10, stf0, pks2 and papA2 genes involved in transport and metabolism of lipids recognized to induce proinflammatory response; these lipids were found to be decreased in the mutant. In contrast, the transcripts of mmpL3, fasI, kasA, kasB, acpM and RV3451 involved in MA transport and metabolism increased; MA inhibits inflammatory response in macrophages. Since the mce1 operon is known to be regulated in intracellular M. tuberculosis, we speculate that the differences we observed in cell wall lipid metabolism and composition may affect host response to M. tuberculosis infection and determine the clinical outcome of such an infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostacyclin formation and blood pressure homeostasis: targeted exchange of cyclooxygenase isoforms in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Stubbe, Jane; Ibrahim, Salam

    2010-01-01

    pressure. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of COX-2 in blood pressure homeostasis using COX-1>COX-2 mice, in which the COX-1 expression is controlled by COX-2 regulatory elements. METHODS AND RESULTS: COX-1>COX-2 mice developed systolic hypertension relative to wild types (WTs) on a high-salt diet (HSD...... and again the increase in formation of PGI(2) observed in WTs was suppressed in cells derived from both mutants. Intramedullary infusion of the PGI(2) receptor agonist increased urine volume and sodium excretion in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest that dysregulated expression of the COX-2 dependent...

  15. Shorter duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep slow waves in EphA4 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyburger, Marlène; Poirier, Gaétan; Carrier, Julie; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-10-01

    Slow waves occurring during non-rapid eye movement sleep have been associated with neurobehavioural performance and memory. In addition, the duration of previous wakefulness and sleep impacts characteristics of these slow waves. However, molecular mechanisms regulating the dynamics of slow-wave characteristics remain poorly understood. The EphA4 receptor regulates glutamatergic transmission and synaptic plasticity, which have both been linked to sleep slow waves. To investigate if EphA4 regulates slow-wave characteristics during non-rapid eye movement sleep, we compared individual parameters of slow waves between EphA4 knockout mice and wild-type littermates under baseline conditions and after a 6-h sleep deprivation. We observed that, compared with wild-type mice, knockout mice display a shorter duration of positive and negative phases of slow waves under baseline conditions and after sleep deprivation. However, the mutation did not change slow-wave density, amplitude and slope, and did not affect the sleep deprivation-dependent changes in slow-wave characteristics, suggesting that EphA4 is not involved in the response to elevated sleep pressure. Our present findings suggest a role for EphA4 in shaping cortical oscillations during sleep that is independent from sleep need. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Impaired memory of eyeblink conditioning in CaMKIV KO mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka Hung; Chatila, Talal A; Ram, Rana A; Thompson, Richard F

    2009-04-01

    The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CaMKIV) is highly expressed in cerebellar cortical granule cells and deep nuclear neurons in the cerebellum. It mediates the phosphorylation and activation of the cAMP-dependent response element binding protein (CREB). In several paradigms CREB-dependent transcription is required for cellular events underlying long-term memory processes. Also, CaMKIV deficiency results in impaired long-term depression (LTD) induction in cerebellar cortex. To investigate the function of CaMKIV in the cerebellum, Wild-type (WT) and CaMKIV KO mice were tested with delay eyeblink conditioning. KO and WT mice did not differ in acquisition, but the KO mice showed a significantly lower conditioned response (CR) percentage than the WT mice in the retention testing and retraining period. The CR peak latencies for the two groups did not differ in acquisition but were shorter for the KO mice in the testing period. No significant differences were found between KO and WT mice in spontaneous eyeblink activity, auditory brainstem response (ABR) amplitudes, and tail-flick latency. The results suggest an important role for CaMKIV in long-term memory in the cerebellum. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Complement and alcoholic liver disease: role of C1q in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica I; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; McMullen, Megan R; Stavitsky, Abram B; Nagy, Laura E

    2010-08-01

    Complement is involved in the development of alcoholic liver disease in mice; however, the mechanisms for complement activation during ethanol exposure have not been identified. C1q, the recognition subunit of the first complement component, binds to apoptotic cells, thereby activating the classical complement pathway. Because ethanol exposure increases hepatocellular apoptosis, we hypothesized that ethanol-induced apoptosis would lead to activation of complement via the classical pathway. Wild-type and C1qa-/- mice were allowed free access to ethanol-containing diets or pair-fed control diets for 4 or 25 days. Ethanol feeding for 4 days increased apoptosis of Kupffer cells in both wild-type and C1qa-/- mice. Ethanol-induced deposition of C1q and C3b/iC3b/C3c was colocalized with apoptotic Kupffer cells in wild-type, but not C1qa-/-, mice. Furthermore, ethanol-induced increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 expression at this early time point were suppressed in C1q-deficient mice. Chronic ethanol feeding (25 days) increased steatosis, hepatocyte apoptosis, and activity of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases in wild-type mice. These markers of hepatocyte injury were attenuated in C1qa-/- mice. In contrast, chronic ethanol (25 days)-induced increases in cytochrome P450 2E1 expression and oxidative stress did not differ between wild-type and C1qa-/- mice. For the first time, these data indicate that ethanol activates the classical complement pathway via C1q binding to apoptotic cells in the liver and that C1q contributes to the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced liver injury. Copyright (c) 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin protects mice from Escherichia coli O157:H7-mediated disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chromek

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection and subsequent renal damage. Mouse and human cathelicidin, CRAMP and LL-37, respectively, killed E. coli O157:H7 in vitro. Intestines from healthy wild-type (129/SvJ and cathelicidin-knock-out (Camp(-/- mice were investigated, showing that cathelicidin-deficient mice had a thinner colonic mucus layer compared with wild-type mice. Wild-type (n = 11 and cathelicidin-knock-out (n = 11 mice were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7. Cathelicidin-deficient animals exhibited higher fecal counts of E. coli O157:H7 and bacteria penetrated the mucus forming attaching-and-effacing lesions to a much higher extent than in wild-type animals. Cathelicidin knock-out mice developed symptoms (9/11 as well as anemia, thrombocytopenia and extensive renal tubular damage while all cathelicidin-producing mice remained asymptomatic with normal laboratory findings. When injected with Shiga toxin intraperitoneally, both murine strains developed the same degree of renal tubular damage and clinical disease indicating that differences in sensitivity to infection between the murine strains were related to the initial intestinal response. In conclusion, cathelicidin substantially influenced the antimicrobial barrier in the mouse colon mucosa. Cathelicidin deficiency lead to increased susceptibility to E. coli O157:H7 infection and subsequent renal damage. Administration of cathelicidin or stimulation of endogenous production may prove to be novel treatments for E. coli O157:H7-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  19. Differences Between Tg2576 and Wild Type Mice in the NMDA Receptor-Nitric Oxide Pathway After Prolonged Application of a Diet High in Advanced Glycation End Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristofikova, Zdena; Ricny, Jan; Sirova, Jana; Ripova, Daniela; Lubitz, Irit; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that advanced glycation end (AGE) products, via cognate receptor activation, are implicated in several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The NMDA receptor-nitric oxide pathway appears to be influenced by AGE products and involved in the pathogenesis of this type of dementia. In this study, C57BL/6J (WT) and transgenic (Tg2576) mice expressing human mutant amyloid precursor protein were kept on prolonged (8 months) diets containing regular or high amounts of AGE products. After the decapitation of 11-months old mice, brain tissue analyses were performed [expressions of the NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, activities of neuronal, endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, eNOS and iNOS)]. Moreover, levels of malondialdehyde and of human amyloid β 1-42 were estimated. We found increased activity of nNOS in WT mice maintained on a high compared to regular AGE diet; however, no similar differences were found in Tg2576 mice. In addition, we observed an increase in NR1 expression in Tg2576 compared to WT mice, both kept on a diet high in AGE products. Correlation analyses performed on mice kept on the regular AGE diet supported close links between particular subunits (NR2A-NR2B, in WT as well as in Tg2576 mice), between subunits and synthase (NR2A/NR2B-nNOS, only in WT mice) or between particular synthases (nNOS-iNOS, only in WT). Correlation analysis also revealed differences between WT mice kept on both diets (changed correlations between NR2A/NR2B-nNOS, between nNOS-eNOS and between eNOS-iNOS). Malondialdehyde levels were increased in both Tg2576 groups when compared to the corresponding WT mice, but no effects of the diets were observed. Analogously, no significant effects of diets were found in the levels of soluble or insoluble amyloid β 1-42 in Tg2576 mice. Our results demonstrate that prolonged ingestion of AGE products can influence the NMDA receptor-nitric oxide pathway in the brain and that only WT mice

  20. Effect of Lowering Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA on Vascular Pathology in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice with Reduced Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the impact of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and its degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH1, on atherosclerosis in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX ApoE-deficient mice. Male DDAH1 transgenic mice (TG, n = 39 and C57Bl/6J wild-type littermates (WT, n = 27 with or without the deletion of the ApoE gene underwent SNX at the age of eight weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 12 months of age, and blood chemistry, as well as the extent of atherosclerosis within the entire aorta were analyzed. Sham treated (no renal mass reduction ApoE-competent DDAH1 transgenic and wild-type littermates (n = 11 served as a control group. Overexpression of DDAH1 was associated with significantly lower ADMA levels in all treatment groups. Surprisingly, SNX mice did not exhibit higher ADMA levels compared to sham treated control mice. Furthermore, the degree of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice with SNX was similar in mice with or without overexpression of DDAH1. Overexpression of the ADMA degrading enzyme, DDAH1, did not ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient SNX mice. Furthermore, SNX in mice had no impact on ADMA levels, suggesting a minor role of this molecule in chronic kidney disease (CKD in this mouse model.

