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Sample records for wild type yeast

  1. Comparison of the proteomes of three yeast wild type strains: CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.; Mose Larsen, P.; Blomberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    Yeast deletion strains created during gene function analysis projects very often show drastic phenotypic differences depending on the genetic background used. These results indicate the existence of important molecular differences between the CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 wild type strains. To charact......Yeast deletion strains created during gene function analysis projects very often show drastic phenotypic differences depending on the genetic background used. These results indicate the existence of important molecular differences between the CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 wild type strains....... To characterise these differences we have compared the protein expression levels between CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 strains using twodimensional gel electrophoresis and identified selected proteins by mass spectrometric analysis. We have found that FY1679 and W303 strains are more similar to each other than...... to the CEN.PK2 strain. This study identifies 62 proteins that are differentially expressed between the strains and provides a valuable source of data for the interpretation of yeast mutant phenotypes observed in CEN.PK2, FY1679 and W303 strains....

  2. Comparative study on fermentation performance in the genome shuffled Candida versatilis and wild-type salt tolerant yeast strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Guo, Hong-Lian; Wang, Chun-Ling; Hou, Li-Hua; Cao, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jin-Fu; Lu, Fu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The fermentation performance of a genome-shuffled strain of Candida versatilis S3-5, isolated for improved tolerance to salt, and wild-type (WT) strain were analysed. The fermentation parameters, such as growth, reducing sugar, ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds, were detected during soy sauce fermentation process. The results showed that ethanol produced by the genome shuffled strain S3-5 was increasing at a faster rate and to a greater extent than WT. At the end of the fermentation, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid formed in tricarboxylic acid cycle after S3-5 treatment elevated by 39.20%, 6.85% and 17.09% compared to WT, respectively. Moreover, flavour compounds such as phenethyl acetate, ethyl vanillate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl myristate, ethyl pentadecanoate, ethyl palmitate and phenylacetaldehyde produced by S3-5 were 2.26, 2.12, 2.87, 34.41, 6.32, 13.64, 2.23 and 78.85 times as compared to WT. S3-5 exhibited enhanced metabolic ability as compared to the wild-type strain, improved conversion of sugars to ethanol, metabolism of organic acid and formation of volatile compounds, especially esters, Moreover, S3-5 might be an ester-flavour type salt-tolerant yeast. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Multidrug resistant yeasts in synanthropic wild birds

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    Somanath Sushela

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of multidrug resistant yeasts in the faeces of synanthropic wild birds from the Bangsar suburb of Kuala Lumpur. Methods Species characterisations of yeast isolates and determinations of antimycotic susceptibility profiles were undertaken using the commercial characterization kit, Integral System Yeasts Plus (Liofilchem, Italy. Results Fourteen species of yeasts were detected in the bird faecal samples.Candida albicans was present in 28.89% of bird faecal samples, Candida krusei (13.33%, Candida tropicalis (4.44%, Candida glabrata (4.44%, Candida parapsilosis (2.22%, Candida lambica (2.22%, Candida stellatoidea (2.22%, Candida rugosa (2.22% and Candida lusitaniae (2.22%. Amongst the non-candidal yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii was present in 6.67% of bird faecal samples, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus (4.44%, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (4.44%, Trichosporon pullulans (2.22%, Trichosporon pullulans/Cryptococcus albidus (8.89% and Rhodotorula rubra/Rhodotorula glutinis (4.44%. Of the isolated yeasts, 18.1% (or 26/144 were found to be resistant to all 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against i.e. Nystatin, Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Econazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole, Fluconazole 16 and Fluconazole 64. 45.8% (or 66/144 of the bird faecal yeast isolates were resistant to four or more of the 11 antimycotic agents they were tested against. Conclusions This finding is of public health significance as these synanthropic wild birds may be reservoirs for transmission of drug resistant yeast infections to humans.

  4. Toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 wild-type and its nine isogenic single-gene deletion mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemets, Kaja; Suppi, Sandra; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

    2013-03-18

    A suite of eight tentatively oxidative stress response-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 single-gene mutants (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, yap1Δ, cta1Δ, ctt1Δ, gsh1Δ, glr1Δ, and ccs1Δ) and one copper-vulnerable mutant (cup2Δ) was used to elucidate weather the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles to S. cerevisiae is mediated by oxidative stress (OS). Specifically, sensitivity profiles of mutants' phenotypes and wild-type (wt) upon exposure to nano-CuO were compared. As controls, CuSO4 (solubility), bulk-CuO (size), H2O2, and menadione (OS) were used. Growth inhibition of wt and mutant strains was studied in rich YPD medium and cell viability in deionized water (DI). Dissolved Cu-ions were quantified by recombinant metal-sensing bacteria and chemical analysis. To wt strain nano-CuO was 32-fold more toxic than bulk-CuO: 24-h IC50 4.8 and 155 mg/L in DI and 643 and >20000 mg/L in YPD, respectively. In toxicant-free YPD medium, all mutants had practically similar growth patterns as wt. However, the mutant strains sod1Δ, sod2Δ, ccs1Δ, and yap1Δ showed up to 12-fold elevated sensitivity toward OS standard chemicals menadione and H2O2 but not to nano-CuO, indicating that CuO nanoparticles exerted toxicity to yeast cells via different mechanisms. The most vulnerable strain to all studied Cu compounds was the copper stress response-deficient strain cup2Δ (∼16-fold difference with wt), indicating that the toxic effect of CuO (nano)particles proceeds via dissolved Cu-ions. The dissolved copper solely explained the toxicity of nano-CuO in DI but not in YPD. Assumingly, in YPD nano-CuO acquired a coating of peptides/proteins and sorbed onto the yeast's outer surface, resulting in their increased solubility in the close vicinity of yeast cells and increased uptake of Cu-ions that was not registered by the assays used for the analysis of dissolved Cu-ions in the test medium. Lastly, as yeast retained its viability in DI even by 24th hour of incubation, the profiling of the acute

  5. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability.

  6. Characterization of global yeast quantitative proteome data generated from the wild-type and glucose repression Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: The comparison of two quantitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usaite, Renata; Wohlschlegel, James; Venable, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The quantitative proteomic analysis of complex protein mixtures is emerging as a technically challenging but viable systems-level approach for studying cellular function. This study presents a large-scale comparative analysis of protein abundances from yeast protein lysates derived from both wild...

  7. Optimization of glutathione production in batch and fed-batch cultures by the wild-type and recombinant strains of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha DL-1

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    Malyshev Alexander Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tripeptide glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most abundant non-protein thiol that protects cells from metabolic and oxidative stresses and is widely used as medicine, food additives and in cosmetic industry. The methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha is regarded as a rich source of glutathione due to the role of this thiol in detoxifications of key intermediates of methanol metabolism. Cellular and extracellular glutathione production of H. polymorpha DL-1 in the wild type and recombinant strains which overexpress genes of glutathione biosynthesis (GSH2 and its precursor cysteine (MET4 was studied. Results Glutathione producing capacity of H. polymorpha DL-1 depending on parameters of cultivation (dissolved oxygen tension, pH, stirrer speed, carbon substrate (glucose, methanol and type of overexpressed genes of glutathione and its precursor biosynthesis during batch and fed-batch fermentations were studied. Under optimized conditions of glucose fed-batch cultivation, the glutathione productivity of the engineered strains was increased from ~900 up to ~ 2300 mg of Total Intracellular Glutathione (TIG or GSH+GSSGin, per liter of culture medium. Meantime, methanol fed-batch cultivation of one of the recombinant strains allowed achieving the extracellular glutathione productivity up to 250 mg of Total Extracellular Glutathione (TEG or GSH+GSSGex, per liter of the culture medium. Conclusions H. polymorpha is an competitive glutathione producer as compared to other known yeast and bacteria strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida utilis, Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis etc. with good perspectives for further improvement especially for production of extracellular form of glutathione.

  8. Catalase gene disruptant of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is defective in hyphal growth, and a catalase-specific inhibitor can suppress hyphal growth of wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Although the catalase gene (CAT1) disruptant of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans was viable under ordinary growth conditions, we previously found that it could not grow on YPD (yeast extract/peptone/dextrose) containing SDS or at higher growth temperatures. To investigate the pleiotrophic nature of the disruptant, we examined the effect of the catalase inhibitor 3-AT on the growth of wild-type strains. Surprisingly, the addition of 3-AT and SDS caused the wild-type cells to be non-viable on YPD plates. We found an additional phenotype of the catalase gene disruptant: it did not produce normal hyphae on Spider medium. Hyphal growth was observed in a CAP1 (Candida AP-1-like protein gene) disruptant, a HOG1 (high-osmolarity glycerol signaling pathway gene) disruptant, and the double CAP1/HOG1 disruptant, suggesting that the defect in hyphal formation by the catalase disruptant was independent of these genes. Addition of 3-AT and SDS to hyphae-inducing media suppressed growth of normal hyphae in the wild-type strain. The potential necessity for catalase action upon exposure to hyphae-inducing conditions was confirmed by the immediate elevation of the catalase gene message. In spite of the requirement for catalase during hyphal growth, the catalase gene disruptant was capable of forming germ tubes in medium containing serum.

  9. Divergence of iron metabolism in wild Malaysian yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hana N; Mostovoy, Yulia; Hsu, Tiffany Y; Chang, Amanda H; Brem, Rachel B

    2013-12-09

    Comparative genomic studies have reported widespread variation in levels of gene expression within and between species. Using these data to infer organism-level trait divergence has proven to be a key challenge in the field. We have used a wild Malaysian population of S. cerevisiae as a test bed in the search to predict and validate trait differences based on observations of regulatory variation. Malaysian yeast, when cultured in standard medium, activated regulatory programs that protect cells from the toxic effects of high iron. Malaysian yeast also showed a hyperactive regulatory response during culture in the presence of excess iron and had a unique growth defect in conditions of high iron. Molecular validation experiments pinpointed the iron metabolism factors AFT1, CCC1, and YAP5 as contributors to these molecular and cellular phenotypes; in genome-scale sequence analyses, a suite of iron toxicity response genes showed evidence for rapid protein evolution in Malaysian yeast. Our findings support a model in which iron metabolism has diverged in Malaysian yeast as a consequence of a change in selective pressure, with Malaysian alleles shifting the dynamic range of iron response to low-iron concentrations and weakening resistance to extreme iron toxicity. By dissecting the iron scarcity specialist behavior of Malaysian yeast, our work highlights the power of expression divergence as a signpost for biologically and evolutionarily relevant variation at the organismal level. Interpreting the phenotypic relevance of gene expression variation is one of the primary challenges of modern genomics.

  10. Isolation and Identification of Yeasts from Wild Flowers Collected around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea, and Characterization of the Unrecorded Yeast Bullera coprosmaensis

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sang-Min; Hyun, Se-Hee; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Ha-Kun; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Several types of yeasts were isolated from wild flowers around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea and identified by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the PCR amplicons for the D1/D2 variable domain of the 26S ribosomal DNA using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis. In total, 60 strains from 18 species were isolated, and Pseudozyma spp. (27 strains), which included Pseudozyma rugulosa (7 strains) and Pseudozyma aphidis (6 strains), was dominant species. Among ...

  11. Isolation and Identification of Yeasts from Wild Flowers Collected around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea, and Characterization of the Unrecorded Yeast Bullera coprosmaensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Min; Hyun, Se-Hee; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Ha-Kun; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-09-01

    Several types of yeasts were isolated from wild flowers around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea and identified by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the PCR amplicons for the D1/D2 variable domain of the 26S ribosomal DNA using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis. In total, 60 strains from 18 species were isolated, and Pseudozyma spp. (27 strains), which included Pseudozyma rugulosa (7 strains) and Pseudozyma aphidis (6 strains), was dominant species. Among the 60 strains, Bullera coprosmaensis JS00600 represented a newly recorded yeast strain in Korea, and its microbiological characteristics were investigated. The yeast cell has an oval-shaped morphology measuring 1.4 × 1.7 µm in size. Bullera coprosmaensis JS00600 is an asporous yeast that exhibits no pseudomycelium formation. It grew well in vitamin-free medium as well as in yeast extract-malt extract broth and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) broth, and it is halotolerant growing in 10% NaCl-containing YPD broth.

  12. Characterization and Dynamic Behavior of Wild Yeast during Spontaneous Wine Fermentation in Steel Tanks and Amphorae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Díaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the dynamic behavior of wild yeasts during spontaneous wine fermentation at a winery in the Valais region of Switzerland. Wild yeasts in the winery environment were characterized using a PCR-RFLP method. Up to 11 different yeast species were isolated from the vineyard air, whereas only seven were recovered from the grapes surface. We initially investigated a cultureindependent method in pilot-scale steel fermentation tanks and found a greater diversity of yeasts in the musts from two red grape varieties compared to three white grape varieties. We found that the yeasts Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia kluyveri, P. membranifaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae remained active at the end of the fermentation. We also studied the dynamic behavior of yeasts in Qvevris for the first time using a novel, highlysensitive quantitative real-time PCR method. We found that non-Saccharomyces yeasts were present during the entire fermentation process, with R. mucilaginosa and P. anomala the most prominent species. We studied the relationship between the predominance of different species and the output of the fermentation process. We identified so-called spoilage yeasts in all the fermentations, but high levels of acetic acid accumulated only in those fermentations with an extended lag phase.

  13. Characterization and dynamic behavior of wild yeast during spontaneous wine fermentation in steel tanks and amphorae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Cecilia; Molina, Ana María; Nähring, Jörg; Fischer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    We studied the dynamic behavior of wild yeasts during spontaneous wine fermentation at a winery in the Valais region of Switzerland. Wild yeasts in the winery environment were characterized using a PCR-RFLP method. Up to 11 different yeast species were isolated from the vineyard air, whereas only seven were recovered from the grapes surface. We initially investigated a cultureindependent method in pilot-scale steel fermentation tanks and found a greater diversity of yeasts in the musts from two red grape varieties compared to three white grape varieties. We found that the yeasts Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia kluyveri, P. membranifaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae remained active at the end of the fermentation. We also studied the dynamic behavior of yeasts in Qvevris for the first time using a novel, highlysensitive quantitative real-time PCR method. We found that non-Saccharomyces yeasts were present during the entire fermentation process, with R. mucilaginosa and P. anomala the most prominent species. We studied the relationship between the predominance of different species and the output of the fermentation process. We identified so-called spoilage yeasts in all the fermentations, but high levels of acetic acid accumulated only in those fermentations with an extended lag phase.

  14. Characterization and Dynamic Behavior of Wild Yeast during Spontaneous Wine Fermentation in Steel Tanks and Amphorae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Cecilia; Molina, Ana María; Nähring, Jörg; Fischer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    We studied the dynamic behavior of wild yeasts during spontaneous wine fermentation at a winery in the Valais region of Switzerland. Wild yeasts in the winery environment were characterized using a PCR-RFLP method. Up to 11 different yeast species were isolated from the vineyard air, whereas only seven were recovered from the grapes surface. We initially investigated a cultureindependent method in pilot-scale steel fermentation tanks and found a greater diversity of yeasts in the musts from two red grape varieties compared to three white grape varieties. We found that the yeasts Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia kluyveri, P. membranifaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae remained active at the end of the fermentation. We also studied the dynamic behavior of yeasts in Qvevris for the first time using a novel, highlysensitive quantitative real-time PCR method. We found that non-Saccharomyces yeasts were present during the entire fermentation process, with R. mucilaginosa and P. anomala the most prominent species. We studied the relationship between the predominance of different species and the output of the fermentation process. We identified so-called spoilage yeasts in all the fermentations, but high levels of acetic acid accumulated only in those fermentations with an extended lag phase. PMID:23738327

  15. Genomewide Evolutionary Rates in Laboratory and Wild Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald, James; Tang, Hua; Brem, Rachel B.

    2006-01-01

    As wild organisms adapt to the laboratory environment, they become less relevant as biological models. It has been suggested that a commonly used S. cerevisiae strain has rapidly accumulated mutations in the lab. We report a low-to-intermediate rate of protein evolution in this strain relative to wild isolates.

  16. A fast and simple method for wild yeast flora detection in winemaking

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    Francesca Comitini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Comitini, Mariza Stringini, Manuela Taccari, Maurizio CianiDipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. sez. di Microbiologia Alimentare, Industriale e Ambientale, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: An easy technique for a fast determination of wild yeast population-colonizing grape must before fermentation is described. The mathematical relationship between viable cell number and oxygen consumption rate was determined using a simple pO2 electrode chamber. This relation was determined in pure cultures belonging to six yeast species related to wine environment and in natural samples of grape must collected at the time of the grape delivery in the wineries. Results indicated a significant relationship between oxygen consumption rate and viable cell count of the wine yeast species tested. The evaluation of natural grape must samples indicated that the presence at pre-fermentative of wide contaminant yeast flora at a level commonly believed responsible for uncontrolled microbiological process in winemaking (>106 CFU ml−1, was easily detected. Since the results are available in a short time, this method could be profitable used to detect the presence of contaminant level of wild yeasts reducing the risk of uncontrolled start fermentation that could compromise the quality of final product.Keywords: wild yeasts contamination, oxygen consumption, O2 probe

  17. Alcoholic fermentation by the wild yeasts under thermal, osmotic and ethanol stress

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    Rosimeire Oenning da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the variability in the metabolism of nine wild yeasts isolated from the sugarcane juice from a distillery in the Brazilian State of Mato Grosso. Cell viability under the stress conditions was evaluated. The yeasts were inoculated in the test tubes containing sugarcane juice adjusted from 12 to 21º Brix, ethanol from 6 to 12% in volume and temperature at 30, 35 and 40ºC. The viability was established by the growth in Petri dishes and visually by the CO2 production in the test tubes. None of the evaluated yeasts showed simultaneous resistance to the three stress conditions. The potential of yeast BB.09 could be emphasized due to its ability to ferment up to12% ethanol at 30°C.

  18. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Cresoni-Pereira Carla

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed.

  19. Influence of quantities of brewer yeast on the performance of Anastrepha obliqua wild females (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia

    2001-11-15

    Using artificial solid diets, experiments were performed with Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835) wild females in order to verify the influence of different quantities of brewer yeast on the performance and compensation behavior to unbalanced diets ingestion. The observed parameters were egg production, ingestion, diet efficiency and survival in the reproductive phase. Results indicated that there was no compensatory ingestion to different quantities of yeast and that the diet with 12.5g of yeast provided the best performance. The absence of compensatory ingestion is discussed based on the yeast phagostimulation and on the costs involved in solid diets ingestion. The relation between the analyzed parameters and the protein quantities in the diet were discussed. (author)

  20. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp.

  1. Fermentation of sugar cane juice (Sacharum officinarum) cultivar RB 7515 by wild yeasts resistant to UVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sobrinho, Viviane dos Santos; da Silva, Valéria Cristina Ferreira; Cereda, Marney Pascoli

    2011-01-01

    Commercial alcoholic fermentations coexist with microbial contamination come together with sugar cane or industrial water. The contaminants are bacteria or wild yeast that also results reduction in yield. The contaminants control use acid treatment and antibiotics. Disinfection by ultraviolet radiation is efficient in transparent liquid and has as advantage leaving no residues. Reports on the UV effect over microorganisms in turbid and colored liquids are scarce. The research evaluated the us...

  2. Porphyrin Interactions with Wild Type and Mutant Mouse Ferrochelatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Gloria C.; Franco, Ricardo; Lu, Yi; Ma, Jian-Guo; Shelnutt, John A.

    1999-05-19

    Ferrochelatase (EC 4.99.1.1), the terminal enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes Fe2+ chelation into protoporphyrin IX. Resonance Raman and W-visible absorbance spectroscopes of wild type and engineered variants of murine ferrochelatase were used to examine the proposed structural mechanism for iron insertion into protoporphyrin by ferrochelatase. The recombinant variants (i.e., H207N and E287Q) are enzymes in which the conserved amino acids histidine-207 and glutamate-287 of murine ferrochelatase were substituted with asparagine and glutamine, respectively. Both of these residues are at the active site of the enzyme as deduced from the Bacillus subtilis ferrochelatase three-dimensional structure. Addition of free base or metalated porphyrins to wild type ferrochelatase and H207N variant yields a quasi 1:1 complex, possibly a monomeric protein-bound species. In contrast, the addition of porphyrin (either free base or metalated) to E287Q is sub-stoichiometric, as this variant retains bound porphyrin in the active site during isolation and purification. The specificity of porphyrin binding is confirmed by the narrowing of the structure-sensitive resonance Raman lines and the vinyl vibrational mode. Resonance Raman spectra of free base and metalated porphyrins bound to the wild type ferrochelatase indicate a nonplanar distortion of the porphyrin macrocycle, although the magnitude of the distortion cannot be determined without first defining the specific type of deformation. Significantly, the extent of the nonplanar distortion varies in the case of H207N- and E287Q-bound porphyrins. In fact, resonance Raman spectral decomposition indicates a homogeneous ruffled distortion for the nickel protoporphyrin bound to the wild type ferrochelatase, whereas both a planar and ruffled conformations are present for the H207N-bound porphyrin. Perhaps more revealing is the unusual resonance , 3 Raman spectrum of the endogenous E287Q-bound porphyrin, which has

  3. Datin, a yeast poly(dA:dT)-binding protein, behaves as an activator of the wild-type ILV1 promoter and interacts synergistically with Reb1p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso; Remacle, J E; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    1998-01-01

    synergistically to control ILV1 expression and that the synergistic effect is distance dependent. We demonstrate that (i) datin (Dat1p), the only known poly (dA:dT)-binding protein in yeast, specifically binds to the ILV1 poly(dA:dT) element in vitro; (ii) Dat1p functions as a trans-activating factor in the ILV1...

  4. Chimeric types of chromosome X in bottom-fermenting yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, T; Izumikawa, M; Tadami, H

    2009-10-01

    To determine the structure of the chimeric chromosome X of bottom-fermenting yeasts. Eight cosmid clones carrying DNA from chromosome X of bottom-fermenting yeasts were selected by end-sequencing. Four of the cosmid clones had Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC)-type and Saccharomyces bayanus (SB)-type chimeric ends, two had SC-type ends and two had SB-type ends. Sequencing revealed that the bottom-fermenting yeast strains in this study had four types of chromosome X: SC-SC, SC-SB, SB-SC and SB-SB. The translocation site in the chimeric chromosome is conserved among bottom-fermenting yeast strains, and was created by homologous recombination within a region of high sequence identity between the SC-type sequence and the SB-type sequence. Existing bottom-fermenting yeast strains share a common ancestor in which the chimeric chromosome X was generated. The knowledge gained in this study sheds light on the evolution of bottom-fermenting yeasts.

  5. Wild Grape-Associated Yeasts as Promising Biocontrol Agents against Vitis vinifera Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cordero-Bueso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium expansum pathogen species. In particular, yeast isolation was carried out from grape berries of Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris populations, of the Eurasian area, and V. vinifera ssp vinifera cultivars from three different farming systems (organic, biodynamic, and conventional. Strains able to inhibit or slow the growth of pathogens were selected by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The most effective antagonist yeast strains were subsequently assayed for their capability to colonize the grape berries. Finally, possible modes of action, such as nutrients and space competition, iron depletion, cell wall degrading enzymes, diffusible and volatile antimicrobial compounds, and biofilm formation, were investigated as well. Two hundred and thirty-one yeast strains belonging to 26 different species were isolated; 20 of them, ascribed to eight species, showed antagonistic action against all molds. Yeasts isolated from V. vinifera ssp sylvestris were more effective (up to 50% against B. cinerea rather than those isolated from V. vinifera ssp vinifera. Six strains, all isolated from wild vines, belonging to four species (Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora clermontiae, and Pichia kluyveri revealed one or more phenotypical characteristics associated to the analyzed modes of antagonistic action.

  6. Wild Grape-Associated Yeasts as Promising Biocontrol Agents against Vitis vinifera Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Mangieri, Nicola; Maghradze, David; Foschino, Roberto; Valdetara, Federica; Cantoral, Jesús M; Vigentini, Ileana

    2017-01-01

    The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Penicillium expansum pathogen species. In particular, yeast isolation was carried out from grape berries of Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris populations, of the Eurasian area, and V. vinifera ssp vinifera cultivars from three different farming systems (organic, biodynamic, and conventional). Strains able to inhibit or slow the growth of pathogens were selected by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The most effective antagonist yeast strains were subsequently assayed for their capability to colonize the grape berries. Finally, possible modes of action, such as nutrients and space competition, iron depletion, cell wall degrading enzymes, diffusible and volatile antimicrobial compounds, and biofilm formation, were investigated as well. Two hundred and thirty-one yeast strains belonging to 26 different species were isolated; 20 of them, ascribed to eight species, showed antagonistic action against all molds. Yeasts isolated from V. vinifera ssp sylvestris were more effective (up to 50%) against B. cinerea rather than those isolated from V. vinifera ssp vinifera. Six strains, all isolated from wild vines, belonging to four species (Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora clermontiae, and Pichia kluyveri) revealed one or more phenotypical characteristics associated to the analyzed modes of antagonistic action.

  7. Lipid and citric acid production by wild yeasts grown in glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Karla Silva Teixeira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2014-04-01

    In this study, crude glycerol was used as a carbon source in the cultivation of wild yeasts, aiming for the production of microbial lipids and citric acid. Forty yeasts of different sources were tested concerning their growth in crude and commercial glycerol. Four yeasts (Lidnera saturnus UFLA CES-Y677, Yarrowia lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4, Rhodotorula glutinis NCYC 2439, and Cryptococcus curvatus NCYC 476) were then selected owing to their ability to grow in pure (OD600 2.133, 1.633, 2.055, and 2.049, respectively) and crude (OD600 2.354, 1.753, 2.316, and 2.281, respectively) glycerol (10%, 20%, and 30%). Y. lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4 was selected for its ability to maintain cell viability in concentrations of 30% of crude glycerol, and high glycerol intake (18.907 g/l). This yeast was submitted to lipid production in 30 g/l of crude glycerol, and therefore obtained 63.4% of microbial lipids. In the fatty acid profile, there was a predominance of stearic (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids in the concentrations of 87.64% and 74.67%, respectively. We also performed optimization of the parameters for the production of citric acid, which yielded a production of 0.19 g/l of citric acid in optimum conditions (38.4 g/l of crude glycerol, agitation of 184 rpm, and temperature of 30°C). Yarrowia lipolytica UFLA CM-Y9.4 presented good lipid production when in the concentration of 30 g/l of glycerol. These data may be used for production in large quantities for the application of industrial biodiesel.

  8. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  9. Microbe domestication and the identification of the wild genetic stock of lager-brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Valério, Elisabete; Gonçalves, Carla; Dover, Jim; Johnston, Mark; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2011-08-30

    Domestication of plants and animals promoted humanity's transition from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles, demographic expansion, and the emergence of civilizations. In contrast to the well-documented successes of crop and livestock breeding, processes of microbe domestication remain obscure, despite the importance of microbes to the production of food, beverages, and biofuels. Lager-beer, first brewed in the 15th century, employs an allotetraploid hybrid yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus (syn. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), a domesticated species created by the fusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale-yeast with an unknown cryotolerant Saccharomyces species. We report the isolation of that species and designate it Saccharomyces eubayanus sp. nov. because of its resemblance to Saccharomyces bayanus (a complex hybrid of S. eubayanus, Saccharomyces uvarum, and S. cerevisiae found only in the brewing environment). Individuals from populations of S. eubayanus and its sister species, S. uvarum, exist in apparent sympatry in Nothofagus (Southern beech) forests in Patagonia, but are isolated genetically through intrinsic postzygotic barriers, and ecologically through host-preference. The draft genome sequence of S. eubayanus is 99.5% identical to the non-S. cerevisiae portion of the S. pastorianus genome sequence and suggests specific changes in sugar and sulfite metabolism that were crucial for domestication in the lager-brewing environment. This study shows that combining microbial ecology with comparative genomics facilitates the discovery and preservation of wild genetic stocks of domesticated microbes to trace their history, identify genetic changes, and suggest paths to further industrial improvement.

  10. The yeast mating-type switching mechanism: a memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klar, Amar J S

    2010-10-01

    It has been 33 years since I first presented results of genetic experiments that established the gene transposition model as the mechanism of mating-type switching in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) Yeast Genetics meeting in August 1977. Over two decades ago the Genetics Perspectives editors solicited a perspective on my participation in the studies that deciphered the mechanism of mating-type switching and revealed the phenomenon of gene silencing in yeast. Although flattered at the time, I thought that preparation of such an article called for a more seasoned researcher who had benefitted from seeing his contributions stand the test of time. Now realizing that our discovery of the transposition of a mutation from the HMα locus into the MAT (mating type) locus has provided the genetic evidence that established the gene transposition model, and having witnessed our conclusions confirmed by subsequent molecular studies, I decided that perhaps this is a good time to recount the chronology of events as they unfolded for me decades ago.

  11. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanotes in wildtype yeasts | Desuoky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biosynthesis of the biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs) are studied extensively in wild type and genetically modified prokaryotic cells, however the content and structure of PHA in wild type yeasts are not well documented. The purpose of this study was to screen forty yeast isolates collected from different ...

  12. Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Langdon, Quinn K; Moriarty, Ryan V; Sylvester, Kayla; Bontrager, Martin; Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2016-07-01

    Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197) lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275) that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354) and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes.

  13. Complex Ancestries of Lager-Brewing Hybrids Were Shaped by Standing Variation in the Wild Yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lager-style beers constitute the vast majority of the beer market, and yet, the genetic origin of the yeast strains that brew them has been shrouded in mystery and controversy. Unlike ale-style beers, which are generally brewed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lagers are brewed at colder temperatures with allopolyploid hybrids of Saccharomyces eubayanus x S. cerevisiae. Since the discovery of S. eubayanus in 2011, additional strains have been isolated from South America, North America, Australasia, and Asia, but only interspecies hybrids have been isolated in Europe. Here, using genome sequence data, we examine the relationships of these wild S. eubayanus strains to each other and to domesticated lager strains. Our results support the existence of a relatively low-diversity (π = 0.00197 lineage of S. eubayanus whose distribution stretches across the Holarctic ecozone and includes wild isolates from Tibet, new wild isolates from North America, and the S. eubayanus parents of lager yeasts. This Holarctic lineage is closely related to a population with higher diversity (π = 0.00275 that has been found primarily in South America but includes some widely distributed isolates. A second diverse South American population (π = 0.00354 and two early-diverging Asian subspecies are more distantly related. We further show that no single wild strain from the Holarctic lineage is the sole closest relative of lager yeasts. Instead, different parts of the genome portray different phylogenetic signals and ancestry, likely due to outcrossing and incomplete lineage sorting. Indeed, standing genetic variation within this wild Holarctic lineage of S. eubayanus is responsible for genetic variation still segregating among modern lager-brewing hybrids. We conclude that the relationships among wild strains of S. eubayanus and their domesticated hybrids reflect complex biogeographical and genetic processes.

  14. The pat1 protein kinase controls transcription of the mating-type genes in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Egel, R; Nielsen, Olaf

    1990-01-01

    The developmental programme of fission yeast brings about a transition from mitotic cell division to the dormant state of ascospores. In response to nitrogen starvation, two cells of opposite mating type conjugate to form a diploid zygote, which then undergoes meiosis and sporulation. This differ......The developmental programme of fission yeast brings about a transition from mitotic cell division to the dormant state of ascospores. In response to nitrogen starvation, two cells of opposite mating type conjugate to form a diploid zygote, which then undergoes meiosis and sporulation...... entry into meiosis. We have analysed transcriptional induction of mating-type genes in various strains--with and without a pat1-ts allele. In wild-type cells of P-mating type derepression occurs in two rounds. First, the mat1-Pc gene is induced in response to nitrogen starvation. Mutants in the map1...... of the mating-type genes in the zygote leads to complete loss of pat1 protein kinase activity causing entry into meiosis. Thus, pat1 can promote its own inactivation. We suggest a model according to which a stepwise inactivation of pat1 leads to sequential derepression of the processes of conjugation...

  15. Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, M.; Heydorn, Arne; Ragas, Paula Cornelia

    2003-01-01

    Biofilm formation by Gfp-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants in flow chambers irrigated with citrate minimal medium was characterized by the use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and comstat image analysis. Flagella and type IV pili were not necessary...... for P. aeruginosa initial attachment or biofilm formation, but the cell appendages had roles in biofilm development, as wild type, flagella and type IV pili mutants formed biofilms with different structures. Dynamics and selection during biofilm formation were investigated by tagging the wild type...... and flagella/type IV mutants with Yfp and Cfp and performing time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy in mixed colour biofilms. The initial microcolony formation occurred by clonal growth, after which wild-type P. aeruginosa bacteria spread over the substratum by means of twitching motility. The wild-type...

  16. Cellulolytic activities of wild type fungi isolated from decayed wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Damaso, M. C. T., Terzi, S. D., Farias, X. A., de Oliveria, C. P., Fraga, M. E. and Couri, S. (2012). Selection of cellulolytic fungi isolated from diverse substrates. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol.55 (4): 513 – 520. Doolotkeldieva, T. D. and Bobusheva, S. T. (2011). Screening of wild type fungal isolates for cellulolytic activity. Microbiol.

  17. Antifungal susceptibility profile of diferent yeasts isolates from wild animals, cow’s milk with subclinical mastitis and hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Mendes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Yeast infections have acquired great importance due to increasing frequency in immunocompromised patients or patients undergoing invasive diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, and also because of its high morbidity and mortality. At the same time, it has been seen an increase in the emergence of new pathogenic species difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility of 89 yeasts from different sources against the antifungals amphotericin B, voriconazole, fluconazole and flucytosine, using the VITEK® 2 Compact system. The antifungal susceptibility was performed automatically by the Vitek® 2 Compact system. The origin of the yeasts was: Group 1 - microbiota of wild animals (W (26/89, 2 - cow’s milk with subclinical mastitis (M (27/89 and 3 - hospital enviorment (H (36/89. Of the 89 yeasts submitted to the Vitek® 2 test, 25 (20.9% were resistant to fluconazole, 11 (12.36% to amphotericin B, 3 (3.37% to voriconazole, and no sample was resistant to flucytosine. Regarding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, fluconazole showed an MIC between 1 and 64 mg/mL for the three groups, voriconazole had an MIC between 0.12 and 8 mg/mL, amphotericin B had an MIC between 0.25 and 4 mg/mL for group H and group W respectively, between 0.25 and 16 mg/mL for group M and flucytosine had an MIC equal to 1μg/mL for all groups. The yeasts isolated from the H group showed the highest resistance to fluconazole 12/89 (13.49%, followed by group W (7.87% and group M (5.62%. The more resistant group to voriconazole was followed by the M and H groups, the W group showed no resistance to this antifungal. Group H was the least resistant (2.25% to amphotericin.

  18. Detection and identification of wild yeasts in Champús, a fermented Colombian maize beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Cadavid, Esteban; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Tofalo, Rosanna; Paparella, Antonello; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the predominant yeasts in Champús, a traditional Colombian cereal-based beverage with a low alcoholic content. Samples of Champús from 20 production sites in the Cauca Valley region were analysed. A total of 235 yeast isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2. The dominant species were: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fermentans, Pichia kluyveri var. kluyveri, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Torulospora delbruekii, Galactomyces geotrichum and Hanseniaspora spp. Model Champús systems were inoculated with single strains of some isolated sporogenus species and the aromatic profiles were analysed by SPME. Analysis of data showed that Champús strains produced high amounts of esters. The aromatic compounds produced by Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts from Champús can exert a relevant influence on the sensory characteristics of the fermented beverage. The Champús strains could thus represent an important source for new yeast biotypes with potential industrial applications.

  19. The Role of Amplified Wild-Type Neu in the Etiology of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Many human breast cancers have amplified wild-type Neu (Her2) protooncogenes. It is still not known from either human or rodent models if amplified wild-type Neu is involved in the etiology of breast cancer...

  20. Anti-aging and anti-microbial effects of melleolide on various types of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Shigeru; Kobori, Hajime; Sekiya, Atsushi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The chronological lifespan (CLS) of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model for the aging of post-mitotic cells in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we found that the sesquiterpene aryl ester melleolide expands the CLS of budding yeast. In contrast, melleolide compromised the CLS of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This indicates that melleolide might have a potential anti-aging activity against some types of cell, and that it might be useful as a selective anti-fungal drug.

  1. Prion-Specific Antibodies Produced in Wild-Type Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Bergström, Ann-Louise; Andersen, Heidi Gertz

    2015-01-01

    method for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against peptides representing two sites of interest in the bovine prion protein (boPrP), the causative agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease (CJD) in humans, as well...... as a thorough characterization of their reactivity with a range of normal and pathogenic (misfolded) prion proteins. It is demonstrated that immunization of wild-type mice with ovalbumin-conjugated peptides formulated with Freund's adjuvant induces a good immune response, including high levels of specific anti...

  2. Candida albicans Als3p is required for wild-type biofilm formation on silicone elastomer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Daniels, Karla J; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Green, Clayton B; Yeater, Kathleen M; Soll, David R; Hoyer, Lois L

    2006-08-01

    Candida albicans ALS3 encodes a large cell-surface glycoprotein that has adhesive properties. Immunostaining of cultured C. albicans germ tubes showed that Als3p is distributed diffusely across the germ tube surface. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy of model catheter biofilms grown using a PALS3-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter strain showed GFP production in hyphae throughout the biofilm structure while biofilms grown using a PTPI1-GFP reporter strain showed GFP in both hyphae and yeast-form cells. Model catheter biofilms formed by an als3 Delta/als3 Delta strain were weakened structurally and had approximately half the biomass of a wild-type biofilm. Reintegration of a wild-type ALS3 allele restored biofilm mass and wild-type biofilm structure. Production of an Als3p-Ag alpha 1p fusion protein under control of the ALS3 promoter in the als3 Delta/als3 Delta strain restored some of the wild-type biofilm structural features, but not the wild-type biofilm mass. Despite its inability to restore wild-type biofilm mass, the Als3p-Ag alpha 1p fusion protein mediated adhesion of the als3 Delta/als3 Delta C. albicans strain to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs). The adhesive role of the Als3p N-terminal domain was further demonstrated by blocking adhesion of C. albicans to BECs with immunoglobulin reactive against the Als3p N-terminal sequences. Together, these data suggest that portions of Als3p that are important for biofilm formation may be different from those that are important in BEC adhesion, and that Als3p may have multiple functions in biofilm formation. Overexpression of ALS3 in an efg1 Delta/efg1 Delta strain that was deficient for filamentous growth and biofilm formation resulted in growth of elongated C. albicans cells, even under culture conditions that do not favour filamentation. In the catheter biofilm model, the ALS3 overexpression strain formed biofilm with a mass similar to that of a wild-type control. However, C. albicans cells in the

  3. Wild Grape-Associated Yeasts as Promising Biocontrol Agents against Vitis vinifera Fungal Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Cordero-Bueso; Nicola Mangieri; David Maghradze; Roberto Foschino; Federica Valdetara; Cantoral, Jesús M.; Ileana Vigentini

    2017-01-01

    The increasing level of hazardous residues in the environment and food chains has led the European Union to restrict the use of chemical fungicides. Thus, exploiting new natural antagonistic microorganisms against fungal diseases could serve the agricultural production to reduce pre- and post-harvest losses, to boost safer practices for workers and to protect the consumers' health. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the antagonistic potential of epiphytic yeasts against Botrytis cinere...

  4. Metabolite Profiling during Fermentation of Makgeolli by the Wild Yeast Strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Byung Hak; Bai, Dong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional Korean alcoholic beverage. The flavor of makgeolli is primarily determined by metabolic products such as free sugars, amino acids, organic acids, and aromatic compounds, which are produced during the fermentation of raw materials by molds and yeasts present in nuruk, a Korean fermentation starter. In this study, makgeolli was brewed using the wild yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5, and temporal changes in the metabolites during fermentation were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resultant data were analyzed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Various metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, sugar alcohols, small peptides, and nucleosides, were obviously altered by increasing the fermentation period. Changes in these metabolites allowed us to distinguish among makgeolli samples with different fermentation periods (1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 days) on a PLS-DA score plot. In the makgeolli brewed in this study, the amounts of tyrosine (463.13 µg/mL) and leucine (362.77 µg/mL) were high. Therefore, our results indicate that monitoring the changes in metabolites during makgeolli fermentation might be important for brewing makgeolli with good nutritional quality. PMID:25606007

  5. Adaptive divergence in wine yeasts and their wild relatives suggests a prominent role for introgressions and rapid evolution at noncoding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Pedro; Barbosa, Raquel; Bensasson, Douda; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2017-04-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main yeast in wine fermentation, the opportunity to examine divergence at the molecular level between a domesticated lineage and its wild counterpart arose recently due to the identification of the closest relatives of wine strains, a wild population associated with Mediterranean oaks. As genomic data are available for a considerable number of representatives belonging to both groups, we used population genomics to estimate the degree and distribution of nucleotide variation between wine yeasts and their closest wild relatives. We found widespread genomewide divergence, particularly at noncoding sites, which, together with above average divergence in trans-acting DNA binding proteins, may suggest an important role for divergence at the level of transcriptional regulation. Nine outlier regions putatively under strong divergent selection were highlighted by a genomewide scan under stringent conditions. Several cases of introgressions, originating in the sibling species Saccharomyces paradoxus, were also identified in the Mediterranean oak population. FZF1 and SSU1, mostly known for conferring sulphite resistance in wine yeasts, were among the introgressed genes, although not fixed. Because the introgressions detected in our study are not found in wine strains, we hypothesize that ongoing divergent ecological selection segregates the two forms between the different niches. Together, our results provide a first insight into the extent and kind of divergence between wine yeasts and their closest wild relatives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Distribution of yeast complexes in the profiles of different soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A. M.; Kachalkin, A. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    The number and taxonomic structure of the yeast complexes were investigated in the full profiles of the soddy-podzolic soil (Central Forest State Nature Biosphere Reserve), dark gray forest soil (Kaluzhskie Zaseki Reserve), and chernozem (Privolzhskaya Forest-Steppe Reserve). In all these soils, the number of yeasts was maximal (104 CFU/g) directly under the litter; it drastically decreased with the depth. However, at the depth of 120-160 cm, the number of yeasts significantly increased in all the soils; their maximum was found in the illuvial horizon of the soddy-podzolic soil. Such a statistically significant increase in the number of yeasts at a considerable depth was found for the first time. Different groups of yeasts were present in the yeast communities of different soils. The species structure of yeast communities changed little in each soil: the same species were isolated both from the soil surface and from the depth of more than 2 m. The results showed that yeasts could be used for soil bioindication on the basis of specific yeast complexes in the profiles of different soil types rather than individual indicative species.

  7. Individual distinctiveness in call types of wild western female gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Salmi

    Full Text Available Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo. Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized, suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication.

  8. Automatic Detection of Wild-type Mouse Cranial Sutures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.

    In the study of craniofacial malformations, the cranial sutures are often of interest. The premature fusion of sutures occurring in e.g. Crouzon and Apert syndrome can lead to asymmetric head shape, enlarged intracranial pressure and blindness. In large population studies of such syndromes......, automatic detection of the cranial sutures becomes important. We have previously built a craniofacial, wild-type mouse atlas from a set of 10 Micro CT scans using a B-spline-based nonrigid registration method by Rueckert et al. Subsequently, all volumes were registered nonrigidly to the atlas. Using...... these transformations, any annotation on the atlas can automatically be transformed back to all cases. For this study, two rounds of tracing seven of the cranial sutures, were performed on the atlas by one observer. The average of the two rounds was automatically propagated to all the cases. For validation...

  9. Molecular Targeted Therapy Approaches for BRAF Wild-Type Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnpulle, Romany A N; Johnson, Douglas B; Sosman, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic melanoma have historically had dismal outcomes. The last several years has seen the emergence of effective immune and targeted therapies for metastatic melanoma. Targeted therapies have primarily impacted the 40-50% of patients with BRAF(V600) mutated melanoma. The remainder of patients with advanced melanoma harbor a wide spectrum of mutations other than BRAF(V600) that are associated with unique pathophysiological, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. The treatment of this subset of patients is a challenging problem. In recent years, preclinical and early clinical studies have suggested that inhibitors of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and parallel signaling networks may have activity in treatment of BRAF(V600) wild-type (WT) melanoma. In this review, we will discuss available and developing therapies for BRAF WT patients with metastatic melanoma, particularly focusing on molecular targeted options for various genetically defined melanoma subsets.

  10. Analysis of the dynamics of relaxation type oscillation in glycolysis of yeast extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Das, J.; Busse, H G

    1991-01-01

    In yeasts, the glycolysis may display oscillations of its metabolites while it is converting glucose. The dynamics of the oscillations has been investigated in cytoplasmic extracts of yeast under relaxation type conditions by determining the time course of some of the glycolytic metabolites. The compounds of the nucleotide pool have been identified as fast variables and the glucose derivatives as slow variables of the relaxation type. The period of oscillation has been subdivided into four ph...

  11. Wild chimpanzees plan their breakfast time, type, and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmaat, Karline R L; Polansky, Leo; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-11-18

    Not all tropical fruits are equally desired by rainforest foragers and some fruit trees get depleted more quickly and carry fruit for shorter periods than others. We investigated whether a ripe-fruit specialist, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus), arrived earlier at breakfast sites with very ephemeral and highly sought-after fruit, like figs, than sites with less ephemeral fruit that can be more predictably obtained throughout the entire day. We recorded when and where five adult female chimpanzees spent the night and acquired food for a total of 275 full days during three fruit-scarce periods in a West African tropical rainforest. We found that chimpanzees left their sleeping nests earlier (often before sunrise when the forest is still dark) when breakfasting on very ephemeral fruits, especially when they were farther away. Moreover, the females positioned their sleeping nests more in the direction of the next day's breakfast sites with ephemeral fruit compared with breakfast sites with other fruit. By analyzing departure times and nest positioning as a function of fruit type and location, while controlling for more parsimonious explanations, such as temperature, we found evidence that wild chimpanzees flexibly plan their breakfast time, type, and location after weighing multiple disparate pieces of information. Our study reveals a cognitive mechanism by which large-brained primates can buffer the effects of seasonal declines in food availability and increased interspecific competition to facilitate first access to nutritious food. We discuss the implications for theories on hominoid brain-size evolution.

  12. Exobiopolymer from polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing transgenic yeast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the wild type yeast Kloeckera sp. strain KY1 was equipped in their cytoplasm with the phaABC operon containing genes phbA, phbB and phbC of the PHA biosynthetic pathway of Ralstonia eutropha. Unpredicted, resulted transgenic yeast strain KY1/PHA was able to synthesize another exopolymer beside the ...

  13. Yeast as a Heterologous Model System to Uncover Type III Effector Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Popa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Type III effectors (T3E are key virulence proteins that are injected by bacterial pathogens inside the cells of their host to subvert cellular processes and contribute to disease. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important heterologous system for the functional characterisation of T3E proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Importantly, yeast contains eukaryotic processes with low redundancy and are devoid of immunity mechanisms that counteract T3Es and mask their function. Expression in yeast of effectors from both plant and animal pathogens that perturb conserved cellular processes often resulted in robust phenotypes that were exploited to elucidate effector functions, biochemical properties, and host targets. The genetic tractability of yeast and its amenability for high-throughput functional studies contributed to the success of this system that, in recent years, has been used to study over 100 effectors. Here, we provide a critical view on this body of work and describe advantages and limitations inherent to the use of yeast in T3E research. "Favourite" targets of T3Es in yeast are cytoskeleton components and small GTPases of the Rho family. We describe how mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling, vesicle trafficking, membrane structures, and programmed cell death are also often altered by T3Es in yeast and how this reflects their function in the natural host. We describe how effector structure-function studies and analysis of candidate targeted processes or pathways can be carried out in yeast. We critically analyse technologies that have been used in yeast to assign biochemical functions to T3Es, including transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as suppressor, gain-of-function, or synthetic lethality screens. We also describe how yeast can be used to select for molecules that block T3E function in search of new antibacterial drugs with medical applications. Finally, we provide our opinion on the limitations

  14. Alcoholic fermentation by wild-type Hansenula polymorpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus recombinant strains with an elevated level of intracellular glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Kurylenko, Olena O; Sibirny, Vladimir A; Ubiyvovk, Vira M; Penninckx, Michel; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-11-01

    The ability of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of the thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha to produce ethanol during alcoholic fermentation of glucose was compared between wild-type strains and recombinant strains possessing an elevated level of intracellular glutathione (GSH) due to overexpression of the first gene of GSH biosynthesis, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, or of the central regulatory gene of sulfur metabolism, MET4. The analyzed strains of H. polymorpha with an elevated pool of intracellular GSH were found to accumulate almost twice as much ethanol as the wild-type strain during glucose fermentation, in contrast to GSH1-overexpressing S. cerevisiae strains, which also possessed an elevated pool of GSH. The ethanol tolerance of the GSH-overproducing strains was also determined. For this, the wild-type strain and transformants with an elevated GSH pool were compared for their viability upon exposure to exogenous ethanol. Unexpectedly, both S. cerevisiae and H. polymorpha transformants with a high GSH pool proved more sensitive to exogenous ethanol than the corresponding wild-type strains.

  15. EGFR gene copy number predicts response to anti-EGFR treatment in RAS wild type and RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ålgars, Annika; Sundström, Jari; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Jokilehto, Terhi; Kytölä, Soili; Kaare, Milja; Vainionpää, Reetta; Orpana, Arto; Österlund, Pia; Ristimäki, Ari; Carpen, Olli; Ristamäki, Raija

    2017-02-15

    Anti-EGFR antibodies are used for the treatment of RAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. We previously showed that EGFR gene copy number (GCN) predicts response to anti-EGFR therapy in KRAS exon 2 wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. The aim of our study was to analyse the predictive role of EGFR GCN in RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type metastatic colorectal cancer. The material included 102 patients with KRAS exon 2 wild type metastatic colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR ± cytotoxic therapy. Next generation sequencing was used for KRAS, NRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA gene mutation analyses. EGFR GCN was analysed by EGFR immunohistochemistry guided automated silver in situ hybridisation. Increased EGFR GCN (≥4.0) predicted a better response and prolonged progression free survival in anti-EGFR treated RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type patients (Log-rank test, p = 0.0004). In contrast, survival of RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wild type, EGFR GCN below 4.0 patients did not differ from patients with mutant RAS, BRAF or PIK3CA. Our study indicates that EGFR GCN predicts anti-EGFR treatment efficacy in patients with RAS/BRAF/PIK3CA wt metastatic CRC. Tumours with EGFR GCN below 4.0 appear to be as refractory to anti-EGFR treatment as tumours with mutation in any of the RAS/RAF/PIK3CA pathway genes. © 2016 UICC.

  16. Biosafety of Recombinant and Wild Type Nucleopolyhedroviruses as Bioinsecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Hammock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic Autographa californica (Speyer nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV has been genetically modified to increase its speed of kill. The potential adverse effects of a recombinant AcMNPV (AcAaIT as well as wild type AcMNPV and wild type Spodoptera littoralis NPV (SlNPV were studied. Cotton plants were treated with these viruses at concentrations that were adjusted to resemble the recommended field application rate (4 x 1012 PIBs/feddan, feddan = 4,200 m2 and 3rd instar larvae of S. littoralis were allowed to feed on the contaminated plants. SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and DNA analyses were used to confirm that larvae that fed on these plants were virus-infected. Polyhedra that were purified from the infected larvae were subjected to structural protein analysis. A 32 KDa protein was found in polyhedra that were isolated from all of the viruses. Subtle differences were found in the size and abundance of ODV proteins. Antisera against polyhedral proteins isolated from AcAaIT polyhedra were raised in rabbits. The terminal bleeds from rabbits were screened against four coating antigens (i.e., polyhedral proteins from AcAaIT, AcAaIT from field-infected larvae (AcAaIT-field, AcMNPV, and SlNPV using a two-dimensional titration method with the coated antigen format. Competitive inhibition experiments were conducted in parallel to optimize antibody and coating antigen concentrations for ELISA. The IC50 values for each combination ranged from 1.42 to 163 μg/ml. AcAaIT-derived polyhedrin gave the lowest IC50 value, followed by those of SlNPV, AcAaIT-field, and AcMNPV. The optimized ELISA system showed low cross reactivity for AcMNPV (0.87%, AcAaIT-field (1.2%, and SlNPV (4.0%. Genomic DNAs isolated from AcAaIT that were passaged in larvae of S. littoralis that were reared in the laboratory or field did not show any detectable differences. Albino rats (male and female that were treated with AcAaIT, AcMNPV or SlNPV (either orally or by intraperitoneal

  17. Wine yeast typing by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usbeck, Julia C; Wilde, Caroline; Bertrand, Dave; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2014-04-01

    For the production of wine, the most important industrially used yeast species is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Years of experience have shown that wine quality and property are significantly affected by the employed strain conducting the fermentation. Consequently, the ability of a strain level differentiation became an important requirement of modern winemaking. In our study, we showed that the differentiation by time-consuming and laborious biochemical and DNA-based methods to enable a constant beverage quality and characteristics can be replaced by matrix-assisted-laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), accompanied by the additional benefit of an application prediction. Mass fingerprints of 33 Saccharomyces strains, which are commonly used for varying wine fermentations, were generated by MALDI-TOF MS upon optimized sample preparation and instrument settings and analyzed by a cluster analysis for strain or ecotype-level differentiation. As a reference method, delta-PCR was chosen to study the genetic diversity of the employed strains. Finally, the cluster analyses of both methods were compared. It could be shown that MALDI-TOF MS, acting at proteome level, provides valuable information about the relationship between yeast strains and their application potential according to their MALDI mass fingerprint.

  18. A Ten-Week Biochemistry Lab Project Studying Wild-Type and Mutant Bacterial Alkaline Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, D. Scott

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a 10-week laboratory project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase, in which students purify, quantitate, and perform kinetic assays on wild-type and selected mutants of the enzyme. Students also perform plasmid DNA purification, digestion, and gel analysis. In addition to simply learning important…

  19. Activation Of Wild-Type Hras Suppresses The Earliest Stages Of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Weyandt

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Loss of wild-type Hras promotes the earliest stages of pancreatic tumorigenesis, and moreover results in more rapid progression of the disease. As such, mechanisms leading to activation of wild-type Ras proteins, including but not limited to redox-dependent reactions, may influence the development of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Cultivation of three types of indigenous wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The periods for spawn running, pinhead and fruit body formation, number of flushes, yield and biological efficiency of the three Tanzanian wild edible mushrooms, Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus flabellatus and Volvariella volvocea, grown on composted sisal decortications residue were studied. Results revealed that the ...

  1. Repression of a mating type cassette in the fission yeast by four DNA elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, K; Nielsen, O; Ruusala, T

    1991-01-01

    The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, expresses one of two alternative mating types. They are specified by one of two determinants (M or P) present at the mat1 locus. In addition, silent copies of M and P are present on the same chromosome. In the present work we demonstrate that the diff...... partitioning in mitosis to Schizosaccharomyces pombe ars plasmids....

  2. Identification and typing of the yeast strains isolated from bili bili, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy six yeast strains isolated form bili bili and others sample were identified and typed in purpose of selecting appropriate starter culture. Identification techniques included conventional phenetic method, PCR/RFLP of NTS2 rDNA region, partial sequencing of the D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA and karyotyping using ...

  3. Age-dependent arginine phosphokinase activity changes in male vestigial and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G T

    1975-01-01

    The activity of arginine phosphokinase, an important muscle enzyme in insects, was investigated with age in vestigial-winged and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Identical patterns of age-dependent activity changes were observed in the vestigial-winged flies as in the wild-type, even though vestigial-winged flies exhibit a 50% mortality approximately two thirds that of the wild-type as well as being incapable of flight. Results indicate that the age-dependent changes in arginine phosphokinase activity are intrinsically regulated within the cells of the flight muscle.

  4. Noncanonical DNA motifs as transactivation targets by wild type and mutant p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Jordan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequence-specific binding by the human p53 master regulator is critical to its tumor suppressor activity in response to environmental stresses. p53 binds as a tetramer to two decameric half-sites separated by 0-13 nucleotides (nt, originally defined by the consensus RRRCWWGYYY (n = 0-13 RRRCWWGYYY. To better understand the role of sequence, organization, and level of p53 on transactivation at target response elements (REs by wild type (WT and mutant p53, we deconstructed the functional p53 canonical consensus sequence using budding yeast and human cell systems. Contrary to early reports on binding in vitro, small increases in distance between decamer half-sites greatly reduces p53 transactivation, as demonstrated for the natural TIGER RE. This was confirmed with human cell extracts using a newly developed, semi-in vitro microsphere binding assay. These results contrast with the synergistic increase in transactivation from a pair of weak, full-site REs in the MDM2 promoter that are separated by an evolutionary conserved 17 bp spacer. Surprisingly, there can be substantial transactivation at noncanonical (1/2-(a single decamer and (3/4-sites, some of which were originally classified as biologically relevant canonical consensus sequences including PIDD and Apaf-1. p53 family members p63 and p73 yielded similar results. Efficient transactivation from noncanonical elements requires tetrameric p53, and the presence of the carboxy terminal, non-specific DNA binding domain enhanced transactivation from noncanonical sequences. Our findings demonstrate that RE sequence, organization, and level of p53 can strongly impact p53-mediated transactivation, thereby changing the view of what constitutes a functional p53 target. Importantly, inclusion of (1/2- and (3/4-site REs greatly expands the p53 master regulatory network.

  5. Effect of diluent type on viability of yeasts enumerated from foods or pure culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, M A; Fleet, G H; Hocking, A D

    1997-04-01

    The effects of seven diluent types on the viability of yeasts enumerated from foods and in pure culture were studied. The diluents were laboratory glass distilled water; saline water (0.85% NaCl), sodium phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.0), 0.1% peptone, 0.1% yeast extract, 0.1% peptone in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and 0.1% malt extract. For all foods studied, dilution in 0.1% peptone gave the highest counts, with saline and phosphate buffer diluents giving lower counts than those obtained with distilled water. When seven species of yeast were enumerated in pure culture, highest counts were obtained using 0.1% peptone as the diluent and, with three exceptions, all species gave higher counts when diluted in diluents other than distilled water. When yeast suspensions were held in diluents for up to 2 h before plating, cell death occurred. The extent of death was highest in distilled water, saline and phosphate buffer diluents. Cell death also occurred in 0.1% peptone, yeast extract and malt extract, but to a lesser degree.

  6. Lack of polymorphism at MC1R wild-type allele and evidence of domestic allele introgression across European wild boar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Vilaça, Sibelle T.; Iacolina, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Domestication promotes the emergence of novel phenotypic and behavioural traits in domesticated animals compared to their wild ancestors. We analysed variation at the melanocortin receptor I (MC1R) and nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 (NR6A1) genes in European wild boar populations...... of hybridization between wild and domestic forms. Most of the wild boars (94%) were homozygous for the European wild-type (E+) MC1R allele. We did not observe any synonymous substitution in the European E+ allele, confirming its monomorphism even in areas known to be hotspots of wild boar genetic diversity....... The remaining wild boars (6%) showed genetic introgression of three different European domestic alleles. No Asian MC1R allele was found in our sample. Furthermore, domestic NR6A1 alleles were observed in 6% of wild boars. Considering jointly the two loci analyzed, 11% of boars, sampled all over Europe, showed...

  7. Calorimetric and spectroscopic investigations of the thermal denaturation of wild type nitrite reductase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirpe, A; Guzzi, R; Wijma, H; Verbeet, MP; Canters, GW; Sportelli, L

    2005-01-01

    Nitrite reductase (NiR) is a multicopper protein, with a trimeric structure containing two types of copper site: type I is present in each subunit whereas type 2 is localized at the subunits interface. The paper reports on the thermal behaviour of wild type NiR from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6. The

  8. Comparative analysis of hyoscine in wild-type and in vitro grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of hyoscine in wild-type and in vitro grown Datura innoxia by high performance liquid chromatography. Sidra Siddiqui, Anam Khurshid, Sohaib Roomi, Fazeelat Karamat, Asrar Muhammad Khan, Humaira Shaheen, Tayyaba Yasmin ...

  9. Comparison of gene expression between wild type and FUL1/2 knockdown tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, M.; Karlova, R.B.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2012-01-01

    We compared gene expression by microarray analysis between wild type and transgenic sibling progeny from two primary transgenic lines containing a construct for knocking down expression of both tomato fruitfull orthologs, FUL1/TDR4 and FUL2/MBP7.

  10. Relationship of actin and tubulin distribution to bud growth in wild- type and morphogenetic-mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of actin in wild-type cells and in morphogenetic mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was explored by staining cells with fluorochrome-labeled phallotoxins after fixing and permeabilizing the cells by several methods. The actin appeared to be localized in a set of cortical spots or patches, as well as in a network of cytoplasmic fibers. Bundles of filaments that may possibly correspond to the fibers visualized by fluorescence were observed with the electron microscope. The putative actin spots were concentrated in small and medium-sized buds and at what were apparently the sites of incipient bud formation on unbudded cells, whereas the putative actin fibers were generally oriented along the long axes of the mother-bud pairs. In several morphogenetic mutants that form multiple, abnormally elongated buds, the actin patches were conspicuously clustered at the tips of most buds, and actin fibers were clearly oriented along the long axes of the buds. There was a strong correlation between the occurrence of active growth at particular bud tips and clustering of actin spots at those same tips. Near the end of the cell cycle in wild- type cells, actin appeared to concentrate (as a cluster of spots or a band) in the neck region connecting the mother cell to its bud. Observations made using indirect immunofluorescence with a monoclonal anti-yeast-tubulin antibody on the morphogenetic mutant cdc4 (which forms multiple, abnormally elongated buds while the nuclear cycle is arrested) revealed the surprising occurrence of multiple bundles of cytoplasmic microtubules emanating from the one duplicated spindle-pole body per cell. It seems that most or all of the buds contain one or more of these bundles of microtubules, which often can be seen to extend to the very tips of the buds. These observations are consistent with the hypotheses that actin, tubulin, or both may be involved in the polarization of growth and localization of cell-wall deposition

  11. Effect of dietary selenium yeast supplementation on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infections in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the protective role of dietary selenium (Se yeast supplementation in porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 infected mice. Forty-eight Kun Ming female mice were randomly assigned to Se yeast group (0.3%Se +basal diet, n = 24 and control group (basal diet, n = 24. After 3 days of adaptive feeding and 15 days treatment with the experimental feed, mice were challenged by intraperitioneal injection of PCV2 at the dosage of 2000 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infection dose, TCID50. Serum total superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β levels were measured at 5, 10, 15, 20 days post infection (dpi. The PCV2 virus load in the liver, spleen and lung, and the microscopic lesions in the liver, spleen and lung also were determined on 5, 10, 15, and 20 dpi. Dietary Se yeast supplementation decreased (Pμ0.05 the serum levels of TNF-α, but had no significant effect on the activity of SOD and the levels of MDA, CRP and IL-1β between experimental and control groups. Dietary Se yeast supplementation had little effect on the PCV2 virus load in the liver, spleen and lung. However, mice in the selenium yeast group showed a significant decrease in microscopic lesion scores in the lung and spleen compared with those in the control group (Pμ0.05. These data indicate Se yeast attenuated the PCV2 infection through altering the systemic inflammation and maintaining the normal organ morphology.

  12. [Yeast-like fungi in the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Beata; Kawko, Małgorzata; Zorena, Katarzyna; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the frequency of fungal infections in human populations has increased considerably. The most common type offungus attacking the human organism is Candida albicans. Yeast-like fungi occur naturally in the oral cavity, intestines, vagina, or skin, however in amounts not dangerous to human health. The studies so far have shown that patients with diabetes type 1 (T1DM) to a large degree are exposed to complications related to fungal infections. A substantial growth of fungi observed in diabetic patients may unfavorably affect metabolic compensation, and lead to increased demand for insulin, as well as to the difficult to cure symptom infections. The weaker the immune resistance in patients with diabetes, the greater the risk of ailments related to candidiasis. The article contains a review of recent literature regarding the problems related to occurrence of yeast-like fungi in digestive tract of children with diabetes type 1. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  13. Fission yeast mating-type switching: programmed damage and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    only affects a single strand, which can be sealed by gap repair in situ, whether or not it serves as an imprint for subsequent switching of mating type from an appropriate donor cassette. Recent papers have linked the transient stalling of a replication fork to the generation of a site-specific nick....... This discontinuity then remains protected for a full cell cycle, until it interferes with replication in the next S-phase. It, thereby, represents a valuable model system to study the molecular safeguards to protect a replication fork at a predetermined hindrance to leading-strand extension. The versatility...