  1. Effects of low-dose rate irradiation on two types of type II diabetes model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaji; Sakai, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The effects of low-dose rate gamma-irradiation were investigated in two mouse strains - C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db mouse) and AKITA (AKITA mouse)-for type II diabetes mellitus. Both strains develop the developed type II diabetes by about 8 weeks of age due to dysfunction of the insulin/insulin receptor. The db Mouse' shows obese and exhibits hyperinsulinism, and the onset of Type II diabetes like resembles that for Westerners. On the other hand, the AKITA mouse has exhibits disordered insulin secretion, and the diabetes such as resembles that of Asians. Ten-week old female mice, in groups of 8 or 12, were irradiated at 0.65 mGy/hr in the low-dose rate irradiation facility in the Low Dose Radiation Research Center. The level of urine glucose was measured with test slips. The urine glucose levels of all of the mice were highly elevated the beginning of the irradiation. In the irradiated group of db mice, three mice showed decrease in glucose level compare to the level of non-irradiated diabetes mice after 35, 52 or 80 weeks of irradiation. All had maintained a normal level thereafter. No such improvement in diabetes was ever observed in the 12 mice of in the non-irradiated control group. The AKITA mice, however, did not decrease the glucose level regardless of the irradiation. Both the db mice and AKITA mice had their lives prolonged their life by the irradiation. The survival rate of db mice at the age of 90 weeks was 75% in the irradiated group, but 50% in the non-irradiated group. The average life span was 104 weeks in the irradiated group and 87 weeks in the control group. Furthermore, a marked difference was furthermore observed in the appearance of the coat hair, skin, and tail; appearances were well preserved in the irradiated group. The average life span in the irradiated AKITA mice was also longer than that for the non-irradiated mice, 51 weeks and 41 weeks in the irradiated and non-irradiated group respectively. These results suggest that the low-dose irradiation

  2. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by either destruction of pancreatic β-cells (type 1 DM) or unresponsiveness to insulin (type 2 DM). Conventional therapies for diabetes mellitus have been developed but still needs improvement. Many diabetic patients have complemented conventional therapy with alternative methods including oral supplementation of natural products. In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system. For the type 1 DM model, streptozotocin-induced mice were orally administered EGb 761 for 10 days prior to streptozotocin injection and then again administered EGb 761 for an additional 10 days. Streptozotocin-treated mice administered EGb 761 exhibited lower blood triglyceride levels, lower blood glucose levels and higher blood insulin levels compared to streptozotocin-treated mice. Furthermore, liver LPL and liver PPAR-α were increased whereas IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased in streptozotocin-injected mice treated with EGb 761 compared to mice injected with streptozotocin alone. For the type 2 DM model, mice were given high-fat diet for 60 days and then orally administered EGb 761 every other day for 80 days. We found that mice given a high-fat diet and EGb 761 showed decreased blood triglyceride levels, increased liver LPL, increased liver PPAR-α and decreased body weight compared to mice given high-fat diet alone. These results suggest that EGb 761 can exert protective effects in both type 1 and type 2 DM murine models.

  3. Anxiety- and depression-like phenotype of hph-1 mice deficient in tetrahydrobiopterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasser, Arafat; Birk Møller, Lisbeth; Olesen, Jess Have

    2014-01-01

    as determine hippocampal monoamine and plasma nitric oxide levels. In the elevated zero maze test, hph mice displayed increased anxiety-like responses compared to wild-type mice, while the marble burying test revealed decreased anxiety-like behaviour. This was particularly observed in male mice. In the tail...

  4. Glutathione-S-transferase-omega [MMA(V) reductase] knockout mice: Enzyme and arsenic species concentrations in tissues after arsenate administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Uttam K.; Zakharyan, Robert A.; Hernandez, Alba; Avram, Mihaela D.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Aposhian, H. Vasken

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human carcinogen to which millions of people are exposed via their naturally contaminated drinking water. Its molecular mechanisms of carcinogenicity have remained an enigma, perhaps because arsenate is biochemically transformed to at least five other arsenic-containing metabolites. In the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic, GSTO1 catalyzes the reduction of arsenate, MMA(V), and DMA(V) to the more toxic + 3 arsenic species. MMA(V) reductase and human (hGSTO1-1) are identical proteins. The hypothesis that GST-Omega knockout mice biotransformed inorganic arsenic differently than wild-type mice has been tested. The livers of male knockout (KO) mice, in which 222 bp of Exon 3 of the GSTO1 gene were eliminated, were analyzed by PCR for mRNA. The level of transcripts of the GSTO1 gene in KO mice was 3.3-fold less than in DBA/1lacJ wild-type (WT) mice. The GSTO2 transcripts were about two-fold less in the KO mouse. When KO and WT mice were injected intramuscularly with Na arsenate (4.16 mg As/kg body weight); tissues removed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after arsenate injection; and the arsenic species measured by HPLC-ICP-MS, the results indicated that the highest concentration of the recently discovered and very toxic MMA(III), a key biotransformant, was in the kidneys of both KO and WT mice. The highest concentration of DMA(III) was in the urinary bladder tissue for both the KO and WT mice. The MMA(V) reducing activity of the liver cytosol of KO mice was only 20% of that found in wild-type mice. There appears to be another enzyme(s) other than GST-O able to reduce arsenic(V) species but to a lesser extent. This and other studies suggest that each step of the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic has an alternative enzyme to biotransform the arsenic substrate

  5. Differences in basal and stress-induced HPA regulation of wild house mice selected for high and low aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM; Bohus, BG; Meijer, Onno C.; Koolhaas, J M

    Male wild house mice, selected for short (SAL) and long (LAL) attack latency, show distinctly different behavioral strategies in coping with environmental challenges. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this difference in coping style is associated with a differential stress responsiveness

  6. Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Wild-Type and Knock-in Q140/Q140 Huntington's Disease Mouse Brains Reveals Changes in Glycerophospholipids Including Alterations in Phosphatidic Acid and Lyso-Phosphatidic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodicka, Petr; Mo, Shunyan; Tousley, Adelaide; Green, Karin M; Sapp, Ellen; Iuliano, Maria; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Shaffer, Scott A; Aronin, Neil; DiFiglia, Marian; Kegel-Gleason, Kimberly B

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG expansion in the HD gene, which encodes the protein Huntingtin. Huntingtin associates with membranes and can interact directly with glycerophospholipids in membranes. We analyzed glycerophospholipid profiles from brains of 11 month old wild-type (WT) and Q140/Q140 HD knock-in mice to assess potential changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism. Polar lipids from cerebellum, cortex, and striatum were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography and negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS). Gene products involved in polar lipid metabolism were studied using western blotting, immuno-electron microscopy and qPCR. Significant changes in numerous species of glycerophosphate (phosphatidic acid, PA) were found in striatum, cerebellum and cortex from Q140/Q140 HD mice compared to WT mice at 11 months. Changes in specific species could also be detected for other glycerophospholipids. Increases in species of lyso-PA (LPA) were measured in striatum of Q140/Q140 HD mice compared to WT. Protein levels for c-terminal binding protein 1 (CtBP1), a regulator of PA biosynthesis, were reduced in striatal synaptosomes from HD mice compared to wild-type at 6 and 12 months. Immunoreactivity for CtBP1 was detected on membranes of synaptic vesicles in striatal axon terminals in the globus pallidus. These novel results identify a potential site of molecular pathology caused by mutant Huntingtin that may impart early changes in HD.

  7. Chinese herbal extract Su-duxing had potent inhibitory effects on both wild-type and entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) in vitro and effectively suppressed HBV replication in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Yao, Weiming; Si, Lanlan; Hou, Jun; Wang, Jiabo; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Weijie; Chen, Jianhong; Li, Ruisheng; Li, Penggao; Bo, Lvping; Xiao, Xiaohe; Lan, Jinchu; Xu, Dongping

    2018-04-24

    The present study aimed to investigate anti-HBV effect and major active compounds of Su-duxing, a medicine extracted from Chinese herbs. HBV-replicating cell lines HepG2.2.15 (wild-type) and HepG2. A64 (entecavir-resistant) were used for in vitro test. C57BL/6 mice infected by adeno-associated virus carrying 1.3 mer wild-type HBV genome were used for in vivo test. Inhibitory rates of Su-duxing (10 μg/mL) on HBV replicative intermediate and HBsAg levels were 75.1%, 51.0% in HepG2.2.15 cells and 65.2%, 42.9% in HepG2. A64 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration of Su-duxing and entecavir on HBV replicative intermediates had 0.2-fold and 712.5-fold increase respectively for entecavir-resistant HBV compared to wild-type HBV. Mice treated with Su-duxing (45.0 mg kg -1  d -1 for 2 weeks) had 1.39 log 10 IU/mL decrease of serum HBV DNA, and 48.9% and 51.7% decrease of serum HBsAg and HBeAg levels. GeneChip and KEGG analysis proposed that anti-HBV mechanisms included relief of HBx stability and viral replication, deregulation of early cell cycle checkpoints, and induction of type I interferon. Six active compounds (Matrine, Oxymatrine, Chlorogenic acid, Sophocarpine, Baicalein, and Wogonin) against HBV were identified in Su-duxing. Greater anti-HBV effects were observed in some compound pairs compared to each single compound. In conclusion, Su-duxing had potent inhibitory effects on both wild-type and entecavir-resistant HBV. Its effects were associated with coordinated roles of active compounds in its composition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Nanoparticle Delivered Human Biliverdin Reductase-Based Peptide Increases Glucose Uptake by Activating IRK/Akt/GSK3 Axis: The Peptide Is Effective in the Cell and Wild-Type and Diabetic Ob/Ob Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. M. Gibbs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin’s stimulation of glucose uptake by binding to the IRK extracellular domain is compromised in diabetes. We have recently described an unprecedented approach to stimulating glucose uptake. KYCCSRK (P2 peptide, corresponding to the C-terminal segment of hBVR, was effective in binding to and inducing conformational change in the IRK intracellular kinase domain. Although myristoylated P2, made of L-amino acids, was effective in cell culture, its use for animal studies was unsuitable. We developed a peptidase-resistant formulation of the peptide that was efficient in both mice and cell culture systems. The peptide was constructed of D-amino acids, in reverse order, and blocked at both termini. Delivery of the encapsulated peptide to HepG2 and HSKM cells was confirmed by its prolonged effect on stimulation of glucose uptake (>6 h. The peptide improved glucose clearance in both wild-type and Ob/Ob mice; it lowered blood glucose levels and suppressed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. IRK activity was stimulated in the liver of treated mice and in cultured cells. The peptide potentiated function of IRK’s downstream effector, Akt-GSK3-(α,β axis. Thus, P2-based approach can be used for improving glucose uptake by cells. Also, it allows for screening peptides in vitro and in animal models for treatment of diabetes.

  9. Hearing dysfunction in heterozygous Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ mice, a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 2 and Tietz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Christina; Zhang, Deming; Beyer, Lisa A; Halsey, Karin E; Fukui, Hideto; Raphael, Yehoash; Dolan, David F; Hornyak, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    The human deafness-pigmentation syndromes, Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type 2a, and Tietz syndrome are characterized by profound deafness but only partial cutaneous pigmentary abnormalities. Both syndromes are caused by mutations in MITF. To illuminate differences between cutaneous and otic melanocytes in these syndromes, their development and survival in heterozygous Microphthalmia-White (Mitf(Mi-wh) /+) mice were studied and hearing function of these mice characterized. Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ mice have a profound hearing deficit, characterized by elevated auditory brainstem response thresholds, reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions, absent endocochlear potential, loss of outer hair cells, and stria vascularis abnormalities. Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ embryos have fewer melanoblasts during embryonic development than their wild-type littermates. Although cochlear melanocytes are present at birth, they disappear from the Mitf(Mi-wh) /+ cochlea between P1 and P7. These findings may provide insight into the mechanism of melanocyte and hearing loss in human deafness-pigmentation syndromes such as WS and Tietz syndrome and illustrate differences between otic and follicular melanocytes. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Chronic activation of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor and loss of Cdkn2a cause mouse glioblastoma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Jaime; Jun, Hyun Jung; Lessard, Julie; Ruiz, Rolando; Zhu, Haihao; Donovan, Melissa; Woolfenden, Steve; Boskovitz, Abraham; Raval, Ami; Bronson, Roderick T; Pfannl, Rolf; Whittaker, Charles A; Housman, David E; Charest, Al

    2011-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and loss of the tumor suppressors Ink4a/Arf. Efforts at modeling GBM using wild-type EGFR in mice have proven unsuccessful. Here, we present a unique mouse model of wild-type EGFR-driven gliomagenesis. We used a combination of somatic conditional overexpression and ligand-mediated chronic activation of EGFR in cooperation with Ink4a/Arf loss in the central nervous system of adult mice to generate tumors with the histopathologic and molecular characteristics of human GBMs. Sustained, ligand-mediated activation of EGFR was necessary for gliomagenesis, functionally substantiating the clinical observation that EGFR-positive GBMs from patients express EGFR ligands. To gain a better understanding of the clinically disappointing EGFR-targeted therapies for GBM, we investigated the molecular responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in this model. Gefitinib treatment of primary GBM cells resulted in a robust apoptotic response, partially conveyed by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling attenuation and accompanied by BIM(EL) expression. In human GBMs, loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor PTEN are a common occurrence. Elimination of PTEN expression in GBM cells posttumor formation did not confer resistance to TKI treatment, showing that PTEN status in our model is not predictive. Together, these findings offer important mechanistic insights into the genetic determinants of EGFR gliomagenesis and sensitivity to TKIs and provide a robust discovery platform to better understand the molecular events that are associated with predictive markers of TKI therapy.

  11. CMKLR1 deficiency maintains ovarian steroid production in mice treated chronically with dihydrotestosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mi; Huang, Chen; Wang, Yu-Fei; Ren, Pei-Gen; Chen, Li; Xiao, Tian-Xia; Wang, Bao-Bei; Pan, Yan-Fei; Tsang, Benjamin K; Zabel, Brian A; Ma, Bao-Hua; Zhao, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Jian V

    2016-02-19

    Elevated serum chemerin levels correlate with increased severity of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the role of CMKLR1 signaling in ovarian biology under conditions of excess DHT remains unclear. In this study we compared the effects of continuous 90-day high dose DHT exposure (83.3 □g/day) on wild type and CMKLR1-deficient mice. DHT induced PCOS-like clinical signs in wild type mice as well as significant changes in the expression of hormone receptors, steroid synthesis enzymes, and BMPs and their receptors. In contrast, CMKLR1-deficient mice significantly attenuated DHT-induced clinical signs of PCOS and alterations in ovarian gene expression. To determine whether the BMP4 signaling pathway was involved in the pathogenic effects of CMKLR1 signaling in DHT-induced ovarian steroidogenesis, antral follicles were isolated from wild type and CMKLR1 knockout (KO) mice and treated in vitro with combinations of hCG, DHT, and BMP4 inhibitors. BMP4 inhibition attenuated the induction effects of hCG and DHT on estrogen and progesterone secretion in CMKLR1 KO mice, but not in WT mice, implicating the BMP4 signaling pathway in the CMKLR1-dependent response to DHT. In conclusion, CMKLR1 gene deletion attenuates the effects of chronic DHT treatment on ovarian function in experimental PCOS, likely via BMP4 signaling.

  12. Tau oligomers impair memory and induce synaptic and mitochondrial dysfunction in wild-type mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson George R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The correlation between neurofibrillary tangles of tau and disease progression in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients remains an area of contention. Innovative data are emerging from biochemical, cell-based and transgenic mouse studies that suggest that tau oligomers, a pre-filament form of tau, may be the most toxic and pathologically significant tau aggregate. Results Here we report that oligomers of recombinant full-length human tau protein are neurotoxic in vivo after subcortical stereotaxic injection into mice. Tau oligomers impaired memory consolidation, whereas tau fibrils and monomers did not. Additionally, tau oligomers induced synaptic dysfunction by reducing the levels of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins synaptophysin and septin-11. Tau oligomers produced mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing the levels of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (electron transport chain complex I, and activated caspase-9, which is related to the apoptotic mitochondrial pathway. Conclusions This study identifies tau oligomers as an acutely toxic tau species in vivo, and suggests that tau oligomers induce neurodegeneration by affecting mitochondrial and synaptic function, both of which are early hallmarks in AD and other tauopathies. These results open new avenues for neuroprotective intervention strategies of tauopathies by targeting tau oligomers.

  13. Reduced hepatic tumor incidence in cyclin G1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Factor, Valentina M; Fantozzi, Anna

    2003-01-01

    found that the p53 levels in the cyclin G1-deficient mice are 2-fold higher that in wild-type mice. Moreover, we showed that treatment of mice with the alkylating agent 1,4-bis[N,N'-di(ethylene)-phosphamide]piperazine (Dipin), followed by partial hepatectomy, decreased G1-S transition in cyclin G1-null...

  14. Using Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Wild-Type Mice to Develop a Gene Augmentation-Based Strategy to Treat CLN3-Associated Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Luke A; Burnight, Erin R; Drack, Arlene V; Banach, Bailey B; Ochoa, Dalyz; Cranston, Cathryn M; Madumba, Robert A; East, Jade S; Mullins, Robert F; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A

    2016-10-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a childhood neurodegenerative disease with early-onset, severe central vision loss. Affected children develop seizures and CNS degeneration accompanied by severe motor and cognitive deficits. There is no cure for JNCL, and patients usually die during the second or third decade of life. In this study, independent lines of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from two patients with molecularly confirmed mutations in CLN3, the gene mutated in JNCL. Clinical-grade adeno-associated adenovirus serotype 2 (AAV2) carrying the full-length coding sequence of human CLN3 was generated in a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-registered cGMP facility. AAV2-CLN3 was efficacious in restoring full-length CLN3 transcript and protein in patient-specific fibroblasts and iPSC-derived retinal neurons. When injected into the subretinal space of wild-type mice, purified AAV2-CLN3 did not show any evidence of retinal toxicity. This study provides proof-of-principle for initiation of a clinical trial using AAV-mediated gene augmentation for the treatment of children with CLN3-associated retinal degeneration.

  15. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Annika Højrup Runegaard; Jensen, Kathrine L; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M

    2017-01-01

    assessment of the dopaminergic system in hemizygous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre mice in comparison to wild-type (WT) controls. Our data show that TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice...

  16. Collagen VI Null Mice as a Model for Early Onset Muscle Decline in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Capitanio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix (ECM protein playing a key role in skeletal muscles and whose deficiency leads to connective tissue diseases in humans and in animal models. However, most studies have been focused on skeletal muscle features. We performed an extensive proteomic profiling in two skeletal muscles (diaphragm and gastrocnemius of wild-type and collagen VI null (Col6a1−/− mice at different ages, from 6- (adult to 12- (aged month-old to 24 (old month-old. While in wild-type animals the number of proteins and the level of modification occurring during aging were comparable in the two analyzed muscles, Col6a1−/− mice displayed a number of muscle-type specific variations. In particular, gastrocnemius displayed a limited number of dysregulated proteins in adult mice, while in aged muscles the modifications were more pronounced in terms of number and level. In diaphragm, the differences displayed by 6-month-old Col6a1−/− mice were more pronounced compared to wild-type mice and persisted at 12 months of age. In adult Col6a1−/− mice, the major variations were found in the enzymes belonging to the glycolytic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, as well as in autophagy-related proteins. When compared to wild-type animals Col6a1−/− mice displayed a general metabolic rewiring which was particularly prominent the diaphragm at 6 months of age. Comparison of the proteomic features and the molecular analysis of metabolic and autophagic pathways in adult and aged Col6a1−/− diaphragm indicated that the effects of aging, culminating in lipotoxicity and autophagic impairment, were already present at 6 months of age. Conversely, the effects of aging in Col6a1−/− gastrocnemius were similar but delayed becoming apparent at 12 months of age. A similar metabolic rewiring and autophagic impairment was found in the diaphragm of 24-month-old wild-type mice, confirming that fatty acid synthase (FASN increment and

  17. Developmental consequences of in utero sodium arsenate exposure in mice with folate transport deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelstein, Ofer; Gould, Amy; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Tsie, Marlene; Lu Xiufen; Le, Chris; Troen, Aron; Selhub, Jacob; Piedrahita, Jorge A.; Salbaum, J. Michael; Kappen, Claudia; Melnyk, Stepan; James, Jill; Finnell, Richard H.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that mice lacking a functional folate binding protein 2 gene (Folbp2 -/- ) were significantly more sensitive to in utero arsenic exposure than were the wild-type mice similarly exposed. When these mice were fed a folate-deficient diet, the embryotoxic effect of arsenate was further exacerbated. Contrary to expectations, studies on 24-h urinary speciation of sodium arsenate did not demonstrate any significant difference in arsenic biotransformation between Folbp2 -/- and Folbp2 +/+ mice. To better understand the influence of folate pathway genes on arsenic embryotoxicity, the present investigation utilized transgenic mice with disrupted folate binding protein 1 (Folbp1) and reduced folate carrier (RFC) genes. Because complete inactivation of Folbp1 and RFC genes results in embryonic lethality, we used heterozygous animals. Overall, no RFC genotype-related differences in embryonic susceptibility to arsenic exposure were observed. Embryonic lethality and neural tube defect (NTD) frequency in Folbp1 mice was dose-dependent and differed from the RFC mice; however, no genotype-related differences were observed. The RFC heterozygotes tended to have higher plasma levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than did the wild-type controls, although this effect was not robust. It is concluded that genetic modifications at the Folbp1 and RFC loci confers no particular sensitivity to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type controls, thus disproving the working hypothesis that decreased methylating capacity of the genetically modified mice would put them at increased risk for arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity

  18. Interleukin 21 controls tumour growth and tumour immunosurveillance in colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Dominik; Martin, Maria; Schiechl, Gabriela; Kesselring, Rebecca; Schlitt, Hans Jürgen; Geissler, Edward K; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Colitis-associated tumorigenesis is a balance between proliferation of tumour cells and tumour immunosurveillance. The role of T-helper-cell-derived cytokines in tumour growth is not fully understood. In this study the authors investigated the influence of interleukin (IL) 21 on intestinal tumorigenesis. Chronic colitis was induced in IL-21(-/-) and littermate control wild-type mice with three cycles of 1.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) over 7 days followed by 7 days of drinking water. Mice received an azoxymethane injection on day 0 of DSS-colitis to induce tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on inflamed and tumour-bearing areas of colons. Cytokine expression of isolated colonic CD4 T cells was determined by ELISA. Cytotoxic capacity of isolated colonic CD8 T cells targeting tumour cells was evaluated by flow cytometry and quantitative cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis of tumour cells was determined by TUNEL assay of colonic sections. Increasing expression of IL-21 was observed in chronic colitis, which showed functional importance, since IL-21 deficiency prevented chronic DSS-colitis development. Further, in the absence of IL-21, significantly fewer tumour nodules were detected, despite a similar extent of intestinal inflammation. In wild-type mice, 8.6±1.9 tumour nodules were found compared with 1.0±1.2 in IL-21-deficient mice. In tumour-bearing IL-21-deficient mice, intestinal inflammation was restored and partly dependent on interferon (IFN)-γ, whereas the inflammation in wild-type mice showed high IL-17A concentrations. In these rare tumours in IL-21-deficient mice, tumour cell proliferation (Ki-67) was decreased, while cell apoptosis was increased, compared with wild-type mice. Increased IFNγ expression in tumour-bearing IL-21-deficient mice led to increased tumour immunosurveillance mediated by cytotoxic CD8CD103 T cells targeting E-cadherin(+) colonic tumour cells and therefore limited tumour growth. These results indicate that IL-21