  14. Detection by PCR of wild-type canine parvovirus which contaminates dog vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, M; Parrish, C R; Harasawa, R; Gamoh, K; Muramatsu, M; Hirayama, N; Itoh, O

    1995-01-01

    A method for detecting wild-type canine parvovirus (CPV) strains which contaminate vaccines for dogs has been developed by PCR. PCR primers which distinguish vaccine strains from the most common, recent strains of wild-type CPV in many countries, including Japan and the United States, were developed. This PCR is based on the differences in nucleotide sequences which determine the two antigenic types of this virus. CPV vaccine strains derived from antigenically old-type virus prevalent in former times were not detected by PCR with differential primers. Detection sensitivity of PCR was 100- to 10,000-fold higher than that of the culture method in Crandell feline kidney cells.

  15. Outbreak of type C botulism in captive wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo, Djeison L; Von Hohendorf, Raquel; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Both, Maria C; Sonne, Luciana; Assis, Ronnie A; Caldas, Rogerio P; Driemeier, David

    2012-06-01

    In late summer 2010, an outbreak of type C botulism affected the birds kept in a dam at a southern Brazilian zoo. A total of 14(10 black-necked swans, Cygnus melancoryphus; 3 Muscovy ducks, Cairina moschata; and 1 fulvous whistling-duck, Dendrocygna bicolor) out of 100 birds died after showing flaccid paralysis of the skeletal muscles characterized by general locomotion deficit, flight and swimming disorders, dropped neck, and severe dyspnea. Carcasses of dead birds (some infested by larvae of sarcophagus fly) scattered in the bird enclosure, and oxygen-free, organically rich mud and/or shallow standing waters present at the edges of the weir were identified as possible toxin sources. Postmortem examinations revealed no significant pathological changes. Epidemiologic and clinical findings indicated the diagnosis of type C botulism toxin, which was confirmed by mouse bioassay and seroneutralization.

  16. Diversity of yeast and mold species from a variety of cheese types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjara, Nabaraj; Suhr, Mallory J; Hallen-Adams, Heather E

    2015-06-01

    To generate a comprehensive profile of viable fungi (yeasts and molds) on cheese as it is purchased by consumers, 44 types of cheese were obtained from a local grocery store from 1 to 4 times each (depending on availability) and sampled. Pure cultures were obtained and identified by DNA sequence of the ITS region, as well as growth characteristics and colony morphology. The yeast Debaryomyces hansenii was the most abundant fungus, present in 79 % of all cheeses and 63 % of all samples. Penicillium roqueforti was the most common mold, isolated from a variety of cheeses in addition to the blue cheeses. Eighteen other fungal species were isolated, ten from only one sample each. Most fungi isolated have been documented from dairy products; a few raise potential food safety concerns (i.e. Aspergillus flavus, isolated from a single sample and capable of producing aflatoxins; and Candida parapsilosis, an emerging human pathogen isolated from three cheeses). With the exception of D. hansenii (present in most cheese) and P. roqueforti (a necessary component of blue cheese), no strong correlation was observed between cheese type, manufacturer, or sampling time with the yeast or mold species composition.

  17. Molecular typing of wine yeast strains Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masneuf-Pomarède, I; Le Jeune, C; Durrens, P; Lollier, M; Aigle, M; Dubourdieu, D

    2007-01-01

    The Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum yeasts are associated with spontaneous fermentation of must. Some strains were shown to be enological yeasts of interest in different winemaking processes. The molecular typing of S. bayanus var. uvarum at the strain level has become significant for wine microbiologists. Four microsatellite loci were defined from the exploration of genomic DNA sequence of S. bayanus var. uvarum. The 40 strains studied were homozygote for the locus considered. The discriminating capacity of the microsatellite method was found to be equal to that of karyotypes analysis. Links between 37 indigenous strains with the same geographic origin could be established through the analysis of microsatellite patterns. The analysis of microsatellite polymorphism is a reliable method for wine S. bayanus var. uvarum strains and their hybrids with Saccharomyces cerevisiae identification in taxonomic, ecological studies and winemaking applications.

  18. MALDI-TOF MS typing enables the classification of brewing yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces to major beer styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Alexander; Usbeck, Julia C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-01-01

    Brewing yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces are either available from yeast distributor centers or from breweries employing their own "in-house strains". During the last years, the classification and characterization of yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces was achieved by using biochemical and DNA-based methods. The current lack of fast, cost-effective and simple methods to classify brewing yeasts to a beer type, may be closed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) upon establishment of a database based on sub-proteome spectra from reference strains of brewing yeasts. In this study an extendable "brewing yeast" spectra database was established including 52 brewing yeast strains of the most important types of bottom- and top-fermenting strains as well as beer-spoiling S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains. 1560 single spectra, prepared with a standardized sample preparation method, were finally compared against the established database and investigated by bioinformatic analyses for similarities and distinctions. A 100% separation between bottom-, top-fermenting and S. cerevisiae var. diastaticus strains was achieved. Differentiation between Alt and Kölsch strains was not achieved because of the high similarity of their protein patterns. Whereas the Ale strains show a high degree of dissimilarity with regard to their sub-proteome. These results were supported by MDS and DAPC analysis of all recorded spectra. Within five clusters of beer types that were distinguished, and the wheat beer (WB) cluster has a clear separation from other groups. With the establishment of this MALDI-TOF MS spectra database proof of concept is provided of the discriminatory power of this technique to classify brewing yeasts into different major beer types in a rapid, easy way, and focus brewing trails accordingly. It can be extended to yeasts for specialty beer types and other applications including wine making or baking.

  19. Bevacizumab with chemotherapy in patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer: Czech registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubáčková, Kateřina; Bortlíček, Zbyněk; Pikus, Tomáš; Linke, Zdeněk; Pokorná, Petra; Vyzula, Rostislav; Prausová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective analysis investigated the effectiveness of combination therapy with bevacizumab and chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer in the CORECT registry who initiated treatment with bevacizumab between 2008 and 2012 were enrolled. Overall survival and progression-free survival were the main effectiveness end points. A total of 981 patients were enrolled. Median progression-free survival was 11.3 months (95% CI: 10.7-11.8) and median overall survival was 28.4 months (95% CI: 26.2-30.6). The most common adverse events were thromboembolic disease (4%) and hypertension (3.5%). This retrospective analysis shows the effectiveness of bevacizumab with chemotherapy in patients with KRAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.

  20. Adult IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas should be further stratified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibaidula, Abudumijit; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Shi, Zhifeng; Li, Yanxi; Zhang, Ruiqi; Yang, Rui; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yao, Yu; Zhou, Liangfu; Wu, Jinsong; Chen, Hong; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2017-10-01

    Astrocytoma of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) wild-type gene is described as a provisional entity within the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Some groups believe that IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas, when interrogated for other biomarkers, will mostly turn out to be glioblastoma. We hypothesize that not all IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas have very poor outcomes and the group could be substratified prognostically. Seven hundred and eighteen adult WHO grades II and III patients with gliomas from our hospitals were re-reviewed and tested for IDH1/2 mutations. One hundred and sixty-six patients with IDH wild-type cases were identified for further studies, and EGFR and MYB amplifications, mutations of histone H3F3A, TERT promoter (TERTp), and BRAF were examined. EGFR amplification, BRAF, and H3F3A mutations were observed in 13.8%, 6.9%, and 9.5% of patients, respectively, in a mutually exclusive pattern in IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas. TERTp mutations were detected in 26.8% of cases. Favorable outcome was observed in patients with young age, oligodendroglial phenotype, and grade II histology. Independent adverse prognostic values of older age, nontotal resection, grade III histology, EGFR amplification, and H3F3A mutation were confirmed by multivariable analysis. Tumors were further classified into "molecularly" high grade (harboring EGFR, H3F3A, or TERTp) (median overall survival = 1.23 y) and lower grade (lacking all of the 3) (median overall survival = 7.63 y) with independent prognostic relevance. The most favorable survival was noted in molecularly lower-grade gliomas with MYB amplification. Adult IDH wild-type lower-grade gliomas are prognostically heterogeneous and do not have uniformly poor prognosis. Clinical information and additional markers, including MYB, EGFR, TERTp, and H3F3A, should be examined to delineate discrete favorable and unfavorable prognostic groups.

  1. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Azhar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  2. Characterization of kinetic parameters and the formation of volatile compounds during the tequila fermentation by wild yeasts isolated from agave juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Melchor; Pelayo, Carlos; Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2008-08-01

    The production of aroma compounds during tequila fermentation using four native yeast strains isolated from agave juice was quantified at controlled (35 degrees C) and uncontrolled temperatures (room temperature) by gas chromatography (FID). Three of the four strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTLI 1, MALI 1 and MGLI 1) and one as Kloeckera apiculata (MALI 2). Among the aroma compounds produced, acetaldehyde has the highest accumulation at the controlled temperature and before 50% of sugar was consumed. The S. cerevisiae strains produced ethyl acetate in almost the same quantity at a concentration of 5 mg/L and the K. apiculata produced six-times more (30 mg/L) than the S. cerevisiae strains, independent of the fermentation temperature. The rate and amount of 1-propanol, amyl alcohols and isobutanol production were affected by the type of yeast used. The K. apiculate strain produced 50% less of the higher alcohols than the Saccharomyces strains. The results obtained showed that indigenous isolated yeasts play an important role in the tequila flavor and suggest that mixtures of these yeasts may be used to produce tequila with a unique and desirable aroma.

  3. Correlation among phenotypical and molecular techniques in comparing ascomycetous yeast type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Raffaele; Corte, Laura; Lattanzi, Monia; Martini, Alessandro; Fatichenti, Fabrizio; Cardinali, Gianluigi

    2005-01-01

    Different phenotypical or molecular techniques can be used to describe and classify microorganisms for taxonomic, phylogenetic or genetic purposes. In yeast taxonomy the official hierarchic classification, based on morphological and physiological characters, is used together with more convenient molecular techniques such as the DNA sequencing. The question on whether these procedures produce coherent classifications is critical both to interpret taxonomic data consistently and to outline species correctly. In this paper, a set of type strains from the major genera of the budding hemiascomycetes yeast is examined with a series of physiological and molecular techniques, widely employed in taxonomy, in order to compare the among-strains correlations obtained with different methods. Results showed that the level of correlation among different techniques is relatively low, showing that different classifications and species organization could be obtained with diverse approaches. This is particularly interesting, considering that the official description of the yeast species is based on characters different from those becoming increasingly popular in the routine identification.

  4. Restoration of membrane excitability in a behavioral mutant of Paramecium caudatum during conjugation and by microinjection of wild- type cytoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    When cells of the behavioral mutant cnrC of Paramecium caudatum were mated with the wild type, phenotype change from CNR (no backward swinning) to wild type in the cnrC mate occurred immediately after the formation of tight pairs. No change of phenotype occurred when cells of cnrA or cnrB were mated with wild type. Phenotypic change from CNR to wild type in cells of cnrC was also induced by microinjection of wild- type cytoplasm. Microinjection of wild-type cytoplasm induced no change in cells of cnrA or cnrB. Phenotypic change in the cnrC mate during conjugation can be explained by cytoplasmic exchange during conjugation, though transfer of membrane sites for excitability through membrane fluidity cannot be ruled out. PMID:7380886

  5. Comparative expression of wild-type and highly soluble mutant His103Leu of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashipour, Mohammad; Fukuta, Yasuhisa; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2011-05-01

    Low protein solubility and inclusion body formation represent big challenges in production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. We have recently reported functional expression of hydroxynitrile lyase from Manihot esculenta, MeHNL, in E. coli with high in vivo solubility and activity using directed evolution. As a part of attempts to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, we have described the possibility of expression of the highly active and soluble mutant MeHNL-His103Leu as well as wild-type enzyme in several expression systems. Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, protozoan host Leishmania tarentolae and two cell-free translations, including an E. coli lysate (WakoPURE system) and wheat germ translation system were used to compare expression profiles of the genes. Two distinguishable protein expression patterns were observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic-based systems. The wild-type and mutant enzyme showed high activity for both genes (up to 10 U/ml) in eukaryotic hosts P. pastoris and L. tarentolae, while those of E. coli exhibited about 1 and 15 U/ml, respectively. The different activity level in prokaryotic systems but the same level among the eukaryotic hosts indicate the phenomenon is specific to the E. coli system. Both the wild-type and mutant enzymes were functionally expressed in eukaryotic systems, probably using the folding assistants such as chaperones. Properties of expression systems used in this study were precisely compared, too. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Horizontal and vertical transmission of wild-type and recombinant Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, M.; Sun, X.; Sun, X.C.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.; Werf, van der W.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission plays a central role in the ecology of baculoviruses and the population dynamics of their hosts. Here, we report on the horizontal and vertical transmission dynamics of wild-type Helicoverpa armigera single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV-WT) and a genetically modified variant

  7. Liver steatosis study_PFAA treated Wild type and PPAR KO mouse data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data set 1 consists of the experimental data for the Wild Type and PPAR KO animal study and includes data used to prepare Figures 1-4 and Table 1 of the Das et al,...

  8. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yixin; Xu, Songtao; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Mao, Naiying; Jiang, Xiaohong; Ma, Chao; Lu, Peishan; Wang, Changyin; Liang, Yong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Yang; Dai, Defang; Zheng, Lei; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Zhenying; Wu, Shengwei; Nan, Lijuan; Li, Li; Liang, Xiaofeng; Featherstone, David Alexander; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Xu, Wenbo

    2010-05-25

    Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet) from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.

  9. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lijuan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.

  10. Incidence of arrhythmias and heart rate variability in wild-type rats exposed to social stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, A; De Boer, SF; Westenbroek, C; Maes, FW; Beldhuis, H; Suzuki, T; Koolhaas, JM; Maes, Frans W.

    1997-01-01

    Psychological stressors of different natures can induce different shies of autonomic control on cardiac electrical activity, with either a sympathetic or a parasympathetic prevalence. Arrhythmia occurrence, R-R interval variability, and plasma catecholamine elevations were measured in male wild-type

  11. Pathological Roles of Wild-Type Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Furukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in a Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 gene cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. While it remains controversial how SOD1 mutations lead to onset and progression of the disease, many in vitro and in vivo studies have supported a gain-of-toxicity mechanism where pathogenic mutations contribute to destabilizing a native structure of SOD1 and thus facilitate misfolding and aggregation. Indeed, abnormal accumulation of SOD1-positive inclusions in spinal motor neurons is a pathological hallmark in SOD1-related familial ALS. Furthermore, similarities in clinical phenotypes and neuropathology of ALS cases with and without mutations in sod1 gene have implied a disease mechanism involving SOD1 common to all ALS cases. Although pathogenic roles of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS remain controversial, recent developments of novel SOD1 antibodies have made it possible to characterize wild-type SOD1 under pathological conditions of ALS. Here, I have briefly reviewed recent progress on biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS cases and discussed possible involvement of wild-type SOD1 in a pathomechanism of ALS.

  12. A diacidic motif determines unconventional secretion of wild-type and ALS-linked mutant SOD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, David; Brouwers, Nathalie; Duran, Juan M; Mora, Gabriel; Curwin, Amy J; Malhotra, Vivek

    2017-08-09

    The nutrient starvation-specific unconventional secretion of Acb1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires ESCRT-I, -II, and -III and Grh1. In this study, we report that another signal sequence lacking cytoplasmic protein, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and its mutant form linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is also secreted by yeast upon nutrient starvation in a Grh1- and ESCRT-I-, -II-, and -III-dependent process. Our analyses reveal that a conserved diacidic motif (Asp-Glu) in these proteins is necessary for their export. Importantly, secretion of wild-type human SOD1 and the ALS-linked mutant in human cells also require the diacidic residues. Altogether, these findings reveal information encoded within the cytoplasmic proteins required for their unconventional secretion and provide a means to unravel the significance of the cytoplasmic versus the secreted form of mutant SOD1 in the pathology of ALS. We also propose how cells, based on a signal-induced change in cytoplasmic physiology, select a small pool of a subset of cytoplasmic proteins for unconventional secretion. © 2017 Cruz-Garcia et al.

  13. Effect of uremia on HDL composition, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild-type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian A; Bro, Susanne; Bartels, Emil D

    2007-01-01

    Wild-type mice normally do not develop atherosclerosis, unless fed cholic acid. Uremia is proinflammatory and increases atherosclerosis 6- to 10-fold in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This study examined the effect of uremia on lipoproteins, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild-ty...... in cholic acid-fed sham mice. The results suggest that moderate uremia neither induces aortic inflammation nor atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice despite increased LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and altered HDL composition.......Wild-type mice normally do not develop atherosclerosis, unless fed cholic acid. Uremia is proinflammatory and increases atherosclerosis 6- to 10-fold in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This study examined the effect of uremia on lipoproteins, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild....... In NX mice fed the Western-type diet (n = 7), the total plasma cholesterol concentration was similar to that in sham mice (n = 11), but on gel filtration the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was increased. HDL from NX mice contained more serum amyloid A and triglycerides and less cholesterol than HDL from sham...

  14. Status of wild birds in Bulgarian zoos with regard to orthomyxovirus and paramyxovirus type 1 infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Manvell, Ruth J; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V

    2010-03-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV) are pathogens of major economic and social importance, and the diseases they cause are often devastating, particularly in domestic poultry. Both viruses are naturally found in a wide variety of wild birds, particularly aquatic species, where asymptomatic infection typically occurs. Wild birds are therefore considered to be a natural reservoir for both viruses. Wild birds kept in captivity are in an environment that promotes transmission of infection with both influenza and Newcastle disease viruses. This report describes a survey for the detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease and avian influenza A viruses using the hemagglutination inhibition test in samples from 88 wild birds from 38 species in four Bulgarian zoos. Samples with positive results against NDV were also tested against avian paramyxovirus type 3 (APMV-3). Real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR was also performed to detect viral RNA of NDV and AIV among 127 wild birds from 57 species from the same zoos. In 13 samples from seven avian species (ten birds from the family Phasianidae, two from the family Numidae, and one from the family Columbidae), antibodies against APMV-1 were detected. Seven birds, whose sera were APMV-1 positive, had been vaccinated. The other six birds (five Phasianidae representatives and one of the Columbidae family) had no immunization history. No antibodies against both H5 and H7 AIV and against APMV-3 were detected, and no RNA of NDV and AIV were detected.

  15. The wild type as concept and in experimental practice: A history of its role in classical genetics and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tarquin

    2017-06-01

    Wild types in genetics are specialised strains of laboratory experimental organism which principally serve as standards against which variation is measured. As selectively inbred lineages highly isolated from ancestral wild populations, there appears to be little wild or typical about them. I will nonetheless argue that they have historically been successfully used as stand-ins for nature, allowing knowledge produced in the laboratory to be extrapolated to the natural world. In this paper, I will explore the 19th century origins of the wild type concept, the theoretical and experimental innovations which allowed concepts and organisms to move from wild nature to laboratory domestication c. 1900 (resulting in the production of standardised lab strains), and the conflict among early geneticists between interactionist and atomist accounts of wild type, which would eventually lead to the conceptual disintegration of wild types and the triumph of genocentrism and population genetics. I conclude by discussing how the strategy of using wild type strains to represent nature in the lab has nonetheless survived the downfall of the wild type concept and continues to provide, significant limitations acknowledged, an epistemically productive means of investigating heredity and evolutionary variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasticity of TRPM1 expression and localization in the wild type and degenerating mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križaj, David; Huang, Wei; Furukawa, Takahisa; Punzo, Claudio; Xing, Wei

    2010-11-23

    The light response in retinal ON bipolar cells is associated with disinhibition of current flow through cation channels recently identified as type 1 members of the melastatin transient receptor potential (TRPM) family. We determined the developmental expression of Trpm1 in the wild type C57BL/6, DBA/2J, DBA2J-Gpnmb mouse retinas and in Pde6brd1 retinas characterized by degeneration of rod photoreceptors. Trpm1 mRNA in wild type retinas was low at birth but exhibited progressive increases in abundance up to early adulthood at postnatal day 21 (P21). Retinal Trpm1 mRNA content did not decrease following loss of photoreceptors. At P21, TRPM1-immunopositive perikarya migrated into the outer nuclear layer. The TRPM1 protein was trafficked to discrete postsynaptic puncta in wild type retinas whereas in adult Pde6brd1 mouse retinas, TRPM1 translocated to bipolar perikarya and bar-like structures in the distal inner nuclear layer. These findings show that expression and localization of the TRPM1 in the mouse retina is plastic, modulated by use-dependence and availability of sustained excitatory input. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration distributions in bacteria of animal origin in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia L Pantozzi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of indicator bacteria isolated from domestic animal feces. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by agar dilution. Interpretative criteria on the basis of wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF or ECV were used according to the 'European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing' (EUCAST data. Results from 237 isolates of Escherichia coli showed reduced susceptibility for ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, the antimicrobials commonly used in intensive breeding of pigs and hens. Regarding all the species of the genus Enterococcus spp., there are only ECOFF or ECV for vancomycin. Of the 173 Enterococcus spp. isolated, only one showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and was classified as 'non-wild-type' (NWT population. This is the first report in Argentina showing data of epidemiological cutoff values in animal bacteria.

  18. Isolation and Translation of Hordein Messenger RNA from Wild Type and Mutant Endosperms in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Anders Bøving; Ingwersen, J.

    1978-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences of four cDNA clones coding for the carboxy-terminal portion of at least two different B1 hordein polypeptides are presented. The open reading frame in the nucleotide sequence of the the largest clone (pc hor2-4, 720 nucleotides) translates into the 181 carboxy-terminal amino.......30 megadaltons. The 11S messenger RNA was translated in vitro into hordein precursor polypeptides which are 2–4 kilodaltons larger than the native hordein polypeptides. The endosperm cell of mutant No. 1508 contained twice as much RNA as the wild type endosperm cell but the same amount of polyadenylated 11S RNA....... The template activity of the latter was 10% of that found for the 11S hordein messenger RNA from the wild type and was limited to translation into one hordein precursor polypeptide....

  19. A ten-week biochemistry lab project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, D Scott

    2016-11-12

    This work describes a 10-week laboratory project studying wild-type and mutant bacterial alkaline phosphatase, in which students purify, quantitate, and perform kinetic assays on wild-type and selected mutants of the enzyme. Students also perform plasmid DNA purification, digestion, and gel analysis. In addition to simply learning important techniques, students acquire novel biochemical data in their kinetic analysis of mutant enzymes. The experiments are designed to build on students' work from week to week in a way that requires them to apply quantitative analysis and reasoning skills, reinforcing traditional textbook biochemical concepts. Students are assessed through lab reports focused on journal style writing, quantitative and conceptual question sheets, and traditional exams. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(6):555-564, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Molecular Dynamics Approach in the Comparison of Wild-Type and Mutant Paraoxonase-1 Apoenzyme Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khadija; Miri, Lamia; Naimi, Adil; Saile, Rachid; El Kharrim, Abderrahmane; Mikou, Afaf; Kettani, Anass

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence linking the mammalian paraoxonase-1 (PON1) loops (L1 and L2) to an increased flexibility and reactivity of its active site with potential substrates. The aim of this work is to study the structural, dynamical, and functional effects of the most flexible regions close to the active site and to determine the impact of mutations on the protein. For both models, wild-type (PON1wild) and PON1 mutant (PON1mut) models, the L1 loop and Q/R and L/M mutations were constructed using MODELLER software. Molecular dynamics simulations of 20 ns at 300 K on fully modeled PON1wild and PON1mut apoenzyme have been done. Detailed analyses of the root-mean-square deviation and fluctuations, H-bonding pattern, and torsion angles have been performed. The PON1wild results were then compared with those obtained for the PON1mut. Our results show that the active site in the wild-type structure is characterized by two distinct movements of opened and closed conformations of the L1 and L2 loops. The alternating and repetitive movement of loops at specific times is consistent with the presence of 11 defined hydrogen bonds. In the PON1mut, these open-closed movements are therefore totally influenced and repressed by the Q/R and L/M mutations. In fact, these mutations seem to impact the PON1mut active site by directly reducing the catalytic core flexibility, while maintaining a significant mobility of the switch regions delineated by the loops surrounding the active site. The impact of the studied mutations on structure and dynamics proprieties of the protein may subsequently contribute to the loss of both flexibility and activity of the PON1 enzyme.

  1. Prions in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Bezdíčka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes yeast prions and their biological effects on yeast in general. It defines the basic characteristics of yeast prions, that distinguish prions from other proteins. The thesis introduces various possibilities of prion formation, and propagation as well as specific types of yeast prions, including various functions of most studied types of prions. The thesis also focuses on chaperones that affect the state of yeast prions in cells. Lastly, the thesis indicates similarities be...

  2. Sperm morphogenesis in wild-type and fertilization-defective mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Taking advantage of conditions that allow spermatogenesis in vitro, the timing and sequence of morphological changes leading from the primary spermatocyte to the spermatozoon is described by light and electron microscopy. Together with previous studies, this allows a detailed description of the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane changes occurring during spermatozoan morphogenesis. By comparison with wild type, abnormalities in spermatogenesis leading to aberrant infertile spermatozoa are foun...

  3. An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Rotunno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s of sporadic ALS, which accounts for approximately 90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and sporadic ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein to be one such factor that is common to both sporadic and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a toxic conformation that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem sporadic ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to sporadic ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and sporadic ALS.

  4. Wild-type Measles Virus in Brain Tissue of Children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Paola Roxana; Grippo, Jorge; Viegas, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    We studied eight children who had measles at 6 to 10 months of age during the 1998 Argentine measles outbreak and in whom subacute sclerosing panencephalitis developed 4 years later. We report the genetic characterization of brain tissue–associated measles virus samples from three patients. Phylogenetic relationships clustered these viruses with the wild-type D6 genotype isolated during the 1998 outbreak. The children received measles vaccine; however, vaccinal strains were not found. PMID:14609476

  5. Unequal allelic expression of wild-type and mutated β-myosin in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Snigdha; Schultz, Imke; Becker, Edgar; Montag, Judith; Borchert, Bianca; Francino, Antonio; Navarro-Lopez, Francisco; Perrot, Andreas; Özcelik, Cemil; Osterziel, Karl-Josef; McKenna, William J; Brenner, Bernhard; Kraft, Theresia

    2011-11-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is an autosomal dominant disease, which in about 30% of the patients is caused by missense mutations in one allele of the β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) gene (MYH7). To address potential molecular mechanisms underlying the family-specific prognosis, we determined the relative expression of mutant versus wild-type MYH7-mRNA. We found a hitherto unknown mutation-dependent unequal expression of mutant to wild-type MYH7-mRNA, which is paralleled by similar unequal expression of β-MHC at the protein level. Relative abundance of mutated versus wild-type MYH7-mRNA was determined by a specific restriction digest approach and by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Fourteen samples from M. soleus and myocardium of 12 genotyped and clinically well-characterized FHC patients were analyzed. The fraction of mutated MYH7-mRNA in five patients with mutation R723G averaged to 66 and 68% of total MYH7-mRNA in soleus and myocardium, respectively. For mutations I736T, R719W and V606M, fractions of mutated MYH7-mRNA in M. soleus were 39, 57 and 29%, respectively. For all mutations, unequal abundance was similar at the protein level. Importantly, fractions of mutated transcripts were comparable among siblings, in younger relatives and unrelated carriers of the same mutation. Hence, the extent of unequal expression of mutated versus wild-type transcript and protein is characteristic for each mutation, implying cis-acting regulatory mechanisms. Bioinformatics suggest mRNA stability or splicing effectors to be affected by certain mutations. Intriguingly, we observed a correlation between disease expression and fraction of mutated mRNA and protein. This strongly suggests that mutation-specific allelic imbalance represents a new pathogenic factor for FHC.

  6. Metabolism and tissue distribution of sulforaphane in Nrf2 knockout and wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John D; Hsu, Anna; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H; Stevens, Jan F; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Ho, Emily

    2011-12-01

    To determine the metabolism and tissue distribution of the dietary chemoprotective agent sulforaphane following oral administration to wild-type and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice. Male and female wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice were given sulforaphane (5 or 20 μmoles) by oral gavage; plasma, liver, kidney, small intestine, colon, lung, brain and prostate were collected at 2, 6 and 24 h (h). The five major metabolites of sulforaphane were measured in tissues by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Sulforaphane metabolites were detected in all tissues at 2 and 6 h post gavage, with the highest concentrations in the small intestine, prostate, kidney and lung. A dose-dependent increase in sulforaphane concentrations was observed in all tissues except prostate. At 5 μmole, Nrf2(-/-) genotype had no effect on sulforaphane metabolism. Only Nrf2(-/-) females given 20 μmoles sulforaphane for 6 h exhibited a marked increase in tissue sulforaphane metabolite concentrations. The relative abundance of each metabolite was not strikingly different between genders and genotypes. Sulforaphane is metabolized and reaches target tissues in wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice. These data provide further evidence that sulforaphane is bioavailable and may be an effective dietary chemoprevention agent for several tissue sites.

  7. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  8. The genomic termini of wild-type and vaccine strains of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Bankamp, Bettina; Xu, Wenbo; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2006-12-01

    The genomic termini from 18 strains of measles virus (MV) including wild-type MVs from the pre-vaccine period, recent wild-type isolates and various vaccine strains were sequenced. The first 25 nucleotides of the 3' terminus and last 52 nucleotides of the 5' terminus were conserved in all of the viruses examined. Nucleotides 26 and 42 of the 3' leader were A and G, respectively, in all genotype A viruses except Edmonston wild-type (Ed-WT). All non-genotype A viruses and Ed-WT had U in both positions. No consistent substitution pattern was found in the 5' trailer region of the genome. The nucleotide substitutions at positions 26 and 42 in the 3' leader region were introduced into a MV-CAT mini-genome to test for their effect on the production of reporter protein in both a vaccinia T7-driven, plasmid-based replication assay as well as in a helper virus system. Regardless of the source of the polymerase proteins or the natural leader sequence of the helper viruses, the mini-genome 26A42G produced more CAT protein than 26U42U. The nucleotide substitution at 26 had the greatest effect on CAT production. These results indicated that naturally occurring nucleotide variations in the 3' leader region can affect the levels of reporter protein synthesis, and presumably affected the level of replication of the virus.

  9. Complex Links between Natural Tuberculosis and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Infection in Wild Boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iratxe Díez-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals in natural populations are exposed to a diversity of pathogens which results in coinfections. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between natural infection with tuberculosis (TB due to infection by bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 in free-ranging Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa. Apparent prevalence for TB lesions and PCV2 infection was extremely high in all age classes, including piglets (51% for TB; 85.7% for PCV2. Modeling results revealed that the relative risk of young (less than 2 years old wild boar to test positive to PCV2 PCR was negatively associated with TB lesion presence. Also, an interaction between TB, PCV2, and body condition was evidenced: in wild boar with TB lesions probability of being PCV2 PCR positive increased with body condition, whereas this relation was negative for wild boar without TB lesions. This study provides insight into the coinfections occurring in free-ranging host populations that are naturally exposed to several pathogens at an early age. Using TB and PCV2 as a case study, we showed that coinfection is a frequent event among natural populations that takes place early in life with complex effects on the infections and the hosts.

  10. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey, E-mail: carey.pope@okstate.edu

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  11. Specific populations of the yeast Geotrichum candidum revealed by molecular typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Noémie; Mallet, Sandrine; Laaghouiti, Fatima; Tinsley, Colin R; Casaregola, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Geotrichum candidum is a ubiquitous yeast and an essential component in the production of many soft cheeses. We developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme with five retained loci (NUP116, URA1, URA3, SAPT4 and PLB3) which were sufficiently divergent to distinguish 40 sequence types (STs) among the 67 G. candidum strains tested. Phylogenetic analyses defined five main clades; one clade was restricted to environmental isolates, three other clades included distinct environmental isolates and dairy strains, while the fifth clade comprised 34 strains (13 STs), among which all but two were isolated from milk, cheese or the dairy environment. These findings suggest an adaptation to the dairy ecosystems by a group of specialized European G. candidum strains. In addition, we developed a polymerase chain reaction inter-long terminal repeat scheme, a fast and reproducible random amplification of polymorphic DNA-like method for G. candidum, to type the closely related dairy strains, which could not be distinguished by MLST. Overall, our findings distinguished two types of dairy strains, one forming a homogeneous group with little genetic diversity, and the other more closely related to environmental isolates. Neither regional nor cheese specificity was observed in the dairy G. candidum strains analysed. This present study sheds light on the genetic diversity of both dairy and environmental strains of G. candidum and thus extends previous characterizations that have focused on the cheese isolates of this species. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Stimulus control by 5methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized mice

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, J. C.; Amorosi, D. J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The t...

  13. Retention of browning compounds by yeasts involved in the winemaking of sherry type wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merida, Julieta; Lopez-Toledano, Azahara; Marquez, Trinidad; Millan, Carmen; Ortega, Jose M; Medina, Manuel

    2005-10-01

    Wine model solutions were used to study the ability of dehydrated yeasts to retain the brown products formed in the reaction between (+)-catechin and acetaldehyde. Saccharomyces cerevisiae races capensis and bayanus, two typical flor yeasts involved in the biological aging of sherry wines, had a higher capacity to retain coloured compounds than S. cerevisiae fermentative yeast. Of the flor yeasts, capensis exhibited a higher colour reduction capacity than bayanus. Such differences may account for the different rate at which browning compounds are removed at different times of year during the biological aging of wines.

  14. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L) showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW), width of funicles (WFN), seed width (SW) and seed height (SH) were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ) or an abscission-less zone (ALZ) forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def) controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat. PMID:22078070

  15. Growth, seed development and genetic analysis in wild type and Def mutant of Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayeh Kwadwo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The def mutant pea (Pisum sativum L showed non-abscission of seeds from the funicule. Here we present data on seed development and growth pattern and their relationship in predicting this particular trait in wild type and mutant lines as well as the inheritance pattern of the def allele in F2 and F3 populations. Findings Pod length and seed fresh weight increase with fruit maturity and this may affect the abscission event in pea seeds. However, the seed position in either the distal and proximal ends of the pod did not show any difference. The growth factors of seed fresh weight (FW, width of funicles (WFN, seed width (SW and seed height (SH were highly correlated and their relationships were determined in both wild type and def mutant peas. The coefficient of determination R2 values for the relationship between WFN and FW, SW and SH and their various interactions were higher for the def dwarf type. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that variation of WFN was associated with SH and SW. Pearson's chi square analysis revealed that the inheritance and segregation of the Def locus in 3:1 ratio was significant in two F2 populations. Structural analysis of the F3 population was used to confirm the inheritance status of the Def locus in F2 heterozygote plants. Conclusions This study investigated the inheritance of the presence or absence of the Def allele, controlling the presence of an abscission zone (AZ or an abscission-less zone (ALZ forming in wild type and mutant lines respectively. The single major gene (Def controlling this phenotype was monogenic and def mutants were characterized and controlled by the homozygous recessive def allele that showed no palisade layers in the hilum region of the seed coat.

  16. Transcription of two long noncoding RNAs mediates mating-type control of gametogenesis in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Werven, Folkert J; Neuert, Gregor; Hendrick, Natalie; Lardenois, Aurélie; Buratowski, Stephen; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Primig, Michael; Amon, Angelika

    2012-09-14

    The cell-fate decision leading to gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction. In S. cerevisiae, only diploid MATa/α but not haploid MATa or MATα cells undergo gametogenesis, known as sporulation. We find that transcription of two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) mediates mating-type control of sporulation. In MATa or MATα haploids, expression of IME1, the central inducer of gametogenesis, is inhibited in cis by transcription of the lncRNA IRT1, located in the IME1 promoter. IRT1 transcription recruits the Set2 histone methyltransferase and the Set3 histone deacetylase complex to establish repressive chromatin at the IME1 promoter. Inhibiting expression of IRT1 and an antisense transcript that antagonizes the expression of the meiotic regulator IME4 allows cells expressing the haploid mating type to sporulate with kinetics that are indistinguishable from that of MATa/α diploids. Conversely, expression of the two lncRNAs abolishes sporulation in MATa/α diploids. Thus, transcription of two lncRNAs governs mating-type control of gametogenesis in yeast. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification, Isolation, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Clostridium perfringens Type A and Type C from Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa ) in the People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Lingwei; Wang, Haifeng; Zhao, Na; Luo, Jing; Wang, Chengmin; Wang, Yutian; Liu, Yanhua; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Bikai; Guo, Huancheng; He, Hongxuan

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that can induces gas gangrene or enteritis in poultry and humans and many other mammalian species. Here, we report an outbreak of C. perfringens type A and type C coinfection in wild boars ( Sus scrofa ). In February 2016, 10 dead wild boars, including two fresh carcasses, were found in Zhaosu County, Xinjiang Province, People's Republic of China. The two fresh carcasses were included in this study. Two strains of C. perfringens were isolated, identified, genotyped, and phylogenetically analyzed. Based on postmortem examination, bacterium isolation and identification, enterotoxin detection, and auxiliary tests, we made a diagnosis that the wild boar were killed by C. perfringens . Our findings provide the evidence that wild boar can be killed by C. perfringens intoxication. Wild boars are important reservoirs for many zoonotic agents. Therefore, more actions should be taken on the surveillance, prevention, and control of wild pig-borne diseases.

  18. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 infections in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in southwestern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Ralf; Ritzmann, Mathias; Palzer, Andreas; Lang, Christiane; Hammer, Birgit; Pesch, Stefan; Ladinig, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Samples were collected from 203 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in Baden-Wurtemburg, Germany from November-January 2008 and 2009. Samples from the lung and tonsil were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) type 1 (European type) and type 2 (American type). A qPCR to detect porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-specific genome was performed on tissue homogenates including lung, tonsils, and inguinal lymph nodes. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRSV and PCV2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No PRRSV was detected in any of the 203 samples and one sample had detectable antibodies against PRRSV. We detected PCV2 in organ materials from 103 wild boars with a prevalence of 50.7%. The number of wild boars positive for PCV2 by PCR varied according to the population density of wild boars among woodlands. More positive samples were detected in woodlands with a high density of wild boars. We found no correlation between the number of PCV2-positive wild boars and the density of domestic pigs in the surrounding area. The number of wild boars positive for antibodies against PCV2 by the INGEZIM Circovirus IgG/IgM test kit was low (53 sera positive for IgG- and three sera positive for IgM-antibodies) in comparison to the higher positive results from the INGEZIM CIRCO IgG test kit (102 positive and 12 inconclusive results).

  19. Wnt activation by wild type and mutant myocilin in cultured human trabecular meshwork cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Shen

    Full Text Available Myocilin is a gene linked to the most prevalent form of glaucoma, a major blinding disease. The trabecular meshwork (TM, a specialized eye tissue, is believed to be involved, at least in part, in the development of glaucoma. The Pro³⁷⁰ to Leu (P370L mutation of myocilin is associated with severe glaucoma phenotypes and Gln³⁶⁸ stop (Q368X is the most common myocilin mutation reported. Myocilin, upon overexpression, has been shown to induce phenotypes that include a loss of actin stress fibers, an increase in the cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA activity, as well as a reduction in the RhoA activity. We examined herein whether Wnt signaling pathway is involved in the myocilin phenotypes and whether P370L and Q368X mutants also display biological effects similar to those of the wild type myocilin.Wild type myocilin, when transfected into cultured human TM cells, induced a loss of actin stress fibers as judged by phalloidin staining. Such a loss was averted by treatment of secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling. Consistent with the notion that Wnt pathway mediates the myocilin phenotype, Wnt activation was demonstrated by TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assays. Treatment of human TM cells of a Wnt activator, SB216763, as well as transfection of myocilin P370L and Q368X mutants all resulted in actin stress fiber loss, PKA activation and RhoA inactivation. The PKA elevation was obviated by the sFRP1 treatment, indicating that Wnt signaling was upstream that of PKA.The present study demonstrated that following forced expression of wild type myocilin, Wnt was activated, triggering in turn other myocilin-related alterations. P370L and Q368X mutations induced similar phenotypes, suggesting one possible mechanism how the mutants may lead to TM cell damage and pathology.

  20. Wild-type measles viruses with non-standard genome lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Liu, Chunyu; Rivailler, Pierre; Bera, Jayati; Shrivastava, Susmita; Kirkness, Ewen F; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    The length of the single stranded, negative sense RNA genome of measles virus (MeV) is highly conserved at 15,894 nucleotides (nt). MeVs can be grouped into 24 genotypes based on the highly variable 450 nucleotides coding for the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N-450). Here, we report the genomic sequences of 2 wild-type viral isolates of genotype D4 with genome lengths of 15,900 nt. Both genomes had a 7 nt insertion in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the matrix (M) gene and a 1 nt deletion in the 5' UTR of the fusion (F) gene. The net gain of 6 nt complies with the rule-of-six required for replication competency of the genomes of morbilliviruses. The insertions and deletion (indels) were confirmed in a patient sample that was the source of one of the viral isolates. The positions of the indels were identical in both viral isolates, even though epidemiological data and the 3 nt differences in N-450 between the two genomes suggested that the viruses represented separate chains of transmission. Identical indels were found in the M-F intergenic regions of 14 additional genotype D4 viral isolates that were imported into the US during 2007-2010. Viral isolates with and without indels produced plaques of similar size and replicated efficiently in A549/hSLAM and Vero/hSLAM cells. This is the first report of wild-type MeVs with genome lengths other than 15,894 nt and demonstrates that the length of the M-F UTR of wild-type MeVs is flexible.

  1. Wild-type measles viruses with non-standard genome lengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Bankamp

    Full Text Available The length of the single stranded, negative sense RNA genome of measles virus (MeV is highly conserved at 15,894 nucleotides (nt. MeVs can be grouped into 24 genotypes based on the highly variable 450 nucleotides coding for the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N-450. Here, we report the genomic sequences of 2 wild-type viral isolates of genotype D4 with genome lengths of 15,900 nt. Both genomes had a 7 nt insertion in the 3' untranslated region (UTR of the matrix (M gene and a 1 nt deletion in the 5' UTR of the fusion (F gene. The net gain of 6 nt complies with the rule-of-six required for replication competency of the genomes of morbilliviruses. The insertions and deletion (indels were confirmed in a patient sample that was the source of one of the viral isolates. The positions of the indels were identical in both viral isolates, even though epidemiological data and the 3 nt differences in N-450 between the two genomes suggested that the viruses represented separate chains of transmission. Identical indels were found in the M-F intergenic regions of 14 additional genotype D4 viral isolates that were imported into the US during 2007-2010. Viral isolates with and without indels produced plaques of similar size and replicated efficiently in A549/hSLAM and Vero/hSLAM cells. This is the first report of wild-type MeVs with genome lengths other than 15,894 nt and demonstrates that the length of the M-F UTR of wild-type MeVs is flexible.

  2. Types of cell death and methods of their detection in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wloch-Salamon, D.M.; Bem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of programmed cell death in unicellular organisms is a subject that arouses great interest of theoreticians and experimental scientists. Already found evolutionarily conserved genes and metabolic pathways confirmed its existence in yeast, protozoa and even bacteria. In the yeast

  3. Evidence for allosteric variants of wild-type p53, a tumour suppressor protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, A.; Milner, J.

    1990-01-01

    A tumour suppressor function for p53 is indicated in human lung cancer and in carcinoma of the colorectum. Loss of suppressor function, by mutation of the p53 gene, is associated with activation of p53 as an oncogene. The suppressor (wild type) and oncogenic (mutant) forms of the murine p53 protein are distinguishable at the molecular level by reactivity with anti-p53 monoclonal antibodies. For example, activated mutant p53 fails to react with PAb246 (p53-246 degrees). We now demonstrate that...

  4. Lung Cancer Onset in Wild Type Mice Following Bone Marrow Reconstitution with krasv12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Elena; Martin Padura, Ines; Gerbino, Elvira; Orecchioni, Stefania; Fusar Imperatore, Fulvia; Marighetti, Paola; Bertalot, Giovanni; Giuseppe Pelicci, Pier; Bertolini, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A role for bone-marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) in tissue repair and malignancy onset has been proposed, but their contribution is still debated. We tested the ability of BMDCs containing the inducible krasV12 oncogene to initiate lung adenocarcinoma. For our experimental strategy, we reconstituted lethally irradiated wild type mice with BMDCs carrying inducible krasV12 and subsequently induced oncogene expression by 4-OHT administration. Epithelial lung lesions, from adenoma to adenocarcinomas, appeared at successive time points. These results show that lung tumors were derived from donor BMDCs and indicate a direct involvement of bone marrow cells in the development of epithelial cancers. PMID:26267334

  5. Crystal Structure of Wild-Type Centrin 1 from Mus musculus Occupied by Ca2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Da Som; Hong, Joo Eun; Park, Jung Hee

    2017-10-01

    Mus musculus centrin 1 (MmCen1) is located at the cilium of photoreceptor cells connecting the outer segment through signal transduction components to the metabolically active inner segment. In the cilium, MmCen1 is involved in the translocation of transducin between compartments as a result of photoreceptor activation. In this study, we report the crystal structure of wild-type MmCen1 and its Ca2+-binding properties using structure-based mutagenesis. The crystal structure exhibits three structural features, i.e. four Ca2+ equally occupied at each EF-hand motif, structural changes accompanying helix motion at the N- and C-lobes, and adoption of N-C type dimerization when Ca2+ binds to EF-hand I and II in the N-lobe. The presence of MmCen1 dimers was confirmed in solution by native PAGE. Isothermal titration calorimetry data showed sequential binding of Ca2+ at four independent sites. Mutations S45A and D49A in EF-hand I alone disrupted the Ca2+-binding property of the wild-type protein. Based on the crystal structure of MmCen1, we suggest that a dimerization mode between the N- and C-lobes may be required by Ca2+ binding at the N-lobe.

  6. In Vitro Root Development in Arabidopsis Thaliana Wild-Type and scr Mutants under Clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.; Sarnatska, V. V.; Talalaiev, A. S.; Ovcharenko, Y. V.

    2008-06-01

    A task of our experiments was to study in vitro rhizogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and scr mutants under slow horizontal clinorotation as a convenient model to clear up a question, whether root morphogenesis de novo will occur normally in simulated microgravity. Two methods for obtaining A. thaliana roots in vitro were used: 1) from the primary callus of leaf origin and 2) directly from leaf explants. Light and electron microscopy and RT-PCR were used for an analysis of the experimental materials. Graviperceptive cells differentiated in roots formed de novo from callus and leaf explants of wild type and scr mutants but did not function under clinorotation. Tissue and cell type patterning in a root proper as well as gene expression in all variants in the control and under clinorotation were similar that gives new evidence on normal morphogenesis in altered gravity. We proposed such model for performing the experiments on board the ISS to study morphogenesis in vitro, including differentiation of graviperceptive cells.

  7. Restoration of Wild-Type Activity to Mutant p53 in Prostate Cancer: A Novel Therapeutic Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manfredi, James

    2006-01-01

    A summary is presented of research performed during the first year of a project to determine feasibility of approaches to restore wild-type transcriptional activity on mutant p53 proteins found in human prostate tumors...

  8. Restoration of Wild-Type Activity to Mutant p53 in Prostate Cancer: A Novel Therapeutic Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manfredi, James J

    2008-01-01

    A summary is presented of research performed during three years of a project to determine feasibility of approaches to restore wild-type transcriptional activity on mutant p53 proteins found in human prostate tumors...

  9. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L, semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic

  10. Activity of polymerase proteins of vaccine and wild-type measles virus strains in a minigenome replication assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Kearney, Sean P; Liu, Xin; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2002-07-01

    The relative activities of five measles virus (MV) polymerase (L) proteins were compared in an intracellular, plasmid-based replication assay. When coexpressed with N and P proteins from an attenuated strain, L proteins from two attenuated viruses directed the production of up to eight times more reporter protein from an MV minigenome than the three wild-type L proteins. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the differences in reporter protein production correlated with mRNA transcription levels. Increased activity of polymerases from attenuated viruses equally affected mRNA transcription and minigenome replication. The higher level of transcription may be a consequence of increased template availability or may be an independent effect of the elevated activity of the attenuated polymerases. Coexpression of wild-type L proteins with homologous N and P proteins did not affect the activity of the wild-type polymerases, indicating that the differential activity was a function of the L proteins alone. Use of a minigenome that incorporated two nucleotide changes found in the genomic leader of the three wild-type viruses did not raise the activity of the wild-type L proteins. These data demonstrate that increased polymerase activity differentiates attenuated from wild-type viruses and suggest that functions involved in RNA synthesis contribute to the attenuated phenotype of MV vaccine strains.

  11. Inhibition of HIV type 1 infectivity by coexpression of a wild-type and a defective glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Losman, B; Schønning, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    -fold. When the same ratio of plasmids was tested in COS-1 cells the inhibition of HIV-1 was an order of magnitude less than observed in 293 cells. COS-1 and 293 cells differed in that only 293 cells displayed saturation of virus production with respect to the envelope protein. Our data fit a simple......An amino acid substitution (D --> K) in the C3 region of HIV-1 gp120 has previously been shown to inhibit binding of virions to CD4+ cells. We have introduced the same mutation into the HIV-1 isolate LAV-I(BRU), in which the mutation is denoted D373K. Here we show that the D373K envelope protein...... is processed and incorporated into virus particles, but that D373K virions have no detectable infectivity (below 0.1% relative to wild type). When D373K and the wild-type envelope gene were cotransfected in 293 cells at a 4:1 ratio, the resultant infectivity of the HIV-1 supernatant was reduced more than 100...

  12. Inhibition of HIV type 1 infectivity by coexpression of a wild-type and a defective glycoprotein 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, O S; Losman, B; Schønning, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    An amino acid substitution (D --> K) in the C3 region of HIV-1 gp120 has previously been shown to inhibit binding of virions to CD4+ cells. We have introduced the same mutation into the HIV-1 isolate LAV-I(BRU), in which the mutation is denoted D373K. Here we show that the D373K envelope protein......-fold. When the same ratio of plasmids was tested in COS-1 cells the inhibition of HIV-1 was an order of magnitude less than observed in 293 cells. COS-1 and 293 cells differed in that only 293 cells displayed saturation of virus production with respect to the envelope protein. Our data fit a simple...... is processed and incorporated into virus particles, but that D373K virions have no detectable infectivity (below 0.1% relative to wild type). When D373K and the wild-type envelope gene were cotransfected in 293 cells at a 4:1 ratio, the resultant infectivity of the HIV-1 supernatant was reduced more than 100...

  13. Wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration distributions in bacteria of animal origin in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantozzi, Florencia L; Ibar, Mariela P; Nievas, Victorio F; Vigo, Germán B; Moredo, Fabiana A; Giacoboni, Gabriela I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of indicator bacteria isolated from domestic animal feces. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar dilution. Interpretative criteria on the basis of wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF or ECV) were used according to the 'European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing' (EUCAST) data. Results from 237 isolates of Escherichia coli showed reduced susceptibility for ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, the antimicrobials commonly used in intensive breeding of pigs and hens. Regarding all the species of the genus Enterococcus spp., there are only ECOFF or ECV for vancomycin. Of the 173 Enterococcus spp. isolated, only one showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and was classified as 'non-wild-type' (NWT) population. This is the first report in Argentina showing data of epidemiological cutoff values in animal bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of the wild type atomic flexibility in the HIV-1 protease double mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conto, Valderes; Braz, Antônio S K; Perahia, David; Scott, Luis P B

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of drug resistant mutations due to the selective pressure exerted by antiretrovirals, including protease inhibitors (PIs), remains a major problem in the treatment of AIDS. During PIs therapy, the occurrence of primary mutations in the wild type HIV-1 protease reduces both the affinity for the inhibitors and the viral replicative capacity compared to the wild type (WT) protein, but additional mutations compensate for this reduced viral fitness. To investigate this phenomenon from the structural point of view, we combined Molecular Dynamics and Normal Mode Analysis to analyze and compare the variations of the flexibility of C-alpha atoms and the differences in hydrogen bond (h-bond) network between the WT and double mutants. In most cases, the flexibility profile of the double mutants was more often similar to that of the WT than to that of the related single base mutants. All single mutants showed a significant alteration in h-bond formation compared to WT. Most of the significant changes occur in the border between the flap and cantilever regions. We found that all the considered double mutants have their h-bond pattern significantly altered in comparison to the respective single base mutants affecting their flexibility profile that becomes more similar to that of WT. This WT flexibility restoration in the double mutants appears as an important factor for the HIV-1 fitness recovery observed in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential gene expression between wild-type and Gulo-deficient mice supplied with vitamin C

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    Yan Jiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that hepatic vitamin C (VC levels in VC deficient mice rescued with high doses of VC supplements still do not reach the optimal levels present in wild-type mice. For this, we used a mouse scurvy model (sfx in which the L-gulonolactone oxidase gene (Gulo is deleted. Six age- (6 weeks old and gender- (female matched wild-type (WT and sfx mice (rescued by administering 500 mg of VC/L were used as the control (WT and treatment (MT groups (n = 3 for each group, respectively. Total hepatic RNA was used in triplicate microarray assays for each group. EDGE software was used to identify differentially expressed genes and transcriptomic analysis was used to assess the potential genetic regulation of Gulo gene expression. Hepatic VC concentrations in MT mice were significantly lower than in WT mice, even though there were no morphological differences between the two groups. In MT mice, 269 differentially expressed transcripts were detected (> twice the difference between MT and WT mice, including 107 up-regulated and 162 down-regulated genes. These differentially expressed genes included stress-related and exclusively/predominantly hepatocyte genes. Transcriptomic analysis identified a major locus on chromosome 18 that regulates Gulo expression. Since three relevant oxidative genes are located within the critical region of this locus we suspect that they are involved in the down-regulation of oxidative activity in sfx mice.

  16. Spatial encoding in spinal sensorimotor circuits differs in different wild type mice strains

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    Schouenborg Jens

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in the rat have shown that the spatial organisation of the receptive fields of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR system are functionally adapted through experience dependent mechanisms, termed somatosensory imprinting, during postnatal development. Here we wanted to clarify 1 if mice exhibit a similar spatial encoding of sensory input to NWR as previously found in the rat and 2 if mice strains with a poor learning capacity in various behavioural tests, associated with deficient long term potention, also exhibit poor adaptation of NWR. The organisation of the NWR system in two adult wild type mouse strains with normal long term potentiation (LTP in hippocampus and two adult wild type mouse strains exhibiting deficiencies in corresponding LTP were used and compared to previous results in the rat. Receptive fields of reflexes in single hindlimb muscles were mapped with CO2 laser heat pulses. Results While the spatial organisation of the nociceptive receptive fields in mice with normal LTP were very similar to those in rats, the LTP impaired strains exhibited receptive fields of NWRs with aberrant sensitivity distributions. However, no difference was found in NWR thresholds or onset C-fibre latencies suggesting that the mechanisms determining general reflex sensitivity and somatosensory imprinting are different. Conclusion Our results thus confirm that sensory encoding in mice and rat NWR is similar, provided that mice strains with a good learning capability are studied and raise the possibility that LTP like mechanisms are involved in somatosensory imprinting.

  17. In vitro permissivity of bovine cells for wild-type and vaccinal myxoma virus strains

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    Foucras Gilles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myxoma virus (MYXV, a leporide-specific poxvirus, represents an attractive candidate for the generation of safe, non-replicative vaccine vector for non-host species. However, there is very little information concerning infection of non-laboratory animals species cells with MYXV. In this study, we investigated interactions between bovine cells and respectively a wild type strain (T1 and a vaccinal strain (SG33 of MYXV. We showed that bovine KOP-R, BT and MDBK cell lines do not support MYXV production. Electron microscopy observations of BT-infected cells revealed the low efficiency of viral entry and the production of defective virions. In addition, infection of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC occurred at a very low level, even following non-specific activation, and was always abortive. We did not observe significant differences between the wild type strain and the vaccinal strain of MYXV, indicating that SG33 could be used for new bovine vaccination strategies.

  18. The effects of wild-type and mutant SOD1 on smooth muscle contraction

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    Nikolić-Kokić Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we compared the mutated liver copper zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein G93A of the transgenic rat model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS, to wild-type (WT rat SOD1. We examined their enzymatic activities and effects on isometric contractions of uteri of healthy virgin rats. G93A SOD1 showed a slightly higher activity than WT SOD1 and, in contrast to WT SOD1, G93A SOD1 did not induce smooth muscle relaxation. This result indicates that effects on smooth muscles are not related to SOD1 enzyme activity and suggest that heterodimers of G93A SOD1 form an ion-conducting pore that diminishes the relaxatory effects of SOD1. We propose that this type of pathogenic feedback affects neurons in FALS. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173014 i br. 175083

  19. Comparative Quantitative Studies on the Microvasculature of the Heart of a Highly Selected Meat-Type and a Wild-Type Turkey Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Masri, Salah; Kattanek, Maria; Richardson, Kenneth C; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed; Plendl, Johanna; Hünigen, Hana

    2017-01-01

    In this study the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the heart of a fast growing, meat-type turkey line (British United turkeys BUT Big 6) and a wild-type turkey line (Canadian Wild turkey) were compared. At 8 and 16 weeks of age, 10 birds of each genotype and sex were sampled. The body mass and heart mass of the meat-type turkey both increased at a faster rate than those of the wild-type turkey. However in both turkey lines, the relative heart mass decreased slightly with age, the decrease was statistically significant only in the male turkeys. Furthermore meat-type turkeys had a significantly (p meat-type turkeys. The number of capillaries in the left ventricular wall increased significantly (p meat-type turkeys there were no significant changes, capillary numbers being 2989 per mm2 at age 8 weeks and 2915 per mm2 at age 16 weeks. Correspondingly the area occupied by capillaries in the myocardium increased in wild-type turkeys from 8.59% at the age of 8 weeks to 9.15% at 16 weeks, whereas in meat-type turkeys this area decreased from 10.4% at 8 weeks to 9.95% at 16 weeks. Our results indicate a mismatch in development between body mass and heart mass and a compromised cardiac capillary density and architecture in the meat-type turkeys in comparison to the wild-type turkeys.

  20. Studying Coxiella burnetii Type IV Substrates in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Focus on Subcellular Localization and Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escudero, María; Cid, Víctor J; Molina, María; Schulze-Luehrmann, Jan; Lührmann, Anja; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate parasitic bacterium that causes the disease Q-fever in humans. To establish its intracellular niche, it utilizes the Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to inject protein effectors into the host cell cytoplasm. The host targets of most cognate and candidate T4BSS-translocated effectors remain obscure. We used the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to express and study six C. burnetii effectors, namely AnkA, AnkB, AnkF, CBU0077, CaeA and CaeB, in search for clues about their role in C. burnetii virulence. When ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, these effectors displayed distinct subcellular localizations. Accordingly, GFP fusions of these proteins produced in yeast also decorated distinct compartments, and most of them altered cell growth. CaeA was ubiquitinated both in yeast and mammalian cells and, in S. cerevisiae, accumulated at juxtanuclear quality-control compartments (JUNQs) and insoluble protein deposits (IPODs), characteristic of aggregative or misfolded proteins. AnkA, which was not ubiquitinated, accumulated exclusively at the IPOD. CaeA, but not AnkA or the other effectors, caused oxidative damage in yeast. We discuss that CaeA and AnkA behavior in yeast may rather reflect misfolding than recognition of conserved targets in the heterologous system. In contrast, CBU0077 accumulated at vacuolar membranes and abnormal ER extensions, suggesting that it interferes with vesicular traffic, whereas AnkB associated with the yeast nucleolus. Both effectors shared common localization features in HeLa and yeast cells. Our results support the idea that C. burnetii T4BSS effectors manipulate multiple host cell targets, which can be conserved in higher and lower eukaryotic cells. However, the behavior of CaeA and AnkA prompt us to conclude that heterologous protein aggregation and proteostatic stress can be a limitation to be considered when using the yeast model to assess the function of bacterial effectors.

  1. The yeast ISN1 (YOR155c gene encodes a new type of IMP-specific 5'-nucleotidase

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    Schmitter Jean-Marie

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purine salvage enzyme inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP-specific 5'-nucleotidase catalyzes degradation of IMP to inosine. Although this enzymatic activity has been purified and characterized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene encoding IMP 5'-nucleotidase had not been identified. Results Mass spectrometry analysis of several peptides of this enzyme purified from yeast allowed identification of the corresponding gene as YOR155c, an open reading frame of unknown function, renamed ISN1. The deduced Isn1p sequence was clearly not homologous to 5'-nucleotidases from other species. However, significant similarities to Isn1p were found in proteins of unknown function from Neurospora crassa, Plasmodium falciparum and several yeast species. Knock-out of ISN1 resulted in the total loss of IMP-specific 5'-nucleotidase activity, thus confirming that the ISN1 gene indeed encodes the enzymatic activity purified from yeast. In vivo studies revealed that, when IMP is overproduced through constitutive activation of the IMP de novo synthesis pathway, ISN1 is required for excretion of inosine and hypoxanthine in the medium. Conclusion We have identified a new yeast gene, ISN1 (YOR155c, as encoding IMP-specific 5'-nucleotidase activity. The ISN1 gene defines a new type of 5'-nucleotidase which was demonstrated to be functional in vivo.

  2. Proteomic analysis of mycelium and secretome of different Botrytis cinerea wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Raquel; Aloria, Kerman; Valero-Galván, José; Redondo, Inmaculada; Arizmendi, Jesús M; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2014-01-31

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a very damaging phytopathogen of wide host range and environmental persistence. It is difficult to control because of its genetic versatility, expressed in the many phenotypical differences among isolates. The genomes of the B. cinerea B05.10 and T4 strains have been recently sequenced, becoming a model system for necrotrophic pathogens, and thus opening new alternatives for functional genomics analysis. In this work, the mycelium and secreted proteome of six wild-type strains with different host range, and grown in liquid minimal medium, have been analyzed by using complementary gel-based (1-DE and 2-DE) and gel-free/label-free (nUPLC-MS(E)) approaches. We found differences in the protein profiles among strains belonging to both the mycelium and the secretome. A total of 47 and 51 variable proteins were identified in the mycelium and the secretome, respectively. Some of them, such as malate dehydrogenase or peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase from the mycelium, and endopolygalacturonase, aspartic protease or cerato-platanin protein from the secretome have been reported as virulence factors, which are involved in host-tissue invasion, pathogenicity or fungal development. The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is an important phytopathogen of wide host range and environmental persistence, causing substantial economic losses worldwide. In this work, the mycelium and secreted proteome of six B. cinerea wild-type strains with different host range have been analyzed by using complementary gel-based and gel-free/label-free approaches. Fungal genetic versatility was confirmed at the proteome level for both mycelium proteome and secreted proteins. A high number of hypothetical proteins with conserved domains related to toxin compounds or to unknown functions were identified, having qualitative differences among strains. The identification of hypothetical proteins suggests that the B. cinerea strains differ mostly in processes

  3. Transcript profiling reveals expression differences in wild-type and glabrous soybean lines

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    Stromvik Martina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichome hairs affect diverse agronomic characters such as seed weight and yield, prevent insect damage and reduce loss of water but their molecular control has not been extensively studied in soybean. Several detailed models for trichome development have been proposed for Arabidopsis thaliana, but their applicability to important crops such as cotton and soybean is not fully known. Results Two high throughput transcript sequencing methods, Digital Gene Expression (DGE Tag Profiling and RNA-Seq, were used to compare the transcriptional profiles in wild-type (cv. Clark standard, CS and a mutant (cv. Clark glabrous, i.e., trichomeless or hairless, CG soybean isoline that carries the dominant P1 allele. DGE data and RNA-Seq data were mapped to the cDNAs (Glyma models predicted from the reference soybean genome, Williams 82. Extending the model length by 250 bp at both ends resulted in significantly more matches of authentic DGE tags indicating that many of the predicted gene models are prematurely truncated at the 5' and 3' UTRs. The genome-wide comparative study of the transcript profiles of the wild-type versus mutant line revealed a number of differentially expressed genes. One highly-expressed gene, Glyma04g35130, in wild-type soybean was of interest as it has high homology to the cotton gene GhRDL1 gene that has been identified as being involved in cotton fiber initiation and is a member of the BURP protein family. Sequence comparison of Glyma04g35130 among Williams 82 with our sequences derived from CS and CG isolines revealed various SNPs and indels including addition of one nucleotide C in the CG and insertion of ~60 bp in the third exon of CS that causes a frameshift mutation and premature truncation of peptides in both lines as compared to Williams 82. Conclusion Although not a candidate for the P1 locus, a BURP family member (Glyma04g35130 from soybean has been shown to be abundantly expressed in the CS line and very

  4. Lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays multis...... in PBMCs was investigated throughout the acute infections. We observed Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses beginning in the prodromal phase, and late inflammatory responses were shared between the wild-type infections.......The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...... multisystemic infection similar to measles virus (MV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) infections in their susceptible natural hosts. The wild-type CDVs investigated provoked marked virulence differences inducing mild versus marked to severe acute disease. The mildly virulent wild-type induced transient lymphopenia...