  19. Zika Virus Fatally Infects Wild Type Neonatal Mice and Replicates in Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxuan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has been defined as a teratogenic pathogen behind the increased number of cases of microcephaly in French Polynesia, Brazil, Puerto Rico, and other South American countries. Experimental studies using animal models have achieved tremendous insight into understanding the viral pathogenesis, transmission, teratogenic mechanisms, and virus–host interactions. However, the animals used in published investigations are mostly interferon (IFN-compromised, either genetically or via antibody treatment. Herein, we studied ZIKV infection in IFN-competent mice using African (MR766 and Asian strains (PRVABC59 and SZ-WIV01. After testing four different species of mice, we found that BALB/c neonatal mice were resistant to ZIKV infection, that Kunming, ICR and C57BL/6 neonatal mice were fatally susceptible to ZIKV infection, and that the fatality of C57BL/6 neonates from 1 to 3 days old were in a viral dose-dependent manner. The size and weight of the brain were significantly reduced, and the ZIKV-infected mice showed neuronal symptoms such as hind-limb paralysis, tremor, and poor balance during walking. Pathologic and immunofluorescent experiments revealed that ZIKV infected different areas of the central nervous system (CNS including gray matter, hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord, but not olfactory bulb. Interestingly, ZIKV replicated in multiple organs and resulted in pathogenesis in liver and testis, implying that ZIKV infection may engender a high health risk in neonates by postnatal infection. In summary, we investigated ZIKV pathogenesis using an animal model that is not IFN-compromised.

  20. The Regulatory Roles of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Secretions of Type 1/Type 2 Relative Cytokines by Splenocytes and Dendritic Cells Exposed to Clonorchis sinensis Excretory/Secretory Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hui; Du, Ying; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Bei-Bei; Yu, Qian; Li, Bo; Xu, Jiang-Tao; Li, Xiang-Yang; Tang, Ren-Xian; Yan, Chao; Zheng, Kui-Yang

    2018-02-01

    The roles of TLR4 in mediation of innate immune response and in regulation of adaptive immune responses triggered by Clonorchis sinensis remain unknown. In the present study, splenocytes derived from C3H/HeN (TLR4 wild ) and C3H/Hej mice (TLR4 mut ) that were infected with 45 metacercariae of C. sinensis were harvested, then stimulated by C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (ESP) or medium (control) for 48 h, respectively. Meanwhile, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from normal C3H/HeN and C3H/Hej mice were prepared and stimulated with medium, ESP, LPS, or ESP+LPS for 24 h, respectively. The supernatants were collected, and the concentrations of type 1 and type 2 relative cytokines were determined by ELISA. The maturation of BMDCs indicated by surface markers of CD80, CD86, and MHC II was evaluated by flow cytometry. The results showed that the levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 in the splenocytes from C. sinensis-infected TLR4 mut mice were significantly lower than those from TLR4 wild mice when they were further exposed to ESP. For BMDCs, the productions of the cytokines IL-12p70 and IL-10, but not IL-4, in the BMDCs from TLR4 mutation mice were predominantly decreased compared with those from TLR4 wild mice when the BMDCs were co-stimulated by ESP combined with LPS. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ESP could significantly decrease the high levels of CD80, CD86, and MHC II which were elevated by LPS. In conclusion, these data suggest that TLR4 may play a regulatory role in type 1 immune responses during C. sinensis infection.

  1. Iron-dependent regulation of hepcidin in Hjv-/- mice: evidence that hemojuvelin is dispensable for sensing body iron levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Gkouvatsos

    Full Text Available Hemojuvelin (Hjv is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP co-receptor involved in the control of systemic iron homeostasis. Functional inactivation of Hjv leads to severe iron overload in humans and mice due to marked suppression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. To investigate the role of Hjv in body iron sensing, Hjv-/- mice and isogenic wild type controls were placed on a moderately low, a standard or a high iron diet for four weeks. Hjv-/- mice developed systemic iron overload under all regimens. Transferrin (Tf was highly saturated regardless of the dietary iron content, while liver iron deposition was proportional to it. Hepcidin mRNA expression responded to fluctuations in dietary iron intake, despite the absence of Hjv. Nevertheless, iron-dependent upregulation of hepcidin was more than an order of magnitude lower compared to that seen in wild type controls. Likewise, iron signaling via the BMP/Smad pathway was preserved but substantially attenuated. These findings suggest that Hjv is not required for sensing of body iron levels and merely functions as an enhancer for iron signaling to hepcidin.

  2. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rona; Plinston, Chris; Hunter, Nora; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Suardi, Silvia; Ruggerone, Margherita; Moda, Fabio; Graziano, Silvia; Sbriccoli, Marco; Cardone, Franco; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Ingrosso, Loredana; Baron, Thierry; Richt, Juergen; Andreoletti, Olivier; Simmons, Marion; Lockey, Richard; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2012-07-01

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several novel TSEs in sheep, cattle and deer have been described and the risk posed to humans by these agents is currently unknown. In this study, we inoculated two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and H-type BSE), a chronic wasting disease (CWD) isolate and seven isolates of atypical scrapie into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP). Upon challenge with these ruminant TSEs, gene-targeted Tg mice expressing human PrP did not show any signs of disease pathology. These data strongly suggest the presence of a substantial transmission barrier between these recently identified ruminant TSEs and humans.

  3. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS......-polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis. Sections through pellets of isolated protein bodies from both the mutant and the wild type revealed protein body structures corresponding with those observed in sections through the intact starchy endosperms. The majority of the wild-type protein bodies was homogeneous spheres accompanied...... that the wild-type protein bodies contained large amounts of prolamines (the storage protein group which is soluble in 55 % isopropanol) and some glutelins (the storage proteins soluble in dilute alkali), whereas the mutant protein bodies have glutelin as the major component and little prolamines...

  4. l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine induces ptosis through a GPR143-independent mechanism in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguru Ueda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through its conversion to dopamine by aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC, l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA replenishes depleted brain dopamine in Parkinson's disease patients. We recently identified GPR143 as a candidate receptor for l-DOPA. In this study, we investigated the behavioral actions of l-DOPA in wild type (wt and Gpr143-deficient mice. l-DOPA dose-dependently (10–100 mg/kg, i.p. induced ptosis under treatment with 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine, a centrally acting AADC inhibitor. This effect was not mimicked by 3-O-methyldopa. l-DOPA-induced ptosis in Gpr143-deficient mice to a similar extent as in wt mice. These results suggest that l-DOPA induces ptosis in a GPR143-independent fashion in mice.

  5. Metal components analysis of metallothionein-III in the brain sections of metallothionein-I and metallothionein-II null mice exposed to mercury vapor with HPLC/ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameo, Satomi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi [Tohoku University, Graduate School of Medicine, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kanehisa, Tomokazu; Naganuma, Akira [Tohoku University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai (Japan)

    2005-04-01

    variance. As for zinc, the copper concentrations only changed significantly in the cerebellum. Metal components of metal-binding proteins of soluble fractions in the brain sections were analyzed by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected with ICP-MS. From the results of HPLC/ICP-MS analyses, it was concluded that the mercury components of MT-III and high molecular weight metal-binding proteins in the cerebellum of MT-I, II null mice were much higher than those of wild-type mice. It was suggested that MT-III is associated with the storage of mercury in conditions lacking MT-I, and MT-II. It was also suggested that the physiological role of MT-III and some kind of high molecular weight proteins might be impaired by exposure to mercury vapor and lack of MT-I and MT-II. (orig.)

  6. Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) Accelerates Collagen Degradation and Clearance from Lungs in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Qiang; Li, Hui-Hua

    2016-01-01

    , intratracheal bleomycin instillation and thoracic irradiation, we find increased mortality and increased lung fibrosis in FAP-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Lung extracellular matrix analysis reveals accumulation of intermediate-sized collagen fragments in FAP-deficient mouse lungs, consistent...... within vitrostudies showing that FAP mediates ordered proteolytic processing of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-derived collagen cleavage products. FAP-mediated collagen processing leads to increased collagen internalization without altering expression of the endocytic collagen receptor, Endo180....... Pharmacologic FAP inhibition decreases collagen internalization as expected. Conversely, restoration of FAP expression in the lungs of FAP-deficient mice decreases lung hydroxyproline content after intratracheal bleomycin to levels comparable with that of wild-type controls. Our findings indicate that FAP...

  7. Metabolic Effects of Cholecystectomy: Gallbladder Ablation Increases Basal Metabolic Rate through G-Protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1-Dependent Mechanisms in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Víctor; Amigo, Ludwig; Zanlungo, Silvana; Galgani, José; Robledo, Fermín; Arrese, Marco; Bozinovic, Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Bile acids (BAs) regulate energy expenditure by activating G-protein Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1/TGR5 by cAMP-dependent mechanisms. Cholecystectomy (XGB) increases BAs recirculation rates resulting in increased tissue exposure to BAs during the light phase of the diurnal cycle in mice. We aimed to determine: 1) the effects of XGB on basal metabolic rate (BMR) and 2) the roles of TGR5 on XGB-dependent changes in BMR. Methods BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry in wild type and Tgr5 deficient (Tgr5-/-) male mice. Bile flow and BAs secretion rates were measured by surgical diversion of biliary duct. Biliary BAs and cholesterol were quantified by enzymatic methods. BAs serum concentration and specific composition was determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by qPCR analysis. Results XGB increased biliary BAs and cholesterol secretion rates, and elevated serum BAs concentration in wild type and Tgr5-/- mice during the light phase of the diurnal cycle. BMR was ~25% higher in cholecystectomized wild type mice (p <0.02), whereas no changes were detected in cholecystectomized Tgr5-/- mice compared to wild-type animals. Conclusion XGB increases BMR by TGR5-dependent mechanisms in mice. PMID:25738495

  8. Lack of the Lysosomal Membrane Protein, GLMP, in Mice Results in Metabolic Dysregulation in Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yi Kong

    Full Text Available Ablation of glycosylated lysosomal membrane protein (GLMP, formerly known as NCU-G1 has been shown to cause chronic liver injury which progresses into liver fibrosis in mice. Both lysosomal dysfunction and chronic liver injury can cause metabolic dysregulation. Glmp gt/gt mice (formerly known as Ncu-g1gt/gt mice were studied between 3 weeks and 9 months of age. Body weight gain and feed efficiency of Glmp gt/gt mice were comparable to wild type siblings, only at the age of 9 months the Glmp gt/gt siblings had significantly reduced body weight. Reduced size of epididymal fat pads was accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly in Glmp gt/gt mice. Blood analysis revealed reduced levels of blood glucose, circulating triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids in Glmp gt/gt mice. Increased flux of glucose, increased de novo lipogenesis and lipid accumulation were detected in Glmp gt/gt primary hepatocytes, as well as elevated triacylglycerol levels in Glmp gt/gt liver homogenates, compared to hepatocytes and liver from wild type mice. Gene expression analysis showed an increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in Glmp gt/gt liver compared to wild type. Our findings are in agreement with the metabolic alterations observed in other mouse models lacking lysosomal proteins, and with alterations characteristic for advanced chronic liver injury.