  5. Comparative transcriptome profile of the leaf elongation zone of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum eibi1 mutant and its isogenic wild type

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    Qin Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The naturally occurring wild barley mutant eibi1/hvabcg31 suffers from severe water loss due to the permeable leaf cuticle. Eibi1/HvABCG31 encodes a full ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter, HvABCG31, playing a role in cutin deposition in the elongation zone of growing barley leaves. The eibi1 allele has pleiotropic effects on the appearance of leaves, plant stature, fertility, spike and grain size, and rate of germination. Comparative transcriptome profile of the leaf elongation zone of the eibi1 mutant as well as its isogenic wild type showed that various pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the eibi1 mutant. The known cuticle-related genes that we analyzed did not show significant expression difference between the mutant and wild type. These results suggest that the pleiotropic effects may be a compensatory consequence of the activation of defense genes in the eibi1 mutation. Furthermore, we were able to find the mutation of the eibi1/hvabcg31 allele by comparing transcript sequences, which indicated that the RNA-Seq is useful not only for researches on general molecular mechanism but also for the identification of possible mutant genes.

  6. Modest increased sensitivity to radiation oncogenesis in ATM heterozygous versus wild-type mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilenov, L. B.; Brenner, D. J.; Hall, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Subpopulations that are genetically predisposed to radiation-induced cancer could have significant public health consequences. Individuals homozygous for null mutations at the ataxia telangiectasia gene are indeed highly radiosensitive, but their numbers are very small. Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes (1-2% of the population) have been associated with somewhat increased radiosensitivity for some end points, but none directly related to carcinogenesis. Here, intralitter comparisons between wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts and mouse embryo fibroblasts carrying ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) null mutation indicate that the heterozygous cells are more sensitive to radiation oncogenesis than their normal, litter-matched, counterparts. From these data we suggest that Ataxia Telangiectasia heterozygotes could indeed represent a societally-significant radiosensitive human subpopulation.

  7. Ligand modulation of sidechain dynamics in a wild-type human GPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Lindsay D.; Dikiy, Igor; Chapman, Karen

    2017-01-01

    GPCRs regulate all aspects of human physiology, and biophysical studies have deepened our understanding of GPCR conformational regulation by different ligands. Yet there is no experimental evidence for how sidechain dynamics control allosteric transitions between GPCR conformations. To address...... this deficit, we generated samples of a wild-type GPCR (A2AR) that are deuterated apart from 1H/13C NMR probes at isoleucine δ1 methyl groups, which facilitated 1H/13C methyl TROSY NMR measurements with opposing ligands. Our data indicate that low [Na+] is required to allow large agonist-induced structural...... changes in A2AR, and that patterns of sidechain dynamics substantially differ between agonist (NECA) and inverse agonist (ZM241385) bound receptors, with the inverse agonist suppressing fast ps-ns timescale motions at the G protein binding site. Our approach to GPCR NMR creates a framework for exploring...

  8. Structural differences between wild-type and fish eye disease mutant of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, Yana; Tchedre, Kissaou T; Nair, Maya P; Pritchard, P Haydn; Lacko, Andras G

    2006-08-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to investigate the conformational changes that occur upon binding of wild type (WT) and mutant (Thr123Ile) lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) to the potential substrates (dioleoyl-phosphatidyl choline [DOPC] and high density lipoprotein [HDL]). For a detailed analysis of structural differences between WT and mutant LCAT, we performed decompositional analysis of a set of tryptophan fluorescence spectra, measured at increasing concentrations of external quenchers (acrylamide and KI). The data obtained show that Thr123Ile mutation in LCAT leads to a conformation that is likely to be more rigid (less mobile/flexible) than that of the WT protein with a redistribution of charged residues around exposed tryptophan fluorophores. We propose that the redistribution of charged residues in mutant LCAT may be a major factor responsible for the dramatically reduced activity of the enzyme with HDL and reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL).

  9. The Phenotypic Effects of Royal Jelly on Wild-Type D. melanogaster Are Strain-Specific.

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    Stefanie L Morgan

    Full Text Available The role for royal jelly (RJ in promoting caste differentiation of honeybee larvae into queens rather than workers is well characterized. A recent study demonstrated that this poorly understood complex nutrition drives strikingly similar phenotypic effects in Drosophila melanogaster, such as increased body size and reduced developmental time, making possible the use of D. melanogaster as a model system for the genetic analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying RJ and caste differentiation. We demonstrate here that RJ increases the body size of some wild-type strains of D. melanogaster but not others, and report significant delays in developmental time in all flies reared on RJ. These findings suggest that cryptic genetic variation may be a factor in the D. melanogaster response to RJ, and should be considered when attempting to elucidate response mechanisms to environmental changes in non-honeybee species.

  10. Wild-type rabies virus induces autophagy in human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiaojiao; Zhu, Shenghe; Hu, Lili; Ye, Pingping; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Qin; Mei, Mingzhu; Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2016-10-02

    Different rabies virus (RABV) strains have their own biological characteristics, but little is known about their respective impact on autophagy. Therefore, we evaluated whether attenuated RABV HEP-Flury and wild-type RABV GD-SH-01 strains triggered autophagy. We found that GD-SH-01 infection significantly increased the number of autophagy-like vesicles, the accumulation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-LC3 fluorescence puncta and the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, while HEP-Flury was not able to induce this phenomenon. When evaluating autophagic flux, we found that GD-SH-01 infection triggers a complete autophagic response in the human neuroblastoma cell line (SK), while autophagosome fusion with lysosomes was inhibited in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line (NA). In these cells, GD-SH-01 led to apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction while triggering autophagy, and apoptosis could be decreased by enhancing autophagy. To further identify the virus constituent causing autophagy, 5 chimeric recombinant viruses carrying single genes of HEP-Flury instead of those of GD-SH-01 were rescued. While the HEP-Flury virus carrying the wild-type matrix protein (M) gene of RABV triggered LC3-I to LC3-II conversion in SK and NA cells, replacement of genes of nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and glycoprotein (G) produced only minor autophagy. But no one single structural protein of GD-SH-01 induced autophagy. Moreover, the AMPK signaling pathway was activated by GD-SH-01 in SK. Therefore, our data provide strong evidence that autophagy is induced by GD-SH-01 and can decrease apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, the M gene of GD-SH-01 may cooperatively induce autophagy.

  11. Efficient Reassignment of a Frequent Serine Codon in Wild-Type Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Joanne M; Reynolds, Noah M; Rivera, Keith; Connolly, Morgan; Guo, Li-Tao; Ling, Jiqiang; Pappin, Darryl J; Church, George M; Söll, Dieter

    2016-02-19

    Expansion of the genetic code through engineering the translation machinery has greatly increased the chemical repertoire of the proteome. This has been accomplished mainly by read-through of UAG or UGA stop codons by the noncanonical aminoacyl-tRNA of choice. While stop codon read-through involves competition with the translation release factors, sense codon reassignment entails competition with a large pool of endogenous tRNAs. We used an engineered pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase to incorporate 3-iodo-l-phenylalanine (3-I-Phe) at a number of different serine and leucine codons in wild-type Escherichia coli. Quantitative LC-MS/MS measurements of amino acid incorporation yields carried out in a selected reaction monitoring experiment revealed that the 3-I-Phe abundance at the Ser208AGU codon in superfolder GFP was 65 ± 17%. This method also allowed quantification of other amino acids (serine, 33 ± 17%; phenylalanine, 1 ± 1%; threonine, 1 ± 1%) that compete with 3-I-Phe at both the aminoacylation and decoding steps of translation for incorporation at the same codon position. Reassignments of different serine (AGU, AGC, UCG) and leucine (CUG) codons with the matching tRNA(Pyl) anticodon variants were met with varying success, and our findings provide a guideline for the choice of sense codons to be reassigned. Our results indicate that the 3-iodo-l-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (IFRS)/tRNA(Pyl) pair can efficiently outcompete the cellular machinery to reassign select sense codons in wild-type E. coli.

  12. Detection, characterization and inhibition of FGFR-TACC fusions in IDH wild type glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Anna Luisa; Fucci, Alessandra; Frattini, Veronique; Labussiere, Marianne; Mokhtari, Karima; Zoppoli, Pietro; Marie, Yannick; Bruno, Aurelie; Boisselier, Blandine; Giry, Marine; Savatovsky, Julien; Touat, Mehdi; Belaid, Hayat; Kamoun, Aurelie; Idbaih, Ahmed; Houillier, Caroline; Luo, Feng R.; Soria, Jean-Charles; Tabernero, Josep; Eoli, Marica; Paterra, Rosina; Yip, Stephen; Petrecca, Kevin; Chan, Jennifer A.; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Lasorella, Anna; Sanson, Marc; Iavarone, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oncogenic fusions consisting of FGFR and TACC are present in a subgroup of glioblastoma (GBM) and other human cancers and have been proposed as new therapeutic targets. We analyzed frequency, molecular features of FGFR-TACC fusions, and explored the therapeutic efficacy of inhibiting FGFR kinase in GBM and grade-II–III glioma. Experimental Design Overall, 795 gliomas (584 GBM, 85 grade-II–III with wild-type and 126 with IDH1/2 mutation) were screened for FGFR-TACC breakpoints and associated molecular profile. We also analyzed expression of the FGFR3 and TACC3 components of the fusions. The effects of the specific FGFR inhibitor JNJ-42756493 for FGFR3-TACC3-positive glioma were determined in preclinical experiments. Two patients with advanced FGFR3-TACC3-positive GBM received JNJ-42756493 and were assessed for therapeutic response. Results Three of 85 IDH1/2 wild type (3.5%) but none of 126 IDH1/2 mutant grade-II–III glioma harbored FGFR3-TACC3 fusions. FGFR-TACC rearrangements were present in 17 of 584 GBM (2.9%). FGFR3-TACC3 fusions were associated with strong and homogeneous FGFR3 immunostaining. They are mutually exclusive with IDH1/2 mutations and EGFR amplification whereas co-occur with CDK4 amplification. JNJ-42756493 inhibited growth of glioma cells harboring FGFR3-TACC3 in vitro and in vivo. The two patients with FGFR3-TACC3 rearrangements who received JNJ-42756493 manifested clinical improvement with stable disease and minor response, respectively. Conclusions RT-PCR-sequencing is a sensitive and specific method to identify FGFR-TACC-positive patients. FGFR3-TACC3 fusions are associated with uniform intra-tumor expression of the fusion protein. The clinical response observed in the FGFR3-TACC3-positive patients treated with a FGFR inhibitor supports clinical studies of FGFR inhibition in FGFR-TACC-positive patients. PMID:25609060

  13. An Ultra-Violet Tolerant Wild-Type Strain of Melanin-Producing Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinenea, Estibaliz; Salazar, Francisco; Ramirez, Melanie; Ortiz, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most successful biological control agent used in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control. However, the insecticidal activity of the B. thuringiensis formulation is not very stable and rapidly loses its biological activity under field conditions, due to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Melanin is known to absorb radiation therefore photo protection of B. thuringiensis based on melanin has been extensively studied. Objectives: The aim of this study was to find a wild type strain of naturally melanin-producing B. thuringiensis to avoid any mutation or manipulation that can affect the Cry protein content. Materials and Methods: Bacillus thuringiensis strains were isolated from soils of different States of Mexico and pigment extraction was followed by lowering the pH to 2 using 1N HCl. Pigment was characterized by some chemical tests based on its solubility, bleaching by H2O2 and flocculation with FeCl3, and using an Infrared (IR) spectrum. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation experiment was performed to probe the melanin efficacy. Results: ELI52 strain of B. thuringiensis was confirmed to naturally produce melanin. The Cry protein analysis suggested that ELI52 is probably a B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain with toxic activity against the Diptera order of insects. Ultra Violet protection efficacy of melanin was probed counting total viable colonies after UV radiation and comparing the results with the non-producing melanin strain L-DOPA (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) was also detected in the culture. ELI52 strain showed an antagonistic effect over some common bacteria from the environment. Conclusions: ELI52 wild-type strain of B. thuringiensis is a good bio-insecticide that produces melanin with UV-resistance that is probably toxic against the Diptera order of insects and can inhibit the growth of other environmental bacteria. PMID:26421136

  14. Transcriptional profiling of gastric epithelial cells infected with wild type or arginase-deficient Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Songhee H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori causes acute and chronic gastric inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines secreted by cells of the gastric mucosa, including gastric epithelial cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that the bacterial arginase, RocF, is involved in inhibiting T cell proliferation and CD3ζ expression, suggesting that arginase could be involved in a more general dampening of the immune response, perhaps by down-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory mediators. Results Global transcriptome analysis was performed on AGS gastric epithelial cells infected for 16 hours with a wild type Helicobacter pylori strain 26695, an arginase mutant (rocF- or a rocF+ complemented strain. H. pylori infection triggered altered host gene expression in genes involved in cell movement, death/growth/proliferation, and cellular function and maintenance. While the wild type strain stimulates host inflammatory pathways, the rocF- mutant induced significantly more expression of IL-8. The results of the microarray were verified using real-time PCR, and the differential levels of protein expression were confirmed by ELISA and Bioplex analysis. MIP-1B was also significantly secreted by AGS cells after H. pylori rocF- mutant infection, as determined by Bioplex. Even though not explored in this manuscript, the impact that the results presented here may have on the development of gastritis, warrant further research to understand the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between H. pylori RocF and IL-8 induction. Conclusions We conclude that H. pylori arginase modulates multiple host signaling and metabolic pathways of infected gastric epithelial cells. Arginase may play a critical role in anti-inflammatory host responses that could contribute to the ability of H. pylori to establish chronic infections.

  15. Wild-Type P53 Induces Sodium/Iodide Symporter Expression Allowing Radioiodide Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Li, Dan; Chen, Zhengqi; Yang, Jian; Ma, Yushui; Cai, Haidong; Shan, Chengxiang; Lv, Zhongwei; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2017-09-29

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer(ATC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors. Mutations in the p53 gene are common in anaplastic thyroid cancer, but the effects of p53 mutations are yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of p53 in ATC. p53 mutation was detect by immunohistochemistry in ATC tissues. Expression of NIS were measured using immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence in ATC tissues and cell line 8505c. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to examine the effect of wild-type p53 on NIS. Radioiodide uptake assay and flow cytometry analysis were used to detect the role of wild-type p53 on radioiodide uptake.and cell apoptosis in ATC cell line. We showed that the p53 mutation can be detected in ATC tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrated that wild-type p53 transactivated the NIS promoter. In 8505c cells transfected with wild-type p53, treatment with radioiodine resulted in increased radioiodine uptake and increased apoptotic cell death compared with 8505c cells harboring the p53 mutation. In summary, transfection with wild-type p53 can increase the therapeutic effect of radioiodine by regulating the expression of the NIS. The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Isoform-Specific Effects of Wild-Type Ras Genes on Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie D Weyandt

    Full Text Available The gene KRAS is commonly mutated in lung cancer to encode a constitutively active and oncogenic protein that is well established to initiate and maintain lung tumorigenesis. However, the remaining wild-type KRAS protein, or the other family members HRAS and NRAS, can still be activated in the presence of oncogenic KRAS. Moreover, loss of any one of these three genes has been shown to increase the sensitivity of mice to the carcinogen urethane, which induces Kras mutation-positive early lung lesions. To determine the contribution of progressively disrupting Hras and Nras genes on urethane lung tumorigenesis, mice with different combinations of wild-type and null alleles of Hras and Nras were exposed with urethane and tumor burden was assessed. As previously reported, loss of one allele of Hras increased the sensitivity of mice to this carcinogen, and this effect was further exacerbated by the loss of the second Hras allele. However, loss of one or both alleles of Nras failed to alter tumor burden, either in the absence or presence of Hras, after exposure to urethane. Additionally, no obvious difference between lung lesions in mice with wild-type versus null alleles was detected, suggesting that wild-type Ras proteins may exert a tumor suppressive effects at the time of initiation, although other interpretations are certainly possible. In summary, these data suggest that in some genetic backgrounds inactivation of different wild-type Ras genes can have different effects on urethane-induced lung tumorigenesis.

  17. Isoform-Specific Effects of Wild-Type Ras Genes on Carcinogen-Induced Lung Tumorigenesis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyandt, Jamie D; Carney, John M; Pavlisko, Elizabeth N; Xu, MengMeng; Counter, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    The gene KRAS is commonly mutated in lung cancer to encode a constitutively active and oncogenic protein that is well established to initiate and maintain lung tumorigenesis. However, the remaining wild-type KRAS protein, or the other family members HRAS and NRAS, can still be activated in the presence of oncogenic KRAS. Moreover, loss of any one of these three genes has been shown to increase the sensitivity of mice to the carcinogen urethane, which induces Kras mutation-positive early lung lesions. To determine the contribution of progressively disrupting Hras and Nras genes on urethane lung tumorigenesis, mice with different combinations of wild-type and null alleles of Hras and Nras were exposed with urethane and tumor burden was assessed. As previously reported, loss of one allele of Hras increased the sensitivity of mice to this carcinogen, and this effect was further exacerbated by the loss of the second Hras allele. However, loss of one or both alleles of Nras failed to alter tumor burden, either in the absence or presence of Hras, after exposure to urethane. Additionally, no obvious difference between lung lesions in mice with wild-type versus null alleles was detected, suggesting that wild-type Ras proteins may exert a tumor suppressive effects at the time of initiation, although other interpretations are certainly possible. In summary, these data suggest that in some genetic backgrounds inactivation of different wild-type Ras genes can have different effects on urethane-induced lung tumorigenesis.

  18. Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boar of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ganna; Molozhanova, Alona; Halka, Ihor; Nychyk, Serhiy

    2017-12-01

    A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.0-30.8) and in at least some of the wild boar from all of the four oblasts. This preliminary survey of IA antibodies in wild boar populations of northern Ukraine indicates a substantial frequency of exposure to IAV throughout the region. Infection of wild boar populations could provide an alternative or additional route for spillover from wild populations to domestic animals and humans.

  19. Peroxisomal catalase deficiency modulates yeast lifespan depending on growth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawalek, Adam; Lefevre, Sophie D.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    We studied the role of peroxisomal catalase in chronological aging of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha in relation to various growth substrates. Catalase-deficient (cat) cells showed a similar chronological life span (CLS) relative to the wild-type control upon growth on carbon and nitrogen sources

  20. In vitro visualization and characterization of wild type and mutant IDH homo- and heterodimers using Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gemma L; Philip, Beatrice; Guthrie, Matthew R; Cox, James E; Robinson, James P; VanBrocklin, Matthew W; Holmen, Sheri L

    2016-05-01

    Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) were recently found in ~80% of WHO grade II-III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. These mutations reduce the enzyme's ability to convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate and, instead, confer a novel gain-of-function resulting in the conversion of α-ketoglutarate to 2-hydroxglutarate (2-HG). However, IDH mutations exist in a heterozygous state such that a functional wild type allele is retained. Recent data suggest that the ability of mutant IDH1, but not mutant IDH2, to produce 2-HG is dependent on the activity of the retained wild type allele. In this study, we aimed to further our understanding of the interaction and function of wild type and mutant IDH heterodimers utilizing Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC). Dimerization of wild type and mutant IDH monomers conjugated to the N- and C-terminus of Venus protein, respectively, is directly proportional to the amount of fluorescence emitted and can be used as an approach to visualize and assess IDH dimerization. Thus, we utilized this method to visualize IDH homo- and heterodimers and to examine their cellular physiology based on subcellular localization, NADPH production, and 2-HG levels. Our results demonstrate that wild type and mutant IDH1 or IDH2 heterodimers display similar physiological characteristics to that of mutant IDH1 or IDH2 homodimers with the exception of their ability to generate NADPH. IDH1 heterodimers consistently generate NADPH whereas IDH2 heterodimers do not. However, the presence of mutant IDH1 or IDH2 in homo- or heterodimer configurations consistently generates equivalent levels of 2-HG. Our data suggest that the wild type protein is not required for the generation of 2-HG.

  1. The Effect of Microporous Polysaccharide Hemospheres on Wound Healing and Scarring in Wild-Type and db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle J; Cao, Wei; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Levinson, Howard

    2017-04-01

    Hemostasis, the initial phase of wound healing, sets the stage for tissue repair. Microporous polysaccharide hemosphere powder (MPH) is an FDA-approved hemostatic agent that may impact the wound-healing process. This study examined the role of MPH in murine wild-type and diabetic (db/db) wound-healing models and a foreign body response scarring model. The powder was topically applied to excisional wounds in wild-type C57BL/6 mice and db/db mice. The effect of MPH on scarring was evaluated by applying it to the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tube implantation model. In wild-type mice, topically applied MPH increased epithelial thickness. Levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were decreased in MPH-treated wild-type wounds, whereas Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) and transforming growth factor β levels were increased. In db/db mice, topical wound MPH application decreased epithelial thickness and delayed wound closure. The db/db wounds displayed an increased collagen index. The ROCK2 was increased in a similar manner to wild-type mice, whereas α-SMA and transforming growth factor β levels were decreased. The MPH-treated expanded polytetrafluoroethylene tube mice showed increased α-SMA levels and depressed ROCK2 levels. There were no changes in histologic parameters of the foreign body response. The results suggest that MPH does not adversely impact wound healing in wild-type mice, both topically and around implants, but prolongs time to closure and diminishes thickness in db/db wounds. The MPH application alters contractile proteins in all wound models. These changes could have downstream effects on the wound healing process, and further investigation into the use of MPH in altered or impaired states of wound healing is warranted.

  2. HER2 Amplification and Cetuximab Efficacy in Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Harboring Wild-type RAS and BRAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Ho; Kim, Jihun; Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Dalyong; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Yoon, Young-Kwang; Kim, Deokhoon; Chun, Sung-Min; Park, Yangsoon; Jang, Se Jin; Kim, Tae Won

    2017-09-01

    Cetuximab has shown clinical benefit in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) harboring wild-type RAS. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification may be a mechanism of cetuximab resistance. We evaluated the association between HER2 amplification and cetuximab efficacy in patients with mCRC harboring wild-type RAS and BRAF. Between December 2003 and June 2013, we identified 142 patients with mCRC whose tumors harbored both wild-type exons 2, 3, and 4 in KRAS and NRAS, and wild-type exon 15 in BRAF using high throughput sequencing (OncoMap version 4.0). All patients received cetuximab after oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and fluoropyrimidine failure. HER2 status was determined using immunohistochemistry and silver in situ hybridization (SISH) and correlated with cetuximab efficacy. Of 142 RAS and BRAF wild-type tumors, we observed 7 cases (4.9%) of HER2 amplification by SISH. After a median follow-up of 13.2 months (range, 1.4-78.1 months), median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly different according to HER2 status: 3.1 months in patients with HER2 amplification compared with 5.6 months in those with non-amplified HER2 (hazard ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-6.31; P = .019). Overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between groups, although there was a tendency towards shorter OS in patients with HER2-amplified tumors (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-2.82; 10.1 vs. 13.5 months; P = .488). HER2 amplification is predictive of shorter PFS after cetuximab treatment in patients with mCRC harboring wild-type RAS and BRAF. Further study is warranted for this patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative whole genome sequence analysis of wild-type and cidofovir-resistant monkeypoxvirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huggins John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We performed whole genome sequencing of a cidofovir {[(S-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxy-propyl cytosine] [HPMPC]}-resistant (CDV-R strain of Monkeypoxvirus (MPV. Whole-genome comparison with the wild-type (WT strain revealed 55 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one tandem-repeat contraction. Over one-third of all identified SNPs were located within genes comprising the poxvirus replication complex, including the DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, mRNA capping methyltransferase, DNA processivity factor, and poly-A polymerase. Four polymorphic sites were found within the DNA polymerase gene. DNA polymerase mutations observed at positions 314 and 684 in MPV were consistent with CDV-R loci previously identified in Vaccinia virus (VACV. These data suggest the mechanism of CDV resistance may be highly conserved across Orthopoxvirus (OPV species. SNPs were also identified within virulence genes such as the A-type inclusion protein, serine protease inhibitor-like protein SPI-3, Schlafen ATPase and thymidylate kinase, among others. Aberrant chain extension induced by CDV may lead to diverse alterations in gene expression and viral replication that may result in both adaptive and attenuating mutations. Defining the potential contribution of substitutions in the replication complex and RNA processing machinery reported here may yield further insight into CDV resistance and may augment current therapeutic development strategies.

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of wild type and mutant Drosophila melanogaster using helium ion microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseman, Adam; Nowlin, Kyle; Ashraf, Sarmadia; Yang, Jijin; Lajeunesse, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Insects have evolved numerous adaptations to survive a variety of environmental conditions. Given that the primary interface between insects and the environment is mediated through their skin or cuticle, many of these adaptations are found in extraordinary cuticle diversity both in morphology and structure. Not all of these adaptions manifest themselves in changes in the chemical composition of the cuticle but rather as elaborations of the surface structures of the cuticle. Typically the examination of these micro- and nanoscale structures has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Typically, in order to decrease surface charging and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface, but this layer limits the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. In this paper we use a new technology, helium ion microscopy (HIM) to examine surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant Drosophila. Helium ion microscopy permits high resolution imaging of biological samples without the need for coating. We compare HIM to traditional SEM and demonstrate certain advantages of this type of microscopy, with our focus being high resolution characterization of nanostructures on the cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster and potentially other biological specimens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of salt stress on wild type and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana: Model plant to engineer tolerance towards salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalatbari Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental constraints impairing plant distribution and yield is believed to be salt stress. Additionally, engineered abiotic stress resistance or/and tolerance is considered as an indispensable target in order to enhance plant productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on physiological and morphological of wild type (Columbia-0 and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated under different NaCl concentrations. These salt treatments, including control condition, 50mM and 100mM NaCl were imposed on the plants. Each salt treatment was replicated three times in a complete randomized design with factorial arrangement. Wild type and mutant A.thaliana plants were subjected to the abiotic stress (salinity for up to 11 days to evaluate the parameters of growth, development and water relations. As a result, the performance of wild type plants was stronger than vte4 mutant under different salt treatments. Under control condition, rosette dry weight, maximum quantum efficiency (PSII and specific leaf area obtained the highest values of 13.85 mg, considered, wild type A.thaliana recorded higher value of 0.82 gW/gFW for relative water content (RWC under 50mM NaCl whereas mutant plants gained the value of 0.78 gW/gFW under the same condition. However, root mass fraction indicated an increase for both wild type and vte4 mutant plants after 11 days of salt stress onset. The reduction of water potential was observed for wild type and mutant A.thaliana where it scored -1.3 MPa and -1.4, respectively. As a conclusion, these findings implied that under different salt treatments morphological and physiological responses of wild type and vte4 mutant were affected in which wild type plants showed more tolerance. Lack of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ -TMT gene in vte4 seemed to impair defence mechanism of this mutant against salinity.

  6. Effects of types and doses of yeast on gas production and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminal ammonia N and lactic acid were not affected, whereas methane and carbon dioxide tended to be reduced with the intermediate dose of yeast. When the mixture included oat hay, the total volume of gas increased, the lag time decreased, and there was higher IVDMD than in the lucerne-based mixtures, which were ...

  7. Identification and typing of the yeast strains isolated from bili bili, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    1983; Chu et al., 1986) using the Yeast Identification software of. Barnett (Barnett et al., 1996). Molecular identification .... Validation of the strains conventionally identified as. K. marxianus. According to previous work ..... African fermented foods nutrition CAB International (Ed.) Université presse, Cambridge, Great Britain. pp ...

  8. Wine yeast molecular typing using a simplified method for simultaneously extracting mtDNA, nuclear DNA and virus dsRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Matilde; Zamora, Emiliano; Rodríguez-Cousiño, Nieves; Ramírez, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    Quick and accurate methods are required for the identification of industrial, environmental, and clinical yeast strains. We propose a rapid method for the simultaneous extraction of yeast mtDNA, nuclear DNA, and virus dsRNA. It is simpler, cheaper, and faster than the previously reported methods. It allows one to choose among a broad range of molecular analysis approaches for yeast typing, avoiding the need to use of several different methods for the separate extraction of each nucleic acid type. The application of this method followed by the combined analysis of mtDNA and dsRNA (ScV-M and W) is a highly attractive option for fast and efficient wine yeast typing.

  9. Sperm morphogenesis in wild-type and fertilization-defective mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Taking advantage of conditions that allow spermatogenesis in vitro, the timing and sequence of morphological changes leading from the primary spermatocyte to the spermatozoon is described by light and electron microscopy. Together with previous studies, this allows a detailed description of the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane changes occurring during spermatozoan morphogenesis. By comparison with wild type, abnormalities in spermatogenesis leading to aberrant infertile spermatozoa are found in six fertilization-defective (fer) mutants. In fer-1 mutant males, spermatids appear normal, but during spermiogenesis membranous organelles (MO) fail to fuse with the sperm plasma membrane and a short, though motile. pseudopod is formed. In fer-2, fer-3, and fer-4 mutants, spermatids accumulate 48-nm tubules around their nuclei where the centriole and an RNA containing perinuclear halo would normally be. In all three mutants, spermatids still activate to spermatozoa with normal fusion of their MOs, but the pseudopods formed are aberrant in most fer-2 and fer-4 spermatozoa and in some fer-3 spermatozoa. In fer-5 mutant males, spermatozoa do not form. Instead, defective spermatids with crystalline inclusions and abnormal internal laminar membranes accumulate. In fer-6 mutant males, only a few spermatozoa form and these have defective pseudopods. These spermatozoa retain their fibrous bodies, a structure which normally disassembles in the spermatid. The time of appearance of developmental abnormalities in all of these mutants correlates with the temperature-sensitive periods for development of infertility. The observation that each of these mutants has a different and discreet set of morphological defects, a structure which normally disassembles in the spermatid. The time of appearance of developmental abnormalities in all of these mutants correlates with the temperature-sensitive periods for development of infertility. The observation that each of these mutants has a

  10. Differential angiogenic gene expression in TP53 wild-type and mutant ovarian cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Anne Davidson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Underlying mechanisms regulating angiogenesis in ovarian cancer have not been completely elucidated. Evidence suggests that the TP53 tumor suppressor pathway and tumor microenvironment play integral roles. We utilized microarray technology to study the interaction between TP53 mutational status & hypoxia on angiogenic gene expression.Methods: Affymetrix U133A arrays were analyzed for angiogenic gene expression in 19 ovarian cancer cell lines stratified both by TP53 mutation status and A2780 wild-type (wt TP53 vs. mutated (m TP53 cell lines after treatment under hypoxic conditions or with ionizing radiation. Results: Twenty-eight differentially expressed angiogenic genes were identified in the mTP53 cell lines compared to wtTP53 lines. Five genes were upregulated in mTP53 cells: 40% involved in extracellular matrix (ECM degradation (MMP10/15 and 60% in angiogenesis (FGFR3/VEGFA/EPHB4. Twenty-three genes were upregulated in wtTP53: nearly 22% were ECM constituents or involved in ECM degradation; over 40% were growth factors or mediators of angiogenesis. Five genes were upregulated in the A2780mTP53 cells: 40% involved in ECM remodeling (MMP10, ADAMTS1, 40% with pro-angiogenic activity (EFNB2, F2R, and 20% with anti-angiogenic properties (ADAMTS1. Three genes were upregulated in hypoxia treated cells compared to controls: 1 with anti-angiogenic activity (ANGPTL4 and 2 with pro-angiogenic activity (VEGFA, EFNA3. No significant gene fold changes were noted after exposure to radiation.Four genes continued to demonstrate significant differential expression (p≤0.05 after adjusting for multiple comparisons. These genes included ENG upregulation in wild-type lines and upregulation of FGF-20, ADAMTS1 & MMP10 in mTP53 lines.Conclusions: Our exploratory findings indicate that non-overlapping angiogenic pathways may be altered by TP53 mutations and hypoxic conditions in ththe tumor microenvironment. Further evaluation is needed for confirmation.

  11. Rapid and reliable extraction of genomic DNA from various wild-type and transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Moon-Sik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA extraction methods for PCR-quality DNA from calluses and plants are not time efficient, since they require that the tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by precipitation of the DNA pellet in ethanol, washing and drying the pellet, etc. The need for a rapid and simple procedure is urgent, especially when hundreds of samples need to be analyzed. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method of isolating high-quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification and enzyme digestion from calluses, various wild-type and transgenic plants. Results We developed new rapid and reliable genomic DNA extraction method. With our developed method, plant genomic DNA extraction could be performed within 30 min. The method was as follows. Plant tissue was homogenized with salt DNA extraction buffer using hand-operated homogenizer and extracted by phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1. After centrifugation, the supernatant was directly used for DNA template for PCR, resulting in successful amplification for RAPD from various sources of plants and specific foreign genes from transgenic plants. After precipitating the supernatant, the DNA was completely digested by restriction enzymes. Conclusion This DNA extraction procedure promises simplicity, speed, and efficiency, both in terms of time and the amount of plant sample required. In addition, this method does not require expensive facilities for plant genomic DNA extraction.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of silent introduction and sustained transmission of wild poliovirus type 1, Israel, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, L M; Gavrilin, E; Jorba, J; Martin, J; Burns, C C; Manor, Y; Moran-Gilad, J; Sofer, D; Hindiyeh, M Y; Gamzu, R; Mendelson, E; Grotto, I

    2014-02-20

    Poliovirus vaccine coverage in Israel is over 90%. The last nine birth cohorts have been vaccinated exclusively with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). However, between February and July 2013 type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) was detected persistently in 10 and intermittently in 8 of 47 environmental surveillance sites in southern and central Israel and in 30 stool samples collected during July from healthy individuals in southern Israel. We report results of sequence and phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding capsid proteins to determine the source and transmission mode of the virus. WPV1 capsid protein 1 nucleotide sequences were most closely related to South Asia (SOAS) cluster R3A polioviruses circulating in Pakistan in 2012 and isolated from Egyptian sewage in December 2012. There was no noticeable geographical clustering within WPV1-positive sites. Uniform codon usage among isolates from Pakistan, Egypt and Israel showed no signs of optimisation or deoptimisation. Bayesian phylogenetic time clock analysis of the entire capsid coding region (2,643 nt) with a 1.1% evolutionary rate indicated that Israeli and Egyptian WPV1-SOAS lineages diverged in September 2012, while Israeli isolates split into two sub-branches after January 2013. This suggests one or more introduction events into Israel with subsequent silent circulation despite high population immunity.

  13. Evaluation of short-interfering RNAs treatment in experimental rabies due to wild-type virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appolinario, Camila Michele; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Peres, Marina Gea; Fonseca, Clovis Reynaldo; Vicente, Acacia Ferreira; Antunes, João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula; Pantoja, José Carlos Figueiredo; Megid, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the efficacy of short-interfering RNAs targeting the nucleoprotein gene and also the brain immune response in treated and non-treated infected mice. Mice were inoculated with wild-type virus, classified as dog (hv2) or vampire bat (hv3) variants and both groups were treated or left as controls. No difference was observed in the lethality rate between treated and non-treated groups, although clinical evaluation of hv2 infected mice showed differences in the severity of clinical disease (p=0.0006). Evaluation of brain immune response 5 days post-inoculation in treated hv2 group showed no difference among the analyzed genes, whereas after 10 days post-inoculation there was increased expression of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 12, interferon gamma, and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 associated with higher expression of N gene in the same period (prabies treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Intensified environmental surveillance supporting the response to wild poliovirus type 1 silent circulation in Israel, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Y; Shulman, L M; Kaliner, E; Hindiyeh, M; Ram, D; Sofer, D; Moran-Gilad, J; Lev, B; Grotto, I; Gamzu, R; Mendelson, E

    2014-02-20

    An emergency response was triggered by recovery of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) of the South Asia (SOAS) lineage from sewage in southern Israel in April 2013 during routine environmental surveillance. Public health risk assessment necessitated intensification of environmental surveillance in order to facilitate countrywide monitoring of WPV1-SOAS circulation. This involved increasing sampling frequency and broadening the geographical area, for better coverage of the population at risk, as well as modifying sewage testing algorithms to accommodate a newly developed WPV1-SOAS-specific quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for screening of RNA extracted directly from sewage concentrates, in addition to standard virus isolation. Intensified surveillance in 74 sites across Israel between 1 February and 31 August 2013 documented a sustained high viral load of WPV1-SOAS in sewage samples from six Bedouin settlements and two cities with Jewish and Arab populations in the South district. Lower viral loads and intermittent detection were documented in sampling sites representing 14 mixed communities in three of the five health districts in central and northern Israel. Environmental surveillance plays a fundamental role in routine monitoring of WPV circulation in polio-free countries. The rapid assay specific for the circulating strain facilitated implementation of intensified surveillance and informed the public health response and decision-making.

  15. Animal Personality Relates to Thermal Preference in Wild-Type Zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Sonia; Digka, Nikoletta; MacKenzie, Simon

    2015-06-01

    It has been widely supported that individual animals express different strategies to cope with environmental challenge. In ectothermic species such as fish, individuals must use behavioral thermoregulation mechanisms to optimize physiological performance. In the present study, thermal preference was tested in groups of wild-type zebrafish, Danio rerio, screened for proactive and reactive animal personalities. Three replicate groups of proactive, reactive, and naive randomly sampled non-screened controls were used for the experiments. The frequency distribution of the animals was recorded in a custom-built multichamber tank under both constant temperature (temperature restricted conditions: TR) and a continuous thermal gradient profile (temperature choice: TCh ranging from 21°C to 35°C). Proactive and reactive animal personalities expressed significantly different thermal preferences and general activity within the temperature gradient. Our results show that proactive fish, generally characterized as being more aggressive, bold risk takers, and prone to routine formation, have a preference for higher temperature environments. Reactive fish, which are shy, less risk-prone, and more flexible, favor medium colder temperatures. This is the first report of thermopreferendum in zebrafish where individual animal personality coupled to freedom of thermal choice has been applied to understand variation in individual preferences within a population.

  16. Ligand modulation of sidechain dynamics in a wild-type human GPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay D; Dikiy, Igor; Chapman, Karen; Rödström, Karin Ej; Aramini, James; LeVine, Michael V; Khelashvili, George; Rasmussen, Søren Gf; Gardner, Kevin H; Rosenbaum, Daniel M

    2017-10-06

    GPCRs regulate all aspects of human physiology, and biophysical studies have deepened our understanding of GPCR conformational regulation by different ligands. Yet there is no experimental evidence for how sidechain dynamics control allosteric transitions between GPCR conformations. To address this deficit, we generated samples of a wild-type GPCR (A 2A R) that are deuterated apart from 1 H/ 13 C NMR probes at isoleucine δ1 methyl groups, which facilitated 1 H/ 13 C methyl TROSY NMR measurements with opposing ligands. Our data indicate that low [Na + ] is required to allow large agonist-induced structural changes in A 2A R, and that patterns of sidechain dynamics substantially differ between agonist (NECA) and inverse agonist (ZM241385) bound receptors, with the inverse agonist suppressing fast ps-ns timescale motions at the G protein binding site. Our approach to GPCR NMR creates a framework for exploring how different regions of a receptor respond to different ligands or signaling proteins through modulation of fast ps-ns sidechain dynamics.

  17. Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Giraldo, Juan P.; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Koman, Volodymyr B.; Sinclair, Rosalie; Lew, Tedrick Thomas Salim; Bisker, Gili; Liu, Pingwei; Strano, Michael S.

    2017-02-01

    Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors--single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal--embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm-1 leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.

  18. Intraperitoneal Infection of Wild-Type Mice with Synthetically Generated Mammalian Prion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhe; McGovern, Gillian; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Fei; Zha, Liang; Jeffrey, Martin; Ma, Jiyan

    2015-07-01

    The prion hypothesis postulates that the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is an unorthodox protein conformation based agent. Recent successes in generating mammalian prions in vitro with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein provide strong support for the hypothesis. However, whether the pathogenic properties of synthetically generated prion (rec-Prion) recapitulate those of naturally occurring prions remains unresolved. Using end-point titration assay, we showed that the in vitro prepared rec-Prions have infectious titers of around 104 LD50/μg. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation of wild-type mice with rec-Prion caused prion disease with an average survival time of 210-220 days post inoculation. Detailed pathological analyses revealed that the nature of rec-Prion induced lesions, including spongiform change, disease specific prion protein accumulation (PrP-d) and the PrP-d dissemination amongst lymphoid and peripheral nervous system tissues, the route and mechanisms of neuroinvasion were all typical of classical rodent prions. Our results revealed that, similar to naturally occurring prions, the rec-Prion has a titratable infectivity and is capable of causing prion disease via routes other than direct intra-cerebral challenge. More importantly, our results established that the rec-Prion caused disease is pathogenically and pathologically identical to naturally occurring contagious TSEs, supporting the concept that a conformationally altered protein agent is responsible for the infectivity in TSEs.

  19. Drought stress-induced compositional changes in tolerant transgenic rice and its wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyong-Hee; Kim, Do-Young; Shin, Hee Jae; Nam, Ki Jung; An, Joo Hee; Pack, In-Soon; Park, Jung-Ho; Jeong, Soon-Chun; Kim, Ho Bang; Kim, Chang-Gi

    2014-06-15

    Comparing well-watered versus deficit conditions, we evaluated the chemical composition of grains harvested from wild-type (WT) and drought-tolerant, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.). The latter had been developed by inserting AtCYP78A7, which encodes a cytochrome P450 protein. Two transgenic Lines, '10B-5' and '18A-4', and the 'Hwayoung' WT were grown under a rainout shelter. After the harvested grains were polished, their levels of key components, including proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins were analysed to determine the effect of watering system and genotype. Drought treatment significantly influenced the levels of some nutritional components in both transgenic and WT grains. In particular, the amounts of lignoceric acid and copper in the WT decreased by 12.6% and 39.5%, respectively, by drought stress, whereas those of copper and potassium in the transgenics rose by 88.1-113.3% and 10.4-11.9%, respectively, under water-deficit conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of short-interfering RNAs treatment in experimental rabies due to wild-type virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Michele Appolinario

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the efficacy of short-interfering RNAs targeting the nucleoprotein gene and also the brain immune response in treated and non-treated infected mice. Mice were inoculated with wild-type virus, classified as dog (hv2 or vampire bat (hv3 variants and both groups were treated or leaved as controls. No difference was observed in the lethality rate between treated and non-treated groups, although clinical evaluation of hv2 infected mice showed differences in the severity of clinical disease (p = 0.0006. Evaluation of brain immune response 5 days post-inoculation in treated hv2 group showed no difference among the analyzed genes, whereas after 10 days post-inoculation there was increased expression of 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 12, interferon gamma, and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 associated with higher expression of N gene in the same period (p < 0.0001. In hv2 non-treated group only higher interferon beta expression was found at day 5. The observed differences in results of the immune response genes between treated and non-treated groups is not promising as they had neither impact on mortality nor even a reduction in the expression of N gene in siRNA treated animals. This finding suggests that the use of pre-designed siRNA alone may not be useful in rabies treatment.

  1. Intraperitoneal Infection of Wild-Type Mice with Synthetically Generated Mammalian Prion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhe Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prion hypothesis postulates that the infectious agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs is an unorthodox protein conformation based agent. Recent successes in generating mammalian prions in vitro with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein provide strong support for the hypothesis. However, whether the pathogenic properties of synthetically generated prion (rec-Prion recapitulate those of naturally occurring prions remains unresolved. Using end-point titration assay, we showed that the in vitro prepared rec-Prions have infectious titers of around 104 LD50/μg. In addition, intraperitoneal (i.p. inoculation of wild-type mice with rec-Prion caused prion disease with an average survival time of 210-220 days post inoculation. Detailed pathological analyses revealed that the nature of rec-Prion induced lesions, including spongiform change, disease specific prion protein accumulation (PrP-d and the PrP-d dissemination amongst lymphoid and peripheral nervous system tissues, the route and mechanisms of neuroinvasion were all typical of classical rodent prions. Our results revealed that, similar to naturally occurring prions, the rec-Prion has a titratable infectivity and is capable of causing prion disease via routes other than direct intra-cerebral challenge. More importantly, our results established that the rec-Prion caused disease is pathogenically and pathologically identical to naturally occurring contagious TSEs, supporting the concept that a conformationally altered protein agent is responsible for the infectivity in TSEs.

  2. Synovial deposition of wild-type transthyretin-derived amyloid in knee joint osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Masayuki; Yazaki, Masahide; Yamazaki, Hideshi; Nawata, Masashi; Katagiri, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    To investigate histological features of deposited amyloid in the synovial tissue and its clinical significance in knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) patients. We prospectively enrolled 232 consecutive patients who underwent arthroplasty or total replacement of the knee joint for treatment of OA. Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry were performed in the synovial tissue obtained at surgery. When transthyretin (TTR)-derived amyloid was positive, we analyzed all 4 exons of the TTR gene using the direct DNA sequencing method in order to detect mutations. We analyzed 322 specimens in this study. Twenty-six specimens (8.1%) obtained from 21 patients (5 men and 16 women; mean, 79.0 ± 4.6 years) showed deposition of amyloid, which was positively stained with the anti-TTR antibody. Eighteen patients showed inhomogeneous accumulations of amyloid in the loose connective tissue under the synovial epithelia sometimes with nodule formation, while in the remaining three, small vessels in the adipose tissue were involved. Medical records of these patients revealed nothing remarkable in the clinical course, laboratory data or macroscopic intraarticular findings at surgery. No mutations were detectable in the TTR gene analysis. Wild-type TTR-derived amyloid may affect the synovial tissue as a result of long-term mechanical stress or as a part of senile systemic amyloidosis in approximately 8% of knee joint OA patients. No obvious clinical significance was found in synovial deposition of amyloid.

  3. Auto-Assembling Detoxified Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Hemolysin Mimicking the Wild-Type Cytolytic Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Luigi; Di Palo, Benedetta; Scarselli, Maria; Pozzi, Clarissa; Tomaszewski, Kelly; Galletti, Bruno; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Arcidiacono, Letizia; Mishra, Ravi P N; Mori, Elena; Pallaoro, Michele; Falugi, Fabiana; Torre, Antonina; Fontana, Maria Rita; Soriani, Marco; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; Grandi, Guido; Rappuoli, Rino; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Bagnoli, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla) assembles into heptameric pores on the host cell membrane, causing lysis, apoptosis, and junction disruption. Herein, we present the design of a newly engineered S. aureus alpha-toxin, HlaPSGS, which lacks the predicted membrane-spanning stem domain. This protein is able to form heptamers in aqueous solution in the absence of lipophilic substrata, and its structure, obtained by transmission electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction analysis, resembles the cap of the wild-type cytolytic Hla pore. HlaPSGS was found to be impaired in binding to host cells and to its receptor ADAM10 and to lack hemolytic and cytotoxic activity. Immunological studies using human sera as well as sera from mice convalescent from S. aureus infection suggested that the heptameric conformation of HlaPSGS mimics epitopes exposed by the cytolytic Hla pore during infection. Finally, immunization with this newly engineered Hla generated high protective immunity against staphylococcal infection in mice. Overall, this study provides unprecedented data on the natural immune response against Hla and suggests that the heptameric HlaPSGS is a highly valuable vaccine candidate against S. aureus. Copyright © 2016 Fiaschi et al.

  4. Wild type beta-2 microglobulin and DE loop mutants display a common fibrillar architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Natalello

    Full Text Available Beta-2 microglobulin (β2m is the protein responsible for a pathologic condition known as dialysis related amyloidosis. In recent years an important role has been assigned to the peptide loop linking strands D and E (DE loop in determining β2m stability and amyloid propensity. Several mutants of the DE loop have been studied, showing a good correlation between DE loop geometrical strain, protein stability and aggregation propensity. However, it remains unclear whether the aggregates formed by wild type (wt β2m and by the DE loop variants are of the same kind, or whether the mutations open new aggregation pathways. In order to address this question, fibrillar samples of wt and mutated β2m variants have been analysed by means of atomic force microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The data here reported indicate that the DE loop mutants form aggregates with morphology and structural organisation very similar to the wt protein. Therefore, the main effect of β2m DE loop mutations is proposed to stem from the different stabilities of the native fold. Considerations on the structural role of the DE loop in the free monomeric β2m and as part of the Major Histocompatibility Complex are also presented.

  5. Respiratory patterns reflect different levels of aggressiveness and emotionality in Wild-type Groningen rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory patterns represent a promising physiological index for assessing emotional states in preclinical studies. Since disturbed emotional regulation may lead to forms of excessive aggressiveness, in this study we investigated the hypothesis that rats that differ largely in their level of aggressive behavior display matching alterations in respiration. Respiration was recorded in male high-aggressive (HA, n = 8) and non-aggressive (NA, n = 8) Wild-type Groningen rats using whole-body plethysmography. Subsequently, anxiety-related behaviors were evaluated in the elevated plus maze and social avoidance-approach tests. During respiratory testing, HA rats showed elevated basal respiratory rate, reduced sniffing, exaggerated tachypnoeic response to an acoustic stimulus and a larger incidence of sighs. In addition, HA rats spent less time in the open arms of the plus maze and displayed higher levels of social avoidance behavior compared to NA rats. These findings indicate that HA rats are characterized by alterations in respiratory functioning and behavior that are overall indicative of an anxiety-like phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of enzymes and quantification of metabolic fluxes in the wild type and in a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1999-01-01

    Two alpha-amylase-producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae, a wild-type strain and a recombinant containing additional copies of the alpha-amylase gene, were characterized,vith respect to enzyme activities, localization of enzymes to the mitochondria or cytosol, macromolecular composition...

  7. Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type A from wild bharals (Pseudois nayaur) following sudden death in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Tiecheng; Xiang, Haiyang; Ji, Xue; Han, Yixiao; Tian, Yuan; Sun, Yang; Liu, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2017-04-01

    Dozens of wild bharals died suddenly in Tibet. Necropsy showed severe congestion and hemorrhage in multiple organs, with large numbers of Gram-positive bacilli. Strains of Clostridium perfringens type A were isolated from the different organs and the intestinal contents. The other possible pathogens were ruled out by PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of deuterium on the circadian period and metabolism in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Hut, RA; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Homozygous tau mutant Syrian hamsters (tau-/-) have a free-running circadian period (tau) around 20 h and a proportionally higher metabolic rate compared with wild-type hamsters (tau+/+) with a period of circa 24 h. In this study, we applied deuterium oxide (D2O) to hamsters to test whether

  9. Seasonal variations of artemisinin and its biosynthetic precursors in tetraploid Artemisia annua plants compared with the diploid wild-type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallaart, T.E.; Pras, N.; Quax, Wim

    1999-01-01

    Using colchicine we induced tetraploidy in Artemisia annua L. plants. During a vegetation period we monitored the time course of the levels of artemisinin, its direct precursors, the biosynthetically related sesquiterpenes and the essential oil content in the diploid (wild-type) and tetraploid A.

  10. Prephenate dehydratase of the actinomycete Amycolatopsis methanolica : purification and characterization of wild-type and deregulated mutant proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, Gerrit J.W.; Wolters, Diederik J.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    1995-01-01

    Prephenate dehydratase (PDT) is a key regulatory enzyme in L-phenylalanine biosynthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Amycolatopsis methanolica. The PDT protein was purified to homogeneity (1957-fold) from wild-type cells with a final yield of 6.5%. It was characterized as a 150 kDa homotetrameric

  11. A comparative study of cytokinins in caryopsis development in the maize miniature 1 seed mutant and its wild type

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here a comparative developmental profile of cytokinins, both total quantity and diversity of various forms, in relation to cell size, cell number and endoreduplication in developing caryopses of a cell wall invertase-deficient miniature1 (mn1) seed mutant and its wild type, Mn1, genotype. ...

  12. Effects of cross-feeding anarchistic and wild type honey bees: anarchistic workers are not queen-like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2003-04-01

    Unlike normal (wild type) honey bee ( Apis mellifera) colonies, 'anarchistic' colonies are characterised by workers that activate their ovaries in the presence of the queen and brood and by the ability of their workers to lay eggs that evade worker policing. In the Cape honey bee ( A. m. capensis), female larvae can manipulate non- capensis nurse workers such that they receive more larval food and develop into worker-queen intermediates or intercastes. We speculated that, in anarchistic colonies, larvae might produce signals that result in excessive feeding of female larvae. Excessively fed female larvae may then develop into reproductively active workers. In this study we cross-fostered anarchistic and wild type brood and investigated the effect of cross-fostering on the amount of food fed to larvae and on the morphology of the resulting workers. We show that anarchistic larvae do not manipulate wild type nurse workers into feeding them more, nor do anarchistic workers develop into worker-queen intermediates. On the contrary, anarchistic larvae are fed less than wild type larvae and anarchistic workers seem to be poor nurses in that they feed larvae less, irrespective of brood genotype.

  13. Purification and cellular localization of wild type and mutated dihydrolipoyltransacetylases from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli expressed in E. coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, Egbert; Westphal, Adrie H.; Veenhuis, Marten; Kok, Arie de

    1992-01-01

    Wild type dihydrolipoyltransacetylase(E2p)-components from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of A. vinelandii or E. coli, and mutants of A. vinelandii E2p with stepwise deletions of the lipoyl domains or the alanine- and proline-rich region between the binding and the catalytic domain have been

  14. Effects of social stress and intrauterine position on sexual phenotype in wild-type house mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John G. Vandenbergh; Monica M. Montano

    1991-01-01

    Wild-type house mice were used to test the effect of intrauterine position on anogenital distance (AGD) and to verify whether crowding stress would masculinize female pups, developing at all intrauterine positions, as has been demonstrated in CF-1 mice stressed by restraint, heat, and...

  15. 5-FU Based Maintenance Therapy in RAS Wild Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer After Induction With FOLFOX Plus Panitumumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-17

    Colorectal Adenocarcinoma; RAS Wild Type; Stage III Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  16. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV...

  17. [Study of the effect of 2 inhibitors of nucleotide synthesis, aminopterin and fluorodeoxyuridine, on wild type strains and vestigial mutants in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Menn, A; Silber, J; Goux, J M

    1983-01-01

    Two inhibitors of nucleotide metabolism, aminopterin and FUdR, were tested on a wild type strain, on two mutant strains: vg and vgnp, and on a vg strain with the wild type genetic background. Without inhibitors, a lengthening of the developing time was observed for the mutant strains compared to the wild type. With aminopterin, larval mortality and lengthening of developing time are significantly higher in the wild type than in the mutant strains. Mutant strains seemed to be resistant to low concentrations of FUdR. The hypothesis of a perturbed pyrimidine metabolism in the mutants seems to be confirmed.

  18. Experimental analysis of an effect of the nutrient type and its concentration on the rheological properties of the baker’s yeast suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Godlewska Marta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study presented was to experimentally analyze an effect of the nutrient type and its concentration on the variability of rheological properties of the baker’s yeast suspensions for different time periods. Aqueous suspensions of the baker’s yeast of various concentration (solution I, without nutrient and yeasts suspended in aqueous solution of sucrose or honey as nutrients with different concentration (solution II or solution III were tested. Experiments were carried out using rotational rheoviscometer of type RT10 by a company HAAKE. The measurements were conducted for different time periods (from 1 h up to 144 h at given fluid temperature. On the basis of the obtained data, rheological characteristics of the aqueous solution of baker’s yeast suspensions without and with nutrients of different sucrose or honey concentration were identified and mathematically described.

  19. Disappearance of GFP-positive hepatocytes transplanted into the liver of syngeneic wild-type rats pretreated with retrorsine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Wang, Yongchun; Fu, Yingxin; Wesson, Russell N; Lin, Qing; Montgomery, Robert A; Enzan, Hideaki; Sun, Zhaoli

    2014-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a widely used molecular tag to trace transplanted cells in rodent liver injury models. The differing results from various previously reported studies using GFP could be attributed to the immunogenicity of GFP. Hepatocytes were obtained from GFP-expressing transgenic (Tg) Lewis rats and were transplanted into the livers of wild-type Lewis rats after they had undergone a partial hepatectomy. The proliferation of endogenous hepatocytes in recipient rats was inhibited by pretreatment with retrorsine to enhance the proliferation of the transplanted hepatocytes. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes into GFP-Tg rat liver was also performed for comparison. All biopsy specimens taken seven days after transplantation showed engraftment of transplanted hepatocytes, with the numbers of transplanted hepatocytes increasing until day 14. GFP-positive hepatocytes in wild-type rat livers were decreased by day 28 and could not be detected on day 42, whereas the number of wild-type hepatocytes steadily increased in GFP-Tg rat liver. Histological examination showed degenerative change of GFP-positive hepatocytes and the accumulation of infiltrating cells on day 28. PCR analysis for the GFP transgene suggested that transplanted hepatocytes were eliminated rather than being retained along with the loss of GFP expression. Both modification of the immunological response using tacrolimus and bone marrow transplantation prolonged the survival of GFP-positive hepatocytes. In contrast, host immunization with GFP-positive hepatocytes led to complete loss of GFP-positive hepatocytes by day 14. GFP-positive hepatocytes isolated from GFP-Tg Lewis rats did not survive long term in the livers of retrorsine-pretreated wild-type Lewis rats. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon most likely involves an immunological reaction against GFP. The influence of GFP immunogenicity on cell transplantation models should be considered in planning in vivo experiments

  20. Evolution after introduction of a novel metabolic pathway consistently leads to restoration of wild-type physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Michael Carroll

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms cope with physiological stressors through acclimatizing mechanisms in the short-term and adaptive mechanisms over evolutionary timescales. During adaptation to an environmental or genetic perturbation, beneficial mutations can generate numerous physiological changes: some will be novel with respect to prior physiological states, while others might either restore acclimatizing responses to a wild-type state, reinforce them further, or leave them unchanged. We examined the interplay of acclimatizing and adaptive responses at the level of global gene expression in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 engineered with a novel central metabolism. Replacing central metabolism with a distinct, foreign pathway resulted in much slower growth than wild-type. After 600 generations of adaptation, however, eight replicate populations founded from this engineered ancestor had improved up to 2.5-fold. A comparison of global gene expression in wild-type, engineered, and all eight evolved strains revealed that the vast majority of changes during physiological adaptation effectively restored acclimatizing processes to wild-type expression states. On average, 93% of expression perturbations from the engineered strain were restored, with 70% of these occurring in perfect parallel across all eight replicate populations. Novel changes were common but typically restricted to one or a few lineages, and reinforcing changes were quite rare. Despite this, cases in which expression was novel or reinforced in parallel were enriched for loci harboring beneficial mutations. One case of parallel, reinforced changes was the pntAB transhydrogenase that uses NADH to reduce NADP(+ to NADPH. We show that PntAB activity was highly correlated with the restoration of NAD(H and NADP(H pools perturbed in the engineered strain to wild-type levels, and with improved growth. These results suggest that much of the evolved response to genetic perturbation was a consequence rather than a

  1. Anthelmintic effect of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta on wild-type and Levamisole-resistant Caenorhabditis elegans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Vázquez, Denia M; Mayoral-Peña, Zyanya; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Arellano-Carbajal, Fausto

    2017-04-18

    Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta have been used traditionally to treat gastrointestinal parasites, but their active metabolites and mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. To evaluate the anthelmintic potential of Psidium guajava and Tagetes erecta extracts on Levamisole-sensitive and Levamisole-resistant strains of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Aqueous extracts of Psidium guajava (PGE) and Tagetes erecta (TEE) were assayed on locomotion and egg-laying behaviors of the wild-type (N2) and Levamisole-resistant (CB193) strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. Both extracts paralyzed wild-type and Levamisole-resistant nematodes in a dose-dependent manner. In wild-type worms, TEE 25mg/mL induced a 75% paralysis after 8h of treatment and PGE 25mg/mL induced a 100% paralysis after 4h of treatment. PGE exerted a similar paralyzing effect on N2 wild-type and CB193 Levamisole-resistant worms, while TEE only partially paralyzed CB193 worms. TEE 25mg/mL decreased N2 egg-laying by 65% with respect to the untreated control, while PGE did it by 40%. Psidium guajava leaves and Tagetes erecta flower-heads possess hydrosoluble compounds that block the motility of Caenorhabditis elegans by a mechanism different to that of the anthelmintic drug Levamisole. Effects are also observable on oviposition, which was diminished in the wild-type worms. The strong anthelmintic effects in crude extracts of these plants warrants future work to identify their active compounds and to elucidate their molecular mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene expression profiling of the retina after transcorneal electrical stimulation in wild-type Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Gabriel; Schäferhoff, Karin; Fischer, Manuel D; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca; Bolz, Sylvia; Naycheva, Lubka; Röck, Tobias; Bonin, Michael; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Zrenner, Eberhart; Schatz, Andreas; Gekeler, Florian

    2011-09-29

    Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) has been beneficial in several neurodegenerative ocular diseases, but the exact mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TES on the retinas of wild-type Brown Norway (BN) rats by gene expression profiling and to assess its effects on retinal function and morphology. TES was applied to BN wild-type rat retinas in vivo for 1 hour (1-ms biphasic pulses at 20 Hz; 200 μA). RNA was isolated and processed for microarray-based profiling 4 hours after TES; differentially expressed genes from TES compared with those from sham-treated animals were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the effect of TES was assessed at the structural and functional levels using electroretinography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, optical coherence tomography, and immunohistochemistry. Transcriptome changes associated with TES versus sham-stimulated BN wild-type retina were identified. Four hundred ninety genes were differentially expressed in TES and included potentially neuroprotective genes such as Bax or members of the tumor necrosis factor family (Tnfrsf11b, Tnrsf12a, Tnfsf13b, Tnfsf13). ERG recordings showed physiological retinal function after TES, and structural in vivo and ex vivo studies revealed intact retinal anatomy. These results demonstrate that TES applied to the retina of the wild-type BN rats induces distinct transcriptome level changes and may help in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying TES. In addition, TES treatment indicates no negative effect on structure and function of the wild-type BN retina up to 35 hours after application.

  3. Stimulus control by 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J C; Amorosi, D J; Rice, Kenner C; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-09-01

    In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The two groups did not differ in their rate of acquisition of stimulus control. When tested with bufotenine, no 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding was observed. In contrast, the more lipid soluble analog of bufotenine, acetylbufotenine, was followed by an intermediate level of responding. The combination of harmaline with 5-MeO-DMT yielded a statistically significant increase in 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice; a comparable increase occurred in wild-type mice. In addition, it was noted that harmaline alone was followed by a significant degree of 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. It is concluded that wild-type and Tg-CYPD2D6 mice do not differ in terms of acquisition of stimulus control by 5-MeO-DMT or in their response to bufotenine and acetylbufotenine. In both groups of mice, harmaline was found to enhance the stimulus effects of 5-MeO-DMT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stimulus control by 5methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. C.; Amorosi, D. J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies we have observed that, in comparison with wild type mice, Tg-CYP2D6 mice have increased serum levels of bufotenine [5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine] following the administration of 5-MeO-DMT. Furthermore, following the injection of 5-MeO-DMT, harmaline was observed to increase serum levels of bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT in both wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. In the present investigation, 5-MeO-DMT-induced stimulus control was established in wild-type and Tg-CYP2D6 mice. The two groups did not differ in their rate of acquisition of stimulus control. When tested with bufotenine, no 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding was observed. In contrast, the more lipid soluble analog of bufotenine, acetylbufotenine, was followed by an intermediate level of responding. The combination of harmaline with 5-MeO-DMT yielded a statistically significant increase in 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice; a comparable increase occurred in wild-type mice. In addition, it was noted that harmaline alone was followed by a significant degree of 5-MeO-DMT-appropriate responding in Tg-CYP2D6 mice. It is concluded that wild-type and Tg-CYPD2D6 mice do not differ in terms of acquisition of stimulus control by 5-MeO-DMT or in their response to bufotenine and acetylbufotenine. In both groups of mice, harmaline was found to enhance the stimulus effects of 5-MeO-DMT. PMID:21624387

  5. Panitumumab and Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in Platinum-Resistant Epithelial Ovarian Cancer With KRAS Wild-Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Pallisgård, Niels

    2013-01-01

    cancer patients treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) supplemented with panitumumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Major eligibility criteria were relapsed ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with platinum-resistant disease, measurable disease by GCIG CA125 criteria and KRAS wild......OBJECTIVE: The increasing number of negative trials for ovarian cancer treatment has prompted an evaluation of new biologic agents, which in combination with chemotherapy may improve survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild-type ovarian...

  6. Replication of echo virus type 25 JV-4 reference strain and wild type strains in MRC5 cells compared with that of poliovirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, J L; Chambon, M; Peigue-Lafeuille, H; Charbonné, F

    1994-01-01

    In echo virus type 25/JV-4 the shut off of host cell protein synthesis took significantly longer and the kinetics of the synthesis of viral proteins and viral RNA occurred much later than in the poliovirus. However, these characteristics impaired neither polyprotein processing nor virus production in the JV-4 strain. In contrast the two wild strains M.1262 and Th.222 had a lower virus yield than strain JV-4. The presence of a high Mr protein in the pattern of viral proteins of wild strains suggested that a defect in the polyprotein processing was responsible for the decreased virus yield. The infectious cycle of strain Th.222 differed from that of strains JV-4 and M.1262 in the rapid inhibition of host cell translation and the extent of viral protein synthesis. The sensitivity to actinomycin D was also investigated. Strain M.1262 was found to be insensitive. The virus yield of strains JV-4 and Th.222 was three- and fourfold lower respectively in the presence of actinomycin D. This sensitivity to the antibiotic was observed during viral RNA synthesis in strain JV-4 and during viral protein synthesis in strain Th.222. These results suggest that cellular factors are involved in the replication of echo virus type 25 strains in MRC5 cells.

  7. Efficient mannitol production by wild-type Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 is attained at constant pH using a simplified culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Raya, Raúl R; Mozzi, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Mannitol is a natural polyol with multiple industrial applications. In this work, mannitol production by Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1101 was studied at free- and controlled-pH (6.0-4.8) fermentations using a simplified culture medium containing yeast and beef extracts and sugarcane molasses. The activity of mannitol 2-dehydrogenase (MDH), the enzyme responsible for mannitol synthesis, was determined. The effect of the initial biomass concentration was further studied. Mannitol production (41.5 ± 1.1 g/l), volumetric productivity (Q Mtl 1.73 ± 0.05 g/l h), and yield (Y Mtl 105 ± 11 %) were maximum at pH 5.0 after 24 h while the highest MDH activity (1.66 ± 0.09 U/mg protein) was obtained at pH 6.0. No correlation between mannitol production and MDH activity was observed when varying the culture pH. The increase (up to 2000-fold) in the initial biomass concentration did not improve mannitol formation after 24 h although a 2-fold higher amount was produced at 8 h using 1 or 2 g cell dry weight/l comparing to the control (0.001 g cell dry weight/l). Finally, mannitol isolation under optimum fermentation conditions was achieved. The mannitol production obtained in this study is the highest reported so far by a wild-type L. reuteri strain and, more interestingly, using a simplified culture medium.

  8. Determination of mutated genes in the presence of wild-type DNA by using molecular beacons as probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghua; Ai, Junjie; Gu, Qiaorong; Gao, Qiang; Qi, Honglan; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2017-03-01

    Low-abundance mutations in the presence of wild-type DNA can be determined using molecular beacon (MB) as probe. A MB is generally used as DNA probe because it can distinguish single-base mismatched target DNA from fully matched target DNA. However, the probe can not determine low-abundance mutations in the presence of wild-type DNA. In this study, this limitation is addressed by enhancing the stability of unpaired base-containing dsDNA with a hydrogen-bonding ligand, which was added after hybridization of the MB to the target DNA. The ligand formed hydrogen bonds with unpaired bases and stabilized the unpaired base-containing dsDNA if target DNA is mutated one. As a result, more MBs were opened by the mutant genes in the presence of the ligand and a further increase in the fluorescence intensity was obtained. By contrast, fluorescence intensity did not change if target DNA is wild-type one. Consequent increase in the fluorescence intensity of the MB was regarded as a signal derived from mutant genes. The proposed method was applied in synthetic template systems to determine point mutation in DNA obtained from PCR analysis. The method also allows rapid and simple discrimination of a signal if it is originated in the presence of mutant gene or alternatively by a lower concentration of wild gene.

  9. Sexual dimorphism in oxidant-induced adaptive homeostasis in multiple wild-type D. melanogaster strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomatto, Laura C D; Wong, Sarah; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2017-12-15

    Sexual dimorphism includes the physical and reproductive differences between the sexes, including differences that are conserved across species, ranging from the common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to humans. Sex-dependent variations in adaptive homeostasis, and adaptive stress responses may offer insight into the underlying mechanisms for male and female survival differences and into differences in chronic disease incidence and severity in humans. Earlier work showed sex-specific differences in adaptive responses to oxidative stressors in hybrid laboratory strains of D. melanogaster. The present study explored whether this phenomenon is also observed in wild-type D. melanogaster strains Oregon-R (Or-R) and Canton-S (Ca-S), as well as the common mutant reference strain w[1118], in order to better understand whether such findings are descriptive of D. melanogaster in general. Flies of each strain were pretreated with non-damaging, adaptive concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or of different redox cycling agents (paraquat, DMNQ, or menadione). Adaptive homeostasis, and changes in the expression of the Proteasome and overall cellular proteasomal proteolytic capacity were assessed. Redox cycling agents exhibited a male-specific adaptive response, whereas H2O2 exposure provoked female-specific adaptation. These findings demonstrate that different oxidants can elicit sexually dimorphic adaptive homeostatic responses in multiple fly strains. These results (and those contained in a parallel study [1]) highlight the need to address sex as a biological variable in fundamental science, clinical research, and toxicology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spaceflight influences both mucosal and peripheral cytokine production in PTN-Tg and wild type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L McCarville

    Full Text Available Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS aboard the International Space Station (ISS over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2 and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.

  11. Differences in Establishment of Persistence of Vaccine and Wild Type Rubella Viruses in Fetal Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Perelygina

    Full Text Available Both wild type (WT and vaccine rubella virus (RV can pass through the placenta to infect a human fetus, but only wtRV routinely causes pathology. To investigate possible reasons for this, we compared establishment of persistence of wtRV and RA27/3 vaccine strains in fetal endothelial cells. We showed that yields of RA27/3 and wtRV were similar after the first round of replication, but then only vaccine-infected cultures went through a crisis characterized by partial cell loss and gradual decline of virus titer followed by recovery and establishment of persistent cultures with low levels of RA27/3 secretion. We compared various steps of virus replication, but we were unable to identify changes, which might explain the 2-log difference in RA27/3 and wtRV yields in persistently infected cultures. Whole genome sequencing did not reveal selection of virus variants in either the wtRV or RA27/3 cultures. Quantitative single-cell analysis of RV replication by in situ hybridization detected, on average, 1-4 copies of negative-strand RNA and ~50 copies of positive-strand genomic RNA in cells infected with both vaccine and WT viruses. The distinct characteristics of RA27/3 replication were the presence of large amounts of negative-strand RV RNA and RV dsRNA at the beginning of the crisis and the accumulation of high amounts of genomic RNA in a subpopulation of infected cells during crisis and persistence. These results suggest that RA27/3 can persist in fetal endothelial cells, but the characteristics of persistence and mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of persistence are different from wtRV.

  12. Differences in Establishment of Persistence of Vaccine and Wild Type Rubella Viruses in Fetal Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelygina, Ludmila; Adebayo, Adebola; Metcalfe, Maureen; Icenogle, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Both wild type (WT) and vaccine rubella virus (RV) can pass through the placenta to infect a human fetus, but only wtRV routinely causes pathology. To investigate possible reasons for this, we compared establishment of persistence of wtRV and RA27/3 vaccine strains in fetal endothelial cells. We showed that yields of RA27/3 and wtRV were similar after the first round of replication, but then only vaccine-infected cultures went through a crisis characterized by partial cell loss and gradual decline of virus titer followed by recovery and establishment of persistent cultures with low levels of RA27/3 secretion. We compared various steps of virus replication, but we were unable to identify changes, which might explain the 2-log difference in RA27/3 and wtRV yields in persistently infected cultures. Whole genome sequencing did not reveal selection of virus variants in either the wtRV or RA27/3 cultures. Quantitative single-cell analysis of RV replication by in situ hybridization detected, on average, 1-4 copies of negative-strand RNA and ~50 copies of positive-strand genomic RNA in cells infected with both vaccine and WT viruses. The distinct characteristics of RA27/3 replication were the presence of large amounts of negative-strand RV RNA and RV dsRNA at the beginning of the crisis and the accumulation of high amounts of genomic RNA in a subpopulation of infected cells during crisis and persistence. These results suggest that RA27/3 can persist in fetal endothelial cells, but the characteristics of persistence and mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of persistence are different from wtRV.

  13. Largely different contents of terpenoids in beef red-flesh tangerine and its wild type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyun; Liu, Cuihua; He, Min; Li, Jinqiang; Cai, Yongqiang; Ma, Yuhua; Xu, Juan

    2017-02-03

    Niurouhong (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Niurouhong) (NRH) is a spontaneous beef-red flesh mutant with distinctive flavor compared with its wild type orange-red flesh Zhuhongju (ZHJ). To illustrate the biochemical mechanism of its special flesh color and flavor, fruits at commercial mature stage were used to profile the volatiles in the flavedo and determine the levels of carotenoids, limonoid aglycones and phytohormones in the juice sacs in two seasons. Our results showed the content of total volatile terpenoids in NRH was 1.27-fold that in ZHJ. The components of volatiles were found to be common between the two tangerines. This result indicates that the distinctive flavor of NRH might not be derived from the presence/absence of specific volatiles; instead, it was derived from the altered concentrations or balance of α-citral, β-citral, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, (S)-3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl) and n-hexadecanoic acid. Analyses of the contents of total and specific carotenoids indicated that the beef-red color of NRH flesh might be largely attributed to the over accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. However, lower ABA level was found in NRH than in ZHJ, reflecting a possible feedback regulation of ABA biosynthesis on carotenogenesis and the balance in the metabolism among terpenoids. Collectively, our study suggested that the MEP pathway was enhanced in NRH tangerine. However, a certain unknown co-regulatory mechanism might be present in the metabolism pathway of secondary metabolites (especially terpenoids) in beef-red flesh mutant. Our study provides new insights into the regulatory network of terpenoid metabolism and mutation mechanism of red-fleshed citrus.

  14. Interactions between wild-type and mutant Ras genes in lung and skin carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, M D; Rosario, R D; Westcott, P M K; Banta, K L; Balmain, A

    2013-08-22

    Ras oncogenes (Hras, Kras and Nras) are important drivers of carcinogenesis. However, tumors with Ras mutations often show loss of the corresponding wild-type (WT) allele, suggesting that proto-oncogenic forms of Ras can function as a suppressor of carcinogenesis. In vitro studies also suggest that WT Ras proteins can suppress the tumorigenic properties of alternate mutant Ras family members, but in vivo evidence for these heterologous interactions is lacking. We have investigated the genetic interactions between different combinations of mutant and WT Ras alleles in vivo using carcinogen-induced lung and skin carcinogenesis in mice with targeted deletion of different Ras family members. The major suppressor effect of WT Kras is observed only in mutant Kras-driven lung carcinogenesis, where loss of one Kras allele led to increased tumor number and size. Deletion of one Hras allele dramatically reduced the number of skin papillomas with Hras mutations, consistent with Hras as the major target of mutation in these tumors. However, skin carcinoma numbers were very similar, suggesting that WT Hras functions as a suppressor of progression from papillomas to invasive squamous carcinomas. In the skin, the Kras proto-oncogene functions cooperatively with mutant Hras to promote papilloma development, although the effect is relatively small. In contrast, the Hras proto-oncogene attenuated the activity of mutant Kras in lung carcinogenesis. Interestingly, loss of Nras increased the number of mutant Kras-induced lung tumors, but decreased the number of mutant Hras-induced skin papillomas. These results show that the strongest suppressor effects of WT Ras are only seen in the context of mutation of the cognate Ras protein, and only relatively weak effects are detected on tumor development induced by mutations in alternative family members. The data also underscore the complex and context-dependent nature of interactions between proto-oncogenic and oncogenic forms of different

  15. Spaceflight influences both mucosal and peripheral cytokine production in PTN-Tg and wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, Justin L; Clarke, Sandra T; Shastri, Padmaja; Liu, Yi; Kalmokoff, Martin; Brooks, Stephen P J; Green-Johnson, Julia M

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight is associated with several health issues including diminished immune efficiency. Effects of long-term spaceflight on selected immune parameters of wild type (Wt) and transgenic mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the human bone-specific osteocalcin promoter (PTN-Tg) were examined using the novel Mouse Drawer System (MDS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) over a 91 day period. Effects of this long duration flight on PTN-Tg and Wt mice were determined in comparison to ground controls and vivarium-housed PTN-Tg and Wt mice. Levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) were measured in mucosal and systemic tissues of Wt and PTN-Tg mice. Colonic contents were also analyzed to assess potential effects on the gut microbiota, although no firm conclusions could be made due to constraints imposed by the MDS payload and the time of sampling. Spaceflight-associated differences were observed in colonic tissue and systemic lymph node levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 relative to ground controls. Total colonic TGF-β1 levels were lower in Wt and PTN-Tg flight mice in comparison to ground controls. The Wt flight mouse had lower levels of IL-2 and TGF-β1 compared to the Wt ground control in both the inguinal and brachial lymph nodes, however this pattern was not consistently observed in PTN-Tg mice. Vivarium-housed Wt controls had higher levels of active TGF-β1 and IL-2 in inguinal lymph nodes relative to PTN-Tg mice. The results of this study suggest compartmentalized effects of spaceflight and on immune parameters in mice.

  16. Wild-type APC predicts poor prognosis in microsatellite-stable proximal colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, Robert N; Christie, Michael; Mouradov, Dmitri; Sakthianandeswaren, Anuratha; Li, Shan; Love, Christopher; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Molloy, Peter L; Jones, Ian T; McLaughlin, Stephen; Ward, Robyn L; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Moore, James; Burgess, Antony W; Busam, Dana; Zhao, Qi; Strausberg, Robert L; Lipton, Lara; Desai, Jayesh; Gibbs, Peter; Sieber, Oliver M

    2015-09-15

    APC mutations (APC-mt) occur in ∼70% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but their relationship to prognosis is unclear. APC prognostic value was evaluated in 746 stage I-IV CRC patients, stratifying for tumour location and microsatellite instability (MSI). Microarrays were used to identify a gene signature that could classify APC mutation status, and classifier ability to predict prognosis was examined in an independent cohort. Wild-type APC microsatellite stable (APC-wt/MSS) tumours from the proximal colon showed poorer overall and recurrence-free survival (OS, RFS) than APC-mt/MSS proximal, APC-wt/MSS distal and APC-mt/MSS distal tumours (OS HR⩾1.79, P⩽0.015; RFS HR⩾1.88, P⩽0.026). APC was a stronger prognostic indicator than BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53, CpG island methylator phenotype or chromosomal instability status (P⩽0.036). Microarray analysis similarly revealed poorer survival in MSS proximal cancers with an APC-wt-like signature (P=0.019). APC status did not affect outcomes in MSI tumours. In a validation on 206 patients with proximal colon cancer, APC-wt-like signature MSS cases showed poorer survival than APC-mt-like signature MSS or MSI cases (OS HR⩾2.50, P⩽0.010; RFS HR⩾2.14, P⩽0.025). Poor prognosis APC-wt/MSS proximal tumours exhibited features of the sessile serrated neoplasia pathway (P⩽0.016). APC-wt status is a marker of poor prognosis in MSS proximal colon cancer.

  17. Interaction between Yeast Cdc6 Protein and B-Type Cyclin/Cdc28 Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Elsasser, S; Lou, F; Wang, B.; Campbell, J L; de Jong, A.

    1996-01-01

    During purification of recombinant Cdc6 expressed in yeast, we found that Cdc6 interacts with the critical cell cycle, cyclin-dependent protein kinase Cdc28. Cdc6 and Cdc28 can be coimmunoprecipitated from extracts, Cdc6 is retained on the Cdc28-binding matrix p13-agarose, and Cdc28 is retained on an affinity column charged with bacterially produced Cdc6. Cdc6, which is a phosphoprotein in vivo, contains five Cdc28 consensus sites and is a substrate of the Cdc28 kinase in vitro. Cdc6 also inh...

  18. Attachment capability of antagonistic yeast Rhodotorula glutinis to Botrytis cinerea contributes to biocontrol efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boqiang eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodotorula glutinis as an antagonism show good biocontrol performance against various postharvest diseases in fruits. In the present study, strong attachment capability of R. glutinis to spores and hyphae of Botrytis cinerea was observed. Further analysis showed that certain protein components on the yeast cell surface played critical role during the interaction between R. glutinis and B. cinerea. The components mainly distributed at the poles of yeast cells and might contain glycosylation modification, as tunicamycin treated yeast cells lost attachment capability to B. cinerea. To investigate contributions of attachment capability of R. glutinis to its biocontrol efficacy, yeast cells were mutagenized with 3% methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMS, and a mutant CE4 with stable non-attaching phenotype was obtained. No significant difference was found on colony, cell morphology, reproductive ability and capsule formation between the mutant and wild type. However, there was a distinct difference in India ink positive staining patterns between the two strains. Moreover, wild type strain of R. glutinis showed better performance on inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea than CE4 strain when yeast cells and B. cinerea were co-cultured in vitro. In biocontrol assay, both wild type and CE4 strains showed significant biocontrol efficacy against gray mould caused by B. cinerea in apple fruit, whereas, control effect of CE4 strain was lower than that of wild type. Our findings provided new evidences that attachment capability of R. glutinis to B. cinerea contributed to its biocontrol efficacy.

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to type A influenza virus in wild avian species using two serologic assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D.; Luttrell, M. Page; Berghaus, Roy D.; Kistler, Whitney; Keeler, Shamus P.; Howey, Andrea; Wilcox, Benjamin; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Niles, Larry; Dey, Amanda; Knutsen, Gregory; Fritz, Kristen; Stallknecht, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Serologic testing to detect antibodies to avian influenza (AI) virus has been an underused tool for the study of these viruses in wild bird populations, which traditionally has relied on virus isolation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a preliminary study, a recently developed commercial blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) had sensitivity and specificity estimates of 82% and 100%, respectively, for detection of antibodies to AI virus in multiple wild bird species after experimental infection. To further evaluate the efficacy of this commercial bELISA and the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test for AI virus antibody detection in wild birds, we tested 2,249 serum samples collected from 62 wild bird species, representing 10 taxonomic orders. Overall, the bELISA detected 25.4% positive samples, whereas the AGID test detected 14.8%. At the species level, the bELISA detected as many or more positive serum samples than the AGID in all 62 avian species. The majority of positive samples, detected by both assays, were from species that use aquatic habitats, with the highest prevalence from species in the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes. Conversely, antibodies to AI virus were rarely detected in the terrestrial species. The serologic data yielded by both assays are consistent with the known epidemiology of AI virus in wild birds and published reports of host range based on virus isolation and RT-PCR. The results of this research are also consistent with the aforementioned study, which evaluated the performance of the bELISA and AGID test on experimental samples. Collectively, the data from these two studies indicate that the bELISA is a more sensitive serologic assay than the AGID test for detecting prior exposure to AI virus in wild birds. Based on these results, the bELISA is a reliable species-independent assay with potentially valuable applications for wild bird AI surveillance.

  20. Biocavity laser spectroscopy of genetically altered yeast cells and isolated yeast mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Copeland, R. Guild; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

    2006-02-01

    We report an analysis of 2 yeast cell mutants using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The two yeast strains differed only by the presence or absence of mitochondrial DNA. Strain 104 is a wild-type (ρ +) strain of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strain 110 was derived from strain 104 by removal of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Removal of mtDNA causes strain 110 to grow as a "petite" (ρ -), named because it forms small colonies (of fewer cells because it grows more slowly) on agar plates supplemented with a variety of different carbon sources. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes a and b. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack the normal respiratory chain complexes I, III, IV, and V. Complex II is preserved because its subunits are encoded by genes located in nuclear DNA. The frequency distributions of the peak shifts produced by wild-type and petite cells and mitochondria show striking differences in the symmetry and patterns of the distributions. Wild-type ρ + cells (104) and mitochondria produced nearly symmetric, Gaussian distributions. The ρ - cells (110) and mitochondria showed striking asymmetry and skew that appeared to follow a Poisson distribution.

  1. Quantitation of circulating wild-type alpha-1-antitrypsin in heterozygous carriers of the S and Z deficiency alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, L J; Karras, R M; Katzmann, J A; Murray, D L; Snyder, M R

    2015-08-05

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency disease results from mutations in the A1AT gene. Controversy exists in regards to treatment of heterozygous carriers of the S and Z deficiency alleles. Quantitation of allelic expression has not been possible with standard laboratory methods. Here we show that the recently described method for liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of A1AT tryptic peptides can differentiate between mutated (S and Z) and wild-type (non-S and non-Z) proteins allowing for quantitation of circulating allelic expression in heterozygous patients. Serum (244 M/M, 61 M/Z, and 63 M/S) was combined with isotopically labeled peptide standards, digested with trypsin, and quantitated by LC-MS/MS. Total and allele-specific A1AT quantitation was performed by comparison of peptide peak height ratios to a standard curve for each peptide. Linear regression was used to compare results and central 95(th) percentile intervals were calculated using parametric analysis. Quantitation of circulating wild-type A1AT based on the proteotypic and allelic (non-S and non-Z) peptides was validated in M/M patients. Proteotypic peptide concentrations correlated linearly with quantitation by non-Z and non-S peptides [slopes (Spearman correlation coefficient) of 1.09 (0.89) and 0.98 (0.80), respectively]. Allele-specific quantitation showed significant differences in wild-type protein expression in M/Z and M/S patients. Although average total A1AT concentration was lower for M/Z patients, the percentage of wild-type protein in M/Z patients was significantly higher at 82 % (55- > 95 %) compared to 63 % (43-83 %) for M/S heterozygotes. In a cohort of M/Z patients with sufficient total A1AT (≥80 mg/dL), half had insufficient wild-type protein that could have clinical implications for pulmonary dysfunction. For the first time, a method to quantitate A1AT allele protein expression is described. Given the wide range of circulating wild-type protein

  2. BRAF wild-type melanoma in situ arising in a BRAF V600E mutant dysplastic nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jean-Marie; Lin, Lynlee L; Lambie, Duncan; Flewell-Smith, Ross; Jagirdar, Kasturee; Schaider, Helmut; Sturm, Richard A; Prow, Tarl W; Soyer, H Peter

    2015-04-01

    The BRAF V600E mutation accounts for the majority of BRAF mutations found in cutaneous melanoma and is also commonly found in nevi. We used dermoscopy-targeted sampling and a microbiopsy device coupled with DNA sequence analysis to highlight BRAF V600E heterogeneity within a multicomponent melanocytic proliferation. This sampling technique demonstrates the prospect of in vivo application in a clinical setting. A man in his 50s with Fitzpatrick skin type II presented with an irregularly pigmented melanocytic lesion on his back that met melanoma-specific dermoscopic criteria, and diagnostic shave excision of the lesion was performed. Histopathologic analysis revealed a melanoma in situ arising in a dysplastic nevus. Dermoscopy-targeted microbiopsy specimens were taken across the lesion, and genotyping was carried out on extracted DNA samples for BRAF and NRAS mutations. The melanoma in situ showed only BRAF wild-type results, while the dysplastic nevus showed both BRAF wild-type and BRAF V600E mutations. Sequencing in all DNA samples revealed NRAS wild-type genotype. Dermoscopy-targeted sampling and genotyping of a melanoma in situ arising in a dysplastic nevus revealed a phenotype-genotype paradox that confounds the exclusive significance of BRAF and NRAS mutations in melanoma pathogenesis. Further studies are required to investigate the importance of other candidate genes linked to melanomagenesis.

  3. Regulation of interferon signaling by the C and V proteins from attenuated and wild-type strains of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Judith M; Bankamp, Bettina; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2008-04-25

    The C and V proteins of the measles virus (MV) have been shown to block the signaling of type I and II interferon (IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma). The relative contribution of the C and V proteins to the inhibition of IFN signaling and the extent to which this activity differs in attenuated or wild-type strains of MV remains undefined. This study presents a comparison of the IFN-antagonist activities of C and V proteins from four attenuated and two wild-type strains of MV. The V proteins were more potent inhibitors of IFN-inducible reporter gene expression than the C proteins, and this effect was unrelated to whether the protein originated from an attenuated or wild-type strain. The results also demonstrated the importance of the tyrosine at position 110 in the inhibition of IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma signaling by the V protein, and identified a non-recombinant MV expressing a V protein that was impaired due to a mutation at this residue.

  4. Double-strand breaks are not the main cause of spontaneous sister chromatid exchange in wild-type yeast cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claussin, Clemence; Porubský, David; Spierings, Diana; Halsema, Nancy; Rentas, Stefan; Guryev, Victor; Lansdorp, Peter; Chang, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination involving sister chromatids is the most accurate, and thus most frequently used, form of recombination-mediated DNA repair. Despite its importance, sister chromatid recombination is not easily studied because it does not result in a change in DNA sequence, making

  5. IFN-{gamma} enhances neurogenesis in wild-type mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Rona; Nemirovsky, Anna; Harpaz, Idan

    2008-01-01

    the spatial learning and memory performance of the animals. In older mice, the effect of IFN-gamma is more pronounced in both wild-type mice and mice with Alzheimer's-like disease and is associated with neuroprotection. In addition, IFN-gamma reverses the increase in oligodendrogenesis observed in a mouse...... model of Alzheimer's disease. We demonstrate that limited amounts of IFN-gamma in the brain shape the neuropoietic milieu to enhance neurogenesis, possibly representing the normal function of the immune system in controlling brain inflammation and repair.-Baron, R., Nemirovsky, A., Harpaz, I., Cohen, H......., Owens, T., Monsonego, A. IFN-gamma enhances neurogenesis in wild-type mice and in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease....

  6. Cadmium tolerance, cysteine and thiol peptide levels in wild type and chromium-tolerant strains of Scenedesmus acutus (Chlorophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Elena; Gorbi, Gessica; Pawlik-Skowronska, Barbara; Di Toppi, Luigi Sanita; Corradi, Maria Grazia

    2004-07-14

    Two strains of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus acutus with different sensitivity to hexavalent chromium were compared for their tolerance of cadmium, by means of growth and recovery tests, and determination of cysteine, reduced glutathione and phytochelatin content, after short-term exposure to various cadmium concentrations (from 1.125 to 27 {mu}M). Growth experiments showed that, after 7-day treatments with cadmium, the chromium-tolerant strain reached a significantly higher cell density and, after 24-h exposure to Cd, was able to resume growth significantly better than the wild type. Constitutive level of cysteine was higher in the chromium-tolerant strain, while glutathione levels were similar in the two strains. The higher content of cysteine and the maintenance of both reduced glutathione and phytochelatin high levels in the presence of cadmium, support the higher cadmium co-tolerance of the chromium-tolerant strain in comparison with the wild type one.

  7. Wild boars as spore dispersal agents of ectomycorrhizal fungi: consequences for community composition at different habitat types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne-Luzon, Stav; Avidan, Yael; Weber, Gil; Migael, Hen; Bruns, Thomas; Ovadia, Ofer; Shemesh, Hagai

    2017-04-01

    The success of dispersal events depend on the organism's ability to reach and establish in a new habitat. In symbiotic organisms, establishment also depends on the presence of their symbiont partner in the new habitat. For instance, the establishment of obligate ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees outside the forest is largely limited by the presence of EM fungi in soil. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are important dispersal agents of EM fungal spores, particularly in the moderately dry Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to explore how EM fungal spores dispersed by wild boars influence the EM fungal community associated with the roots of Pinus halepensis seedlings at different habitat types. Using a greenhouse bioassay, we grew pine seedlings in two soil types: old-field and forest soils mixed with either natural or autoclaved wild boar feces. In both soils, we observed a community dominated by a few EM fungal species. Geopora (85 %) and Suillus (68 %) species dominated the forest and old-field soils, respectively. The addition of natural wild boar feces increased the abundance of Tuber species in both EM fungal communities. However, this effect was more pronounced in pots with old-field soil, leading to a more even community, equally dominated by both Tuber and Suillus species. In forest soil, Geopora maintained dominance, but decreased in abundance (67 %), due to the addition of Tuber species. Our findings indicate that wild boar feces can be an important source for EM inoculum, especially in habitats poor in EM fungi such as old-fields.

  8. Wild type p53 transcriptionally represses the SALL2 transcription factor under genotoxic stress.

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    Carlos Farkas

    Full Text Available SALL2- a member of the Spalt gene family- is a poorly characterized transcription factor found deregulated in various cancers, which suggests it plays a role in the disease. We previously identified SALL2 as a novel interacting protein of neurotrophin receptors and showed that it plays a role in neuronal function, which does not necessarily explain why or how SALL2 is deregulated in cancer. Previous evidences indicate that SALL2 gene is regulated by the WT1 and AP4 transcription factors. Here, we identified SALL2 as a novel downstream target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Bioinformatic analysis of the SALL2 gene revealed several putative p53 half sites along the promoter region. Either overexpression of wild-type p53 or induction of the endogenous p53 by the genotoxic agent doxorubicin repressed SALL2 promoter activity in various cell lines. However R175H, R249S, and R248W p53 mutants, frequently found in the tumors of cancer patients, were unable to repress SALL2 promoter activity, suggesting that p53 specific binding to DNA is important for the regulation of SALL2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated binding of p53 to one of the identified p53 half sites in the Sall2 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed in vivo interaction of p53 with the promoter region of Sall2 containing this half site. Importantly, by using a p53ER (TAM knockin model expressing a variant of p53 that is completely dependent on 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen for its activity, we show that p53 activation diminished SALL2 RNA and protein levels during genotoxic cellular stress in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs and radiosensitive tissues in vivo. Thus, our finding indicates that p53 represses SALL2 expression in a context-specific manner, adding knowledge to the understanding of SALL2 gene regulation, and to a potential mechanism for its deregulation in cancer.

  9. Wild-type phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a bacterial class II PRS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardala Breda

    Full Text Available The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS. Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of P(i. ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of P(i would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure

  10. Pathology of wild-type and toxin-independent Bacillus anthracis meningitis in rabbits.

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    Assa Sittner

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic meningitis is considered a complication of anthrax and was reported in about 50% of deadly cases in humans and non-human primates (NHP. Recently we demonstrated in Guinea pigs and rabbits that 100% of the B. anthracis-infected animals presented histopathology of meningitis at the time of death, some without any sign of hemorrhage. A similar pathology was observed in animals that succumbed following infection with the toxin deficient mutant, thus indicating that anthrax meningitis is a toxin-independent phenomenon. In this manuscript we describe a histopathological study of the B. anthracis infection of the central nervous system (CNS. Though we could find sporadic growth of the bacteria around blood vessels in the cortex, we report that the main infiltration route is the choroid plexus. We found massive destruction of entire sections of the choroid plexus coupled with massive aggregation of bacilli in the ventricles, in close proximity to the parenchyma. The choroid plexus also contained significant amounts of intravascular bacterial aggregates, often enclosed in what appear to be fibrin-like clots. The high concentration of these aggregates in areas of significant tissue destruction combined with the fact that capsular B. anthracis bacteria have a low tendency to adhere to endothelial cells, might suggest that these clots are used as an adherence mechanism by the bacteria. The major histopathological finding is meningitis. We find massive bacterial growth in the meninges without evidence of encephalitis, even when the bacteria emerge from a parenchymal blood vessel. Erythrocytes were present within the meningeal space but no clear vasculitis could be detected. Histology of the brain stem indicates meningitis, edema and hemorrhages that might explain death from suffocation due to direct damage to the respiratory center. All of these processes are toxin-independent, since they were observed following infection with either the wild

  11. PHEX mimetic (SPR4-peptide corrects and improves HYP and wild type mice energy-metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesya V Zelenchuk

    Full Text Available PHEX or DMP1 mutations cause hypophosphatemic-rickets and altered energy metabolism. PHEX binds to DMP1-ASARM-motif to form a complex with α5β3 integrin that suppresses FGF23 expression. ASARM-peptides increase FGF23 by disrupting the PHEX-DMP1-Integrin complex. We used a 4.2 kDa peptide (SPR4 that binds to ASARM-peptide/motif to study the DMP1-PHEX interaction and to assess SPR4 for the treatment of energy metabolism defects in HYP and potentially other bone-mineral disorders.Subcutaneously transplanted osmotic pumps were used to infuse SPR4-peptide or vehicle (VE into wild-type mice (WT and HYP-mice (PHEX mutation for 4 weeks.SPR4 partially corrected HYP mice hypophosphatemia and increased serum 1.25(OH2D3. Serum FGF23 remained high and PTH was unaffected. WT-SPR4 mice developed hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia with increased PTH, FGF23 and 1.25(OH2D3. SPR4 increased GAPDH HYP-bone expression 60× and corrected HYP-mice hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. HYP-VE serum uric-acid (UA levels were reduced and SPR4 infusion suppressed UA levels in WT-mice but not HYP-mice. SPR4 altered leptin, adiponectin, and sympathetic-tone and increased the fat mass/weight ratio for HYP and WT mice. Expression of perlipin-2 a gene involved in obesity was reduced in HYP-VE and WT-SPR4 mice but increased in HYP-SPR4 mice. Also, increased expression of two genes that inhibit insulin-signaling, ENPP1 and ESP, occurred with HYP-VE mice. In contrast, SPR4 reduced expression of both ENPP1 and ESP in WT mice and suppressed ENPP1 in HYP mice. Increased expression of FAM20C and sclerostin occurred with HYP-VE mice. SPR4 suppressed expression of FAM20C and sclerostin in HYP and WT mice.ASARM peptides and motifs are physiological substrates for PHEX and modulate osteocyte PHEX-DMP1-α5β3-integrin interactions and thereby FGF23 expression. These interactions also provide a nexus that regulates bone and energy metabolism. SPR4 suppression of sclerostin and

  12. Identification of novel protein-protein interactions of Yersinia pestis type III secretion system by yeast two hybrid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Yang

    Full Text Available Type III secretion system (T3SS of the plague bacterium Y. pestis encodes a syringe-like structure consisting of more than 20 proteins, which can inject virulence effectors into host cells to modulate the cellular functions. Here in this report, interactions among the possible components in T3SS of Yersinia pestis were identified using yeast mating technique. A total of 57 genes, including all the pCD1-encoded genes except those involved in plasmid replication and partition, pseudogenes, and the putative transposase genes, were subjected to yeast mating analysis. 21 pairs of interaction proteins were identified, among which 9 pairs had been previously reported and 12 novel pairs were identified in this study. Six of them were tested by GST pull down assay, and interaction pairs of YscG-SycD, YscG-TyeA, YscI-YscF, and YopN-YpCD1.09c were successfully validated, suggesting that these interactions might play potential roles in function of Yersinia T3SS. Several potential new interactions among T3SS components could help to understand the assembly and regulation of Yersinia T3SS.

  13. Expression of the bovine papillomavirus type 1, 2 and 4 L1 genes in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, A L S; Mariz, F C; Souza, H M; Cordeiro, M N; Coimbra, E C; Leitão, M C G; Nascimento, L M; Stocco, R C; Beçak, W; Freitas, A C

    2012-08-16

    Papillomaviruses are known to cause benign or malignant lesions in various animals. In cattle, bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is the etiologic agent of papillomatosis and neoplasia of the upper gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder. Currently, there are no standard diagnostic tests or prophylactic vaccines. Protection against papillomavirus infection is conferred by neutralizing antibodies directed towards the major structural protein L1. These antibodies can be efficiently induced by immunization with virus-like particles that are formed spontaneously after L1 gene expression in recombinant systems. The yeast Pichia pastoris is known to provide an efficient system for expression of proteins due to reduced cost and high levels of protein production. We evaluated P. pastoris for expression of the L1 gene from BPV1, BPV2 and BPV4. After methanol induction, the recombinants were able to produce L1 proteins of the three different BPV types. To increase heterologous L1 protein levels, a codon optimization strategy was used for production under bioreactor conditions. The BPV1 L1 protein was identified by monoclonal antibody anti-6xHis. This is the first report of BPV L1 expression in yeast.

  14. Differential suppression by protease inhibitors and cytokines of apoptosis induced by wild-type p53 and cytotoxic agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Lotem, J; Sachs, L.

    1996-01-01

    Apoptosis induced in myeloid leukemic cells by wild-type p53 was suppressed by different cleavage-site directed protease inhibitors, which inhibit interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme-like, granzyme B and cathepsins B and L proteases. Apoptosis was also suppressed by the serine and cysteine protease inhibitor N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) [corrected], but not by other serine or cysteine protease inhibitors including N alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK), E64, ...

  15. Full Genome Sequence-Based Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piccirillo

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV. Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains. Genomes of three ILTV field isolates from outbreaks occurred in Italy in 1980, 2007 and 2011, and two commercial chicken embryo origin (CEO vaccines were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences technology. The comparison with the Serva genome showed that 35 open reading frames (ORFs differed across the five genomes. Overall, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 27 amino acid differences in 19 ORFs and two insertions in the UL52 and ORFC genes were identified. Similarity among the field strains and between the field and the vaccine strains ranged from 99.96% to 99.99%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship among them, as well. This study generated data on genomic variation among Italian ILTV strains revealing that, even though the genetic variability of the genome is well conserved across time and between wild-type and vaccine strains, some mutations may help in differentiating among them and may be involved in ILTV virulence/attenuation. The results of this study can contribute to the understanding of the molecular bases of ILTV pathogenicity and provide genetic markers to differentiate between wild-type and vaccine strains.

  16. Full Genome Sequence-Based Comparative Study of Wild-Type and Vaccine Strains of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Alessandra; Lavezzo, Enrico; Niero, Giulia; Moreno, Ana; Massi, Paola; Franchin, Elisa; Toppo, Stefano; Salata, Cristiano; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by an alphaherpesvirus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Recently, full genome sequences of wild-type and vaccine strains have been determined worldwide, but none was from Europe. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse the complete genome sequences of five ILTV strains. Sequences were also compared to reveal the similarity of strains across time and to discriminate between wild-type and vaccine strains. Genomes of three ILTV field isolates from outbreaks occurred in Italy in 1980, 2007 and 2011, and two commercial chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences technology. The comparison with the Serva genome showed that 35 open reading frames (ORFs) differed across the five genomes. Overall, 54 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 27 amino acid differences in 19 ORFs and two insertions in the UL52 and ORFC genes were identified. Similarity among the field strains and between the field and the vaccine strains ranged from 99.96% to 99.99%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship among them, as well. This study generated data on genomic variation among Italian ILTV strains revealing that, even though the genetic variability of the genome is well conserved across time and between wild-type and vaccine strains, some mutations may help in differentiating among them and may be involved in ILTV virulence/attenuation. The results of this study can contribute to the understanding of the molecular bases of ILTV pathogenicity and provide genetic markers to differentiate between wild-type and vaccine strains.

  17. Biomarkers predicting resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer with wild-type KRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiang Liu,* Jing Hu,* Lei Cheng, Wei Ren, Mi Yang, Baorui Liu, Li Xie, Xiaoping Qian The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: EGFR pathway is an important therapeutic target in human tumors, including metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. The advent of EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies panitumumab and cetuximab has generated promise for the treatment of mCRC and has largely improved patients’ progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS. However, treatment with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies is only effective in a subset of mCRC patients with wild-type KRAS. This indicates that there are other factors affecting the efficacy of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Existing studies have demonstrated that among colorectal cancer patients with wild-type KRAS, harboring mutations of BRAF, PIK3CA, NRAS, or PTEN-null may demonstrate resistance to anti-EGFR-targeted therapy, and biomarkers detection can provide better-personalized treatment for mCRC patients. How to identify and reverse the secondary resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy is also another great challenge to improve the anti-EGFR efficacy in wild-type KRAS mCRC patients. Finally, both of the molecular mechanisms of response and acquired resistance would be important for the directions of future research. This review focuses on how to further improve the predictive value of anti-EGFR therapies and how to also try and avoid futile treatment for wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer patients. Keywords: colorectal cancer, EGFR, BRAF, RAS, cetuximab, panitumumab

  18. The dynamics of homologous pairing during mating type interconversion in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L Houston

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cells repair most double-strand breaks (DSBs that arise during replication or by environmental insults through homologous recombination, a high-fidelity process critical for maintenance of genomic integrity. However, neither the detailed mechanism of homologous recombination nor the specific roles of critical components of the recombination machinery-such as Bloom and Werner syndrome proteins-have been resolved. We have taken a novel approach to examining the mechanism of homologous recombination by tracking both a DSB and the template from which it is repaired during the repair process in individual yeast cells. The two loci were labeled with arrays of DNA binding sites and visualized in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein-DNA binding protein chimeras. Following induction of an endonuclease that introduces a DSB next to one of the marked loci, live cells were imaged repeatedly to determine the relative positions of the DSB and the template locus. We found a significant increase in persistent associations between donor and recipient loci following formation of the DSB, demonstrating DSB-induced pairing between donor and template. However, such associations were transient and occurred repeatedly in every cell, a result not predicted from previous studies on populations of cells. Moreover, these associations were absent in sgs1 or srs2 mutants, yeast homologs of the Bloom and Werner syndrome genes, but were enhanced in a rad54 mutant, whose protein product promotes efficient strand exchange in vitro. Our results indicate that a DSB makes multiple and reversible contacts with a template during the repair process, suggesting that repair could involve interactions with multiple templates, potentially creating novel combinations of sequences at the repair site. Our results further suggest that both Sgs1 and Srs2 are required for efficient completion of recombination and that Rad54 may serve to dissociate such interactions. Finally, these

  19. Comparison of Manzanilla and wild type olives by RAPD-PCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... are wild olives (Olea europaea oleaster) and the cultivated olives named as Olea europaea sativa ... (Aegean Union of Olive and Olive Oil Exporters, 2007). Turkey also has a significant position among ... reserved as table olives and 52.869 tons for oil produc- tion and 8.988 tons of olive oil would be ...

  20. Comparative analysis of hyoscine in wild-type and in vitro- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lamiaceae: thyme, wild thyme and sweet marjoram by chromatographic techniques. Food Chemistry. J Agric. Food Chem. 2008; 108(3): 1039-1053. 24. Malinowska I, Studziński M. Karolina Niezabitowska &. Maria Gadzikowska. Comparison of TLC and different micro TLC techniques in analysis of tropane alkaloids.

  1. Wild-Type Hras Suppresses the Earliest Stages of Tumorigenesis in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie D Weyandt

    Full Text Available Oncogenic, activating mutations in KRAS initiate pancreatic cancer. There are, however, two other Ras family members, Nras and Hras, which can be activated in the presence of oncogenic Kras. The role of these wild-type Ras proteins in cancer remains unclear, as their disruption has been shown to enhance or inhibit tumorigenesis depending upon the context. As pancreatic cancer is critically dependent upon Ras signaling, we tested and now report that loss of Hras increases tumor load and reduces survival in an oncogenic Kras-driven pancreatic adenocarcinoma mouse model. These effects were traced to the earliest stages of pancreatic cancer, suggesting that wild-type Hras may suppress tumor initiation. In normal cells, activated Ras can suppress proliferation through p53-dependent mechanisms. We find that the tumor suppressive effects of Hras are nullified in a homozygous mutant p53 background. As such, loss of wild-type Hras fosters the earliest stages of pancreatic cancer in a p53-dependent manner.

  2. Genetic variability and mRNA editing frequencies of the phosphoprotein genes of wild-type measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, B; Lopareva, E N; Kremer, J R; Tian, Y; Clemens, M S; Patel, R; Fowlkes, A L; Kessler, J R; Muller, C P; Bellini, W J; Rota, P A

    2008-08-01

    The sequences of the nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes are routinely used for molecular epidemiologic studies of measles virus (MV). However, the amount of genetic diversity contained in other genes of MV has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this report, the nucleotide sequences of the phosphoprotein (P) genes from 34 wild-type strains representing 15 genotypes of MV were analyzed and found to be almost as variable as the H genes but less variable than the N genes. Deduced amino acid sequences of the three proteins encoded by the P gene, P, V and C, demonstrated considerably higher variability than the H proteins. Phylogenetic analysis showed the same tree topography for the P gene sequences as previously seen for the N and H genes. RNA editing of P gene transcripts affects the relative ratios of P and V proteins, which may have consequences for pathogenicity. Wild-type isolates produced more transcripts with more than one G insertion; however, there was no significant difference in the use of P and V open reading frames, suggesting that the relative amounts of P and V proteins in infected cells would be similar for both vaccine and wild-type strains.

  3. Construction, Expression and Purification of Wild and Mutant Type of nm23-H1 in Prokaryotic Expression System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqin YANG

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Nm23-H1 is a metastasis-suppressor gene. However, its molecular mechanism of suppressing metastasis is unknown until now. The aim of this study is to construct prokaryotic expression vector of wild and mutant type of nm23-H1 (WT, P96S, H118F, and then express and purify the proteins. Methods wild and mutant type of nm23-H1 fragments were amplified by PCR. The prokaryotic expression vectors of pET28anm23-H1 were constructed by gene recombination technique and verified by restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing. The positive clones were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3 and soluble analysis of the expression was conducted in this system. The proteins were purified by nickel column chromatography and identified by Western blot. Results Thesequences and open read frames of all the pET28a-nm23-H1 plasmids were completely correct. After transforming, these plasmids can express the target proteins. The protein production was very high, and all the proteins were soluble expression. The molecular weight of wild and mutant type of nm23-H1 was 20 kDa detected by Western blot, which was as the same as the objective protein. Conclusion We have succeeded in constructing the prokaryotic expression vectors ofpET28a-nm23-H1 (WT, P96S, H118F and the proteins which expressed can be used in following studies.

  4. A Caenorhabditis elegans wild type defies the temperature-size rule owing to a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Kammenga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectotherms rely for their body heat on surrounding temperatures. A key question in biology is why most ectotherms mature at a larger size at lower temperatures, a phenomenon known as the temperature-size rule. Since temperature affects virtually all processes in a living organism, current theories to explain this phenomenon are diverse and complex and assert often from opposing assumptions. Although widely studied, the molecular genetic control of the temperature-size rule is unknown. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans wild-type N2 complied with the temperature-size rule, whereas wild-type CB4856 defied it. Using a candidate gene approach based on an N2 x CB4856 recombinant inbred panel in combination with mutant analysis, complementation, and transgenic studies, we show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3 leads to mutation F96L in the encoded calpain-like protease. This mutation attenuates the ability of CB4856 to grow larger at low temperature. Homology modelling predicts that F96L reduces TRA-3 activity by destabilizing the DII-A domain. The data show that size adaptation of ectotherms to temperature changes may be less complex than previously thought because a subtle wild-type polymorphism modulates the temperature responsiveness of body size. These findings provide a novel step toward the molecular understanding of the temperature-size rule, which has puzzled biologists for decades.

  5. Response to metal stress of Nicotiana langsdorffii plants wild-type and transgenic for the rat glucocorticoid receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, Roger; Bogani, Patrizia; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Del Bubba, Massimo; Abollino, Ornella; Giannarelli, Stefania; Spiriti, Maria Michela; Muscatello, Beatrice; Doumett, Saer; Turetta, Clara; Zangrando, Roberta; Zelano, Vincenzo; Buiatti, Marcello

    2013-05-01

    Recently our findings have shown that the integration of the gene coding for the rat gluco-corticoid receptor (GR receptor) in Nicotiana langsdorffii plants induced morphophysiological effects in transgenic plants through the modification of their hormonal pattern. Phytohormones play a key role in plant responses to many different biotic and abiotic stresses since a modified hormonal profile up-regulates the activation of secondary metabolites involved in the response to stress. In this work transgenic GR plants and isogenic wild type genotypes were exposed to metal stress by treating them with 30ppm cadmium(II) or 50ppm chromium(VI). Hormonal patterns along with changes in key response related metabolites were then monitored and compared. Heavy metal up-take was found to be lower in the GR plants. The transgenic plants exhibited higher values of S-abscisic acid (S-ABA) and 3-indole acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid and total polyphenols, chlorogenic acid and antiradical activity, compared to the untransformed wild type plants. Both Cd and Cr treatments led to an increase in hormone concentrations and secondary metabolites only in wild type plants. Analysis of the results suggests that the stress responses due to changes in the plant's hormonal system may derive from the interaction between the GR receptor and phytosteroids, which are known to play a key role in plant physiology and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Transfection of wild-type CFTR into cystic fibrosis lymphocytes restores chloride conductance at G1 of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, R D; Bubien, J K; Drumm, M L; Zheng, T; Peiper, S C; Collins, F S; Kirk, K L; Frizzell, R A; Rado, T A

    1992-01-01

    We complemented the Cl- conductance defect in cystic fibrosis lymphocytes by transfection with wild-type cDNA for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Stable transfectants were selected and subjected to molecular and functional analyses. We detected expression of endogenous CFTR mRNA in several CF and non-CF lymphoid cell lines by PCR. Expression from cDNA in the transfectants was demonstrated by amplifying vector-specific sequences. Both fluorescence and patch-clamp assays showed that transfectants expressing wild-type CFTR acquired properties previously associated with Cl- conductance (GCl) regulation in non-CF lymphocytes: (i) GCl was elevated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, (ii) cells fixed at G1 increase GCl in response to increased cellular cAMP or Ca2+, (iii) agonist-induced increases in GCl were lost as the cells progressed to the S phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle and agonist dependent regulation of GCl was not observed in CF lymphocytes transfected with CFTR cDNA containing stop codons in all reading frames at exon 6. Our findings indicate that lymphocytes express functional CFTR since wild-type CFTR corrects the defects in Cl- conductance regulation found in CF lymphocytes. Evaluation of the mechanism of this novel, CFTR-mediated regulation of GCl during cell cycling should provide further insights into the function of CFTR. Images PMID:1372253

  7. Chitin synthase-deficient mutant of Fusarium oxysporum elicits tomato plant defence response and protects against wild-type infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja-Jaime, Yolanda; Martín-Urdíroz, Magdalena; Roncero, María Isabel González; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Roldán, María Del Carmen Ruiz

    2010-07-01

    A mutant of the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, deficient in class V chitin synthase, has been shown previously to be nonvirulent. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of its avirulence could be the elicitation of the induced plant defence response, leading to the restriction of fungal infection. Co-inoculation of tomato plants with the wild-type strain and the DeltachsV mutant resulted in a significant reduction in symptom development, supporting a protective mechanism exerted by the mutant. The ability of the mutant to penetrate and colonize plant tissues was determined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, as well as fluorescence microscopy using green fluorescent protein- or cherry fluorescent protein-labelled fungal strains. The extent of wild-type strain colonization in co-inoculated plants decreased steadily throughout the infection process, as shown by the quantification of fungal biomass using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The hypothesis that defence responses are activated by the DeltachsV mutant was confirmed by the analysis of plant pathogenesis-related genes using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tomato plants inoculated with the DeltachsV mutant showed a three fold increase in endochitinase activity in comparison with wild-type inoculated plants. Taken together, these results suggest that the perturbation of fungal cell wall biosynthesis results in elicitation of the plant defence response during the infection process.

  8. Effects of Selenium Yeast on Blood Glucose and Antioxidant Biomarkers in Cholesterol Fed Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Jimoh, A; Ahmed, A; Adam, A; Ejeh, L; Mohammed, A; Ayo, J O

    2017-03-06

    Selenium is an antioxidant that prevents oxygen radical from damaging cells from chronic diseases that can develop from cell injury and inflammation such as diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible protective effect of selenium yeast on cholesterol diet induced type-2 diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats. Twenty male wistar rats were divided in to four groups of five animals each: Group 1: (Negative control) received standard animal feed only, Group 2:  received cholesterol diet (CD) only, Group 3: received CD and 0.1 mg/kg selenium yeast orally, Group 4: Received CD and 0.2 mg/kg selenium yeast orally for six weeks. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed and the serum samples were collected and evaluated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The results showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level in the groups  co-administered CD and selenium yeast when compared to CD group only. Antioxidant enzymes status recorded significant decrease in SOD, CAT and GPx activities in CD and selenium yeast administered when compared to CD group only. In Conclusion, Selenium yeast administrations prevent free radical formations which are potent inducer of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Exploring Protein Interactions on a Minimal Type II Polyketide Synthase Using a Yeast Two-Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Castaldo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between proteins that form the ’minimal’ type II polyketide synthase in the doxorubicin producing biosynthetic pathway from Streptomyces peucetius were investigated using a yeast two-hybrid system (Y2H. Proteins that function as the so called ’chain length factor’ (DpsB and putative transacylase (DpsD were found to interact with the ketosynthase subunit (DpsA, which can also interact with itself. On the basis of these results we propose a head-to-tail homodimeric structure, which is consistent with previously published in vivo mutagenesis studies. No interactions were found between the acyl-carrier protein (DpsG and any of the other constituents of the complex, however, transient interactions, not detectable using the Y2H system, cannot be discounted and warrant further investigation.

  10. DNA beta-amyloid(1-42) trimer immunization for Alzheimer disease in a wild-type mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Qu, Bao-Xi; Fu, Min; Eagar, Todd N; Stüve, Olaf; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2009-10-28

    DNA beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta42) trimer immunization was developed to produce specific T helper 2 cell (T(H)2)-type antibodies to provide an effective and safe therapy for Alzheimer disease (AD) by reducing elevated levels of Abeta42 peptide that occur in the brain of patients with AD. To compare the immune response in wild-type mice after immunization with DNA Abeta42 trimer and Abeta42 peptide. Wild-type mice received either 4 microg of DNA Abeta42 trimer immunization administered with gene gun (n = 8) or intraperitoneal injection of 100 microg of human Abeta42 peptide with the adjuvant Quil A (n = 8). Titers, epitope mapping, and isotypes of the Abeta42-specific antibodies were analyzed. Antibody titers, mapping of binding sites (epitopes), isotype profiles of the Abeta42-specific antibodies, and T-cell activation. DNA Abeta42 trimer immunization resulted in antibody titers with a mean of 15 microg per milliliter of plasma. The isotype profile of the antibodies differed markedly. A predominant IgG1 antibody response was found in the DNA-immunized mice, indicating a T(H)2 type of immune response (IgG1/IgG2a ratio of 10). The peptide-immunized mice showed a mixed T(H)1/T(H)2 immune response (IgG1/IgG2a ratio of 1) (P < .001). No increased T-cell proliferation was observed in the DNA-immunized mice (P = .03). In this preliminary study in a wild-type mouse model, DNA Abeta42 trimer immunization protocol produced a T(H)2 immune response and appeared to have low potential to cause an inflammatory T-cell response.

  11. Chemotropism during yeast mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette, Peter J; Arkowitz, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all eukaryotic cells can grow in a polarized fashion in response to external signals. Cells can respond to gradients of chemoattractants or chemorepellents by directional growth, a process referred to as chemotropism. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes chemotropic growth during mating, in which two haploid cells of opposite mating type grow toward one another. We have shown that mating pheromone gradients are essential for efficient mating in yeast and have examined the chemotropism defects of different yeast mutants. Two methods of assessing the ability of yeast strains to respond to pheromone gradients are presented here.

  12. Comparison of the backbone dynamics of wild-type Hydrogenobacter thermophilus cytochrome c{sub 552} and its b-type variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozawa, Kaeko; Ferguson, Stuart J.; Redfield, Christina, E-mail: christina.redfield@bioch.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Smith, Lorna J., E-mail: lorna.smith@chem.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cytochrome c{sub 552} from the thermophilic bacterium Hydrogenobacter thermophilus is a typical c-type cytochrome which binds heme covalently via two thioether bonds between the two heme vinyl groups and two cysteine thiol groups in a CXXCH sequence motif. This protein was converted to a b-type cytochrome by substitution of the two cysteine residues by alanines (Tomlinson and Ferguson in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:5156–5160, 2000a). To probe the significance of the covalent attachment of the heme in the c-type protein, {sup 15}N relaxation and hydrogen exchange studies have been performed for the wild-type and b-type proteins. The two variants share very similar backbone dynamic properties, both proteins showing high {sup 15}N order parameters in the four main helices, with reduced values in an exposed loop region (residues 18–21), and at the C-terminal residue Lys80. Some subtle changes in chemical shift and hydrogen exchange protection are seen between the wild-type and b-type variant proteins, not only for residues at and neighbouring the mutation sites, but also for some residues in the heme binding pocket. Overall, the results suggest that the main role of the covalent linkages between the heme group and the protein chain must be to increase the stability of the protein.

  13. Expression of wild-type PtrIAA14.1, a poplar Aux/IAA gene causes morphological changes in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanda eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aux/IAA proteins are transcriptional repressors that control auxin signaling by interacting with Auxin Response Factors (ARFs. So far all of the identified Aux/IAA mutants with auxin-related phenotypes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa are dominant gain-of-function mutants, with mutantions in Domain II that affected stability of the corresponding Aux/IAA proteins. On the other hand, morphological changes were observed in knock-down mutants of Aux/IAA genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, suggesting that functions of Aux/IAA proteins may be specific for certain plant species. We report here the characterization of PtrIAA14.1, a poplar (Populus trichocarpa homologue of IAA7. Bioinformatics analysis showed that PtrIAA14.1 is a classic Aux/IAA protein. It contains four conserved domains with the repressor motif in Domain I, the degron in Domain II, and the conserved amino acid signatures for protein-protein interactions in Domain III and Domain IV. Protoplast transfection assays showed that PtrIAA14.1 is localized in nucleus. It is unable in the presence of auxin, and it represses auxin response reporter gene expression. Expression of wild type PtrIAA14.1 in Arabidopsis resulted in auxin-related phenotypes including down-curling leaves, semi-draft with increased number of branches, and greatly reduced fertility, but expression of the Arabidopsis Aux/IAA genes tested remain largely unchanged in the transgenic plants. Protein-protein interaction assays in yeast and protoplasts showed that PtrIAA14.1 interacted with ARF5, but not other ARFs. Consistent with this observation, vascular patterning was altered in the transgenic plants, and the expression of AtHB8 (Arabidopsis thaliana Homeobox Gene 8 was reduced in transgenic plants.

  14. Transcription of two long non-coding RNAs mediates mating type control of gametogenesis in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Werven, Folkert J.; Neuert, Gregor; Hendrick, Natalie; Lardenois, Aurélie; Buratowski, Stephen; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Primig, Michael; Amon, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Summary The cell fate decision leading to gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction. In S. cerevisiae, only diploid MATa/α but not haploid MATa or MATα cells undergo gametogenesis, known as sporulation. We find that transcription of two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) mediates mating type control of sporulation. In MATa or MATα haploids expression of IME1, the central inducer of gametogenesis, is inhibited in cis by transcription of the lncRNA IRT1, located in the IME1 promoter. IRT1 transcription recruits the Set2 histone methyltransferase and the Set3 histone deacetylase complex to establish repressive chromatin at the IME1 promoter. Inhibiting expression of IRT1 and an antisense transcript that antagonizes the expression of the meiotic regulator IME4, allows cells expressing the haploid mating-type to sporulate with kinetics that are indistinguishable from that of MATa/α diploids. Conversely, expression of the two lncRNAs abolishes sporulation in MATa/α diploids. Thus, transcription of two lncRNAs governs mating type control of gametogenesis in yeast. PMID:22959267

  15. Development and evaluation of consolidated bioprocessing yeast for ethanol production from ionic liquid-pretreated bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Jerome; Ishizue, Naoya; Ishizaki, Miki; Yasuda, Misa; Takahashi, Kenji; Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko; Ogino, Chiaki

    2017-12-01

    This work aimed to study the use of consolidated bioprocess (CBP) yeast expressing five cellulase genes (BGL, XYNII, EGII, CBHI and CBHII) for ethanol production from ionic liquid-pretreated bagasse and Laubholz unbleached Kraft pulp (LUKP). A proposed screening method shows that the optimal cellulase ratio varies for each biomass substrate, and thus it is essential to breed CBP yeast having optimal cellulase-displaying ratio for the target biomass. CBP yeast specialized towards bagasse produced 0.93g/l ethanol whiles that for LUKP produced 0.71g/l ethanol, which is approximately 4 and 2-fold, respectively, higher than that of the wild type. The cell-surface displayed enzymes synergistically contributed to the degradation of the biomass. The developed CBP yeast is a potential cheap source for consolidated bioprocessing of ethanol and the proposed screening method can be used for matching CBP yeast to a target biomass. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. A critical reflection on the principles of peroxisome formation in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2014-01-01

    We have evaluated the current knowledge on peroxisome proliferation in yeast. In wild-type cells, peroxisomes multiply predominantly by fission at conditions that require peroxisome function(s) for growth. In cells that lack peroxisomes, for instance in pex3 and pex19 mutants or in mutants that

  17. Chronic consumption of Annona muricata juice triggers and aggravates cerebral tau phosphorylation in wild-type and MAPT transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottscholl, Robert; Haegele, Marlen; Jainsch, Britta; Xu, Hong; Respondek, Gesine; Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Bony, Emilie; Le Ven, Jessica; Guérineau, Vincent; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Champy, Pierre; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Yamada, Elizabeth S; Höglinger, Günter U

    2016-11-01

    In the pathogenesis of tauopathies, genetic and environmental factors have been identified. While familial clustering led to the identification of mutations in MAPT encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau, the high incidence of a sporadic tauopathy endemic in Guadeloupe was linked to the plant-derived mitochondrial complex I inhibitor annonacin. The interaction of both factors was studied in the present work in a realistic paradigm over a period of 12 months. Mice over-expressing either human wild-type tau or R406W mutant tau as well as non-transgenic mice received either regular drinking water or commercially available tropical fruit juice made of soursop (Annona muricata L.) as dietary source of neurotoxins. HPLC-MS analysis of this juice identified several Annonaceous acetogenins, mainly annonacin (16.2 mg/L), and 41 isoquinoline alkaloids (18.0 mg/L, mainly asimilobine and reticuline). After 12 month of juice consumption, several brain regions showed an increased number of neurons with phosphorylated tau in the somatodendritic compartment of R406W mice and, to a much lesser extent, of non-transgenic mice and mice over-expressing human wild-type tau. Moreover, juice drinking was associated with a reduction in synaptophysin immunoreactivity, as well as an increase in 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) reactivity in all three genotypes. The increase in 3NT suggests that Annona muricata juice promotes the generation of reactive nitrogen species. This study provides first experimental evidence that long-lasting oral ingestion of a widely consumed environmental factor can induce somatodendritic accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in mice expressing rodent or human wild-type tau, and can accelerate tau pathology in R406W-MAPT transgenic mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin genes of wild-type measles virus circulating in china, 1993-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songtao; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993-2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10(-3) substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China.