  9. Differential Effects of High-Protein Diets Derived from Soy and Casein on Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity in Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Snelson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies report that a diet high in protein influences cognitive performance, but the results are inconsistent. Studies demonstrated that protein from different food sources has differential effects on cognition. It is increasingly recognized that the integrity of cerebrovascular blood–brain barrier (BBB is pivotal for central nervous system function. However, to date, no studies have reported the effects of high-protein diets on BBB integrity. Therefore, in this study, the effects of diets enriched in casein or soy protein on BBB permeability were investigated. Immunomicroscopy analyses of cerebral parenchymal immunoglobulin G extravasation indicated significant BBB disruption in the cortex of young adult mice maintained on high-casein diet for 12 weeks, while no signs of BBB dysfunction were observed in mice fed with control or high-soy protein diet. Moreover, cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was significantly greater in mice fed the high-casein diet compared to control mice, indicating heightened astrocyte activation, whereas mice maintained on a soy-enriched diet showed no increase of GFAP abundance. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine were markedly greater in mice maintained on a high-casein diet in comparison to control mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that a diet enriched in casein but not soy protein may induce astrocyte activation through exaggerated BBB permeability by increased plasma homocysteine. The outcomes indicate the differential effects of protein sources on BBB and neuroinflammation, which may provide an important implication for dietary guidelines for protein supplementation.

  10. Brevican-deficient mice display impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation but show no obvious deficits in learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, Cord; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Asztely, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    to be less prominent in mutant than in wild-type mice. Brevican-deficient mice showed significant deficits in the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, no obvious impairment of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission was found, suggesting a complex cause for the LTP defect....... Detailed behavioral analysis revealed no statistically significant deficits in learning and memory. These data indicate that brevican is not crucial for brain development but has restricted structural and functional roles....

  11. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlfeld Christian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. Methods SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Main Results After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are

  12. Hyperlipidemia and cutaneous abnormalities in transgenic mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, M. C.; Gijbels, M. J.; Dahlmans, V. E.; Gorp, P. J.; Koopman, S. J.; Ponec, M.; Hofker, M. H.; Havekes, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated with different levels of human apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) expression in liver and skin. At 2 mo of age, serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and FFA were strongly elevated in APOC1 transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. These elevated levels of serum

  13. Exploration, anxiety, and spatial memory in transgenic anophthalmic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhot, M C; Dubayle, D; Malleret, G; Javerzat, S; Segu, L

    2001-04-01

    Contradictory results are found in the literature concerning the role of vision in the perception of space or in spatial navigation, in part because of the lack of murine models of total blindness used so far. The authors evaluated the spatial abilities of anophthalmic transgenic mice. These mice did not differ qualitatively from their wild-type littermates in general locomotor activity, spontaneous alternation, object exploration, or anxiety, but their level of exploratory activity was generally lower. In the spatial version of the water maze, they displayed persistent thigmotaxic behavior and showed severe spatial learning impairments. However, their performances improved with training, suggesting that they may have acquired a rough representation of the platform position. These results suggest that modalities other than vision enable some degree of spatial processing in proximal and structured spaces but that vision is critical for accurate spatial navigation.

  14. Transmissibility of H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Hamster PrP Transgenic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Okada

    Full Text Available Two distinct forms of atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (H-BSE and L-BSE can be distinguished from classical (C- BSE found in cattle based on biochemical signatures of disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc. H-BSE is transmissible to wild-type mice-with infected mice showing a long survival period that is close to their normal lifespan-but not to hamsters. Therefore, rodent-adapted H-BSE with a short survival period would be useful for analyzing H-BSE characteristics. In this study, we investigated the transmissibility of H-BSE to hamster prion protein transgenic (TgHaNSE mice with long survival periods. Although none of the TgHaNSE mice manifested the disease during their lifespan, PrPSc accumulation was observed in some areas of the brain after the first passage. With subsequent passages, TgHaNSE mice developed the disease with a mean survival period of 220 days. The molecular characteristics of proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (PrPres in the brain were identical to those observed in first-passage mice. The distribution of immunolabeled PrPSc in the brains of TgHaNSE mice differed between those infected with H-BSE as compared to C-BSE or L-BSE, and the molecular properties of PrPres in TgHaNSE mice infected with H-BSE differed from those of the original isolate. The strain-specific electromobility, glycoform profiles, and proteolytic cleavage sites of H-BSE in TgHaNSE mice were indistinguishable from those of C-BSE, in which the diglycosylated form was predominant. These findings indicate that strain-specific pathogenic characteristics and molecular features of PrPres in the brain are altered during cross-species transmission. Typical H-BSE features were restored after back passage from TgHaNSE to bovinized transgenic mice, indicating that the H-BSE strain was propagated in TgHaNSE mice. This could result from the overexpression of the hamster prion protein.

  15. STAT5 activity in pancreatic beta-cells influences the severity of diabetes in animal models of type 1 and 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackerott, Malene; Møldrup, Annette; Thams, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cell growth and survival and insulin production are stimulated by growth hormone and prolactin through activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5. To assess the role of STAT5 activity in beta-cells in vivo, we generated transgen...... and type 2 diabetes....... reduced beta-cell proliferation at 6 months of age. The inhibitory effect of high-fat diet or leptin on insulin secretion was diminished in isolated islets from RIP-DNSTAT5 mice compared with wild-type islets. Upon multiple low-dose streptozotocin treatment, RIP-DNSTAT5 mice exhibited higher plasma...... of glucose tolerance, whereas RIP-CASTAT5 mice were more glucose tolerant and less hyperleptinemic than wild-type mice. Although the pancreatic insulin content and relative beta-cell area were increased in high-fat diet-fed RIP-DNSTAT5 mice compared with wild-type or RIP-CASTAT5 mice, RIP-DNSTAT5 mice showed...

  16. Dysregulation of Aldosterone Secretion in Mast Cell-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Hadrien-Gaël; Wils, Julien; Renouf, Sylvie; Arabo, Arnaud; Duparc, Céline; Boutelet, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Hervé; Louiset, Estelle

    2017-12-01

    Resident adrenal mast cells have been shown to activate aldosterone secretion in rat and man. Especially, mast cell proliferation has been observed in adrenal tissues from patients with aldosterone-producing adrenocortical adenoma. In the present study, we show that the activity of adrenal mast cells is stimulated by low-sodium diet and correlates with aldosterone synthesis in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. We have also investigated the regulation of aldosterone secretion in mast cell-deficient C57BL/6 Kit W-sh/W-sh mice in comparison with wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Kit W-sh/W-sh mice submitted to normal sodium diet had basal plasma aldosterone levels similar to those observed in wild-type animals. Conversely, low-sodium diet unexpectedly induced an exaggerated aldosterone response, which seemed to result from an increase in adrenal renin and angiotensin type 1 receptor expression. Severe hyperaldosteronism was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure and marked hypokalemia, which favored polyuria. Adrenal renin and angiotensin type 1 receptor overexpression may represent a compensatory mechanism aimed at activating aldosterone production in the absence of mast cells. Finally, C57BL/6 Kit W-sh/W-sh mice represent an unexpected animal model of primary aldosteronism, which has the particularity to be triggered by sodium restriction. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Clec9a-Mediated Ablation of Conventional Dendritic Cells Suggests a Lymphoid Path to Generating Dendritic Cells In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Salvermoser

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs are versatile activators of immune responses that develop as part of the myeloid lineage downstream of hematopoietic stem cells. We have recently shown that in mice precursors of cDCs, but not of other leukocytes, are marked by expression of DNGR-1/CLEC9A. To genetically deplete DNGR-1-expressing cDC precursors and their progeny, we crossed Clec9a-Cre mice to Rosa-lox-STOP-lox-diphtheria toxin (DTA mice. These mice develop signs of age-dependent myeloproliferative disease, as has been observed in other DC-deficient mouse models. However, despite efficient depletion of cDC progenitors in these mice, cells with phenotypic characteristics of cDCs populate the spleen. These cells are functionally and transcriptionally similar to cDCs in wild type control mice but show somatic rearrangements of Ig-heavy chain genes, characteristic of lymphoid origin cells. Our studies reveal a previously unappreciated developmental heterogeneity of cDCs and suggest that the lymphoid lineage can generate cells with features of cDCs when myeloid cDC progenitors are impaired.

  18. Glucocorticoid-mediated activation of GSK3β promotes tau phosphorylation and impairs memory in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Aditi; Hao, Shuai; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2017-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau has been reported in rodent models of diabetes, including db/db mice, which exhibit insulin resistance and chronically elevated glucocorticoids due to leptin receptor insufficiency. In this report, we investigated endocrine mechanisms for hippocampal tau phosphorylation in db/db and wild-type mice. By separately manipulating peripheral and intrahippocampal corticosterone levels, we determined that hippocampal corticosteroid exposure promotes tau phosphorylation and activates glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Subsequent experiments in hippocampal slice preparations revealed evidence for a nongenomic interaction between glucocorticoids and GSK3β. To examine whether GSK3β activation mediates tau phosphorylation and impairs memory in diabetes, db/db and wild-type mice received intrahippocampal infusions of TDZD-8, a non-ATP competitive thiadiazolidinone inhibitor of GSK3β. Intrahippocampal TDZD-8 blocked tau hyperphosphorylation and normalized hippocampus-dependent memory in db/db mice, suggesting that pathological synergy between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease may involve glucocorticoid-mediated activation of GSK3β. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral carcinogenesis is not achieved in different carcinogen-treated PAI-1 transgenic and wild-type mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgoustidis, Dimitris; Nisyrios, Themistoklis; Nkenke, Emeka; Lijnen, Roger; Ragos, Vassilis; Perrea, Despina; Donta, Ismini; Vaena, Apostolia; Yapijakis, Christos; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to assess the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in oral squamous cancer development and progression, two different carcinogen treatment protocols were conducted. Protocol I included mice from a PAI-1 transgenic (Tg) breed (n=56) and their wild-type (WT) counterparts (n=56), divided into one control group and two main experimental groups, treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. Protocol II included the same number and types of animals and groups, which were similarly treated with 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in drinking water. Two drugs that affect plasma PAI-1 levels, enalapril and pravastatin, were administered to certain subgroups of animals in both protocols. None of the animals developed macroscopically-visible oral cancer lesions. Eleven animals under Protocol I and 52 animals under Protocol II died. Skin lesions were noted only in DMBA-treated animals (n=9). Almost all animals administered with 4-NQO developed alopecia and lost weight, while two of them developed stomach tumours, and one female mouse developed a large ovarian cyst. Transgenic mice may respond differently when used in well-established carcinogen models and oral carcinogenesis is hard to achieve in these rodents.