  19. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cell–cell spread of wild-type and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanji, Boghuma Kabisen; Pillay, Deenan

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disseminates between T cells either by cell-free infection or by highly efficient direct cell–cell spread. The high local multiplicity that characterizes cell–cell infection causes variability in the effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs applied as single agents. Whereas protease inhibitors (PIs) are effective inhibitors of HIV-1 cell–cell and cell-free infection, some reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) show reduced potency; however, antiretrovirals are not administered as single agents and are used clinically as combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Here we explored the efficacy of PI- and RTI-based cART against cell–cell spread of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 strains. Using a quantitative assay to measure cell–cell spread of HIV-1 between T cells, we evaluated the efficacy of different clinically relevant drug combinations. We show that combining PIs and RTIs improves the potency of inhibition of HIV-1 and effectively blocks both cell-free and cell–cell spread. Combining drugs that alone are poor inhibitors of cell–cell spread markedly improves HIV-1 inhibition, demonstrating that clinically relevant combinations of ART can inhibit this mode of HIV-1 spread. Furthermore, comparison of wild-type and drug-resistant viruses reveals that PI- and RTI-resistant viruses have a replicative advantage over wild-type virus when spreading by cell–cell means in the presence of cART, suggesting that in the context of inadequate drug combinations or drug resistance, cell–cell spread could potentially allow for ongoing viral replication. PMID:28141491

  20. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cell-cell spread of wild-type and drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titanji, Boghuma Kabisen; Pillay, Deenan; Jolly, Clare

    2017-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) disseminates between T cells either by cell-free infection or by highly efficient direct cell-cell spread. The high local multiplicity that characterizes cell-cell infection causes variability in the effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs applied as single agents. Whereas protease inhibitors (PIs) are effective inhibitors of HIV-1 cell-cell and cell-free infection, some reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) show reduced potency; however, antiretrovirals are not administered as single agents and are used clinically as combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Here we explored the efficacy of PI- and RTI-based cART against cell-cell spread of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1 strains. Using a quantitative assay to measure cell-cell spread of HIV-1 between T cells, we evaluated the efficacy of different clinically relevant drug combinations. We show that combining PIs and RTIs improves the potency of inhibition of HIV-1 and effectively blocks both cell-free and cell-cell spread. Combining drugs that alone are poor inhibitors of cell-cell spread markedly improves HIV-1 inhibition, demonstrating that clinically relevant combinations of ART can inhibit this mode of HIV-1 spread. Furthermore, comparison of wild-type and drug-resistant viruses reveals that PI- and RTI-resistant viruses have a replicative advantage over wild-type virus when spreading by cell-cell means in the presence of cART, suggesting that in the context of inadequate drug combinations or drug resistance, cell-cell spread could potentially allow for ongoing viral replication.

  1. Novel software for analysis of root gravitropism: comparative response patterns of Arabidopsis wild-type and axr1 seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    In an earlier study (Evans, Ishikawa & Estelle 1994, Planta 194, 215-222) we used a video digitizer system to compare the kinetics of auxin action on root elongation in wild-type seedlings and seedlings of auxin response mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. We have since modified the system software to allow determination of elongation on opposite sides of vertical or gravistimulated roots and to allow continuous measurement of the angle of orientation of sequential subsections of the root during the response. We used this technology to compare the patterns of differential growth that generate curvature in roots of the Columbia ecotype and in the mutants axr1-3, axr1-12 and axr2, which show reduced gravitropic responsiveness and reduced sensitivity to inhibition by auxin. The pattern of differential growth during gravitropism differed in roots of wild-type and axr1 seedlings. In wild-type roots, initial curvature resulted from differential inhibition of elongation in the distal elongation zone (DEZ). This was followed by an acceleration of elongation along the top side of the DEZ. In roots of axr1-3, curvature resulted from differential stimulation of elongation whereas in roots of axr1-12 the response was variable. Roots of axr2 did not exhibit gravitropic curvature. The observation that the pattern of differential growth causing curvature is dramatically altered by a change in sensitivity to auxin is consistent with the classical Cholodny-Went theory of gravitropism which maintains that differential growth patterns induced by gravistimulation are mediated primarily by gravi-induced shifts in auxin distribution. The new technology introduced with this report allows automated determination of stimulus response patterns in the small but experimentally popular roots of Arabidopsis.

  2. [Case report: Porcine circovirus type 2 infection in an European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the state of Brandenburg, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, C; Neumann, G; Grütze, I; Engelhardt, A; Mirle, C; Ehlert, F; Hlinak, A

    2003-10-01

    This case represents the first case of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV-2)--infection in a free living European wild boar associated with morphological lesions, which are regarded as characteristic for Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS) in domestic pigs. The animal, an approximately 10 month old male, was found dead in a rural area within the state of Brandenburg, Germany. The closest commercial pig farm is located in 3 km distance from the spot where the carcass was found. At necropsy, the animal was found to be in a runted condition. Morphological investigation revealed two lesion complexes. Firstly, lymphatic depletion was present in different organs. Mainly the white pulp of the spleen was affected, where lymph follicles and periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths were nearly completely depleted of lymphoid cells. The former lymphatic areas could only be identified by the presence of histiocytic cells. Secondly, there were widely distributed lesions indicative of a bacterial septicemia i.e. purulent-necrotizing lymphadenitis, pulpous hyperplasia of the spleen, miliary lytic liver necroses and foci of fibrinous pneumonia. Within the lesions, bacterial colonies were found (short Gram-negative rods). Bacteriology revealed a septicemic Salmonella choleraesuis var. Kunzendorf--infection. Virologically, the animal was tested with negative results for Classical Swine Fever Virus and PRRSV. The unusual depletion of the lymphatic tissue mainly in the spleen led to the suspicion of a PCV-2 infection. Typical circoviral particles were found by negative-contrast electron microscopy in samples from spleen and lymph nodes. Using a commercial antiserum against Porcine Circovirus, positive staining was found by fluorescence microscopy in tonsils, spleen and lymph nodes. Finally, the virus was identified to be PCV-2 by species-specific PCR. The presented case rises the questions if PCV-2 is endemic in the European wild boar population at least in certain areas, if it is

  3. Comparative Gene Expression and Phenotype Analyses of Skeletal Muscle from Aged Wild-Type and PAPP-A-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Bale, Laurie K.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2016-01-01

    Mice deficient in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) have extended lifespan associated with decreased incidence and severity of degenerative diseases of age, such as cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. In this study, the effect of PAPP-A deficiency on aging skeletal muscle was investigated. Whole-genome expression profiling was performed on soleus muscles from 18-month-old wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice of the same sex and from the same litter (?womb-mates?) to identify...

  4. Panitumumab and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer with KRAS wild-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Steffensen, Karina; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Lund, Bente

    , and head and neck cancer. No previous studies have evaluated the effect of panitumumab in OC based on KRAS mutation status. Methods: Eligibility criteria are confirmed stage I-IV primary epithelial ovarian/fallopian/peritoneal cancer patients with progression either during or within 6 months after end...... to a total of 33 patients. At present, 15 patients have been enrolled. The primary endpoint is to investigate the response rate in platinum-resistant, KRAS wild- type OC patients treated with PLD supplemented with panitumumab. Translational research is included as a secondary endpoint and tumor tissue...

  5. Effects of the Kava Chalcone Flavokawain A Differ in Bladder Cancer Cells with Wild-type versus Mutant p53

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R.; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

    2008-01-01

    Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G1 arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated wi...

  6. Metabolic tumor burden as marker of outcome in advanced EGFR wild-type NSCLC patients treated with erlotinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Larsen, Anne; Fledelius, Joan; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Accurate estimation of the prognosis of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is essential before initiation of palliative treatment; especially in the second and third-line setting. This study was conducted in order to evaluate tumor burden measured on an 2'-deoxy-2...... with shorter PFS and OS in advanced EGFR wild-type NSCLC patients treated with second or third-line erlotinib. Metabolic tumor burden is a highly promising clinical tool that may allow better patient selection for palliative treatment in the future....

  7. Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miseon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose has been shown to protect bacterial cells from environmental stress. Its uptake and osmoprotective effect in Clostridium perfringens were investigated by comparing wild type C. perfringens ATCC 13124 with a fluoroquinolone- (gatifloxacin- resistant mutant. In a chemically defined medium, trehalose and sucrose supported the growth of the wild type but not that of the mutant. Microarray data and qRT-PCR showed that putative genes for the phosphorylation and transport of sucrose and trehalose (via phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems, PTS and some regulatory genes were downregulated in the mutant. The wild type had greater tolerance than the mutant to salts and low pH; trehalose and sucrose further enhanced the osmotolerance of the wild type to NaCl. Expression of the trehalose-specific PTS was lower in the fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant. Protection of C. perfringens from environmental stress could therefore be correlated with the ability to take up trehalose.

  8. Rhizosphere bacteria affected by transgenic potatoes with antibacterial activities compared with the effects of soil, wild-type potatoes, vegetation stage and pathogen exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Hodl, [No Value; Poll, C; Kandeler, E; Gerzabek, MH; van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to analyze a potential effect of genetically modified potatoes expressing antibacterial compounds (attacin/cecropin, T4 lysozyme) and their nearly isogenic, nontransformed parental wild types on rhizosphere bacterial communities. To compare plant

  9. The Small Colony Variant Of Listeria Monocytogenes Is More Tolerant To Antibiotics And Grows Better Within Caco-2 Epithelial Cells Than The Wild Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Thomas; Gram, Lone; Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard

    2015-01-01

    tolerant of 20mM H2O2 as compared to the wild type, with 6.3 log10 CFU/ml and 3.7 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. The SCV E18 had lower survival rate in unactivated macrophages, however, it was able to survive and multiply to almost 100-fold higher CFU/ml than the wild type in CaCo-2 epithelial cells...

  10. Comparative Transcriptome of Wild Type and Selected Strains of the Microalgae Tisochrysis lutea Provides Insights into the Genetic Basis, Lipid Metabolism and the Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Carrier; Matthieu Garnier; Loïc Le Cunff; Gaël Bougaran; Ian Probert; Colomban de Vargas; Erwan Corre; Jean-Paul Cadoret; Bruno Saint-Jean

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The applied exploitation of microalgae cultures has to date almost exclusively involved the use of wild type strains, deposited over decades in dedicated culture collections. Concomitantly, the concept of improving algae with selection programs for particular specific purposes is slowly emerging. Studying since a decade an economically and ecologically important haptophyte Tisochrysis lutea (Tiso), we took advantage of the availability of wild type (Tiso-Wt) and select...

  11. The development of type VI glandular trichomes in the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and a related wild species S. habrochaites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergau, Nick; Bennewitz, Stefan; Syrowatka, Frank; Hause, Gerd; Tissier, Alain

    2015-12-12

    Type VI glandular trichomes represent the most abundant trichome type on leaves and stems of tomato plants and significantly contribute to herbivore resistance, particularly in the wild species. Despite this, their development has been poorly studied so far. The goal of this study is to fill this gap. Using a variety of cell imaging techniques, a detailed record of the anatomy and developmental stages of type VI trichomes in the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and in a related wild species (S. habrochaites) is provided. In both species, the development of these structures follows a highly reproducible cell division pattern. The two species differ in the shape of the trichome head which is round in S. habrochaites and like a four-leaf clover in S. lycopersicum, correlating with the presence of a large intercellular cavity in S. habrochaites where the produced metabolites accumulate. In both species, the junction between the intermediate cell and the four glandular cells constitute a breaking point facilitating the decapitation of the trichome and thereby the quick release of the metabolites. A strongly auto-fluorescent compound transiently accumulates in the early stages of development suggesting a potential role in the differentiation process. Finally, immuno-labelling with antibodies recognizing specific cell wall components indicate a key role of pectin and arabinogalactan components in the differentiation of type VI trichomes. Our observations explain the adaptive morphologies of type VI trichomes for metabolite storage and release and provide a framework for further studies of these important metabolic cellular factories. This is required to better exploit their potential, in particular for the breeding of pest resistance in tomato.

  12. Transcription of two long noncoding RNAs mediates mating-type control of gametogenesis in budding yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Werven, F.J.; Neuert, G.; Hendrick, N.; Lardenois, A.; Buratowski, S.; van Oudenaarden, A.; Primig, M.; Amon, A.

    2012-01-01

    The cell-fate decision leading to gametogenesis is essential for sexual reproduction. In S. cerevisiae, only diploid MATa/alpha but not haploid MATa or MATalpha cells undergo gametogenesis, known as sporulation. We find that transcription of two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) mediates mating-type

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the haemagglutinin gene of current wild-type canine distemper viruses from South Africa: lineage Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woma, Timothy Y; van Vuuren, Moritz; Bosman, Ana-Mari; Quan, Melvyn; Oosthuizen, Marinda

    2010-07-14

    There are no reports of CDV isolations in southern Africa, and although CDV is said to have geographically distinct lineages, molecular information of African strains has not yet been documented. Viruses isolated in cell cultures were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the complete H gene was sequenced and phylogenetically analysed with other strains from GenBank. Phylogenetic comparisons of the complete H gene of CDV isolates from different parts of the world (available in GenBank) with wild-type South African isolates revealed nine clades. All South African isolates form a separate African clade of their own and thus are clearly separated from the American, European, Asian, Arctic and vaccine virus clades. It is likely that only the 'African lineage' of CDV may be circulating in South Africa currently, and the viruses isolated from dogs vaccinated against CDV are not the result of reversion to virulence of vaccine strains, but infection with wild-type strains. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic background and environmental conditions drive metabolic variation in wild type and transgenic soybean (Glycine max) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hagai; Shir, Ofer M; Yu, Yang; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profiles and composition of storage reserves of agricultural crop seeds are strongly regulated by heritable and environmental factors. Yet, very little is known about the genetic and environmental determinants of adaptive metabolic variation amongst wild type as well as transgenic seed populations derived from the same genetic background, grown under natural field conditions. The goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of natural environmental conditions on wild type and transgenic soybean seeds expressing a feedback-insensitive form of cystathionine γ-synthase, a methionine main regulatory enzyme. The seeds were grown in four geographically distinct habitats in China and then assayed for primary metabolic profiles using gas chromatography mass spectrometry, morphological traits and storage reserve accumulation. The analyses revealed changes in the levels of primary metabolites which evidently exhibited high correlation to methionine regardless of changes in environmental conditions. The environment, however, constituted a major determinant of metabolic profiles amongst seeds, as much more metabolites were observed to be affected by this variable, particularly along the north-to-south latitudinal gradient. The observations suggest that metabolic variation amongst seeds grown under natural field conditions depends upon the complex relationships existing amongst their genetic background and the environmental conditions characterizing their cultivation areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Validation of Genetically Matched Wild Type Strain and Lysyl Oxidase- Like 1 Knockout Mouse Model of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couri, Bruna M.; Borazjani, Ali; Lenis, Andrew T.; Balog, Brian; Kuang, Mei; Lin, Dan Li; Damaser, Margot S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Lysyl oxidase-like 1 knockout (Loxl1−/−) mice demonstrate deficient elastin homeostasis associated with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). To further investigate the pathophysiology of POP in these animals, a genetically-matched homozygous positive (Loxl1+/+) or wild type strain is needed. This study sought to create and validate genetically-matched Loxl1+/+ and Loxl1−/− strains. Methods Female Loxl1−/− mice were backcrossed with male wild-type mice. The resultant heterozygous mice were bred to produce Loxl1+/+ and Loxl1−/− mice, whose genotype was confirmed by RT-PCR. Multiparous female Loxl1−/− (n=7) and Loxl1+/+ (n=9) mice were assessed for POP weekly for 12 weeks after their first vaginal delivery. POP was compared between groups using a Kaplan Meier survival curve with pvaginas as determined by area within the lumen and total cross-sectional tissue area. Striated muscle fibers of the urethra in Loxl1−/− mice were less organized, shorter, and thinner than in Loxl1+/+ mice. Conclusions Genetically-matched Loxl1−/− and Loxl1+/+ strains can be reliably created by a backcross method and differentiate in their prolapse phenotype. Loxl1−/− mice demonstrate pathology primarily characterized by enlargement of the vagina. Further studies are needed to elucidate the cause of this finding. PMID:25181380

  16. Monomeric CXCL12 outperforms its dimeric and wild type variants in the promotion of human endothelial progenitor cells' function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuang; Li, Yaning; Yuan, Fang; Qu, Meijie; Song, Yaying; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Yongting

    2017-06-24

    CXCL12 overexpression improves neurobehavioral recovery during post-ischemic stroke through multiple mechanisms including promoting endothelial progenitor cells function in animal models. It has been proposed that the monomer and dimer forms possess differential chemotactic and regulatory function. The aim of present study is to explore whether a monomeric or dimeric CXCL12 plays a different role in the endothelial progenitor cells proliferation, migration, and tube-formation in vitro. In this study, we transferred monomeric, dimeric and wild type CXCL12 gene into endothelial progenitor cells via lentiviral vectors. We investigated endothelial progenitor cells function following the interaction of CXCL12/CXCR4 or CXCL12/CXCR7 and downstream signaling pathways. Our results showed that the monomeric CXCL12 transfected endothelial progenitor cells had enhanced ability in cell proliferation, migration, and tube-formation compared to that in dimeric or wild type controls (p function of migration, but not proliferation or tube-formation, was significantly reduced in the monomeric CXCL12 transfected endothelial progenitor cells when the cells were pre-treated with either CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 or siCXCR7 (p function was partially regulated by CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL12/CXCR7 signal pathways. Our study demonstrated that monomeric CXCL12 was the fundamental form, which played important roles in endothelial progenitor cells' proliferation, migration, and tube-formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mature leaf concentrate of Sri Lankan wild type Carica papaya Linn. modulates nonfunctional and functional immune responses of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Chanika Dilumi; Gunasekera, Dinara S; De Silva, Nuwan; Jayawardena, Kithmini Kawya Mandakini; Udagama, Preethi Vidya

    2017-04-26

    The leaf concentrate of Carica papaya is a traditionally acclaimed immunomodulatory remedy against numerous diseases; nonetheless comprehensive scientific validation of this claim is limited. The present study thus investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Carica papaya mature leaf concentrate (MLCC) of the Sri Lankan wild type cultivar using nonfunctional and functional immunological assays. Wistar rats (N = 6/ group) were orally gavaged with 3 doses (0.18, 0.36 and 0.72 ml/100g body weight) of the MLCC once daily for 3 consecutive days. Selected nonfunctional (enumeration of immune cells and cytokine levels) and functional (cell proliferation and phagocytic activity) immunological parameters, and acute toxic effects were determined using standard methods. Effect of the MLCC (31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) on ex vivo proliferation of bone marrow cells (BMC) and splenocytes (SC), and in vitro phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages (PMs), and their corresponding cytokine responses were evaluated. The phytochemical profile of the MLCC was established using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LS-MS) and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Counts of rat platelets, total leukocytes, lymphocyte and monocyte sub populations, and BMCs were significantly augmented by oral gavage of the MLCC (p papaya Sri Lankan wild type cultivar is orally active, safe and effectively modulates nonfunctional and functional immunological parameters of rats that unequivocally corroborate the traditional medical claims.

  18. Screening and Expression of a Silicon Transporter Gene (Lsi1) in Wild-Type Indica Rice Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiri, Rambod; Kalhori, Nahid; Atabaki, Narges

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is one of the most prevalent elements in the soil. It is beneficial for plant growth and development, and it contributes to plant defense against different stresses. The Lsi1 gene encodes a Si transporter that was identified in a mutant Japonica rice variety. This gene was not identified in fourteen Malaysian rice varieties during screening. Then, a mutant version of Lsi1 was substituted for the native version in the three most common Malaysian rice varieties, MR219, MR220, and MR276, to evaluate the function of the transgene. Real-time PCR was used to explore the differential expression of Lsi1 in the three transgenic rice varieties. Silicon concentrations in the roots and leaves of transgenic plants were significantly higher than in wild-type plants. Transgenic varieties showed significant increases in the activities of the enzymes SOD, POD, APX, and CAT; photosynthesis; and chlorophyll content; however, the highest chlorophyll A and B levels were observed in transgenic MR276. Transgenic varieties have shown a stronger root and leaf structure, as well as hairier roots, compared to the wild-type plants. This suggests that Lsi1 plays a key role in rice, increasing the absorption and accumulation of Si, then alters antioxidant activities, and improves morphological properties. PMID:28191468

  19. Interhomolog recombination and loss of heterozygosity in wild-type and Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM)-deficient mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Jeannine R; Stark, Jeremy M; Oh, Jin; Bojilova, Ekaterina; Yusa, Kosuke; Horie, Kyoji; Takeda, Junji; Jasin, Maria

    2011-07-19

    Genomic integrity often is compromised in tumor cells, as illustrated by genetic alterations leading to loss of heterozygosity (LOH). One mechanism of LOH is mitotic crossover recombination between homologous chromosomes, potentially initiated by a double-strand break (DSB). To examine LOH associated with DSB-induced interhomolog recombination, we analyzed recombination events using a reporter in mouse embryonic stem cells derived from F1 hybrid embryos. In this study, we were able to identify LOH events although they occur only rarely in wild-type cells (≤2.5%). The low frequency of LOH during interhomolog recombination suggests that crossing over is rare in wild-type cells. Candidate factors that may suppress crossovers include the RecQ helicase deficient in Bloom syndrome cells (BLM), which is part of a complex that dissolves recombination intermediates. We analyzed interhomolog recombination in BLM-deficient cells and found that, although interhomolog recombination is slightly decreased in the absence of BLM, LOH is increased by fivefold or more, implying significantly increased interhomolog crossing over. These events frequently are associated with a second homologous recombination event, which may be related to the mitotic bivalent structure and/or the cell-cycle stage at which the initiating DSB occurs.

  20. MLL fusion proteins preferentially regulate a subset of wild-type MLL target genes in the leukemic genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Wu, George; Mi, Shuangli; He, Fuhong; Wu, Jun; Dong, Jingfang; Luo, Roger T.; Mattison, Ryan; Kaberlein, Joseph J.; Prabhakar, Shyam; Ji, Hongkai

    2011-01-01

    MLL encodes a histone methyltransferase that is critical in maintaining gene expression during embryonic development and hematopoiesis. 11q23 translocations result in the formation of chimeric MLL fusion proteins that act as potent drivers of acute leukemia. However, it remains unclear what portion of the leukemic genome is under the direct control of MLL fusions. By comparing patient-derived leukemic cell lines, we find that MLL fusion-bound genes are a small subset of that recognized by wild-type MLL. In an inducible MLL-ENL model, MLL fusion protein binding and changes in H3K79 methylation are limited to a specific portion of the genome, whereas wild-type MLL distributes to a much larger set of gene loci. Surprisingly, among 223 MLL-ENL–bound genes, only 12 demonstrate a significant increase in mRNA expression on induction of the fusion protein. In addition to Hoxa9 and Meis1, this includes Eya1 and Six1, which comprise a heterodimeric transcription factor important in several developmental pathways. We show that Eya1 has the capacity to immortalize hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro and collaborates with Six1 in hematopoietic transformation assays. Altogether, our data suggest that MLL fusions contribute to the development of acute leukemia through direct activation of a small set of target genes. PMID:21518926

  1. Discovery of an inhibitor of the production of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin in wild-type cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardas Morkunas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyocyanin is a small molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infections by this notorious opportunistic pathogen. The inhibition of pyocyanin production has been identified as an attractive antivirulence strategy for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Herein, we report the discovery of an inhibitor of pyocyanin production in cultures of wild-type P. aeruginosa which is based around a 4-alkylquinolin-2(1H-one scaffold. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported example of pyocyanin inhibition by a compound based around this molecular framework. The compound may therefore be representative of a new structural sub-class of pyocyanin inhibitors, which could potentially be exploited in in a therapeutic context for the development of critically needed new antipseudomonal agents. In this context, the use of wild-type cells in this study is notable, since the data obtained are of direct relevance to native situations. The compound could also be of value in better elucidating the role of pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa infections. Evidence suggests that the active compound reduces the level of pyocyanin production by inhibiting the cell–cell signalling mechanism known as quorum sensing. This could have interesting implications; quorum sensing regulates a range of additional elements associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa and there is a wide range of other potential applications where the inhibition of quorum sensing is desirable.

  2. Targeting wild-type and mutationally activated FGFR4 in rhabdomyosarcoma with the inhibitor ponatinib (AP24534.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Q Li

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common childhood soft tissue sarcoma. Despite advances in modern therapy, patients with relapsed or metastatic disease have a very poor clinical prognosis. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 (FGFR4 is a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor that is involved in normal myogenesis and muscle regeneration, but not commonly expressed in differentiated muscle tissues. Amplification and mutational activation of FGFR4 has been reported in RMS and promotes tumor progression. Therefore, FGFR4 is a tractable therapeutic target for patients with RMS. In this study, we used a chimeric Ba/F3 TEL-FGFR4 construct to test five tyrosine kinase inhibitors reported to specifically inhibit FGFRs in the nanomolar range. We found ponatinib (AP24534 to be the most potent FGFR4 inhibitor with an IC50 in the nanomolar range. Ponatinib inhibited the growth of RMS cells expressing wild-type or mutated FGFR4 through increased apoptosis. Phosphorylation of wild-type and mutated FGFR4 as well as its downstream target STAT3 was also suppressed by ponatinib. Finally, ponatinib treatment inhibited tumor growth in a RMS mouse model expressing mutated FGFR4. Therefore, our data suggests that ponatinib is a potentially effective therapeutic agent for RMS tumors that are driven by a dysregulated FGFR4 signaling pathway.

  3. Discovery of an inhibitor of the production of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor pyocyanin in wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkunas, Bernardas; Gal, Balint; Galloway, Warren R J D; Hodgkinson, James T; Ibbeson, Brett M; Tan, Yaw Sing; Welch, Martin; Spring, David R

    2016-01-01

    Pyocyanin is a small molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infections by this notorious opportunistic pathogen. The inhibition of pyocyanin production has been identified as an attractive antivirulence strategy for the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Herein, we report the discovery of an inhibitor of pyocyanin production in cultures of wild-type P. aeruginosa which is based around a 4-alkylquinolin-2(1H)-one scaffold. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported example of pyocyanin inhibition by a compound based around this molecular framework. The compound may therefore be representative of a new structural sub-class of pyocyanin inhibitors, which could potentially be exploited in in a therapeutic context for the development of critically needed new antipseudomonal agents. In this context, the use of wild-type cells in this study is notable, since the data obtained are of direct relevance to native situations. The compound could also be of value in better elucidating the role of pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa infections. Evidence suggests that the active compound reduces the level of pyocyanin production by inhibiting the cell-cell signalling mechanism known as quorum sensing. This could have interesting implications; quorum sensing regulates a range of additional elements associated with the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa and there is a wide range of other potential applications where the inhibition of quorum sensing is desirable.

  4. Gene Expression Analysis Indicates Divergent Mechanisms in DEN-Induced Carcinogenesis in Wild Type and Bid-Deficient Livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changshun; Yan, Shengmin; Khambu, Bilon; Chen, Xiaoyun; Dong, Zheng; Luo, Jianhua; Michalopoulos, George K; Wu, Shangwei; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Bid is a Bcl-2 family protein. In addition to its pro-apoptosis function, Bid can also promote cell proliferation, maintain S phase checkpoint, and facilitate inflammasome activation. Bid plays important roles in tissue injury and regeneration, hematopoietic homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. Bid participates in hepatic carcinogenesis but the mechanism is not fully understood. Deletion of Bid resulted in diminished tumor burden and delayed tumor progression in a liver cancer model. In order to better understand the Bid-regulated events during hepatic carcinogenesis we performed gene expression analysis in wild type and bid-deficient mice treated with a hepatic carcinogen, diethylnitrosamine. We found that deletion of Bid caused significantly fewer alterations in gene expression in terms of the number of genes affected and the number of pathways affected. In addition, the expression profiles were remarkably different. In the wild type mice, there was a significant increase in the expression of growth regulation-related and immune/inflammation response-related genes, and a significant decrease in the expression of metabolism-related genes, both of which were diminished in bid-deficient livers. These data suggest that Bid could promote hepatic carcinogenesis via growth control and inflammation-mediated events.

  5. Maintenance erlotinib in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: cost-effectiveness in EGFR wild-type across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walleser S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silke Walleser,1 Joshua Ray,2 Helge Bischoff,3 Alain Vergnenègre,4 Hubertus Rosery,5 Christos Chouaid,6 David Heigener,7 Javier de Castro Carpeño,8 Marcello Tiseo,9 Stefan Walzer21Health Economic Consultancy, Renens, Switzerland; 2F Hoffmann-La Roche Pharmaceuticals AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Thoracic Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Limoges University Hospital, Limoges, France; 5Assessment-in-Medicine GmbH, Loerrach, Germany; 6Hospital Saint Antoine, Paris, France; 7Hospital Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 8University Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain; 9University Hospital of Parma, Parma, ItalyBackground: First-line maintenance erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC has demonstrated significant overall survival and progression-free survival benefits compared with best supportive care plus placebo, irrespective of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR status (SATURN trial. The cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib in the overall SATURN population has been assessed and published recently, but analyses according to EGFR mutation status have not been performed yet, which was the rationale for assessing the cost-effectiveness of first-line maintenance erlotinib specifically in EGFR wild-type metastatic NSCLC.Methods: The incremental cost per life-year gained of first-line maintenance erlotinib compared with best supportive care in patients with EGFR wild-type stable metastatic NSCLC was assessed for five European countries (the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Spain, and Italy with an area-under-the-curve model consisting of three health states (progression-free survival, progressive disease, death. Log-logistic survival functions were fitted to Phase III patient-level data (SATURN to model progression-free survival and overall survival. The first-line maintenance erlotinib therapy cost (modeled for time to treatment cessation, medication cost in later lines, and

  6. Kuru prions and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions have equivalent transmission properties in transgenic and wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Desbruslais, Melanie; Fox, Katie; Cooper, Sharon; Cronier, Sabrina; Asante, Emmanuel A; Mead, Simon; Brandner, Sebastian; Hill, Andrew F; Collinge, John

    2008-03-11

    Kuru provides our principal experience of an epidemic human prion disease and primarily affected the Fore linguistic group of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Kuru was transmitted by the practice of consuming dead relatives as a mark of respect and mourning (transumption). To date, detailed information of the prion strain type propagated in kuru has been lacking. Here, we directly compare the transmission properties of kuru prions with sporadic, iatrogenic, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) prions in Prnp-null transgenic mice expressing human prion protein and in wild-type mice. Molecular and neuropathological data from these transmissions show that kuru prions are distinct from variant CJD and have transmission properties equivalent to those of classical (sporadic) CJD prions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that kuru originated from chance consumption of an individual with sporadic CJD.

  7. Kuru prions and sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease prions have equivalent transmission properties in transgenic and wild-type mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D. F.; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M.; Desbruslais, Melanie; Fox, Katie; Cooper, Sharon; Cronier, Sabrina; Asante, Emmanuel A.; Mead, Simon; Brandner, Sebastian; Hill, Andrew F.; Collinge, John

    2008-01-01

    Kuru provides our principal experience of an epidemic human prion disease and primarily affected the Fore linguistic group of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Kuru was transmitted by the practice of consuming dead relatives as a mark of respect and mourning (transumption). To date, detailed information of the prion strain type propagated in kuru has been lacking. Here, we directly compare the transmission properties of kuru prions with sporadic, iatrogenic, and variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) prions in Prnp-null transgenic mice expressing human prion protein and in wild-type mice. Molecular and neuropathological data from these transmissions show that kuru prions are distinct from variant CJD and have transmission properties equivalent to those of classical (sporadic) CJD prions. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that kuru originated from chance consumption of an individual with sporadic CJD. PMID:18316717

  8. DNA typing methods for differentiation of Debaryomyces hansenii strains and other yeasts related to surface ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K M; Møller, P L; Jespersen, L

    2001-09-19

    The discriminative power of ITS-PCR, ITS-PCR RFLP and mitochondrial (mt)-DNA RFLP were evaluated for differentiation of yeasts of importance for surface ripened cheeses. In total 60 isolates were included. Of these, 40 strains of the following species, Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii, D. hansenii var. fabryi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida zeylanoides, Kluyveromyces lactis and Yarrowia lipolytica, were obtained from culture collections and 20 isolates of D. hansenii representing six different phenotypes were collected from seven Danish producers of surface ripened cheeses. ITS-PCR was evaluated for differentiation at species level on the 40 strains obtained from culture collections. Ten strains of each variety of D. hansenii and five strains of each of the above mentioned species were analysed. For each of the investigated species, a specific ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region size was observed. Accordingly ITS-PCR was found valuable for differentiation at species level of yeasts of importance for surface ripened cheeses. ITS-PCR RFLP was investigated for the purpose of strain typing of D. hansenii. Ten CBS strains of each variety of D. hansenii were analysed. Only one enzyme (TaqI) out of several investigated (BamHI, DpnI, Fnu4HI, HaeIII, HindIII, HpaII, NlaII, Sau3AI, TaqI) demonstrated genetic diversity within the strains. This enzyme divided the 20 strains in three groups. Sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region for the type strains of each variety of D. hansenii showed an identity of 99.84%, corresponding to a difference in one basepair. Based on these results, ITS-PCR RFLP was found ineffective for strain typing of D. hansenii. MtDNA RFLP using HaeIII and HpaII was evaluated for strain typing of D. hansenii on the 20 CBS strains of D. hansenii. The CBS strains were divided into 16 groups according to their restriction profiles, which proved the method useful for typing of D. hansenii at subspecies level. The 20 dairy isolates showed a lower genetic

  9. Screening of wild type Streptomyces isolates able to overproduce clavulanic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Viana Marques

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The selection of new microorganisms able to produce antimicrobial compounds is hoped for to reduce their production costs and the side effects caused by synthetic drugs. Clavulanic acid is a β-lactam antibiotic produced by submerged culture, which is widely used in medicine as a powerful inhibitor of β-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistant to antibiotics such penicillin and cephalosporin. The purpose of this work was to select the best clavulanic acid producer among strains of Streptomyces belonging to the Microorganism Collection of the Department of Antibiotics of the Federal University of Pernambuco (DAUFPE. Initially, the strains were studied for their capacity to inhibit the action of β-lactamases produced by Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 15380. From these results, five strains were selected to investigate the batch kinetics of growth and clavulanic acid production in submerged culture carried out in flasks. The results were compared with the ones obtained by Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 selected as a control strain. The best clavulanic acid producer was Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, molecularly identified as Streptomyces variabilis, which increased the clavulanic acid production by 28% compared to the control strain. This work contributes to the enlargement of knowledge on new Streptomyces wild strains able to produce clavulanic acid by submerged culture.

  10. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants Are Parasitic Genotypes in a Wild-Type Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population of Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Delia; Castillejo, Juan I.; Caballero, Primitivo

    1998-01-01

    A wild-type nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolate from Spodoptera exigua from Florida (Se-US2) is a variant of the SeMNPV type strain since it has a unique DNA profile but is closely related to other known geographical isolates of SeMNPV. It consists of several genotypic variants, of which seven were identified in a Se-US2 virus stock by a modification of the in vivo cloning method developed by Smith and Crook (Virology 166:240–244, 1988). The US2A variant was the most prevalent genotype, and it was designated the prototype Se-US2 variant, while four of the variants (US2B, US2D, US2F, and US2H) were found at low frequency. US2C and US2E were also very abundant, and their diagnostic bands were easily observed in wild-type isolate restriction endonuclease patterns. The analysis of each variant, compared to the prototype US2A, showed that US2B and US2H presented minor differences, while US2D and US2F contained slightly larger insertions or deletions. Variants US2C and US2E contained major deletions of 21.1 and 14 kb, respectively, mapping at the same genomic region (between 14.5 and 30.2 map units [m.u.] and between 12.8 and 23 m.u., respectively). This is the first report of such deletion mutants in a natural baculovirus population. Variants US2A, US2B, US2D, US2F, and US2H were isolated as pure genotypes, but we failed to clone US2C and US2E in vivo. When these two variants appeared without apparent contamination with any other variant, they lost their pathogenicity for Spodoptera exigua larvae. A further biological characterization showed evidence that these two naturally occurring deletion mutants act as parasitic genotypes in the virus population. Bioassay data also demonstrated that pure US2A is significantly more pathogenic against second-instar S. exigua larvae than the wild-type isolate. The need for precise genotypic characterization of a baculovirus prior to its development as a bioinsecticide is discussed. PMID:9797293

  11. Effects of the Kava Chalcone Flavokawain A Differ in Bladder Cancer Cells with Wild-type versus Mutant p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R.; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

    2010-01-01

    Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G1 arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated with the down-regulation of SKP2 and then increased the stability of the p27/KIP1 protein. The accumulation of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1 was independent of cell cycle position and thus not a result of the cell cycle arrest. In contrast, flavokawain A induced a G2-M arrest in six p53 mutant-type, high-grade bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UMUC3, TCCSUP, 5637, HT1376, and HT1197). Flavokawain A significantly reduced the expression of CDK1-inhibitory kinases, Myt1 and Wee1, and caused cyclin B1 protein accumulation leading to CDK1 activation in T24 cells. Suppression of p53 expression by small interfering RNA in RT4 cells restored Cdc25C expression and down-regulated p21/WAF1 expression, which allowed Cdc25C and CDK1 activation and then led to a G2-M arrest and an enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by flavokawain A. Consistently, flavokawain A also caused a pronounced CDK1 activation and G2-M arrest in p53 knockout but not in p53 wild-type HCT116 cells. This selectivity of flavokawain A for inducing a G2-M arrest in p53-defective cells deserves further investigation as a new mechanism for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:19138991

  12. Effects of the kava chalcone flavokawain A differ in bladder cancer cells with wild-type versus mutant p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaxiong; Simoneau, Anne R; Xie, Jun; Shahandeh, Babbak; Zi, Xiaolin

    2008-11-01

    Flavokawain A is the predominant chalcone from kava extract. We have assessed the mechanisms of flavokawain A's action on cell cycle regulation. In a p53 wild-type, low-grade, and papillary bladder cancer cell line (RT4), flavokawain A increased p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1, which resulted in a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) kinase activity and subsequent G(1) arrest. The increase of p21/WAF1 protein corresponded to an increased mRNA level, whereas p27/KIP1 accumulation was associated with the down-regulation of SKP2, which then increased the stability of the p27/KIP1 protein. The accumulation of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1 was independent of cell cycle position and thus not a result of the cell cycle arrest. In contrast, flavokawain A induced a G(2)-M arrest in six p53 mutant-type, high-grade bladder cancer cell lines (T24, UMUC3, TCCSUP, 5637, HT1376, and HT1197). Flavokawain A significantly reduced the expression of CDK1-inhibitory kinases, Myt1 and Wee1, and caused cyclin B1 protein accumulation leading to CDK1 activation in T24 cells. Suppression of p53 expression by small interfering RNA in RT4 cells restored Cdc25C expression and down-regulated p21/WAF1 expression, which allowed Cdc25C and CDK1 activation, which then led to a G(2)-M arrest and an enhanced growth-inhibitory effect by flavokawain A. Consistently, flavokawain A also caused a pronounced CDK1 activation and G(2)-M arrest in p53 knockout but not in p53 wild-type HCT116 cells. This selectivity of flavokawain A for inducing a G(2)-M arrest in p53-defective cells deserves further investigation as a new mechanism for the prevention and treatment of bladder cancer.

  13. 'Killer' character of yeasts isolated from ethanolic fermentations

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    Ceccato-Antonini Sandra Regina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of killer, neutral and sensitive yeasts was determined from strains isolated from substrates related to alcoholic fermentations. From 113 isolates, 24 showed killer activity against NCYC 1006 (standard sensitive strain, while 30 were sensitive to NCYC 738 (standard killer strain, and 59 had no reaction in assays at 25-27°C. Two wild yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of Candida colliculosa were tested against 10 standard killer strains and one standard sensitive strain in a cell x cell and well-test assays at four different pHs. None of the isolates displayed strong killer activity or were sensitive to the standard strains. All belonged to the neutral type. It was concluded that although the number of killer strains was high, this character cannot be used to protect ethanol fermentation processes against yeast contaminants like those which form cell clusters.

  14. Effects of phorbol ester on mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase activity in wild-type and phorbol ester-resistant EL4 thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, K C; Homma, M K; Licciardi, K A; Seger, R; Ahn, N G; Peterson, M J; Krebs, E G; Meier, K E

    1993-08-05

    Phorbol ester-sensitive and -resistant EL4 thymoma cell lines differ in their ability to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to phorbol ester. Treatment of wild-type EL4 cells with phorbol ester results in the rapid activations of MAPK and pp90rsk kinase, a substrate for MAPK, while neither kinase is activated in response to phorbol ester in variant EL4 cells. This study examines the activation of MAPK kinase (MAPKK), an activator of MAPK, in wild-type and variant EL4 cells. Phosphorylation of a 40-kDa substrate, identified as MAPK, was observed following in vitro phosphorylation reactions using cytosolic extracts or Mono Q column fractions prepared from phorbol ester-treated wild-type EL4 cells. MAPKK activity coeluted with a portion of the inactive MAPK upon Mono Q anion-exchange chromatography, permitting detection of the MAPKK activity in fractions containing both kinases. This MAPKK activity was present in phorbol ester-treated wild-type cells, but not in phorbol ester-treated variant cells or in untreated wild-type or variant cells. The MAPKK from wild-type cells was able to activate MAPK prepared from either wild-type or variant cells. MAPKK activity could be stimulated in both wildtype and variant EL4 cells in response to treatment of cells with okadaic acid. These results indicate that the failure of variant EL4 cells to activate MAP kinase in response to phorbol ester is due to a failure to activate MAPKK. Therefore, the step that confers phorbol ester resistance to variant EL4 cells lies between the activation of protein kinase C and the activation of MAPKK.

  15. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

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    Cui Shang-jin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV. A pair of primers (P1 and P4 specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV, canine parvovirus (CPV, canine coronavirus (CCV, rabies virus (RV, or canine adenovirus (CAV. The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.

  16. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated metabolism of catechol estrogens: comparison of wild-type and variant COMT isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawling, S; Roodi, N; Mernaugh, R L; Wang, X; Parl, F F

    2001-09-15

    The oxidative metabolism of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1) to catechol estrogens (2-OHE2, 4-OHE2, 2-OHE1, and 4-OHE1) and estrogen quinones has been postulated to be a factor in mammary carcinogenesis. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the methylation of catechol estrogens to methoxy estrogens, which simultaneously lowers the potential for DNA damage and increases the concentration of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2), an antiproliferative metabolite. We expressed two recombinant forms of COMT, the wild-type (108Val) and a common variant (108Met), to determine whether their catalytic efficiencies differ with respect to catechol estrogen inactivation. The His-tagged proteins were purified by nickel-nitrilo-triacetic acid chromatography and analyzed by electrophoresis and Western immunoblot. COMT activity was assessed by determining the methylation of 2-OHE2, 4-OHE2, 2-OHE1, and 4-OHE1, using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for quantitation of the respective methoxy products. In the case of 2-OHE2 and 2-OHE1, methylation occurred at 2-OH and 3-OH groups, resulting in the formation of 2-MeOE2 and 2-OH-3-MeOE2, and 2-MeOE1 and 2-OH-3-MeOE1, respectively. In contrast, in the case of 4-OHE2 and 4-OHE1, methylation occurred only at the 4-OH group, yielding 4-MeOE2 and 4-MeOE1, respectively. Individual and competition experiments revealed the following order of product formation: 4-MeOE2 > 4-MeOE1 > 2-MeOE2 > 2-MeOE1 > 2-OH-3-MeOE1 > 2-OH-3-MeOE2. The variant isoform differed from wild-type COMT by being thermolabile, leading to 2-3-fold lower levels of product formation. MCF-7 breast cancer cells with the variant COMT 108Met/Met genotype also displayed 2-3-fold lower catalytic activity than ZR-75 breast cancer cells with the wild-type COMT 108Val/Val genotype. Thus, inherited alterations in COMT catalytic activity are associated with significant differences in catechol estrogen and methoxy estrogen levels and, thereby, may contribute to interindividual

  17. Genetic Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Genes of Wild-Type Measles Virus Circulating in China, 1993–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Chunyu; Mao, Naiying; Ji, Yixin; Wang, Huiling; Jiang, Xiaohong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Wei; Feng, Daxing; Wang, Changyin; Zheng, Lei; Lei, Yue; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; He, Jilan; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; Zhou, Shujie; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Leng; Ma, Hemuti; Guan, Jing; Lu, Peishan; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Shunde; Xiong, Ying; Ba, Zhuoma; Chen, Hui; Yang, Xiuhui; Bo, Fang; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Lei, Yake; Gu, Suyi; Liu, Wei; Chen, Meng; Featherstone, David; Jee, Youngmee; Bellini, William J.; Rota, Paul A.; Xu, Wenbo

    2013-01-01

    Background China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV) provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. Principal Findings Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993–2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn), which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE) was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10−3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS) was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. Conclusions Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in China. PMID

  18. Genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin genes of wild-type measles virus circulating in china, 1993-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songtao Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: China experienced several large measles outbreaks in the past two decades, and a series of enhanced control measures were implemented to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Molecular epidemiologic surveillance of wild-type measles viruses (MeV provides valuable information about the viral transmission patterns. Since 1993, virologic surveillnace has confirmed that a single endemic genotype H1 viruses have been predominantly circulating in China. A component of molecular surveillance is to monitor the genetic characteristics of the hemagglutinin (H gene of MeV, the major target for virus neutralizing antibodies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the sequences of the complete H gene from 56 representative wild-type MeV strains circulating in China during 1993-2009 showed that the H gene sequences were clustered into 2 groups, cluster 1 and cluster 2. Cluster1 strains were the most frequently detected cluster and had a widespread distribution in China after 2000. The predicted amino acid sequences of the H protein were relatively conserved at most of the functionally significant amino acid positions. However, most of the genotype H1 cluster1 viruses had an amino acid substitution (Ser240Asn, which removed a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. In addition, the substitution of Pro397Leu in the hemagglutinin noose epitope (HNE was identified in 23 of 56 strains. The evolutionary rate of the H gene of the genotype H1 viruses was estimated to be approximately 0.76×10(-3 substitutions per site per year, and the ratio of dN to dS (dN/dS was <1 indicating the absence of selective pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Although H genes of the genotype H1 strains were conserved and not subjected to selective pressure, several amino acid substitutions were observed in functionally important positions. Therefore the antigenic and genetic properties of H genes of wild-type MeVs should be monitored as part of routine molecular surveillance for measles in

  19. Transcriptional regulatory program in wild-type and retinoblastoma gene-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Jacob B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many molecular regulators of adipogenesis have been identified a comprehensive catalogue of components is still missing. Recent studies showed that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb was expressed in the cell cycle and late cellular differentiation phase during adipogenesis. To investigate this dual role of pRb in the early and late stages of adipogenesis we used microarrays to perform a comprehensive systems-level analysis of the common transcriptional program of the classic 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs, and retinoblastoma gene-deficient MEFs (Rb-/- MEFs. Findings Comparative analysis of the expression profiles of 3T3-L1 cells and wild-type MEFs revealed genes involved specifically in early regulation of the adipocyte differentiation as well as secreted factors and signaling molecules regulating the later phase of differentiation. In an attempt to identify transcription factors regulating adipogenesis, bioinformatics analysis of the promoters of coordinately and highly expressed genes was performed. We were able to identify a number of high-confidence target genes for follow-up experimental studies. Additionally, combination of experimental data and computational analyses pinpointed a feedback-loop between Pparg and Foxo1. To analyze the effects of the retinoblastoma protein at the transcriptional level we chose a perturbated system (Rb-/- MEFs for comparison to the transcriptional program of wild-type MEFs. Gene ontology analysis of 64 deregulated genes showed that the Rb-/- MEF model exhibits a brown(-like adipocyte phenotype. Additionally, the analysis results indicate a different or additional role for pRb family member involvement in the lineage commitment. Conclusion In this study a number of commonly modulated genes during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and MEFs, potential transcriptional regulation mechanisms, and differentially regulated targets during adipocyte

  20. Biotransformation of cinnamyl alcohol to rosavins by non-transformed wild type and hairy root cultures of Rhodiola kirilowii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech-Baran, Marta; Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Krajewska-Patan, Anna; Wyrwał, Anna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

    2014-03-01

    Non-transformed wild type (NTWT) and hairy root cultures of Rhodiola kirilowii were grown in medium supplemented with 2.5 mM cinnamyl alcohol as a precursor and/or sucrose (1 %) on the day of inoculation or on the 14th day of culture. Rosarin, rosavin, and rosin were produced by NTWT root culture but only rosarin and rosavin by hairy roots. Approximately 80 and 95 % of the glycosides were released into the medium for NTWT and hairy root cultures, respectively. The highest rosavin yield, 505 ± 106 mg/l, was in hairy root culture when cinnamyl alcohol was applied on the day of inoculation with the addition of sucrose on the 14th day of culture. For rosin production, supplementation with cinnamyl alcohol alone on day 14 was more favourable with the highest amount 74 ± 10 mg/l in NTWT root culture. Only traces of rosarin were detected.

  1. Transcriptional regulatory program in wild-type and retinoblastoma gene-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts during adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakim-Weber, Robab; Krogsdam, Anne-M; Jørgensen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    (Rb-/- MEFs). FINDINGS: Comparative analysis of the expression profiles of 3T3-L1 cells and wild-type MEFs revealed genes involved specifically in early regulation of the adipocyte differentiation as well as secreted factors and signaling molecules regulating the later phase of differentiation...... of 64 deregulated genes showed that the Rb-/- MEF model exhibits a brown(-like) adipocyte phenotype. Additionally, the analysis results indicate a different or additional role for pRb family member involvement in the lineage commitment. CONCLUSION: In this study a number of commonly modulated genes...... during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and MEFs, potential transcriptional regulation mechanisms, and differentially regulated targets during adipocyte differentiation of Rb-/- MEFs could be identified. These data and the analysis provide a starting point for further experimental studies to identify target...

  2. High-Throughput Functional Screening of Steroid Substrates with Wild-Type and Chimeric P450 Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Urban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The promiscuity of a collection of enzymes consisting of 31 wild-type and synthetic variants of CYP1A enzymes was evaluated using a series of 14 steroids and 2 steroid-like chemicals, namely, nootkatone, a terpenoid, and mifepristone, a drug. For each enzyme-substrate couple, the initial steady-state velocity of metabolite formation was determined at a substrate saturating concentration. For that, a high-throughput approach was designed involving automatized incubations in 96-well microplate with sixteen 6-point kinetics per microplate and data acquisition using LC/MS system accepting 96-well microplate for injections. The resulting dataset was used for multivariate statistics aimed at sorting out the correlations existing between tested enzyme variants and ability to metabolize steroid substrates. Functional classifications of both CYP1A enzyme variants and steroid substrate structures were obtained allowing the delineation of global structural features for both substrate recognition and regioselectivity of oxidation.

  3. Neuromuscular control of a single twitch muscle in wild type and mutant Drosophila, measured with an ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jennifer; Brunger, Holly; Middleton, C Adam; Hill, Julia A; Sevdali, Maria; Sweeney, Sean T; Sparrow, John C; Elliott, Christopher J H

    2008-06-01

    How do deficits in neuronal growth, aging or synaptic function affect the final, mechanical output of a single muscle twitch? We address this in vivo (indeed in situ) with a novel ergometer that records the output of a large specialised muscle, the Drosophila jump muscle. Here, we describe in detail the ergometer, its construction and use. We evaluated the ergometer by showing that adult fly jump muscle output varies little between 3 h and 7 days; but newly eclosed flies produce only 65%. In a mutant with little octopamine (Tbetah), jump muscle performance is reduced by 28%. The initial responses of synaptic growth mutants (highwire and spinster) do not differ from wild type, as expected on the homeostatic hypothesis. However, responses in highwire mutations gradually decline following repeated stimuli, suggesting physiological as well as anatomical abnormalities. We conclude that the assay is robust, sensitive and reliable with a good throughput.

  4. Prevalence of three campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari, using multilocus sequence typing in wild birds of the Mid-Atlantic region, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Judith I; Shriver, W Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the majority of bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis in the US, usually due to the consumption of undercooked poultry. Research on which avian species transmit the bacterium is limited, especially in the US. We sampled wild birds in three families-Anatidae, Scolopacidae, and Laridae-in eastern North America to determine the prevalence and specific strains of Campylobacter. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 9.2% for all wild birds sampled (n = 781). Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (8.1%), while Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari prevalence estimates were low (1.4% and 0.3%, respectively). We used multilocus sequence typing PCR specific to C. jejuni to characterize clonal complexes and sequence types isolated from wild bird samples and detected 13 novel sequence types, along with a clonal complex previously only associated with human disease (ST-658). Wild birds share an increasing amount of habitat with humans as more landscapes become fragmented and developed for human needs. Wild birds are and will remain an important aspect of public health due to their ability to carry and disperse emerging zoonotic pathogens or their arthropod vectors. As basic information such as prevalence is limited or lacking from a majority of wild birds in the US, this study provides further insight into Campylobacter epidemiology, host preference, and strain characterization of C. jejuni.

  5. Diverse wild mouse origins of xenotropic, mink cell focus-forming, and two types of ecotropic proviral genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, C A; O'Neill, R R

    1987-10-01

    We analyzed wild mouse DNAs for the number and type of proviral genes related to the env sequences of various murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs). Only Mus species closely related to laboratory mice carried these retroviral sequences, and the different subclasses of viral env genes tended to be restricted to specific taxonomic groups. Only Mus musculus molossinus carried proviral genes which cross-reacted with the inbred mouse ecotropic MuLV env gene. The ecotropic viral env sequence associated with the Fv-4 resistance gene was found in the Asian mice M. musculus molossinus and Mus musculus castaneus and in California mice from Lake Casitas (LC). Both M. musculus castaneus and LC mice carried many additional Fv-4 env-related proviruses, two of which are common to both mouse populations, which suggests that these mice share a recent common ancestry. Xenotropic and mink cell focus-forming (MCF) virus env sequences were more widely dispersed in wild mice than the ecotropic viral env genes, which suggests that nonecotropic MuLVs were integrated into the Mus germ line at an earlier date. Xenotropic MuLVs represented the major component of MuLV env-reactive genes in Asian and eastern European mice classified as M. musculus molossinus, M. musculus castaneus, and Mus musculus musculus, whereas Mus musculus domesticus from western Europe, the Mediterranean, and North America contained almost exclusively MCF virus env copies. M. musculus musculus mice from central Europe trapped near the M. musculus domesticus/M. musculus musculus hybrid zone carried multiple copies of both types of env genes. LC mice also carried both xenotropic and MCF viral env genes, which is consistent with the above conclusion that they represent natural hybrids of M. musculus domesticus and M. musculus castaneus.

  6. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  7. Dissection of symbiosis and organ development by integrated transcriptome analysis of lotus japonicus mutant and wild-type plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Høgslund

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses of plant symbiotic mutants has led to the identification of key genes involved in Rhizobium-legume communication as well as in development and function of nitrogen fixing root nodules. However, the impact of these genes in coordinating the transcriptional programs of nodule development has only been studied in limited and isolated studies. Here, we present an integrated genome-wide analysis of transcriptome landscapes in Lotus japonicus wild-type and symbiotic mutant plants. Encompassing five different organs, five stages of the sequentially developed determinate Lotus root nodules, and eight mutants impaired at different stages of the symbiotic interaction, our data set integrates an unprecedented combination of organ- or tissue-specific profiles with mutant transcript profiles. In total, 38 different conditions sampled under the same well-defined growth regimes were included. This comprehensive analysis unravelled new and unexpected patterns of transcriptional regulation during symbiosis and organ development. Contrary to expectations, none of the previously characterized nodulins were among the 37 genes specifically expressed in nodules. Another surprise was the extensive transcriptional response in whole root compared to the susceptible root zone where the cellular response is most pronounced. A large number of transcripts predicted to encode transcriptional regulators, receptors and proteins involved in signal transduction, as well as many genes with unknown function, were found to be regulated during nodule organogenesis and rhizobial infection. Combining wild type and mutant profiles of these transcripts demonstrates the activation of a complex genetic program that delineates symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The complete data set was organized into an indexed expression directory that is accessible from a resource database, and here we present selected examples of biological questions that can be addressed with this

  8. Dissection of Symbiosis and Organ Development by Integrated Transcriptome Analysis of Lotus japonicus Mutant and Wild-Type Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgslund, Niels; Radutoiu, Simona; Krusell, Lene; Voroshilova, Vera; Hannah, Matthew A.; Goffard, Nicolas; Sanchez, Diego H.; Lippold, Felix; Ott, Thomas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Liboriussen, Poul; Lohmann, Gitte V.; Schauser, Leif; Weiller, Georg F.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Stougaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Genetic analyses of plant symbiotic mutants has led to the identification of key genes involved in Rhizobium-legume communication as well as in development and function of nitrogen fixing root nodules. However, the impact of these genes in coordinating the transcriptional programs of nodule development has only been studied in limited and isolated studies. Here, we present an integrated genome-wide analysis of transcriptome landscapes in Lotus japonicus wild-type and symbiotic mutant plants. Encompassing five different organs, five stages of the sequentially developed determinate Lotus root nodules, and eight mutants impaired at different stages of the symbiotic interaction, our data set integrates an unprecedented combination of organ- or tissue-specific profiles with mutant transcript profiles. In total, 38 different conditions sampled under the same well-defined growth regimes were included. This comprehensive analysis unravelled new and unexpected patterns of transcriptional regulation during symbiosis and organ development. Contrary to expectations, none of the previously characterized nodulins were among the 37 genes specifically expressed in nodules. Another surprise was the extensive transcriptional response in whole root compared to the susceptible root zone where the cellular response is most pronounced. A large number of transcripts predicted to encode transcriptional regulators, receptors and proteins involved in signal transduction, as well as many genes with unknown function, were found to be regulated during nodule organogenesis and rhizobial infection. Combining wild type and mutant profiles of these transcripts demonstrates the activation of a complex genetic program that delineates symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The complete data set was organized into an indexed expression directory that is accessible from a resource database, and here we present selected examples of biological questions that can be addressed with this comprehensive and powerful

  9. Recombinant Wild-Type and Edmonston Strain Measles Viruses Bearing Heterologous H Proteins: Role of H Protein in Cell Fusion and Host Cell Specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Miyajima, Naoko; Kobune, Fumio; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi; Tashiro, Masato

    2002-01-01

    Wild-type measles virus (MV) isolated from B95a cells has a restricted host cell specificity and hardly replicates in Vero cells, whereas the laboratory strain Edmonston (Ed) replicates in a variety of cell types including Vero cells. To investigate the role of H protein in the differential MV host cell specificity and cell fusion activity, H proteins of wild-type MV (IC-B) and Ed were coexpressed with the F protein in Vero cells. Cell-cell fusion occurred in Vero cells when Ed H protein, but...

  10. Identification of a Novel Scaffold for Allosteric Inhibition of Wild Type and Drug Resistant HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase by Fragment Library Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geitmann, M.; Elinder, M; Seeger, C; Brandt, P; de Esch, I.J.P.; Danielson, U.H.

    2011-01-01

    A novel scaffold inhibiting wild type and drug resistant variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1RT) has been identified in a library consisting of 1040 fragments. The fragments were significantly different from already known non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase

  11. Near-perfect infectivity of wild-type AAV as benchmark for infectivity of recombinant AAV vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltner, N; Kohlbrenner, E; Clément, N; Weber, T; Linden, R M

    2010-07-01

    Viral vectors derived from adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are widely used for gene transfer both in vitro and in vivo. The increasing use of AAV as a gene transfer vector, as well as recently shown immunological complications in clinical trials, highlight the necessity to define the specific activity of vector preparations beyond current standards. In this report, we determined the infectious, physical and genome-containing particle titers of several wild-type AAV type 2 (wtAAV2) and recombinant AAV type 2 (rAAV2) preparations that were produced and purified by standard methods. We found that the infectivity of wtAAV2 approaches a physical-to-infectious particle ratio of one. This near-perfect physical-to-infectious particle ratio defines a 'ceiling' for the theoretically achievable quality of recombinant AAV vectors. In comparison, for rAAV2, only approximately 50 out of 100 viral particles contained a genome and, more strikingly, only approximately 1 of the 100 viral particles was infectious. Our findings suggest that current strategies for rAAV vector design, production and/or purification should be amenable to improvements. Ultimately, this could result in the generation of near-perfect vector particles, a prospect with significant implications for gene therapy.

  12. Subcellular localization of SREBP1 depends on its interaction with the C-terminal region of wild-type and disease related A-type lamins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duband-Goulet, Isabelle; Woerner, Stephanie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Gasparini, Sylvaine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Attanda, Wikayatou [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Konde, Emilie; Tellier-Lebegue, Carine [Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, URA CNRS 2096, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Saclay, 91190 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Craescu, Constantin T. [INSERM U759, Institut Curie/Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Gombault, Aurelie [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Roussel, Pascal [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR 7592, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris (France); Vadrot, Nathalie; Vicart, Patrick [Laboratoire du Stress et Pathologies du Cytosquelette, Universite Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Fonctionnelle et Adaptative, 4 rue M.A. Lagroua Weill Halle, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Oestlund, Cecilia; Worman, Howard J. [Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); and others

    2011-12-10

    Lamins A and C are nuclear intermediate filament proteins expressed in most differentiated somatic cells. Previous data suggested that prelamin A, the lamin A precursor, accumulates in some lipodystrophy syndromes caused by mutations in the lamin A/C gene, and binds and inactivates the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1). Here we show that, in vitro, the tail regions of prelamin A, lamin A and lamin C bind a polypeptide of SREBP1. Such interactions also occur in HeLa cells, since expression of lamin tail regions impedes nucleolar accumulation of the SREBP1 polypeptide fused to a nucleolar localization signal sequence. In addition, the tail regions of A-type lamin variants that occur in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy of (R482W) and Hutchison Gilford progeria syndrome ( Increment 607-656) bind to the SREBP1 polypeptide in vitro, and the corresponding FLAG-tagged full-length lamin variants co-immunoprecipitate the SREBP1 polypeptide in cells. Overexpression of wild-type A-type lamins and variants favors SREBP1 polypeptide localization at the intranuclear periphery, suggesting its sequestration. Our data support the hypothesis that variation of A-type lamin protein level and spatial organization, in particular due to disease-linked mutations, influences the sequestration of SREBP1 at the nuclear envelope and thus contributes to the regulation of SREBP1 function.

  13. Disruption of the cytochrome c gene in xylose-utilizing yeast Pichia stipitis leads to higher ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian-Qing. Shi; Brian. Davis; Fred. Sherman; Jose. Cruz; Thomas W. Jeffries

    1999-01-01

    The xylose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis, has a complex respiratory system that contains cytochrome and non-cytochrome alternative electron transport chains in its mitochondria. To gain primary insights into the alternative respiratory pathway, a cytochrome c gene (PsCYC1, Accession No. AF030426) was cloned from wild-type P. stipitis CBS 6054 by cross-hybridization...

  14. A high-sugar diet produces obesity and insulin resistance in wild-type Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Palanker Musselman

    2011-11-01

    Insulin-resistant, ‘type 2’ diabetes (T2D results from a complex interplay between genes and environment. In particular, both caloric excess and obesity are strongly associated with T2D across many genetic backgrounds. To gain insights into how dietary excess affects insulin resistance, we studied the simple model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Larvae reared on a high-sugar diet were hyperglycemic, insulin resistant and accumulated fat – hallmarks of T2D – compared with those reared on control diets. Excess dietary sugars, but not fats or proteins, elicited insulin-resistant phenotypes. Expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis and β-oxidation was upregulated in high-sugar-fed larvae, as were FOXO targets, consistent with known mechanisms of insulin resistance in humans. These data establish a novel Drosophila model of diet-induced insulin resistance that bears strong similarity to the pathophysiology of T2D in humans.

  15. Impact of apple cultivar, ripening stage, fermentation type and yeast strain on phenolic composition of apple ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Oskar; Kuldjärv, Rain; Paalme, Toomas; Virkki, Mira; Yang, Baoru

    2017-10-15

    Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids in apple juices and ciders were studied using liquid chromatography. Samples were produced from four different Estonian apple cultivars using unripe, ripe and overripe apples, and six different commercial yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains. Part of the samples was additionally inoculated with malolactic bacteria, Oenococcus oeni. The most notable difference among the samples was the appearance of phloretin in malolactic ciders in comparison to conventional ciders and the juices. Furthermore, the apple cultivars were significantly different in their phenolic contents and compositions. Additionally, ciders and juices made from unripe apples contained more phenolic compounds than the ripe or overripe, but the effect was dependent on cultivar. The commercial yeast strains differed in the release of free HCAs, especially p-coumaric acid, during the yeast fermentation. In ciders inoculated with S. bayanus, the content was higher than in ciders fermented with S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perturbation of auxin homeostasis by overexpression of wild-type IAA15 results in impaired stem cell differentiation and gravitropism in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Da-Wei; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Hong, Li-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Aux/IAAs interact with auxin response factors (ARFs) to repress their transcriptional activity in the auxin signaling pathway. Previous studies have focused on gain-of-function mutations of domain II and little is known about whether the expression level of wild-type Aux/IAAs can modulate auxin homeostasis. Here we examined the perturbation of auxin homeostasis by ectopic expression of wild-type IAA15. Root gravitropism and stem cell differentiation were also analyzed. The transgenic lines were less sensitive to exogenous auxin and exhibited low-auxin phenotypes including failures in gravity response and defects in stem cell differentiation. Overexpression lines also showed an increase in auxin concentration and reduced polar auxin transport. These results demonstrate that an alteration in the expression of wild-type IAA15 can disrupt auxin homeostasis.