  20. Lycopene attenuated hepatic tumorigenesis via differential mechanisms depending on carotenoid cleavage enzyme in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Blanche C.; Liu, Chun; Ausman, Lynne M.; von Lintig, Johannes; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased liver cancer risks and mortality. We recently showed that apo-10’-lycopenoic acid, a lycopene metabolite generated by beta-carotene-9’,10’-oxygenase (BCO2), inhibited carcinogen-initiated, high-fat diet (HFD)-promoted liver inflammation and hepatic tumorigenesis development. The present investigation examined the outstanding question of whether the lycopene could suppress HFD-promoted hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, and if BCO2 is important in BCO2-knockout (BCO2-KO) and wild-type male mice. Results showed that lycopene supplementation (100 mg/kg diet) for 24 weeks resulted in comparable accumulation of hepatic lycopene (19.4 vs 18.2 nmol/g) and had similar effects on suppressing HFD-promoted HCC incidence (19% vs 20%) and multiplicity (58% vs 62%) in wild-type and BCO2-KO mice, respectively. Intriguingly, lycopene chemopreventive effects in wild-type mice were associated with reduced hepatic pro-inflammatory signaling (phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; interleukin-6 protein) and inflammatory foci. In contrast, the protective effects of lycopene in BCO2-KO but not in wild-type mice were associated with reduced hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated unfolded protein response (ERUPR), through decreasing ERUPR-mediated protein kinase RNA-activated like kinase– eukaryotic initiation factor 2α activation, and inositol requiring 1α–X-box binding protein 1 signaling. Lycopene supplementation in BCO2-KO mice suppressed oncogenic signals including Met mRNA, β-catenin protein, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 activation, which was associated with increased hepatic microRNA (miR)-199a/b and miR-214 levels. These results provided novel experimental evidence that dietary lycopene can prevent HFD-promoted HCC incidence and multiplicity in mice, and may elicit different mechanisms depending on BCO2 expression. PMID:25293877

  1. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Xin-Yuan [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen, Zheng-Wang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  2. Control of blood pressure, appetite, and glucose by leptin in mice lacking leptin receptors in proopiomelanocortin neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Cai, Zhengwei; Lin, Shuying; Dubinion, John H; Hall, John E

    2011-05-01

    Although the central nervous system melanocortin system is an important regulator of energy balance, the role of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on appetite, blood pressure, and glucose regulation is unknown. Using Cre/loxP technology we tested whether leptin receptor deletion in POMC neurons (LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice) attenuates the chronic effects of leptin to increase mean arterial pressure (MAP), enhance glucose use and oxygen consumption, and reduce appetite. LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre, wild-type, LepR(flox/flox), and POMC-Cre mice were instrumented for MAP and heart rate measurement by telemetry and venous catheters for infusions. LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice were heavier, hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperleptinemic compared with wild-type, LepR(flox/flox), and POMC-Cre mice. Despite exhibiting features of metabolic syndrome, LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice had normal MAP and heart rate compared with LepR(flox/flox) but lower MAP and heart rate compared with wild-type mice. After a 5-day control period, leptin was infused (2 μg/kg per minute, IV) for 7 days. In control mice, leptin increased MAP by ≈5 mm Hg despite decreasing food intake by ≈35%. In contrast, leptin infusion in LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice reduced MAP by ≈3 mm Hg and food intake by ≈28%. Leptin significantly decreased insulin and glucose levels in control mice but not in LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre mice. Leptin increased oxygen consumption in LepR(flox/flox)/POMC-Cre and wild-type mice. Activation of POMC neurons is necessary for the chronic effects of leptin to raise MAP and reduce insulin and glucose levels, whereas leptin receptors in other areas of the brain other than POMC neurons appear to play a key role in mediating the chronic effects of leptin on appetite and oxygen consumption.

  3. Potentiation of latent inhibition by haloperidol and clozapine is attenuated in Dopamine D2 receptor (Drd-2)-deficient mice: Do antipsychotics influence learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli via both Drd-2 and non-Drd-2 mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Callaghan, Matthew J; Bay-Richter, Cecilie; O’Tuathaigh, Colm MP; Heery, David M; Waddington, John L; Moran, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    Whether the dopamine Drd-2 receptor is necessary for the behavioural action of antipsychotic drugs is an important question, as Drd-2 antagonism is responsible for their debilitating motor side effects. Using Drd-2 null mice (Drd2 -/-) it has previously been shown that Drd-2 is not necessary for antipsychotic drugs to reverse D-amphetamine disruption of latent inhibition (LI), a behavioural measure of learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli. Weiner’s ‘two-headed’ model indicates that antipsychotics not only reverse LI disruption, ‘disrupted LI’, but also potentiate LI when low/absent in controls, ‘persistent’ LI. We investigated whether antipsychotic drugs haloperidol or clozapine potentiated LI in wild-type controls or Drd2 -/-. Both drugs potentiated LI in wild-type but not in Drd2-/- mice, suggesting moderation of this effect of antipsychotics in the absence of Drd-2. Haloperidol potentiated LI similarly in both Drd1-/- and wild-type mice, indicating no such moderation in Drd1-/-. These data suggest that antipsychotic drugs can have either Drd-2 or non-Drd-2 effects on learning to ignore irrelevant stimuli, depending on how the abnormality is produced. Identification of the non-Drd-2 mechanism may help to identify novel non-Drd2 based therapeutic strategies for psychosis. PMID:25122042

  4. Facial nerve palsy after reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Shinichi; Yamano, Koji; Katsumi, Sachiyo; Minakata, Toshiya; Murakami, Shingo

    2015-04-01

    Bell's palsy is highly associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Either the reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or diabetic mononeuropathy has been proposed to cause the facial paralysis observed in DM patients. However, distinguishing whether the facial palsy is caused by herpetic neuritis or diabetic mononeuropathy is difficult. We previously reported that facial paralysis was aggravated in DM mice after HSV-1 inoculation of the murine auricle. In the current study, we induced HSV-1 reactivation by an auricular scratch following DM induction with streptozotocin (STZ). Controlled animal study. Diabetes mellitus was induced with streptozotocin injection in only mice that developed transient facial nerve paralysis with HSV-1. Recurrent facial palsy was induced after HSV-1 reactivation by auricular scratch. After DM induction, the number of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3)(+) T cells decreased by 70% in the DM mice, and facial nerve palsy recurred in 13% of the DM mice. Herpes simplex virus type 1 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in the facial nerve of all of the DM mice with palsy, and HSV-1 capsids were found in the geniculate ganglion using electron microscopy. Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA was also found in some of the DM mice without palsy, which suggested the subclinical reactivation of HSV-1. These results suggested that HSV-1 reactivation in the geniculate ganglion may be the main causative factor of the increased incidence of facial paralysis in DM patients. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Motor hypertonia and lack of locomotor coordination in mutant mice lacking DSCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Maxime; Laflamme, Olivier D; Thiry, Louise; Boulanger-Piette, Antoine; Frenette, Jérôme; Bretzner, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Down syndrome cell adherence molecule (DSCAM) contributes to the normal establishment and maintenance of neural circuits. Whereas there is abundant literature regarding the role of DSCAM in the neural patterning of the mammalian retina, less is known about motor circuits. Recently, DSCAM mutation has been shown to impair bilateral motor coordination during respiration, thus causing death at birth. DSCAM mutants that survive through adulthood display a lack of locomotor endurance and coordination in the rotarod test, thus suggesting that the DSCAM mutation impairs motor control. We investigated the motor and locomotor functions of DSCAM(2J) mutant mice through a combination of anatomical, kinematic, force, and electromyographic recordings. With respect to wild-type mice, DSCAM(2J) mice displayed a longer swing phase with a limb hyperflexion at the expense of a shorter stance phase during locomotion. Furthermore, electromyographic activity in the flexor and extensor muscles was increased and coactivated over 20% of the step cycle over a wide range of walking speeds. In contrast to wild-type mice, which used lateral walk and trot at walking speed, DSCAM(2J) mice used preferentially less coordinated gaits, such as out-of-phase walk and pace. The neuromuscular junction and the contractile properties of muscles, as well as their muscle spindles, were normal, and no signs of motor rigidity or spasticity were observed during passive limb movements. Our study demonstrates that the DSCAM mutation induces dystonic hypertonia and a disruption of locomotor gaits. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Pam heterozygous mice reveal essential role for Cu in amygdalar behavioral and synaptic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E

    2014-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential element with many biological roles, but its roles in the mammalian nervous system are poorly understood. Mice deficient in the cuproenzyme peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (Pam(+/-) mice) were initially generated to study neuropeptide amidation. Pam(+/-) mice exhibit profound deficits in a few behavioral tasks, including enhancements in innate fear along with deficits in acquired fear. Interestingly, several Pam(+/-) phenotypes were recapitulated in Cu-restricted wild-type mice and rescued in Cu-supplemented Pam(+/-) mice. These behaviors correspond to enhanced excitability and deficient synaptic plasticity in the amygdala of Pam(+/-) mice, which are also rescued by Cu supplementation. Cu and ATP7A are present at synapses, in key positions to respond to and influence synaptic activity. Further study demonstrated that extracellular Cu is necessary for wild-type synaptic plasticity and sufficient to induce long-term potentiation. These experiments support roles for PAM in Cu homeostasis and for synaptic Cu in amygdalar function. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Somatostatin-IRES-Cre Mice: Between Knockout and Wild-Type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viollet, Cécile; Simon, Axelle; Tolle, Virginie; Labarthe, Alexandra; Grouselle, Dominique; Loe-Mie, Yann; Simonneau, Michel; Martel, Guillaume; Epelbaum, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM) is widely expressed in rodent brain and somatostatin-IRES-Cre (SOM-cre) mouse strains are increasingly used to unravel the physiology of SOM-containing neurons. However, while knock-in targeting strategy greatly improves Cre-Lox system accuracy, recent reports have shown that genomic insertion of Cre construct per se can markedly affect physiological function. We show that Cre transgene insertion into the 3'UTR of the somatostatin gene leads to the selective and massive depletion of endogenous SOM in all tested brain regions. It also strongly impacts SOM-related neuroendocrine responses in a similar manner to what has been reported for SST KO mice: increased corticosterone levels after 30-min restraint stress, decreased amplitude and regularity of ultradian growth hormone secretory patterns accompanied by changes in sexually dimorphic liver gene expression ( serpina1, Cyp2b9, Cyp2a4, Cyp2d9, and Cyp7b1 ). In addition to demonstrating the need for examination of the consequences of Cre transgenesis, these results also reveal how this SOM-cre strain may be a useful tool in studying the functional consequences of moderate to low SOM levels as reported in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Y chromosomal and sex effects on the behavioral stress response in the defensive burying test in wild house mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; Korte, SM; Van Baal, GCM; De Ruiter, AJH; Van Oortmerssen, GA