  17. Perturbation of auxin homeostasis by overexpression of wild-type IAA15 results in impaired stem cell differentiation and gravitropism in roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Yan

    Full Text Available Aux/IAAs interact with auxin response factors (ARFs to repress their transcriptional activity in the auxin signaling pathway. Previous studies have focused on gain-of-function mutations of domain II and little is known about whether the expression level of wild-type Aux/IAAs can modulate auxin homeostasis. Here we examined the perturbation of auxin homeostasis by ectopic expression of wild-type IAA15. Root gravitropism and stem cell differentiation were also analyzed. The transgenic lines were less sensitive to exogenous auxin and exhibited low-auxin phenotypes including failures in gravity response and defects in stem cell differentiation. Overexpression lines also showed an increase in auxin concentration and reduced polar auxin transport. These results demonstrate that an alteration in the expression of wild-type IAA15 can disrupt auxin homeostasis.

  18. Yeast Infection Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/yeastinfectiontest.html Yeast Infection Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Yeast Test? Yeast is a type of fungus that ...

  19. Behavioural Type Affects Space Use in a Wild Population of Crows (Corvus corone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deventer, Sarah A; Uhl, Florian; Bugnyar, Thomas; Miller, Rachael; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Schiestl, Martina; Ringler, Max; Schwab, Christine

    2016-11-01

    While personality-dependent dispersal is well studied, local space use has received surprisingly little attention in this context, despite the multiple consequences on survival and fitness. Regarding the coping style of individuals, recent studies on personality-dependent space use within a habitat indicate that 'proactive' individuals are wider ranging than 'reactive' ones. However, such studies are still scarce and cover limited taxonomic diversity, and thus, more research is needed to explore whether this pattern generalises across species. We examined the link between coping style and space use in a population of crows ( Corvus corone ) freely inhabiting the urban zoo of Vienna, Austria. We used a binary docility rating (struggle during handling vs. no struggle) and a tonic immobility test to quantify individual coping style. Individual space use was quantified as the number of different sites at which each crow was observed, and we controlled for different number of sightings per individual by creating a space use index. Only the binary docility rating showed repeatability over time, and significantly predicted space use. In contrast to previous studies, we found that reactive crows (no struggle during handling) showed wider ranging space use within the study site than proactive individuals (who struggled during handling). The discrepancy from previous results suggests that the relationship between behavioural type and space use may vary between species, potentially reflecting differences in socioecology.

  20. Molecular Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Wild-Type Mastic Tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuduli, Alimu; Aydin, Yıldız; Sakiroglu, Muhammet; Onay, Ahmet; Ercisli, Sezai; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the patterns of genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships of mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus L.) genotypes including 12 males and 12 females were evaluated using SSR, RAPD, ISSR, and ITS markers yielding 40, 703, 929 alleles, and 260-292 base pairs for ITS1 region, respectively. The average number of alleles produced from SSR, RAPD, and ISSR primers were 5.7, 14, and 18, respectively. The grouping pattern obtained from Bayesian clustering method based on each marker dataset was produced. Principal component analyses (PCA) of molecular data was investigated and neighbor joining dendrograms were subsequently created. Overall, the results indicated that ISSR and RAPD markers were the most powerful to differentiate the genotypes in comparison with other types of molecular markers used in this study. The ISSR results indicated that male and female genotypes were distinctly separated from each other. In this frame, M9 (Alaçatı) and M10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios) were the closest genotypes and while F11 (Seferihisar) and F12 (Bornova/Gökdere) genotypes fall into same cluster and showing closer genetic relation. The RAPD pattern indicated that M8 (Urla) and M10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios), and F10 (Mesta Sakız Adası-Chios) and F11 (Seferihisar) genotypes were the closest male and female genotypes, respectively.

  1. Fenton reaction induced cancer in wild type rats recapitulates genomic alterations observed in human cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Akatsuka

    Full Text Available Iron overload has been associated with carcinogenesis in humans. Intraperitoneal administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate initiates a Fenton reaction in renal proximal tubules of rodents that ultimately leads to a high incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC after repeated treatments. We performed high-resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridization to identify characteristics in the genomic profiles of this oxidative stress-induced rat RCCs. The results revealed extensive large-scale genomic alterations with a preference for deletions. Deletions and amplifications were numerous and sometimes fragmented, demonstrating that a Fenton reaction is a cause of such genomic alterations in vivo. Frequency plotting indicated that two of the most commonly altered loci corresponded to a Cdkn2a/2b deletion and a Met amplification. Tumor sizes were proportionally associated with Met expression and/or amplification, and clustering analysis confirmed our results. Furthermore, we developed a procedure to compare whole genomic patterns of the copy number alterations among different species based on chromosomal syntenic relationship. Patterns of the rat RCCs showed the strongest similarity to the human RCCs among five types of human cancers, followed by human malignant mesothelioma, an iron overload-associated cancer. Therefore, an iron-dependent Fenton chemical reaction causes large-scale genomic alterations during carcinogenesis, which may result in distinct genomic profiles. Based on the characteristics of extensive genome alterations in human cancer, our results suggest that this chemical reaction may play a major role during human carcinogenesis.

  2. Changes in fatty acid content and composition between wild type and CsHMA3 overexpressing Camelina sativa under heavy-metal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won; Feng, Yufeng; Kim, Hyojin; Suh, Mi Chung; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Under heavy-metal stress, CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic Camelina plants displayed not only a better quality, but also a higher quantity of unsaturated fatty acids in their seeds compared with wild type. Camelina sativa L. belongs to the Brassicaceae family and is frequently used as a natural vegetable oil source, as its seeds contain a high content of fatty acids. In this study, we observed that, when subjected to heavy metals (Cd, Co, Zn and Pb), the seeds of CsHMA3 (Heavy-Metal P1B-ATPase 3) transgenic lines retained their original golden yellow color and smooth outline, unlike wild-type seeds. Furthermore, we investigated the fatty acids content and composition of wild type and CsHMA3 transgenic lines after heavy metal treatments compared to the control. The results showed higher total fatty acid amounts in seeds of CsHMA3 transgenic lines compared with those in wild-type seeds under heavy-metal stresses. In addition, the compositions of unsaturated fatty acids-especially 18:1 (oleic acid), 18:2 (linoleic acid; only in case of Co treatment), 18:3 (linolenic acid) and 20:1 (eicosenoic acid)-in CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic lines treated with heavy metals were higher than those of wild-type seeds under the same conditions. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents in wild-type leaves and roots when treated with heavy metal were higher than in CsHMA3 overexpressing transgenic lines. These results indicate that overexpression of CsHMA3 affects fatty acid composition and content-factors that are responsible for the fuel properties of biodiesel-and can alleviate ROS accumulation caused by heavy-metal stresses in Camelina. Due to these factors, we propose that CsHMA3 transgenic Camelina can be used for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soil as well as for oil production.

  3. After a cold conditioning swim, UCP2-deficient mice are more able to defend against the cold than wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Ramy E; Kovács, Katalin J; Nunez, Myra G; Larson, Alice A

    2014-08-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is widely distributed throughout the body including the brain, adipose tissue and skeletal muscles. In contrast to UCP1, UCP2 does not influence resting body temperature and UCP2-deficient (-/-) mice have normal thermoregulatory responses to a single exposure to cold ambient temperatures. Instead, UCP2-deficient mice are more anxious, exhibit anhedonia and have higher circulating corticosterone than wild type mice. To test the possible role of UCP2 in depressive behavior we exposed UCP2-deficient and wild type mice to a cold (26°C) forced swim and simultaneously measured rectal temperatures during and after the swim. The time that UCP2-deficient mice spent immobile did not differ from wild type mice and all mice floated more on day 2. However, UCP2-deficient mice were more able to defend against the decrease in body temperature during a second daily swim at 26°C than wild type mice (area under the curve for wild type mice: 247.0±6.4; for UCP2-deficient mice: 284.4±3.8, Pthermoregulation of wild type mice during a second swim at 26°C correlated with their greater immobility whereas defense against the warmth during a swim at 41°C correlated better with greater immobility of UCP2-deficient mice. Together these data indicate that while the lack of UCP2 has no acute effect on body temperature, UCP2 may inhibit rapid improvements in defense against cold, in contrast to UCP1, whose main function is to promote thermogenesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Integrated genomic study of quadruple-WT GIST (KIT/PDGFRA/SDH/RAS pathway wild-type GIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Margherita; Astolfi, Annalisa; Urbini, Milena; Indio, Valentina; Santini, Donatella; Heinrich, Michael C; Corless, Christopher L; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Saponara, Maristella; Mandrioli, Anna; Lolli, Cristian; Ercolani, Giorgio; Brandi, Giovanni; Biasco, Guido; Pantaleo, Maria A

    2014-09-20

    About 10-15% of adult gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and the vast majority of pediatric GIST do not harbour KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) mutations (J Clin Oncol 22:3813-3825, 2004; Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 23:15-34, 2009). The molecular biology of these GIST, originally defined as KIT/PDGFRA wild-type (WT), is complex due to the existence of different subgroups with distinct molecular hallmarks, including defects in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex and mutations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), BRAF, or KRAS genes (RAS-pathway or RAS-P).In this extremely heterogeneous landscape, the clinical profile and molecular abnormalities of the small subgroup of WT GIST suitably referred to as quadruple wild-type GIST (quadrupleWT or KITWT/PDGFRAWT/SDHWT/RAS-PWT) remains undefined. The aim of this study is to investigate the genomic profile of KITWT/PDGFRAWT/SDHWT/RAS-PWT GIST, by using a massively parallel sequencing and microarray approach, and compare it with the genomic profile of other GIST subtypes. We performed a whole genome analysis using a massively parallel sequencing approach on a total of 16 GIST cases (2 KITWT/PDGFRAWT/SDHWT and SDHBIHC+/SDHAIHC+, 2 KITWT/PDGFRAWT/SDHAmut and SDHBIHC-/SDHAIHC- and 12 cases of KITmut or PDGFRAmut GIST). To confirm and extend the results, whole-genome gene expression analysis by microarray was performed on 9 out 16 patients analyzed by RNAseq and an additional 20 GIST patients (1 KITWT/PDGFRAWTSDHAmut GIST and 19 KITmut or PDGFRAmut GIST). The most impressive data were validated by quantitave PCR and Western Blot analysis. We found that both cases of quadrupleWT GIST had a genomic profile profoundly different from both either KIT/PDGFRA mutated or SDHA-mutated GIST. In particular, the quadrupleWT GIST tumors are characterized by the overexpression of molecular markers (CALCRL and COL22A1) and of specific oncogenes including tyrosine and cyclin- dependent kinases (NTRK2 and CDK

  5. Melatonin enhances cold tolerance in drought-primed wild-type and abscisic acid-deficient mutant barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangnan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Fulai

    2016-10-01

    Melatonin is involved in multiple plant developmental processes and various stress responses. To explore the roles of melatonin played as well as its association with abscisic acid (ABA) in a process of drought priming-induced cold tolerance (DPICT), a wild-type barley and its ABA-deficient mutant Az34 counterpart were selected for comparison, in which the effects of melatonin application (either foliarly or rhizospherically) and/or drought priming on the cold tolerance of both types of barleys were systematically investigated. It was demonstrated that the early drought priming induced an increase of endogenous melatonin production, which is not ABA dependent. In addition, exogenously applied melatonin resulted in higher ABA concentration in the drought-primed plants than in the nonprimed plants when exposed to cold stress, indicating that ABA responded in a drought-dependent manner. The interplay of melatonin and ABA leads to plants maintaining better water status. Drought priming-induced melatonin accumulation enhanced the antioxidant capacity in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which sustained the photosynthetic electron transport in photosynthetic apparatus of the plants under cold stress. These results suggest that the exogenous melatonin application enhances the DPICT by modulating subcellular antioxidant systems and ABA levels in barley. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Aggregates Assembled from Overexpression of Wild Type α-Synuclein Are Not Toxic to Human Neuronal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Li-wen; Ko, Hwai-hwa C.; Lin, Wen-Lang; Kulathingal, Jayanranyan G.; Yen, Shu-Hui C.

    2009-01-01

    Filamentous α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates form Lewy bodies (LBs), the neuropathologic hallmarks of Parkinson disease and related α-synucleinopathies. To model Lewy body-associated neurodegeneration, we generated transfectant human neuronal type cells (clone 3D5) in which expression of human wild-type α-syn is regulated by the tetracycline off (TetOff)-inducible mechanism. Retinoic acid-elicited differentiation promoted assembly of α-syn aggregates after TetOff induction in 3D5 cells. The aggregates accumulated 14 days after TetOff induction were primarily soluble and showed augmented thioflavin affinity with concomitant phosphorylation and nitration of α-syn. Extension of the induction led to the formation of sarkosyl-insoluble aggregates that appeared concurrently with thioflavin-positive inclusions. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the inclusions consist of dense bundles of 8- to 12-nm α-syn fibrils that congregate in the perikarya and resemble LBs. Most importantly, accumulation of soluble and insoluble aggregates after TetOff induction for 14 and 28 days was reversible and did not compromise the viability of the cells or their subsequent survival. Thus, this chemically defined culture paradigm provides a useful means to elucidate how oxidative injuries and other insults that are associated with aging promote α-syn to self-assemble or interact with other molecules leading to neuronal degeneration in α-synucleinopathies. PMID:18957893

  7. Differential composition of culture supernatants from wild-type Brucella abortus and its isogenic virB mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpino, M Victoria; Comerci, Diego J; Wagner, Mary Ann; Eschenbrenner, Michel; Mujer, Cesar V; Ugalde, Rodolfo A; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C; Delvecchio, Vito G

    2009-07-01

    The virB genes coding type IV secretion system are necessary for the intracellular survival and replication of Brucella spp. In this study, extracellular proteins from B. abortus 2308 (wild type, WT) and its isogenic virB10 polar mutant were compared. Culture supernatants harvested in the early stationary phase were concentrated and subjected to 2D electrophoresis. Spots present in the WT strain but absent in the virB10 mutant (differential spots) were considered extracellular proteins released in a virB-related manner, and were identified by MALDI-TOF analysis and matching with Brucella genomes. Among the 11 differential proteins identified, DnaK chaperone (Hsp70), choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH) and a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) were chosen for further investigation because of their homology with extracellular and/or virulence factors from other bacteria. The three proteins were obtained in recombinant form and specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared. By Western blot with these mAbs, the three proteins were detected in supernatants from the WT but not in those from the virB10 polar mutant or from strains carrying non-polar mutations in virB10 or virB11 genes. These results suggest that the expression of virB genes affects the extracellular release of DnaK, PPIase and CGH, and possibly other proteins from B. abortus.

  8. Evaluation of Electrical Impedance as a Biomarker of Myostatin Inhibition in Wild Type and Muscular Dystrophy Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Sanchez

    Full Text Available Non-invasive and effort independent biomarkers are needed to better assess the effects of drug therapy on healthy muscle and that affected by muscular dystrophy (mdx. Here we evaluated the use of multi-frequency electrical impedance for this purpose with comparison to force and histological parameters.Eight wild-type (wt and 10 mdx mice were treated weekly with RAP-031 activin type IIB receptor at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 twice weekly for 16 weeks; the investigators were blinded to treatment and disease status. At the completion of treatment, impedance measurements, in situ force measurements, and histology analyses were performed.As compared to untreated animals, RAP-031 wt and mdx treated mice had greater body mass (18% and 17%, p 70 Hz, but not in the mdx animals. In contrast, maximum force normalized by muscle mass was unchanged in the wt animals and lower in the mdx animals by 21% (p < 0.01. Similarly, myofiber size was only non-significantly higher in treated versus untreated animals (8% p = 0.44 and 12% p = 0.31 for wt and mdx animals, respectively.Our findings demonstrate electrical impedance of muscle reproduce the functional and histological changes associated with myostatin pathway inhibition and do not reflect differences in muscle size or volume. This technique deserves further study in both animal and human therapeutic trials.

  9. Solving ethanol production problems with genetically modified yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Cavalheiro, A; Monteiro, G

    2013-01-01

    The current world demand for bioethanol is increasing as a consequence of low fossil fuel availability and a growing number of ethanol/gasoline flex-fuel cars. In addition, countries in several parts of the world have agreed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and the use of ethanol as a fuel (which produces fewer pollutants than petroleum products) has been considered to be a good alternative to petroleum products. The ethanol that is produced in Brazil from the first-generation process is optimized and can be accomplished at low cost. However, because of the large volume of ethanol that is produced and traded each year, any small improvement in the process could represent a savings of billions dollars. Several Brazilian research programs are investing in sugarcane improvement, but little attention has been given to the improvement of yeast strains that participate in the first-generation process at present. The Brazilian ethanol production process uses sugarcane as a carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast is then grown at a high cellular density and high temperatures in large-capacity open tanks with cells recycle. All of these culture conditions compel the yeast to cope with several types of stress. Among the main stressors are high temperatures and high ethanol concentrations inside the fermentation tanks during alcohol production. Moreover, the competition between the desired yeast strains, which are inoculated at the beginning of the process, with contaminants such as wild type yeasts and bacteria, requires acid treatment to successfully recycle the cells. This review is focused on describing the problems and stressors within the Brazilian ethanol production system. It also highlights some genetic modifications that can help to circumvent these difficulties in yeast.

  10. DETERMINATION OF KILLER CHARACTER OF WINE YEAST ISOLATED FROM ISTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi ORLIC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild wine yeasts with killer phenotype are widespread in many wine regions of the world. The presence of killer yeasts may become particularly important in wine fermentations conducted by inoculation with selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wild killer yeasts may suppress selected sensitive yeasts inoculated into the must during the fermentation. The goal of this investigation was to identify killer yeast in Istra region using physiological and molecular methods. In total 50 S.cerevisiae strains were tested. Using the physiological methods 17 strains were identifi ed like killer positive and using molecular methods two strains more. Our results are in agreement with some previous ecological surveys.

  11. Attachment Capability of Antagonistic Yeast Rhodotorula glutinis to Botrytis cinerea Contributes to Biocontrol Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boqiang; Peng, Huaimin; Tian, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Rhodotorula glutinis as an antagonism show good biocontrol performance against various post-harvest diseases in fruits. In the present study, strong attachment capability of R. glutinis to spores and hyphae of Botrytis cinerea was observed. Further analysis showed that certain protein components on the yeast cell surface played critical role during the interaction between R. glutinis and B. cinerea. The components mainly distributed at the poles of yeast cells and might contain glycosylation modification, as tunicamycin treated yeast cells lost attachment capability to B. cinerea. To investigate contributions of attachment capability of R. glutinis to its biocontrol efficacy, yeast cells were mutagenized with 3% methane-sulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMS), and a mutant CE4 with stable non-attaching phenotype was obtained. No significant difference was found on colony, cell morphology, reproductive ability, and capsule formation between the mutant and wild-type. However, there was a distinct difference in India ink positive staining patterns between the two strains. Moreover, wild-type strain of R. glutinis showed better performance on inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea than CE4 strain when yeast cells and B. cinerea were co-cultured in vitro. In biocontrol assay, both wild-type and CE4 strains showed significant biocontrol efficacy against gray mold caused by B. cinerea in apple fruit, whereas, control effect of CE4 strain was lower than that of wild-type. Our findings provided new evidences that attachment capability of R. glutinis to B. cinerea contributed to its biocontrol efficacy.

  12. Combination of cetuximab and PP242 synergistically suppress the progression of wild-type KRAS colorectal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lei Cheng,1,* Zuguang Xia,2,3,* Xinyu Bian,1 Guangchao Li,4 Jing Hu,1 Ya Cao,5 Qing Wang,1 Xiaoping Qian1 1Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 3Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 5Department of Biological Science and Technology and State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR has been shown to be overactive in human colorectal cancer, but the first-generation mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, has failed to show clinical efficacy against colorectal cancer. On the other hand, although the second-generation mTOR inhibitor, PP242, has exerted substantial efficacy, it was revealed that independent inhibition by PP242 was transient, which could lead to positive-feedback loop to EGFR. Using wild-type KRAS colorectal cancer cells as models, we investigate the treatment efficacy of a widely used anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, and PP242, alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Results of cell viability assays confirmed the synergistic inhibitory effect of PP242 and cetuximab on the survival of Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. Moreover, the ability of cancer-cell invasion and proliferation was also significantly inhibited by the combination therapy when compared with cetuximab or PP242 alone. Interestingly, the percentage of CD44-positive cancer cells was substantially decreased by the combination therapy in comparison with PP242 alone through fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The growth of cancer stem-like cell spheres in vitro was

  13. Modeling and Validation of the Ecological Behavior of Wild-Type Listeria monocytogenes and Stress-Resistant Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metselaar, Karin I; Abee, Tjakko; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous response upon stress exposure which can be partially attributed to the presence of stable stress-resistant variants. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes and their corresponding trade-offs on population composition under different environmental conditions. A set of stress robustness and growth parameters of the wild type (WT) and an rpsU deletion variant was obtained and used to model their growth behavior under combined mild stress conditions and to model their kinetics under single- and mixed-strain conditions in a simulated food chain. Growth predictions for the WT and the rpsU deletion variant matched the experimental data generally well, although some deviations from the predictions were observed. The data highlighted the influence of the environmental conditions on the ratio between the WT and variant. Prediction of performance in the simulated food chain proved to be challenging. The trend of faster growth and lower stress robustness for the WT than for the rpsU variant in the different steps of the chain was confirmed, but especially for the inactivation steps and the time needed to resume growth after an inactivation step, the experimental data deviated from the model predictions. This report provides insights into the conditions which can select for stress-resistant variants in industrial settings and discusses their potential persistence in food processing environments. Listeria monocytogenes exhibits a heterogeneous stress response which can partially be attributed to the presence of genetic variants. These stress-resistant variants survive better under severe conditions but have, on the other hand, a reduced growth rate. To date, the ecological behavior and potential impact of the presence of stress-resistant variants is not fully understood. In this study, we quantitatively assessed growth and inactivation behavior of wild-type L

  14. Activation of microglia induces symptoms of Parkinson's disease in wild-type, but not in IL-1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sachiko; Ishii, Atsuko; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Shioda, Seiji; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum. The initial factor that triggers neurodegeneration is unknown; however, inflammation has been demonstrated to be significantly involved in the progression of PD. The present study was designed to investigate the role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the activation of microglia and the decline of motor function using IL-1 knockout (KO) mice. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was stereotaxically injected into the SN of mice brains as a single dose or a daily dose for 5 days (5 mg/2 ml/injection, bilaterally). Animal behavior was assessed with the rotarod test at 2 hr and 8, 15 and 22 days after the final LPS injection. LPS treatment induced the activation of microglia, as demonstrated by production of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α as well as a change in microglial morphology. The number of cells immunoreactive for 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and nitrotyrosine (NT), which are markers for oxidative insults, increased in the SN, and impairment of motor function was observed after the subacute LPS treatment. Cell death and aggregation of α-synuclein were observed 21 and 30 days after the final LPS injection, respectively. Behavioral deficits were observed in wild-type and TNFα KO mice, but IL-1 KO mice behaved normally. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression was attenuated by LPS treatment in wild-type and TNFα KO mice but not in IL-1 KO mice. The subacute injection of LPS into the SN induces PD-like pathogenesis and symptoms in mice that mimic the progressive changes of PD including the aggregation of α-synuclein. LPS-induced dysfunction of motor performance was accompanied by the reduced gene expression of TH. These findings suggest that activation of microglia by LPS causes functional changes such as dopaminergic neuron attenuation in an IL-1-dependent manner

  15. Identification of Critical Amino Acids Conferring Lethality in VopK, a Type III Effector Protein of Vibrio cholerae: Lessons from Yeast Model System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Krishna Bankapalli

    Full Text Available VopK, a type III effector protein, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to diverse serogroups. Ectopic expression of this protein exhibits strong toxicity in yeast model system. In order to map critical residues in VopK, we scanned the primary sequence guided by available data on various toxins and effector proteins. Our in silico analysis of VopK indicated the presence of predicted MCF1-SHE (SHxxxE serine peptidase domain at the C-terminus region of the protein. Substitution of each of the predicted catalytic triad residues namely Ser314, His353 and Glu357 with alanine resulted in recombinant VopK proteins varying in lethality as evaluated in yeast model system. We observed that replacement of glutamate357 to alanine causes complete loss in toxicity while substitutions of serine314 and histidine353 with alanine exhibited partial loss in toxicity without affecting the stability of variants. In addition, replacement of another conserved serine residue at position 354 (S354 within predicted S314H353E357 did not affect toxicity of VopK. In essence, combined in silico and site directed mutagenesis, we have identified critical amino acids contributing to the lethal activity of VopK in yeast model system.

  16. Identification of Critical Amino Acids Conferring Lethality in VopK, a Type III Effector Protein of Vibrio cholerae: Lessons from Yeast Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankapalli, Leela Krishna; Mishra, Rahul Chandra; Singh, Balvinder; Raychaudhuri, Saumya

    2015-01-01

    VopK, a type III effector protein, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to diverse serogroups. Ectopic expression of this protein exhibits strong toxicity in yeast model system. In order to map critical residues in VopK, we scanned the primary sequence guided by available data on various toxins and effector proteins. Our in silico analysis of VopK indicated the presence of predicted MCF1-SHE (SHxxxE) serine peptidase domain at the C-terminus region of the protein. Substitution of each of the predicted catalytic triad residues namely Ser314, His353 and Glu357 with alanine resulted in recombinant VopK proteins varying in lethality as evaluated in yeast model system. We observed that replacement of glutamate357 to alanine causes complete loss in toxicity while substitutions of serine314 and histidine353 with alanine exhibited partial loss in toxicity without affecting the stability of variants. In addition, replacement of another conserved serine residue at position 354 (S354) within predicted S314H353E357 did not affect toxicity of VopK. In essence, combined in silico and site directed mutagenesis, we have identified critical amino acids contributing to the lethal activity of VopK in yeast model system.

  17. Genomic characterization and selection of wine yeast to conduct industrial fermentations of a white wine produced in a SW Spain winery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M E; Infante, J J; Molina, M; Domínguez, M; Rebordinos, L; Cantoral, J M

    2010-04-01

    To analyse the diversity of wild yeast in spontaneous fermentations of a white wine and to select the most suitable autochthonous starter yeasts. The selected yeasts would be used for inoculation of industrial fermentations in several years. Yeasts were characterized by applying electrophoretic karyotyping. This technique was chosen because it can reveal the large-scale mutations in the yeast genome induced by gross chromosomal rearrangements. This type of mutation is considered one of the main forces behind the rapid evolution of industrial yeasts. A heterogeneous population of yeast strains was observed in the spontaneous fermentations during two consecutive years. Four of the most abundant strains were isolated and tested for microbiological features of industrial importance. The selected autochthonous strains were used as starter yeasts for the following 7 years. In the majority of these experiences, we obtained homogeneous yeast populations, in which the karyotype of one of the inoculated strains--karyotype V--emerged as clearly dominant. The inoculation of the selected strain with karyotype V and a proper handling of the inoculum scaling-up process led to the substitution of the spontaneous fermentations by controlled fermentations producing a highly satisfactory final product. We monitored the wine yeast population of an industrial system for a total of 9 years. Our work is one of the first examples made at industrial scale showing how molecular techniques can be successfully applied to improve the efficiency of the winemaking process.

  18. Genotype-temperature interaction in the regulation of development, growth, and morphometrics in wild-type, and growth-hormone transgenic coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neuroendocrine system is an important modulator of phenotype, directing cellular genetic responses to external cues such as temperature. Behavioural and physiological processes in poikilothermic organisms (e.g. most fishes, are particularly influenced by surrounding temperatures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By comparing the development and growth of two genotypes of coho salmon (wild-type and transgenic with greatly enhanced growth hormone production at six different temperatures, ranging between 8 degrees and 18 degrees C, we observed a genotype-temperature interaction and possible trend in directed neuroendocrine selection. Differences in growth patterns of the two genotypes were compared by using mathematical models, and morphometric analyses of juvenile salmon were performed to detect differences in body shape. The maximum hatching and alevin survival rates of both genotypes occurred at 12 degrees C. At lower temperatures, eggs containing embryos with enhanced GH production hatched after a shorter incubation period than wild-type eggs, but this difference was not apparent at and above 16 degrees C. GH transgenesis led to lower body weights at the time when the yolk sack was completely absorbed compared to the wild genotype. The growth of juvenile GH-enhanced salmon was to a greater extent stimulated by higher temperatures than the growth of the wild-type. Increased GH production significantly influenced the shape of the salmon growth curves. CONCLUSIONS: Growth hormone overexpression by transgenesis is able to stimulate the growth of coho salmon over a wide range of temperatures. Temperature was found to affect growth rate, survival, and body morphology between GH transgenic and wild genotype coho salmon, and differential responses to temperature observed between the genotypes suggests they would experience different selective forces should they ever enter natural ecosystems. Thus, GH transgenic fish would be expected to

  19. Antigenic differences between vaccine and circulating wild-type mumps viruses decreases neutralization capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šantak, M; Lang-Balija, M; Ivancic-Jelecki, J; Košutić-Gulija, T; Ljubin-Sternak, S; Forcic, D

    2013-06-01

    A recent resurgence of mumps in doubly vaccinated cohorts has been observed, identifying genotype G as the current predominant genotype. In this study, the neutralization efficacy of guinea pig sera immunized with three vaccine viruses: L-Zagreb, Urabe AM9 and JL5, was tested against seven mumps viruses: three vaccine strains and four wild-type strains (two of genotype G, one of genotype C, one of genotype D) isolated during 1998-2011. All sera neutralized all viruses although at different levels. The neutralization efficiency of sera decreases several fold by temporal order of virus isolation. Therefore, we concluded that gradual evolution of mumps viruses, rather than belonging to a certain genotype, results in an antigenic divergence from the vaccine strains that decrease the neutralization capacity of vaccine-induced antibodies. Moreover, the amino-acid sequence alignment revealed three new potentially relevant regions for escape from neutralization, i.e. 113-130, 375-403 and 440-443.

  20. Effect of maysin on wild-type, deltamethrin-resistant, and Bt-resistant Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Brian G; Liang, Gemei; Guo, Yuyuan

    2003-06-01

    Larvae of the Old World corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), were fed diets containing lyophilized silks from maize genotypes expressing varying levels of maysin, a flavone glycoside known to be toxic to the New World corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie. Three different H. armigera colonies were tested: a wild-type colony (96-S), a colony selected for resistance to deltamethrin (Del-R), and a colony selected for resistance to the Cry1Ac protoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-R). A colony of H. zea was also tested as a control. High-maysin silk diets significantly slowed the growth and arrested the development of larvae from all H. armigera colonies compared with low-maysin silk diets, maysin-lacking silk diets, and no-silk control diets. The effects on the H. armigera and H. zea colonies were similar across maysin levels, although H. zea is a larger insect than H. armigera and this overall size difference was observed. Among the H. armigera colonies, maysin effects were generally similar, although 7-d-old Del-R larvae were significantly smaller than 7-d-old Bt-R and 96-S larvae for one no-silk control and two maysin-containing silk treatments. The toxic effect of maysin on the Bt-R and Del-R colonies suggests that physiological mechanisms of H. armigera resistance to Cry1Ac and deltamethrin do not confer cross-resistance to maysin.

  1. Younger age at the time of first metastasis in BRAF-mutated compared to BRAF wild-type melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jean, Melanie; Quereux, Gaëlle; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Peuvrel, Lucie; Brocard, Anabelle; Vallee, Audrey; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Khammari, Amir; Denis, Marc G; Dréno, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between BRAF mutations and the patient clinical profile is still under question. The objective of the present study was to correlate the BRAF mutation status in primary and metastatic melanomas with the clinicopathological profile, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). A total of 367 melanoma samples from 278 patients were screened for their BRAF status using a combination of allele-specific amplification and DNA sequencing. Two or three tissue samples from the same patient were available for 74 patients. The clinicopathological characteristics were tested for their association with the BRAF mutation using the Fisher's or Pearson's χ2 test. Log-rank tests and Cox models were used for survival analyses. BRAF mutation was found in 152 samples (41.4%). Ten of the 74 patients with several tissue samples (13.5%) had discordant BRAF mutation results. BRAF-mutated patients were significantly younger at the time of primary melanoma and first diagnosis of metastasis than BRAF wild-type patients but with no difference in DFS and OS. According to our results, a primary melanoma with BRAF mutation is not associated with a more aggressive illness.

  2. Effects of Kamikihito and Unkei-to on Sleep Behavior of Wild Type and Parkinson Model in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumpei Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and it is associated with sleep behavior disorders. In Drosophila melanogaster disease model, human α-synuclein A30P overexpressing flies (A30P PD model have been shown for levy body aggregation and movement disorders. We measured sleep rhythms in the A30P PD model flies using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring system and found that they develop sleep defects at 20 days after eclosion. Furthermore, the total amount of sleep is significantly reduced in middle-aged PD model flies and the reduction has been attributed to nighttime sleep. The number and length of sleep bouts also decreased in middle-aged A30P PD model flies. Feeding of the oriental traditional herbal medicines (Kampo, Kamikihito and Unkei-to significantly ameliorate the level of sleep defects in A30P PD model flies. The Kamikihito and Unkei-to recovered 60-min sleep bouts number in the A30P PD model flies to the level of young (5 days after eclosion flies. Kamikihito recovered sleep both in wild-type and PD model flies. Unkei-to ameliorates not only sleep but also motor function in PD model flies. The data suggest that Kamikihito and Unkei-to might be useful for the sleep defects in human PD patients as well as healthy human.

  3. ARID1A alterations are associated with FGFR3-wild type, poor-prognosis, urothelial bladder tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Balbás-Martínez

    Full Text Available Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC is heterogeneous at the clinical, pathological, genetic, and epigenetic levels. Exome sequencing has identified ARID1A as a novel tumor suppressor gene coding for a chromatin remodeling protein that is mutated in UBC. Here, we assess ARID1A alterations in two series of patients with UBC. In the first tumor series, we analyze exons 2-20 in 52 primary UBC and find that all mutant tumors belong to the aggressive UBC phenotype (high grade non-muscle invasive and muscle invasive tumors (P = 0.05. In a second series (n = 84, we assess ARID1A expression using immunohistochemistry, a surrogate for mutation analysis, and find that loss of expression increases with higher stage/grade, it is inversely associated with FGFR3 overexpression (P = 0.03 but it is not correlated with p53 overexpression (P = 0.30. We also analyzed the expression of cytokeratins in the same set of tumor and find, using unsupervised clustering, that tumors with ARID1A loss of expression are generally KRT5/6-low. In this patient series, loss of ARID1A expression is also associated with worse prognosis, likely reflecting the higher prevalence of losses found in tumors of higher stage and grade. The independent findings in these two sets of patients strongly support the notion that ARID1A inactivation is a key player in bladder carcinogenesis occurring predominantly in FGFR3 wild type tumors.

  4. Comparison of transcriptomes of wild-type and isothiazolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Shi, Qing-Shan; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Xie, Xiao-Bao

    2016-06-01

    Isothiazolone biocides (such as Kathon) are widely used in a variety of industrial and domestic applications. However, the mechanisms through which bacteria develop resistance to these biocides are not completely clear. A better understanding of these mechanisms can contribute to optimal use of these biocides. In this study, transcription profiles of a Kathon-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa-R) and the wild-type strain were determined using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. RNA-Seq generated 18,657,896 sequence reads aligned to 7093 genes. In all, 1550 differently expressed genes (DEGs, log2 ratio ≥1, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.001) were identified, of which 482 were up-regulated and 1068 were down-regulated. Most Kathon-induced genes were involved in metabolic and cellular processes. DEGs significantly enriched nitrogen metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways. In addition, Pa-R showed cross-resistance to triclosan and ciprofloxacin and showed repressed pyocyanin production. These results may improve our understanding of the resistance mechanisms of P. aeruginosa against isothiazolones, and provide insight into the development of more efficient isothiazolones.

  5. Kinetic modeling of batch fermentation for Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant and wild type strains of Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Rodriguez, Miguel; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Cox, Chris D

    2013-11-01

    The extent of inhibition of two strains of Clostridium thermocellum by a Populus hydrolysate was investigated. A Monod-based model of wild type (WT) and Populus hydrolysate tolerant mutant (PM) strains of the cellulolytic bacterium C. thermocellum was developed to quantify growth kinetics in standard media and the extent of inhibition to a Populus hydrolysate. The PM was characterized by a higher growth rate (μmax=1.223 vs. 0.571 h(-1)) and less inhibition (KI,gen=0.991 vs. 0.757) in 10% v/v Populus hydrolysate compared to the WT. In 17.5% v/v Populus hydrolysate inhibition of PM increased slightly (KI,gen=0.888), whereas the WT was strongly inhibited and did not grow in a reproducible manner. Of the individual inhibitors tested, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was the most inhibitory, followed by galacturonic acid. The PM did not have a greater ability to detoxify the hydrolysate than the WT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium systemic infection of wild type and immune-deficient mice.

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    Olusegun Oshota

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica are a threat to public health. Current vaccines are not fully effective. The ability to grow in infected tissues within phagocytes is required for S. enterica virulence in systemic disease. As the infection progresses the bacteria are exposed to a complex host immune response. Consequently, in order to continue growing in the tissues, S. enterica requires the coordinated regulation of fitness genes. Bacterial gene regulation has so far been investigated largely using exposure to artificial environmental conditions or to in vitro cultured cells, and little information is available on how S. enterica adapts in vivo to sustain cell division and survival. We have studied the transcriptome, proteome and metabolic flux of Salmonella, and the transcriptome of the host during infection of wild type C57BL/6 and immune-deficient gp91-/-phox mice. Our analyses advance the understanding of how S. enterica and the host behaves during infection to a more sophisticated level than has previously been reported.

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of Wild-Type and pga-Knockout Mutant Strains Reveal the Role of Exopolysaccharide in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

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    Mayilvahanan Shanmugam

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides have a diverse set of functions in most bacteria including a mechanistic role in protecting bacteria against environmental stresses. Among the many functions attributed to the exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, immune evasion and colonization have been studied most extensively. The exopolysaccharide produced by many Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacteria including the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is the homopolymer of β(1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Recently, we reported that the PGA-deficient mutant of A. actinomycetemcomitans failed to colonize or induce bone resorption in a rat model of periodontal disease, and the colonization genes, apiA and aae, were significantly down regulated in the mutant strain. To understand the role of exopolysaccharide and the pga locus in the global expression of A. actinomycetemcomitans, we have used comparative transcriptome profiling to identify differentially expressed genes in the wild-type strain in relation to the PGA-deficient strain. Transcriptome analysis revealed that about 50% of the genes are differently expressed (P 1.5. Our study demonstrated that the absence of the pga locus affects the genes involved in peptidoglycan recycling, glycogen storage, and virulence. Further, using confocal microscopy and plating assays, we show that the viability of pga mutant strain is significantly reduced during biofilm growth. Thus, this study highlights the importance of pga genes and the exopolysaccharide in the virulence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  8. Acyl-CoA synthetase activity links wild-type but not mutant a-Synuclein to brain arachidonate metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Mikhail; Rosenberger, Thad; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2006-01-01

    Because alpha-synuclein (Snca) has a role in brain lipid metabolism, we determined the impact that the loss of alpha-synuclein had on brain arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) metabolism in vivo using Snca-/- mice. We measured [1-(14)C]20:4n-6 incorporation and turnover kinetics in brain phospholipids using...... an established steady-state kinetic model. Liver was used as a negative control, and no changes were observed between groups. In Snca-/- brains, there was a marked reduction in 20:4n-6-CoA mass and in microsomal acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl) activity toward 20:4n-6. Microsomal Acsl activity was completely restored...... after the addition of exogenous wild-type mouse or human alpha-synuclein, but not by A30P, E46K, and A53T forms of alpha-synuclein. Acsl and acyl-CoA hydrolase expression was not different between groups. The incorporation and turnover of 20:4n-6 into brain phospholipid pools were markedly reduced...

  9. Bactericidal laser ablation of carbon dots: An in vitro study on wild-type and antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarahmady, N; Rezaie-Yazdi, M; Tondro, G H; Akbari, N

    2017-01-01

    Suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were irradiated with a 808-nm diode laser in the presence of different concentrations of carbon dots (C-dots). The effects of laser irradiation and C-dots on the bactericidal activity were separately investigated. The results indicated that without laser irradiation, C-dots caused to a significant cease in the colony formation of both wild and methicillin-resistance types of S. aureus in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the bactericidal effect of C-dots was accelerated upon laser irradiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that formation of reactive oxygen species and protein leakage, which occurred in the presence of C-dots, were greatly accelerated by laser irradiation. Moreover, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed morphological changes in the bacterial surfaces in the presence of C-dots upon laser irradiations, while almost no changes in the bacteria morphology were observed in the presence of C-dots alone. Outer membrane damage was a synergism result of laser irradiation and presence of C-dots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren

    2015-12-01

    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis on wild type and nitric oxide-overproducing mutant (nox1) of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; He, Jun-Xian; Xiao, Qiang; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-01-30

    Nitric oxide (NO) as a ubiquitous signal molecule plays an important role in plant development and growth. Here, we compared the proteomic changes between NO-overproducing mutant (nox1) and wild-type (WT) of Arabidopsis thaliana using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF MS. We successfully identified 59 differentially expressed proteins in nox1 mutant, which are predicted to play potential roles in specific cellular processes, such as post-translational modification, energy production and conversion, metabolism, transcription and signal transduction, cell rescue and defense, development and differentiation. Particularly, expression levels of five anti-oxidative enzymes were altered by the mutation; and assays of their respective enzymatic activities indicated an enhanced level of oxidative stress in nox1 mutant. Finally, some important proteins were further confirmed at transcriptional level using quantitative real-time PCR revealing the systemic changes between WT and nox1. The result suggests that obvious morphological changes in the nox1 mutant may be regulated by different mechanisms and factors, while excess endogenous NO maybe one of the possible reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ralstonia solanacearum type III secretion system effector Rip36 induces a hypersensitive response in the nonhost wild eggplant Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Matsumoto, Iyo; Taguchi, Fumiko; Inagaki, Yoshishige; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shiraishi, Tomonori; Ichinose, Yuki; Mukaihara, Takafumi

    2014-04-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a Gram-negative soil-borne bacterium that causes bacterial wilt disease in more than 200 plant species, including economically important Solanaceae species. In R. solanacearum, the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) type III secretion system is required for both the ability to induce the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost plants and pathogenicity in host plants. Recently, 72 effector genes, called rip (Ralstonia protein injected into plant cells), have been identified in R. solanacearum RS1000. RS1002, a spontaneous nalixidic acid-resistant derivative of RS1000, induced strong HR in the nonhost wild eggplant Solanum torvum in an Hrp-dependent manner. An Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system revealed that Rip36, a putative Zn-dependent protease effector of R. solanacearum, induced HR in S. torvum. A mutation in the putative Zn-binding motif (E149A) completely abolished the ability to induce HR. In agreement with this result, the RS1002-derived Δrip36 and rip36E149A mutants lost the ability to induce HR in S. torvum. An E149A mutation had no effect on the translocation of Rip36 into plant cells. These results indicate that Rip36 is an avirulent factor that induces HR in S. torvum and that a putative Zn-dependent protease motif is essential for this activity.

  13. ARID1A alterations are associated with FGFR3-wild type, poor-prognosis, urothelial bladder tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbás-Martínez, Cristina; Rodríguez-Pinilla, María; Casanova, Ariel; Domínguez, Orlando; Pisano, David G; Gómez, Gonzalo; Lloreta, Josep; Lorente, José A; Malats, Núria; Real, Francisco X

    2013-01-01

    Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is heterogeneous at the clinical, pathological, genetic, and epigenetic levels. Exome sequencing has identified ARID1A as a novel tumor suppressor gene coding for a chromatin remodeling protein that is mutated in UBC. Here, we assess ARID1A alterations in two series of patients with UBC. In the first tumor series, we analyze exons 2-20 in 52 primary UBC and find that all mutant tumors belong to the aggressive UBC phenotype (high grade non-muscle invasive and muscle invasive tumors) (P = 0.05). In a second series (n = 84), we assess ARID1A expression using immunohistochemistry, a surrogate for mutation analysis, and find that loss of expression increases with higher stage/grade, it is inversely associated with FGFR3 overexpression (P = 0.03) but it is not correlated with p53 overexpression (P = 0.30). We also analyzed the expression of cytokeratins in the same set of tumor and find, using unsupervised clustering, that tumors with ARID1A loss of expression are generally KRT5/6-low. In this patient series, loss of ARID1A expression is also associated with worse prognosis, likely reflecting the higher prevalence of losses found in tumors of higher stage and grade. The independent findings in these two sets of patients strongly support the notion that ARID1A inactivation is a key player in bladder carcinogenesis occurring predominantly in FGFR3 wild type tumors.

  14. Proteomic profiling of phosphoproteins and glycoproteins responsive to wild-type alpha-synuclein accumulation and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathingal, Jayanarayan; Ko, Li-wen; Cusack, Bernadette; Yen, Shu-Hui

    2009-01-01

    A tetracycline inducible transfectant cell line (3D5) capable of producing soluble and sarkosyl-insoluble assemblies of wild-type human alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) upon differentiation with retinoic acid was used to study the impact of α-Syn accumulation on protein phosphorylation and glycosylation. Soluble proteins from 3D5 cells, with or without the induced α-Syn expression were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and staining of gels with dyes that bind to proteins (Sypro ruby), phosphoproteins (Pro-Q diamond) and glycoproteins (Pro-Q emerald). Phosphoproteins were further confirmed by binding to immobilized metal ion affinity column. α-Syn accumulation caused differential phosphorylation and glycosylation of 16 and 12, proteins, respectively, whose identity was revealed by mass spectrometry. These proteins, including HSP90, have diverse biological functions including protein folding, signal transduction, protein degradation and cytoskeletal regulation. Importantly, cells accumulating α-Syn assemblies with different abilities to bind thioflavin S displayed different changes in phosphorylation and glycosylation. Consistent with the cell-based studies, we demonstrated a reduced level of phosphorylated HSP90 α/β in the substantia nigra of subjects with Parkinson’s disease as compared to normal controls. Together, the results indicate that α-Syn accumulation causes complex cellular responses, which if persist may compromise cell viability. PMID:19027885

  15. Differentiation between wild-type and vaccines strains of varicella zoster virus (VZV) based on four single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L; Xu, S; Maple, P A C; Xu, W; Brown, K E

    2017-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection (chickenpox) results in latency and subsequent reactivation manifests as shingles. Effective attenuated vaccines (vOka) are available for prevention of both illnesses. In this study, an amplicon-based sequencing method capable of differentiating between VZV wild-type (wt) strains and vOka vaccine is described. A total of 44 vesicular fluid specimens collected from 43 patients (16 from China and 27 from the UK) with either chickenpox or shingles were investigated, of which 10 had received previous vaccination. Four sets of polymerase chain reactions were set up simultaneously with primers amplifying regions encompassing four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), '69349-106262-107252-108111'. Nucleotide sequences were generated by Sanger sequencing. All samples except one had a wt SNP profile of 'A-T-T-T'. The sample collected from a patient who received vaccine 7-10 days ago, along with VZV vaccine preparations, Zostavax and Baike-varicella gave a SNP profile 'G-C-C-C'. The results show that this method can distinguish vaccine-derived virus from wt viruses from main four clades, (clades 1-4) and should be of utility worldwide.

  16. Elevated BCRP/ABCG2 expression confers acquired resistance to gefitinib in wild-type EGFR-expressing cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs is strongly associated with activating EGFR mutations. Although not as sensitive as patients harboring these mutations, some patients with wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR remain responsive to EGFR TKIs, suggesting that the existence of unexplored mechanisms renders most of wtEGFR-expressing cancer cells insensitive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that acquired resistance of wtEGFR-expressing cancer cells to an EGFR TKI, gefitinib, is associated with elevated expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2, which in turn leads to gefitinib efflux from cells. In addition, BCRP/ABCG2 expression correlates with poor response to gefitinib in both cancer cell lines and lung cancer patients with wtEGFR. Co-treatment with BCRP/ABCG2 inhibitors enhanced the anti-tumor activity of gefitinib. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, BCRP/ABCG2 expression may be a predictor for poor efficacy of gefitinib treatment, and targeting BCRP/ABCG2 may broaden the use of gefitinib in patients with wtEGFR.

  17. Deletion of znuA virulence factor attenuates Brucella abortus and confers protection against wild-type challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghong; Becker, Todd; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W

    2006-07-01

    znuA is known to be an important factor for survival and normal growth under low Zn(2+) concentrations for Escherichia coli, Haemophilus spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Pasteurella multocida. We hypothesized that the znuA gene present in Brucella melitensis 16 M would be similar to znuA in B. abortus and questioned whether it may also be an important factor for growth and virulence of Brucella abortus. Using the B. melitensis 16 M genome sequence, primers were designed to construct a B. abortus deletion mutant. A znuA knockout mutation in B. abortus 2308 (DeltaznuA) was constructed and found to be lethal in low-Zn(2+) medium. When used to infect macrophages, DeltaznuA B. abortus showed minimal growth. Further study with DeltaznuA B. abortus showed that its virulence in BALB/c mice was attenuated, and most of the bacteria were cleared from the spleen within 8 weeks. Protection studies confirmed the DeltaznuA mutant as a potential live vaccine, since protection against wild-type B. abortus 2308 challenge was as effective as that obtained with the RB51 or S19 vaccine strain.

  18. EPR analysis of cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin and mutants in comparison to horse heart myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Trandafir, Florin; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal large differences between the ferric ((13)C-)cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin (NGB) and its H64Q and F28L point mutants and the cyanide complexes of mammalian myo- and haemoglobin. The point mutations, which involve residues comprising the distal haem pocket in NGB, induce smaller, but still significant changes, related to changes in the stabilization of the cyanide ligand. Furthermore, for the first time, the full (13)C hyperfine tensor of the cyanide carbon of cyanide-ligated horse heart myoglobin (hhMb) was determined using Davies ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance). Disagreement of these experimental data with earlier predictions based on (13)C NMR data and a theoretical model reveal significant flaws in the model assumptions. The same ENDOR procedure allowed also partial determination of the corresponding (13)C hyperfine tensor of cyanide-ligated NGB and H64QNGB. These (13)C parameters differ significantly from those of cyanide-ligated hhMb and challenge our current theoretical understanding of how the haem environment influences the magnetic parameters obtained by EPR and NMR in cyanide-ligated haem proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Expanding the body mass range: associations between BMR and tissue morphology in wild type and mutant dwarf mice (David mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Carola W; Neubronner, Juliane; Rozman, Jan; Stumm, Gabi; Osanger, Andreas; Stoeger, Claudia; Augustin, Martin; Grosse, Johannes; Klingenspor, Martin; Heldmaier, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    We sought to identify associations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) with morphological traits in laboratory mice. In order to expand the body mass (BM) range at the intra-strain level, and to minimize relevant genetic variation, we used male and female wild type mice (C3HeB/FeJ) and previously unpublished ENU-induced dwarf mutant littermates (David mice), covering a body mass range from 13.5 g through 32.3 g. BMR was measured at 30 degrees C, mice were killed by means of CO(2 )overdose, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was subsequently analyzed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), after which mice were dissected into 12 (males) and 10 (females) components, respectively. Across the 44 individuals, 43% of the variation in the basal rates of metabolism was associated with BM. The latter explained 47% to 98% of the variability in morphology of the different tissues. Our results demonstrate that sex is a major determinant of body composition and BMR in mice: when adjusted for BM, females contained many larger organs, more fat mass, and less lean mass compared to males. This could be associated with a higher mass adjusted BMR in females. Once the dominant effects of sex and BM on BMR and tissue mass were removed, and after accounting for multiple comparisons, no further significant association between individual variation in BMR and tissue mass emerged.

  20. Data set for comparison of cellular dynamics between human AAVS1 locus-modified and wild-type cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeomi Mizutani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes cellular dynamics, such as migration speed and mobility of the cytoskeletal protein, of wild-type human fibroblast cells and cells with a modified adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19. Insertion of exogenous gene into the AAVS1 locus has been conducted in recent biological researches. Previously, our data showed that the AAVS1-modification changes cellular contractile force (Mizutani et al., 2015 [1]. To assess if this AAVS1-modification affects cell migration, we compared cellular migration speed and turnover of cytoskeletal protein in human fibroblasts and fibroblasts with a green fluorescent protein gene knocked-in at the AAVS1 locus in this data article. Cell nuclei were stained and changes in their position attributable to cell migration were analyzed. Fluorescence recovery was observed after photobleaching for the fluorescent protein-tagged myosin regulatory light chain. Data here are related to the research article “Transgene Integration into the Human AAVS1 Locus Enhances Myosin II-Dependent Contractile Force by Reducing Expression of Myosin Binding Subunit 85” [1].

  1. Quantitative inner membrane proteome datasets of the wild-type and the Δmin mutant of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh-Yuen Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data that were obtained through measuring the impact of the Min oscillation on membrane proteins in Escherichia coli by quantitative protemoics analysis. We isolated inner membranes from the wild-type and mutant strains to generate proteomics datasets based on NanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ method. The datasets included the raw spectral files from four sample replicates and the processed files using Proteome Discoverer that contained a total of 40,072 MS/MS spectra with confident peptide identifier (FDR<0.01 and the peak intensity of the reporter ions. The data was further filtered, which resulted in an inner membrane proteome of unique proteins with quantitation. Proteins of interest, that show significant difference in protein abundance of the mutant membrane, were isolated through statistical filtering. The data is related to “Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals the Min system of Escherichia coli modulates reversible protein association with the inner membrane” (Lee et al., 2016 [1].

  2. Differential growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant density in two wild plants belonging to contrasting functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Marisela; Urcelay, Carlos

    2009-10-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant growth was examined in two wild plant species belonging to contrasting functional types: an annual forb (Bidens pilosa, Asteraceae) and a deciduous shrub (Acacia caven, Fabaceae) at three contrasting plant densities (one, two, and three individuals per pot). AMF had a slightly negative effect on B. pilosa when the species grew in isolation while they positively affected A. caven. Positive effects of AMF on shoot mass of A. caven decreased at higher plant densities, while shoot mass of individuals of B. pilosa showed less marked differences between plant densities. When considering total biomass per pot, AMF positively affected A. caven growth while negatively affecting B. pilosa, at all three plant densities. Root/shoot ratio per pot was negatively affected by AMF but not plant density in both species. These findings highlight the importance of including plants belonging to different life forms and/or traits in research regarding the interaction between AMF and intraspecific plant competition.

  3. Spontaneous generation of rapidly transmissible prions in transgenic mice expressing wild-type bank vole prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Stöhr, Jan; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; Grillo, Sunny K; Patel, Smita; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-02-28

    Currently, there are no animal models of the most common human prion disorder, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), in which prions are formed spontaneously from wild-type (WT) prion protein (PrP). Interestingly, bank voles (BV) exhibit an unprecedented promiscuity for diverse prion isolates, arguing that bank vole PrP (BVPrP) may be inherently prone to adopting misfolded conformations. Therefore, we constructed transgenic (Tg) mice expressing WT BVPrP. Tg(BVPrP) mice developed spontaneous CNS dysfunction between 108 and 340 d of age and recapitulated the hallmarks of prion disease, including spongiform degeneration, pronounced astrogliosis, and deposition of alternatively folded PrP in the brain. Brain homogenates of ill Tg(BVPrP) mice transmitted disease to Tg(BVPrP) mice in ∼35 d, to Tg mice overexpressing mouse PrP in under 100 d, and to WT mice in ∼185 d. Our studies demonstrate experimentally that WT PrP can spontaneously form infectious prions in vivo. Thus, Tg(BVPrP) mice may be useful for studying the spontaneous formation of prions, and thus may provide insight into the etiology of sporadic CJD.

  4. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  5. Spontaneous human squamous cell carcinomas are killed by a human cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone recognizing a wild-type p53-derived peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röpke, M; Hald, J; Guldberg, Per

    1996-01-01

    A cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone generated in vitro from the peripheral blood of a healthy HLA-A2-positive individual against a synthetic p53 protein-derived wild-type peptide (L9V) was shown to kill squamous carcinoma cell lines derived from two head and neck carcinomas, which expressed mutant...

  6. Anticancer Effects of 15d-Prostaglandin-J(2) in Wild-Type and Doxorubicin-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells : Novel Actions on SIRT1 and HDAC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Edwin; Winkel, Peter; Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai

    2011-01-01

    15-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin-J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), an arachidonic metabolite and a natural PPAR gamma agonist, is known to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, we investigated new therapeutic potentials of 15d-PGJ(2) by determining its anticancer effects in wild-type and

  7. Gene mutation characteristics of nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma patients with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor and sensitivity to Tarceva therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Xu, Jie; Xin, Liang; Tian, Ye; Zhan, Zhongli; Qi, Daliang

    2015-08-01

    To explore characteristic gene mutations in nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and sensitivity to Tarceva therapy; to observe the efficacy and safety of Tarceva therapy for NSCLC patients with wild-type EGFR. NSCLC patients with wild-type EGFR and KRAS were selected. Their tumor specimens were assessed for mutations in seven key genes in pathways downstream of EGFR, including HRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, AKT1, MEK1, and PTEN. Then the patients were subjected to Tarceva therapy to explore the relationship between curative effects and any gene mutations. Among 10 cases, one NRAS mutation was detected in one patient who was resistant to Tarceva, and no mutations were detected in the other patients. Seven cases responded to Tarceva; 1 case obtained partial relief, and 6 cases were in stable condition. Patients with wild-type EGFR can also benefit from Tarceva therapy. However, an association between Tarceva therapy sensitivity and mutations in genes downstream of EGFR was not detected.

  8. Expression and targeting of a 47 kDa integral peroxisomal membrane protein of Candida boidinii in wild type and a peroxisome-deficient mutant of Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, G.J.; Waterham, H.R.; Vrieling, E.G.; Goodman, J.M.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1993-01-01

    A 47 kDa integral peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP47) of Candida boidinii was expressed in wild type (WT) and a temperature-sensitive (Ts6) peroxisome-deficient (per) mutant of Hansenula polymorpha. The subcellular location of PMP47 appeared to be dependent on the level of expression. At low

  9. TP53 Mutation Status of Tubo-ovarian and Peritoneal High-grade Serous Carcinoma with a Wild-type p53 Immunostaining Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kiyong; Sung, Ji-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-12-01

    Diffuse and strong nuclear p53 immunoreactivity and a complete lack of p53 expression are regarded as indicative of missense and nonsense mutations, respectively, of the TP53 gene. Tubo-ovarian and peritoneal high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is characterized by aberrant p53 expression induced by a TP53 mutation. However, our experience with some HGSC cases with a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern led us to comprehensively review previous cases and investigate the TP53 mutational status of the exceptional cases. We analyzed the immunophenotype of 153 cases of HGSC and performed TP53 gene sequencing analysis in those with a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern. Immunostaining revealed that 109 (71.3%) cases displayed diffuse and strong p53 expression (missense mutation pattern), while 39 (25.5%) had no p53 expression (nonsense mutation pattern). The remaining five cases of HGSC showed a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern. Direct sequencing analysis revealed that three of these cases harbored nonsense TP53 mutations and two had novel splice site deletions. TP53 mutation is almost invariably present in HGSC, and p53 immunostaining can be used as a surrogate marker of TP53 mutation. In cases with a wild-type p53 immunostaining pattern, direct sequencing for TP53 mutational status can be helpful to confirm the presence of a TP53 mutation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptation of photosystem II to high and low light in wild-type and triazine-resistant Canola plants: analysis by a fluorescence induction algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.; Vredenberg, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Plants of wild-type and triazine-resistant Canola (Brassica napus L.) were exposed to very high light intensities and after 1 day placed on a laboratory table at low light to recover, to study the kinetics of variable fluorescence after light, and after dark-adaptation. This cycle was repeated

  11. Overexpression of wild-type creatine transporter (SLC6A8) restores creatine uptake in primary SLC6A8-deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Efraim H; Muñoz, Cristina Martínez; Degrauw, Ton J; Jakobs, Cor nelis; Salomons, Gajja S

    2006-01-01

    In the study reported, we prove that mutations in the SLC6A8 gene are responsible for SLC6A8 deficiency, a cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome (CCDS), since overexpression of the wild-type SLC6A8 open reading frame (ORF) restores the creatine uptake profile in SLC6A8-deficient fibroblasts.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grapefruit with the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of Citrus tristeza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrus paradisi Macf. cv. Duncan was transformed with constructs coding for the wild-type and mutant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) for exploring replicase-mediated pathogen-derived resistance (RM-PDR). The RdRp gene was amplified from CTV genome and used to gener...

  13. An approach to prevent aggregation during the purification and crystallization of wild type acyl coenzyme A : Isopenicillin N acyltransferase from Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Hensgens, Charles M.H.; Laan, Jan Metske van der; Sutherland, John D.; Hart, Darren J.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2005-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A: isopenicillin N acyltransferase (AT) from Penicillium chrysogenum is an enzyme of interest for the biosynthesis of β-lactam antibiotics. Severe aggregation problems with wild type AT have, however, prevented significant progress in the structure–function analysis of this enzyme for

  14. Biological activity and safety of adenoviral vector-expressed wild-type p53 after intratumoral injection in melanoma and breast cancer patients with p53-overexpressing tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dummer, R; Bergh, J; Karlsson, Y; Horovitz, JA; Mulder, NH; Huinin, DT; Burg, G; Hofbauer, G; Osanto, S

    p53 mutations are common genetic alterations in human cancer. Gene transfer of a wild-type (wt) p53 gene reverses the loss of normal p53 function in vitro and in vivo. A phase I dose escalation study of single intratumoral (i.t.) injection of a replication-defective adenoviral expression vector

  15. Contrasting colonization and plant growth promoting capacity between wild type and gfp-derative of the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 in hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens N.; van der Lelie D.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, D.; Timmermans, J.-P.; Prinsen, E.; Van Oevelen, S.; D" Haen, J.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-06-09

    This study aims to investigate the colonization of poplar by the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 and its capacity to promote plant growth. Poplar cuttings were inoculated with P. putida W619 (wild-type or gfp-labelled). The colonization of both strains was investigated and morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to evaluate plant growth promotion. Inoculation with P. putida W619 (wild-type) resulted in remarkable growth promotion, decreased activities of antioxidative defence related enzymes, and reduced stomatal resistance, all indicative of improved plant health and growth in comparison with the non-inoculated cuttings. In contrast, inoculation with gfp-labelled P. putida W619 did not promote growth; it even had a negative effect on plant health and growth. Furthermore, compared to the wildtype strain, colonization by the gfp-labelled P. putida W619::gfp1 was much lower; it only colonized the rhizosphere and root cortex while the wild-type strain also colonized the root xylem vessels. Despite the strong plant growth promoting capacity of P. putida W619 (wild-type), after gfp labelling its growth promoting characteristics disappeared and its colonization capacity was strongly influenced; for these reasons gfp labelling should be applied with sufficient caution.

  16. Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex: an international study of wild-type susceptibility endpoint distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Aller, A.I.; Canton, E.; Castanon-Olivares, L.R.; Chowdhary, A.; Cordoba, S.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Govender, N.; Hagen, F.; Illnait-Zaragozi, M.T.; Johnson, E.; Kidd, S.; Lass-Florl, C.; Lockhart, S.R.; Martins, M.A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Melhem, M.S.; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.; Pelaez, T.; Pfaller, M.A.; Schell, W.A.; St-Germain, G.; Trilles, L.; Turnidge, J.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex versus fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole are not available. We established ECVs for these species and agents based on wild-type (WT) MIC distributions. A total of 2,985 to

  17. PURIFICATION AND CELLULAR-LOCALIZATION OF WILD-TYPE AND MUTATED DIHYDROLIPOYLTRANSACETYLASES FROM AZOTOBACTER-VINELANDII AND ESCHERICHIA-COLI EXPRESSED IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHULZE, E; WESTPHAL, AH; VEENHUIS, M; DEKOK, A

    1992-01-01

    Wild type dihydrolipoyltransacetylase(E2p)-components from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of A. vinelandii or E. coli, and mutants of A. vinelandii E2p with stepwise deletions of the lipoyl domains or the alanine- and proline-rich region between the binding and the catalytic domain have been

  18. Rotavirus A genotype G1P[8]: a novel method to distinguish wild-type strains from the Rotarix® vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L Rose

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rotaviruses are important enteric pathogens for humans and animals. Group A rotaviruses (RV-A are the most common agents of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children and vaccination is the most effective method to reduce RV-A-associated diseases. G1P[8], the most prevalent RV-A genotype worldwide, is included in the RV-A vaccine Rotarix®. The discrimination between wild-type G1P[8] and vaccine G1P[8] strains is an important topic in the study of RV-A epidemiology to manage outbreaks and to define control measures for vaccinated children. In this study, we developed a novel method to segregate the wild-type and vaccine strains using restriction endonucleases. The dsRNA from the Rotarix® vaccine was sequenced and the NSP3 gene was selected as the target gene. The vaccine strain has a restriction pattern that is different than that of wild-type RV-A G1P[8] isolates after digestion with the restriction endonuclease BspHI. This pattern could be used as a marker for the differentiation of wild-type G1P[8] strains from the vaccine strain.

  19. Pharmacological characterization of homobaclofen on wild type and mutant GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with the GABA(B)2 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Madsen, Bo E.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2001-01-01

    homogenate and in an assay of electrically induced contractions of guinea pig ileum. The results from the two tissues did, however, not correlate very well, and in order to further investigate these discrepancies, we have pharmacologically characterized these enantiomers on recombinant wild type and mutant...

  20. Elucidation of the Inhibitory Effect of Phytochemicals with Kir6.2 Wild-Type and Mutant Models Associated in Type-1 Diabetes through Molecular Docking Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaswini Jagadeb

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all serious diseases globally, diabetes (type 1 and type 2 still poses a major challenge to the world population. Several target proteins have been identified, and the etiology causing diabetes has been reasonably well studied. But, there is still a gap in deciding on the choice of a drug, especially when the target is mutated. Mutations in the KCNJ11 gene, encoding the kir6.2 channel, are reported to be associated with congenital hyperinsulinism, having a major impact in causing type 1 diabetes, and due to the lack of its 3D structure, an attempt has been made to predict the structure of kir6.2, applying fold recognition methods. The current work is intended to investigate the affinity of four phytochemicals namely, curcumin (Curcuma longa, genistein (Genista tinctoria, piperine (Piper nigrum, and pterostilbene (Vitis vinifera in a normal as well as in a mutant kir6.2 model by adopting a molecular docking methodology. The phytochemicals were docked in both wild and mutated kir6.2 models in two rounds: blind docking followed by ATP-binding pocket-specific docking. From the binding pockets, the common interacting amino acid residues participating strongly within the binding pocket were identified and compared. From the study, we conclude that these phytochemicals have strong affinity in both the normal and mutant kir6.2 model. This work would be helpful for further study of the phytochemicals above for the treatment of type 1 diabetes by targeting the kir6.2 channel.

  1. Elucidation of the Inhibitory Effect of Phytochemicals with Kir6.2 Wild-Type and Mutant Models Associated in Type-1 Diabetes through Molecular Docking Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeb, Manaswini; Konkimalla, V Badireenath; Rath, Surya Narayan; Das, Rohit Pritam

    2014-12-01

    Among all serious diseases globally, diabetes (type 1 and type 2) still poses a major challenge to the world population. Several target proteins have been identified, and the etiology causing diabetes has been reasonably well studied. But, there is still a gap in deciding on the choice of a drug, especially when the target is mutated. Mutations in the KCNJ11 gene, encoding the kir6.2 channel, are reported to be associated with congenital hyperinsulinism, having a major impact in causing type 1 diabetes, and due to the lack of its 3D structure, an attempt has been made to predict the structure of kir6.2, applying fold recognition methods. The current work is intended to investigate the affinity of four phytochemicals namely, curcumin (Curcuma longa), genistein (Genista tinctoria), piperine (Piper nigrum), and pterostilbene (Vitis vinifera) in a normal as well as in a mutant kir6.2 model by adopting a molecular docking methodology. The phytochemicals were docked in both wild and mutated kir6.2 models in two rounds: blind docking followed by ATP-binding pocket-specific docking. From the binding pockets, the common interacting amino acid residues participating strongly within the binding pocket were identified and compared. From the study, we conclude that these phytochemicals have strong affinity in both the normal and mutant kir6.2 model. This work would be helpful for further study of the phytochemicals above for the treatment of type 1 diabetes by targeting the kir6.2 channel.

  2. Lead uptake increases drought tolerance of wild type and transgenic poplar (Populus tremula x P. alba) overexpressing gsh 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuilov, Sladjana; Lang, Friedericke; Djukic, Matilda; Djunisijevic-Bojovic, Danijela; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-09-01

    Growth and development of plants largely depends on their adaptation ability in a changing climate. This is particularly true on heavy metal contaminated soils, but the interaction of heavy metal stress and climate on plant performance has not been intensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to elucidate if transgenic poplars (Populus tremula x P. alba) with enhanced glutathione content possess an enhanced tolerance to drought and lead (Pb) exposure (single and in combination) and if they are good candidates for phytoremediation of Pb contaminated soil. Lead exposure reduced growth and biomass accumulation only in above-ground tissue of wild type poplar, although most of lead accumulated in the roots. Drought caused a decline of the water content rather than reduced biomass production, while Pb counteracted this decline in the combined exposure. Apparently, metals such as Pb possess a protective function against drought, because they interact with abscisic acid dependent stomatal closure. Lead exposure decreased while drought increased glutathione content in leaves of both plant types. Lead accumulation was higher in the roots of transgenic plants, presumably as a result of chelation by glutathione. Water deprivation enhanced Pb accumulation in the roots, but Pb was subject to leakage out of the roots after re-watering. Transgenic plants showed better adaptation under mild drought plus Pb exposure partially due to improved glutathione synthesis. However, the transgenic plants cannot be considered as a good candidate for phytoremediation of Pb, due to its small translocation to the shoots and its leakage out of the roots upon re-watering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structure and Biosynthesis of Branched Wax Compounds on Wild Type and Wax Biosynthesis Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, Lucas; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    The cuticle is a waxy composite that protects the aerial organs of land plans from non-stomatal water loss. The chemical make-up of the cuticular wax mixture plays a central role in defining the water barrier, but structure-function relationships have not been established so far, in part due to gaps in our understanding of wax structures and biosynthesis. While wax compounds with saturated, linear hydrocarbon tails have been investigated in detail, very little is known about compounds with modified aliphatic tails, which comprise substantial portions of some plant wax mixtures. This study aimed to investigate the structures, abundances and biosynthesis of branched compounds on the species for which wax biosynthesis is best understood: Arabidopsis thaliana. Microscale derivatization, mass spectral interpretation and organic synthesis identified homologous series of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on flowers and leaves, respectively. These comprised approximately 10-15% of wild type wax mixtures. The abundances of both branched wax constituents and accompanying unbranched compounds were reduced on the cer6, cer3 and cer1 mutants but not cer4, indicating that branched compounds are in part synthesized by the same machinery as unbranched compounds. In contrast, the abundances of unbranched, but not branched, wax constituents were reduced on the cer2 and cer26 mutants, suggesting that the pathways to both types of compounds deviate in later steps of chain elongation. Finally, the abundances of branched, but not unbranched, wax compounds were reduced on the cer16 mutant, and the (uncharacterized) CER16 protein may therefore be controlling the relative abundances of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on Arabidopsis surfaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice.

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    Jonas M Kristensen

    Full Text Available Metformin is used as an anti-diabetic drug. Metformin ameliorates insulin resistance by improving insulin sensitivity in liver and skeletal muscle. Reduced mitochondrial content has been reported in type 2 diabetic muscles and it may contribute to decreased insulin sensitivity characteristic for diabetic muscles. The molecular mechanism behind the effect of metformin is not fully clarified but inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and also activation of the 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK has been reported in muscle. Furthermore, both AMPK activation and metformin treatment have been associated with stimulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis. However, a causal relationship in skeletal muscle has not been investigated. We hypothesized that potential effects of in vivo metformin treatment on mitochondrial function and protein expressions in skeletal muscle are dependent upon AMPK signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead α(2 (KD AMPK mice and wild type (WT littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems to be unrelated to AMPK, and does not involve changes in key mitochondrial proteins.

  5. Prednisolone-induced differential gene expression in mouse liver carrying wild type or a dimerization-defective glucocorticoid receptor

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    Dokter Wim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucocorticoids (GCs control expression of a large number of genes via binding to the GC receptor (GR. Transcription may be regulated either by binding of the GR dimer to DNA regulatory elements or by protein-protein interactions of GR monomers with other transcription factors. Although the type of regulation for a number of individual target genes is known, the relative contribution of both mechanisms to the regulation of the entire transcriptional program remains elusive. To study the importance of GR dimerization in the regulation of gene expression, we performed gene expression profiling of livers of prednisolone-treated wild type (WT and mice that have lost the ability to form GR dimers (GRdim. Results The GR target genes identified in WT mice were predominantly related to glucose metabolism, the cell cycle, apoptosis and inflammation. In GRdim mice, the level of prednisolone-induced gene expression was significantly reduced compared to WT, but not completely absent. Interestingly, for a set of genes, involved in cell cycle and apoptosis processes and strongly related to Foxo3a and p53, induction by prednisolone was completely abolished in GRdim mice. In contrast, glucose metabolism-related genes were still modestly upregulated in GRdim mice upon prednisolone treatment. Finally, we identified several novel GC-inducible genes from which Fam107a, a putative histone acetyltransferase complex interacting protein, was most strongly dependent on GR dimerization. Conclusions This study on prednisolone-induced effects in livers of WT and GRdim mice identified a number of interesting candidate genes and pathways regulated by GR dimers and sheds new light onto the complex transcriptional regulation of liver function by GCs.

  6. Gap Junctional Blockade Stochastically Induces Different Species-Specific Head Anatomies in Genetically Wild-Type Girardia dorotocephala Flatworms

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    Maya Emmons-Bell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The shape of an animal body plan is constructed from protein components encoded by the genome. However, bioelectric networks composed of many cell types have their own intrinsic dynamics, and can drive distinct morphological outcomes during embryogenesis and regeneration. Planarian flatworms are a popular system for exploring body plan patterning due to their regenerative capacity, but despite considerable molecular information regarding stem cell differentiation and basic axial patterning, very little is known about how distinct head shapes are produced. Here, we show that after decapitation in G. dorotocephala, a transient perturbation of physiological connectivity among cells (using the gap junction blocker octanol can result in regenerated heads with quite different shapes, stochastically matching other known species of planaria (S. mediterranea, D. japonica, and P. felina. We use morphometric analysis to quantify the ability of physiological network perturbations to induce different species-specific head shapes from the same genome. Moreover, we present a computational agent-based model of cell and physical dynamics during regeneration that quantitatively reproduces the observed shape changes. Morphological alterations induced in a genomically wild-type G. dorotocephala during regeneration include not only the shape of the head but also the morphology of the brain, the characteristic distribution of adult stem cells (neoblasts, and the bioelectric gradients of resting potential within the anterior tissues. Interestingly, the shape change is not permanent; after regeneration is complete, intact animals remodel back to G. dorotocephala-appropriate head shape within several weeks in a secondary phase of remodeling following initial complete regeneration. We present a conceptual model to guide future work to delineate the molecular mechanisms by which bioelectric networks stochastically select among a small set of discrete head morphologies

  7. A novel type of silencing factor, Clr2, is necessary for transcriptional silencing at various chromosomal locations in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerling, Pernilla; Ekwall, Karl; Egel, Richard

    2004-01-01

    describe the cloning and characterization of clr2+. The clr2+ gene encodes a 62 kDa protein with no obvious sequence homologs. Deletion of clr2+ not only affects transcriptional repression in the mating-type region, but also centromeric silencing and silencing of a PolII-transcribed gene inserted in the rDNA......The mating-type region of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe comprises three loci: mat1, mat2-P and mat3-M. mat1 is expressed and determines the mating type of the cell. mat2-P and mat3-M are two storage cassettes located in a 17 kb heterochromatic region with features identical to those...... repeats. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that Clr2 is necessary for histone hypoacetylation in the mating-type region, suggesting that Clr2 acts upstream of histone deacetylases to promote transcriptional silencing....

  8. The construction and application of diploid sake yeast with a homozygous mutation in the FAS2 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Atsushi; Sahara, Hiroshi; Hata, Yoji

    2010-12-01

    In Japanese sake brewing, cerulenin-resistant sake yeasts produce elevated levels of ethyl caproate, an important flavor component. The FAS2 mutation FAS2-1250S of Saccharomyces cerevisiae generates a cerulenin-resistant phenotype. This mutation is dominant, and, in general, cerulenin-resistant diploid sake yeast strains carry this mutation heterozygously. Here we constructed diploid sake yeast with a homozygous mutation of FAS2 using the high-efficiency loss of heterozygosity method. The homozygous mutants grew more slowly in YPD medium than did the wild-type and heterozygous mutants, and they produced more ethyl caproate during sake brewing. In addition, although both the wild-type and heterozygous mutant were sensitive to 4 mg/l cerulenin, the homozygous mutant was resistant to more than 4 mg/l cerulenin. Next, we obtained a homozygous mutant of FAS2 without inducing genetic modification. After cultivating the heterozygous FAS2 mutant K-1801 in YPD, homozygous mutants were selected on medium containing high concentrations of cerulenin. Non-genetically modified yeast with a homozygous mutation of FAS2 produced 2.2-fold more ethyl caproate than did heterozygous yeast. Moreover, high-quality Japanese sake with a very rich flavor could be brewed using yeast containing a homozygous mutation in the FAS2 gene. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Wheat streak mosaic virus Coat Protein Deletion Mutants Elicit More Severe Symptoms Than Wild-Type Virus in Multiple Cereal Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Elowsky, Christian; Graybosch, Robert A

    2017-12-01

    Previously, we reported that coat protein (CP) of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) (genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) tolerates deletion of amino acids 36 to 84 for efficient systemic infection of wheat. In this study, we demonstrated that WSMV mutants with deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 but not of 36 to 57 induced severe chlorotic streaks and spots, followed by acute chlorosis in wheat, maize, barley, and rye compared with mild to moderate chlorotic streaks and mosaic symptoms by wild-type virus. Deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 from the WSMV genome accelerated cell-to-cell movement, with increased accumulation of genomic RNAs and CP, compared with the wild-type virus. Microscopic examination of wheat tissues infected by green fluorescent protein-tagged mutants revealed that infection by mutants lacking CP amino acids 58 to 84 caused degradation of chloroplasts, resulting in acute macroscopic chlorosis. The profile of CP-specific proteins was altered in wheat infected by mutants causing acute chlorosis, compared with mutants eliciting wild-type symptoms. All deletion mutants accumulated CP-specific major protein similarly to that in wild-type virus; however, mutants that elicit acute chlorosis failed to accumulate a 31-kDa minor protein compared with wild-type virus or mutants lacking amino acids 36 to 57. Taken together, these data suggest that deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84 from the WSMV genome enhanced accumulation of CP and genomic RNA, altered CP-specific protein profiles, and caused severe symptom phenotypes in multiple cereal hosts.

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti.

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    Maggy T Sikulu-Lord

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances. The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501, whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284 and 78% (N = 229, respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253, 83% (N = 277 and 78% (N = 234, respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs.

  11. Enhanced production of L-phenylalanine in Corynebacterium glutamicum due to the introduction of Escherichia coli wild-type gene aroH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanzhi; Zhang, Junli; Kang, Zhen; Du, Guocheng; Yu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tianwen; Chen, Jian

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic engineering is a powerful tool which has been widely used for producing valuable products. For improving L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) accumulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum, we have investigated the target genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways. The genes involved in the biosynthesis of L-Phe were found to be strictly regulated genes by feedback inhibition. As a result, overexpression of the native wild-type genes aroF, aroG or pheA resulted in a slight increase of L-Phe. In contrast, overexpression of aroF (wt) or pheA (fbr) from E. coli significantly increased L-Phe production. Co-overexpression of aroF (wt) and pheA (fbr) improved the titer of L-Phe to 4.46 ± 0.06 g l⁻¹. To further analyze the target enzymes in the aromatic amino acid synthesis pathway between C. glutamicum and E. coli, the wild-type gene aroH from E. coli was overexpressed and evaluated in C. glutamicum. As predicted, upregulation of the wild-type gene aroH resulted in a remarkable increase of L-Phe production. Co-overexpression of the mutated pheA (fbr) and the wild-type gene aroH resulted in the production of L-Phe up to 4.64 ± 0.09 g l⁻¹. Based on these results we conclude that the wild-type gene aroH from E. coli is an appropriate target gene for pathway engineering in C. glutamicum for the production of aromatic amino acids.

  12. Tuning the Sensitivity of the PDR5 Promoter-Based Detection of Diclofenac in Yeast Biosensors

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    Astrid Schuller

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used drug diclofenac is an important environmental anthropogenic pollutant. Currently, detection of diclofenac is mainly based on chemical and physical methods. Here we describe a yeast biosensor that drives the diclofenac-dependent expression of a recombinant fluorescent protein from the authentic promoter of the PDR5 gene. This key component of the pleiotropic drug response encodes a multidrug transporter that is involved in cellular detoxification. We analyse the effects on diclofenac sensitivity of artificial PDR5 promoter derivatives in wild-type and various yeast mutant strains. This approach enabled us to generate sensor strains with elevated drug sensitivity.

  13. Improved inhibitor tolerance in xylose-fermenting yeast Spathaspora passalidarum by mutagenesis and protoplast fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; Yao, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    from fusion of the protoplasts of S. passalidarum M7 and a robust yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 96581, were able to grow in 75% WSLQ and produce around 0.4 g ethanol/g consumed xylose. Among the selected hybrid strains, the hybrid FS22 showed the best fermentation capacity in 75% WSLQ...... final ethanol than the wild-type strain in a synthetic xylose medium containing 2 g/l furfural. However, this mutant was unable to grow in a medium containing 75% liquid fraction of pretreated wheat straw (WSLQ), in which furfural and many other inhibitors were present. Hybrid yeast strains, obtained...... to inhibitors from S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581....

  14. Defective quiescence entry promotes the fermentation performance of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomuro, Mayu; Kato, Taku; Zhou, Yan; Watanabe, Daisuke; Motoyama, Yasuo; Yamagishi, Hiromi; Akao, Takeshi; Aizawa, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    One of the key processes in making beer is fermentation. In the fermentation process, brewer's yeast plays an essential role in both the production of ethanol and the flavor profile of beer. Therefore, the mechanism of ethanol fermentation by of brewer's yeast is attracting much attention. The high ethanol productivity of sake yeast has provided a good basis from which to investigate the factors that regulate the fermentation rates of brewer's yeast. Recent studies found that the elevated fermentation rate of sake Saccharomyces cerevisiae species is closely related to a defective transition from vegetative growth to the quiescent (G0) state. In the present study, to clarify the relationship between the fermentation rate of brewer's yeast and entry into G0, we constructed two types of mutant of the bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus Weihenstephan 34/70: a RIM15 gene disruptant that was defective in entry into G0; and a CLN3ΔPEST mutant, in which the G1 cyclin Cln3p accumulated at high levels. Both strains exhibited higher fermentation rates under high-maltose medium or high-gravity wort conditions (20° Plato) as compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, G1 arrest and/or G0 entry were defective in both the RIM15 disruptant and the CLN3ΔPEST mutant as compared with the wild-type strain. Taken together, these results indicate that regulation of the G0/G1 transition might govern the fermentation rate of bottom-fermenting brewer's yeast in high-gravity wort. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sociobiology of the budding yeast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for sociobiological research. I discuss the problems connected with clear classification of yeast behaviour based on the fitness-based Hamilton paradigm. Relevant traits include different types of communities, production of flocculins, invertase and toxins, and the presence ...

  16. Cell lineage of timed cohorts of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and Tbx6 mutant embryos

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    Daniel Concepcion

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tbx6 is a T-box transcription factor with multiple roles in embryonic development as evidenced by dramatic effects on mesoderm cell fate determination, left/right axis determination, and somite segmentation in mutant mice. The expression of Tbx6 is restricted to the primitive streak and presomitic mesoderm, but some of the phenotypic features of mutants are not easily explained by this expression pattern. We have used genetically-inducible fate mapping to trace the fate of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and mutant embryos to explain some of the puzzling features of the mutant phenotype. We created an inducible Tbx6-creERT2 transgenic mouse in which cre expression closely recapitulates endogenous Tbx6 expression both temporally and spatially. Using a lacZ-based Cre reporter and timed tamoxifen injections, we followed temporally overlapping cohorts of cells that had expressed Tbx6 and found contributions to virtually all mesodermally-derived embryonic structures as well as the extraembryonic allantois. Contribution to the endothelium of major blood vessels may account for the embryonic death of homozygous mutant embryos. In mutant embryos, Tbx6-creERT2-traced cells contributed to the abnormally segmented anterior somites and formed the characteristic ectopic neural tubes. Retention of cells in the mutant tail bud indicates a deficiency in migratory behavior of the mutant cells and the presence of Tbx6-creERT2-traced cells in the notochord, a node derivative provides a possible explanation for the heterotaxia seen in mutant embryos.

  17. Wild-type and mutant p53 mediate cisplatin resistance through interaction and inhibition of active caspase-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Jacqueline L.Y.; Saidin, Suzan; Lane, David P.; Leong, Sai Mun; Noll, Jacqueline E.; Neilsen, Paul M.; Phua, Yi Ting; Gabra, Hani; Lim, Tit Meng

    2013-01-01

    The p53 gene has been implicated in many cancers due to its frequent mutations as well as mutations in other genes whose proteins directly affect p53’s functions. In addition, high expression of p53 [wild-type (WT) or mutant] has been found in the cytoplasm of many tumor cells, and studies have associated these observations with more aggressive tumors and poor prognosis. Cytoplasmic mis-localization of p53 subsequently reduced its transcriptional activity and this loss-of-function (LOF) was used to explain the lack of response to chemotherapeutic agents. However, this hypothesis seemed inadequate in explaining the apparent selection for tumor cells with high levels of p53 protein, a phenomenon that suggests a gain-of-function (GOF) of these mis-localized p53 proteins. In this study, we explored whether the direct involvement of p53 in the apoptotic response is via regulation of the caspase pathway in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate that p53, when present at high levels in the cytoplasm, has an inhibitory effect on caspase-9. Concurrently, knockdown of endogenous p53 caused an increase in the activity of caspase-9. p53 was found to interact with the p35 fragment of caspase-9, and this interaction inhibits the caspase-9 activity. In a p53-null background, the high-level expression of both exogenous WT and mutant p53 increased the resistance of these cells to cisplatin, and the data showed a correlation between high p53 expression and caspase-9 inhibition. These results suggest the inhibition of caspase-9 as a potential mechanism in evading apoptosis in tumors with high-level p53 expression that is cytoplasmically localized. PMID:23255126

  18. SDHA loss of function mutations in a subset of young adult wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors

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    Italiano Antoine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A subset of KIT/PDGFRA wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors (WT GIST have been associated with alteration of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH complex II function. A recent report identified four non-syndromic, KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST harboring compound heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SDHA encoding the main subunit of the SDH complex II. Methods Next generation sequencing was applied on five pediatric and one young adult WT GIST, by whole exome capture and SOLiD 3-plus system sequencing. The putative mutations were first confirmed by Sanger sequencing and then screened on a larger panel of 11 pediatric and young adult WT GIST, including 5 in the context of Carney triad. Results A germline p.Arg31X nonsense SDHA mutation was identified in one of the six cases tested by SOLiD platform. An additional p.D38V missense mutation in SDHA exon 2 was identified by Sanger sequencing in the extended KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST patients cohort. Western blotting showed loss of SDHA expression in the two cases harboring SDHA mutations, while expression being retained in the other WT GIST tumors. Results were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry for both SDHA and SDHB, which showed a concurrent loss of expression of both proteins in SDHA-mutant lesions, while the remaining WT tumors showed only loss of SDHB expression. Conclusions Germline and/or somatic aberrations of SDHA occur in a small subset of KIT/PDGFRA WT GISTs, outside the Carney’s triad and are associated with loss of both SDHA and SDHB protein expression. Mutations of the SDH complex II are more particularly associated with KIT/PDGFRA WT GIST occurring in young adults. Although pediatric GIST consistently display alterations of SDHB protein expression, further molecular studies are needed to identify the crucial genes involved in their tumorigenesis.

  19. Hsp90 prevents interaction between CHIP and HERG proteins to facilitate maturation of wild-type and mutant HERG proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Chisato; Li, Peili; Kurata, Yasutaka; Hoshikawa, Yoshiko; Morikawa, Kumi; Maharani, Nani; Higaki, Katsumi; Sasano, Tetsuro; Notsu, Tomomi; Ishido, Yuko; Miake, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Nakai, Akira; Murata, Shigeo; Yoshida, Akio; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hiraoka, Masayasu; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2013-12-01

    We examined the role of Hsp90 in expression and maturation of wild-type (WT) and mutant ether-a-go-go related gene (HERG) proteins by using Hsp90 inhibitors, geldanamycin (GA) and radicicol, and Hsp90 overexpression. The proteins were expressed in HEK293 cells or collected from HL-1 mouse cardiomyocytes, and analysed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. GA and radicicol suppressed maturation of HERG-FLAG proteins and increased their immature forms. Co-expression of Hsp90 counteracted the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors and suppressed ubiquitination of HERG proteins. Overexpressed Hsp90 also inhibited the binding of endogenous C-terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) to HERG-FLAG proteins. Hsp90-induced increase of functional HERG proteins was verified by their increased expression on the cell surface and enhanced HERG channel currents. CHIP overexpression decreased both mature and immature forms of HERG-FLAG proteins in cells treated with GA. Hsp90 facilitated maturation of endogenous ERG proteins, whereas CHIP decreased both forms of ERG proteins in HL-1 cells. Mutant HERG proteins harbouring disease-causing missense mutations were mainly in the immature form and had a higher binding capacity to CHIP than the WT; Hsp90 overexpression suppressed this association. Overexpressed Hsp90 increased the mature form of HERG(1122fs/147) proteins, reduced its ubiquitinated form, increased its immunoreactivity in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the plasma membrane, and increased the mutant-mediated membrane current. CHIP overexpression decreased the immature form of HERG(1122fs/147) proteins. Enhancement of HERG protein expression through Hsp90 inhibition of CHIP binding might be a novel therapeutic strategy for long QT syndrome 2 caused by trafficking abnormalities of HERG proteins.

  20. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV) to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Maria; Han, Jung Woo; Kendl, Sabine; Khosravi, Mojtaba; Plattet, Philippe; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a close relative of measles virus (MV), is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM) and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red) adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F) genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2) pfu/ml) in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM). After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5) pfu/ml). Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G) was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L) and Gly to Glu (G71E), and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  1. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  2. Relationships among body mass, brain size, gut length, and blood tryptophan and serotonin in young wild-type mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatevosyan Maggie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The blood hyperserotonemia of autism is one of the most consistent biological findings in autism research, but its causes remain unclear. A major difficulty in understanding this phenomenon is the lack of information on fundamental interactions among the developing brain, gut, and blood in the mammalian body. We therefore investigated relationships among the body mass, the brain mass, the volume of the hippocampal complex, the gut length, and the whole-blood levels of tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in young, sexually immature wild-type mice. Results Three-dimensional reconstructions of the hippocampal complex were obtained from serial, Nissl-stained sections and the gut was allowed to attain its maximal relaxed length prior to measurements. The tryptophan and 5-HT concentrations in the blood were assessed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the sex of mice was confirmed by genotyping. Statistical analysis yielded information about correlative relationships among all studied variables. It revealed a strong negative correlation between blood 5-HT concentration and body mass and a strong negative correlation between the brain mass/body mass ratio and gut length. Also, a negative correlation was found between the volume of the hippocampal complex and blood tryptophan concentration. Conclusion The study provides information on the covariance structure of several central and peripheral variables related to the body serotonin systems. In particular, the results indicate that body mass should be included as a covariate in studies on platelet 5-HT levels and they also suggest a link between brain growth and gut length.

  3. Investigating the Structure and Dynamics of the PIK3CA Wild-Type and H1047R Oncogenic Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlaki, Maria; Lazani, Vasiliki; Christoforidis, Savvas; Agianian, Bogos; Cournia, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    The PIK3CA gene is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human cancers. It encodes p110α, the catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PI3Kα), which activates signaling cascades leading to cell proliferation, survival, and cell growth. The most frequent mutation in PIK3CA is H1047R, which results in enzymatic overactivation. Understanding how the H1047R mutation causes the enhanced activity of the protein in atomic detail is central to developing mutant-specific therapeutics for cancer. To this end, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) experiments and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for both wild-type (WT) and H1047R mutant proteins. An expanded positive charge distribution on the membrane binding regions of the mutant with respect to the WT protein is observed through MD simulations, which justifies the increased ability of the mutated protein variant to bind to membranes rich in anionic lipids in our SPR experiments. Our results further support an auto-inhibitory role of the C-terminal tail in the WT protein, which is abolished in the mutant protein due to loss of crucial intermolecular interactions. Moreover, Functional Mode Analysis reveals that the H1047R mutation alters the twisting motion of the N-lobe of the kinase domain with respect to the C-lobe and shifts the position of the conserved P-loop residues in the vicinity of the active site. These findings demonstrate the dynamical and structural differences of the two proteins in atomic detail and propose a mechanism of overactivation for the mutant protein. The results may be further utilized for the design of mutant-specific PI3Kα inhibitors that exploit the altered mutant conformation. PMID:25340423

  4. Comparative thoracic anatomy of the wild type and wingless (wg1cn1) mutant of Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified organisms are crucial for our understanding of gene regulatory networks, physiological processes and ontogeny. With modern molecular genetic techniques allowing the rapid generation of different Drosophila melanogaster mutants, efficient in-depth morphological investigations become an important issue. Anatomical studies can elucidate the role of certain genes in developmental processes and point out which parts of gene regulatory networks are involved in evolutionary changes of morphological structures. The wingless mutation wg1 of D. melanogaster was discovered more than 40 years ago. While early studies addressed the external phenotype of these mutants, the documentation of the internal organization was largely restricted to the prominent indirect flight muscles. We used SEM micrographs, histological serial sections, μ-computed tomography, CLSM and 3D reconstructions to study and document the thoracic skeletomuscular system of the wild type and mutant. A recently introduced nomenclature for the musculature of neopteran insects was applied to facilitate comparisons with closely or more distantly related taxa. The mutation is phenotypically mainly characterized by the absence of one or both wings and halteres. The wing is partly or entirely replaced by duplications of mesonotal structures, whereas the haltere and its associated muscles are completely absent on body sides showing the reduction. Both the direct and indirect mesothoracic flight muscles are affected by loss and reorientation of bundles or fibers. Our observations lead to the conclusion that the wingless mutation causes a homeotic transformation in the imaginal discs of wings and halteres with a direct effect on the development of skeletal structures and an indirect effect on the associated muscular system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaccine and Wild-Type Strains of Yellow Fever Virus Engage Distinct Entry Mechanisms and Differentially Stimulate Antiviral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Fernandez-Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV vaccine 17D stands as a “gold standard” for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation.

  6. Difluoromethyl ketones: Potent inhibitors of wild type and carbamate-insensitive G119S mutant Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Eugene; Wong, Dawn M; Tong, Fan; Körber, Florian; Gross, Aaron D; Islam, Rafique; Viayna, Elisabet; Mutunga, James M; Li, Jianyong; Totrov, Maxim M; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Carlier, Paul R

    2015-10-15

    Malaria is a devastating disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and current vector control measures are threatened by emerging resistance mechanisms. With the goal of developing new, selective, resistance-breaking insecticides we explored α-fluorinated methyl ketones as reversible covalent inhibitors of Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase (AgAChE). Trifluoromethyl ketones 5 demonstrated remarkable volatility in microtiter plate assays, but 5c,e-h exhibited potent (1-100 nM) inhibition of wild type (WT) AgAChE and weak inhibition of resistant mutant G119S mutant AgAChE. Fluoromethyl ketones 10c-i exhibited submicromolar to micromolar inhibition of WT AgAChE, but again only weakly inhibited G119S AgAChE. Interestingly, difluoromethyl ketone inhibitors 9c and 9g had single digit nanomolar inhibition of WT AgAChE, and 9g had excellent potency against G119S AgAChE. Approach to steady-state inhibition was quite slow, but after 23 h incubation an IC50 value of 25.1 ± 1.2 nM was measured. We attribute the slow, tight-binding G119S AgAChE inhibition of 9g to a balance of steric size and electrophilicity. However, toxicities of 5g, 9g, and 10g to adult A. gambiae in tarsal contact, fumigation, and injection assays were lower than expected based on WT AgAChE inhibition potency and volatility. Potential toxicity-limiting factors are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ontogeny of SERT Expression and Antidepressant-like Response to Escitalopram in Wild-Type and SERT Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nathan C; Gould, Georgianna G; Koek, Wouter; Daws, Lynette C

    2016-08-01

    Depression is a disabling affective disorder for which the majority of patients are not effectively treated. This problem is exacerbated in children and adolescents for whom only two antidepressants are approved, both of which are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs). Unfortunately SSRIs are often less effective in juveniles than in adults; however, the mechanism(s) underlying age-dependent responses to SSRIs is unknown. To this end, we compared the antidepressant-like response to the SSRI escitalopram using the tail suspension test and saturation binding of [(3)H]citalopram to the serotonin transporter (SERT), the primary target of SSRIs, in juvenile [postnatal day (P)21], adolescent (P28), and adult (P90) wild-type (SERT+/+) mice. In addition, to model individuals carrying low-expressing SERT variants, we studied mice with reduced SERT expression (SERT+/-) or lacking SERT (SERT-/-). Maximal antidepressant-like effects were less in P21 mice relative to P90 mice. This was especially apparent in SERT+/- mice. However, the potency for escitalopram to produce antidepressant-like effects in SERT+/+ and SERT+/- mice was greater in P21 and P28 mice than in adults. SERT expression increased with age in terminal regions and decreased with age in cell body regions. Binding affinity values did not change as a function of age or genotype. As expected, in SERT-/- mice escitalopram produced no behavioral effects, and there was no specific [(3)H]citalopram binding. These data reveal age- and genotype-dependent shifts in the dose-response for escitalopram to produce antidepressant-like effects, which vary with SERT expression, and may contribute to the limited therapeutic response to SSRIs in juveniles and adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Bone turnover in wild type and pleiotrophin-transgenic mice housed for three months in the International Space Station (ISS.

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    Sara Tavella

    Full Text Available Bone is a complex dynamic tissue undergoing a continuous remodeling process. Gravity is a physical force playing a role in the remodeling and contributing to the maintenance of bone integrity. This article reports an investigation on the alterations of the bone microarchitecture that occurred in wild type (Wt and pleiotrophin-transgenic (PTN-Tg mice exposed to a near-zero gravity on the International Space Station (ISS during the Mice Drawer System (MDS mission, to date, the longest mice permanence (91 days in space. The transgenic mouse strain over-expressing pleiotrophin (PTN in bone was selected because of the PTN positive effects on bone turnover. Wt and PTN-Tg control animals were maintained on Earth either in a MDS payload or in a standard vivarium cage. This study revealed a bone loss during spaceflight in the weight-bearing bones of both strains. For both Tg and Wt a decrease of the trabecular number as well as an increase of the mean trabecular separation was observed after flight, whereas trabecular thickness did not show any significant change. Non weight-bearing bones were not affected. The PTN-Tg mice exposed to normal gravity presented a poorer trabecular organization than Wt mice, but interestingly, the expression of the PTN transgene during the flight resulted in some protection against microgravity's negative effects. Moreover, osteocytes of the Wt mice, but not of Tg mice, acquired a round shape, thus showing for the first time osteocyte space-related morphological alterations in vivo. The analysis of specific bone formation and resorption marker expression suggested that the microgravity-induced bone loss was due to both an increased bone resorption and a decreased bone deposition. Apparently, the PTN transgene protection was the result of a higher osteoblast activity in the flight mice.

  9. Rapid Phosphoproteomic Effects of Abscisic Acid (ABA) on Wild-Type and ABA Receptor-Deficient A. thaliana Mutants*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Benjamin B.; Stecker, Kelly E.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)1 is a plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth, including seed germination, stomatal aperture size, and cellular drought response. ABA interacts with a unique family of 14 receptor proteins. This interaction leads to the activation of a family of protein kinases, SnRK2s, which in turn phosphorylate substrates involved in many cellular processes. The family of receptors appears functionally redundant. To observe a measurable phenotype, four of the fourteen receptors have to be mutated to create a multilocus loss-of-function quadruple receptor (QR) mutant, which is much less sensitive to ABA than wild-type (WT) plants. Given these phenotypes, we asked whether or not a difference in ABA response between the WT and QR backgrounds would manifest on a phosphorylation level as well. We tested WT and QR mutant ABA response using isotope-assisted quantitative phosphoproteomics to determine what ABA-induced phosphorylation changes occur in WT plants within 5 min of ABA treatment and how that phosphorylation pattern is altered in the QR mutant. We found multiple ABA-induced phosphorylation changes that occur within 5 min of treatment, including three SnRK2 autophosphorylation events and phosphorylation on SnRK2 substrates. The majority of robust ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed were partially diminished in the QR mutant, whereas many smaller ABA-dependent phosphorylation changes observed in the WT were not responsive to ABA in the mutant. A single phosphorylation event was increased in response to ABA treatment in both the WT and QR mutant. A portion of the discovery data was validated using selected reaction monitoring-based targeted measurements on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. These data suggest that different subsets of phosphorylation events depend upon different subsets of the ABA receptor family to occur. Altogether, these data expand our understanding of the model by which the family of ABA receptors directs

  10. Lysogenic Streptococcus suis isolate SS2-4 containing prophage SMP showed increased mortality in zebra fish compared to the wild-type isolate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis (S. suis infection is considered to be a major problem in the swine industry worldwide. Based on the capsular type, 33 serotypes of S. suis have been described, with serotype 2 (SS2 being the most frequently isolated from diseased piglets. Little is known, however, about the pathogenesis and virulence factors of S. suis. Research on bacteriophages highlights a new area in S. suis research. A S. suis serotype 2 bacteriophage, designated SMP, has been previously isolated in our laboratory. Here, we selected a lysogenic isolate in which the SMP phage was integrated into the chromosome of strain SS2-4. Compared to the wild-type isolate, the lysogenic strain showed increased mortality in zebra fish. Moreover the sensitivity of the lysogenic strain to lysozyme was seven times higher than that of the wild-type.

  11. Type 1 protein phosphatase acts in opposition to IpL1 protein kinase in regulating yeast chromosome segregation.

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, L; Wang, W.; Chan, C S

    1994-01-01

    The IPL1 gene is required for high-fidelity chromosome segregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conditional ipl1ts mutants missegregate chromosomes severely at 37 degrees C. Here, we report that IPL1 encodes an essential putative protein kinase whose function is required during the later part of each cell cycle. At 26 degrees C, the permissive growth temperature, ipl1 mutant cells are defective in the recovery from a transient G2/M-phase arrest caused by the antimicrotubule ...

  12. Parallel screening of wild-type and drug-resistant targets for anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors.

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    Kai-Cheng Hsu

    Full Text Available Infection with influenza virus is a major public health problem, causing serious illness and death each year. Emergence of drug-resistant influenza virus strains limits the effectiveness of drug treatment. Importantly, a dual H275Y/I223R mutation detected in the pandemic influenza A 2009 virus strain results in multidrug resistance to current neuraminidase (NA drugs. Therefore, discovery of new agents for treating multiple drug-resistant (MDR influenza virus infections is important. Here, we propose a parallel screening strategy that simultaneously screens wild-type (WT and MDR NAs, and identifies inhibitors matching the subsite characteristics of both NA-binding sites. These may maintain their potency when drug-resistant mutations arise. Initially, we analyzed the subsite of the dual H275Y/I223R NA mutant. Analysis of the site-moiety maps of NA protein structures show that the mutant subsite has a relatively small volume and is highly polar compared with the WT subsite. Moreover, the mutant subsite has a high preference for forming hydrogen-bonding interactions with polar moieties. These changes may drive multidrug resistance. Using this strategy, we identified a new inhibitor, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RB19, an anthraquinone dye, which inhibited WT NA and MDR NA with IC(50 values of 3.4 and 4.5 µM, respectively. RB19 comprises a rigid core scaffold and a flexible chain with a large polar moiety. The former interacts with highly conserved residues, decreasing the probability of resistance. The latter forms van der Waals contacts with the WT subsite and yields hydrogen bonds with the mutant subsite by switching the orientation of its flexible side chain. Both scaffolds of RB19 are good starting points for lead optimization. The results reveal a parallel screening strategy for identifying resistance mechanisms and discovering anti-resistance neuraminidase inhibitors. We believe that this strategy may be applied to other diseases with high

  13. Analysis of the secondary compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and wild yeast strains during the production of "cachaça" Análise dos componentes secundários produzidos por Saccharomyces cerevisiae e leveduras selvagens durante a produção de cachaça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Fachine Dato

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the composition of "cachaças" produced in 10 fermentation cycles by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc and wild yeast strains [Pichia silvicola (Ps, Pichia anomala 1 (Pa1, Pichia anomala 2 (Pa2 and Dekkera bruxelensis (Db], isolated from distilleries in Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil. The secondary components of the heart fraction were determined by gas chromatography. The levels of secondary components were influenced by the wine pH, which varied among yeast strains. S. cerevisiae showed slightly more secondary components, whereas wild strains produced more higher alcohols. Wild yeast strains were shown to be adequate for the production of a high quality "cachaça".O presente trabalho visou estabelecer uma comparação entre composição de cachaças produzidas por Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc e estirpes de leveduras selvagens [Pichia silvicola (Ps, Pichia anomala 1 (Pa1, Pichia anomala 2 (Pa2 e Dekkera bruxelensis (Db], isoladas em destilarias da região de Jaboticabal-SP. Os componentes secundários da fração denominada coração foram determinados por cromatografia gasosa. Os níveis dos componentes secundários foram influenciados pelo pH dos respectivos vinhos, os quais dependem da estirpe de levedura empregada no processo fermentativo. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae apresentou valores ligeiramente superiores de componentes secundários, enquanto as estirpes selvagens produziram maiores teores de álcoois superiores. As estirpes selvagens de leveduras mostraram-se adequadas para obtenção de uma cachaça de boa qualidade.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of wild poliovirus type 1 circulation in West and Central Africa, from 1997 to 1999, using genotyping with a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Burns, Cara C; Gumede, Nicksy; Guillot, Sophie; Ménard, Didier; Dosseh, Annick; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Pallansch, Mark A; Kew, Olen M; Delpeyroux, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Virological surveillance is an important element in the Polio Eradication Initiative to provide information rapidly about circulating wild polioviruses. Molecular tools have been developed to identify the serotype of the poliovirus strains and whether they are of vaccine or wild origin (intratypic differentiation) and to perform the molecular epidemiology of wild strains. The main objective of this study was to show that restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a tool that can be used for molecular epidemiology of wild polioviruses. This is retrospective study of poliovirus type 1 strains received at the Institut Pasteur of Bangui (IPB), a WHO Regional Reference Laboratory for Africa, since 1994. We describe our experience with isolates from Western and Central Africa and show a positive correlation between the genotypes as determined by sequencing the gene for the VP1 capsid protein and the RFLP patterns. Although genomic sequencing is the gold standard method for detailed molecular epidemiology analysis of poliovirus isolates, these results show that RFLP is a potentially valuable tool for molecular epidemiological analysis of poliovirus type 1 strains: it could be used by many laboratories as a rapid method for ITD and genotype screening where sequencing capacity is not readily available.

  15. Black bear parathyroid hormone has greater anabolic effects on trabecular bone in dystrophin-deficient mice than in wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Sanders, Jennifer L; Condon, Keith W; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donahue, Seth W

    2012-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease that has deleterious consequences in muscle and bone, leading to decreased mobility, progressive osteoporosis, and premature death. Patients with DMD experience a higher-than-average fracture rate, particularly in the proximal and distal femur and proximal tibia. The dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse is a model of DMD that demonstrates muscle degeneration and fibrosis and osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone, an effective anabolic agent for post-menopausal and glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, has not been explored for DMD. Black bear parathyroid hormone (bbPTH) has been implicated in the maintenance of bone properties during extended periods of disuse (hibernation). We cloned bbPTH and found 9 amino acid residue differences from human PTH. Apoptosis was mitigated and cAMP was activated by bbPTH in osteoblast cultures. We administered 28nmol/kg of bbPTH 1-84 to 4-week old male mdx and wild type mice via daily (5×/week) subcutaneous injection for 6 weeks. Vehicle-treated mdx mice had 44% lower trabecular bone volume fraction than wild type mice. No changes were found in femoral cortical bone geometry or mechanical properties with bbPTH treatment in wild type mice, and only medio-lateral moment of inertia changed with bbPTH treatment in mdx femurs. However, μCT analyses of the trabecular regions of the distal femur and proximal tibia showed marked increases in bone volume fraction with bbPTH treatment, with a greater anabolic response (7-fold increase) in mdx mice than wild type mice (2-fold increase). Trabecular number increased in mdx long bone, but not wild type bone. Additionally, greater osteoblast area and decreased osteoclast area were observed with bbPTH treatment in mdx mice. The heightened response to PTH in mdx bone compared to wild type suggests a link between dystrophin deficiency, altered calcium signaling, and bone. These findings support further investigation of PTH as an anabolic

  16. Time-resolved measurements of intracellular ATP in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a new type of nanobiosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozalp, Veli C; Pedersen, Tina R; Nielsen, Lise J; Olsen, Lars F

    2010-11-26

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate is a universal molecule in all living cells, where it functions in bioenergetics and cell signaling. To understand how the concentration of ATP is regulated by cell metabolism and in turn how it regulates the activities of enzymes in the cell it would be beneficial if we could measure ATP concentration in the intact cell in real time. Using a novel aptamer-based ATP nanosensor, which can readily monitor intracellular ATP in eukaryotic cells with a time resolution of seconds, we have performed the first on-line measurements of the intracellular concentration of ATP in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These ATP measurements show that the ATP concentration in the yeast cell is not stationary. In addition to an oscillating ATP concentration, we also observe that the concentration is high in the starved cells and starts to decrease when glycolysis is induced. The decrease in ATP concentration is shown to be caused by the activity of membrane-bound ATPases such as the mitochondrial F(0)F(1) ATPase-hydrolyzing ATP and the plasma membrane ATPase (PMA1). The activity of these two ATPases are under strict control by the glucose concentration in the cell. Finally, the measurements of intracellular ATP suggest that 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) may have more complex function than just a catabolic block. Surprisingly, addition of 2-DG induces only a moderate decline in ATP. Furthermore, our results suggest that 2-DG may inhibit the activation of PMA1 after addition of glucose.

  17. Recombinant wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    González García, Ramón; González Ramos, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for obtaining strains that secrete a higher concentration of mannoproteins to the medium, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain deposited at the Spanish Type Culture Collection (CECT) as CECT 13012, and to the uses of said strains.

  18. Identification of the gene product involved in the ability of a VSV mutant isolated from a persistent infection to interfere with transcription of wild-type VSV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify the pi-VSV gene product involved in transcriptional interference of wild-type virus. This was accomplished by mixing individual pi-VSV and wt-VSV proteins in a reconstituted in vitro transcription assay and measuring the level of (5-{sup 3}H) UTP incorporated into TCA precipitable counts. The results of the in vitro mixing experiments demonstrated that the pi-VSV L protein (the RNA dependent-RNA polymerase) was the gene product responsible for the interference and dominance over wild-type virus. The RNA transcripts made in vitro in single and mixed reactions were also compared. It was found that although they differed in quantity, the RNA populations made by both viruses were similar, suggesting that the pi-VSV L protein interfered with wt-VSV transcription at the level of initiation.

  19. A Comparative Study of Selected Physical and Biochemical Traits of Wild-Type and Transgenic Sorghum to Reveal Differences Relevant to Grain Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimba, Roya J.; Kruger, Johanita; Mehlo, Luke; Barnabas, Alban; Kossmann, Jens; Ndimba, Bongani K.

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic sorghum featuring RNAi suppression of certain kafirins was developed recently, to address the problem of poor protein digestibility in the grain. However, it was not firmly established if other important quality parameters were adversely affected by this genetic intervention. In the present study several quality parameters were investigated by surveying several important physical and biochemical grain traits. Important differences in grain weight, density and endosperm texture were found that serve to differentiate the transgenic grains from their wild-type counterpart. In addition, ultrastructural analysis of the protein bodies revealed a changed morphology that is indicative of the effect of suppressed kafirins. Importantly, lysine was found to be significantly increased in one of the transgenic lines in comparison to wild-type; while no significant changes in anti-nutritional factors could be detected. The results have been insightful for demonstrating some of the corollary changes in transgenic sorghum grain, that emerge from imposed kafirin suppression. PMID:28638394

  20. Dietary Calcium and Dairy Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Mortality in aP2-Agouti and Wild-type Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Bruckbauer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative and inflammatory stress have been implicated as major contributors to the aging process. Dietary Ca reduced both factors in short-term interventions, while milk exerted a greater effect than supplemental Ca. In this work, we examined the effects of life-long supplemental and dairy calcium on lifespan and life-span related biomarkers in aP2-agouti transgenic (model of diet-induced obesity and wild-type mice fed obesigenic diets until their death. These data demonstrate that dairy Ca exerts sustained effects resulting in attenuated adiposity, protection against age-related muscle loss and reduction of oxidative and inflammatory stress in both mouse strains. Although these effects did not alter maximum lifespan, they did suppress early mortality in wild-type mice, but not in aP2-agouti transgenic mice.

  1. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...... instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation...... carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence...

  2. First successful reduction of clinical allergenicity of food by genetic modification: Mal d 1-silenced apples cause fewer allergy symptoms than the wild-type cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubois, A. E. J.; Pagliarani, G.; Brouwer, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic modification of allergenic foods such as apple has the potential to reduce their clinical allergenicity, but this has never been studied by oral challenges in allergic individuals. METHODS: We performed oral food challenges in 21 apple-allergic individuals with Elstar apples...... which had undergone gene silencing of the major allergen of apple, Mal d 1, by RNA interference. Downregulation of Mal d 1 gene expression in the apples was verified by qRT-PCR. Clinical responses to the genetically modified apples were compared to those seen with the wild-type Elstar using a visual...... analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: Gene silencing produced two genetically modified apple lines expressing Mal d 1.02 and other Mal d 1 gene mRNA levels which were extensively downregulated, that is only 0.1-16.4% (e-DR1) and 0.2-9.9% (e-DR2) of those of the wild-type Elstar, respectively. Challenges...

  3. Wild-type H- and N-Ras promote mutant K-Ras driven tumorigenesis by modulating the DNA damage response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabocka, Elda; Pylayeva-Gupta, Yuliya; Jones, Mathew JK; Lubkov, Veronica; Yemanaberhan, Eyoel; Taylor, Laura; Jeng, Hao Hsuan; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mutations in KRAS are prevalent in human cancers and universally predictive of resistance to anti-cancer therapeutics. Although it is widely accepted that acquisition of an activating mutation endows RAS genes with functional autonomy, recent studies suggest that the wild-type forms of Ras may contribute to mutant Ras-driven tumorigenesis. Here we show that downregulation of wild-type H-Ras or N-Ras in mutant K-Ras cancer cells leads to hyperactivation of the Erk/p90RSK and PI3K/Akt pathways, and consequently, the phosphorylation of Chk1 at an inhibitory site, Ser 280. The resulting inhibition of ATR/Chk1 signaling abrogates the activation of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint and confers specific sensitization of mutant K-Ras cancer cells to DNA damage chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24525237

  4. Transcervical Inoculation with Chlamydia trachomatis Induces Infertility in HLA-DR4 Transgenic and Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia F; Zhong, Guangming; de la Maza, Luis M

    2018-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of infection-induced infertility in women. Attempts to control this epidemic with screening programs and antibiotic therapy have failed. Currently, a vaccine to prevent C. trachomatis infections is not available. In order to develop an animal model for evaluating vaccine antigens that can be applied to humans, we used C. trachomatis serovar D (strain UW-3/Cx) to induce infertility in mice whose major histocompatibility complex class II antigen was replaced with the human leukocyte antigen DR4 (HLA-DR4). Transcervical inoculation of medroxyprogesterone-treated HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with 5 × 105C. trachomatis D inclusion forming units (IFU) induced a significant reduction in fertility, with a mean number of embryos/mouse of 4.4 ± 1.3 compared to 7.8 ± 0.5 for the uninfected control mice (P < 0.05). A similar fertility reduction was elicited in the wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice (4.3 ± 1.4 embryos/mouse) compared to the levels of the WT controls (9.1 ± 0.4 embryos/mouse) (P < 0.05). Following infection, WT mice mounted more robust humoral and cellular immune responses than HLA-DR4 mice. As determined by vaginal shedding, HLA-DR4 mice were more susceptible to a transcervical C. trachomatis D infection than WT mice. To assess if HLA-DR4 transgenic and WT mice could be protected by vaccination, 104 IFU of C. trachomatis D was delivered intranasally, and mice were challenged transcervically 6 weeks later with 5 × 105 IFU of C. trachomatis D. As determined by severity and length of vaginal shedding, WT C57BL/6 and HLA-DR4 mice were significantly protected by vaccination. The advantages and limitations of the HLA-DR4 transgenic mouse model for evaluating human C. trachomatis vaccine antigens are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Expression of wild-type Rp1 protein in Rp1 knock-in mice rescues the retinal degeneration phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Liu

    Full Text Available Mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1 gene are a common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP, and have also been found to cause autosomal recessive RP (arRP in a few families. The 33 dominant mutations and 6 recessive RP1 mutations identified to date are all nonsense or frameshift mutations, and almost exclusively (38 out of 39 are located in the 4(th and final exon of RP1. To better understand the underlying disease mechanisms of and help develop therapeutic strategies for RP1 disease, we performed a series of human genetic and animal studies using gene targeted and transgenic mice. Here we report that a frameshift mutation in the 3(rd exon of RP1 (c.686delC; p.P229QfsX35 found in a patient with recessive RP1 disease causes RP in the homozygous state, whereas the heterozygous carriers are unaffected, confirming that haploinsufficiency is not the causative mechanism for RP1 disease. We then generated Rp1 knock-in mice with a nonsense Q662X mutation in exon 4, as well as Rp1 transgenic mice carrying a wild-type BAC Rp1 transgene. The Rp1-Q662X allele produces a truncated Rp1 protein, and homozygous Rp1-Q662X mice experience a progressive photoreceptor degeneration characterized disorganization of photoreceptor outer segments. This phenotype could be prevented by expression of a normal amount of Rp1 protein from the BAC transgene without removal of the mutant Rp1-Q662X protein. Over-expression of Rp1 protein in additional BAC Rp1 transgenic lines resulted in retinal degeneration. These findings suggest that the truncated Rp1-Q662X protein does not exert a toxic gain-of-function effect. These results also imply that in principle gene augmentation therapy could be beneficial for both recessive and dominant RP1 patients, but the levels of RP1 protein delivered for therapy will have to be carefully controlled.

  6. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of pteridine reductase in wild-type and antimony-resistant Leishmania lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Moreira, Douglas; Ferreira, Rafael Fernandes; Murta, Silvane M F

    2016-01-01

    Pteridine reductase (PTR1) is an NADPH-dependent reductase that participates in the salvage of pteridines, which are essential to maintain growth of Leishmania. In this study, we performed the molecular characterization of ptr1 gene in wild-type (WTS) and SbIII-resistant (SbR) lines from Leishmania guyanensis (Lg), Leishmania amazonensis (La), Leishmania braziliensis (Lb) and Leishmania infantum (Li), evaluating the chromosomal location, mRNA levels of the ptr1 gene and PTR1 protein expression. PFGE results showed that the ptr1 gene is located in a 797 kb chromosomal band in all Leishmania lines analyzed. Interestingly, an additional chromosomal band of 1070 kb was observed only in LbSbR line. Northern blot results showed that the levels of ptr1 mRNA are increased in the LgSbR, LaSbR and LbSbR lines. Western blot assays using the polyclonal anti-LmPTR1 antibody demonstrated that PTR1 protein is more expressed in the LgSbR, LaSbR and LbSbR lines compared to their respective WTS counterparts. Nevertheless, no difference in the level of mRNA and protein was observed between the LiWTS and LiSbR lines. Functional analysis of PTR1 enzyme was performed to determine whether the overexpression of ptr1 gene in the WTS L. braziliensis and L. infantum lines would change the SbIII-resistance phenotype of transfected parasites. Western blot results showed that the expression level of PTR1 protein was increased in the transfected parasites compared to the non-transfected ones. IC50 analysis revealed that the overexpression of ptr1 gene in the WTS L. braziliensis line increased 2-fold the SbIII-resistance phenotype compared to the non-transfected counterpart. Furthermore, the overexpression of ptr1 gene in the WTS L. infantum line did not change the SbIII-resistance phenotype. These results suggest that the PTR1 enzyme may be implicated in the SbIII-resistance phenotype in L. braziliensis line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential Host Immune Responses after Infection with Wild-Type or Lab-Attenuated Rabies Viruses in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Zhenguang; Leyson, Christina M.; Cooper, Tanya L.; Platt, Simon R.; Harvey, Stephen B.; Hooper, Douglas C.; Faber, Milosz; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) induces encephalomyelitis in humans and animals. One of the major problems with rabies is that the infected individuals most often do not develop virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA). In this study we have investigated the host immune response to RABV infection in dogs, using a live-attenuated (TriGAS) or a wild-type (wt) (DRV-NG11) RABV isolated from a rabid dog. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental infection of dogs with TriGAS induced high levels of VNA in the serum, whereas wt RABV infection did not. Dogs infected with TriGAS developed antibodies against the virus including its glycoprotein, whereas dogs infected with DRV-NG11 only developed rabies antibodies that are presumably specific for the nucleoprotein, (N) and not the glycoprotein (G). We show that infection with TriGAS induces early activation of B cells in the draining lymph nodes and persistent activation of DCs and B cells in the blood. On the other hand, infection with DRV-NG11 fails to induce the activation of DCs and B cells and further reduces CD4 T cell production. Further, we show that intrathecal (IT) immunization of TriGAS not only induced high levels of VNA in the serum but also in the CSF while intramuscular (IM) immunization of TriGAS induced VNA only in the serum. In addition, high levels of total protein and WBC were detected in the CSF of IT immunized dogs, indicating the transient enhancement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, which is relevant to the passage of immune effectors from periphery into the CNS. Conclusions/Significance IM infection of dogs with TriGAS induced the production of serum VNA whereas, IT immunization of TriGAS in dogs induces high levels of VNA in the periphery as well as in the CSF and transiently enhances BBB permeability. In contrast, infection with wt DRV-NG11 resulted in the production of RABV-reactive antibodies but VNA and antibodies specific for G were absent. As a consequence, all of the dogs infected with wt DRV

  8. Prognosis and Clinicopathologic Features of Patients With Advanced Stage Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) Mutant and IDH Wild-Type Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Lipika; Govindan, Aparna; Sheth, Rahul A; Nardi, Valentina; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Faris, Jason E; Clark, Jeffrey W; Ryan, David P; Kwak, Eunice L; Allen, Jill N; Murphy, Janet E; Saha, Supriya K; Hong, Theodore S; Wo, Jennifer Y; Ferrone, Cristina R; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Chong, Dawn Q; Deshpande, Vikram; Borger, Darrell R; Iafrate, A John; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Zheng, Hui; Zhu, Andrew X

    2015-09-01

    Conflicting data exist regarding the prognostic impact of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), and limited data exist in patients with advanced-stage disease. Similarly, the clinical phenotype of patients with advanced IDH mutant (IDHm) ICC has not been characterized. In this study, we report the correlation of IDH mutation status with prognosis and clinicopathologic features in patients with advanced ICC. Patients with histologically confirmed advanced ICC who underwent tumor mutational profiling as a routine part of their care between 2009 and 2014 were evaluated. Clinical and pathological data were collected by retrospective chart review for patients with IDHm versus IDH wild-type (IDHwt) ICC. Pretreatment tumor volume was calculated on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of the 104 patients with ICC who were evaluated, 30 (28.8%) had an IDH mutation (25.0% IDH1, 3.8% IDH2). The median overall survival did not differ significantly between IDHm and IDHwt patients (15.0 vs. 20.1 months, respectively; p = .17). The pretreatment serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level in IDHm and IDHwt patients was 34.5 and 118.0 U/mL, respectively (p = .04). Age at diagnosis, sex, histologic grade, and pattern of metastasis did not differ significantly by IDH mutation status. The IDH mutation was not associated with prognosis in patients with advanced ICC. The clinical phenotypes of advanced IDHm and IDHwt ICC were similar, but patients with IDHm ICC had a lower median serum CA19-9 level at presentation. Previous studies assessing the prognostic impact of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutation in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) mainly focused on patients with early-stage disease who have undergone resection. These studies offer conflicting results. The target population for clinical trials of IDH inhibitors is patients with unresectable or metastatic disease, and the current study is the first to

  9. Resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs inhibit activation of both wild-type and T877A mutant androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Johan; Tringali, Corrado; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2017-11-01

    Prostate cancer growth and progression are mainly dependent on androgens and many current prostate cancer treatment options target the synthesis or function of androgens. We have previously reported that resveratrol and synthetic analogs of resveratrol with a higher bioavailability inhibit the synthesis of androgens in human adrenocortical H295R cells. Now we have studied the antiandrogenic properties of resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs in two different prostate cell lines; LNCaP and RWPE. LNCaP carry a T877A mutation in the androgen receptor while RWPE has a wild-type androgen receptor. We found that resveratrol, piceatannol and all studied analogs were able to inhibit a dihydrotestosterone-induced activation of the androgen receptor, showing that they act as antiandrogens. In LNCaP cells, all studied compounds were able to statistically significantly decrease the androgenic signaling in concentrations ≥1μM and the synthetic analogs trimethylresveratrol (RSVTM) and tetramethylpiceatannol (PICTM) were the most potent compounds. RWPE cells were not as responsive to the studied compounds as the LNCaP cells. A statistically significant decrease in the androgenic signaling was observed at concentrations ≤5μM for most compounds and RSVTM was found to be the most potent compound. Further, we studied the effects of resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs on the levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in LNCaP cells and found that all studied compounds decreased the level of PSA and that the synthetic analogs diacetylresveratrol (RSVDA), triacetylresveratrol (RSVTA) and RSVTM were the most potent compounds, decreasing the PSA level by approx. 50% at concentrations ≥10μM. In a cell-free receptor binding assay we were unable to show binding of resveratrol or analogs to the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor, indicating that the observed effects are mediated via other mechanisms than direct ligand competition. We conclude that the resveratrol

  10. Experimental Support for the Ecoimmunity Theory: Distinct Phenotypes of Nonlymphocytic Cells in SCID and Wild-Type Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochayon, David E; Baranovski, Boris M; Malkin, Peter; Schuster, Ronen; Kalay, Noa; Ben-Hamo, Rotem; Sloma, Ido; Levinson, Justin; Brazg, Jared; Efroni, Sol; Lewis, Eli C; Nevo, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Immune tolerance toward "self" is critical in multiple immune disorders. While there are several mechanisms to describe the involvement of immune cells in the process, the role of peripheral tissue cells in that context is not yet clear. The theory of ecoimmunity postulates that interactions between immune and tissue cells represent a predator-prey relationship. A lifelong interaction, shaped mainly during early ontogeny, leads to selection of nonimmune cell phenotypes. Normally, therefore, nonimmune cells that evolve alongside an intact immune system would be phenotypically capable of evading immune responses, and cells whose phenotype falls short of satisfying this steady state would expire under hostile immune responses. This view was supported until recently by experimental evidence showing an inferior endurance of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-derived pancreatic islets when engrafted into syngeneic immune-intact wild-type (WT) mice, relative to islets from WT. Here we extend the experimental exploration of ecoimmunity by searching for the presence of the phenotypic changes suggested by the theory. Immune-related phenotypes of islets, spleen, and bone marrow immune cells were determined, as well as SCID and WT nonlymphocytic cells. Islet submass grafting was performed to depict syngeneic graft functionality. Islet cultures were examined under both resting and inflamed conditions for expression of CD40 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I/II and release of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, and insulin. Results depict multiple pathways that appear to be related to the sculpting of nonimmune cells by immune cells; 59 SCID islet genes displayed relative expression changes compared with WT islets. SCID cells expressed lower tolerability to inflammation and higher levels of immune-related molecules, including MHC class I. Accordingly, islets exhibited a marked increase in insulin release upon

  11. Adsorption of β-galactosidase of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius on wild type and mutants spores of Bacillus subtilis

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    Sirec Teja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus subtilis spore has long been used as a surface display system with potential applications in a variety of fields ranging from mucosal vaccine delivery, bioremediation and biocatalyst development. More recently, a non-recombinant approach of spore display has been proposed and heterologous proteins adsorbed on the spore surface. We used the well-characterized β-galactosidase from the thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius as a model to study enzyme adsorption, to analyze whether and how spore-adsorption affects the properties of the enzyme and to improve the efficiency of the process. Results We report that purified β-galactosidase molecules were adsorbed to purified spores of a wild type strain of B. subtilis retaining ca. 50% of their enzymatic activity. Optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were not altered by the presence of the spore, that protected the adsorbed β-galactosidase from exposure to acidic pH conditions. A collection of mutant strains of B. subtilis lacking a single or several spore coat proteins was compared to the isogenic parental strain for the adsorption efficiency. Mutants with an altered outermost spore layer (crust were able to adsorb 60-80% of the enzyme, while mutants with a severely altered or totally lacking outer coat adsorbed 100% of the β-galactosidase molecules present in the adsorption reaction. Conclusion Our results indicate that the spore surface structures, the crust and the outer coat layer, have an negative effect on the adhesion of the β-galactosidase. Electrostatic forces, previously suggested as main determinants of spore adsorption, do not seem to play an essential role in the spore-β-galactosidase interaction. The analysis of mutants with altered spore surface has shown that the process of spore adsorption can be improved and has suggested that such improvement has to be based on a better understanding of the spore surface structure

  12. Immunogenicity and Cross Protection in Mice Afforded by Pandemic H1N1 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Containing Wild-Type Nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekstin, Andrey; Isakova-Sivak, Irina; Petukhova, Galina; Korenkov, Daniil; Losev, Igor; Smolonogina, Tatiana; Tretiak, Tatiana; Donina, Svetlana; Shcherbik, Svetlana; Bousse, Tatiana; Rudenko, Larisa

    2017-01-01

    Since conserved viral proteins of influenza virus, such as nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix 1 protein, are the main targets for virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), we hypothesized that introduction of the NP gene of wild-type virus into the genome of vaccine reassortants could lead to better immunogenicity and afford better protection. This paper describes in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies of two new reassortants of pandemic H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) candidates. One had the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from A/South Africa/3626/2013 H1N1 wild-type virus on the A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus backbone (6 : 2 formulation) while the second had the HA, NA, and NP genes of the wild-type virus on the same backbone (5 : 3 formulation). Although both LAIVs induced similar antibody immune responses, the 5 : 3 LAIV provoked greater production of virus-specific CTLs than the 6 : 2 variant. Furthermore, the 5 : 3 LAIV-induced CTLs had higher in vivo cytotoxic activity, compared to 6 : 2 LAIV. Finally, the 5 : 3 LAIV candidate afforded greater protection against infection and severe illness than the 6 : 2 LAIV. Inclusion in LAIV of the NP gene from wild-type influenza virus is a new approach to inducing cross-reactive cell-mediated immune responses and cross protection against pandemic influenza.