    1999-01-01

    Genetically selected short attack latency (SAL) and long attack latency (LAL) male wild house mice behave differently in the defensive burying test. When challenged, SAL males respond actively with more time spent on defensive burying, whereas LAL males are more passive with more time remaining

  9. Aggravated brain damage after hypoxic ischemia in immature adenosine A2A knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adén, Ulrika; Halldner, Linda; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Dalmau, Ishar; Ledent, Catherine; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2003-03-01

    Cerebral hypoxic ischemia (HI) is an important cause of brain injury in the newborn infant. Adenosine is believed to protect against HI brain damage. However, the roles of the different adenosine receptors are unclear, particularly in young animals. We examined the role of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) using 7-day-old A2A knockout (A2AR(-/-)) mice in a model of HI. HI was induced in 7-day-old CD1 mice by exposure to 8% oxygen for 30 minutes after occlusion of the left common carotid artery. The resulting unilateral focal lesion was evaluated with the use of histopathological scoring and measurements of residual brain areas at 5 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months after HI. Behavioral evaluation of brain injury by locomotor activity, rotarod, and beam-walking test was made 3 weeks and 3 months after HI. Cortical cerebral blood flow, assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and rectal temperature were measured during HI. Reduction in cortical cerebral blood flow during HI and rectal temperature did not differ between wild-type (A2AR(+/+)) and knockout mice. In the A2AR(-/-) animals, brain injury was aggravated compared with wild-type mice. The A2AR(-/-) mice subjected to HI displayed increased forward locomotion and impaired rotarod performance in adulthood compared with A2AR(+/+) mice subjected to HI, whereas beam-walking performance was similarly defective in both groups. These results suggest that, in contrast to the situation in adult animals, A2AR play an important protective role in neonatal HI brain injury.

  10. Altered Cerebellar Organization and Function in Monoamine Oxidase A Hypomorphic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzghoul, Loai; Bortolato, Marco; Delis, Foteini; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Darling, Ryan D.; Godar, Sean C; Zhang, Junlin; Grant, Samuel; Wang, Gene-Jack; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Chen, Kevin; Volkow, Nora D.; Lin, Rick C.S.; Shih, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is the key enzyme for the degradation of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA). We recently generated and characterized a novel line of MAO-A hypormorphic mice (MAO-ANeo), featuring elevated monoamine levels, social deficits and perseverative behaviors as well as morphological changes in the basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Here we showed that MAO-ANeo mice displayed deficits in motor control, manifested as subtle disturbances in gait, motor coordination, and balance. Furthermore, magnetic resonance imaging of the cerebellum revealed morphological changes and a moderate reduction in the cerebellar size of MAO- ANeo mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses using calbindin-D-28k (CB) expression of Purkinje cells revealed abnormal cerebellar foliation with vermal hypoplasia and decreased in Purkinje cell count and their dendritic density in MAO- ANeo mice compared to WT. Our current findings suggest that congenitally low MAO-A activity leads to abnormal development of the cerebellum. PMID:22971542

  11. Pathological Roles of Wild-Type Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Furukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in a Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 gene cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. While it remains controversial how SOD1 mutations lead to onset and progression of the disease, many in vitro and in vivo studies have supported a gain-of-toxicity mechanism where pathogenic mutations contribute to destabilizing a native structure of SOD1 and thus facilitate misfolding and aggregation. Indeed, abnormal accumulation of SOD1-positive inclusions in spinal motor neurons is a pathological hallmark in SOD1-related familial ALS. Furthermore, similarities in clinical phenotypes and neuropathology of ALS cases with and without mutations in sod1 gene have implied a disease mechanism involving SOD1 common to all ALS cases. Although pathogenic roles of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS remain controversial, recent developments of novel SOD1 antibodies have made it possible to characterize wild-type SOD1 under pathological conditions of ALS. Here, I have briefly reviewed recent progress on biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS cases and discussed possible involvement of wild-type SOD1 in a pathomechanism of ALS.

  12. Thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia in IFN-gamma deficient NOD.H-2h4 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shiguang; Sharp, Gordon C; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The role of inflammatory cells in thyroid epithelial cell (thyrocyte) hyperplasia is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that thyrocyte hyperplasia in IFN-gamma-/- NOD.H-2h4 mice has an autoimmune basis. After chronic exposure to increased dietary iodine, 60% of IFN-gamma-/- mice had severe thyrocyte hyperplasia with minimal or moderate lymphocyte infiltration, and thyroid dysfunction with reduced serum T4. All mice produced anti-thyroglobulin autoantibody. Some wild-type NOD.H-2h4 mice had isolated areas of thyrocyte hyperplasia with predominantly lymphocytic infiltration, whereas IL-4-/- and 50% of wild-type NOD.H-2h4 mice developed lymphocytic thyroiditis but no thyrocyte hyperplasia. Both thyroid infiltrating inflammatory cells and environmental factors (iodine) were required to induce thyrocyte hyperplasia. Splenocytes from IFN-gamma-/- mice with thyrocyte hyperplasia, but not splenocytes from naïve IFN-gamma-/- mice, induced hyperplasia in IFN-gamma-/- NOD.H-2h4.SCID mice. These results may provide clues for understanding the mechanisms underlying development of epithelial cell hyperplasia not only in thyroids but also in other tissues and organs.

  13. Virus-like particles activate type I interferon pathways to facilitate post-exposure protection against Ebola virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Ayithan

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes a severe hemorrhagic disease with high fatality. Virus-like particles (VLPs are a promising vaccine candidate against EBOV. We recently showed that VLPs protect mice from lethal EBOV infection when given before or after viral infection. To elucidate pathways through which VLPs confer post-exposure protection, we investigated the role of type I interferon (IFN signaling. We found that VLPs lead to accelerated induction of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs in liver and spleen of wild type mice, but not in Ifnar-/- mice. Accordingly, EBOV infected Ifnar-/- mice, unlike wild type mice succumbed to death even after VLP treatment. The ISGs induced in wild type mice included anti-viral proteins and negative feedback factors known to restrict viral replication and excessive inflammatory responses. Importantly, proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression was much higher in WT mice without VLPs than mice treated with VLPs. In EBOV infected Ifnar-/- mice, however, uninhibited viral replication and elevated proinflammatory factor expression ensued, irrespective of VLP treatment, supporting the view that type I IFN signaling helps to limit viral replication and attenuate inflammatory responses. Further analyses showed that VLP protection requires the transcription factor, IRF8 known to amplify type I IFN signaling in dendritic cells and macrophages, the probable sites of initial EBOV infection. Together, this study indicates that VLPs afford post-exposure protection by promoting expeditious initiation of type I IFN signaling in the host.

  14. CXC-chemokine regulation and neutrophil trafficking in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in P-selectin/ICAM-1 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crockett Elahé T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neutrophil adhesion and migration are critical in hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R. P-selectin and the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 can mediate neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions, neutrophil migration, and the interactions of neutrophils with hepatocytes in the liver. Despite very strong preclinical data, recent clinical trials failed to show a protective effect of anti-adhesion therapy in reperfusion injury, indicating that the length of injury might be a critical factor in neutrophil infiltration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the role of P-selectin and ICAM-1 in neutrophil infiltration and liver injury during early and late phases of liver I/R. Methods Adult male wild-type and P-selectin/ICAM-1-deficient (P/I null mice underwent 90 minutes of partial liver ischemia followed by various periods of reperfusion (6, 15 h, and a survival study. Liver injury was assessed by plasma level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and histopathology. The plasma cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-2 and KC, were measured by ELISA. Results Reperfusion caused significant hepatocellular injury in both wild-type and P/I null mice as was determined by plasma ALT levels and liver histopathology. The injury was associated with a marked neutrophil infiltration into the ischemic livers of both wild-type and P/I null mice. Although the levels of ALT and neutrophil infiltration were slightly lower in the P/I null mice compared with the wild-type mice the differences were not statistically significant. The plasma cytokine data of TNF-α and IL-6 followed a similar pattern to ALT data, and no significant difference was found between the wild-type and P/I null groups. In contrast, a significant difference in KC and MIP-2 chemokine levels was observed between the wild-type and P/I null mice. Additionally, the survival study showed a trend towards increased survival in the P/I null group. Conclusion While ICAM-1 and P

  15. Factor XI Deficiency Alters the Cytokine Response and Activation of Contact Proteases during Polymicrobial Sepsis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E Bane

    Full Text Available Sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response to infection, is often accompanied by abnormalities of blood coagulation. Prior work with a mouse model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP suggested that the protease factor XIa contributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC and to the cytokine response during sepsis. We investigated the importance of factor XI to cytokine and coagulation responses during the first 24 hours after CLP. Compared to wild type littermates, factor XI-deficient (FXI-/- mice had a survival advantage after CLP, with smaller increases in plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-10 and delayed IL-1β and IL-6 responses. Plasma levels of serum amyloid P, an acute phase protein, were increased in wild type mice 24 hours post-CLP, but not in FXI-/- mice, supporting the impression of a reduced inflammatory response in the absence of factor XI. Surprisingly, there was little evidence of DIC in mice of either genotype. Plasma levels of the contact factors factor XII and prekallikrein were reduced in WT mice after CLP, consistent with induction of contact activation. However, factor XII and PK levels were not reduced in FXI-/- animals, indicating factor XI deficiency blunted contact activation. Intravenous infusion of polyphosphate into WT mice also induced changes in factor XII, but had much less effect in FXI deficient mice. In vitro analysis revealed that factor XIa activates factor XII, and that this reaction is enhanced by polyanions such polyphosphate and nucleic acids. These data suggest that factor XI deficiency confers a survival advantage in the CLP sepsis model by altering the cytokine response to infection and blunting activation of the contact (kallikrein-kinin system. The findings support the hypothesis that factor XI functions as a bidirectional interface between contact activation and thrombin generation, allowing the two processes to influence each other.

  16. A Ten-Week Biochemistry Lab Project Studying Wild-Type and Mutant Bacterial Alkaline Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, D. Scott

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a 10-week laboratory project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase, in which students purify, quantitate, and perform kinetic assays on wild-type and selected mutants of the enzyme. Students also perform plasmid DNA purification, digestion, and gel analysis. In addition to simply learning important…

  17. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. MicroRNA-155 knockout mice are susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroki; Funatogawa, Keiji; Matsumura, Kazunori; Kato-Miyazawa, Masako; Kirikae, Fumiko; Kiga, Kotaro; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Kirikae, Teruo

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, conserved, non-coding RNA molecules that repress translation, followed by the decay of miRNA-targeted mRNAs that encode molecules involved in cell differentiation, development, immunity and apoptosis. At least six miRNAs, including microRNA-155 (miR-155), were up-regulated when born marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/6 mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman. C57BL/6 mice intravenously infected with Erdman showed up-regulation of miR-155 in livers and lungs. Following infection, miR-155-deficient C57BL/6 mice died significantly earlier and had significantly higher numbers of CFU in lungs than wild-type mice. Moreover, fewer CD4(+) T cells, but higher numbers of monocytes and neutrophils, were present in the lungs of Erdman-infected miR-155 knockout (miR-155(-/-)) than of wild-type mice. These findings indicated that miR-155 plays a critical role in immune responses to M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phytosterol Feeding Causes Toxicity in ABCG5/G8 Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Allison L.; Alger, Heather M.; Sawyer, Janet K.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Kock, Nancy D.; Brown, J. Mark; Temel, Ryan E.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Plant sterols, or phytosterols, are very similar in structure to cholesterol and are abundant in typical diets. The reason for poor absorption of plant sterols by the body is still unknown. Mutations in the ABC transporters G5 and G8 are known to cause an accumulation of plant sterols in blood and tissues (sitosterolemia). To determine the significance of phytosterol exclusion from the body, we fed wild-type and ABCG5/G8 knockout mice a diet enriched with plant sterols. The high-phytosterol diet was extremely toxic to the ABCG5/G8 knockout mice but had no adverse effects on wild-type mice. ABCG5/G8 knockout mice died prematurely and developed a phenotype that included high levels of plant sterols in many tissues, liver abnormalities, and severe cardiac lesions. This study is the first to report such toxic effects of phytosterol accumulation in ABCG5/G8 knockout mice. We believe these new data support the conclusion that plant sterols are excluded from the body because they are toxic when present at high levels. PMID:23380580

  20. Differential induction of Toll-like receptors & type 1 interferons by Sabin attenuated & wild type 1 polioviruses in human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Madhu C; Deshpande, Jagadish M

    2013-01-01

    Polioviruses are the causative agent of paralytic poliomyelitis. Attenuated polioviruses (Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine strains) do not replicate efficiently in neurons as compared to the wild type polioviruses and therefore do not cause disease. This study was aimed to investigate the differential host immune response to wild type 1 poliovirus (wild PV) and Sabin attenuated type 1 poliovirus (Sabin PV) in cultured human neuronal cells. By using flow cytometry and real time PCR methods we examined host innate immune responses and compared the role of toll like receptors (TLRs) and cytoplasmic RNA helicases in cultured human neuronal cells (SK-N-SH) infected with Sabin PV and wild PV. Human neuronal cells expressed very low levels of TLRs constitutively. Sabin PV infection induced significantly higher expression of TLR3, TLR7 and melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5) m-RNA in neuronal cells at the beginning of infection (up to 4 h) as compared to wild PV. Further, Sabin PV also induced the expression of interferon α/β at early time point of infection. The induced expression of IFN α/β gene by Sabin PV in neuronal cells could be suppressed by inhibiting TLR7. Neuronal cell innate immune response to Sabin and wild polioviruses differ significantly for TLR3, TLR7, MDA5 and type 1 interferons. Effects of TLR7 activation and interferon production and Sabin virus replication in neuronal cells need to be actively investigated in future studies.

  1. Dopamine D3 receptor status modulates sexual dimorphism in voluntary wheel running behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinker, Florian; Ko Hnemann, Kathrin; Paulus, Walter; Liebetanz, David

    2017-08-30

    Sexual dimorphism has been described in various aspects of physiological and pathophysiological processes involving dopaminergic signaling. This might account for the different disease characteristics in men and women in e.g. Parkinson's disease or ADHD. A better understanding might contribute to the future individualization of therapy. We examined spontaneous wheel running activity of male and female mice, homo- and heterozygote for dopamine D3 receptor deficiency (D3R -/- and D3R+/-), and compared them to wild type controls. We found higher wheel running activity in female mice than in their male littermates. D3-/- mice, irrespective of sex, were also hyperactive compared to both D3+/- and wild type animals. Hyperactivity of D3-/- female mice was pronounced during the first days of wheel running but then decreased while their male counterparts continued to be hyperactive. Physical activity was menstrual cycle-dependent. Activity fluctuations were also seen in D3 receptor knockout mice and are therefore presumably independent of D3 receptor activation. Our data underscore the complex interaction of dopaminergic signaling and gonadal hormones that leads to specific running behavior. Furthermore, we detected sex- and D3 receptor status-specific reactions during novel exposure to the running wheel. These findings suggest the need for adapting dopaminergic therapies to individual factors such as sex or even menstrual cycle to optimize therapeutic success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal administration of meclozine for the treatment of foramen magnum stenosis in transgenic mice with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Masaki; Mishima, Kenichi; Esaki, Ryusaku; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji; Kitoh, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS. In the current study, the authors evaluated the effects of maternal administration of meclozine on FMS in ACH mice. METHODS The area of the foramen magnum was measured in 17-day-old Fgfr3 ach mice and wild-type mice using micro-CT scanning. Meclozine was administered to the pregnant mice carrying Fgfr3 ach offspring from embryonic Day (ED) 14.5 to postnatal Day (PD) 4.5. Spheno-occipital and anterior intraoccipital synchondroses were histologically examined, and the bony bridges were scored on PD 4.5. In wild-type mice, tissue concentrations of meclozine in ED 17.5 fetuses and PD 6.5 pups were investigated. RESULTS The area of the foramen magnum was significantly smaller in 17-day-old Fgfr3 ach mice than in wild-type mice (p < 0.005). There were no bony bridges in the spheno-occipital and anterior intraoccipital synchondroses in wild-type mice, while some of the synchondroses prematurely closed in untreated Fgfr3 ach mice at PD 4.5. The average bony bridge score in the cranial base was 7.053 ± 1.393 in untreated Fgfr3 ach mice and 6.125 ± 2.029 in meclozine-treated Fgfr3 ach mice. The scores were not statistically significant between mice with and those without meclozine treatment (p = 0.12). The average tissue concentration of meclozine was significantly higher (508.88 ± 205.16 ng/g) in PD 6.5 mice than in ED 17.5 mice (56.91 ± 20.05 ng/g) (p < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS Maternal administration of meclozine postponed premature

  3. Increased metastatic potential of tumor cells in von Willebrand factor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraube, V; Pendu, R; Baruch, D; Gebbink, M F B G; Meyer, D; Lenting, P J; Denis, C V

    2006-03-01

    The key role played by von Willebrand factor (VWF) in platelet adhesion suggests a potential implication in various pathologies, where this process is involved. In cancer metastasis development, tumor cells interact with platelets and the vessel wall to extravasate from the circulation. As a potential mediator of platelet-tumor cell interactions, VWF could influence this early step of tumor spread and therefore play a role in cancer metastasis. To investigate whether VWF is involved in metastasis development. In a first step, we characterized the interaction between murine melanoma cells B16-BL6 and VWF in vitro. In a second step, an experimental metastasis model was used to compare the formation of pulmonary metastatic foci in C57BL/6 wild-type and VWF-null mice following the injection of B16-BL6 cells or Lewis lung carcinoma cells. In vitro adhesion assays revealed that VWF is able to promote a dose-dependent adhesion of B16-BL6 cells via its Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence. In the experimental metastasis model, we found a significant increase in the number of pulmonary metastatic foci in VWF-null mice compared with the wild-type mice, a phenotype that could be corrected by restoring VWF plasma levels. We also showed that increased survival of the tumor cells in the lungs during the first 24 h in the absence of VWF was the cause of this increased metastasis. These findings suggest that VWF plays a protective role against tumor cell dissemination in vivo. Underlying mechanisms remain to be investigated.

  4. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  5. Rai1 Haploinsufficiency Is Associated with Social Abnormalities in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini R. Rao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors; with different degrees of severity in each of the core areas. Haploinsufficiency and point mutations of RAI1 are associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, a genetic condition that scores within the autism spectrum range for social responsiveness and communication, and is characterized by neurobehavioral abnormalities, intellectual disability, developmental delay, sleep disturbance, and self-injurious behaviors. Methods: To investigate the relationship between Rai1 and social impairment, we evaluated the Rai1+/− mice with a battery of tests to address social behavior in mice. Results: We found that the mutant mice showed diminished interest in social odors, abnormal submissive tendencies, and increased repetitive behaviors when compared to wild type littermates. Conclusions: These findings suggest that Rai1 contributes to social behavior in mice, and prompt it as a candidate gene for the social behaviors observed in Smith-Magenis Syndrome patients.

  6. Interleukin-6-deficient mice refractory to IgA dysregulation but not anorexia induction by vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, J J; Zhou, H R

    2000-07-01

    Dietary exposure to the trichothecene vomitoxin (VT) causes feed refusal and elevates IgA production in the mouse. Based on the observations that IL-6 can cause anorexia and promote IgA production and that gene expression of this cytokine is increased in vivo and ex vivo on VT exposure, we hypothesized that IL-6 is an essential cytokine in VT-induced feed refusal and IgA dysregulation. To test this hypothesis, the effects of dietary VT on feed intake, weight gain, serum IgA levels and kidney mesangial IgA deposition in an IL-6-"knockout" mouse (B6129-IL6(tmi Kopf)) were compared to those in both a corresponding "wildtype" (B6129F2) and a previously characterized "sentinel" strain (B6C3F1) that possess the intact gene for this cytokine. IL-6 deficiency did not alter the capacity of VT to cause feed refusal or impair weight gain. VT-fed B6129F2 and B6C3F1 mice had significantly higher serum IgA concentrations than did their corresponding controls fed clean diet, whereas significant differences were not observed between IL-6 KO mice fed VT or control diets. Kidneys taken from VT-fed wild-type and sentinel mice had significantly increased mesangial IgA deposition as compared to controls. While slight increases in mesangial IgA were observed in VT-fed IL-6 KO mice, mean fluorescence intensities were significantly less than that found in the corresponding wild-type and sentinel strains. IL-6 KO mice appeared to be less prone to the development of microscopic haematuria following VT exposure than were the corresponding wild-type and sentinel strains. In total, the results suggested that IL-6-deficient mice were refractory to VT-induced dysregulation of IgA production and development of IgA nephropathy, whereas chronic VT-mediated nutritional effects related to feed intake and weight gain were unaffected.

  7. Overexpression of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase in transgenic mice markedly impairs regeneration and increases development of neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotulska, Katarzyna; LePecheur, Marie; Marcol, Wiesław; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Paly, Evelyn; Matuszek, Iwona; London, Jacqueline

    2006-10-01

    Despite the general capacity of peripheral nervous system to regenerate, peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete recovery of function, sometimes with the burden of neuropathic pain. The mechanisms of both regeneration and nociception have not been clarified, but it is known that inflammatory reactions are involved. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an important scavenger protein that acts against oxidative stress. It has been shown to play an important role in apoptosis and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the role of SOD1 overexpression in peripheral nerve regeneration and neuropathic pain-r