  13. Immunogenicity and Cross Protection in Mice Afforded by Pandemic H1N1 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Containing Wild-Type Nucleoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Rekstin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since conserved viral proteins of influenza virus, such as nucleoprotein (NP and matrix 1 protein, are the main targets for virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs, we hypothesized that introduction of the NP gene of wild-type virus into the genome of vaccine reassortants could lead to better immunogenicity and afford better protection. This paper describes in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies of two new reassortants of pandemic H1N1 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV candidates. One had the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes from A/South Africa/3626/2013 H1N1 wild-type virus on the A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus backbone (6 : 2 formulation while the second had the HA, NA, and NP genes of the wild-type virus on the same backbone (5 : 3 formulation. Although both LAIVs induced similar antibody immune responses, the 5 : 3 LAIV provoked greater production of virus-specific CTLs than the 6 : 2 variant. Furthermore, the 5 : 3 LAIV-induced CTLs had higher in vivo cytotoxic activity, compared to 6 : 2 LAIV. Finally, the 5 : 3 LAIV candidate afforded greater protection against infection and severe illness than the 6 : 2 LAIV. Inclusion in LAIV of the NP gene from wild-type influenza virus is a new approach to inducing cross-reactive cell-mediated immune responses and cross protection against pandemic influenza.

  14. Tenofovir alafenamide demonstrates broad cross-genotype activity against wild-type HBV clinical isolates and maintains susceptibility to drug-resistant HBV isolates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Miller, Michael D; Kitrinos, Kathryn M

    2017-03-01

    Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of tenofovir (TFV). This study evaluated the antiviral activity of TAF against wild-type genotype A-H HBV clinical isolates as well as adefovir-resistant, lamivudine-resistant, and entecavir-resistant HBV isolates. Full length HBV genomes or the polymerase/reverse transcriptase (pol/RT) region from treatment-naïve patients infected with HBV genotypes A-H were amplified and cloned into an expression vector under the control of a CMV promoter. In addition, 11 drug resistant HBV constructs were created by site-directed mutagenesis of a full length genotype D construct. Activity of TAF was measured by transfection of each construct into HepG2 cells and assessment of HBV DNA levels following treatment across a range of TAF concentrations. TAF activity in vitro was similar against wild-type genotype A-H HBV clinical isolates. All lamivudine- and entecavir-resistant isolates and 4/5 adefovir-resistant isolates were found to be sensitive to inhibition by TAF in vitro as compared to the wild-type isolate. The adefovir-resistant isolate rtA181V + rtN236T exhibited low-level reduced susceptibility to TAF. TAF is similarly active in vitro against wild-type genotype A-H HBV clinical isolates. The TAF sensitivity results for all drug-resistant isolates are consistent with what has been observed with the parent drug TFV. The in vitro cell-based HBV phenotyping assay results support the use of TAF in treatment of HBV infected subjects with diverse HBV genotypes, in both treatment-naive and treatment-experienced HBV infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen production by hup(-) mutant and wild-type strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus from dark fermentation effluent of sugar beet thick juice in batch and continuous photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Basar; Gürgan, Muazzez; Özgür, Ebru; Gündüz, Ufuk; Yücel, Meral; Eroglu, Inci

    2015-10-01

    Photofermentative production of hydrogen is a promising and sustainable process; however, it should be coupled to dark fermentation to become cost effective. In order to integrate dark fermentation and photofermentation, the suitability of dark fermenter effluents for the photofermentative hydrogen production must be demonstrated. In this study, thermophilic dark fermenter effluent (DFE) of sugar beet thick juice was used as a substrate in photofermentation process to compare wild-type and uptake hydrogenase-deficient (hup (-)) mutant strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus by means of hydrogen production and biomass growth. The tests were conducted in small-scale (50 mL) batch and large-scale (4 L) continuous photobioreactors in indoor conditions under continuous illumination. In small scale batch conditions, maximum cell concentrations were 0.92 gdcw/L c and 1.50 gdcw/L c, hydrogen yields were 34 % and 31 %, hydrogen productivities were 0.49 mmol/(L c·h) and 0.26 mmol/(Lc·h), for hup (-) and wild-type cells, respectively. In large-scale continuous conditions, maximum cell concentrations were 1.44 gdcw/L c and 1.87 gdcw/L c, hydrogen yields were 48 and 46 %, and hydrogen productivities were 1.01 mmol/(L c·h) and 1.05 mmol/(L c·h), for hup (-) and wild-type cells, respectively. Our results showed that Rhodobacter capsulatus hup (-) cells reached to a lower maximum cell concentration but their hydrogen yield and productivity were in the same range or superior compared to the wild-type cells in both batch and continuous operating modes. The maximum biomass concentration, yield and productivity of hydrogen were higher in continuous mode compared to the batch mode with both bacterial strains.

  16. Differential inhibition of ex-vivo tumor kinase activity by vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E and BRAF wild-type metastatic malignant melanoma.

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    Andliena Tahiri

    Full Text Available Treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma patients harboring BRAF(V600E has improved drastically after the discovery of the BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib. However, drug resistance is a recurring problem, and prognoses are still very bad for patients harboring BRAF wild-type. Better markers for targeted therapy are therefore urgently needed.In this study, we assessed the individual kinase activity profiles in 26 tumor samples obtained from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma using peptide arrays with 144 kinase substrates. In addition, we studied the overall ex-vivo inhibitory effects of vemurafenib and sunitinib on kinase activity status.Overall kinase activity was significantly higher in lysates from melanoma tumors compared to normal skin tissue. Furthermore, ex-vivo incubation with both vemurafenib and sunitinib caused significant decrease in phosphorylation of kinase substrates, i.e kinase activity. While basal phosphorylation profiles were similar in BRAF wild-type and BRAF(V600E tumors, analysis with ex-vivo vemurafenib treatment identified a subset of 40 kinase substrates showing stronger inhibition in BRAF(V600E tumor lysates, distinguishing the BRAF wild-type and BRAF(V600E tumors. Interestingly, a few BRAF wild-type tumors showed inhibition profiles similar to BRAF(V600E tumors. The kinase inhibitory effect of vemurafenib was subsequently analyzed in cell lines harboring different BRAF mutational status with various vemurafenib sensitivity in-vitro.Our findings suggest that multiplex kinase substrate array analysis give valuable information about overall tumor kinase activity. Furthermore, intra-assay exposure to kinase inhibiting drugs may provide a useful tool to study mechanisms of resistance, as well as to identify predictive markers.

  17. Comparative proteomics reveals proteins impacted by nitrogen deprivation in wild-type and high lipid-accumulating mutant strains of Tisochrysis lutea

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, Matthieu; Carrier, Gregory; Rogniaux, Helene; Nicolau, Elodie; Bougaran, Gael; Saint-Jean, Bruno; Cadoret, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Understanding microalgal lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation is of major interest for biomass feedstock, food and biofuel production. Using a domesticated oleaginous algae Tisochrysis lutea, we performed the first comparative proteomic analysis on the wild type strain and a selected lipid over-accumulating mutant. 2-DE analysis was made on these strains cultured in two metabolic conditions, with and without nitrogen deprivation, which revealed significant differences in proteomes acc...

  18. Mutant p53 cooperates with knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 to disrupt tubulogenesis in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

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    Yanhong Zhang

    Full Text Available Mutation of the p53 gene is the most common genetic alteration in human malignances and associated clinically with tumor progression and metastasis. To determine the effect of mutant p53 on epithelial differentiation, we developed three-dimensional culture (3-D of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. We found that parental MDCK cells undergo a series of morphological changes and form polarized and growth-arrested cysts with hollow lumen, which resembles branching tubules in vitro. We also found that upon knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 (p53-KD, MDCK cells still form normal cysts in 3-D culture, indicating that p53-KD alone is not sufficient to disrupt cysts formation. However, we found that ectopic expression of mutant R163H (human equivalent R175H or R261H (human equivalent R273H in MDCK cells leads to disruption of cyst polarity and formation of invasive aggregates, which is further compounded by knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53. Consistently, we found that expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT transcription factors (Snail-1, Slug and Twist is altered by mutant p53, which is also compounded by knockdown of wild-type p53. Moreover, the expression level of c-Met, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor and a key regulator of kidney cell tubulogenesis, is enhanced by combined knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 and ectopic expression of mutant R163H or R261H but not by each individually. Together, our data suggest that upon inactivating mutation of the p53 gene, mutant p53 acquires its gain of function by altering morphogenesis and promoting cell migration and invasion in part by upregulating EMT and c-Met.

  19. Effects of ranolazine on wild-type and mutant hNav1.7 channels and on DRG neuron excitability

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    Estacion Mark

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A direct role of sodium channels in pain has recently been confirmed by establishing a monogenic link between SCN9A, the gene which encodes sodium channel Nav1.7, and pain disorders in humans, with gain-of-function mutations causing severe pain syndromes, and loss-of-function mutations causing congenital indifference to pain. Expression of sodium channel Nav1.8 in DRG neurons has also been shown to be essential for the manifestation of mutant Nav1.7-induced neuronal hyperexcitability. These findings have confirmed key roles of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 in pain and identify these channels as novel targets for pain therapeutic development. Ranolazine preferentially blocks cardiac late sodium currents at concentrations that do not significantly reduce peak sodium current. Ranolazine also blocks wild-type Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 channels in a use-dependent manner. However, ranolazine's effects on gain-of-function mutations of Nav1.7 and on DRG neuron excitability have not been investigated. We used voltage- and current-clamp recordings to evaluate the hypothesis that ranolazine may be effective in regulating Nav1.7-induced DRG neuron hyperexcitability. Results We show that ranolazine produces comparable block of peak and ramp currents of wild-type Nav1.7 and mutant Nav1.7 channels linked to Inherited Erythromelalgia and Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder. We also show that ranolazine, at a clinically-relevant concentration, blocks high-frequency firing of DRG neurons expressing wild-type but not mutant channels. Conclusions Our data suggest that ranalozine can attenuate hyperexcitability of DRG neurons over-expressing wild-type Nav1.7 channels, as occurs in acquired neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and thus merits further study as an alternative to existing non-selective sodium channel blockers.

  20. Mutagenizing brewing yeast strain for improving fermentation property of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zengran; Zhang, Guangyi; Sun, Yunping

    2008-07-01

    A brewing yeast mutant with perfect sugar fermentation capacity was isolated by mutagenizing the Saccharomyces pastorianus transformant, which carries an integrated glucoamylase gene and has one copy of non-functional alpha-acetolactate synthase gene. The mutant was able to utilize maltotriose efficiently, and the maltotriose fermentability in YNB-2% maltotriose medium increased from 32.4% to 72.0% after 5 d in shaking culture. The wort fermentation test confirmed that the sugar fermentation property of the mutant was greatly improved, while its brewing performances were analogous to that of the wild-type strain and the characteristic trait of shortened beer maturation period was retained. Therefore, we believe that the brewing yeast mutant would benefit the beer industry and would be useful for low caloric beer production.

  1. The MFS-type efflux pump Flr1 induced by Yap1 promotes canthin-6-one resistance in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejos, Camille; Régnacq, Matthieu; Bernard, Marianne; Voisin, Pierre; Bergès, Thierry

    2013-09-17

    Screening for suppressors of canthin-6-one toxicity in yeast identified Yap1, a transcription factor involved in cell response to a broad range of injuries. Although canthin-6-one did not promote a significant oxidative stress, overexpression of YAP1 gene clearly increased resistance to this drug. We demonstrated that Yap1-mediated resistance involves the plasma membrane major-facilitator-superfamily efflux pump Flr1 but not the vacuolar ATP-binding-cassette transporter Ycf1. FLR1 overexpression was sufficient to reduce sensitivity to the drug, but strictly dependent on a functional YAP1 gene. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastric Medullary Carcinoma with Sporadic Mismatch Repair Deficiency and a TP53 R273C Mutation: An Unusual Case with Wild-Type BRAF

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    Brett M. Lowenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medullary carcinoma has long been recognized as a subtype of colorectal cancer associated with microsatellite instability and Lynch syndrome. Gastric medullary carcinoma is a very rare neoplasm. We report a 67-year-old male who presented with a solitary gastric mass. Total gastrectomy revealed a well-demarcated, poorly differentiated carcinoma with an organoid growth pattern, pushing borders, and abundant peritumoral lymphocytic response. The prior cytology was cellular with immunohistochemical panel consistent with upper gastrointestinal/pancreaticobiliary origin. Overall, the histopathologic findings were consistent with gastric medullary carcinoma. A mismatch repair panel revealed a mismatch repair protein deficient tumor with loss of MLH1 and PMS2 expression. BRAF V600E immunostain (VE1 and BRAF molecular testing were negative, indicating a wild-type gene. Tumor sequencing of MLH1 demonstrated a wild-type gene, while our molecular panel identified TP53 c.817C>T (p.R273C mutation. These findings were compatible with a sporadic tumor. Given that morphologically identical medullary tumors often occur in Lynch syndrome, it is possible that mismatch repair loss is an early event in sporadic tumors with p53 mutation being a late event. Despite having wild-type BRAF, this tumor is sporadic and unrelated to Lynch syndrome. This case report demonstrates that coordinate ancillary studies are needed to resolve sporadic versus hereditary rare tumors.

  3. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Wild Type Homozygozity of Polymorphisms +896 and +1196 Is Associated with High Gastrin Serum Levels and Peptic Ulcer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanen, Vesa-Matti; Koivurova, Olli-Pekka; Huhta, Heikki; Helminen, Olli; Mäkinen, Johanna M; Karhukorpi, Jari M; Joensuu, Tapio; Koistinen, Pentti O; Valtonen, Jarno M; Niemelä, Seppo E; Karttunen, Riitta A; Karttunen, Tuomo J

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 is a part of the innate immune system and recognizes Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. The goal of this study was to analyze the role of Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms +896 (rs4986790) and +1196 (rs4986791) in the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori related gastroduodenal diseases in relation to gastric secretion and inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms, serum gastrin-17 and pepsinogen I and II concentrations were determined, and gastroscopies with histopathological analyses were performed to 216 dyspeptic patients. As genotype controls, 179 controls and 61 gastric cancer patients were studied. In our study, the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 polymorphisms were in total linkage disequilibrium. The homozygous wild types displayed higher gastrin-17 serum concentrations than the mutants (p = 0.001) and this effect was independent of Helicobacter pylori. The homozygous wild types also displayed an increased risk for peptic ulcers (OR: 4.390). Toll-like receptor 4 genotypes did not show any association with Helicobacter pylori positivity or the features of gastric inflammation. Toll-like receptor 4 expression was seen in gastrin and somatostatin expressing cells of antral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Our results suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 4 in gastric acid regulation and that the Toll-like receptor 4 +896 and +1196 wild type homozygozity increases peptic ulcer risk via gastrin secretion.

  4. Comparison of the Tastes of L-Alanine and Monosodium Glutamate in C57BL/6J Wild Type and T1r3 Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Delay, Eugene R

    2017-09-01

    Previous research showed that L-alanine and monosodium L-glutamate elicit similar taste sensations in rats. This study reports the results of behavioral experiments designed to compare the taste capacity of C57BL/6J wild type and T1r3- mice for these 2 amino acids. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, wild-type mice exhibited greater sensitivity than knockout mice for both L-amino acids, although knockout mice were clearly able to detect both amino acids at 50 mM and higher concentrations. Generalization of CTA between L-alanine and L-glutamate was bidirectionally equivalent for both mouse genotypes, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes in both genotypes. This was verified by the discrimination experiments in which both mouse genotypes performed at or near chance levels at 75 and 150 mM. Above 150 mM, discrimination performance improved, suggesting the taste qualities of the 2 L-amino acids are not identical. No differences between knockout and wild-type mice in discrimination ability were detected. These results indicate that while the T1r3 receptor is important for tasting L-alanine and L-glutamate, other receptors are also important for tasting these amino acids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Paternal spatial training enhances offspring's cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity in wild-type but not improve memory deficit in Alzheimer's mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Li, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhouyi; Liu, Yanchao; Gao, Yuan; Tan, Lu; Liu, Enjie; Zhou, Qiuzhi; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Gongping; Chen, Haote; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2017-05-08

    Recent studies suggest that spatial training can maintain associative memory capacity in Tg2576 mice, but it is not known whether the beneficial effects can be inherited from the trained fathers to their offspring. Here, we exposed male wild-type and male 3XTg Alzheimer disease (AD) mice (3-m old) respectively to spatial training for one week and assessed the transgenerational effects in the F1 offspring when they were grown to 7-m old. We found that the paternal spatial training significantly enhanced progeny's spatial cognitive performance and synaptic transmission in wild-type mice. Among several synapse- or memory-associated proteins, we observed that the expression level of synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) was significantly increased in the hippocampus of the paternally trained-offspring. Paternal training increased histone acetylation at the promoter of SYT1 in both fathers' and the offspring's hippocampus, and as well as in the fathers' sperm. Finally, paternal spatial training for one week did not improve memory and synaptic plasticity in 3XTg AD F1 offspring. Our findings suggest paternal spatial training for one week benefits the offspring's cognitive performance in wild-type mice with the mechanisms involving an enhanced transgenerational histone acetylation at SYT1 promoter.

  6. alpha-Synuclein budding yeast model: toxicity enhanced by impaired proteasome and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nijee; Brandis, Katrina A; Herrera, Sara K; Johnson, Brandon E; Vaidya, Tulaza; Shrestha, Ruja; Debburman, Shubhik K

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that results from the selective loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Misfolding and aggregation of the protein alpha-synuclein, oxidative damage, and proteasomal impairment are all hypotheses for the molecular cause of this selective neurotoxicity. Here, we describe a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model to evaluate the misfolding, aggregation, and toxicity-inducing ability of wild-type alpha-synuclein and three mutants (A30P, A53T, and A30P/A53T), and we compare regulation of these properties by dysfunctional proteasomes and by oxidative stress. We found prominent localization of wild-type and A53T alpha-synuclein near the plasma membrane, supporting known in vitro lipid-binding ability. In contrast, A30P was mostly cytoplasmic, whereas A30P/A53T displayed both types of fluorescence. Surprisingly, alpha-synuclein was not toxic to several yeast strains tested. When yeast mutants for the proteasomal barrel (doa3-1) were evaluated, delayed alpha-synuclein synthesis and membrane association were observed; yeast mutant for the proteasomal cap (sen3-1) exhibited increased accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein. Both sen3-1and doa3-1 mutants exhibited synthetic lethality with alpha-synuclein. When yeasts were challenged with an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide), alpha-synuclein was extremely lethal to cells that lacked manganese superoxide dismutase Mn-SOD (sod2Delta) but not to cells that lacked copper, zinc superoxide dismutase Cu,Zn-SOD (sod1Delta). Despite the toxicity, sod2Delta cells never displayed intracellular aggregates of alpha-synuclein. We suggest that the toxic alpha-synuclein species in yeast are smaller than the visible aggregates, and toxicity might involve alpha-synuclein membrane association. Thus, yeasts have emerged effective organisms for characterizing factors and mechanisms that regulate alpha-synuclein toxicity.

  7. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  8. Full life-cycle assessment of gene flow consistent with fitness differences in transgenic and wild-type Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kelly M; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Morton, Michael S; Cooper, Anne M; Miller, Loren M

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic fish in development for aquaculture could escape from farms and interbreed with wild relatives in the nearby environment. Predicting whether escapes would result in transgene introgression is a major challenge in assessing environmental risks of transgenic fish. Previous studies have simulated gene flow from transgenic fish using mathematical modeling of fitness traits to predict the relative selective value of transgenic genotypes. Here, we present the first study of gene flow over the full life cycle in openly-breeding populations of transgenic animals, along with measurement of fitness traits. We conducted two invasion experiments in which we released two lines of growth-enhanced transgenic fish (T67 and T400), Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes), into populations of wild-type (W) medaka in structured mesocosms. After several generations, the frequency of transgenic fish varied across replicates in the first invasion experiment (6 months), but the frequency of transgenic fish decreased in the second experiment (19 months). We also measured selected fitness traits in transgenic and wild-type medaka because these traits could be used to predict the relative selective value of a genotype. We found that: T400 males were more fertile than W males; offspring of W females lived longer than those with transgenic mothers; and W and T67 females reached sexual maturity sooner than T400 females. In contrast with other research that reported larger transgenic males had a mating advantage, we found that W males obtained more matings with females than T males; genetic background effects may account for our differing results as we compared W and T fish derived from different strains. The decreasing frequency of transgenic fish in the second invasion experiment suggests that transgenic fish had a selective disadvantage in the experimental environment. Our finding of transgenic advantage of some fitness traits and wild-type advantage in others is consistent with our

  9. Differences in growth and nitrogen productivity between a stay-green genotype and a wild-type of Lolium perenne under limiting relative addition rates of nitrate supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macduff, James; Raistrick, Neil; Humphreys, Mervyn

    2002-09-01

    The stay-green mutation of the nuclear gene sid inhibits chlorophyll degradation during leaf senescence in grasses. Decreased productivity is expected under conditions of limited external N availability, due to the higher retention of N in senescent tissues. However, this has not been reported when plants are grown at limiting low external concentrations of N. In the present study a different approach was taken, based on the relative addition rate method for defining limiting N supply. Wild-type and stay-green genotypes of Lolium perenne L. were grown for 30 days in flowing solution culture and then supplied with NO3- on an hourly basis over 35 days at relative addition rates (RARs) of 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 day-1, ranging from severe N limitation to optimal supply. Plants were steady-state labelled with 15NO3- prior to RAR treatments, then switched to 14NO3- to allow measurement of the re-distribution of N absorbed prior to RAR control. Following acclimation, relative growth rates (RGRs) approached the corresponding RAR, but were significantly lower for stay-green than wild-type at RARs of 0.03 and 0.06 day-1. Tiller numbers were lower in stay-green plants after 35 days at all RARs except 0.12 day-1. Concentrations of total N in senescent laminae of stay-green plants exceeded those in wild-type plants by a similar margin (4.8-6.8 mg g-1 DW) irrespective of RAR. Maximum nitrogen productivity (Pn) was 3.9 g DW g-1 N day-1 (Nmin = 7.1 mg g-1 DW) in wild-type plants, and 5.1 g DW g-1 N day-1 (Nmin = 10.7 mg g-1 DW) in stay-green plants. The higher N productivity of stay-green plants indicated these plants used a smaller pool of metabolically available N more efficiently in biosynthesis compared with wild-type plants. The retention of N, absorbed prior to RAR treatments, in senescent laminae was significantly higher in stay-green plants at RAR of 0.03 day-1 after day 21 (i.e. 20% versus 15% of the total N recovered). However, in terms of the whole N economy of the

  10. How does competition among wild type mosquitoes influence the performance of Aedes aegypti and dissemination of Wolbachia pipientis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen de Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia has been deployed in several countries to reduce transmission of dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. During releases, Wolbachia-infected females are likely to lay their eggs in local available breeding sites, which might already be colonized by local Aedes sp. mosquitoes. Therefore, there is an urgent need to estimate the deleterious effects of intra and interspecific larval competition on mosquito life history traits, especially on the duration of larval development time, larval mortality and adult size.Three different mosquito populations were used: Ae. aegypti infected with Wolbachia (wMelBr strain, wild Ae. aegypti and wild Ae. albopictus. A total of 21 treatments explored intra and interspecific larval competition with varying larval densities, species proportions and food levels. Each treatment had eight replicates with two distinct food levels: 0.25 or 0.50 g of Chitosan and fallen avocado leaves. Overall, overcrowding reduced fitness correlates of the three populations. Ae. albopictus larvae presented lower larval mortality, shorter development time to adult and smaller wing sizes than Ae. aegypti. The presence of Wolbachia had a slight positive effect on larval biology, since infected individuals had higher survivorship than uninfected Ae. aegypti larvae.In all treatments, Ae. albopictus outperformed both wild Ae. aegypti and the Wolbachia-infected group in larval competition, irrespective of larval density and the amount of food resources. The major force that can slow down Wolbachia invasion is the population density of wild mosquitoes. Given that Ae. aegypti currently dominates in Rio, in comparison with Ae. albopictus frequency, additional attention must be given to the population density of Ae. aegypti during releases to increase the likelihood of Wolbachia invasion.

  11. Early Alzheimer's disease-type pathology in the frontal cortex of wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sylvia E; Sherwood, Chet C; Cranfield, Michael R; Erwin, Joseph M; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Hof, Patrick R; Mufson, Elliott J

    2016-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau pathology have been described in the brains of captive aged great apes, but the natural progression of these age-related pathologies from wild great apes, including the gorilla, is unknown. In our previous study of Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) who were housed in American Zoos and Aquariums-accredited facilities, we found an age-related increase in Aβ-positive plaques and vasculature, tau-positive astrocytes, oligodendrocyte coiled bodies, and neuritic clusters in the neocortex as well as hippocampus in older animals. Here, we demonstrate that aged wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), who spent their entire lives in their natural habitat, also display an age-related increase in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and/or Aβ-immunoreactive blood vessels and plaques, but very limited tau pathology, in the frontal cortex. These results indicate that Aβ and tau lesions are age-related events that occur in the brain of gorillas living in captivity and in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparison of transgenic and wild type soybean seeds: analysis of transcriptome profiles using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambirth, Kevin C; Whaley, Adam M; Blakley, Ivory C; Schlueter, Jessica A; Bost, Kenneth L; Loraine, Ann E; Piller, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) has been bred for thousands of years to produce seeds rich in protein for human and animal consumption, making them an appealing bioreactor for producing valuable recombinant proteins at high levels. However, the effects of expressing recombinant protein at high levels on bean physiology are not well understood. To address this, we investigated whether gene expression within transgenic soybean seed tissue is altered when large amounts of recombinant proteins are being produced and stored exclusively in the seeds. We used RNA-Seq to survey gene expression in three transgenic soybean lines expressing recombinant protein at levels representing up to 1.61 % of total protein in seed tissues. The three lines included: ST77, expressing human thyroglobulin protein (hTG), ST111, expressing human myelin basic protein (hMBP), and 764, expressing a mutant, nontoxic form of a staphylococcal subunit vaccine protein (mSEB). All lines selected for analysis were homozygous and contained a single copy of the transgene. Each transgenic soybean seed was screened for transgene presence and recombinant protein expression via PCR and western blotting.  Whole seed mRNA was extracted and cDNA libraries constructed for Illumina sequencing.  Following alignment to the soybean reference genome, differential gene expression analysis was conducted using edgeR and cufflinks.  Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes was carried out using the gene ontology analysis tool AgriGO. The transcriptomes of nine seeds from each transgenic line were sequenced and compared with wild type seeds. Native soybean gene expression was significantly altered in line 764 (mSEB) with more than 3000 genes being upregulated or downregulated. ST77 (hTG) and ST111 (hMBP) had significantly less differences with 52 and 307 differentially expressed genes respectively. Gene ontology enrichment analysis found that the upregulated genes in the 764 line were annotated with functions

  13. Steady-state kinetics and analysis of pH dependence on wild-type and a modified allosteric Pseudomonas aeruginosa ornithine carbamoyltransferase containing the replacement of glutamate 105 by alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricot, C; Nguyen, V T; Stalon, V

    1993-08-01

    The substitution of alanine for glutamate at position 105 (E105A) of the allosteric ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTCase) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa abolishes the carbamoylphosphate (CP) cooperativity observed in the wild-type enzyme. A kinetic analysis of [E105A]OTCase was performed in order to determine the mechanism of the reaction. The results of initial velocity and inhibition studies are consistent with an ordered mechanism with CP as the first substrate to add to the enzyme. In addition, similar studies have been made using the wild-type enzyme in the presence of the activator, phosphate. The results are similar to those obtained with [E105A]OTCase indicating that the residue E105 is critical for the allosteric transition of the wild-type enzyme. The activities of the wild-type allosteric OTCase and of [E105A]OTCase have been studied in the pH range 5.8-8.2 in the absence and in the presence of positive and negative effectors. The sigmoid saturation of OTCases by CP has been analyzed according to the Hill equation. At low pH values, CP cooperativity is low in the wild-type enzyme but cooperativity and [S]CP0.5 values increase markedly with pH. For [E105A]OTCase, the saturation by CP is hyperbolic at all pH values; in this modified enzyme, the presence of spermidine, an allosteric inhibitor of the wild-type enzyme, results in an inhibition which induces CP cooperativity. Thus, the ionization of the residue E105 apparently results in a conformational change in the wild-type enzyme which modifies the catalytic site. Since the [E105A] enzyme retains the heterotropic effects of the wild-type enzyme, other structural features are required for the allosteric transition in the wild-type catabolic OTCase.

  14. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationship of wild type 1 poliovirus strains circulating across Pakistan and Afghanistan bordering areas during 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Shaukat

    Full Text Available Pakistan and Afghanistan share a long uncontrolled border with extensive population movement on both sides. Wild poliovirus transmission has never been interrupted in this block due to war against terrorism, poor public health infrastructure, misconceptions about polio vaccines and inadequate immunization activities. All these issues complicate the eradication operations and reinforce the complexity of wiping out poliomyelitis from this region. This study illustrates the origins and routes of cross-border wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1 transmission during 2010-2012 between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Sequence analyses were conducted based on complete VP1 capsid protein sequences for WPV1 study strains to determine the origin of poliovirus genetic lineages and their evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic tree was constructed from VP1 gene sequences applying Maximum Likelihood method using Kimura 2- parameter model in MEGA program v 5.0. A total of 72 (14.3% out of 502 wild-type 1 polioviruses were found circulating in border areas of both countries during 2010-2012. Molecular phylogenetic analysis classified these strains in to two sub-genotypes with four clusters and 18 lineages. Genetic data confirmed that the most of WPV1 lineages (12; 66.6% were transmitted from Pakistan to Afghanistan. However, the genetic diversity was significantly reduced during 2012 as most of the lineages were completely eliminated. In conclusion, Pakistan-Afghanistan block has emerged as a single poliovirus reservoir sharing the multiple poliovirus lineages due to uncontrolled movement of people across the borders between two countries. If it is neglected, it can jeopardize the extensive global efforts done so-far to eradicate the poliovirus infection. Our data will be helpful to devise the preventive strategies for effective control of wild poliovirus transmission in this region.

  15. Mediterranean Diet and Red Yeast Rice Supplementation for the Management of Hyperlipidemia in Statin-Intolerant Patients with or without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartore Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid profile could be modified by Mediterranean diet (MD and by red yeast rice (RYR. We assessed the lipid-lowering effects of MD alone or in combination with RYR on dyslipidemic statin-intolerant subjects, with or without type 2 diabetes, for 24 weeks. We evaluated the low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, liver enzyme, and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK levels. We studied 171 patients: 46 type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD alone (Group 1, 44 type 2 diabetic patients treated with MD associated with RYR (Group 2, 38 dyslipidemic patients treated with MD alone (Group 3, and 43 dyslipidemic patients treated with MD plus RYR (Group 4. The mean percentage changes in LDL cholesterol from the baseline were -7.34±3.14% (P0.05. No significant increase in AST, ALT, and CPK levels was observed in all groups. Our results indicate that MD alone is effective in reducing LDL cholesterol levels in statin-intolerant patients with a presumably low cardiovascular risk, but associating MD with the administration of RYR improves patients’ LDL cholesterol levels more, and in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Early transcriptional responses of bovine chorioallantoic membrane explants to wild type, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P S Mol

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; P<0.05 were functionally classified, and transcripts related to defense and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Infection with wild type B. abortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ΔvirB2 or the ΔbtpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ΔvirB and ΔbtpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion.

  17. A comparison of classical and H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy associated with E211K prion protein polymorphism in wild type and EK211 cattle following intracranial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Moore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP resulting in a lysine for glutamine amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K of the prion protein. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele may be predisposed to rapid onset of BSE-H when exposed or to the potential development of a genetic BSE. This study was conducted to better understand the relationship between the K211 polymorphism and its effect on BSE phenotype. BSE-H from the US 2006 case was inoculated intracranially (IC in one PRNP wild type (EE211 calf and one EK211 calf. In addition, one wild type calf and one EK211 calf were inoculated IC with brain homogenate from a US 2003 classical BSE case. All cattle developed clinical disease. The survival times of the E211K BSE-H inoculated EK211 calf (10 months was shorter than the wild type calf (18 months. This genotype effect was not observed in classical BSE inoculated cattle (both 26 months. Significant changes in retinal function were observed in H-type BSE challenged cattle only. Cattle challenged with the same inoculum showed similar severity and neuroanatomical distribution of vacuolation and disease-associated prion protein deposition in the brain, though differences in neuropathology were observed between E211K BSE-H and classical BSE inoculated animals. Western blot results for brain tissue from challenged animals were consistent with the inoculum strains. This study demonstrates that the phenotype of E211K BSE-H remains stable when transmitted to cattle without the K211 polymorphism, and exhibits a number of features that differ from classical BSE in both wild type and heterozygous EK211 animals.

  18. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  19. Cofactor Specificity of the Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Wild-Type and Mutant Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Tian, Liang; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.; Lo, Jonathan; Hon, Shuen; Shaw, A. Joe; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Lynd, Lee R.; Metcalf, W. W.

    2015-05-26

    Clostridium thermocellum and type='genus-species'>Thermoanaerobacteriumtype='genus-species'> saccharolyticumare thermophilic bacteria that have been engineered to produce ethanol from the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of biomass, respectively. Although engineered strains oftype='genus-species'> T. saccharolyticumproduce ethanol with a yield of 90% of the theoretical maximum, engineered strains oftype='genus-species'>C. thermocellumproduce ethanol at lower yields (~50% of the theoretical maximum). In the course of engineering these strains, a number of mutations have been discovered in theiradhEgenes, which encode both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. To understand the effects of these mutations, theadhEgenes from six strains oftype='genus-species'>C. thermocellumandtype='genus-species'>T. saccharolyticumwere cloned and expressed intype='genus-species'>Escherichia coli, the enzymes produced were purified by affinity chromatography, and enzyme activity was measured. In wild-type strains of both organisms, NADH was the preferred cofactor for both ALDH and ADH activities. In high-ethanol-producing (ethanologen) strains oftype='genus-species'>T. saccharolyticum, both ALDH and ADH activities showed increased NADPH-linked activity. Interestingly, the AdhE protein of the ethanologenic strain oftype='genus-species'>C. thermocellumhas acquired high NADPH-linked ADH activity while maintaining NADH-linked ALDH and ADH activities at wild-type levels

  20. The fission yeast ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UbcP3, Ubc15, and Rhp6 affect transcriptional silencing of the mating-type region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inga Sig; Nielsen, Olaf; Murray, Johanne M

    2002-01-01

    Genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II are silenced when introduced near the mat2 or mat3 mating-type loci of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Silencing is mediated by a number of gene products and cis-acting elements. We report here the finding of novel trans-acting factors identified...... in a screen for high-copy-number disruptors of silencing. Expression of cDNAs encoding the putative E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UbcP3, Ubc15 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), or Rhp6 (Rad homolog pombe) from the strong nmt1 promoter derepressed the silent mating-type loci mat2 and mat3 and reporter genes...... inserted nearby. Deletion of rhp6 slightly derepressed an ade6 reporter gene placed in the mating-type region, whereas disruption of ubcP3 or ubc15 had no obvious effect on silencing. Rhp18 is the S. pombe homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad18p, a DNA-binding protein that physically interacts with Rad6...

  1. Evolutionary restoration of fertility in an interspecies hybrid yeast, by whole-genome duplication after a failed mating-type switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A Ortiz-Merino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many interspecies hybrids have been discovered in yeasts, but most of these hybrids are asexual and can replicate only mitotically. Whole-genome duplication has been proposed as a mechanism by which interspecies hybrids can regain fertility, restoring their ability to perform meiosis and sporulate. Here, we show that this process occurred naturally during the evolution of Zygosaccharomyces parabailii, an interspecies hybrid that was formed by mating between 2 parents that differed by 7% in genome sequence and by many interchromosomal rearrangements. Surprisingly, Z. parabailii has a full sexual cycle and is genetically haploid. It goes through mating-type switching and autodiploidization, followed by immediate sporulation. We identified the key evolutionary event that enabled Z. parabailii to regain fertility, which was breakage of 1 of the 2 homeologous copies of the mating-type (MAT locus in the hybrid, resulting in a chromosomal rearrangement and irreparable damage to 1 MAT locus. This rearrangement was caused by HO endonuclease, which normally functions in mating-type switching. With 1 copy of MAT inactivated, the interspecies hybrid now behaves as a haploid. Our results provide the first demonstration that MAT locus damage is a naturally occurring evolutionary mechanism for whole-genome duplication and restoration of fertility to interspecies hybrids. The events that occurred in Z. parabailii strongly resemble those postulated to have caused ancient whole-genome duplication in an ancestor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  2. An introduction to the avian gut microbiota and the effects of yeast-based prebiotic-type compounds as potential feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Roto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry has been searching for a replacement for antibiotic growth promoters in poultry feed as public concerns over the use of antibiotics and the appearance of antibiotic resistance has become more intense. An ideal replacement would be feed amendments that could eliminate pathogens and disease while retaining economic value via improvements on body weight and feed conversion ratios. Establishing a healthy gut microbiota can have a positive impact on growth and development of both body weight and the immune system of poultry, while reducing pathogen invasion and disease. The addition of prebiotics to poultry feed represents one such recognized way to establish a healthy gut microbiota. Prebiotics are feed additives, mainly in the form of specific types of carbohydrates that are indigestible to the host while serving as substrates to select beneficial bacteria and altering the gut microbiota. Beneficial bacteria in the ceca easily ferment commonly studied prebiotics, producing short chain fatty acids (SCFA, while pathogenic bacteria and the host are unable to digest their molecular bonds. Prebiotic-like substances are less commonly studied, but show promise in their effects on the prevention of pathogen colonization, improvements on the immune system, and host growth. Inclusion of yeast and yeast derivatives as probiotic and prebiotic-like substances, respectively, in animal feed has demonstrated positive associations with growth performance and modification of gut morphology. This review will aim to link together how such prebiotics and prebiotic-like substances function to influence the native and beneficial microorganisms that result in a diverse and well-developed gut microbiota.

  3. An Introduction to the Avian Gut Microbiota and the Effects of Yeast-Based Prebiotic-Type Compounds as Potential Feed Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roto, Stephanie M; Rubinelli, Peter M; Ricke, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    The poultry industry has been searching for a replacement for antibiotic growth promoters in poultry feed as public concerns over the use of antibiotics and the appearance of antibiotic resistance has become more intense. An ideal replacement would be feed amendments that could eliminate pathogens and disease while retaining economic value via improvements on body weight and feed conversion ratios. Establishing a healthy gut microbiota can have a positive impact on growth and development of both body weight and the immune system of poultry while reducing pathogen invasion and disease. The addition of prebiotics to poultry feed represents one such recognized way to establish a healthy gut microbiota. Prebiotics are feed additives, mainly in the form of specific types of carbohydrates that are indigestible to the host while serving as substrates to select beneficial bacteria and altering the gut microbiota. Beneficial bacteria in the ceca easily ferment commonly studied prebiotics, producing short-chain fatty acids, while pathogenic bacteria and the host are unable to digest their molecular bonds. Prebiotic-like substances are less commonly studied, but show promise in their effects on the prevention of pathogen colonization, improvements on the immune system, and host growth. Inclusion of yeast and yeast derivatives as probiotic and prebiotic-like substances, respectively, in animal feed has demonstrated positive associations with growth performance and modification of gut morphology. This review will aim to link together how such prebiotics and prebiotic-like substances function to influence the native and beneficial microorganisms that result in a diverse and well-developed gut microbiota.

  4. WARBURG EFFECT AND TRANSLOCATION-INDUCED GENOMIC INSTABILITY: TWO YEAST MODELS FOR CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eTosato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast has been established as an efficient model system to study biological principles underpinning human health. In this review we focus on yeast models covering two aspects of cancer formation and progression i the activity of pyruvate kinase (PK, which recapitulates metabolic features of cancer cells, including the Warburg effect, and ii Bridge-Induced chromosome Translocation (BIT mimicking genome instability in cancer. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model to study cancer cell metabolism, as exponentially growing yeast cells exhibit many metabolic similarities with rapidly proliferating cancer cells. The metabolic reconfiguration includes an increase in glucose uptake and fermentation, at the expense of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation (the Warburg effect, and involves a broad reconfiguration of nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. Both in yeast and humans, the regulation of this process seems to have a central player, pyruvate kinase, which is up-regulated in cancer, and to occur mostly on a post-transcriptional and posttranslational basis. Furthermore, BIT allows to generate selectable translocation-derived recombinants (translocants, between any two desired chromosomal locations, in wild-type yeast strains transformed with a linear DNA cassette carrying a selectable marker flanked by two DNA sequences homologous to different chromosomes. Using the Bridge-Induced Translocation system, targeted non-reciprocal translocations in mitosis are easily inducible. An extensive collection of different yeast translocants exhibiting genome instability and aberrant phenotypes similar to cancer cells has been produced and subjected to analysis. In this review, we hence provide an overview upon two yeast cancer models, and extrapolate general principles for mimicking human disease mechanisms in yeast.

  5. Yeast species associated with the spontaneous fermentation of cider

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Belén; Pando, Rosa; Fernández, Norman; Querol, A.; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of cider-making technology (pneumatic and traditional pressing) on the dynamics of wild yeast populations. Yeast colonies isolated from apple juice before and throughout fermentation at a cider cellar of Asturias (Spain), during two consecutive years were studied. The yeast strains were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences (ITS). The musts obtained by ...

  6. Hydrogen production by Hup{sup -} mutant and wild type strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus on dark fermenter effluent of sugar beet thick juice in batch and continuous photobioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezguer, Ebru [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Uyar, Basar [Kocaeli Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Guergan, Muazzez; Yuecel, Meral [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Biology

    2010-07-01

    The HYVOLUTION project (EU 6th frame) is aimed to develop an integrated process in which biomass is fermented to acetate, lactate, CO{sub 2} and hydrogen followed by photofermentation of acetate and lactate to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} with photosynthetic purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNS bacteria). Growth and hydrogen production of Rhodobacter capsulatus was investigated on the dark fermenter effluent of thick juice (processed raw sugar beet juice) which contained acetate and NH{sub 4}Cl. In this effluent media, the hydrogen production of wild type bacterium and an uptake-hydrogenase deficient mutant (hup-) were compared in small scale (55 ml) batch and large scale (4 L) continuous photobioreactors in indoor conditions under constant illumination of 2000 lux. In continuous operation mode, the overall hydrogen production yields were 1.84 and 1.92 mol H{sub 2}/mol acetate, the maximum hydrogen productivities were 1.29 and 0.89 mmol H{sub 2}/L.h, for the wild type and mutant strains, respectively. On the other hand, in batch operation mode, the overall hydrogen production yields were 1.25 and 1.44 mol H{sub 2}/mol acetate, the maximum hydrogen productivities were 0.28 and 0.52 mmol H{sub 2}/L.h, for the wild type and mutant strains, respectively. The results show that Rhodobacter capsulatus is capable of using sugar beet thick juice effluent as substrate for hydrogen production; which makes it a suitable bacterium to be employed in integrated termophilic fermentation-photofermentation process. (orig.)

  7. Transgenic Eimeria mitis Expressing Chicken IL-4 Mediated Decrease in Pathogenicity Compared to Wild Type Eimeria mitis Strains in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Muhammad Khan1,2, Saeed El-Ashram, Hong Bin Liu3, Sher Hayat Khan4, Adnan Ayan5, Xian Yong Liu1,2, Hui Wang2, Xin Ming Tang1,2, Xun Suo1,2* and Mohammad Farooque Hassan4,6

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to establish transgenic Eimeria mitis (tE. mitis expressing chicken interleukin-4 (ChIL-4 and further exploitation of tE. mitis as a novel vaccine vector to control coccidiosis. For this purpose we compared the clinico-hematological alterations induced by wild type and tE. mitis carrying ChIL-4 in broilers birds. Wild type E. mitis (wE. mitis oocysts were nucleofected with double cassette vector and transgenic oocysts were propagated for stable transfection. Stability of the transfected E. mitis was observed by fluorescent microscopy and PCR analysis revealed the appearance of 411bp band suggestive of presence of IL-4 into the genome of tE. mitis. Birds inoculated with transgenic EmiChIL-4 excreted fewer oocysts and fecundity potential of tE. mitis turned out to be significantly lower than that of the wild type parent strain. Moderate clinical and behavioral signs such as restlessness, diarrhea, emaciation, decreased feed intake and loss of body weight was observed in birds inoculated with wE. mitis oocysts. The erythrocyte counts, Hb conc, PCV and MCHC decreased in birds infected with wE. mitis as compared to those infected with tE. mitis. The total leukocyte count including heterophils, eosinophil and basophils increased while lymphocytes were decreased in birds inoculated with wE. mitis as compared to birds in control group and those infected with tE.mitis. It was concluded that tE. mitis incorporated with ChIL-4 functions well as an adjuvant, conferring reduced fertility and compromised pathogenicity of tE. mitis. This discrimination, may be applied as a potential vaccine vector to control coccidiosis as well as pathogens from which antigens are expressed by tE. mitis.

  8. Equivalent neurogenic potential of wild-type and GFP-labeled fetal-derived neural progenitor cells before and after transplantation into the rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepski, Guilherme; Jannes, Cinthia E; Wessolleck, Johanna; Kobayashi, Eiji; Nikkhah, Guido

    2011-02-27

    The hippocampal formation is a specific structure in the brain where neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood and in which the neuronal cell loss causes various demential states. The main goal of this study was to verify whether fetal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) retain the ability to differentiate into neuronal cells and to integrate into the hippocampal circuitry after transplantation. NPCs were isolated from E14 (gestational age: 14 days postconception) transgenic-Lewis and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat embryos. Wild-type and transgenic cells were expanded and induced to differentiate into a neuronal lineage in vitro. Immunocytochemical and electrophysiological analysis were performed in both groups. GFP-expressing cells were implanted into the hippocampus and recorded electrophysiologically 3 months thereafter. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed neuronal differentiation, and the yield of neuronal cells was determined stereologically. NPCs derived from wild-type and transgenic animals are similar regarding their ability to generate neuronal cells in vitro. Neuronal maturity was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology, with demonstration of voltage-gated ionic currents, firing activity, and spontaneous synaptic currents. GFP-NPCs were also able to differentiate into mature neurons after implantation into the hippocampus, where they formed functional synaptic contacts. GFP-transgenic cells represent an important tool in transplantation studies. Herein, we demonstrate their ability to generate functional neurons both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Neurons derived from fetal NPCs were able to integrate into the normal hippocampal circuitry. The high yield of mature neurons generated render these cells important candidates for restorative approaches based on cell therapy.

  9. Identification and comparative profiling of miRNAs in an early flowering mutant of trifoliate orange and its wild type by genome-wide deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Ming Sun

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a new class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a regulatory role in various biological and metabolic processes by negatively affecting gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. While the number of known Arabidopsis and rice miRNAs is continuously increasing, information regarding miRNAs from woody plants such as citrus remains limited. Solexa sequencing was performed at different developmental stages on both an early flowering mutant of trifoliate orange (precocious trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. and its wild-type in this study, resulting in the obtainment of 141 known miRNAs belonging to 99 families and 75 novel miRNAs in four libraries. A total of 317 potential target genes were predicted based on the 51 novel miRNAs families, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that high ranked miRNA-target genes are those implicated in diverse cellular processes in plants, including development, transcription, protein degradation and cross adaptation. To characterize those miRNAs expressed at the juvenile and adult development stages of the mutant and its wild-type, further analysis on the expression profiles of several miRNAs through real-time PCR was performed. The results revealed that most miRNAs were down-regulated at adult stage compared with juvenile stage for both the mutant and its wild-type. These results indicate that both conserved and novel miRNAs may play important roles in citrus growth and development, stress responses and other physiological processes.

  10. Meiotic localization of Mre11 and Rad50 in wild type, spo11-1, and MRN complex mutants of Coprinus cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, Alexander M; Melki, Christina S; Savytskyy, Oleksandr P; Maillet, Daniel S; Acharya, Sonia N; Zolan, Miriam E

    2009-08-01

    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is required for numerous cellular processes that involve interactions with DNA double-strand breaks. For the majority of these processes, the MRN complex is thought to act as a unit, with each protein aiding the activity of the others. We have examined the relationship between Mre11 and Rad50 during meiosis in the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus (Coprinopsis cinerea), investigating to what extent activities of Mre11 and Rad50 are interdependent. We showed that mre11-1 is epistatic to rad50-1 with respect to the time of meiotic arrest, indicating that Mre11 activity facilitates the diffuse diplotene arrest of rad50 mutants. Anti-Mre11 and anti-Rad50 antibodies were used to examine MRN complex localization in a wild-type strain and in spo11, mre11, and rad50 mutants. In wild type, numbers of Mre11 and Rad50 foci peaked at time points corresponding to leptotene and early zygotene. In the spo11-1 mutant, which is defective in meiotic double-strand break formation, foci accumulated throughout prophase I. Of seven MRN mutants examined, only two rad50 strains exhibited Mre11 and Rad50 foci that localized to chromatin, although Mre11 protein was found in the cell for all of them. Analysis of predicted mutant structures showed that stable localization of Mre11 and Rad50 does not depend upon a wild-type hook-proximal coiled coil, but does require the presence of the Rad50 ATPase/adenylate cyclase domains. We found that Mre11 and Rad50 were interdependent for binding to meiotic chromosomes. However, the majority of foci observed apparently contained only one of the two proteins. Independent Mre11 and Rad50 foci might indicate disassociation of the complex during meiosis or could reflect independent structural roles for the two proteins in meiotic chromatin.

  11. Potent cross-reactive immune response against the wild-type and drug-resistant forms of HIV reverse transcriptase after the chimeric gene immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubova, Elizaveta; Boberg, Andreas; Ivanov, Alexander; Latyshev, Oleg; Petrakova, Natalia; Kuzmenko, Yulia; Litvina, Marina; Chernousov, Alexander; Kochetkov, Sergey; Karpov, Vadim; Wahren, Britta; Isaguliants, Maria G

    2010-02-23

    HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) can be considered as a target and an instrument of immunotherapy aimed at limiting the emergence and spread of drug-resistant HIV. The chimeric genes coding for the wild-type and multi-drug-resistant RT (RT1.14) fused to lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were injected intramuscularly into BALB/c mice. The immune response was assessed by ELISpot, cytokine ELISA intracellular IFN-gamma staining, and antibody ELISA. The genes for RT- and RT1.14-LAMP fusions (RT-LAMP and RT1.14-LAMP) were immunogenic generating a mixed Th1/Th2-profile of immune response, while the wild-type RT gene induced only weak immune response. Specific secretion of Th1-cytokines increased with increasing level of RT modification: RTwild-type variants. Gene immunization induced specific IgG (10(3)), and transient serum IgA (10(2)). Low immunogenicity of the parental RT may be explained by tolerance to the enzyme that is a common endogenous retroviral antigen. Potent immune recognition of RT after immunization with chimeric RT genes indicates that this tolerance could be overcome. Immunization with mutant HIV genes may represent an immunotherapeutical supplement to antiretroviral treatment preventing the emergence of drug resistance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative transcriptome analyses between a spontaneous late-ripening sweet orange mutant and its wild type suggest the functions of ABA, sucrose and JA during citrus fruit ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of 'Jincheng' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analyses between a spontaneous late-ripening sweet orange mutant and its wild type suggest the functions of ABA, sucrose and JA during citrus fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Jian; Wang, Xing-Jian; Wu, Ju-Xun; Chen, Shan-Yan; Chen, Hong; Chai, Li-Jun; Yi, Hua-Lin

    2014-01-01

    A spontaneous late-ripening mutant of 'Jincheng' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange exhibited a delay of fruit pigmentation and harvesting. In this work, we studied the processes of orange fruit ripening through the comparative analysis between the Jincheng mutant and its wild type. This study revealed that the fruit quality began to differ on 166th days after anthesis. At this stage, fruits were subjected to transcriptome analysis by RNA sequencing. 13,412 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were found. Of these unigenes, 75.8% were down-regulated in the wild type, suggesting that the transcription level of wild type was lower than that of the mutant during this stage. These DEGs were mainly clustered into five pathways: metabolic pathways, plant-pathogen interaction, spliceosome, biosynthesis of plant hormones and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids. Therefore, the expression profiles of the genes that are involved in abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid metabolism and signal transduction pathways were analyzed during the six fruit ripening stages. The results revealed the regulation mechanism of sweet orange fruit ripening metabolism in the following four aspects: First, the more mature orange fruits were, the lower the transcription levels were. Second, the expression level of PME boosted with the maturity of the citrus fruit. Therefore, the expression level of PME might represent the degree of the orange fruit ripeness. Third, the interaction of PP2C, PYR/PYL, and SnRK2 was peculiar to the orange fruit ripening process. Fourth, abscisic acid, sucrose, and jasmonic acid all took part in orange fruit ripening process and might interact with each other. These findings provide an insight into the intricate process of sweet orange fruit ripening.

  14. Crystal structures of wild-type Trichoderma reesei Cel7A catalytic domain in open and closed states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodenheimer, Annette M. [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA; Meilleur, Flora [Molecular and Structural Biochemistry Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC USA; Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN USA

    2016-11-07

    Trichoderma reesei Cel7A efficiently hydrolyses cellulose. We report here the crystallographic structures of the wild-type TrCel7A catalytic domain (CD) in an open state and, for the first time, in a closed state. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate that the loops along the CD tunnel move in concerted motions. Together, the crystallographic and MD data suggest that the CD cycles between the tense and relaxed forms that are characteristic of work producing enzymes. Analysis of the interactions formed by R251 provides a structural rationale for the concurrent decrease in product inhibition and catalytic efficiency measured for product-binding site mutants.

  15. The expression analysis of cysteine proteinase-like protein in wild-type and nm2 mutant silkworm (Lepidoptera: Bombyx mori).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Kang, Lequn; Wang, Pingyang; Zhao, Qiaoling

    2016-07-15

    The mutant of non-molting in the 2nd instar (nm2) is a recently discovered mutant of Bombyx mori. The mutant cannot molt and exuviate and died successively in premolting of 2nd instar. In this study, two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed to screen the differential expression of epidermis proteins in pre-molting larvae of 2nd instar between the wild-type and nm2 mutant. Interestingly, a cysteine proteinase-like (BmCP-like) protein in nm2 was significantly higher than that of the wild-type. The transcription profiles of BmCP-like gene were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and the result revealed that BmCP-like mRNA was remarkably higher in nm2 than that of the wild-type. The transcription level of BmCP-like was high in the epidermis while low in the midgut and hemocytes, and fluctuate with development, while the highest in the newly molted larvae of 3rd and lowest in the pre-molting of the 1st and 2nd instar. The body of injected BmCP-like RNAi of 2nd larvae formed a dark spots around the injection place. These results suggested the BmCP-like gene play a key role in the degradation of the cuticle and epidermis layer during molting of 1st and 2nd instar silkworm. Furthermore, the ORF of BmCP-like gene in nm2 was the same to the wild-type. These studies give us a hint that BmCP-like gene maybe not the major gene responsible for nm2, but BmCP-like gene might participate in the immune systems of silkworm, and the upregulation of BmCP-like transcription in the nm2 mutant might be induced by the disadvantages that limit the growth and development of silkworm in order to survive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of the Prion Protein Family Member Shadoo Causes Drug Hypersensitivity That Is Diminished by the Coexpression of the Wild Type Prion Protein*

    OpenAIRE

    Nyeste, Antal; Bencsura, Petra; Vida, István; Hegyi, Zoltán; Homolya, László; Fodor, Elfrieda; Welker, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) seems to exert both neuroprotective and neurotoxic activities. The toxic activities are associated with the C-terminal globular parts in the absence of the flexible N terminus, specifically the hydrophobic domain (HD) or the central region (CR). The wild type prion protein (PrP-WT), having an intact flexible part, exhibits neuroprotective qualities by virtue of diminishing many of the cytotoxic effects of these mutant prion proteins (PrPΔHD and PrPΔCR) when coexpressed...

  17. Quadruple wild-type (WT) GIST: defining the subset of GIST that lacks abnormalities of KIT, PDGFRA, SDH, or RAS signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, Maria A; Nannini, Margherita; Corless, Christopher L; Heinrich, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    A subset of GISTs lack mutations in the KIT/PDGFRA or RAS pathways and yet retain an intact succinate dehydrogensase (SDH) complex. We propose that these KIT/PDGFRA/SDH/RAS-P WT GIST tumors be designated as quadruple wild-type (WT) GIST. Further molecular and clinicophatological characterization of quadruple WT GIST will help to determine their prognosis as well as assist in the optimization of medical management, including clinical test of novel therapies. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Increasing levels of wild-type CREB up-regulates several activity-regulated inhibitor of death (AID genes and promotes neuronal survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yan-Wei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein is the prototypical signal-regulated transcription factor. In neurons, it is the target of the synaptic activity-induced nuclear calcium-calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK IV signaling pathway that controls the expression of genes important for acquired neuroprotection as well as other long-lasting adaptive processes in the nervous system. The function of CREB as a transcriptional activator is controlled by its phosphorylation on serine 133, which can be catalyzed by CaMKIV and leads to the recruitment of the co-activator, CREB binding protein (CBP. Activation of CBP function by nuclear calcium-CaMKIV signaling is a second regulatory step required for CREB/CBP-mediated transcription. Results Here we used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV to increase the levels of wild type CREB or to overexpress a mutant version of CREB (mCREB containing a serine to alanine mutation at position amino acid 133 in mouse hippocampal neurons. Increasing the levels of CREB was sufficient to boost neuroprotective activity even under basal conditions (i.e., in the absence of stimulation of synaptic activity. In contrast, overexpression of mCREB increased cell death. The ratio of phospho(serine 133CREB to CREB immunoreactivity in unstimulated hippocampal neurons was similar for endogenous CREB and overexpressed wild type CREB and, as expected, dramatically reduced for overexpressed mCREB. A gene expression analysis revealed that increased expression of CREB but not that of mCREB in hippocampal neurons led to elevated expression levels of bdnf as well as that of several members of a previously characterized set of Activity-regulated Inhibitor of Death (AID genes, which include atf3, btg2, gadd45β, and gadd45γ. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the expression levels of wild type CREB are a critical determinant of the ability of hippocampal neurons to survive harmful conditions

  19. Pulmonary hypertension in wild type mice and animals with genetic deficit in KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wandall-Frostholm

    Full Text Available In vascular biology, endothelial KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels contribute to arterial blood pressure regulation by producing membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. The role of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels in the pulmonary circulation is not fully established. Using mice with genetically encoded deficit of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels, this study investigated the effect of loss of the channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.Male wild type and KCa3.1-/-/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia for four weeks to induce pulmonary hypertension. The degree of pulmonary hypertension was evaluated by right ventricular pressure and assessment of right ventricular hypertrophy. Segments of pulmonary arteries were mounted in a wire myograph for functional studies and morphometric studies were performed on lung sections. Chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased lung weight, and increased hematocrit levels in either genotype. The KCa3.1-/-/KCa2.3T/T(+DOX mice developed structural alterations in the heart with increased right ventricular wall thickness as well as in pulmonary vessels with increased lumen size in partially- and fully-muscularized vessels and decreased wall area, not seen in wild type mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia up-regulated the gene expression of the KCa2.3 channel by twofold in wild type mice and increased by 2.5-fold the relaxation evoked by the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel activator NS309, whereas the acetylcholine-induced relaxation - sensitive to the combination of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channel blockers, apamin and charybdotoxin - was reduced by 2.5-fold in chronic hypoxic mice of either genotype.Despite the deficits of the KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 channels failed to change hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, the up-regulation of KCa2.3-gene expression and increased NS309-induced relaxation in wild-type mice point to a novel mechanism to counteract pulmonary

  20. Pulmonary Hypertension in Wild Type Mice and Animals with Genetic Deficit in KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall-Frostholm, Christine; Skaarup, Lykke Moran; Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu

    2014-01-01

    mice with genetically encoded deficit of K(Ca)2.3 and K(Ca)3.1 channels, this study investigated the effect of loss of the channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary