WorldWideScience

Sample records for wild strawberry fragaria

  1. Karyotype analysis in octoploid and decaploid wild strawberries, Fragaria (Rosaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 20 wild species of strawberries in the genus Fragaria (Rosaceae), have a euploid series including diploid (2n = 2x = 14) through decaploid (2n = 10x = 70) members. Karyotyping has not been thoroughly examined. The objective of this research was to determine the chromosomal morphology and karyoty...

  2. Genetic analysis of the wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) volatile composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, María; Rambla, José L; Alexiou, Konstantinos G; Granell, Antonio; Monfort, Amparo

    2017-12-01

    The volatile composition of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) fruit differs from that of the cultivated strawberry, having more intense and fruity aromas. Over the last few years, the diploid F. vesca has been recognized as a model species for genetic studies of cultivated strawberry (F. x ananassa), and here a previously developed F. vesca/F. bucharica Near Isogenic Line collection (NIL) was used to explore genetic variability of fruit quality traits. Analysis of fruit volatiles by GC-MS in our NIL collection revealed a complex and highly variable profile. One hundred compounds were unequivocally identified, including esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, terpenoids, furans and lactones. Those in a subset, named key volatile compounds (KVCs), are likely contributors to the special aroma/flavour of wild strawberry. Genetic analysis revealed 50 major quantitative trait loci (QTL) including 14 QTL for KVCs, and one segregating as a dominant monogenetic trait for nerolidol. The most determinant regions affecting QTLs for KVCs, were mapped on LG5 and LG7. New candidate genes for the volatile QTL are proposed, based on differences in gene expression between NILs containing specific fragments of F. bucharica and the F. vesca recurrent genome. A high percentage of these candidate genes/alleles were colocalized within the boundaries of introgressed regions that contain QTLs, appearing to affect volatile metabolite accumulation acting in cis. A NIL collection is a good tool for the genetic dissection of volatile accumulation in wild strawberry fruit and a source of information for genes and alleles which may enhance aroma in cultivated strawberry. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  3. Karyotype Analysis in Wild Diploid, Tetraploid, and Hexaploid Strawberries, Fragaria (Rosaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Strawberry, genus Fragaria (Rosaceae) has a basic chromosome count of x = 7, and is comprised of 20 wild species having an euploid series from diploid (2n = 2x = 14) through decaploid (2n = 10x = 70). Few karyotypes of species in this genus have been reported. The objective of this research was ...

  4. Cardiovascular effects in vitro of aqueous extract of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudnic, I; Modun, D; Brizic, I; Vukovic, J; Generalic, I; Katalinic, V; Bilusic, T; Ljubenkov, I; Boban, M

    2009-05-01

    In contrast to the strawberry fruits, strawberry leaves as a source of bioactive compounds with potentially beneficial biological effects have been largely overlooked. In this study we examined direct, dose-dependent effects of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca, L.) leaves aqueous extract, in two experimental models and animal species, the isolated guinea pig hearts and rat aortic rings. Vasodilatory potential of the wild strawberry leaves extract was compared with vasodilatory activity of aqueous extract of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha, L) leaves with flowers, which can be regarded as a reference plant extract with a marked vasodilatory activity. The extracts were analysed by their "phenolic fingerprints", total phenolic content and antioxidative capacity. Their vasodilatory activity was determined and compared in the isolated aortic rings from 24 rats that were exposed to the extracts doses of 0.06, 0.6, 6, and 60 mg/100ml. Both extracts induced similar, dose-dependent vasodilation. Maximal relaxation was 72.2+/-4.4% and 81.3+/-4.5%, induced by the strawberry and hawthorn extract, respectively. To determine vasodilatory mechanisms of the wild strawberry leaves extract, endothelium-denuded and intact rings exposed to nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME or cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin were used. Removal of the endothelium prevented and exposure to L-NAME or indomethacin strongly diminished the vasodilatatory response to the extract. In the isolated hearts (n=12), the wild strawberry extract was applied at concentrations of 0.06, 0.18, 0.6, and 1.8 mg/100ml. Each dose was perfused for 3.5 min with 15 min of washout periods. Heart contractility, electrophysiological activity, coronary flow and oxygen consumption were continuously monitored. The extract did not significantly affect heart rate and contractility, main parameters of the cardiac action that determine oxygen demands, while coronary flow increased up to 45% over control value with a

  5. on Albion strawberry (Fragaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... Albion strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivar plantlets induction. Rudi Hari Murti1, Samir C. Debnath2 .... plantlet regeneration protocol of this cultivar on a nutrient medium containing IBA and high concentration of TDZ. ..... for rapid regeneration and transformation. Planta 224:1058-1067. Hanhineva K ...

  6. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Roberto; Sabbadini, Silvia; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) can be achieved by using the Agrobacterium-mediated procedure on leaves from in vitro proliferated shoots. Regardless of the sufficient regeneration levels achieved from leaf explants of some commercial strawberry genotypes, the regeneration of transformed strawberry plants remains difficult and seems to be strongly genotype dependent. In fact, the main factors that play an important role in the success of strawberry genetic transformation are the availability of an efficient regeneration protocol and of an appropriate selection procedure of the putative transgenic shoots. The strawberry genetic transformation protocol herein described relates to three genotypes resulted from our experience with the highest regeneration and transformation efficiency. The study includes two octoploid Fragaria × ananassa cultivars, Sveva and Calypso, and a diploid F. vesca cultivar (Alpina W.O.). All the different steps related to the leaf tissue Agrobacterium infection, coculture, and selection of regenerating adventitious shoots, as well as the following identification of selected lines able to proliferate and root on the selective agent (kanamycin), will be described.

  7. Combining 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, the major flower volatile of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, with the aggregation pheromone of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi improves attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibe, Atle; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin; Cross, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    were also unsuccessful. This paper reports the finding that addition of the major flower volatile from wild strawberry flowers [Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae)], 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (comprising 98% of the volatiles emitted from wild strawberry flowers), to the aggregation pheromone increased trap catches...

  8. Partial demethylation of oligogalacturonides by pectin methyl esterase 1 is required for eliciting defence responses in wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Sonia; Castillejo, Cristina; Quesada, Miguel A; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Brownsey, Geoff J; Suau, Rafael; Heredia, Antonio; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2008-04-01

    In addition to the role of the cell wall as a physical barrier against pathogens, some of its constituents, such as pectin-derived oligogalacturonides (OGA), are essential components for elicitation of defence responses. To investigate how modifications of pectin alter defence responses, we expressed the fruit-specific Fragaria x ananassa pectin methyl esterase FaPE1 in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca. Pectin from transgenic ripe fruits differed from the wild-type with regard to the degree and pattern of methyl esterification, as well as the average size of pectin polymers. Purified oligogalacturonides from the transgenic fruits showed a reduced degree of esterification compared to oligogalacturonides from wild-type fruits. This reduced esterification is necessary to elicit defence responses in strawberry. The transgenic F. vesca lines had constitutively activated pathogen defence responses, resulting in higher resistance to the necrotropic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Further studies in F. vesca and Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that the elicitation capacity of the oligogalacturonides is more specific than previously envisaged.

  9. Multilocus Sex Determination Revealed in Two Populations of Gynodioecious Wild Strawberry, Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Tennessen, Jacob A; Dalton, Rebecca M; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Koski, Matthew H; Liston, Aaron

    2015-10-19

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of females and hermaphrodites, occurs in 20% of angiosperm families and often enables transitions between hermaphroditism and dioecy. Clarifying mechanisms of sex determination in gynodioecious species can thus illuminate sexual system evolution. Genetic determination of gynodioecy, however, can be complex and is not fully characterized in any wild species. We used targeted sequence capture to genetically map a novel nuclear contributor to male sterility in a self-pollinated hermaphrodite of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata from the southern portion of its range. To understand its interaction with another identified locus and possibly additional loci, we performed crosses within and between two populations separated by 2000 km, phenotyped the progeny and sequenced candidate markers at both sex-determining loci. The newly mapped locus contains a high density of pentatricopeptide repeat genes, a class commonly involved in restoration of fertility caused by cytoplasmic male sterility. Examination of all crosses revealed three unlinked epistatically interacting loci that determine sexual phenotype and vary in frequency between populations. Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata represents the first wild gynodioecious species with genomic evidence of both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in sex determination. We propose a model for the interactions between these loci and new hypotheses for the evolution of sex determining chromosomes in the subdioecious and dioecious Fragaria. Copyright © 2015 Ashman et al.

  10. Isolation and characterization of mRNAs differentially expressed during ripening of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Y W; Tichit, L; Leperlier, M; Cuerq, B; Marty, I; Lelièvre, J M

    1999-02-01

    Wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) is an attractive model system for studying ripening in non-climacteric fruit, because of its small diploid genome, its short reproductive cycle, and its capacity for transformation. We have isolated eight ripening-induced cDNAs from this species after differential screening of a cDNA library. The predicted polypeptides of seven of the clones exhibit similarity to database protein sequences, including acyl carrier protein, caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, sesquiterpene cyclase, major latex protein, cystathionine gamma-synthase, dehydrin and an auxin-induced gene. A ninth cDNA clone that was constitutively expressed is predicted to encode a metallothionein-like protein. None of these proteins appear to be directly related to events generally associated with ripening such as cell wall metabolism or the accumulation of sugars and pigments, rather, their putative functions are indicative of the wide range of processes upregulated during fruit ripening.

  11. Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2012-07-01

    Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering.

  12. Genome re-annotation of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca using extensive Illumina- and SMRT-based RNA-seq datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongping; Wei, Wei; Feng, Jia; Luo, Huifeng; Pi, Mengting; Liu, Zhongchi; Kang, Chunying

    2017-09-23

    The genome of the wild diploid strawberry species Fragaria vesca, an ideal model system of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, octoploid) and other Rosaceae family crops, was first published in 2011 and followed by a new assembly (Fvb). However, the annotation for Fvb mainly relied on ab initio predictions and included only predicted coding sequences, therefore an improved annotation is highly desirable. Here, a new annotation version named v2.0.a2 was created for the Fvb genome by a pipeline utilizing one PacBio library, 90 Illumina RNA-seq libraries, and 9 small RNA-seq libraries. Altogether, 18,641 genes (55.6% out of 33,538 genes) were augmented with information on the 5' and/or 3' UTRs, 13,168 (39.3%) protein-coding genes were modified or newly identified, and 7,370 genes were found to possess alternative isoforms. In addition, 1,938 long non-coding RNAs, 171 miRNAs, and 51,714 small RNA clusters were integrated into the annotation. This new annotation of F. vesca is substantially improved in both accuracy and integrity of gene predictions, beneficial to the gene functional studies in strawberry and to the comparative genomic analysis of other horticultural crops in Rosaceae family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  13. The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Sargent, Daniel J; Crowhurst, Ross N; Mockler, Todd C; Folkerts, Otto; Delcher, Arthur L; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Liston, Aaron; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Burns, Paul; Davis, Thomas M; Slovin, Janet P; Bassil, Nahla; Hellens, Roger P; Evans, Clive; Harkins, Tim; Kodira, Chinnappa; Desany, Brian; Crasta, Oswald R; Jensen, Roderick V; Allan, Andrew C; Michael, Todd P; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Celton, Jean-Marc; Rees, D Jasper G; Williams, Kelly P; Holt, Sarah H; Ruiz Rojas, Juan Jairo; Chatterjee, Mithu; Liu, Bo; Silva, Herman; Meisel, Lee; Adato, Avital; Filichkin, Sergei A; Troggio, Michela; Viola, Roberto; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Wang, Hao; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Elser, Justin; Raja, Rajani; Priest, Henry D; Bryant, Douglas W; Fox, Samuel E; Givan, Scott A; Wilhelm, Larry J; Naithani, Sushma; Christoffels, Alan; Salama, David Y; Carter, Jade; Lopez Girona, Elena; Zdepski, Anna; Wang, Wenqin; Kerstetter, Randall A; Schwab, Wilfried; Korban, Schuyler S; Davik, Jahn; Monfort, Amparo; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Arus, Pere; Mittler, Ron; Flinn, Barry; Aharoni, Asaph; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Salzberg, Steven L; Dickerman, Allan W; Velasco, Riccardo; Borodovsky, Mark; Veilleux, Richard E; Folta, Kevin M

    2011-02-01

    The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14), is a versatile experimental plant system. This diminutive herbaceous perennial has a small genome (240 Mb), is amenable to genetic transformation and shares substantial sequence identity with the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and other economically important rosaceous plants. Here we report the draft F. vesca genome, which was sequenced to ×39 coverage using second-generation technology, assembled de novo and then anchored to the genetic linkage map into seven pseudochromosomes. This diploid strawberry sequence lacks the large genome duplications seen in other rosids. Gene prediction modeling identified 34,809 genes, with most being supported by transcriptome mapping. Genes critical to valuable horticultural traits including flavor, nutritional value and flowering time were identified. Macrosyntenic relationships between Fragaria and Prunus predict a hypothetical ancestral Rosaceae genome that had nine chromosomes. New phylogenetic analysis of 154 protein-coding genes suggests that assignment of Populus to Malvidae, rather than Fabidae, is warranted.

  14. Florivory increases selfing: an experimental study in the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, L; Collin, C L; Ashman, T-L

    2009-01-01

    Florivores are antagonists that damage flowers, and have direct negative effects on flowering and pollination of the attacked plants. While florivory has mainly been studied for its consequences on seed production or siring success, little is known about its impact on mating systems. Damage to flowers can alter pollinator attraction to the plant and may therefore modify patterns of pollen transfer. However, the consequences of damage for mating systems can take two forms: a decrease in flower number reduces opportunities for intra-inflorescence pollen deposition (geitonogamy), which, in turn, may lead to a decrease in selfing; whereas a decrease in floral display may also reduce overall visitation and thus increase the chances of self-pollination via facilitated or autonomous autogamy. We investigated the effects of damage by a bud-clipping weevil (Anthonomus signatus) in Fragaria virginiana in an experimental setting mimicking natural conditions. We found that increased damage led to an increase in selfing, a result consistent with the increased autogamy pathway. We discuss the implications of this finding and evaluate the generality of florivore-mediated mating system expression.

  15. The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Sargent, Daniel J; Crowhurst, Ross N; Mockler, Todd C; Folkerts, Otto; Delcher, Arthur L; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Liston, Aaron; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Burns, Paul; Davis, Thomas M; Slovin, Janet P; Bassil, Nahla; Hellens, Roger P; Evans, Clive; Harkins, Tim; Kodira, Chinnappa; Desany, Brian; Crasta, Oswald R; Jensen, Roderick V; Allan, Andrew C; Michael, Todd P; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Celton, Jean-Marc; Rees, D Jasper G; Williams, Kelly P; Holt, Sarah H; Ruiz Rojas, Juan Jairo; Chatterjee, Mithu; Liu, Bo; Silva, Herman; Meisel, Lee; Adato, Avital; Filichkin, Sergei A; Troggio, Michela; Viola, Roberto; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Wang, Hao; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Elser, Justin; Raja, Rajani; Priest, Henry D; Bryant, Douglas W; Fox, Samuel E; Givan, Scott A; Wilhelm, Larry J; Naithani, Sushma; Christoffels, Alan; Salama, David Y; Carter, Jade; Girona, Elena Lopez; Zdepski, Anna; Wang, Wenqin; Kerstetter, Randall A; Schwab, Wilfried; Korban, Schuyler S; Davik, Jahn; Monfort, Amparo; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Arus, Pere; Mittler, Ron; Flinn, Barry; Aharoni, Asaph; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Salzberg, Steven L; Dickerman, Allan W; Velasco, Riccardo; Borodovsky, Mark; Veilleux, Richard E; Folta, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14), is a versatile experimental plant system. This diminutive herbaceous perennial has a small genome (240 Mb), is amenable to genetic transformation and shares substantial sequence identity with the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and other economically important rosaceous plants. Here we report the draft F. vesca genome, which was sequenced to ×39 coverage using second-generation technology, assembled de novo and then anchored to the genetic linkage map into seven pseudochromosomes. This diploid strawberry sequence lacks the large genome duplications seen in other rosids. Gene prediction modeling identified 34,809 genes, with most being supported by transcriptome mapping. Genes critical to valuable horticultural traits including flavor, nutritional value and flowering time were identified. Macrosyntenic relationships between Fragaria and Prunus predict a hypothetical ancestral Rosaceae genome that had nine chromosomes. New phylogenetic analysis of 154 protein-coding genes suggests that assignment of Populus to Malvidae, rather than Fabidae, is warranted. PMID:21186353

  16. Survival of Xanthomonas fragariae on common materials found in strawberry nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas fragariae causes strawberry angular leaf spot, an important disease in strawberry nursery production. To identify potential inoculum sources, the ability of X. fragariae to survive was examined on 10 common materials typically associated with strawberry nurseries (cardboard, glass, latex...

  17. FaRXf1: a locus conferring resistance to angular leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas fragariae in octoploid strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angular leaf spot caused by Xanthomonas fragariae is the only major bacterial disease of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa). While this disease may cause reductions of up to 8 % of marketable yield in Florida winter annual production, no resistant cultivars have been commercialized. Wild acc...

  18. Differentiation of the strawberry species (Fragaria L.) in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Katja

    2016-01-01

    In Slovenian nature, there are three species of strawberries: Fragaria viridis, Fragaria vesca and Fragaria moschata. Even though the species are not very similar, it is difficult to determine the species with Slovenian identification key Mala flora Slovenije (Martinčič et al., 2007). Therefore I made a new key (based on foreign literature and my own observation) which includes more discriminative morphological characters. It can be used to identify fresh plants as well as herbarium material ...

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Expression of WRKY Family Genes in Different Developmental Stages of Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heying; Li, Yuxuan; Zhang, Qing; Ren, Suyue; Shen, Yuanyue; Qin, Ling; Xing, Yu

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins play important regulatory roles in plant developmental processes such as senescence, trichome initiation and embryo morphogenesis. In strawberry, only FaWRKY1 (Fragaria × ananassa) has been characterized, leaving numerous WRKY genes to be identified and their function characterized. The publication of the draft genome sequence of the strawberry genome allowed us to conduct a genome-wide search for WRKY proteins in Fragaria vesca, and to compare the identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. Fifty-nine FvWRKY genes were identified and annotated from the F. vesca genome. Detailed analysis, including gene classification, annotation, phylogenetic evaluation, conserved motif determination and expression profiling, based on RNA-seq data, were performed on all members of the family. Additionally, the expression patterns of the WRKY genes in different fruit developmental stages were further investigated using qRT-PCR, to provide a foundation for further comparative genomics and functional studies of this important class of transcriptional regulators in strawberry.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Expression of WRKY Family Genes in Different Developmental Stages of Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heying Zhou

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins play important regulatory roles in plant developmental processes such as senescence, trichome initiation and embryo morphogenesis. In strawberry, only FaWRKY1 (Fragaria × ananassa has been characterized, leaving numerous WRKY genes to be identified and their function characterized. The publication of the draft genome sequence of the strawberry genome allowed us to conduct a genome-wide search for WRKY proteins in Fragaria vesca, and to compare the identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. Fifty-nine FvWRKY genes were identified and annotated from the F. vesca genome. Detailed analysis, including gene classification, annotation, phylogenetic evaluation, conserved motif determination and expression profiling, based on RNA-seq data, were performed on all members of the family. Additionally, the expression patterns of the WRKY genes in different fruit developmental stages were further investigated using qRT-PCR, to provide a foundation for further comparative genomics and functional studies of this important class of transcriptional regulators in strawberry.

  1. FragariaCyc: A Metabolic Pathway Database for Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naithani, Sushma; Partipilo, Christina M.; Raja, Rajani; Elser, Justin L.; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    FragariaCyc is a strawberry-specific cellular metabolic network based on the annotated genome sequence of Fragaria vesca L. ssp. vesca, accession Hawaii 4. It was built on the Pathway-Tools platform using MetaCyc as the reference. The experimental evidences from published literature were used for supporting/editing existing entities and for the addition of new pathways, enzymes, reactions, compounds, and small molecules in the database. To date, FragariaCyc comprises 66 super-pathways, 488 unique pathways, 2348 metabolic reactions, 3507 enzymes, and 2134 compounds. In addition to searching and browsing FragariaCyc, researchers can compare pathways across various plant metabolic networks and analyze their data using Omics Viewer tool. We view FragariaCyc as a resource for the community of researchers working with strawberry and related fruit crops. It can help understanding the regulation of overall metabolism of strawberry plant during development and in response to diseases and abiotic stresses. FragariaCyc is available online at http://pathways.cgrb.oregonstate.edu. PMID:26973684

  2. PRODUCING STRAWBERRY (Fragaria chiloensis) DEHYDRATED Spray and lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Pérez, A.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos.; Rojas Ayerve, T.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of dehydration of strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis 1 .) ha ve been studied: spray-drying and freezedrying. It has been found that the optimum sequence for the drying operation is as follows: selection/classification , washing, steaming, pulp-extraction, conditioning and freeze-drying. The efficiency over the total solids obtained with this method is 86.48% compared to 66.02% when using spray-drying. The strawberry pulp was conditioned by water dilution of 1:1. For spray-drying, t...

  3. Genes for and molecular markers linked with resistance to Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.; Henken, B.; Haymes, K.M.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    A gene-for-gene model is presented which explains interactions between cultivars of strawberry and races of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, the causal agent of red core (red stele) root rot. The model allows the constitution of a universal differential set of strawberry genotypes and the

  4. A New Perspective on Polyploid Fragaria (Strawberry) Genome Composition Based on Large-Scale, Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yilong; Davis, Thomas M

    2017-12-01

    The subgenomic compositions of the octoploid (2n = 8× = 56) strawberry (Fragaria) species, including the economically important cultivated species Fragaria x ananassa, have been a topic of long-standing interest. Phylogenomic approaches utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies offer a new window into species relationships and the subgenomic compositions of polyploids. We have conducted a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Fragaria (strawberry) species using the Fluidigm Access Array system and 454 sequencing platform. About 24 single-copy or low-copy nuclear genes distributed across the genome were amplified and sequenced from 96 genomic DNA samples representing 16 Fragaria species from diploid (2×) to decaploid (10×), including the most extensive sampling of octoploid taxa yet reported. Individual gene trees were constructed by different tree-building methods. Mosaic genomic structures of diploid Fragaria species consisting of sequences at different phylogenetic positions were observed. Our findings support the presence in octoploid species of genetic signatures from at least five diploid ancestors (F. vesca, F. iinumae, F. bucharica, F. viridis, and at least one additional allele contributor of unknown identity), and questions the extent to which distinct subgenomes are preserved over evolutionary time in the allopolyploid Fragaria species. In addition, our data support divergence between the two wild octoploid species, F. virginiana and F. chiloensis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Cryopreservation of in vitro shoot tips of strawberry by the vitrification method - establishment of a duplicate collection of Fragaria germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The National German Strawberry Genebank, which includes 183 cultivars and 270 accessions of wild Fragaria species, is maintained in a field collection of the Fruit Genebank at Dresden-Pillnitz. A duplicate collection stored in liquid nitrogen would provide a higher level of security for these irreplaceable genetic resources. Four distinct cryopreservation protocols were tested earlier and the best method, a PVS2 vitrification method with a 14-day alternating-temperature cold acclimation, was modified for further genotype screening. A comprehensive genotype spectrum was tested by screening 107 Fragaria ×ananassa cultivars and 20 Fragaria wild species (51 accessions). The average recovery for the cultivars using the optimized medium was 89.55 % and for the wild species 85.50 %. These results indicate that the method could be used to establish a backup collection in liquid nitrogen. Meristem cultures will be established and the collection will be cryopreserved using this vitrification technique to provide cost effective long-term storage.

  6. Validation of reference transcripts in strawberry (Fragaria spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Maureen A; Rosli, Hernan G; Chamala, Srikar; Barbazuk, W Brad; Civello, P Marcos; Folta, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Contemporary methods to assay gene expression depend on a stable set of reference transcripts for accurate quantitation. A lack of well-tested reference genes slows progress in characterizing gene expression in high-value specialty crops. In this study, a set of strawberry (Fragaria spp.) constitutively expressed reference genes has been identified by merging digital gene expression data with expression profiling. Constitutive reference candidates were validated using quantitative PCR and hybridization. Several transcripts have been identified that show improved stability across tissues relative to traditional reference transcripts. Results are similar between commercial octoploid strawberry and the diploid model. Our findings also show that while some never-before-used references are appropriate for most applications, even the most stable reference transcripts require careful assessment across the diverse tissues and fruit developmental states before being adopted as controls.

  7. Selection of experimental strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) hybrids based on selection indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, S D; de Souza, D C; Martins, I A; Ribeiro, G H M R; Resende, L V; Ferraz, A K L; Galvão, A G; de Resende, J T V

    2017-03-08

    The strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.), is the only vegetable belonging to the rosacea family. All strawberry species have now emerged from wild species and belong to the genus Fragaria, being that this genus presents more than 45 described species, and only 11 are considered natural species. Due to the octoploid nature of strawberry and its variability after hybridization, selecting one or more characters may result in unfavorable genotypes and even the exclusion of promising ones, because negative genetic correlations have been observed among them that cause inefficient selection. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of selection indices in selecting experimental strawberry hybrids for in natura consumption and processing. Seven commercial cultivars and 103 hybrids were used, which were obtained from populations derived from their crossings. The experiment was conducted in augmented blocks, in which four agronomical traits (total mass, amount of commercial fruit, amount of noncommercial fruit, and average fruit mass) and seven physical-chemical traits (soluble solids, soluble solids:titratable acidity ratio, total sugars, total pectin, vigor, and internal and external coloration) were evaluated. For hybrid selection, the following indices were used: Mulamba and Mock (1978), Smith (1936), Hazel (1943), and genotype-ideotype, which selected 20% of the genotypes evaluated. The three indices selected about 9% of the hybrids. The selection of two experimental hybrids (89 and 495) and the use of selection indices resulted in larger estimates of selection gains. The Mulamba and Mock (1978), Smith (1936), and Hazel (1943) indices had the highest percentage of gains on selection, and are therefore recommended for the selection of strawberry clones.

  8. Molecular characterization of a stable antisense chalcone synthase phenotype in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenbein, S.; Coiner, H.; Vos, de C.H.; Schaart, J.G.; Boone, M.J.; Krens, F.A.; Schwab, W.; Salentijn, E.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    An octaploid (Fragaria × ananassa cv. Calypso) genotype of strawberry was transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct using a ripening related CHS cDNA from Fragaria × ananassa cv. Elsanta under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  9. Engineering the anthocyanin regulatory complex of strawberry (Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui eLin-Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca is a model fruit for a number of rosaceous crops. We have engineered altered concentrations of anthocyanin in F. vesca, to determine the impact on plant growth and fruit quality. Anthocyanin concentrations were significantly increased by over-expression or decreased by knock-down of the R2R3 MYB activator, MYB10. In contrast, a potential bHLH partner for MYB10 (bHLH33 did not affect the anthocyanin pathway when knocked down using RNAi constructs. Metabolic analysis of fruits revealed that, of all the polyphenolics surveyed, only cyanidin and pelargonidin glucoside, and coumaryl hexose were significantly affected by over-expression and knock down of MYB10. Using the F. vesca genome sequence, members of the MYB, bHLH and WD40 families were examined. Global analysis of gene expression and targeted qPCR analysis of biosynthetic genes and regulators confirmed the effects of altering MYB10 expression, as well as the knock-down of bHLH33. Other members of the MYB transcription factor family were affected by the transgenes. Transient expression of strawberry genes in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that MYB10 can auto-regulate itself, and potential repressors of MYB10. In tobacco, MYB10’s activation of biosynthetic steps is inhibited by the strawberry repressor MYB1.

  10. Reprogramming of Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Root Transcriptome in Response to Phytophthora cactorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toljamo, Anna; Blande, Daniel; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Kokko, Harri

    2016-01-01

    Crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum) causes significant economic losses in strawberry production. The best control strategy would be to use resistant cultivars, but polygenically inherited resistance makes the breeding of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) challenging. The diploid wild strawberry Fragaria vesca Hawaii 4 genotype was shown previously to have resistance against crown rot. To explore the resistance mechanisms, we inoculated the roots of Hawaii 4 with P. cactorum in a novel in vitro hydroponic system to minimize interference caused by other microbes. Major reprogramming of the root transcriptome occurred, involving 30% of the genes. The surveillance system of the plant shifted from the development mode to the defense mode. Furthermore, the immune responses as well as many genes involved in the biosynthesis of the defense hormones jasmonic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid were up-regulated. Several major allergen-like genes encoding PR-10 proteins were highly expressed in the inoculated plants, suggesting that they also have a crucial role in the defense responses against P. cactorum. Additionally, flavonoids and terpenoids may be of vital importance, as several genes involved in their biosynthesis were up-regulated. The cell wall biosynthesis and developmental processes were down-regulated, possibly as a result of the down-regulation of the key genes involved in the biosynthesis of growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids and auxin. Of particular interest was the expression of potential resistance genes in the recently identified P. cactorum resistance locus RPc-1. These new findings help to target the breeding efforts aiming at more resistant strawberry cultivars.

  11. Characterization of major enzymes and genes involved in flavonoid and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis during fruit development in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, J.R.; Amico, d' E.; Preuss, A.; Carbone, F.; Vos, de C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins was studied in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) by combining biochemical and molecular approaches. Chemical analyses showed that ripe strawberries accumulate high amounts of pelargonidin-derived anthocyanins, and a larger pool of

  12. Chloride improves fruit yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellof, Svenja; Schubert, Sven

    2009-01-01

    As a micronutrient chlorine fulfills several important functions in plant growth and photosynthesis. Nevertheless, strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is characterized as a chloride-sensitive species. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of a moderate chloride nutrition on fruit yield and quality of strawberry. In the first experiment, strawberry plants were fertilized with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 g K per plant, given either as KCl or K2SO4. In addition, macronutrients ...

  13. Re-annotation of the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Omar; Shahan, Rachel; Liu, Zhongchi; Slovin, Janet P; Alkharouf, Nadim W

    2015-01-27

    Fragaria vesca is a low-growing, small-fruited diploid strawberry species commonly called woodland strawberry. It is native to temperate regions of Eurasia and North America and while it produces edible fruits, it is most highly useful as an experimental perennial plant system that can serve as a model for the agriculturally important Rosaceae family. A draft of the F. vesca genome sequence was published in 2011 [Nat Genet 43:223,2011]. The first generation annotation (version 1.1) were developed using GeneMark-ES+[Nuc Acids Res 33:6494,2005]which is a self-training gene prediction tool that relies primarily on the combination of ab initio predictions with mapping high confidence ESTs in addition to mapping gene deserts from transposable elements. Based on over 25 different tissue transcriptomes, we have revised the F. vesca genome annotation, thereby providing several improvements over version 1.1. The new annotation, which was achieved using Maker, describes many more predicted protein coding genes compared to the GeneMark generated annotation that is currently hosted at the Genome Database for Rosaceae ( http://www.rosaceae.org/ ). Our new annotation also results in an increase in the overall total coding length, and the number of coding regions found. The total number of gene predictions that do not overlap with the previous annotations is 2286, most of which were found to be homologous to other plant genes. We have experimentally verified one of the new gene model predictions to validate our results. Using the RNA-Seq transcriptome sequences from 25 diverse tissue types, the re-annotation pipeline improved existing annotations by increasing the annotation accuracy based on extensive transcriptome data. It uncovered new genes, added exons to current genes, and extended or merged exons. This complete genome re-annotation will significantly benefit functional genomic studies of the strawberry and other members of the Rosaceae.

  14. North American crop wild relatives of temperate berries (Fragaria L., Ribes L., Rubus L., and Vaccinium L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The crop wild relatives of temperate berry species abound on the North American continent; >170 species are endemic in North America. The development and production of berry crops, such as strawberries (Fragaria L.), currants and gooseberries (Ribes L.), raspberries and blackberries (Rubus L.), blue...

  15. Epidemiology and Control of Strawberry Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Xanthomonas fragariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ran Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bacterial angular leaf spot (ALS disease, caused by Xanthomonas fragariae has become increasingly problematic in the strawberry agro-industry. ALS causes small angular water-soaked lesions to develop on the abaxial leaf surface. Studies reported optimum temperature conditions for X. fragariae are 20°C and the pathogen suffers mortality above 32°C. However, at the nursery stage, disease symptoms have been observed under high temperature conditions. In the present study, results showed X. fragariae transmission was via infected maternal plants, precipitation, and sprinkler irrigation systems. Systemic infections were detected using X. fragariae specific primers 245A/B and 295A/B, where 300-bp and 615-bp were respectively amplified. During the nursery stage (from May to August, the pathogen was PCR detected only in maternal plants, but not in soil or irrigation water through the nursery stage. During the cultivation period, from September to March, the pathogen was detected in maternal plants, progeny, and soil, but not in water. Additionally, un-infected plants, when planted with infected plants were positive for X. fragariae via PCR at the late cultivation stage. Chemical control for X. fragariae with oxolinic acid showed 87% control effects against the disease during the nursery period, in contrast to validamycin-A, which exhibited increased efficacy against the disease during the cultivation stage (control effect 95%. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological study of X. fragariae in Korean strawberry fields.

  16. Wild Bee Community Composition and Foraging Behaviour in Commercial Strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Erica Juel

    in the field (II) and the influence of crop variety on preference for pollen and nectar (III). Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa DUCH.) was used as a model crop for field studies (I, II, III). Strawberry yield and quality are both considerably increased from insect pollination and strawberry is grown throughout...

  17. Clarifying the identity of the main ellagitannin in the fruit of the strawberry, Fragaria vesca and Fragaria ananassa Duch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovsek, Urska; Guella, Graziano; Gasperotti, Mattia; Pojer, Elisa; Zancato, Mirella; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2012-03-14

    Although the composition of strawberry fruit has been extensively studied, especially for the most abundant phenolic compounds, agrimoniin has never been univocally identified as one of the most abundant phenolic compounds in the fruit. In this study agrimoniin was isolated in the fruit of Fragaria vesca and its structure characterized. Furthermore, its presence was definitively established to be the main ellagitannin in both F. vesca and Fragaria ananassa D. fruit. The presence of sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C as minor compounds was confirmed in both F. vesca and F. ananassa D. samples. For the first time here is reported the full NMR assignments for agrimoniin. These data should represent a point of reference for NMR analysis of this and other structurally related ellagitannins. Finally, the establishment of an HPLC protocol for separation provided information making it possible to avoid confusion with sanguiin H-6, the main ellagitannin in Rubus species, which is also present in strawberries but at a much lower concentration.

  18. Metabolic Response of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) Leaves Exposed to the Angular Leaf Spot Bacterium (Xanthomonas fragariae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Sun; Jin, Jong Sung; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2016-03-09

    Plants have evolved various defense mechanisms against biotic stress. The most common mechanism involves the production of metabolites that act as defense compounds. Bacterial angular leaf spot disease (Xanthomonas fragariae) of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) has become increasingly destructive to strawberry leaves and plant production. In this study, we examined metabolic changes associated with the establishment of long-term bacterial disease stress using UPLC-QTOF mass spectrometry. Infected leaves showed decreased levels of gallic acid derivatives and ellagitannins, which are related to the plant defense system. The levels of phenylalanine, tryptophan, and salicylic acid as precursors of aromatic secondary metabolites were increased in inoculated leaves, whereas levels of coumaric acid, quinic acid, and flavonoids were decreased in infected plants, which are involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway. In addition, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway, was decreased following infection. These results suggest that long-term bacterial disease stress may lead to down-regulation of select molecules of the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway in strawberry leaves. This approach could be applied to explore the metabolic pathway associated with plant protection/breeding in strawberry leaves.

  19. Whole genome sequences of the raspberry and strawberry pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of t...

  20. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of four aphid-borne strawberry viruses in Fragaria spp. in combination with a plant mRNA specific internal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, J.R.; Wetzel, S.; Klerks, M.M.; Vasková, D.; Schoen, C.D.; Spak, J.; Jelkmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    The principal aphid-borne viruses infecting Strawberry (Fragaria spp.) Strawberry crinkle virus (SCV), Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV), Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV) and Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) can cause serious crop losses. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcriptase

  1. The comparison of phenotypic characteristics of current varieties and wild species of Fragaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skender Azra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the major pomological and antioxidant properties of fruits which are comparatively studied in wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L., taken from natural habitats and commercially important varieties that are grown in the Una - Sana Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina: Marmolada, Clery, Maya, Arosa and Elsanta. The aim was also to point out the potential superiority of the wild forms, how rich they are in vitamin C, phenol and anthocyanin, in order to be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The results of analyzing the contents of vitamin C and the total phenols of fruit indicate that a wild strawberry has significantly higher antioxidant content of these components than all the commercial varieties tested. The content of vitamin C in fruits of a wild strawberry was 72 mg/100g and the phenol content 94.8 mg/100g. Their inclusion in breeding programs can provide significant potential to create varieties which will possess a better fruit quality with a higher content of antioxidant components. A wild strawberry is a significant genetic potential of particular importance for conservation and biodiversity of certain areas, as well as for the selection and breeding of cultivated fruit trees. The highest content of the total anthocyanin of fruit is registered in Marmolada (134.7 mg/100g.

  2. Dissection of the octoploid strawberry genome by deep sequencing of the genomes of Fragaria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kosugi, Shunichi; Tashiro, Kosuke; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Kohara, Mistuyo; Watanabe, Akiko; Kishida, Yoshie; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Komaki, Akiko; Yanagi, Tomohiro; Guoxin, Qin; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Kuhara, Satoru; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is octoploid and shows allogamous behaviour. The present study aims at dissecting this octoploid genome through comparison with its wild relatives, F. iinumae, F. nipponica, F. nubicola, and F. orientalis by de novo whole-genome sequencing on an Illumina and Roche 454 platforms. The total length of the assembled Illumina genome sequences obtained was 698 Mb for F. x ananassa, and ∼200 Mb each for the four wild species. Subsequently, a virtual reference genome termed FANhybrid_r1.2 was constructed by integrating the sequences of the four homoeologous subgenomes of F. x ananassa, from which heterozygous regions in the Roche 454 and Illumina genome sequences were eliminated. The total length of FANhybrid_r1.2 thus created was 173.2 Mb with the N50 length of 5137 bp. The Illumina-assembled genome sequences of F. x ananassa and the four wild species were then mapped onto the reference genome, along with the previously published F. vesca genome sequence to establish the subgenomic structure of F. x ananassa. The strategy adopted in this study has turned out to be successful in dissecting the genome of octoploid F. x ananassa and appears promising when applied to the analysis of other polyploid plant species.

  3. Identification, isolation, and expression analysis of heat shock transcription factors in the diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Wei, Wei; Li, Ya-Juan; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Yu-Rong; Zhao, Feng-Li; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are known to play dominant roles in plant responses to heat, as well as other abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. While the strawberry is an economically important fruit plant, little is known about the Hsf family in the strawberry. To explore the functions of strawberry Hsfs in abiotic and biotic stress responses, this study identified 17 Hsf genes (FvHsfs) in a wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14) and isolated 14 of these genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided the strawberry FvHsfs genes into three main groups. The evolutionary and structural analyses revealed that the FvHsf family is conserved. The promoter sequences of the FvHsf genes contain upstream regulatory elements corresponding to different stress stimuli. In addition, 14 FvHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 17 FvHsf genes in wild diploid woodland strawberries under various conditions, including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, drought, and salt), biotic stress (powdery mildew infection), and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid). Fifteen of the seventeen FvHsf genes exhibited distinct changes on the transcriptional level during heat treatment. Of these 15 FvHsfs, 8 FvHsfs also exhibited distinct responses to other stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for further studies to dissect FvHsf function in response to stress stimuli.

  4. Identification, Isolation, and Expression Analysis of Heat Shock Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eHu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs are known to play dominant roles in plant responses to heat, as well as other abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. While the strawberry is an economically important fruit plant, little is known about the Hsf family in the strawberry. To explore the functions of strawberry Hsfs in abiotic and biotic stress responses, this study identified 17 Hsf genes (FvHsfs in a wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14 and isolated 14 of these genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided the strawberry FvHsfs genes into three main groups. The evolutionary and structural analyses revealed that the FvHsf family is conserved. The promoter sequences of the FvHsf genes contain upstream regulatory elements corresponding to different stress stimuli. In addition, 14 FvHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 17 FvHsf genes in wild diploid woodland strawberries under various conditions, including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, drought, and salt, biotic stress (powdery mildew infection, and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. Fifteen of the 17 FvHsf genes exhibited distinct changes on the transcriptional level during heat treatment. Of these 15 FvHsfs, 8 FvHsfs also exhibited distinct responses to other stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for further studies to dissect FvHsf function in response to stress stimuli.

  5. Comparative Transcriptomics of Strawberries (Fragaria spp.) Provides Insights into Evolutionary Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Xue, Li; Wang, Qia; Sun, Hang; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Jinling; Lei, Jiajun; Zhang, Ticao

    2016-01-01

    Multiple closely related species with genomic sequences provide an ideal system for studies on comparative and evolutionary genomics, as well as the mechanism of speciation. The whole genome sequences of six strawberry species (Fragaria spp.) have been released, which provide one of the richest genomic resources of any plant genus. In this study, we first generated seven transcriptome sequences of Fragaria species de novo, with a total of 48,557-82,537 unigenes per species. Combined with 13 other species genomes in Rosales, we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree at the genomic level. The phylogenic tree shows that Fragaria closed grouped with Rubus and the Fragaria clade is divided into three subclades. East Asian species appeared in every subclade, suggesting that the genus originated in this area at ∼7.99 Mya. Four species found in mountains of Southwest China originated at ∼3.98 Mya, suggesting that rapid speciation occurred to adapt to changing environments following the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Moreover, we identified 510 very significantly positively selected genes in the cultivated species F. × ananassa genome. This set of genes was enriched in functions related to specific agronomic traits, such as carbon metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction processes, which are directly related to fruit quality and flavor. These findings illustrate comprehensive evolutionary patterns in Fragaria and the genetic basis of fruit domestication of cultivated strawberry at the genomic/transcriptomic level.

  6. Comparative transcriptomics of strawberries (Fragaria spp. provides insights into evolutionary patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple closely related species with genomic sequences provide an ideal system for studies on comparative and evolutionary genomics, as well as the mechanism of speciation. The whole genome sequences of six strawberry species (Fragaria have been released, which provide one of the richest genomic resources of any plant genus. In this study, we first generated seven transcriptome sequences of Fragaria species de novo, with a total of 48,557–82,537 unigenes per species. Combined with 13 other species genomes in Rosales, we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree at the genomic level. The phylogenic tree shows that Fragaria closed grouped with Rubus and the Fragaria clade is divided into three subclades.East Asian species appeared in every subclade, suggesting that the genus originated in this area at ~7.99 Mya. Four species found in mountains of Southwest China originated at ~3.98 Mya, suggesting that rapid speciation occurred to adapt to changing environments following the uplift of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Moreover, we identified 510 very significantly positively selected genes in the cultivated species F. × ananassa genome. This set of genes was enriched in functions related to specific agronomic traits, such as carbon metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction processes, which are directly related to fruit quality and flavor. These findings illustrate comprehensive evolutionary patterns in Fragaria and the genetic basis of fruit domestication of cultivated strawberry at the genomic/transcriptomic level.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Localization of Flavonoid Metabolites in Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crecelius, Anna C; Hölscher, Dirk; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schneider, Bernd; Fischer, Thilo C; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Flachowsky, Henryk; Schwab, Wilfried; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2017-05-03

    Flavonoids are important metabolites in strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa) because they accomplish an extensive collection of physiological functions and are valuable for human health. However, their localization within the fruit tissue has not been extensively explored. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) was employed to shed light on the spatial distribution of flavonoids during fruit development. One wild-type (WT) and two transgenic lines were compared, wherein the transgenic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANRi) and flavonol synthase (FLSi), respectively, were down-regulated using an RNAi-based silencing approach. In most cases, fruit development led to a reduction of the investigated flavonoids in the fruit tissue; as a consequence, they were exclusively present in the skin of mature red fruits. In the case of (epi)catechin dimer, both the ANRi and the WT phenotypes revealed low levels in mature red fruits, whereas the ANRi line bore the lowest relative concentration, as analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization multiple-step mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS n ).

  8. Live substrate positively affects root growth and stolon direction in the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Marie Waters; Maxine eWatson

    2015-01-01

    Studies of clonal plant foraging generally focus on growth responses to patch quality once rooted. Here we explore the possibility of true plant foraging; the ability to detect and respond to patch resource status prior to rooting. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the morphological changes that occur when individual daughter ramets of Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry) were exposed to air above live (non-sterilized) or dead (sterilized) substrates. Contact between da...

  9. "Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae" Is the Prevalent Agent of Marginal Chlorosis of Strawberry in French Production Fields and Is Transmitted by the Planthopper Cixius wagneri (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danet, Jean-Luc; Foissac, Xavier; Zreik, Leyla; Salar, Pascal; Verdin, Eric; Nourrisseau, Jean-Georges; Garnier, Monique

    2003-06-01

    ABSTRACT Marginal chlorosis has affected strawberry production in France for about 15 years. A phloem-restricted uncultured bacterium, "Candidatus Phlomobacter fragariae," is associated with the disease. A large-scale survey for marginal chlorosis in French strawberry production fields and nurseries by polymerase chain reaction amplification of "Ca. P. fragariae" 16S rDNA revealed that symptoms of marginal chlorosis were not always induced by "Ca. P. fragariae" and that the stolbur phytoplasma could induce identical symptoms. "Ca. P. fragariae" was found to be predominant in strawberry production fields, whereas the stolbur phytoplasma was predominantly detected in nurseries. Two transmission periods of the disease, one in spring and the other from late summer to early fall, were evident. Cixius wagneri planthoppers captured on infected strawberry plants were demonstrated to be efficient vectors of "Ca. P. fragariae." The involvement in natural disease spread of the whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, previously shown to acquire and multiply "Ca. P. fragariae" under greenhouse conditions, remains uncertain.

  10. Identification and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa defense responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Amil-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria spp is an emerging model for the development of basic genomics and recombinant DNA studies among rosaceous crops. Functional genomic and molecular studies involve relative quantification of gene expression under experimental conditions of interest. Accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of an optimal reference control transcript. There is no information available on validated endogenous reference genes for use in studies testing strawberry-pathogen interactions. Thirteen potential pre-selected strawberry reference genes were tested against different tissues, strawberry cultivars, biotic stresses, ripening and senescent conditions, and SA/JA treatments. Evaluation of reference candidate's suitability was analyzed by five different methodologies, and information was merged to identify best reference transcripts. A combination of all five methods was used for selective classification of reference genes. The resulting superior reference genes, FaRIB413, FaACTIN, FaEF1α and FaGAPDH2 are strongly recommended as control genes for relative quantification of gene expression in strawberry. This report constitutes the first systematic study to identify and validate optimal reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in strawberry plant defense response studies.

  11. Identification and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) defense responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Folta, Kevin M; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria spp) is an emerging model for the development of basic genomics and recombinant DNA studies among rosaceous crops. Functional genomic and molecular studies involve relative quantification of gene expression under experimental conditions of interest. Accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of an optimal reference control transcript. There is no information available on validated endogenous reference genes for use in studies testing strawberry-pathogen interactions. Thirteen potential pre-selected strawberry reference genes were tested against different tissues, strawberry cultivars, biotic stresses, ripening and senescent conditions, and SA/JA treatments. Evaluation of reference candidate's suitability was analyzed by five different methodologies, and information was merged to identify best reference transcripts. A combination of all five methods was used for selective classification of reference genes. The resulting superior reference genes, FaRIB413, FaACTIN, FaEF1α and FaGAPDH2 are strongly recommended as control genes for relative quantification of gene expression in strawberry. This report constitutes the first systematic study to identify and validate optimal reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in strawberry plant defense response studies.

  12. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry ( Fragaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of strawberry cvs Aromas and Diamante were removed from the field in cold acclimated (CA, January) and non-acclimated (NA, July) stages. Crown parts of the plant were used for analysis. Apoplastic total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars and sucrose contents did not change in both cultivars in both sampling ...

  13. The WRKY transcription factors in the diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca: Identification and expression analysis under biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-08-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant growth and development. To date, little is known about the WRKY gene family in strawberry. In this study, we identified 62 WRKY genes (FvWRKYs) in the wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14) accession Heilongjiang-3. According to the phylogenetic analysis and structural features, these identified strawberry FvWRKY genes were classified into three main groups. In addition, eight FvWRKY-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 62 FvWRKY genes in 'Heilongjiang-3' under various conditions, including biotic stress (Podosphaera aphanis), abiotic stresses (drought, salt, cold, and heat), and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid). The expression levels of 33 FvWRKY genes were upregulated, while 12 FvWRKY genes were downregulated during powdery mildew infection. FvWRKY genes responded to drought and salt treatment to a greater extent than to temperature stress. Expression profiles derived from quantitative real-time PCR suggested that 11 FvWRKY genes responded dramatically to various stimuli at the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Interaction networks revealed that the crucial pathways controlled by WRKY proteins may be involved in the differential response to biotic stress. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for future studies of the genetic modification of WRKY genes for pathogen resistance and stress tolerance in strawberry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaf extract on diabetic nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Doaa S; Abd El-Maksoud, Marwa A E

    2015-04-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by albuminuria, hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaf extract on diabetic nephropathy in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats were orally treated with three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of strawberry leaf extract for 30 days. Nephropathy biomarkers in plasma and kidney were examined at the end of the experiment. The three doses of strawberry leaf extract significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, kidney injury molecule (Kim)-1, renal malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)- 6 and caspase-3 in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, the levels of plasma insulin, albumin, uric acid, renal catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were significantly elevated in diabetic rats treated with strawberry leaf extract. These results indicate the role of strawberry leaves extract as anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2015 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  15. Effect of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaf extract on diabetic nephropathy in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Doaa S; Abd El-Maksoud, Marwa A E

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a clinical syndrome characterized by albuminuria, hypertension and progressive renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaf extract on diabetic nephropathy in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats were orally treated with three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of strawberry leaf extract for 30 days. Nephropathy biomarkers in plasma and kidney were examined at the end of the experiment. The three doses of strawberry leaf extract significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, kidney injury molecule (Kim)-1, renal malondialdehyde (MDA), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)- 6 and caspase-3 in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, the levels of plasma insulin, albumin, uric acid, renal catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) were significantly elevated in diabetic rats treated with strawberry leaf extract. These results indicate the role of strawberry leaves extract as anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25645466

  16. Chromosome numbers and flow cytometry of strawberry wild relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR), Corvallis, Ore., maintains the national collection for strawberry (Fragaria L.) germplasm. The goal of this genebank is to acquire, conserve and evaluate species to represent the worldwide...

  17. Enhancement of nutritional and bioactive compounds by in vitro culture of wild Fragaria vesca L. vegetative parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-11-15

    In vitro culture emerges as a sustainable way to produce bioactives for further applicability in the food industry. Herein, vegetative parts of Fragaria vesca L. (wild strawberry) obtained by in vitro culture were analyzed regarding nutritional and phytochemical compounds, as well as antioxidant activity. These samples proved to have higher content of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, soluble sugars, organic acids (including ascorbic acid) and tocopherols (mainly α-tocopherol) than wild grown F. vesca, as well as containing additional phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of hydromethanolic extracts could be correlated with the content of different phenolic groups and other compounds (sugars and organic acids). It was demonstrated that in vitro culture could enhance nutritional and bioactive compounds of Fragaria vesca L. plants, providing a very interesting biotechnological tool for potential food applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic dissection of the (poly)phenol profile of diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) fruits using a NIL collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Maria; Schwab, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Thomas; Monfort, Amparo

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been recognized as a model species for applied research of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) that is one of the most economically important crops. Berries, particularly strawberries, are known for their high antioxidant capacity due to a high concentration of (poly) phenolic compounds. Studies have already characterized the phenolic composition of fruits from sets of cultivated strawberries but the quantification of phenolics in a Fragaria mapping population has not been reported, yet. The metabolite profiling of a F. vesca near isogenic line (NIL) collection by LC-MS allowed the unambiguous identification of 22 (poly)-phenols, including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, flavanones, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and ellagic acid in the diploid strawberry fruit. The variability in the collection revealed that the genetic factor was more decisive than the environmental factor for the accumulation of 18 of the 24 compounds. Genotyping the NIL collection with the Axiom® IStraw90® SNPs array, we were able to map 76 stable QTLs controlling accumulation of the (poly)-phenolic compounds. They provide a powerful new tool to characterise candidate genes to increase the antioxidant capacity of fruits and produce healthier strawberries for consumers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-scale transcriptomic insights into early-stage fruit development in woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-06-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle's surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development.

  20. Profiling polyphenols of two diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) inbred lines using UHPLC-HRMS(n.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Liu, Xianjin; Yang, Tianbao; Slovin, Janet; Chen, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Phenolic compounds in the fruits of two diploid strawberries (Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens) inbred lines-Ruegen F7-4 (a red-fruited genotype) and YW5AF7 (a yellow-fruited genotype) were characterised using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS(n)). The changes of anthocyanin composition during fruit development and between Ruegen F7-4 and YW5AF7 were studied. About 67 phenolic compounds, including taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside, glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, ellagic acid derivatives, and other flavonols were identified in these two inbred lines. Compared to the regular octoploid strawberry, unique phenolic compounds were found in F. vesca fruits, such as taxifolin 3-O-arabinoside (both) and peonidin 3-O-malonylglucoside (Ruegen F7-4). The results provide the basis for comparative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in yellow and red diploid strawberries, as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberries. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Metabolic profiling of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) during fruit development and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Wang, Xin; Yu, Oliver; Tang, Juanjuan; Gu, Xungang; Wan, Xiaochun; Fang, Congbing

    2011-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch), a fruit of economic and nutritional importance, is also a model species for fleshy fruits and genomics in Rosaceae. Strawberry fruit quality at different harvest stages is a function of the fruit's metabolite content, which results from physiological changes during fruit growth and ripening. In order to investigate strawberry fruit development, untargeted (GC-MS) and targeted (HPLC) metabolic profiling analyses were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to explore the non-polar and polar metabolite profiles from fruit samples at seven developmental stages. Different cluster patterns and a broad range of metabolites that exerted influence on cluster formation of metabolite profiles were observed. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found in both fruits turning red and fruits over-ripening in comparison with red-ripening fruits. The levels of free amino acids decreased gradually before the red-ripening stage, but increased significantly in the over-ripening stage. Metabolite correlation and network analysis revealed the interdependencies of individual metabolites and metabolic pathways. Activities of several metabolic pathways, including ester biosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the shikimate pathway, and amino acid metabolism, shifted during fruit growth and ripening. These results not only confirmed published metabolic data but also revealed new insights into strawberry fruit composition and metabolite changes, thus demonstrating the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit quality formation, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops.

  2. A FERONIA-Like Receptor Kinase Regulates Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Fruit Ripening and Quality Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Meiru; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Qing; Xing, Sinian; Wei, Lingzhi; Zhao, Yaoyao; Du, Ping; Mao, Wenwen; Li, Jizheng; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2017-01-01

    Ripening of fleshy fruits is controlled by a series of intricate signaling processes. Here, we report a FERONIA/FER-like receptor kinase, FaMRLK47, that regulates both strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit ripening and quality formation. Overexpression and RNAi-mediated downregulation of FaMRLK47 delayed and accelerated fruit ripening, respectively. We showed that FaMRLK47 physically interacts with FaABI1, a negative regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling, and demonstrated that FaMRLK47 regulates fruit ripening by modulating ABA signaling, a major pathway governing strawberry fruit ripening. In accordance with these findings, overexpression and RNAi-mediated downregulation of FaMRLK47 caused a decrease and increase, respectively, in the ABA-induced expression of a series of ripening-related genes. Additionally, overexpression and RNAi-mediated downregulation of FaMRLK47 resulted in an increase and decrease in sucrose content, respectively, as compared with control fruits, and respectively promoted and inhibited the expression of genes in the sucrose biosynthesis pathway (FaSS and FaSPS). Collectively, this study demonstrates that FaMRLK47 is an important regulator of strawberry fruit ripening and quality formation, and sheds light on the signaling mechanisms underlying strawberry fruit development and ripening. PMID:28702036

  3. Genomic identification of bZIP family genes involved in drought and heat stresses in strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes are known to play dominant roles in plant response to development signals, as well as abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. Fifty bZIP genes across the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome were identified and analyzed. They can be divided into 10 clades according...

  4. Tissue-specific expression of the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in transgenic strawberry (Fragaria Xananassa) plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Krens, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    The strawberry ( Fragaria spp) is regarded as a false fruit because it originates from the receptacle, which is a non-ovarian tissue. For this reason, fruit-specific promoters isolated from plant species in which the fruit is derived from the ovary wall might not be suited to control gene expression

  5. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and sample preparation procedure for sensitive detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. Asymptomatic infections are common and contribute to the difficulties in disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with a bacterial enrichment proced...

  6. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying eYeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and a peroxidase (POD27 gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS-, independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR, FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS-/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries.

  7. Novel and recently evolved miRNA clusters regulate expansive F-box gene networks through phasiRNAs in wild diploid strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca, has recently emerged as an excellent model for investigating flower and fruit traits in economically important fruit crops. Its history of physiological studies combined with sequenced genome and a full complement of molecular genetic tools facilitate investigat...

  8. Generation and analysis of ESTs from strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) fruits and evaluation of their utility in genetic and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombarely, Aureliano; Merchante, Catharina; Csukasi, Fabiana; Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Caballero, José L; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Botella, Miguel A; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2010-09-17

    Cultivated strawberry is a hybrid octoploid species (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne ex. Rozier) whose fruit is highly appreciated due to its organoleptic properties and health benefits. Despite recent studies on the control of its growth and ripening processes, information about the role played by different hormones on these processes remains elusive. Further advancement of this knowledge is hampered by the limited sequence information on genes from this species, despite the abundant information available on genes from the wild diploid relative Fragaria vesca. However, the diploid species, or one ancestor, only partially contributes to the genome of the cultivated octoploid. We have produced a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different cDNA libraries prepared from different fruit parts and developmental stages. The collection has been analysed and the sequence information used to explore the involvement of different hormones in fruit developmental processes, and for the comparison of transcripts in the receptacle of ripe fruits of diploid and octoploid species. The study is particularly important since the commercial fruit is indeed an enlarged flower receptacle with the true fruits, the achenes, on the surface and connected through a network of vascular vessels to the central pith. We have sequenced over 4,500 ESTs from Fragaria xananassa, thus doubling the number of ESTs available in the GenBank of this species. We then assembled this information together with that available from F. xananassa resulting a total of 7,096 unigenes. The identification of SSRs and SNPs in many of the ESTs allowed their conversion into functional molecular markers. The availability of libraries prepared from green growing fruits has allowed the cloning of cDNAs encoding for genes of auxin, ethylene and brassinosteroid signalling processes, followed by expression studies in selected fruit parts and developmental stages. In addition, the sequence information generated in

  9. Flower and early fruit development in a diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollender, Courtney A; Geretz, Aviva C; Slovin, Janet P; Liu, Zhongchi

    2012-06-01

    The diploid woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, is being recognized as a model for the more complex octoploid commercial strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa. F. vesca exhibits a short seed to seed cycle, can be easily transformed by Agrobacteria, and a draft genome sequence has been published. These features, together with its similar flower structure, potentially make F. vesca a good model for studying the flower development of other members of the Rosaceae family, which contains many economically important fruit trees and ornamental plants. To propel F. vesca's role in genetic and genomic research and to facilitate the study of its reproductive development, we have investigated in detail F. vesca flower and early fruit development using a seventh generation inbred diploid line, Yellow Wonder 5AF7. We present here standardized developmental staging and detailed descriptions of morphological changes associated with flower and early fruit development based on images of hand dissected flowers, histological sections, and scanning electron microscopy. In situ hybridization with the F. vesca AGAMOUS homolog, FvAG, showed expression in young stamen and carpel primordia. This work lays the essential groundwork and standardization for future molecular, genetic, and genomic studies of F. vesca.

  10. Antioxidant and Sunscreen Activities of Ethanol Extract of Strawberry Leaves (Fragaria x ananassa A.N. Duchesne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti Widyastuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry fruit extract contains polyphenols compounds, which have antioxidant activity and may inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study attempted to see activity from leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa A.N. Duchesne does also have antioxidant activity and sunscreen. Antioxidant testing using the DPPH method with comparative of vitamin C. The result showed IC50 values of ethanol extract of the leaves of strawberries 363.551 ppm and for vitamin C 33.573 ppm . On testing the activity as a sunscreen using spectrophotometric method wherein the ethanol extract of the leaves of strawberries have SPF values above 15 at a concentration of 175 ppm , which amounted to 20.090 with erythema percentage of 5.496 and 5.074 percentage by pigmentation. It can be concluded from the ethanol extract of leaves of strawberry has antioxidant activity and sunscreen.

  11. The use of nested PCR in the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Phytophthora fragariae and P. cactorum in strawberry,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacourt, I.; Bonants, P.J.M.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.; Cooke, D.E.L.; Hagenaar-de Weerdt, M.; Surplus, L.; Duncan, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae Hickman, which causes red core disease of strawberry, is a quarantine organism on which a nil tolerance is placed. Detection of the fungus is by a root tip bait test which is highly specific and sensitive but time-consuming (5–6 weeks), has to be done at 12°C

  12. A ddRAD Based Linkage Map of the Cultivated Strawberry, Fragaria xananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davik, Jahn; Sargent, Daniel James; Brurberg, May Bente; Lien, Sigbjørn; Kent, Matthew; Alsheikh, Muath

    2015-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is an allo-octoploid considered difficult to disentangle genetically due to its four relatively similar sub-genomic chromosome sets. This has been alleviated by the recent release of the strawberry IStraw90 whole genome genotyping array. However, array resolution relies on the genotypes used in the array construction and may be of limited general use. SNP detection based on reduced genomic sequencing approaches has the potential of providing better coverage in cases where the studied genotypes are only distantly related from the SNP array's construction foundation. Here we have used double digest restriction-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD) to identify SNPs in a 145 seedling F1 hybrid population raised from the cross between the cultivars Sonata (♀) and Babette (♂). A linkage map containing 907 markers which spanned 1,581.5 cM across 31 linkage groups representing the 28 chromosomes of the species. Comparing the physical span of the SNP markers with the F. vesca genome sequence, the linkage groups resolved covered 79% of the estimated 830 Mb of the F. × ananassa genome. Here, we have developed the first linkage map for F. × ananassa using ddRAD and show that this technique and other related techniques are useful tools for linkage map development and downstream genetic studies in the octoploid strawberry.

  13. Botrytis fragariae, a New Species Causing Gray Mold on Strawberries, Shows High Frequencies of Specific and Efflux-Based Fungicide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Sabrina; Plesken, Cecilia; Rumsey, Sibylle; Dowling, Madeline; Schnabel, Guido; Weber, Roland W. S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Botrytis cinerea causes pre- and postharvest decay of many fruit and vegetable crops. A survey of German strawberry fields revealed Botrytis strains that differed from B. cinerea in diagnostic PCR markers and growth appearance. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these strains belong to an undescribed species in Botrytis clade 2, named Botrytis fragariae sp. nov. Isolates of B. fragariae were detected in strawberry fields throughout Germany, sometimes at frequencies similar to those of B. cinerea, and in the southeastern United States. B. fragariae was isolated from overwintering strawberry tissue but not from freshly infected fruit. B. fragariae invaded strawberry tissues with an efficiency similar to or lower than that of B. cinerea but showed poor colonization of inoculated nonhost plant tissues. These data and the exclusive occurrence of this fungus on strawberry plants indicate that B. fragariae is host specific and has a tissue preference different from that of B. cinerea. Various fungicide resistance patterns were observed in B. fragariae populations. Many B. fragariae strains showed resistance to one or several chemical classes of fungicides and an efflux-based multidrug resistance (MDR1) phenotype previously described in B. cinerea. Resistance-related mutations in B. fragariae were identical or similar to those of B. cinerea for carbendazim (E198A mutation in tubA), azoxystrobin (G143A in cytB), iprodione (G367A+V368F in bos1), and MDR1 (gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factor mrr1 gene and overexpression of the drug efflux transporter gene atrB). The widespread occurrence of B. fragariae indicates that this species is adapted to fungicide-treated strawberry fields and may be of local importance as a gray mold pathogen alongside B. cinerea. IMPORTANCE Gray mold is the most important fruit rot on strawberries worldwide and requires fungicide treatments for control. For a long time, it was believed to be caused only by Botrytis cinerea

  14. A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Sample Preparation Procedure for Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in Strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hehe; Turechek, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. Asymptomatic infection is common and contributes to the difficulties in disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay as an efficient method for detection of asymptomatic infections of X. fragariae. In addition, a new method of sample preparation was developed that allows sampling of a larger amount of plant tissue, hence increasing the detection rate in real-life samples. The sample preparation procedure includes an overnight incubation of strawberry tissues in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), followed by a quick sample concentration and a boiling step to extract DNA for amplification. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 2×103 CFU/mL for pure bacteria culture and 300 CFU/mL for bacteria spiked strawberry leaf and petiole samples. LAMP provided a 2–3 fold lower detection limit than the standard qPCR assay but was faster, and more user-friendly. The LAMP assay should serve as a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective tool for detecting asymptomatic infections of X. fragariae in strawberry nursery stock and contribute to improved disease management. PMID:26766068

  15. Correlation between Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) Productivity and Photosynthesis-Related Parameters under Various Growth Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo G; Moon, Byoung Y; Kang, Nam J

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic parameters and fruit yields, as well as fruit phytochemical accumulation of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) that had been cultivated in a greenhouse under different combinations of light intensity and temperature. In plants grown with low light (LL) photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence was found to increase as compared with those grown under high light (HL). When strawberry plants were grown with temperature higher than 5°C in addition to LL, they showed decrease in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), photochemical quenching (qP), as well as chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (RFd) when compared with other combinations of light and temperature. Moreover, fruit yield of strawberry was closely correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence-related parameters such as NPQ, qP, and RFd, but not with the maximum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm). Although plant groups grown under different combinations of light and temperature showed almost comparable levels of photosynthesis rates (Pr) when irradiated with low-intensity light, they displayed clear differences when measured with higher irradiances. Plants grown under HL with temperature above 10°C showed the highest Pr, in contrast to the plants grown under LL with temperature above 5°C. When the stomatal conductance and the transpiration rate were measured, plants of each treatment showed clear differences even when analyzed with lower irradiances. We also found that fruit production during winter season was more strongly influenced by growth temperature than light intensity. We suggest that fruit productivity of strawberry is closely associated with chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis-related parameters during cultivation under different regimes of temperature and light.

  16. Correlation between Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. Productivity and Photosynthesis-related Parameters under Various Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Gil Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic parameters and fruit yields, as well as fruit phytochemical accumulation of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. that had been cultivated in a greenhouse under different combinations of light intensity and temperature. In plants grown with low light (LL photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence was found to increase as compared with those grown under high light (HL. When strawberry plants were grown with temperature higher than 5◦C in addition to LL, they showed decrease in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, photochemical quenching (qP, as well as chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (RFd when compared with other combinations of light and temperature. Moreover, fruit yield of strawberry was closely correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence-related parameters such as NPQ, qP, and RFd, but not with the maximum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm. Although plant groups grown under different combinations of light and temperature showed almost comparable levels of photosynthesis rates (Pr when irradiated with low-intensity light, they displayed clear differences when measured with higher irradiances. Plants grown under HL with temperature above 10◦C showed the highest Pr, in contrast to the plants grown under LL with temperature above 5◦C. When the stomatal conductance and the transpiration rate were measured, plants of each treatment showed clear differences even when analyzed with lower irradiances. We also found that fruit production during winter season was more strongly influenced by growth temperature than light intensity. We suggest that fruit productivity of strawberry is closely associated with chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis-related parameters during cultivation under different regimes of temperature and light.

  17. Identification and Transcript Analysis of the TCP Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Cui, Meng-Yuan; Han, Yong-Tao; Gao, Kuan; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, and PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) transcription factors play versatile functions in multiple processes of plant growth and development. However, no systematic study has been performed in strawberry. In this study, 19 FvTCP genes were identified in the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) accession Heilongjiang-3. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FvTCP genes were classified into two main classes, with the second class further divided into two subclasses, which was supported by the exon-intron organizations and the conserved motif structures. Promoter analysis revealed various cis-acting elements related to growth and development, hormone and/or stress responses. We analyzed FvTCP gene transcript accumulation patterns in different tissues and fruit developmental stages. Among them, 12 FvTCP genes exhibited distinct tissue-specific transcript accumulation patterns. Eleven FvTCP genes were down-regulated in different fruit developmental stages, while five FvTCP genes were up-regulated. Transcripts of FvTCP genes also varied with different subcultural propagation periods and were induced by hormone treatments and biotic and abiotic stresses. Subcellular localization analysis showed that six FvTCP-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Notably, transient over-expression of FvTCP9 in strawberry fruits dramatically affected the expression of a series of genes implicated in fruit development and ripening. Taken together, the present study may provide the basis for functional studies to reveal the role of this gene family in strawberry growth and development. PMID:28066489

  18. Meristem culture and subsequent micropropagation of Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Karla A; Berríos, Miguel; Carrasco, Basilio; Retamales, Jorge B; Caligari, Peter D S; García-Gonzáles, Rolando

    2017-06-02

    Vegetative propagation of Fragaria sp. is traditionally carried out using stolons. This system of propagation, in addition to being slow, can spread plant diseases, particularly serious being viral. In vitro culture of meristems and the establishment of micropropagation protocols are important tools for solving these problems. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to develop in vitro propagation of the commercial strawberry in order to produce virus-free plants of high quality. These previous results can serve as the basis for developing in vitro-based propagation technologies in the less studied species Fragaria chiloensis. In this context, we studied the cultivation of meristems and establishment of a micropropagation protocol for F. chiloensis. The addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) improved the meristem regeneration efficiency of F. chiloensis accessions. Similarly, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the culture media increased the average rate of multiplication to 3-6 shoots per plant. In addition, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), had low levels (near zero) of explant losses due to oxidation. However, plant height as well as number of leaves and roots were higher in media without growth regulators, with average values of 0.5 cm, 9 leaves and 4 roots per plant. For the first time in Chilean strawberry, meristem culture demonstrated to be an efficient tool for eliminating virus from infected plants, giving the possibility to produce disease free propagation material. Also, the addition of PVP into the basal MS medium improved the efficiency of plant recovery from isolated meristems. Farmers can now access to high quality plant material produced by biotech tools which will improve their technological practices.

  19. Effect of Simulated Anthonomus signatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Injury on Strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa) Grown in Southeastern Plasticulture Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhie, Douglas; Burrack, Hannah J

    2017-02-01

    Female strawberry bud weevils (Anthonomus signatus Say) oviposit in developing flower buds of strawberries (Fragaria spp.), caneberries (Rubus spp.), and red bud (Cercis canadensis). After laying a single egg, weevils will girdle or "clip" the buds at the pedicel, killing the bud and preventing fruit development. This injury is of concern to commercial strawberry growers, who typically assume the loss of one clipped bud is the loss of one average sized fruit, causing the economic threshold to be set extremely low. There is evidence of compensation in some cultivars of strawberries, but research has previously only been conducted in perennial strawberry production. The majority of strawberries in the southeastern United States are grown in annual plasticulture systems. We assessed the ability of five strawberry cultivars commonly grown in annual plasticulture to compensate for A. signatus injury by removing buds at different growth stages. There was no effect of bud removal on total yield in any of the cultivars tested. Harvest timing was affected by simulated A. signatus damage in some cultivars, which may be an important consideration for direct market strawberry growers. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An Autotetraploid Linkage Map of Rose (Rosa hybrida) Validated Using the Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Genome Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gar, Oron; Sargent, Daniel J.; Tsai, Ching-Jung; Pleban, Tzili; Shalev, Gil; Byrne, David H.; Zamir, Dani

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28), where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC) and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG), we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM) and GG (616 cM) which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map. The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome. PMID:21647382

  1. Insight into octoploid strawberry (Fragaria) subgenome composition revealed by GISH analysis of pentaploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Davis, Thomas M

    2016-02-01

    As the product of interspecific hybridization between its two ancestral octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) species (Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana), the cultivated strawberry (F. ×ananassa) is among the most genomically complex of crop plants, harboring subgenomic components derived from as many as four different diploid ancestors. To physically visualize the octoploids' subgenome composition(s), we launched molecular cytogenetic studies using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), comparative GISH (cGISH), and rDNA-FISH techniques. First, GISH resolution in Fragaria was tested by using diploid and triploid hybrids with predetermined genome compositions. Then, observation of an octoploid genome was implemented by hybridizing chromosomes of pentaploid (2n = 5x = 35) hybrids from F. vesca × F. virginiana with genomic DNA probes derived from diploids (2n = 2x = 14) F. vesca and F. iinumae, which have been proposed by phylogenetic studies to be closely related to the octoploids yet highly divergent from each other. GISH and cGISH results indicated that octoploid-derived gametes (n = 4x = 28) carried seven chromosomes with hybridization affinities to F. vesca, while the remaining 21 chromosomes displayed varying affinities to F. iinumae, indicating differing degrees of subgenomic contribution to the octoploids by these two putatively ancestral diploids. Combined rDNA-FISH revealed severe 25S rDNA loss in both the F. vesca- and F. iinumae-like chromosome groups, while only the prior group retained its 5S loci.

  2. Live substrate positively affects root growth and stolon direction in the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marie Waters

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of clonal plant foraging generally focus on growth responses to patch quality once rooted. Here we explore the possibility of true plant foraging; the ability to detect and respond to patch resource status prior to rooting. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the morphological changes that occur when individual daughter ramets of Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry were exposed to air above live (non-sterilized or dead (sterilized substrates. Contact between daughter ramets and substrate was prohibited. Daughter ramet root biomass was significantly larger over live versus dead substrate. Root:shoot ratio also increased over live substrate, a morphological response we interpret as indicative of active nutrient foraging. Daughter ramet root biomass was positively correlated with mother ramet size over live but not dead substrate. Given the choice between a live versus a dead substrate, primary stolons extended preferentially toward live substrates. We conclude that exposure to live substrate drives positive nutrient foraging responses in Fragaria vesca. We propose that volatiles emitted from by the substrates might be effecting the morphological changes that occur during true nutrient foraging.

  3. Identification and characterization of MYB-bHLH-WD40 regulatory complexes controlling proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in strawberry (Fragaria 9 ananassa) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Dubois, C.; Romero de la Fuente, I.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Jonker, H.H.; Xu, W.; Routaboul, J.M.; Lepinice, L.; Bovy, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits contain high concentrations of flavonoids. In unripe strawberries, the flavonoids are mainly represented by proanthocyanidins (PAs), while in ripe fruits the red-coloured anthocyanins also accumulate. Most of the structural genes leading to PA biosynthesis in

  4. Premature and ectopic anthocyanin formation by silencing of anthocyanidin reductase in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thilo C; Mirbeth, Beate; Rentsch, Judith; Sutter, Corina; Ring, Ludwig; Flachowsky, Henryk; Habegger, Ruth; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a fruit crop with a distinct biphasic flavonoid biosynthesis. Whereas, in the immature receptacle, high levels of proanthocyanidins accumulate, which are associated with herbivore deterrence and pathogen defense, the prominent color-giving anthocyanins are primarily produced in ripe 'fruits' helping to attract herbivores for seed dispersal. Here, constitutive experimental down-regulation of one branch of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis was performed. As a result, the proportion of epicatechin monomeric units within the proanthocyanidin polymer chains was reduced, but this was not the case for the epicatechin starter unit. Shortened chain lengths of proanthocyanidins were also observed. All enzymatic activities for the production of color-giving anthocyanins were already present in unripe fruits at levels allowing a striking red anthocyanin phenotype in unripe fruits of the RNAi silencing lines. An immediately recognizable phenotype was also observed for the stigmata of flowers, which is another epicatechin-forming tissue. Thus, the down-regulation of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) induced a redirection of the proanthocyanidin pathway, leading to premature and ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis via enzymatic glycosylation as the alternative pathway. This redirection is also seen in flavonol biosynthesis, which is paralleled by higher pollen viability in silencing lines. ANRi transgenic lines of strawberry provide a versatile tool for the study of the biological functions of proanthocyanidins. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Inhibition of Xanthomonas fragariae, Causative Agent of Angular Leaf Spot of Strawberry, through Iron Deprivation

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    Peter Henry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial production settings, few options exist to prevent or treat angular leaf spot of strawberry, a disease of economic importance and caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae (Xfr. In the process of isolating and identifying Xfr bacteria from symptomatic plants, we observed growth inhibition of Xfr by bacterial isolates from the same leaf macerates. Identified as species of Pseudomonas and Rhizobium, these isolates were confirmed to suppress growth of Xfr in agar overlay plates and in microtiter plate cultures, as did our reference strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Screening of a transposon mutant library of KT2440 revealed that disruption of the biosynthetic pathway for the siderophore pyoverdine resulted in complete loss of Xfr antagonism, suggesting iron competition as a mode of action. Antagonism could be replicated on plate and in culture by addition of purified pyoverdine or by addition of the chelating agents tannic acid and dipyridyl, while supplementing the medium with iron negated the inhibitory effects of pyoverdine, tannic acid and dipyridyl. When co-inoculated with tannic acid onto strawberry plants, Xfr’s ability to cause foliar symptoms was greatly reduced, suggesting a possible opportunity for iron-based management of angular leaf spot. We discuss our findings in the context of ‘nutritional immunity’, the idea that plant hosts restrict pathogens access to iron, either directly, or indirectly through their associated microbiota.

  6. Functional Characterization and Substrate Promiscuity of UGT71 Glycosyltransferases from Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Gu, Le; Liu, Jingyi; Zhao, Shuai; Hong, Xiaotong; Schulenburg, Katja; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-12-01

    Glycosylation determines the complexity and diversity of plant natural products. To characterize fruit ripening-related UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) functionally in strawberry, we mined the publicly available Fragaria vesca genome sequence and found 199 putative UGT genes. Candidate UGTs whose expression levels were strongly up-regulated during fruit ripening were cloned from F.×ananassa and six were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. UGT75T1 showed very strict substrate specificity and glucosylated only galangin out of 33 compounds. The other recombinant enzymes exhibited broad substrate tolerance, accepting numerous flavonoids, hydroxycoumarins, naphthols and the plant hormone, (+)-S-abscisic acid (ABA). UGT71W2 showed the highest activity towards 1-naphthol, while UGT71A33, UGT71A34a/b and UGT71A35 preferred 3-hydroxycoumarin and formed 3- and 7-O-glucosides as well as a diglucoside from flavonols. Screening of a strawberry physiological aglycone library identified kaempferol, quercetin, ABA and three unknown natural compounds as putative in planta substrates of UGT71A33, UGT71A34a and UGT71W2. Metabolite analyses of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silenced fruits demonstrated that UGT71W2 contributes to the glycosylation of flavonols, xenobiotics and, to a minor extent, of ABA, in planta. The study showed that both specialist and generalist UGTs were expressed during strawberry fruit ripening and the latter were probably not restricted to only one function in plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Generation and analysis of ESTs from strawberry (Fragaria xananassa fruits and evaluation of their utility in genetic and molecular studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz-Blanco Juan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated strawberry is a hybrid octoploid species (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne ex. Rozier whose fruit is highly appreciated due to its organoleptic properties and health benefits. Despite recent studies on the control of its growth and ripening processes, information about the role played by different hormones on these processes remains elusive. Further advancement of this knowledge is hampered by the limited sequence information on genes from this species, despite the abundant information available on genes from the wild diploid relative Fragaria vesca. However, the diploid species, or one ancestor, only partially contributes to the genome of the cultivated octoploid. We have produced a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from different cDNA libraries prepared from different fruit parts and developmental stages. The collection has been analysed and the sequence information used to explore the involvement of different hormones in fruit developmental processes, and for the comparison of transcripts in the receptacle of ripe fruits of diploid and octoploid species. The study is particularly important since the commercial fruit is indeed an enlarged flower receptacle with the true fruits, the achenes, on the surface and connected through a network of vascular vessels to the central pith. Results We have sequenced over 4,500 ESTs from Fragaria xananassa, thus doubling the number of ESTs available in the GenBank of this species. We then assembled this information together with that available from F. xananassa resulting a total of 7,096 unigenes. The identification of SSRs and SNPs in many of the ESTs allowed their conversion into functional molecular markers. The availability of libraries prepared from green growing fruits has allowed the cloning of cDNAs encoding for genes of auxin, ethylene and brassinosteroid signalling processes, followed by expression studies in selected fruit parts and developmental stages. In

  8. Effect of different cultural systems on antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, and fruit quality of strawberries (Fragaria x aranassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow Y; Millner, Patricia

    2009-10-28

    The effect of cultivation practices for controlling strawberry black root rot (BRR) on fruit quality, antioxidant capacity, and flavonoid content in two strawberry cultivars Allstar and Chandler (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) was evaluated. Strawberry fruits used in this study were from plants grown in soils which had a prior history of BRR and red stele, and had not been fumigated during the seven years prior to the study. Results from this study showed that fruit from plants grown in compost socks had significantly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acid (TA), fructose, glucose, sucrose, malic acid, and citric acid than fruit produced in the black plastic mulch or matted row systems. Cultivar Chandler surpassed cv. Allstar in sugar content, acid content, and flavonoid content regardless of preplanting vinegar drenching and various culture treatments. However, preplanting vinegar treatment increased cyanidin-based and pelargonidin-based anthocyanins but decreased sugar content in fruits of both cultivars.

  9. An autotetraploid linkage map of rose (Rosa hybrida validated using the strawberry (Fragaria vesca genome sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oron Gar

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is a pivotal process in plant evolution as it increase gene redundancy and morphological intricacy but due to the complexity of polysomic inheritance we have only few genetic maps of autopolyploid organisms. A robust mapping framework is particularly important in polyploid crop species, rose included (2n = 4x = 28, where the objective is to study multiallelic interactions that control traits of value for plant breeding. From a cross between the garden, peach red and fragrant cultivar Fragrant Cloud (FC and a cut-rose yellow cultivar Golden Gate (GG, we generated an autotetraploid GGFC mapping population consisting of 132 individuals. For the map we used 128 sequence-based markers, 141 AFLP, 86 SSR and three morphological markers. Seven linkage groups were resolved for FC (Total 632 cM and GG (616 cM which were validated by markers that segregated in both parents as well as the diploid integrated consensus map.The release of the Fragaria vesca genome, which also belongs to the Rosoideae, allowed us to place 70 rose sequenced markers on the seven strawberry pseudo-chromosomes. Synteny between Rosa and Fragaria was high with an estimated four major translocations and six inversions required to place the 17 non-collinear markers in the same order. Based on a verified linear order of the rose markers, we could further partition each of the parents into its four homologous groups, thus providing an essential framework to aid the sequencing of an autotetraploid genome.

  10. Additive QTLs on three chromosomes control flowering time in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Samia Samad; Takeshi Kurokura; Elli Koskela; Tuomas Toivainen; Vipul Patel; Katriina Mouhu; Daniel James Sargent; Timo Hytönen

    2017-01-01

    Flowering time is an important trait that affects survival, reproduction and yield in both wild and cultivated plants. Therefore, many studies have focused on the identification of flowering time quantitative trait locus (QTLs) in different crops, and molecular control of this trait has been extensively investigated in model species. Here we report the mapping of QTLs for flowering time and vegetative traits in a large woodland strawberry mapping population that was phenotyped both under fiel...

  11. Comparative genetic mapping between octoploid and diploid Fragaria species reveals a high level of colinearity between their genomes and the essentially disomic behavior of the cultivated octoploid strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau-Gueutin, Mathieu; Lerceteau-Köhler, Estelle; Barrot, Laure; Sargent, Daniel James; Monfort, Amparo; Simpson, David; Arús, Pere; Guérin, Guy; Denoyes-Rothan, Béatrice

    2008-08-01

    Macrosynteny and colinearity between Fragaria (strawberry) species showing extreme levels of ploidy have been studied through comparative genetic mapping between the octoploid cultivated strawberry (F. xananassa) and its diploid relatives. A comprehensive map of the octoploid strawberry, in which almost all linkage groups are ranged into the seven expected homoeologous groups was obtained, thus providing the first reference map for the octoploid Fragaria. High levels of conserved macrosynteny and colinearity were observed between homo(eo)logous linkage groups and between the octoploid homoeologous groups and their corresponding diploid linkage groups. These results reveal that the polyploidization events that took place along the evolution of the Fragaria genus and the more recent juxtaposition of two octoploid strawberry genomes in the cultivated strawberry did not trigger any major chromosomal rearrangements in genomes involved in F. xananassa. They further suggest the existence of a close relationship between the diploid Fragaria genomes. In addition, despite the possible existence of residual levels of polysomic segregation suggested by the observation of large linkage groups in coupling phase only, the prevalence of linkage groups in coupling/repulsion phase clearly demonstrates that the meiotic behavior is mainly disomic in the cultivated strawberry.

  12. Live substrate positively affects root growth and stolon direction in the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erica M; Watson, Maxine A

    2015-01-01

    Studies of clonal plant foraging generally focus on growth responses to patch quality once rooted. Here we explore the possibility of true plant foraging; the ability to detect and respond to patch resource status prior to rooting. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the morphological changes that occur when individual daughter ramets of Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry) were exposed to air above live (non-sterilized) or dead (sterilized) substrates. Contact between daughter ramets and substrate was prohibited. Daughter ramet root biomass was significantly larger over live versus dead substrate. Root:shoot ratio also increased over live substrate, a morphological response we interpret as indicative of active nutrient foraging. Daughter ramet root biomass was positively correlated with mother ramet size over live but not dead substrate. Given the choice between a live versus a dead substrate, primary stolons extended preferentially toward live substrates. We conclude that exposure to live substrate drives positive nutrient foraging responses in F. vesca. We propose that volatiles emitted from the substrates might be effecting the morphological changes that occur during true nutrient foraging.

  13. Influence of plasmogenes on the productivity of morphogenesis in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

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    Jadwiga Żebrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmogenes are largely located in mitochondria or plastids and they can influence the inheritance of many plant characteristics. This phenomenon is called cytoplasmic inheritance and can be detected on the basis of the expression of a trait in progeny F1 obtained from single and reciprocal crosses. The aim of this study was to examine the cytoplasmic inheritance of in vitro productivity of morphogenesis in three genotypes of Fragaria x ananassa Duch., i.e. the cultivars 'Dukat', 'Teresa' and the breeding clone no. 590. Single and reciprocal crosses were done according to Griffi ng's method 3. The value of general combining ability (GCA indicated cv. 'Teresa' as the best maternal component for crossing and 'Dukat' as the worst. The negative reciprocal cross effects (rij revealed the cytoplasmic inheritance for cv. 'Dukat' as maternal form and positive rij for the breeding clone no. 590 indicated the nuclear inheritance of morphogenetic ability. Cv. 'Teresa', as maternal component, showed nuclear inheritance of that trait in crossing with cv. 'Dukat' and with 590 cytoplasmic inheritance. The productivity of morphogenesis in strawberry depended on the parental combination and the direction of crossing.

  14. Differential protein accumulations in isolates of the strawberry wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae differing in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangling; Barbetti, Martin J

    2014-08-28

    This study was conducted to define differences in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof) isolates with different virulence efficiency to strawberry at the proteome level, in combination with their differences in mycelial growth, conidial production and germination. Comparative proteome analyses revealed substantial differences in mycelial proteomes between Fof isolates, where the 54 differentially accumulated protein spots were consistently over-accumulated or exclusively in the highly virulent isolate. These protein spots were identified through MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses, and the identified proteins were mainly related to primary and protein metabolism, antioxidation, electron transport, cell cycle and transcription based on their putative functions. Proteins of great potential as Fof virulence factors were those involved in ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation and reactive oxygen species detoxification; the hydrolysis-related protein haloacid dehalogenase superfamily hydrolase; 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase associated with riboflavin biosynthesis; and those exclusive to the highly virulent isolate. In addition, post-translational modifications may also make an important contribution to Fof virulence. F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt in strawberry, is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, factors and mechanisms contributing to Fof virulence remained unknown. This study provides knowledge of the molecular basis for the differential expression of virulence in Fof, allowing new possibilities towards developing alternative and more effective strategies to manage Fusarium wilt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An inbred line of the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens for genomic and molecular genetic studies in the Rosaceae

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    Folta Kevin M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca is an attractive system for functional genomics studies. Its small stature, fast regeneration time, efficient transformability and small genome size, together with substantial EST and genomic sequence resources make it an ideal reference plant for Fragaria and other herbaceous perennials. Most importantly, this species shares gene sequence similarity and genomic microcolinearity with other members of the Rosaceae family, including large-statured tree crops (such as apple, peach and cherry, and brambles and roses as well as with the cultivated octoploid strawberry, F. ×ananassa. F. vesca may be used to quickly address questions of gene function relevant to these valuable crop species. Although some F. vesca lines have been shown to be substantially homozygous, in our hands plants in purportedly homozygous populations exhibited a range of morphological and physiological variation, confounding phenotypic analyses. We also found the genotype of a named variety, thought to be well-characterized and even sold commercially, to be in question. An easy to grow, standardized, inbred diploid Fragaria line with documented genotype that is available to all members of the research community will facilitate comparison of results among laboratories and provide the research community with a necessary tool for functionally testing the large amount of sequence data that will soon be available for peach, apple, and strawberry. Results A highly inbred line, YW5AF7, of a diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens line called "Yellow Wonder" (Y2 was developed and examined. Botanical descriptors were assessed for morphological characterization of this genotype. The plant line was found to be rapidly transformable using established techniques and media formulations. Conclusion The development of the documented YW5AF7 line provides an important tool for Rosaceae functional genomic analyses

  16. The protective properties of the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats mediated by anti-apoptotic and upregulation of antioxidant genes expression effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherifa shaker hamed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria ananassa has been extensively used to treat a wide range of ailments in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry juice on experimentally induced liver injury in rats. To this end, rats were introperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 with or without strawberry juice supplementation for 12 weeks and the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry was assessed by measuring serum liver enzyme markers, hepatic tissue redox status and apoptotic markers with various techniques including biochemistry, ELISA, quantitative PCR assays and histochemistry. The hepatoprotective effect of the strawberry was evident by preventing CCl4-induced increase in liver enzymes levels. Determination of oxidative balance showed that strawberry treatment significantly blunted CCl4-induced increase in oxidative stress markers and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in hepatic tissue. Furthermore, strawberry supplementation enhanced the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and restrained the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 with a marked reduction in collagen areas in hepatic tissue. These findings demonstrated that strawberry (Fragaria ananassa juice possessed antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic properties, probably mediated by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids compounds.

  17. The impact of cold chain temperature abuses on the quality of frozen strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa

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    Rui Cruz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of frozen foods can be negatively affected if improper storage and distribution temperatures are allowed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles, which may occur in the cold chain, on colour (Lab, Total Colour Differences (TCD, chroma and hue angle and vitamin C (ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids content of frozen strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa, Duschesne, cv. Selva. A plan of temperature abuses (TAs was established, based on a real situation, and applied to frozen strawberries during a four month frozen storage period. The results showed that the lightness (L was the only parameter that was not significantly affected by range of TAs studied. The colour showed some variation on the parameters a, b, TCD, chroma and hue angle. During TAs, ascorbic acid decreased about 75% and dehydroascorbic acid increased 73%. The non-abused strawberry samples showed better overall appearance than the abused samples. This work contributes to an understanding of the quality changes of frozen strawberries that might occur during frozen storage and cold chain distribution.

  18. Photoprotective potential of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) extract against UV-A irradiation damage on human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Tulipani, Sara; Gonzàles-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Bompadre, Stefano; Quiles, José L; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2012-03-07

    Exposure to UV-A radiation is known to induce discrete lesions in DNA and the generation of free radicals that lead to a wide array of skin diseases. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) contains several polyphenols with strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Because the major representative components of strawberry are anthocyanins, these may significantly contribute to its properties. To test this hypothesis, methanolic extracts from the Sveva cultivar were analyzed for anthocyanin content and for their ability to protect human dermal fibroblasts against UV-A radiation, as assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium bromide and Comet assays. Five anthocyanin pigments were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Moreover, the strawberry extract showed a photoprotective activity in fibroblasts exposed to UV-A radiation, increasing cellular viability, and diminishing DNA damage, as compared to control cells. Overall, our data show that strawberry contains compounds that confer photoprotective activity in human cell lines and may protect skin against the adverse effects of UV-A radiation.

  19. Genome-Scale Transcriptomic Insights into Early-Stage Fruit Development in Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Shahan, Rachel; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2013-01-01

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid woodland strawberry with a small and sequenced genome, is an excellent model for studying fruit development. The strawberry fruit is unique in that the edible flesh is actually enlarged receptacle tissue. The true fruit are the numerous dry achenes dotting the receptacle’s surface. Auxin produced from the achene is essential for the receptacle fruit set, a paradigm for studying crosstalk between hormone signaling and development. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying strawberry fruit set, next-generation sequencing was employed to profile early-stage fruit development with five fruit tissue types and five developmental stages from floral anthesis to enlarged fruits. This two-dimensional data set provides a systems-level view of molecular events with precise spatial and temporal resolution. The data suggest that the endosperm and seed coat may play a more prominent role than the embryo in auxin and gibberellin biosynthesis for fruit set. A model is proposed to illustrate how hormonal signals produced in the endosperm and seed coat coordinate seed, ovary wall, and receptacle fruit development. The comprehensive fruit transcriptome data set provides a wealth of genomic resources for the strawberry and Rosaceae communities as well as unprecedented molecular insight into fruit set and early stage fruit development. PMID:23898027

  20. Development and evaluation of the Axiom® IStraw35 384HT array for the allo-octoploid cultivated strawberry Fragaria ×ananassa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom® IStraw90 SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) array was developed to enable high-throughput genotyping in allo-octoploid cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa). However, high cost ($80-105 per sample) limits throughput for certain applications. On average the IStraw90 has yielded 50% ...

  1. Isolation and characterization of two YUCCA flavin monooxygenase genes from cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ying, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Ling; Gao, Qing-Hua; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Fang, Jing-Gui; Duan, Ke

    2012-08-01

    In strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.), auxin has been recognized as the main signal molecule coordinating the growth and initiation of ripening of fruits. The molecular mechanism regulating auxin biosynthesis in strawberry remains unknown. This project reports two YUCCA flavin monooxygenase genes FaYUC1-2 isolated from cultivated strawberry. FaYUC1 and FaYUC2 are most homologous to AtYUC6 and AtYUC4, respectively. Significant expression of FaYUC1-2 is found in vegetative meristems and reproductive organs, with overlapping but distinct patterns. During fruit development, both transcripts of FaYUC1 and FaYUC2 in achenes reach a peak around large green fruit (G2) stage, but the sudden rise in FaYUC2 transcript level is much steeper and begins earlier than that in FaYUC1. FaYUC2 is also obviously expressed in the receptacles from green fruits, hinting another auxin source for receptacle development, other than achenes. FaYUC1 over-expression Arabidopsis exhibits typical auxin hyper-accumulation phenotype in many aspects, such as the narrow and downward curled leaves, strong apical dominance, short and hairy root. It is also severely sterile, due to the disruption of floral meristems initiation and floral organs development. Transgenic analysis indicates that strawberry YUC gene may hold conserved role in auxin biosynthesis like their homologs in other plants. Integrated with the spatiotemporal expression features, these results led us to propose that FaYUC1-2 may involve in many developmental processes including flower and fruit development in strawberry. This paper is the first report of isolation and characterization of strawberry auxin biosynthesis genes. And their conserved functions in auxin biosynthesis were confirmed after ectopic expression.

  2. Metabolite profiling reveals novel multi-level cold responses in the diploid model Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohloff, Jens; Kopka, Joachim; Erban, Alexander; Winge, Per; Wilson, Robert C; Bones, Atle M; Davik, Jahn; Randall, Stephen K; Alsheikh, Muath K

    2012-05-01

    Winter freezing damage is a crucial factor in overwintering crops such as the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) when grown in a perennial cultivation system. Our study aimed at assessing metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms in the close-related diploid model woodland strawberry (Fragaria vescaL.) during a 10-days cold acclimation experiment. Based on gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) metabolite profiling of three F. vesca genotypes, clear distinctions could be made between leaves and non-photosynthesizing roots, underscoring the evolvement of organ-dependent cold acclimation strategies. Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, photosynthetic acclimation, and antioxidant and detoxification systems (ascorbate pathway) were strongly affected. Metabolic changes in F. vesca included the strong modulation of central metabolism, and induction of osmotically-active sugars (fructose, glucose), amino acids (aspartic acid), and amines (putrescine). In contrast, a distinct impact on the amino acid proline, known to be cold-induced in other plant systems, was conspicuously absent. Levels of galactinol and raffinose, key metabolites of the cold-inducible raffinose pathway, were drastically enhanced in both leaves and roots throughout the cold acclimation period of 10 days. Furthermore, initial freezing tests and multifaceted GC/TOF-MS data processing (Venn diagrams, independent component analysis, hierarchical clustering) showed that changes in metabolite pools of cold-acclimated F. vesca were clearly influenced by genotype. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction of an integrated high density simple sequence repeat linkage map in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and its applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Sachiko N; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Mori, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yuko; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Fukami, Masanobu; Hashizume, Fujio; Tsuji, Tomoko; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Takahashi, Chika; Wada, Tsuyuko; Ono, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Nakazaki, Naomi; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Watanabe, Akiko; Tabata, Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) of the Rosaceae family whose genomic architecture is still controversial. Several recent studies support the AAA'A'BBB'B' model, but its complexity has hindered genetic and genomic analysis of this important crop. To overcome this difficulty and to assist genome-wide analysis of F. × ananassa, we constructed an integrated linkage map by organizing a total of 4474 of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers collected from published Fragaria sequences, including 3746 SSR markers [Fragaria vesca expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived SSR markers] derived from F. vesca ESTs, 603 markers (F. × ananassa EST-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa ESTs, and 125 markers (F. × ananassa transcriptome-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa transcripts. Along with the previously published SSR markers, these markers were mapped onto five parent-specific linkage maps derived from three mapping populations, which were then assembled into an integrated linkage map. The constructed map consists of 1856 loci in 28 linkage groups (LGs) that total 2364.1 cM in length. Macrosynteny at the chromosome level was observed between the LGs of F. × ananassa and the genome of F. vesca. Variety distinction on 129 F. × ananassa lines was demonstrated using 45 selected SSR markers.

  4. Identification and validation of FaP1D7, a putative marker associated with the biosynthesis of methyl butanoate in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Mian Chee; Candappa, Chrishani; de Silva, Thishakya; Mantri, Nitin; Pang, Edwin

    2017-12-12

    Breeding strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) with enhanced fruit flavour is one of the top breeding goals of many strawberry-producing countries. Although several genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways of key aroma compounds have been identified, the development and application of molecular markers associated with fruit flavour remain limited. This study aims to identify molecular markers closely linked to genes controlling strawberry aroma. A purpose-built Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA) known as Fragaria Discovery Panel (FDP) was used for marker screening. Polymorphic sequences associated with key aroma compounds were identified from two DNA bulks with extreme phenotypes, established using 50 F 1 progeny plants derived from Juliette X 07-102-41 cross, two strawberry genotypes differing in aroma profile. A total of 49 polymorphic markers for eight key aroma compounds were detected using genotypic data of the extreme DNA bulks and phenotypic data obtained from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A similarity search against the physical maps of Fragaria vesca revealed that FaP1D7 is linked to genes potentially involved in the synthesis of methyl butanoate. A C/T SNP was detected within the feature, which could possibly be converted to a molecular tool for rapid screening of the strawberry accessions for their methyl butanoate production capacity.

  5. NMR and UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS characterisation of novel phenylethanol derivatives of phenylpropanoid glucosides from the leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Jonsok).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhineva, Kati; Soininen, Pasi; Anttonen, Mikko J; Kokko, Harri; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Laatikainen, Reino; Kärenlampi, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is rich in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, flavonols, condensed tannins and ellagic tannins. In addition to the fruits, the leaves of strawberry also contain a wide range of phenolic compound classes, but have not been investigated to the same extent as the fruit. To characterise a metabolite group present in the leaves of strawberry, that was not amenable for identification based on earlier information available in the literature. Methanolic extracts of strawberry leaves were analysed by UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS and iterative quantum mechanical NMR spectral analysis. The structures of phenylethanol derivatives of phenylpropanoid glucosides Eutigoside A ( F4) and its two isomeric forms 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl-[6-O-(Z)-coumaroyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (F6) and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenyl-[6-O-(E)-coumaroyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (F1) were resolved by NMR and UPLC-qTOF-MS/MS. In addition, two other derivatives of phenylpropanoid glucosides similar to Eutigoside A but possessing different phenolic acid moieties, namely Grayanoside A ( F5) and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl-[6-O-(E)-caffeoyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (F14), were similarly identified. Also, accurate characteristic coupling constants for the subunits are reported and their usefulness in structural analysis is highlighted. Chemical analysis of the leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Jonsok) resulted in the identification of a compound class, phenylethanol derivatives of phenylpropanoid glycosides, not previously found in strawberry.

  6. Propiedades Fisicoquímicas de Fresas (Fragaria sp Cultivadas Bajo Filtros Fotoselectivos Physical and Chemical Properties of Strawberries (Fragaria sp Grown Under Photoselective Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento para examinar los efectos de la calidad de luz sobre la calidad de la fruta en fresa (Fragaria sp cv. Chandler, establecida en invernadero. Se probaron cinco filtros de polipropileno de colores diferentes (rojo, amarillo, azul, verde, y transparente, con plantas sin cobertura como control. En los frutos se determinó el peso fresco y seco, longitud y ancho, sólidos solubles totales (SST, pH, acidez titulable (AT e índice de madurez (IM. Todas las variables evaluadas fueron afectadas significativamente por los filtros espectrales, con excepción del pH del jugo. El crecimiento del fruto fue fuertemente influenciado por la cobertura verde. Bajo la cobertura amarilla las plantas incrementaron el peso fresco de los frutos y el IM. La cobertura azul redujo el contenido de SST en los frutos, así como el IM. La longitud y ancho de los frutos aumentaron con la cobertura roja. La cobertura transparente incrementó los SST y la AT. Para ciertas variables los resultados no fueron suficientemente concluyentes como para proponer este nuevo sistema de producción en el cultivo de fresa en los altiplanos tropicales; sin embargo, sería importante evaluar esta técnica de producción en regiones con mayor iluminación que la región donde se desarrolló este estudio.An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of light quality on the fruit quality in strawberry (Fragaria sp cv. Chandler established in glasshouse. Five different colored polypropylene filters (red, blue, yellow, green and clear were tested, with plants growing without cover as control. Fresh and dry weight, length and width, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TA and maturity index (MI, were measured on fruits. All evaluated variables were significantly affected by the spectral filters, except the pH of the juice. The fruit growth was strongly reduced by green cover. Under the yellow cover plants enhanced the fresh weight of fruits and the MI

  7. Quantitative trait loci and underlying candidate genes controlling agronomical and fruit quality traits in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida

    2011-09-01

    Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location.

  8. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Fragaria (strawberry) using intron-containing sequence from the ADH-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMeglio, Laura M; Staudt, Günter; Yu, Hongrun; Davis, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The genus Fragaria encompasses species at ploidy levels ranging from diploid to decaploid. The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa, and its two immediate progenitors, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, are octoploids. To elucidate the ancestries of these octoploid species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using intron-containing sequences of the nuclear ADH-1 gene from 39 germplasm accessions representing nineteen Fragaria species and one outgroup species, Dasiphora fruticosa. All trees from Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood analyses showed two major clades, Clade A and Clade B. Each of the sampled octoploids contributed alleles to both major clades. All octoploid-derived alleles in Clade A clustered with alleles of diploid F. vesca, with the exception of one octoploid allele that clustered with the alleles of diploid F. mandshurica. All octoploid-derived alleles in clade B clustered with the alleles of only one diploid species, F. iinumae. When gaps encoded as binary characters were included in the Maximum Parsimony analysis, tree resolution was improved with the addition of six nodes, and the bootstrap support was generally higher, rising above the 50% threshold for an additional nine branches. These results, coupled with the congruence of the sequence data and the coded gap data, validate and encourage the employment of sequence sets containing gaps for phylogenetic analysis. Our phylogenetic conclusions, based upon sequence data from the ADH-1 gene located on F. vesca linkage group II, complement and generally agree with those obtained from analyses of protein-encoding genes GBSSI-2 and DHAR located on F. vesca linkage groups V and VII, respectively, but differ from a previous study that utilized rDNA sequences and did not detect the ancestral role of F. iinumae.

  9. The Protective Properties of the Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Mediated by Anti-Apoptotic and Upregulation of Antioxidant Genes Expression Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa S; Al-Yhya, Nouf A; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; Alajmi, Reem A; Hassan, Zeinab K; Hassan, Salwa B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) has been extensively used to treat a wide range of ailments in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry juice on experimentally induced liver injury in rats. To this end, rats were introperitoneally injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) with or without strawberry juice supplementation for 12 weeks and the hepatoprotective effect of strawberry was assessed by measuring serum liver enzyme markers, hepatic tissue redox status and apoptotic markers with various techniques including biochemistry, ELISA, quantitative PCR assays and histochemistry. The hepatoprotective effect of the strawberry was evident by preventing CCl4-induced increase in liver enzymes levels. Determination of oxidative balance showed that strawberry treatment significantly blunted CCl4-induced increase in oxidative stress markers and decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in hepatic tissue. Furthermore, strawberry supplementation enhanced the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and restrained the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 with a marked reduction in collagen areas in hepatic tissue. These findings demonstrated that strawberry (F. ananassa) juice possessed antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrotic properties, probably mediated by the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids compounds.

  10. Clarifying sub-genomic positions of QTLs for flowering habit and fruit quality in U.S. strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) breeding populations using pedigree-based QTL analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) is consumed worldwide for its flavor and nutritional health benefits. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected in the last two decades for fruit quality and flowering traits using low-density genetic maps. Recent discoveries in allo-octoploid strawberry gen...

  11. Genetic structure of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, and its role as a vector of the Strawberry Yellow Edge Virus to a native strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandero, Blas; Rojas, Pamela; Ramirez, Claudio C; Salazar, Marcela; Caligari, Peter D S

    2012-01-01

    The monoecious anholocyclical aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was collected on a native strawberry, Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) from different sites in Chile. The presence of this aphid was recorded during two consecutive years. F. chiloensis plants were collected from seven natural and cultivated growing areas in central and southern Chile. Aphids were genotyped by cross-species amplification of four microsatellite loci from other aphid species. In addition, the aphid borne virus Strawberry mild yellow edge virus was confirmed in F. chiloensis plants by double-antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR. Genetic variability and structure of the aphid populations was assessed from the geo-referenced individuals through AMOVA and a Bayesian assignment test. The presence of C. fragaefolii, during the two-year study was detected in only four of the seven sites (Curepto, Contulmo, Chilián and Cucao). Genetic variation among these populations reached 19% of the total variance. When assigning the individuals to groups, these were separated in three genetic clusters geographically disjunct. Of the seven sampled sites, six were positive for the virus by RT-PCR, and five by double-antibody sandwich ELISA . The incidence of the virus ranged from 0-100%. Presence of the virus corresponded with the presence of the aphid in all but two sites (Chilian and Vilches). The greatest incidence of Strawberry mild yellow edge virus was related to the abundance of aphids. On the other hand, sequences of the coat protein gene of the different virus samples did not show correspondence with either the genetic groups of the aphids or the sampling sites. The genetic structure of aphids could suggest that dispersal is mainly through human activities, and the spread to natural areas has not yet occurred on a great scale.

  12. Proteomic study of low-temperature responses in strawberry cultivars (Fragaria x ananassa) that differ in cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Gage; Wilson, Robert C; Goodpaster, John V; Sønsteby, Anita; Lai, Xianyin; Witzmann, Frank A; You, Jin-Sam; Rohloff, Jens; Randall, Stephen K; Alsheikh, Muath

    2012-08-01

    To gain insight into the molecular basis contributing to overwintering hardiness, a comprehensive proteomic analysis comparing crowns of octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars that differ in freezing tolerance was conducted. Four cultivars were examined for freeze tolerance and the most cold-tolerant cultivar ('Jonsok') and least-tolerant cultivar ('Frida') were compared with a goal to reveal how freezing tolerance is achieved in this distinctive overwintering structure and to identify potential cold-tolerance-associated biomarkers. Supported by univariate and multivariate analysis, a total of 63 spots from two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis and 135 proteins from label-free quantitative proteomics were identified as significantly differentially expressed in crown tissue from the two strawberry cultivars exposed to 0-, 2-, and 42-d cold treatment. Proteins identified as cold-tolerance-associated included molecular chaperones, antioxidants/detoxifying enzymes, metabolic enzymes, pathogenesis-related proteins, and flavonoid pathway proteins. A number of proteins were newly identified as associated with cold tolerance. Distinctive mechanisms for cold tolerance were characterized for two cultivars. In particular, the 'Frida' cold response emphasized proteins specific to flavonoid biosynthesis, while the more freezing-tolerant 'Jonsok' had a more comprehensive suite of known stress-responsive proteins including those involved in antioxidation, detoxification, and disease resistance. The molecular basis for 'Jonsok'-enhanced cold tolerance can be explained by the constitutive level of a number of proteins that provide a physiological stress-tolerant poise.

  13. Phenolic compounds in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits: Composition in 27 cultivars and changes during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Kjersti; Mazur, Sebastian; Nes, Arnfinn; Skrede, Grete

    2012-05-01

    Phenolic compounds in fruits of 27 cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) grown in Norway were characterised and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Total phenolic content, calculated as the sum of the individual compounds, varied 2.3-fold among cultivars, i.e., from 57 to 133mg/100g of fw. There were significant differences among cultivars in concentration of all phenolic compounds. The highest variation between cultivars was found for cinnamoyl glucose (0.6-24.9mg/100g of fw). Concentration of anthocyanins, the most abundant class of phenolic compounds in the majority of the cultivars, varied from 8.5 to 65.9mg/100g of fw. Flavan-3-ols (11-45mg/100g of fw) and ellagitannins (7.7-18.2mg/100g of fw) contributed on average 28% and 14% to total phenolic contents in the strawberry cultivars, respectively. In three cultivars harvested at three stages of ripeness, anthocyanins and cinnamic acid conjugates were the compounds most affected by ripening. The anthocyanin profile for the individual cultivars was only slightly affected by ripening and growing conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Somatic embryogenesis, tetraploidy, and variant leaf morphology in transgenic diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca subspecies vesca 'Hawaii 4').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Folta, Kevin M; Davis, Thomas M

    2014-01-13

    The diploid (2n = 2x = 14) strawberry model plant Fragaria vesca ssp. vesca 'Hawaii 4' was employed for functional analysis of expressed DNA sequences initially identified as being unique to Fragaria and of unknown or poorly understood function. 'Hawaii 4' is prominent in strawberry research due to its ease of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and regenerability, and its status as the source of the first complete strawberry genomic sequence. Our studies of a set of transformants have documented intriguing, construct-associated effects on leaf morphology, and provide important and unexpected insights into the performance of the 'Hawaii 4' transformation and regeneration system. Following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of leaf explants with gene constructs carried by Gateway® vectors, plants were regenerated using a modified version of an established 'Hawaii 4' protocol. Expanding upon the findings of prior studies, we documented that plantlet regeneration was occurring via a somatic embryogenic rather than an organogenic developmental pathway. Among transformants, several variations in leaf morphology were observed. Unexpectedly, a particular leaf variant type, occurring in ~17% of all regenerants independent of construct type, was found to be attributable to tetraploidy. The tetraploidy-associated alteration in leaf morphology could be differentiated from the leaf morphology of diploid regenerants on the basis of a quantitative ratio of leaf dimensions: B/A, where B is the width of the central leaflet and A is the overall width of the trifoliate leaf. Variant effects on leaf morphology of four different transgenic constructs were also documented, and were in all cases distinguishable from the effects of tetraploidy. These results define opportunities to optimize the existing 'Hawaii 4' protocol by focusing on treatments that specifically promote somatic embryogenesis. The reported morphological metric and descriptions will guide future transgenic

  15. Dehydrin, alcohol dehydrogenase, and central metabolite levels are associated with cold tolerance in diploid strawberry (Fragaria spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davik, Jahn; Koehler, Gage; From, Britta; Torp, Torfinn; Rohloff, Jens; Eidem, Petter; Wilson, Robert C; Sønsteby, Anita; Randall, Stephen K; Alsheikh, Muath

    2013-01-01

    The use of artificial freezing tests, identification of biomarkers linked to or directly involved in the low-temperature tolerance processes, could prove useful in applied strawberry breeding. This study was conducted to identify genotypes of diploid strawberry that differ in their tolerance to low-temperature stress and to investigate whether a set of candidate proteins and metabolites correlate with the level of tolerance. 17 Fragaria vesca, 2 F. nilgerrensis, 2 F. nubicola, and 1 F. pentaphylla genotypes were evaluated for low-temperature tolerance. Estimates of temperatures where 50 % of the plants survived (LT₅₀) ranged from -4.7 to -12.0 °C between the genotypes. Among the F. vesca genotypes, the LT₅₀ varied from -7.7 °C to -12.0 °C. Among the most tolerant were three F. vesca ssp. bracteata genotypes (FDP821, NCGR424, and NCGR502), while a F. vesca ssp. californica genotype (FDP817) was the least tolerant (LT₅₀) -7.7 °C). Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), total dehydrin expression, and content of central metabolism constituents were assayed in select plants acclimated at 2 °C. The LT₅₀ estimates and the expression of ADH and total dehydrins were highly correlated (r(adh) = -0.87, r (dehyd) = -0.82). Compounds related to the citric acid cycle were quantified in the leaves during acclimation. While several sugars and acids were significantly correlated to the LT₅₀ estimates early in the acclimation period, only galactinol proved to be a good LT₅₀ predictor after 28 days of acclimation (r(galact) = 0.79). It is concluded that ADH, dehydrins, and galactinol show great potential to serve as biomarkers for cold tolerance in diploid strawberry.

  16. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) Marker Platforms for Diversity Analysis and Linkage Mapping in a Complex Crop, the Octoploid Cultivated Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Horvath, Aniko; Botella, Miguel A; Gaston, Amèlia; Folta, Kevin; Kilian, Andrzej; Denoyes, Beatrice; Amaya, Iraida

    2015-01-01

    Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a genetically complex allo-octoploid crop with 28 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 8x = 56) for which a genome sequence is not yet available. The diploid Fragaria vesca is considered the donor species of one of the octoploid sub-genomes and its available genome sequence can be used as a reference for genomic studies. A wide number of strawberry cultivars are stored in ex situ germplasm collections world-wide but a number of previous studies have addressed the genetic diversity present within a limited number of these collections. Here, we report the development and application of two platforms based on the implementation of Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for high-throughput genotyping in strawberry. The first DArT microarray was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 62 strawberry cultivars that represent a wide range of variation based on phenotype, geographical and temporal origin and pedigrees. A total of 603 DArT markers were used to evaluate the diversity and structure of the population and their cluster analyses revealed that these markers were highly efficient in classifying the accessions in groups based on historical, geographical and pedigree-based cues. The second DArTseq platform took benefit of the complexity reduction method optimized for strawberry and the development of next generation sequencing technologies. The strawberry DArTseq was used to generate a total of 9,386 SNP markers in the previously developed '232' × '1392' mapping population, of which, 4,242 high quality markers were further selected to saturate this map after several filtering steps. The high-throughput platforms here developed for genotyping strawberry will facilitate genome-wide characterizations of large accessions sets and complement other available options.

  17. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT Marker Platforms for Diversity Analysis and Linkage Mapping in a Complex Crop, the Octoploid Cultivated Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Sánchez-Sevilla

    Full Text Available Cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is a genetically complex allo-octoploid crop with 28 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 8x = 56 for which a genome sequence is not yet available. The diploid Fragaria vesca is considered the donor species of one of the octoploid sub-genomes and its available genome sequence can be used as a reference for genomic studies. A wide number of strawberry cultivars are stored in ex situ germplasm collections world-wide but a number of previous studies have addressed the genetic diversity present within a limited number of these collections. Here, we report the development and application of two platforms based on the implementation of Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers for high-throughput genotyping in strawberry. The first DArT microarray was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 62 strawberry cultivars that represent a wide range of variation based on phenotype, geographical and temporal origin and pedigrees. A total of 603 DArT markers were used to evaluate the diversity and structure of the population and their cluster analyses revealed that these markers were highly efficient in classifying the accessions in groups based on historical, geographical and pedigree-based cues. The second DArTseq platform took benefit of the complexity reduction method optimized for strawberry and the development of next generation sequencing technologies. The strawberry DArTseq was used to generate a total of 9,386 SNP markers in the previously developed '232' × '1392' mapping population, of which, 4,242 high quality markers were further selected to saturate this map after several filtering steps. The high-throughput platforms here developed for genotyping strawberry will facilitate genome-wide characterizations of large accessions sets and complement other available options.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional breeding for improvement of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is difficult because strawberry is an octoploid, hybrid species. Genetic modification of strawberry would though be a promising alternative for obtaining the desired improvements in existing elite strawberry cultivars (Schaart

  19. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Van De Velde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer’s health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR, covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina’s strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  20. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Velde, Franco; Tarola, Anna M; Güemes, Daniel; Pirovani, María E

    2013-03-25

    Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer's health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR), covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva) from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina's strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  1. Cryopreservation of strawberry genetic resources in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National German Strawberry Genebank includes 369 cultivars and the active field collection in Dresden-Pillnitz also contains 318 Fragaria wild species accessions. Conservation of clonal crops requires safety duplication. An earlier calculation of the effort required to establish and maintain a s...

  2. Polyphenols in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) leaves induced by plant activators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Koskinen, Piia; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Karonen, Maarit; Tiilikkala, Kari; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2014-05-21

    Strawberry leaves contain high amounts of diverse phenolic compounds potentially possessing defensive activities against microbial pathogens and beneficial properties for human health. In this work, young strawberry plants were treated with two plant activators, S-methylbenzo-1,2,3-thaidiazole-7-carbothiate (BTH) and birch wood distillate. Phenolic compounds from activator-treated and control leaves were subjected to quantitative analyses by HPLC-DAD, HPLC-ESI-MS, and microQTOF ESI-MS. Thirty-two different phenolic compounds were detected and characterized, and 21 different ellagitannins constituted the largest group of compounds in the strawberry leaves (37.88-45.82 mg/g dry weight, 47.0-54.3% of total phenolics). Treatment with BTH resulted in higher levels of individual ellagitannins, whereas treatment with birch wood distillate strongly increased the levels of chlorogenic acid in strawberry leaves compared with the control. The results suggest that different plant activators may be useful tools for the activation of different branches in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in strawberry.

  3. A microsatellite linkage map for the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) suggests extensive regions of homozygosity in the genome that may have resulted from breeding and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, D J; Passey, T; Surbanovski, N; Lopez Girona, E; Kuchta, P; Davik, J; Harrison, R; Passey, A; Whitehouse, A B; Simpson, D W

    2012-05-01

    The linkage maps of the cultivated strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa (2n = 8x = 56) that have been reported to date have been developed predominantly from AFLPs, along with supplementation with transferrable microsatellite (SSR) markers. For the investigation of the inheritance of morphological characters in the cultivated strawberry and for the development of tools for marker-assisted breeding and selection, it is desirable to populate maps of the genome with an abundance of transferrable molecular markers such as microsatellites (SSRs) and gene-specific markers. Exploiting the recent release of the genome sequence of the diploid F. vesca, and the publication of an extensive number of polymorphic SSR markers for the genus Fragaria, we have extended the linkage map of the 'Redgauntlet' × 'Hapil' (RG × H) mapping population to include a further 330 loci, generated from 160 primer pairs, to create a linkage map for F. × ananassa containing 549 loci, 490 of which are transferrable SSR or gene-specific markers. The map covers 2140.3 cM in the expected 28 linkage groups for an integrated map (where one group is composed of two separate male and female maps), which represents an estimated 91% of the cultivated strawberry genome. Despite the relative saturation of the linkage map on the majority of linkage groups, regions of apparent extensive homozygosity were identified in the genomes of 'Redgauntlet' and 'Hapil' which may be indicative of allele fixation during the breeding and selection of modern F. × ananassa cultivars. The genomes of the octoploid and diploid Fragaria are largely collinear, but through comparison of mapped markers on the RG × H linkage map to their positions on the genome sequence of F. vesca, a number of inversions were identified that may have occurred before the polyploidisation event that led to the evolution of the modern octoploid strawberry species.

  4. Localization of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) and Methylobacterium extorquens genes of strawberry flavor biosynthesis in strawberry tissue by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Pohjanen, Johanna; Koskimäki, Janne J; Zabetakis, Ioannis; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2014-08-15

    Strawberry flavor is one of the most popular fruit flavors worldwide, with numerous applications in the food industry. In addition, the biosynthetic origin of the most important strawberry flavor components, such as 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-2H-furan-3-one (DMHF), is a challenging research area. DMHF's precursor, 2-hydroxy-propanal (or lactaldehyde), is biosynthesized by the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens (M. extorquens). In particular, the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes of M. extorquens are involved in the biogenesis of DMHF precursors since they have the capacity to oxidize the strawberry-derived 1,2-propanediol to lactaldehyde. In this study, the expression of the endophytic ADH and the plant DMHF biosynthesis genes was examined in the tissues of raw and ripe strawberry receptacles by in situ hybridization. The presence of endophytic bacteria was studied in the same tissues by probes targeting bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid. Hybridization signals of probes specific for endophytic ADH and plant DMHF biosynthesis genes, as well as bacteria-specific probes, were detected in the same locations. The probes were localized near the plasma membranes or intercellular spaces of cortical and vascular tissues of the receptacle, and intracellularly in the tissues of achenes. By localizing the expression of the endophytic methanol ADH and plant DMHF biosynthesis genes to the same tissues, we have reinforced our original hypothesis that an intimate symbiotic relationship between strawberry and endophytic cells exists and leads to the biosynthesis of DMHF. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Using general and specific combining ability to further advance strawberry (Fragaria sp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, M.M.; Mookerjee, S.; Mahoney, L.; Finn, C.E.; Hancock, J.F.; Serce, S.; Davis, T.; Stewart, P.; Whitaker, V.M.; Jamieson, A.R.; Bassil, N.V.; Amaya, I.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Hummer, K.E.; Sargent, D.; Weg, van de W.E.; Iezzoni, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Strawberry is one of the five fruit crops included in the USDA-funded multi-institutional and trans-disciplinary project, “RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae”. A Crop Reference Set (CRS) was developed of 900 genotypes and seedlings from 40 crosses representing the breadth of

  6. Effects of salinity and nitrogen supply on the quality and health-related compounds of strawberry fruits (Fragaria × ananassa cv. Primoris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Medrano, Evangelina; Lorenzo, Pilar; Sánchez-Guerrero, Maria Cruz; Cuevas, Francisco; Pradas, Inmaculada; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2015-11-01

    Different nitrogen inputs and/or development under adverse water conditions (water stress/low quality and/or high salinity/electrical conductivity), such as those prevailing in Almeria (Mediterranean coast, south-east Spain), may affect overall fruit and vegetable quality. This study evaluated the influence of salinity and nitrogen reduction in hydroponic nutrient solution on strawberry fruit quality and nutritional compounds (Fragaria × ananassa Duch., cv. Primoris). Strawberries obtained under salinity treatments recorded the highest values for soluble solids content (SSC; all samplings); fruit taste was thus enhanced. Additionally, salinity improved fruit nutritional value, with higher contents of antioxidants compounds (first sampling). During first and second samplings, strawberries grown under N reduction and non-saline conditions showed higher values for firmness compared to fruits developed under other treatments. Regarding health-related compounds, few differences were found except for total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity for the first sampling, where strawberries grown under saline treatments obtained the highest values for both parameters. The use of low-quality waters, such as those found in Almeria (salinity, N9S and N5S) and low nitrogen inputs (N5, avoid environmental impact) for strawberry cultivation does not exert a negative impact on overall quality. Positive differences could be found in SSC, firmness and health-related compounds when compared against the control treatment (N9). © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Anatomical investigations of the strawberry (Fragaria grandiflora Ehrh. receptacle in the initial stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Szymański

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical changes occurring in the strawberry fruit in the course of its growth were investigated. Flowers or fruits were collected from the apexes of the inflorescence of plants of the cultivar 'Talisman' cultivated in the glasshouse under long day. A method was developed for embedding the receptacle in a mixture of paraffin, rubber and wax, because the classical paraffin method did not give good results. Three different vascular bundle systems were distinguished in the strawberry, supplying the particular parts of the flower. Most intensive growth of the mean number of cells occurs in the cortex. The number of pith cells, beginning with the 5th day after pollination does not practically increase. Neither does between the 5th and 10th day after pollination, the number of cortical cells increase in the apical part of the fruit.

  8. Vermicompost substitution influences growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajbir; Sharma, R R; Kumar, Satyendra; Gupta, R K; Patil, R T

    2008-11-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of vermicompost on growth, physiological disorders, fruit yield and quality of 'Chandler' strawberry. For this, 4 levels of vermicompost (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0tha(-1)) were supplemented with inorganic fertilizers to balance fertilizer requirement of strawberry under semi-arid region of northern India. The vermicompost was incorporated into top 10cm layer of soil, which was supplemented on the basis of chemical analysis, with amount of inorganic N, P, K fertilizer calculated to equalize the recommended dose of nutrients. Vermicompost application increased plant spread (10.7%), leaf area (23.1%) and dry matter (20.7%), and increased total fruit yield (32.7%). Substitution of vermicompost drastically reduced the incidence of physiological disorders like albinism (16.1-4.5%); fruit malformation (11.5-4.0%) and occurrence of grey mould (10.4-2.1%) in strawberry indicating that vermicompost had significant role in reducing nutrient-related disorders and disease like Botrytis rot, and thereby increasing the marketable fruit yield up to 58.6% with better quality parameters. Fruit harvested from plant receiving vermicompost were firmer, have higher TSS, ascorbic acid content and lower acidity, and have attractive colour. All these parameters appeared to be dose dependent and best results were achieved @ 7.5tha(-1), however, beyond this dose of vermicompost, there was not significant influence on these parameters.

  9. Light quality regulates flowering in FvFT1/FvTFL1 dependent manner in the woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja eRantanen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of flowering in the perennial model, the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L., involves distinct molecular mechanisms that result in contrasting photoperiodic flowering responses and growth cycles in different accessions. The F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1 functions as a key floral repressor that causes short-day (SD requirement of flowering and seasonal flowering habit in the SD strawberry. In contrast, perpetual flowering F. vesca accessions lacking functional FvTFL1 show FLOWERING LOCUS T (FvFT1-dependent early flowering specifically under long-days (LD. We show here that the end-of-day far-red (FR and blue (B light activate the expression of FvFT1 and the F. vesca homolog of SUPPRESSOR OF THE OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS (FvSOC1 in both SD and LD strawberries, whereas low expression levels are detected in red (R and SD treatments. By using transgenic lines, we demonstrate that FvFT1 advances flowering under FR and B treatments compared to R and SD treatments in the LD strawberry, and that FvSOC1 is specifically needed for the B light response. In the SD strawberry, flowering responses to these light quality treatments are reversed due to up-regulation of the floral repressor FvTFL1 in parallel with FvFT1 and FvSOC1. Our data highlights the central role of FvFT1 in the light quality dependent flower induction in the LD strawberry and demonstrates that FvTFL1 reverses not only photoperiodic requirements but also light quality effects on flower induction in the SD strawberry.

  10. Attenuation of meal-induced inflammatory and thrombotic responses in overweight men and women after 6-week daily strawberry (Fragaria) intake. A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Collin L; Edirisinghe, Indika; Kappagoda, Tissa; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2011-01-01

    A pro-thrombotic, pro-inflammatory diet can play a causative role in atherosclerotic-cardiovascular diseases. Dietary intervention studies provide insight into their pathophysiological manifestations and opportunities for prevention and management. We previously showed in an acute-meal setting that a beverage containing polyphenolic- and antioxidant-rich strawberry (Fragaria) vs placebo attenuated postprandial (fed-state) increases in biomarkers of oxidative and inflammatory stress, and insulin concentrations, induced by a high carbohydrate/fat (HCF) meal. In the present study, we aimed to extend our findings and investigate hypotheses related to the effects of chronic/6-week (wk) strawberry consumption on HCF meal-induced increases in glucose, insulin, and indicators of inflammation and hemostasis. In a crossover design, 14 women and 10 men (mean age, BMI: 50.9±15 years, 29.2±2.3 kg/m(2), respectively), were randomized to a 6-wk strawberry or placebo beverage followed by an HCF meal with assessments for 6-hours (h) postprandially. HCF meal responses after 6-wk strawberry beverage showed significantly attenuated postprandial PAI-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (p =0.002); the difference was most notable at 6 h. The IL-1 β response was attenuated with strawberry compared to the placebo (p =0.05). IL-6 attenuation was apparent but non-significant; IL-6 rose significantly from baseline to 6 h after the HCF meal following a placebo (p ≤0.01), although it remained relatively flat following the strawberry beverage from fasting to 6 h. No significant treatment-related differences were apparent for platelet aggregation, hsCRP, TNF-α, insulin, or glucose. These data are the first to suggest that regular consumption of strawberry, a polyphenolic- and antioxidant-rich fruit, may provide protection from HCF meal-induced increases in fibrinolytic and inflammatory factors in at-risk men and women.

  11. Computational identification of microRNAs in the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) genome sequence and validation of their precise sequences by miR-RACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Li, Aying; Liu, Hong; Wen, Xicheng; Zhao, Mizhen; Korir, Nadira Bilkish; Korir, Nicholas Kibet; Wang, Chen; Fang, Jinggui

    2014-02-15

    In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been found to control many genes involved in different biological and metabolic processes. Extensive studies were carried out to discover miRNAs and analyze their functions in model plant species, such as in Arabidopsis and rice that have been reported. In this research, we used bioinformatics to predict microRNAs in an important strawberry rootstock cultivar to discover and validate precise sequences of microRNAs in strawberry. By adopting a range of filtering criteria, we obtained 59 potential miRNAs belonging to 40 miRNA families from the Fragaria vesca genome. Using two specific 5' and 3' miRNA RACE PCR reactions and a sequence-directed cloning method, we accurately determined 34 precise sequences of candidate miRNAs, while six other sequences exhibited some minor divergence in their termini nucleotides, and 19 miRNAs that could not be cloned owing to expression abundance may be too low or these mirRNAs predicted could not be existing in strawberry. Potential target genes were further predicted for the miRNAs above. The expression of the 16 miRNAs unreported and having exact sequences and their targets by experiment could be detected in different tissues of strawberry ranging from roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits by qRT-PCR and some of them showed differential expression in various tissues. The functional analysis of 16 miRNAs and their targets was carried out. Finally, we conclude that there are 34 mirRNAs in strawberry and their targets play vital roles not only in growth and development, but also in diverse physiological processes. These results show that regulatory miRNAs exist in agronomically important strawberry and might have an important function in strawberry growth and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of strawberry (Fragaria x ananasa) as antidepresant activity on mice induced by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Siti; Fitri, Lulu L.

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a physiological disorder on the brain and may induce the reduction levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin and the increased levels of stress hormone, corticosterone. The use of antidepressant drugs causing side effect, therefore natural agents are used as alternative therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of strawberries in the murine experiments in increasing serotonin level as well as decreasing in the immobility time of mice on Forced Swimming Task (FST). Forty-eight male outbreed of 4 weeks old mice strain Swiss Webster with average body weight of 18-22 grams were divided into six groups of eight mice, as follows: (1) non-stressed, (2) Chronic Mild Stressed (CMS), (3) strawberry extract (with dose of 464.1 mg/kg) and CMS, (4) strawberry extract (with dose of 928.2 mg/kg) and CMS, (5) fisetin (with a dose of 10 mg/kg) and CMS, and (6) amitriptyline (an antidepressant, with a dose of 3.25 mg/kg) and CMS as a comparison group. Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) method were used as induction of stress consisted of seven different stressors and assigned randomly for 35 days. Provision of treatment was made during the 14 days preparations on day 22 to day 35. At the end of treatments, all mice were assigned on FST test for immobility time measurements. Next, all mice were decapitated and the brains were isolated. Serotonin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV-visible light detector. The results showed that the immobility time of group mice which were given by the strawberries (928.2 mg/kg) and fisetin had shorter duration than the positive control group. Furthermore, the level of serotonin in the test group increased compared to CMS group. Corticosterone levels of treatment mice were increased significantly compared to non-stressed mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that strawberries are able to improve depressive symptoms by decreasing immobility time and increasing levels of

  13. Stabilisation of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) anthocyanins by different pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, M; Speth, M; Kammerer, D R; Carle, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different pectins on strawberry anthocyanins in viscous model solutions at pH 3.0. For this purpose, low esterified amidated, low and high methyl esterified citrus and apple pectins, and a sugar beet pectin (SBP), respectively, were added to strawberry extracts. The latter were predominantly composed of pelargonidin-glycosides, containing either reduced (E-1) or original amounts of non-anthocyanin phenolics (E-2). Model systems were stored for 18 weeks at 20±0.5 °C protected from light, and anthocyanins were quantitated in regular intervals by HPLC-DAD analyses. Half-life (t1/2) and destruction (D) values were calculated based on first-order kinetics. Generally, significant differences in pigment retention could be ascribed to differing pectin sources, while variation in the degree of esterification and amidation, respectively, had negligible effects. Compared to systems without added pectin, apple pectins and SPB enhanced anthocyanin stability moderately, while stabilising effects of citrus pectins were poor or even imperceptible. Generally, the amount of non-anthocyanin phenolics and the addition of citrate did not markedly affect anthocyanin stability. However, pectins had no influence on total phenolic contents (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and antioxidant capacities (FRAP and TEAC assay) of strawberry phenolics over time. For pelargonidin-3-glucoside and -rutinoside largely consistent stabilities were found in all model systems. In contrast, pelargonidin-3-malonylglucoside was less stable in the blank, and stabilisation by pectins was always negligible. The findings of the present study are contrary to results reported previously for the stabilisation of cyanidin- and delphinidin-glycosides in similar model systems prepared with black currant extracts, indicating a high impact of the number of hydroxyl groups in the anthocyanin B-ring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotype-by-environment effect on bioactive compounds in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Luisa; Masuero, Domenico; Martinatti, Paolo; Baratto, Giuseppe; Martens, Stefan; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2017-09-01

    The assessment of the relative contribution of genotype, environment and the genotype-by-environmental (G × E) interaction to the performance of varieties is necessary when determining adaptation capacity. The influence of temperature, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation and sunshine duration on the quality and the composition of fruits was investigated in nine strawberry cultivars grown at three different altitudes. The UV-radiation intensity affected both pH and sugar content, which were higher for most of the varieties at low altitudes, whereas total titratable acidity was less. Fruits from plants grown at low elevation generally had a higher benzoic acid derivative content. A significant correlation was found between phenylpropanoid content and UV-radiation and sunshine duration. The flavone class appeared to be affected most by the variety effect, in contrast to flavonols and ellagitannins, which were highly affected by the environment. The accumulation of a number of secondary metabolites in strawberry fruits grown in an unusual environmental condition highlighted the acclimation effects in terms of the response of plants to abiotic stress. Finally, the genetic factor only appears to be more influential for the varieties 'Sveva' and 'Marmolada' with respect to all of the parameters considered. A 'plant environmental metabolomics' approach has been used successfully to assess the phenotypic plasticity of varieties that showed different magnitudes with respect to the relationship between environmental conditions and the accumulation of healthy compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Characterization of a Calmodulin-binding Transcription Factor from Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangpeng Leng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin-binding transcription activator (CAMTA is a calmodulin-binding transcription factor that has a broad range of functions from sensory mechanisms to regulating many growth and developmental processes. In this study, we isolated four strawberry ( genes using HMMER and BLAST analysis. The chromosome scaffold locations of these genes in the strawberry genome were determined and the protein domain and motif organization [CG-1, transcription factor immunoglobulin, ankyrin (ANK repeats, calmodulin-binding IQ motif of FaCAMTAs were also assessed. All FaCAMTAs were predicted to be Ca- and calmodulin-binding proteins. The expression profiles of genes were measured in different tissues and revealed distinct gene expression patterns under heat, cold, and salt stress. These data not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of the gene family but also provide evidence supporting the role of in multiple signaling pathways involved in stress responses. This investigation can provide useful information for further study.

  16. Wild strawberries: time-images of an apprenticeship

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    Tania Mara Galli Fonseca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Through a study of Ingmar Bergman’s film Wild Strawberries (1957, this text seeks to analyze its time-images. These bring the cinema of the real closer to thought and also have the purpose of exercising the eye’s function as seer since the elements of the image relate in such a way that they must be “read” as much as seen. Legible as much as visible, the world presents itself to be seen and read as if it were “literalness”. This is a cinema which draws closer to reading than to perception, a cinema which takes us down the path of signs, which transforms us into decipherers, and which makes us repudiate automatic and habitual recognitions. It is a cinema where the montage proposes encumbrances to the spectator’s perceptions and its extensions into action by introducing a new element which impedes perception from spreading into the form of action.

  17. Conservation Strategy of Strawberry Genetic Resources in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National German Strawberry Genebank includes 369 cultivars and the active field collection in Dresden-Pillnitz also contains 318 Fragaria wild species accessions. Conservation of clonal crops requires safety duplication. An earlier calculation of the effort required to establish and maintain a s...

  18. Laboratory Sensitivity Study of Two Cultivars of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananass Fruit to Bruising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Aliasgarian Najafabadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, susceptibility of two strawberry cultivars (Selva and Gavita to bruising was studied. Individual fruits were subjected to impact and compressive forces. Impact forces were applied through dropping the fruits from predetermined heights as well as pendulum. Bruising volume was considered as damage index. In both methods bruising severity was increased as a function of impact energy. Dropped fruits were showed higher bruising volume than those of fruits impacted by pendulum for similar energy levels. Increasing energy level by a factor of four (from 0.022 to 0.082 J caused the bruise volume to increase by a factor of three (from 46 to 134.5 mm3. Increasing drop height from 18 cm (0.026 J to 54 cm (0.079 J caused the bruise volume to increase up to 35%. Bruise severity due to compression force was higher than those of obtained from other tests. Doubling the loading time from 2 to 4 seconds showed no significant difference in bruise volume. Although Gavita variety had greater sensitivity to bruising than Selva variety, the effect of variety was significant only in impact test with pendulum tester.

  19. Convective drying kinetics of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa): Effects on antioxidant activity, anthocyanins and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Cruz-Gracida, Marlene; Sandoval-Torres, Sadoth; Barriada-Bernal, Gerardo

    2017-09-01

    The thermal drying effects on strawberries were investigated in terms of the kinetics of antioxidant activity (AA), anthocyanins (A) and total phenolic compound content (TPC), as well as the final colour. The evaluated drying temperatures were 50 and 60°C with an air rate of 1.5m/s. The 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, pH differential and Folin-Ciocalteu methods were used to assess the antioxidant properties. The kinetics of TPC and AA showed an initial and final period of degradation attributed to inhibition of enzymes. A plateau between these two periods suggests that under certain conditions of temperature and water content, no degradation reactions occurred. Final losses of up to 74, 45 and 78% were found for AA, A and TPC, respectively. The total colour change (ΔE) was lesser degree at 60 than 50°C. Thermal degradation of the antioxidant compounds followed a first-order reaction kinetics and the degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification and characterization of MYB-bHLH-WD40 regulatory complexes controlling proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaart, Jan G; Dubos, Christian; Romero De La Fuente, Irene; van Houwelingen, Adèle M M L; de Vos, Ric C H; Jonker, Harry H; Xu, Wenjia; Routaboul, Jean-Marc; Lepiniec, Loïc; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits contain high concentrations of flavonoids. In unripe strawberries, the flavonoids are mainly represented by proanthocyanidins (PAs), while in ripe fruits the red-coloured anthocyanins also accumulate. Most of the structural genes leading to PA biosynthesis in strawberry have been characterized, but no information is available on their transcriptional regulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana the expression of the PA biosynthetic genes is specifically induced by a ternary protein complex, composed of AtTT2 (AtMYB123), AtTT8 (AtbHLH042) and AtTTG1 (WD40-repeat protein). A strategy combining yeast-two-hybrid screening and agglomerative hierarchical clustering of transcriptomic and metabolomic data was undertaken to identify strawberry PA regulators. Among the candidate genes isolated, four were similar to AtTT2, AtTT8 and AtTTG1 (FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1, respectively) and two encode putative negative regulators (FaMYB5 and FabHLH3∆). Interestingly, FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1 were found to complement the tt2-1, tt8-3 and ttg1-1 transparent testa mutants, respectively. In addition, they interacted in yeast and activated the Arabidopsis BANYULS (anthocyanidin reductase) gene promoter when coexpressed in Physcomitrella patens protoplasts. Taken together, these results demonstrated that FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1 are the respective functional homologues of AtTT2, AtTT8 and AtTTG1, providing new tools for modifying PA content and strawberry fruit quality. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Development of an efficient transformation method by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and high throughput spray assay to identify transgenic plants for woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using NPTII selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Christopher J; Fisk, Sarah; Mills, Kerri; Flinn, Barry S; Shulaev, Vladimir; Veilleux, Richard E; Dan, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We developed an efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method using an Ac/Ds transposon tagging construct for F. vesca and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to identify its transformants for strawberry functional genomics. Genomic resources for Rosaceae species are now readily available, including the Fragaria vesca genome, EST sequences, markers, linkage maps, and physical maps. The Rosaceae Genomic Executive Committee has promoted strawberry as a translational genomics model due to its unique biological features and transformability for fruit trait improvement. Our overall research goal is to use functional genomic and metabolic approaches to pursue high throughput gene discovery in the diploid woodland strawberry. F. vesca offers several advantages of a fleshy fruit typical of most fruit crops, short life cycle (seed to seed in 12-16 weeks), small genome size (206 Mbb/C), small plant size, self-compatibility, and many seeds per plant. We have developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated strawberry transformation method using kanamycin selection, and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to efficiently identify transgenic strawberry plants. Using our kanamycin transformation method, we were able to produce up to 98 independent kanamycin resistant insertional mutant lines using a T-DNA construct carrying an Ac/Ds transposon Launchpad system from a single transformation experiment involving inoculation of 22 leaf explants of F. vesca accession 551572 within approx. 11 weeks (from inoculation to soil). Transgenic plants with 1-2 copies of a transgene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Using our paromomycin spray assay, transgenic F. vesca plants were rapidly identified within 10 days after spraying.

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on yield and fruit quality of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) at two levels of nitrogen application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Mantri, Nitin; Lou, Heqiang; Hu, Ya; Sun, Dan; Zhu, Yueqing; Dong, Tingting; Lu, Hongfei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if elevated CO(2) could alleviate the negative effect of high temperature on fruit yield of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Toyonoka) at different levels of nitrogen and also tested the combined effects of CO(2), temperature and nitrogen on fruit quality of plants cultivated in controlled growth chambers. Results show that elevated CO(2) and high temperature caused a further 12% and 35% decrease in fruit yield at low and high nitrogen, respectively. The fewer inflorescences and smaller umbel size during flower induction caused the reduction of fruit yield at elevated CO(2) and high temperature. Interestingly, nitrogen application has no beneficial effect on fruit yield, and this may be because of decreased sucrose export to the shoot apical meristem at floral transition. Moreover, elevated CO(2) increased the levels of dry matter-content, fructose, glucose, total sugar and sweetness index per dry matter, but decreased fruit nitrogen content, total antioxidant capacity and all antioxidant compounds per dry matter in strawberry fruit. The reduction of fruit nitrogen content and antioxidant activity was mainly caused by the dilution effect of accumulated non-structural carbohydrates sourced from the increased net photosynthetic rate at elevated CO(2). Thus, the quality of strawberry fruit would increase because of the increased sweetness and the similar amount of fruit nitrogen content, antioxidant activity per fresh matter at elevated CO(2). Overall, we found that elevated CO(2) improved the production of strawberry (including yield and quality) at low temperature, but decreased it at high temperature. The dramatic fluctuation in strawberry yield between low and high temperature at elevated CO(2) implies that more attention should be paid to the process of flower induction under climate change, especially in fruits that require winter chilling for reproductive growth.

  3. Effect of 1-MCP on Storage and Shelflife of Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria xananassa Cv. Camarossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Modares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1-Methylecyelopropene (1-MCP is a new material which prevents the ethylene from reacting in quite low concentration and is easily consumed and does not exert negative effects on the human health and the environments. Therefore the effect of using zero concentration (Control, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 µL.L-1 of 1-MCP on the storage life (1°C and shelf life (20°C of the fruits under 90% humidity throuth the 27 and 3 days was studied respectivly. The study of storage life was done through the split plot in time within a complete randomized design and the shelflife within a complete randomized design both in 3 replications. The results of storage life experiment showed that the marketability, firmness, citric acid (TA ,vitamin C and the the ratio of TSS/TA were protected desirable in 1-MCP treatment. Amount of appearance decay was significantly reduced.The pH of fruit extract and also the fewest anthocyanins in the treatment of 1 µL.L-1 of 1-MCP were seen. This observation depicts the positive and significant effect of 1-MCP over the reduction in the speed of physiochemical characteristics changes in the fruit tissue. The highest fruit color indices include brightness (L, color regions (a* and b* and Chroma (C were seen in 1 µL.L-1 treatment. Moreover, the result obtained from the study over the effect of 1-MCP on the shelf life of strawberries in 20°C showed that this substances relatively positive effect on the preservation of fruit and it seems that 1-MCP is able to keep the quality of fruits over longer periods of time in usual degrees of temperature.

  4. Basic growth analysis in strawberry plants (Fragaria sp. exposed to different radiation environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra Posada Fánor

    2012-04-01

    relación con las tasas de crecimiento fueron la consecuencia del efecto conjunto de la cantidad y la calidad de la luz incidente.<-->The present study sought to understand how quantity and quality of light affect growth and development in strawberry plants. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in Tunja, Colombia, under different light quality regimes provided by polypropylene films (yellow, green, blue, transparent, red, and a control without plastic film cover. These colored filters also provided different shading levels to plants. The authors measured growth parameters and calculated various indices commonly used in basic plant growth analysis. Plastic light filters were placed 1 m above crop foliage and were kept in place from initial transplanting until final harvest. Net assimilation rate was reduced under colored filters, but not under the transparent film or the film-free control. Green cover induced an increase in leaf area ratio, root to shoot ratio, leaf weight ratio, and specific leaf area. Harvest index and absolute and relative growth rate were reduced in plants grown under green film. The growth response of strawberry plants was the consequence of the combined effect of light quantity and quality. Results also showed the striking influence of green light on strawberry growth.

  5. Effects of preharvest ultraviolet-C irradiation on fruit phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity in three strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhichun; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Fan, Jinshuan; Charlebois, Denis; Khanizadeh, Shahrokh; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique; Deschênes, Martine; Dubé, Claudine

    2015-11-01

    Ultraviolet-C (UV-C) has proven effective in extending shelf-life, reducing disease incidence and increasing the levels of health-promoting compounds in several crops. While most studies were conducted at the postharvest stage, our study examined the effect of preharvest UV-C application in three strawberry cultivars (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. 'Albion', 'Charlotte' and 'Seascape'). UV-C treatment was applied from the onset of flowering until the fruits reached commercial maturity on plants grown for two consecutive seasons under greenhouse conditions. The phytochemical profiles and antioxidant capacity of the fruits were assessed at harvest. The ellagic acid and kaempferol-3-glucuronide contents were significantly increased only in fruits of the cultivar 'Albion' collected from UV-C-treated plants in season 1. UV-C did not consistently affect the other phenolic compounds that were measured. Based on the results of the ferric-reducing antioxidant power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total phenolic content assays, the antioxidant capacity of the three strawberry cultivars was not affected by UV-C. Season and cultivar had a decisive impact on these parameters. The effect of preharvest UV-C on the levels of bioactive compounds in strawberry fruits appears to be cultivar- dependent, with season or growing conditions having a significant impact. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Application of subtracted gDNA microarray-assisted Bulked Segregant Analysis for rapid discovery of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Mian Chee; Mantri, Nitin; Pang, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    A Fragaria Discovery Panel (FDP; strawberry-specific SDA) containing 287 features was constructed by subtracting the pooled gDNA of nine non-angiosperm species from the pooled gDNA of five strawberry genotypes. This FDP was used for Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA) to enable identification of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality. Analysis of hybridisation patterns of a short day (SD) DNA bulk and three day-neutral (DN) DNA bulks varying in flowering strength allowed identification of a novel feature, FaP2E11, closely linked to CYTOKININ OXIDASE 1 (CKX1) gene possibly involved in promoting flowering under non-inductive condition. The signal intensities of FaP2E11 feature obtained from the strong DN bulk (DN1) is three fold higher than the short day bulk (SD), indicating that the putative marker may linked to a CKX1 variant allele with lower enzyme activity. We propose a model for flowering regulation based on the hypothesis that flowering strength may be regulated by the copy number of FaP2E11-linked CKX1 alleles. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the SDA-based BSA approach for the identification of molecular markers associated with day-neutrality in strawberry. This innovative strategy is an efficient and cost-effective approach for molecular marker discovery. PMID:27586242

  7. Fruit flavor formation in wild and cultivated strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years we have used various genomics tools to investigate ripening in strawberry, in particular the process of fruit flavor biogenesis. The combination of biochemical analysis, generation of a strawberry Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) collection and gene expression analysis using cDNA

  8. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of strawberry (Fragaria  × ananassa Duch. and comparison with related species of Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Compared with other members of the family Rosaceae, the chloroplast genomes of Fragaria species exhibit low variation, and this situation has limited phylogenetic analyses; thus, complete chloroplast genome sequencing of Fragaria species is needed. In this study, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of F. × ananassa ‘Benihoppe’ using the Illumina HiSeq 2500-PE150 platform and then performed a combination of de novo assembly and reference-guided mapping of contigs to generate complete chloroplast genome sequences. The chloroplast genome exhibits a typical quadripartite structure with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,936 bp separated by large (LSC, 85,531 bp and small (SSC, 18,146 bp single-copy (SC regions. The length of the F. × ananassa ‘Benihoppe’ chloroplast genome is 155,549 bp, representing the smallest Fragaria chloroplast genome observed to date. The genome encodes 112 unique genes, comprising 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. Comparative analysis of the overall nucleotide sequence identity among ten complete chloroplast genomes confirmed that for both coding and non-coding regions in Rosaceae, SC regions exhibit higher sequence variation than IRs. The Ka/Ks ratio of most genes was less than 1, suggesting that most genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, the mVISTA results also showed a high degree of conservation in genome structure, gene order and gene content in Fragaria, particularly among three octoploid strawberries which were F. × ananassa ‘Benihoppe’, F. chiloensis (GP33 and F. virginiana (O477. However, when the sequences of the coding and non-coding regions of F. × ananassa ‘Benihoppe’ were compared in detail with those of F. chiloensis (GP33 and F. virginiana (O477, a number of SNPs and InDels were revealed by MEGA 7. Six non-coding regions (trnK-matK, trnS-trnG, atpF-atpH, trnC-petN, trnT-psbD and trnP-psaJ with a percentage of variable sites greater than 1

  9. Effect of nano-packing on preservation quality of fresh strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv Fengxiang) during storage at 4 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F M; Li, H M; Li, F; Xin, Z H; Zhao, L Y; Zheng, Y H; Hu, Q H

    2010-04-01

    A novel nano-packing material with lower relative humidity, oxygen transmission rate and high longitudinal strength was synthesized by blending polyethylene with nano-powder (nano-Ag, kaolin, anatase TiO(2), rutile TiO(2)), and its effect on preservation quality of strawberry fruits (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv Fengxiang) was investigated during storage at 4 degrees C. Results showed that nano-packaging was able to maintain the sensory, physicochemical, and physiological quality of strawberry fruits at a higher level compared with the normal packing (polyethylene bags). After a 12-d storage, decreases in the contents of total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and ascorbic acid of nano-packing were significantly inhibited. Meanwhile, decay rate, anthocyanin, and malondialdehyde contents were decreased to 16.7%, 26.3 mg/100g, 66.3 micromol/g for nano-packing and 26.8%, 31.9 mg/100g, 75.4 micromol/g for normal packing; polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and pyrogallol peroxidase (POD) activities were significantly lower in nano-packing than the control. These data indicated that the nano-packaging might provide an attractive alternative to improve preservation quality of the strawberry fruits during extended storage. Nano-packing exhibited identified quality benefits applicable to the preservation of fresh strawberry. Furthermore, nano-packing has the advantages of simple processing and feasibility to be industrialized in contrast with other storages. Thus, the utilization of nano-packing will likely assist commercial producers and retailers in extending the shelf life of products over a broader range in the future.

  10. Penggunaan Pemutih Gigi Mengandung Hidrogen Peroksida 40% Dibanding dengan Strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa terhadap Ketebalan Email, Kadar Kalsium, dan Kekuatan Tekan Gigi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Yuniarti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Estetik gigi adalah hal yang penting bagi seseorang. Salah satu hal yang memengaruhi estetik gigi adalah warna gigi. Perubahan warna gigi dapat diperbaiki dengan pemutihan gigi hidrogen peroksida 40% dan strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa. Penelitian eksperimental laboratoris membandingkan gigi kelompok kontrol dengan dua kelompok perlakuan gigi yang diolesi bahan pemutih gigi hidrogen peroksida 40% atau direndam dalam strawberry. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Histologi Fakultas Kedokteran dan Laboratorium Kimia Universitas Padjadjaran, serta Laboratorium ITMKG Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Padjadjaran periode Agustus 2012–Mei 2013. Kelompok masing-masing memakai sembilan buah gigi premolar permanen yang diukur ketebalan email secara mikroskopis, kadar kalsium memakai spektrofotometer, dan kekuatan tekan memakai universal testing machine. Uji statistik pengukuran ketebalan email adalah uji-t, pengukuran kadar kalsium memakai Wilcoxon dan Mann Whitney, sedangkan hasil pengukuran kekuatan gigi diuji dengan Kruskal Wallis dan Post Hoc Mann Whitney. Hasil uji penurunan ketebalan email kedua kelompok perlakuan dibandingkan dengan kontrol (uji dependent t, p=0,002 dan p=0,0001 dan perbedaan penurunan ketebalan email antara kedua kelompok (uji independent p=0,0375 adalah signifikan. Penurunan kadar kalsium kedua kelompok dibandingkan dengan kontrol (uji Wilcoxon p=0,173 dan p=0,441 dan perbedaan kadar kalsium antara kedua kelompok tersebut (uji Mann Whitney p=0,480 tidak signifikan. Uji kekuatan tekan gigi signifikan antara kontrol dan dua kelompok perlakuan (uji Kruskall Wallis p=0,014, namun bila memakai uji Post Hoc Mann Whitney hanya penurunan kekuatan tekan gigi antara kontrol dan hidrogen peroksida yang berbeda signifikan (p=0,02. Simpulan, hidrogen peroksida 40% menurunkan ketebalan email dan kekuatan tekan gigi lebih besar dibanding dengan strawberry, tetapi tidak menurunkan kadar kalsium lebih besar dibanding dengan

  11. Comparison of the Effect of 1-MCP and Low-Pressure Air on Shelflife of Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria ananassa cv. Camarossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Modares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa has tasteful, fragrant and nutritious fruits. But, because of delicate texture and high metabolic activities of the fruits at maturity, are very sensitive and easily decayed, and thus have short shelflife. Ethylene is one of the main causes of postharvest fruit losses, which could reduce the shelflife of strawberry. Therefore, an experiment was carried out to examine the effect of 1 µL/L 1-MCP treatment and low-pressure air pretreatment at 0.2 atm in 2 hours on apparent and physicochemical characteristics of strawberry fruit, cultivar Camarossa, during storage in cold store. The study was performed as split plots in time, based on complete randomized design with 3 replications. The results showed that the highest marketability (90%, fruit firmness (7.95 N, titrable organic acids (1.15 g/100 cc, vitamin C (78.13 mg/100 cc and total soluble solids (10.48 % and the lowest amount of apparent decay (13.3 %, acidity (3.63 and taste index (9.04 were obtained in 1-MCP and low-pressure air treatments, which shows the effect of treatments on reducing the rate of biochemical variations in fruit texture. Correlation coefficients between all treatments were significant (P≤0.01. Meanwhile, the positive effect of 1-MCP on appearance and studied physicochemical characteristics was more than low-pressure air pretreatment. Even, the combination of these two treatments had no significant difference with 1-MCp treatment alone. In general, this observation depicts the more positive and significant effect of 1-MCP treatment in delaying the maturity and improving the qualitative traits of strawberry fruits after being stored in cold storage.

  12. Effect of ethylene treatment on phytochemical and ethylene-related gene expression during ripening in strawberry fruit Fragaria x ananassa cv. Camino Real.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, P Z; Fornazzari, I M; Almeida, A T; Galvão, C W; Etto, R M; Inaba, J; Ayub, R A

    2015-12-07

    In contrast to climacteric fruits, in which ethylene is known to be pivotal, the regulation of ripening in non-climacteric fruits is not well understood. The strawberry is a typical example of a non-climacteric fruit, which has been used as a model system of these types of fruit. In this study, the effect of exogenous ethephon on the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes, FaERF2 and FaACO1, was analyzed in the Fragaria ananassa cultivar Camino Real by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated in field trials and postharvest tests. Transcript accumulation was influenced by exogenous treatment with ethephon, which affected the pattern of gene expression during different stages of growth and fruit development, with the highest expression occurring during postharvest tests. In addition, ethephon significantly influenced the phytochemical profile of sugars, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C contents both in the field- and postharvest-treated fruits at different stages. These results indicate that ethylene regulates the phenylpropanoid maturation pathway in strawberry fruit.

  13. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasumi, Masakazu [Plant Biotechnology Inst., Ibaraki Agricultural Center, Iwama, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy {center_dot} hr{sup -}1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  14. on Albion strawberry (Fragaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... grown in 800 m above sea level with hydroponic system using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gutters (20 cm wide, 30 cm .... in this experiment, shoots were produced through organogenesis. It implies that the response of ... derived leaf explant in this experiment was more than. 60% but was very poor for cultivars ...

  15. Functional characterization of enzymes forming volatile esters from strawberry and banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Alvarez-Huerta, M.; Neef, E.J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Aharoni, A.

    2004-01-01

    Volatile esters are flavor components of the majority of fruits. The last step in their biosynthesis is catalyzed by alcohol acyltransferases (AATs), which link alcohols to acyl moieties. Full-length cDNAs putatively encoding AATs were isolated from fruit of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and

  16. Doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rats is efficiently counteracted by dietary anthocyanin differently enriched strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti, Jacopo; Mezzetti, Bruno; Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Quiles, José L; Gonzalez-Alonso, Adrian; Ramirez-Tortosa, Maria del Carmen; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Gonzáles-Paramás, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-05-07

    This study investigated the effects of two different strawberry cultivars, Adria and Sveva, against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced toxicity in rats. A controlled dietary intervention was conducted over 16 weeks with four groups: (i) normal diet; (ii) normal diet + DOX injection; (iii) Adria supplementation + DOX injection; and (iv) Sveva supplementation + DOX injection. Sveva presented higher total antioxidant capacity value and phenol and and vitamin C levels than Adria, which in turn presented higher anthocyanin contents. DOX drastically increased lymphocyte DNA damage, liver biomarkers of protein and lipid oxidation, and mitochondrial ROS content and markedly decreased plasma retinol level, liver antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial functionality. After 2 months of strawberry supplementation, rats presented a significant reduction of DNA damage and ROS concentration and a significant improvement of oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant enzyme activities, and mitochondrial performance. These results suggest that strawberry supplementation can counteract DOX toxicity, confirming the potential health benefit of strawberry in vivo against oxidative stress.

  17. Cultivars, culture conditions, and harvest time influence phenolic and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincemail, Joël; Kevers, Claire; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques

    2012-02-01

    Strawberries are a good source of micronutrients, especially antioxidant phenolics. More information is needed to better exploit the health-promoting effect of such fruits. Several studies focused on the effects of genotype, cultural practices, and seasonal variation on the antioxidant potential of strawberries, but often yielding contradictory results and/or focusing on only 1 source of variability. In the present study, we showed that total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity strongly differed between genotypes of strawberry. The precise results revealed the importance of genetic background for the antioxidant capacity and for the content of total phenolics (with up to 3.3-fold variations). Other parameters may also influence the antioxidant capacity in strawberry such as harvest time, culture conditions, and environmental factors. Moreover, in this study, the harvesting time (at the same ripening stage) appeared to be very important, more important than genotype. Variations of the antioxidant capacity of up to 4.1-folds were observed following the harvesting time of "Elsanta" cultivar. This article compares the antioxidant capacity and the content in ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds of strawberries of different varieties and of fruits harvested from April to December at the same ripening stage. The importance of strawberry antioxidant capacity resides in its benefits for human health. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Comparison of nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial phylogenies and the origin of wild octoploid strawberry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Parks, Matthew; Tennessen, Jacob A; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Molecular phylogenies derived from all three plant genomes can provide insight into the evolutionary history of plant groups influenced by reticulation. We sought to reconstruct mitochondrial exome, chloroplast, and nuclear genome phylogenies for octoploid Fragaria and their diploid ancestors and to document patterns of incongruence between and within the cytoplasmic genomes and interpret these in the context of evolutionary origin of the octoploid strawberries. Using a genome-skimming approach, we assembled chloroplast genomes and mitochondrial exomes, and we used the POLiMAPS method to assemble nuclear sequence for octoploid species and constructed phylogenies from all three genomes. We assessed incongruence between and within cytoplasmic genomes using topology-based phylogenetic incongruence tests. The incongruent cytoplasmic genome phylogeny with respect to the placement of octoploids suggests potential breakage in linkage disequilibrium of cytoplasmic genomes during allopolyploid origin of the octoploids. Furthermore, a single mitochondrial chimeric gene with a putative role in cytoplasmic male sterility yields a phylogeny that is inconsistent with the rest of the mitochondrial genome but consistent with the chloroplast phylogeny, suggesting intracellular gene transfer between heteroplasmic mitochondria, possibly driven by selection to overcome the effects of mito-nuclear incompatibility in octoploid origins. This work expands on the current understanding of evolutionary history of the octoploid ancestors of cultivated strawberry. It demonstrates phylogenetic incongruence between cytoplasmic genomes in octoploids with respect to diploid ancestors, indicating breakage in linkage disequilibrium of cytoplasmic genomes. We discuss potential organism-level processes that may have contributed to the observed incongruence in Fragaria. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Response of six strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars to the root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans Filipjev and Schurmanns Stekhoven).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, L; Flores, M; Pedroche, N

    2010-01-01

    In the Philippines, strawberry is grown only in Benguet Province because of its unique climatic conditions. It has been a lucrative source of income for Benguet farmers and adds to the revenue of Benguet Province. The root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans is an economically important pest of strawberry in the area. It can cause substantial losses to strawberry growers, both by reducing vegetative plant growth and by reducing strawberry yields. The nematode has a very wide host range and hence, is not readily controlled by crop rotation. An alternative approach which growers may wish to consider trying is planting of strawberry varieties which are either resistant or tolerant to this nematode. The relative susceptibility/tolerance of six strawberry cultivars to the root lesion nematode, P. penetrans was evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. Inoculation of 500 nematodes/pot did not significantly affect the fresh top weight, fresh root weight, and yield of strawberry cultivars Festival, Whitney, Winterdawn, Earlibrite, and Camarosa. The said cultivars had significantly higher number of nematodes recovered from the roots. On the other hand, the highest strawberry yield was recorded in cv Sweet Charlie, however, this was significantly reduced by nematode inoculation .Surprisingly, the number of nematodes recovered from the roots of this cultivar was significantly the lowest among the cultivars tested. Results of the field experiment showed that strawberry cv Sweet Charlie gave the highest marketable yield which was significantly different from the rest of the cultivars tested. This was followed by Festival, and Earlibrite. On the other hand, Camarosa and Whitney gave significantly lower yield than the above cultivars but significantly higher than Winterdawn. In terms of nematodes recovered from the roots, the highest was noted in Whitney, followed by Sweet Charlie and Earlibrite. The lowest was obtained from Camarosa, followed by Festival and

  20. Genome-wide identification and analysis of FK506-binding protein family gene family in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xiangpeng; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Mizhen; Sun, Xin; Li, Yu; Mu, Qian; Zhu, Xudong; Li, Pengyu; Fang, Jinggui

    2014-01-25

    The FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) are abundant and ubiquitous proteins belonging to the large peptidyl-prolylcis-trans isomerase superfamily. FKBPs are known to be involved in many biological processes including hormone signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The availability of complete strawberry genome sequences allowed the identification of 23 FKBP genes by HMMER and blast analysis. Chromosome scaffold locations of these FKBP genes in the strawberry genome were determined and the protein domain and motif organization of FaFKBPs analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between strawberry FKBPs were also assessed. The expression profiles of FaFKBPs genes results revealed that most FaFKBPs were expressed in all tissues, while a few FaFKBPs were specifically expressed in some of the tissues. These data not only contribute to some better understanding of the complex regulation of the strawberry FKBP gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in strawberry functional genomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A fruit-specific plasma membrane aquaporin subtype PIP1;1 is regulated during strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mut, Paula; Bustamante, Claudia; Martínez, Gustavo; Alleva, Karina; Sutka, Moira; Civello, Marcos; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2008-04-01

    Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit ripening, the role and contribution of water pathways are still barely considered. Our aim was therefore to characterize aquaporins, proteins that render the molecular basis for putative regulatory mechanisms in water transport. We focused our work on strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) fruit, a non-climacteric fruit of special interest because of its forced brief commercial shelf life. A full-length cDNA was isolated with high homology with plasma membrane (PM) intrinsic proteins (named FaPIP1;1), showing a profile with high expression in fruit, less in ovaries and no detection at all in other parts. Its cellular localization was confirmed at the PM. As reported in other plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subtype 1 (PIP1s), when expressing the protein in Xenopus leavis oocytes, FaPIP1;1 shows low water permeability values that only increased when it is coexpressed with a plasma membrane intrinsic protein subtype 2. Northern blotting using total RNA shows that its expression increases during fruit ripening. Moreover, functional characterization of isolated PM vesicles from red stage fruit unequivocally demonstrates the presence of active water channels, i.e. high water permeability values and a low Arrhenius activation energy, both evidences of water transport mediated by proteins. Interestingly, as many ripening-related strawberry genes, the expression pattern of FaPIP1;1 was also repressed by the presence of auxins. We therefore report a fruit specific PIP1 aquaporin with an accumulation pattern tightly associated to auxins and to the ripening process that might be responsible for increasing water permeability at the level of the PM in ripe fruit.

  2. Nondestructive application of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative analyses of phenolic compounds in strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, J S; Rühmann, S; Rego, I; Puhl, I; Treutter, D; Zude, M

    2008-05-14

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) was nondestructively applied on strawberries (EX = 337 nm, EM = 400-820 nm) to test the feasibility of quantitatively determining native phenolic compounds in strawberries. Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in fruit skin by UV and MS spectroscopy and quantitatively determined by use of rp-HPLC for separation and diode-array or chemical reaction detection. Partial least-squares calibration models were built for single phenolic compounds by means of nondestructively recorded fluorescence spectra in the blue-green wavelength range using different data preprocessing methods. The direct orthogonal signal correction resulted in r (2) = 0.99 and rmsep fruits.

  3. STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH) LEAF ANTIOXIDATIVE RESPONSE TO BIOSTIMULATORS AND REDUCED FERTILIZATION WITH N AND K

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Špoljarević; Ivna Štolfa; Miroslav Lisjak; Aleksandar Stanisavljević; Tomislav Vinković; Dejan Agić; Nada Parađiković; Tihana Teklić; Meri Engler; Katica Klešić

    2010-01-01

    Strawberry cultivar Elsanta was grown in peat based substrate in a green house. Full dose and 50% reduced nitrogen and potassium fertilization were applied during fruit bearing period in spring, along with biostimulators Viva®, Megafol® and their combination. The specific activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPXs; EC 1.11.1.7), catalase (CATs; EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APXs; EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GRs; EC 1.6.4.2) in strawberry leaf were stimulated by biostimulators ...

  4. Selenium Biofortification in Fragaria × ananassa: Implications on Strawberry Fruits Quality, Content of Bioactive Health Beneficial Compounds and Metabolomic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, Tanja; Tiziani, Raphael; Valentinuzzi, Fabio; Lucini, Luigi; Nicoletto, Carlo; Sambo, Paolo; Scampicchio, Matteo; Pii, Youry; Cesco, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential nutrient for humans, due to its antioxidant properties, whereas, to date, its essentiality to plants still remains to be demonstrated. Nevertheless, if added to the cultivation substrate, plants growth resulted enhanced. However, the concentration of Se in agricultural soils is very variable, ranging from 0.01 mg kg-1 up to 10 mg kg-1 in seleniferous areas. Therefore several studies have been performed aimed at bio-fortifying crops with Se and the approaches exploited were mainly based on the application of Se fertilizers. The aim of the present research was to assess the biofortification potential of Se in hydroponically grown strawberry fruits and its effects on qualitative parameters and nutraceutical compounds. The supplementation with Se did not negatively affect the growth and the yield of strawberries, and induced an accumulation of Se in fruits. Furthermore, the metabolomic analyses highlighted an increase in flavonoid and polyphenol compounds, which contributes to the organoleptic features and antioxidant capacity of fruits; in addition, an increase in the fruits sweetness also was detected in biofortified strawberries. In conclusion, based on our observations, strawberry plants seem a good target for Se biofortification, thus allowing the increase in the human intake of this essential micronutrient. PMID:29163609

  5. Selenium Biofortification in Fragaria × ananassa: Implications on Strawberry Fruits Quality, Content of Bioactive Health Beneficial Compounds and Metabolomic Profile

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    Tanja Mimmo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential nutrient for humans, due to its antioxidant properties, whereas, to date, its essentiality to plants still remains to be demonstrated. Nevertheless, if added to the cultivation substrate, plants growth resulted enhanced. However, the concentration of Se in agricultural soils is very variable, ranging from 0.01 mg kg-1 up to 10 mg kg-1 in seleniferous areas. Therefore several studies have been performed aimed at bio-fortifying crops with Se and the approaches exploited were mainly based on the application of Se fertilizers. The aim of the present research was to assess the biofortification potential of Se in hydroponically grown strawberry fruits and its effects on qualitative parameters and nutraceutical compounds. The supplementation with Se did not negatively affect the growth and the yield of strawberries, and induced an accumulation of Se in fruits. Furthermore, the metabolomic analyses highlighted an increase in flavonoid and polyphenol compounds, which contributes to the organoleptic features and antioxidant capacity of fruits; in addition, an increase in the fruits sweetness also was detected in biofortified strawberries. In conclusion, based on our observations, strawberry plants seem a good target for Se biofortification, thus allowing the increase in the human intake of this essential micronutrient.

  6. Characterization and functional properties of new everbearing strawberry (Fragaria x ananasa Duch. cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries

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    Takeshi Nagai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, a new everbearing strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ was cultivated to supply the strawberries in pre-harvest season from July to October in Japan. For highly research and development of processing of this cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries, the objective of this study was to characterize these berries, with relation to chemical parameters, total phenols, total flavonoids, total vitamin C, and total anthocyanins, and was to investigate the solubility and the stability of anthocyanins from the berries. Moreover, the functional properties such as antioxidative activity, active oxygen species scavenging activity, and antihypertensive activity were also evaluated. Methods: Chemical analysis, colour measurement, and sensory evaluation of new everbearing strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries were performed. Next, the solubility of anthocyanins from the berries and stability of these against pH, temperature, and an incandescent lighting were investigated. Moreover, functional properties of the extracts prepared from berries were elucidated using 5 different methods. Results: The contents of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and ash were the same as those of other cultivar berries. The sugar-acid ratio in the berries was low; these were acidulous. By sensory evaluation, the main factors were vivid red colour, aroma, and acidity. The berries were rich in phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, and anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of the berries Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2014; 4(1:1-22 Page 2 of 22 became unstable by heat treatment and light exposures such as visible rays. On the other hand, the extracts prepared from the berries showed the functionalities such as antioxidant activity, active oxygen species scavenging activities, and antihypertensive activity. Conclusions: The strawberry cultivar, ‘Summertiara’ berries were the most suitable for processing ingredient of strawberry-derived products

  7. Differential expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase during fruit development establishes the different B-ring hydroxylation patterns of flavonoids in Fragaria × ananassa and Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thill, Jana; Miosic, Silvija; Gotame, Tek Prasad; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Gosch, Christian; Veberic, Robert; Preuss, Anja; Schwab, Wilfried; Stampar, Franci; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) was studied for the first time in different Fragaria species. The cDNA clones isolated from unripe and ripe fruits of Fragaria x ananassa (garden strawberry) and Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) showed high similarity (99% at the amino acid level) to the publically available F. vesca genome sequence and no significant differences could be identified between species and developmental stages of the fruits. In contrast, the genomic F3'H clones showed differences in the non-coding regions and 5'-flanking elements. The recombinant F3'Hs were functionally active and showed high specificity for naringenin, dihydrokaempferol, and kaempferol, whereas apigenin was only a minor substrate. During fruit development, a clear difference in the F3'H expression was observed between F. × ananassa and F. vesca. While a drastic decline of F3'H expression occurred during fruit ripening in F. × ananassa, F3'H in F. vesca was highly expressed in all stages. This was reflected by the anthocyanin composition, which showed a prevalence of pelargonidin in ripe fruits of F. × ananassa, whereas F. vesca had a high content of cyanidin. Screening of 17 berry species for their anthocyanin and flavonol composition showed that the prevalence of monohydroxylated anthocyanins makes garden strawberry unique among all other fruit species indicating that selection of bright red color during strawberry breeding, which consumers typically associate with freshness and ripeness, has selected phenotypes with a special biochemical background. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH LEAF ANTIOXIDATIVE RESPONSE TO BIOSTIMULATORS AND REDUCED FERTILIZATION WITH N AND K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Špoljarević

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry cultivar Elsanta was grown in peat based substrate in a green house. Full dose and 50% reduced nitrogen and potassium fertilization were applied during fruit bearing period in spring, along with biostimulators Viva®, Megafol® and their combination. The specific activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPXs; EC 1.11.1.7, catalase (CATs; EC 1.11.1.6, ascorbate peroxidase (APXs; EC 1.11.1.11 and glutathione reductase (GRs; EC 1.6.4.2 in strawberry leaf were stimulated by biostimulators and reduced fertilization. The strongest link seen here was between the enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle (APXs and GRs, which were positively related to trifoliate leaf fresh mass (TLFM. The highest TLFM was observed in Megafol® treated plants.

  9. Antagonism in vitro of bacterial isolates from comercial and wild strawberry vs. Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer

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    Rosa Isela Plascencia Tenorio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit, with a short postharvest life. The loss of fruit quality may be due, among other factors to damage caused by pathogens. Among the most common fungi are causing gray mold (Botrytis cinerea and white rot (Rhizopus stolonifer two phytopathogenic impact on their growth rate which allows you to colonize the surface of these caused major economic losses. An alternative to control damage in fruit postharvest pathogens usingmicrobial antagonists may be present in the plant or fruit, but at low densities. In this study bacteria were isolated from leaf tissue and wild strawberry fruit (Duchesnea indicates Andr. Fock and comercial strawberry. Those isolates that were selected had the highest percentages of inhibition of mycelial growth of both pathogens in vitro. We isolated a total of 32 strains of which 15 came from wild strawberry and 24 commercial strawberry. Only nine strains were obtained with biocontrol potential for one or both pathogens. The highest percentages of mycelial growth inhibition ranged from 67.1% and 81.7% for Botrytis cinerea and 45.5% to 73.2% for Rhizopus stolonifer. These were obtained from four isolates two of them from wild strawberry and the others from commercial strawberry, all with ability to control both pathogens.

  10. Influence of superabsorbent polymers on the chemical composition of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. and biological activity in the soil

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    Mikiciuk Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available By improving the air and water properties of soils, superabsorbent polymers can affect the increase and improvement of the quality of the yield of berry plants, including strawberries. Their presence in the soil has an influence on its biological activity as related to microorganisms. The aim of the research was to assess the influence of superabsorbent polymers added to the soil on the content of macroelements and sodium in the leaves and fruit of strawberry of the ‘Elsanta’ cultivar and changes in the number of soil bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. The superabsorbent polymer (AgroHydroGel was used in two doses: 1.8 and 3.6 g dm-3 of soil. The content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium was assessed using the ASA method, while the content of nitrogen and sulphur was assessed by the elemental analysis method (CHNS analyser. The number of microorganisms was assessed with a BacTrac analyser and the coefficient of microorganism development extent (SR was also determined. AgroHydroGel increased the content of nitrogen and potassium in leaves and fruit but did not affect the content of phosphorus, sulphur and sodium. The addition of the superabsorbent at a dose of 3.6 g dm-3 of soil reduced the magnesium content both in the leaves and fruit of the strawberry. AgroHydroGel decreased the content of calcium in the fruit. The use of AgroHydroGel contributed to the expansion of the K ion ratio to other ions, both in the leaves and fruits. We observed a significant increase in the amount of soil bacteria (1.8 g dm-3 dose and no significant influence on actinomycetes and fungi (irrespective of dose used.

  11. Development and preliminary evaluation of a 90 K Axiom® SNP array for the allo-octoploid cultivated strawberry Fragaria × ananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Nahla V; Davis, Thomas M; Zhang, Hailong; Ficklin, Stephen; Mittmann, Mike; Webster, Teresa; Mahoney, Lise; Wood, David; Alperin, Elisabeth S; Rosyara, Umesh R; Koehorst-Vanc Putten, Herma; Monfort, Amparo; Sargent, Daniel J; Amaya, Iraida; Denoyes, Beatrice; Bianco, Luca; van Dijk, Thijs; Pirani, Ali; Iezzoni, Amy; Main, Dorrie; Peace, Cameron; Yang, Yilong; Whitaker, Vance; Verma, Sujeet; Bellon, Laurent; Brew, Fiona; Herrera, Raul; van de Weg, Eric

    2015-03-07

    A high-throughput genotyping platform is needed to enable marker-assisted breeding in the allo-octoploid cultivated strawberry Fragaria × ananassa. Short-read sequences from one diploid and 19 octoploid accessions were aligned to the diploid Fragaria vesca 'Hawaii 4' reference genome to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels for incorporation into a 90 K Affymetrix® Axiom® array. We report the development and preliminary evaluation of this array. About 36 million sequence variants were identified in a 19 member, octoploid germplasm panel. Strategies and filtering pipelines were developed to identify and incorporate markers of several types: di-allelic SNPs (66.6%), multi-allelic SNPs (1.8%), indels (10.1%), and ploidy-reducing "haploSNPs" (11.7%). The remaining SNPs included those discovered in the diploid progenitor F. iinumae (3.9%), and speculative "codon-based" SNPs (5.9%). In genotyping 306 octoploid accessions, SNPs were assigned to six classes with Affymetrix's "SNPolisher" R package. The highest quality classes, PolyHigh Resolution (PHR), No Minor Homozygote (NMH), and Off-Target Variant (OTV) comprised 25%, 38%, and 1% of array markers, respectively. These markers were suitable for genetic studies as demonstrated in the full-sib family 'Holiday' × 'Korona' with the generation of a genetic linkage map consisting of 6,594 PHR SNPs evenly distributed across 28 chromosomes with an average density of approximately one marker per 0.5 cM, thus exceeding our goal of one marker per cM. The Affymetrix IStraw90 Axiom array is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for cultivated strawberry and is commercially available to the worldwide scientific community. The array's high success rate is likely driven by the presence of naturally occurring variation in ploidy level within the nominally octoploid genome, and by effectiveness of the employed array design and ploidy-reducing strategies. This array enables genetic analyses

  12. Nitrogen availability drives the effect of Glomus intraradices on the growth of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Morales, Vilma; Villegas-Moreno, Javier; Vierheilig, Horst; Cárdenas-Navarro, Raúl

    2012-08-30

    On the one hand, the critical nitrogen (N) content curve allows the minimal N content necessary for maximum growth rate at any stage of crop development to be predicted. On the other hand, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) transfer N from the soil to the plants and its growth and activity depends on the availability of soil N. Our objective was to investigate how the availability of N in the soil affects growth and the accumulation of N in inoculated strawberry plants. Root colonisation, dry matter accumulation and the critical N% curve were studied during growth of inoculated and non-inoculated strawberry plants grown at several N levels. (1) The increase in the availability of N augmented root colonisation by AMF. (2) The effect of AMF on plant growth depended on N availability and the plant developmental status. (3) The critical %N curves were fitted by the following equations: %N = 2.81× (DM)(-0.21) (r² = 0.81) and %N = 2.89× (DM)(-0.32) (r² = 0.80) for inoculated and non-inoculated plants, respectively (where DM is the weight of leaf dry matter, in g plant⁻¹). N availability was a key factor for root colonisation by AMF and for its contribution to plant growth. The patterns of the critical %N curves suggest that AMF modified the photosynthetic N use efficiency. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The Mater-Bi® biodegradable film for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. mulching: effects on fruit yield and quality

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    Luigi Morra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Two trials in different agricultural farms were carried out from October 2014 to June 2015 with the aim to assess the advantages linked to the substitution of the low density polyethylene (LDPE films for soil mulching with the Mater-Bi® biodegradable films in the strawberry cultivation under tunnel in Campania. Lifetime of biodegradable mulch and influence of type of mulch on the yield and the quality of cvs Sabrina and Fortuna were evaluated. Plants were cultivated on mulched, raised beds, high 40 cm from bottom soil. Mater-Bi® film was 20 µm thick while LDPE film was 50 mm thick. The physical-chemical parameters (firmness, pH, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and skin colour and some bioactive compounds (total polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity of fruits were determined by three samplings effected in consecutive months (from March to May 2015 of the harvest cycle. Biodegradable film guaranteed an effective mulch along the whole strawberry cycle (9-10 months including the time of drawing up of film. Yields of cv Sabrina on LDPE was 18% higher than those on Mater-Bi® while the opposite was detected in cv Fortuna (+10%. The physical-chemical parameters of fruits were not modified by the mulches. The content of the bioactive compounds, instead, resulted, in each time of sampling, significantly higher in fruits picked on Mater-Bi® based film.

  14. A leu-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase, FaRIPK1, interacts with ABA receptor, FaABAR, to regulate strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bing-Zhu; Xu, Cheng; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2017-12-21

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a model plant for studying non-climacteric fruit ripening regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), however, its defined molecular mechanisms are yet not fully understood. Here, a strawberry predicted leu-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like kinase, red-initial protein kinase 1 (FaRIPK1), was screened and shown to interact with a putative ABA receptor, FaABAR, using a yeast two-hybrid assay. This association was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays, and shown to occur in the nucleus. Expression analysis by real-time PCR showed that FaRIPK1 is expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, with a particularly high expression in white fruit at the onset of coloration. Downregulation of FaRIPK1 expression in strawberry fruit, using tobacco rattle virus, inhibited ripening, as evidenced by suppression of ripening-related physiological changes and reduced expression of several genes involved in softening, sugar contents, pigmentation, and ABA biosynthesis and signaling. The yeast-expressed LRR and STK (serine/threonine protein kinase) domains of FaRIPK1 bound ABA and showed kinase activity, respectively. A fruit-disc-incubation test revealed that FaRIPK1 expression was induced by ABA and ethylene. The synergistic action of FaRIPK1 with FaABAR in regulation of strawberry fruit ripening is discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Changes in chlorophyll content and fluorescence and fruit yield contributing traits in different genotypes of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa DUCH.

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    Elżbieta Kaczmarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in strawberry leaves was based on a field experiment performed in the years 2009–2010. Ten genotypes including 5 cultivars: ‘Kent’, ‘Teresa’, ‘Senga Sengana’, ‘Chandler’ and the breeding clone 1387 as well as their inbred progeny, were the object of the study. During the experiment the following indicators were evaluated: chlorophyll a and b content in fresh leaf mass as well as fluorescence parameters: minimum (F0 and maximum fluorescence yield (Fm, photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm, actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Y, minimum (F0’ and maximum efficiency of fluorescence (Fm’ in the light, coefficient of photochemical (qP and non-photo- chemical (qN fluorescence quenching. In this work, we also examined the effect of repeated inbreeding on strawberry fruit yield and yield components. The analysis of changes of these parameters showed that inbreeding caused a reaction in all tested cultivars. In all inbred progeny, chlorophyll a and b content decreased compared to the cultivars. Generally, the photoche- mical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and the parameter ΔF/ Fm’ were not affected by strong inbreeding. In analyzing the values of the coefficients qP and qN, it has been observed that changes in their values depend on the sensitivity of the examined genotypes to self-pollination. The functioning of PS II is the most sensitive indicator of the effect of various factors on plants and is useful, among others, in breeding to select plants with a required genotype. The yield – determining features such as: fruit yield per plant, weight of single fruit, number of fruit per plant and weight of leaves per plant in S3 generation, were lower as compared with parental forms.

  16. Yield, Quality, and Nutrient Concentrations of Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. cv. 'Sonata') Grown with Different Organic Fertilizer Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2015-06-17

    Four combinations of two solid organic fertilizers (Monterra Malt and chicken manure) applied before planting and two liquid organic fertilizers (broad bean and Pioner Hi-Fruit/K-Max) given through drip irrigation (fertigation) were compared with inorganic fertilization regarding growth, yield, nutrient concentration, and fruit quality of strawberries. Broad bean fertigation combined with Monterra Malt resulted in a similar fruit yield as inorganic fertilizer and a higher yield than Monterra Malt combined with Pioner; however, total soluble solids, firmness, and titratable acid were improved with Pioner fertigation, although these parameters were more affected by harvest time than the applied fertilizers. The concentrations of most nutrients in fruits and leaves were higher in inorganically fertigated plants. The reductions in fruit yield in three of four treatments and fruit weight in all organic treatments may be due to a combination of the following conditions in the root zone: (1) high pH and high NH4(+)/NO3(-) ratio; (2) high EC and/or high NaCl concentration; (3) cation imbalance; and (4) nutrient deficiency.

  17. Identification of candidate flavonoid pathway genes using transcriptome correlation network analysis in ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, Jeremy; Yu, Hao-Wei; Chambers, Alan H; Whitaker, Vance M; Folta, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    New modulators of the strawberry flavonoid pathway were identified through correlation network analysis. The transcriptomes of red, ripe fruit from two parental lines and 14 of their progeny were compared, and uncharacterized transcripts matching the expression patterns of known flavonoid-pathway genes were identified. Fifteen transcripts corresponded with putative transcription factors, and several of these were examined experimentally using transient expression in developing fruits. The results suggest that two of the newly-identified regulators likely contribute to discrete nodes of the flavonoid pathway. One increases only LEUCOANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE (LAR) and FLAVONOL 3'-HYDROXYLASE (F3'H) transcript accumulation upon overexpression. Another affects LAR and FLAVONOL SYNTHASE (FLS) after overexpression. The third putative transcription factor appears to be a universal regulator of flavonoid-pathway genes, as many pathway transcripts decrease in abundance when this gene is silenced. This report demonstrates that such systems-level approaches may be especially powerful when connected to an effective transient expression system, helping to provide rapid and strong evidence of gene function in key fruit-ripening processes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Physical attributes and chemical composition of organic strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa Duch, Cv. Albion) at six stages of ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Ramírez-Bustamante, Nidia; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Escalante-Minakata, María del Pilar; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Acosta-Muñiz, Carlos; Guerrero-Prieto, Víctor; Ochoa-Reyes, Emilio

    2013-05-01

    Organic strawberry fruits (Cv. 'Albion') were harvested at six different ripening stages and evaluated for physical and chemical parameters. Biometrical characteristics and moisture content did not change significantly during ripening. Total soluble solids, pH and colour development increased while titratable acidity and fruit firmness decreased 14.7% and 91%, respectively. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose followed similar tendencies. Final contents of these sugars were 2323.4, 1988.5, and 1578.4 mg/100 g. Citric, malic, and ascorbic acids followed a descending, irregular, and increasing tendency during ripening, respectively. Final contents of these acids were 822.8, 245.8, and 78.1 mg/100 g. Total anthocyanins content (TAC) increased during ripening, while the opposite was observed for total phenolic content (TPC). TAC and TPC in ripe fruit were 56.4 mg/100g and 196 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g. Twenty eight phenolic compounds, mainly glycosides, were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The concentration of these compounds was ripening dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perpetual flowering in strawberry species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have revealed genetic control of flowering patterns for seasonal flowering (SF) and perpetual flowering (PF) genotypes in the common garden strawberry, with associated links to gene homeologs in diploid alpine strawberry, F. vesca L. Within the genus Fragaria, 22 species and multiple subspec...

  20. Organic-mineral and organic fertilization in the strawberry (Fragaria x Ananasa Duch. crop under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Osvaldo Romero Romano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A good combination of organic fertilizers and mineral fertilizers may allow a reduction in the use of agrochemicals, to benefit the environment and health of consumers, to obtained crops and safe products with lower content of chemical residues. In this paper, we assess the effect of organic fertilization and organic mineral in the cultivation of strawberries cv. Festival, in a factorial treatment designin 3x23 with 24 treatments in an experimental design in randomized blocks with four replicates under greenhouse conditions in Atlixco, Puebla. The factors and levels of study: chemical fertilization (FQ, three levels of N-P2O5-K2O 0-0-0, 45-20-20 and 90-35-35 kg ha-141 3 con un total de 24 commercial organic nutrient (Activator QFprepared fulvic acid (AF at a concentration of (13.58% with two levels 0 and 450 ml ha-1,growth regulator (RCcommercial vegetable (Biozyme®, whit 78.87% of plant extracts and phytohormones, and 1.86% of microelements at evels of 0 and 20 l ha-1 and vermicompost (V of cattle manure at 50 and 100 g / pot. The experiment was divided into two periods from February to May and June to September 2011. The treatments applications were edafic (FQ and V and foliar (AF and RC in both stages of treatment applications were made at 10, 40 and 60 days after transplantation. The variables analyzed were number of stolons, stolon length, diameter and length fruit, number and weight of fruit per week, period, and the total of the two periods. Two twice a week the number of ripe fruits was counted, the diameter and length fruit and weight was measured. Every eight days after the formation of the first stolons, counted and measured. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS program. In the period from February-May treatment FQ50-AF1-RC1-V50 showedstatistically different (Tukey, p = 0.05 %. for variables length fruit (2.95 cm, diameter fruit (3.76 cm, weight of fruit perweek (11.31 g and period (135.69 g. In the period from June

  1. ‘Flavorfest’ strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Flavorfest’, a “June-bearing” or “short-day” strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. ex Rozier) cultivar, was introduced for propagation to nurseries 5 December 2012 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). ‘Flavorfest’ was selected for its high yield of flavorf...

  2. 'Florida Beauty' strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Florida Beauty’ strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) originated from a 2012 cross made by the Queensland breeding program between Queensland Australia selection 2010-119 (female parent) and ‘Florida Radiance’ (male parent). Selection 2010-119 was chosen as a parent for its excellent fruit shape and fl...

  3. Ultraviolet light-C increases antioxidant capacity of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) in vitro and in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Solís, Cecilia I; Sandoval-Salazar, Cuauhtémoc; Lozoya-Gloria, Edmundo; Maldonado-Aguilera, Genaro A; Aguilar-Zavala, Herlinda; Beltrán-Campos, Vicente; Pérez-Vázquez, Victoriano; Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel

    2017-09-01

    Flavonoids and polyphenols from the strawberry and other fruits have been proposed to reduce the oxidative stress produced by the obesity and her complications. Moreover, it has been proposed that irradiation with UV-C to strawberry may increase the antioxidant capacity of this fruit. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of the UV-C on antioxidant capacity of strawberry in vitro and in vivo. Strawberry slices were irradiated with ultraviolet light-C (UV-C) at 1.2 W/m 2 /16.5 min; then, the power antioxidant was isolated from the nonirradiated and irradiated strawberry slices into an organic phase, which was lyophilized to finally producing a nonirradiated strawberry extract (NSE) and UV-irradiated strawberry extract (UViSE) powder. After the antioxidant capacity of both extracts were determined in vitro using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and in vivo using high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Our results demonstrated that irradiation with UV-C to strawberry slices increased the antioxidants content, which was corroborated in vitro, where the antioxidant capacity of UViSE was higher than the NSE. However, in obese rats, the reduction in the oxidative damage by the UViSE and NSE were similar in peripheral tissues. Interestingly, the UViSE was better than the NSE to reduce the oxidative damage in brain. In conclusion, UV-irradiation increases the antioxidants content of strawberry that is correlated with an increased antioxidant capacity in vitro, but in rats, this antioxidant capacity may be more effective in brain than in peripheral tissues.

  4. An Apple Fruit Fermentation (AFF) Treatment Improves the Composition of the Rhizosphere Microbial Community and Growth of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch ‘Benihoppe’) Seedlings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jie; Pang, Hui; Ma, Mengxia; Bu, Yufen; Shao, Wei; Huang, Weijing; Ji, Qianlong; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    .... We investigated the consequences of applying AFF alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis to strawberry tissue culture seedlings in vitro, the analyses of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE...

  5. Determination of collected quantities of wild strawberry, blueberry and juniper in Serbia in relation to different scenarios of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Ranković, Nenad; Poduška, Zoran; Nonić, Dragan; Nedeljković, Jelena; Stanišić, Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of some climate elements on the collected quantities of blueberry, wild strawberry and juniper in Serbia. The main objective of the research is to predict the quantity of selected forest fruits depending on the different climate change scenarios (A1Bmin, A1Bmax, A2min and A2max). The general (modeling method), basic (dialectical) and specific scientific methods (induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and concretization) were used. Regres...

  6. Bioecological peculiarities of mid-ripening varieties of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Павлюк

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Improvement of a range of strawberry varie­ties based on comprehensive study and introduction of new Ukrainian and West European cultivars. Methods. Cultivars and elite forms were studied using the methods of primary variety studying and state variety testing at three-year strawberry plantations of the Institute of Horticulture of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the city of Kyiv and its variety testing stations. Results. It was found that more frequent spring and summer droughts as well as black frosts in winter adversely affected the strawberry productivity. The best varieties were selected among new ones for the complex of traits, they included ‘Elegance’ from the Great Britain, ‘Gercules’ from Ukraine (both are dessert grapes, ‘Elsanta’ from Holland (for universal use, ‘Alba’ from Italia (as raw material. The highly adaptive and productive ‘Istochnik’ and ‘Festyvalna romashka’ varieties (as raw material are recommended for the north regions. Conclusions. In the context of profound climatic change, high-profitable cultivation of mid-ripening varieties and a strawberry as such in the Northern Forest-Steppe zone is expedient under controlled conditions – in high film tunnels, in hot-houses and under perennial irrigation that already has become the European tendency.

  7. Effects of nano-TiO2-LDPE packaging on postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) stored at refrigeration temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Ye, Qingyang; Jiang, Lei; Luo, Zisheng

    2017-03-01

    Nano-TiO 2 -low-density polyethylene (NTLDPE) packaging was prepared, and the effects of NTLDPE packaging on quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry fruits were investigated. With increased barrier properties, NTLDPE packaging quickly formed a relative lower O 2 and higher CO 2 air composition in comparison with LDPE. It was also more efficient in maintaining the overall quality of strawberry fruit, as reflected by lower decay rate and weight loss, as well as retarding the decrease in firmness and titratable acid. Meanwhile, reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in NTLDPE-packed fruits were 10.8% and 21.9% lower, respectively. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes involved in ROS scavenging in NTLDPE-packed fruits were significantly higher at the later period of storage time. Anthocyanin accumulation was inhibited, whereas ascorbic acid and total phenolics contents were better retained and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity was 13.2% higher in NTLDPE-packed fruit by the end of storage. These data indicate that the beneficial effects of NTLDPE packaging on postharvest quality and antioxidant capacity of strawberry are probably associated with the promotion of ROS scavenging and related antioxidant enzyme activities, and NTLDPE packaging together with refrigeration storage is a promising method for strawberry fruit preservation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Evaluation of antiproliferative, anti-type 2 diabetes, and antihypertension potentials of ellagitannins from strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) using in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Marcia da Silva; de Carvalho, Joao Ernesto; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2010-10-01

    Strawberries represent the main source of ellagic acid derivatives in the Brazilian diet, corresponding to more than 50% of all phenolic compounds found in the fruit. There is a particular interest in the determination of the ellagic acid content in fruits because of possible chemopreventive benefits. In the present study, the potential health benefits of purified ellagitannins from strawberries were evaluated in relation to the antiproliferative activity and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension. Therefore, a comparison among ellagic acid, purified ellagitannins, and a strawberry extract was done to evaluate the possible synergistic effects of phenolics. In relation to the antiproliferative activity, it was observed that ellagic acid had the highest percentage inhibition of cell proliferation. The strawberry extract had lower efficacy in inhibiting the cell proliferation, indicating that in the case of this fruit there is no synergism. Purified ellagitannins had high α-amylase and ACE inhibitory activities. However, these compounds had low α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These results suggested that the ellagitannins and ellagic acid have good potential for the management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. However, further studies with animal and human models are needed to advance the in vitro assay-based biochemical rationale from this study.

  9. Influence of fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, fruit order, planting date, shading, growing Environment, and genotype on the contents of selected phenolics in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, Mikko J; Hoppula, Kalle I; Nestby, Rolf; Verheul, Michél J; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2006-04-05

    The influence of agricultural practices (fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, and planting date), environment (light and growing area), cultivar, and fruit order on the selected phenolic content and antioxidant activity in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits was studied. Three different levels of fertilization were given to plants in the fertilization experiment. The lowest fertilization level increased the contents of flavonols and ellagic acid from 19 to 57%. Between cultivars, up to 4-fold differences were found in the flavonol content, and it also varied according to growing environment. Planting date in glasshouse production was important for the phenolic content, and a statistically significant interaction was found between planting date and fruit order. Fruit order caused at highest 1.5-2.0-fold differences in the contents of phenolics. Interestingly, compared with other phenolics, anthocyanins were affected differently by many factors. Thus, the findings show that minor cultivation changes can increase the content of phenolics, especially in under-glass production where conditions can be easily manipulated.

  10. Genetic mapping of sex determination in a wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana reveals earliest form of sex chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evolution of separate sexes (dioecy) from hermaphroditism is one of the major evolutionary transitions in plants and this transition can be accompanied by the development of sex chromosomes. However, we are now just beginning to gain insight into the initial stages of sex chromosome evolution vi...

  11. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography method for anthocyanins in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) and complementary studies on stability, kinetics and antioxidant power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Gisele A B; Oliveira, Daniel R; da Conceição, Lucas S M; Farah, João P S; Tavares, Marina F M

    2016-02-01

    A RPLC-DAD method for the analysis of eight anthocyanins was developed, validated and applied to strawberry extracts. The chromatographic method was conducted under gradient elution in acidulated water-methanol mobile phase and octadecyl-silica columns. An ultrasound extraction procedure was optimized by a 3(2) factorial design (%HCl in methanol, temperature, and time) and response surface methodology. Method validation was performed according to the following parameters: linearity (R(2)>0.99, p-value725), LOD (3-7 μmol L(-1)) and LOQ (9-22 μmol L(-1)), selectivity/specificity (baseline separation of all analytes and peak purity), instrumental precision (strawberry extracts were quantified (average values: 24.2 μg/g for cyanidin-3-glucoside and 49.1 μg/g for pelargonidin-3-glucoside). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue*

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, Graham B.; Ryder, Carol D.; Cevik, Volkan; HAMMOND, JOHN P.; Popovich, Alexandra; King, Graham J.; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Manning, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programmes of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and is induced and co-ordinated by ethylene, while in non-climacteric fruits, such as strawberry and grape, it is controlled by an ethylene-independent process with little change in respiration rate...

  13. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour, G. B. (Graham B.); Ryder, Carol D.; Cevik, Volkan; HAMMOND, JOHN P.; Popovich, Alexandra; King, Graham J.; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Manning, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programmes of\\ud ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato\\ud and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and is induced and co-ordinated by ethylene,\\ud while in non-climacteric fruits, such as strawberry and grape, it is controlled by an ethylene-independent process\\ud with little change in resp...

  14. Relationship between pulp structure breakdown and nutritional value of papaya (Carica papaya) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) nectars using alternative thermal and non-thermal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swada, Jeffrey G; Keeley, Christopher J; Ghane, Mohammad A; Engeseth, Nicki J

    2016-05-01

    Papaya and strawberry contain a wide array of nutrients that contribute to human health; however, availability of these fruits is limited due to their short shelf lives and seasonal nature. In this study, the effect of alternative techniques including ultra high temperature (UHT, 20-135 °C, 1-3 s) and irradiation (0-10 kGy) on carotenoid concentration, antioxidant capacity and changes to pulp structure using transmission electron microscopy were determined for papaya and strawberry nectars. UHT had moderate effects on antioxidant capacity, but the greatest overall release of carotenoids from the pulp matrix (34.2%, 6.26%, 8.31%; β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, and lycopene, respectively). Irradiation resulted in the greatest increase in antioxidant capacity [19.22 to 24.32 µmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) (papaya), 190.51 to 287.68 µmol Trolox equivalents kg(-1) (strawberry)], with moderate effects on carotenoid concentration. This research demonstrates that decreases in nutrient value and antioxidant capacity can result from processing, but that regeneration of these losses can be seen corresponding to the apparent breakdown of pulp structure. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) purée elaboration process on non-anthocyanin phenolic composition and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Cerezo, Ana B; Troncoso, Ana M; García-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Strawberries are harvested in a short period of time frequently involving fruit surplus. This paper studies the impact of the strawberry purée elaboration process on the chemical composition of the final products. Thirty-two phenolic compounds were studied by Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector (LC-DAD) and Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). An LC-DAD method was set up and validated and the non-anthocyanin phenolic profile was quantified at the different steps of production, for three elaboration processes and two harvests (2011 and 2012). We have tentatively identified apigenin-7-O-glucoside, luteolin-3-O-glucuronide, malonyl caffeoylquinic acid, trans-resveratrol glucoside and caffeoylglucaric isomer. (+)-Catechin and HHDP-galloylglucose were the most abundant phenolic compounds. The most abundant flavonol was kaempferol-3-glucoside. The purée maintains the fruit's non-anthocyanin phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant activity as determined by ORAC and DPPH methods. This fact suggests that strawberry purée could be considered a valuable ingredient for producing food derivatives. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eduardo Cruz-Rus; Iraida Amaya; José F. Sánchez-Sevilla; Miguel A. Botella; Victoriano Valpuesta

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa...

  17. Influence of pH on the efficacy of ozonated water to control microorganisms and its effect on the quality of stored strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallas Felippe de Souza Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ozonation has been proposed as an alternative for the post-harvest treatment of plant products. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the pH on the efficacy of ozonated water to control microorganisms and to determine the possible effects of ozone on the quality of stored strawberries. To evaluate the influence of pH on ozonated water in Portola variety strawberries, the strawberries were divided into six batches. Three batches were exposed to ozonated water and three batches were exposed to non-ozonized water with different pH levels and an immersion time of 5 min. The pH values used were 3.0, 6.5 and 8.7. After the ozonation, the fruits were stored in a cold chamber at 5 °C for 6 days, and analyses were performed every two days. A completely randomized design was adopted using a 6x4 factorial scheme with three replications. The aerobic mesophiles, molds and yeasts, total coliforms and Escherichia coli were quantified, and the presence of Salmonella spp. was assessed. For the quality evaluation, the mass loss, titratable acidity (TA, pH, soluble solids (SS, SS/TA ratio and color were analyzed. The pH of the water was verified to influenced the effectiveness of the ozonated water to control the aerobic mesophiles and molds and yeasts. The ozonated water can retard fresh mass losses and maintain the pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, SS/TA ratio and color variables.

  18. Improvement in Fruit Quality by Overexpressing miR399a in Woodland Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Junxiang; Cui, Weixu; Guan, Chunyue; Mao, Wenjuan; Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-08-30

    Fruit quality is an important trait in strawberry and is determined by many factors. The soluble solid content in strawberry fruits is positively related to the phosphorus content. MicroRNA399 (miR399) is involved in the regulation of phosphate (Pi) homeostasis. However, the effect of miR399 on strawberry quality remains unknown. In this study, miR399a-overexpressing transgenic woodland strawberries (Fragaria vesca) were obtained via an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The phosphorus (P) content was 1.1-fold to 2.1-fold higher in the leaves and fruits of the miR399a-overexpressing plants than in the wild type (WT). However, the P content in the miR399a-overexpressing plants was decreased by 25% to 45% in the roots. The primary root length of the transgenic lines in both the high-Pi and low-Pi media was shorter than that of the WT. Interestingly, the transgenic lines in pots under Pi-sufficient conditions grew better than the WT, and the fruit quality, including the contents of fructose and glucose and soluble solid, was significantly higher in the transgenic lines than in the WT. The overexpression of miR399a in strawberry can be used to improve the parameters involved in fruit quality and provides information regarding breeding nutrient-improved strawberry.

  19. An Apple Fruit Fermentation (AFF) Treatment Improves the Composition of the Rhizosphere Microbial Community and Growth of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch 'Benihoppe') Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Pang, Hui; Ma, Mengxia; Bu, Yufen; Shao, Wei; Huang, Weijing; Ji, Qianlong; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth can be promoted by the application of apple fruit fermentation (AFF), despite unclear of the underlying mechanisms, the effects involved in AFF on rhizosphere microorganisms have been hypothesized. We investigated the consequences of applying AFF alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis to strawberry tissue culture seedlings in vitro, the analyses of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA were performed to determine AFF effects on rhizosphere. Moreover, the growth index and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined 30 days after treatments. We identified five dominant bacteria in AFF: Coprinus atramentarius, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Weissella and B. subtilis. The greatest number of bacterial species were observed in the rhizosphere of control matrix (water treated), and the lowest diversity appeared in the rhizosphere soil treated with 108 cfu/mL B. licheniformis alone. Combining AFF plus B. licheniformis in one treatment resulted in the largest leaf area, plant height, root length, plant weight, and the markedly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. We conclude that a combination of AFF plus B. licheniformis treatment to matrix can increase antioxidant enzymes activities in strawberry seedlings, optimize the status of rhizosphere microbial, and promote plant growth.

  20. An Apple Fruit Fermentation (AFF Treatment Improves the Composition of the Rhizosphere Microbial Community and Growth of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch 'Benihoppe' Seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Plant growth can be promoted by the application of apple fruit fermentation (AFF, despite unclear of the underlying mechanisms, the effects involved in AFF on rhizosphere microorganisms have been hypothesized. We investigated the consequences of applying AFF alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis to strawberry tissue culture seedlings in vitro, the analyses of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE and 16S rDNA were performed to determine AFF effects on rhizosphere. Moreover, the growth index and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined 30 days after treatments. We identified five dominant bacteria in AFF: Coprinus atramentarius, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Weissella and B. subtilis. The greatest number of bacterial species were observed in the rhizosphere of control matrix (water treated, and the lowest diversity appeared in the rhizosphere soil treated with 108 cfu/mL B. licheniformis alone. Combining AFF plus B. licheniformis in one treatment resulted in the largest leaf area, plant height, root length, plant weight, and the markedly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. We conclude that a combination of AFF plus B. licheniformis treatment to matrix can increase antioxidant enzymes activities in strawberry seedlings, optimize the status of rhizosphere microbial, and promote plant growth.

  1. An Apple Fruit Fermentation (AFF) Treatment Improves the Composition of the Rhizosphere Microbial Community and Growth of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch ‘Benihoppe’) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yufen; Shao, Wei; Huang, Weijing; Ji, Qianlong; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth can be promoted by the application of apple fruit fermentation (AFF), despite unclear of the underlying mechanisms, the effects involved in AFF on rhizosphere microorganisms have been hypothesized. We investigated the consequences of applying AFF alone or in combination with Bacillus licheniformis to strawberry tissue culture seedlings in vitro, the analyses of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA were performed to determine AFF effects on rhizosphere. Moreover, the growth index and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined 30 days after treatments. We identified five dominant bacteria in AFF: Coprinus atramentarius, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Weissella and B. subtilis. The greatest number of bacterial species were observed in the rhizosphere of control matrix (water treated), and the lowest diversity appeared in the rhizosphere soil treated with 108 cfu/mL B. licheniformis alone. Combining AFF plus B. licheniformis in one treatment resulted in the largest leaf area, plant height, root length, plant weight, and the markedly higher activities of antioxidant enzymes. We conclude that a combination of AFF plus B. licheniformis treatment to matrix can increase antioxidant enzymes activities in strawberry seedlings, optimize the status of rhizosphere microbial, and promote plant growth. PMID:27755580

  2. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B.; Ryder, Carol D.; Cevik, Volkan; Hammond, John P.; Popovich, Alexandra; King, Graham J.; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J.; Manning, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programmes of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and is induced and co-ordinated by ethylene, while in non-climacteric fruits, such as strawberry and grape, it is controlled by an ethylene-independent process with little change in respiration rate. The two contrasting mechanisms, however, both lead to texture, colour, and flavour changes that probably reflect some common programmes of regulatory control. It has been shown that a SEPALLATA(SEP)4-like gene is necessary for normal ripening in tomato. It has been demonstrated here that silencing a fruit-related SEP1/2-like (FaMADS9) gene in strawberry leads to the inhibition of normal development and ripening in the petal, achene, and receptacle tissues. In addition, analysis of transcriptome profiles reveals pleiotropic effects of FaMADS9 on fruit development and ripening-related gene expression. It is concluded that SEP genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. These findings provide important information to extend the molecular control of ripening in a non-climacteric fruit beyond the limited genetic and cultural options currently available. PMID:21115665

  3. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Ryder, Carol D; Cevik, Volkan; Hammond, John P; Popovich, Alexandra; King, Graham J; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Manning, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programmes of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and is induced and co-ordinated by ethylene, while in non-climacteric fruits, such as strawberry and grape, it is controlled by an ethylene-independent process with little change in respiration rate. The two contrasting mechanisms, however, both lead to texture, colour, and flavour changes that probably reflect some common programmes of regulatory control. It has been shown that a SEPALLATA(SEP)4-like gene is necessary for normal ripening in tomato. It has been demonstrated here that silencing a fruit-related SEP1/2-like (FaMADS9) gene in strawberry leads to the inhibition of normal development and ripening in the petal, achene, and receptacle tissues. In addition, analysis of transcriptome profiles reveals pleiotropic effects of FaMADS9 on fruit development and ripening-related gene expression. It is concluded that SEP genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. These findings provide important information to extend the molecular control of ripening in a non-climacteric fruit beyond the limited genetic and cultural options currently available.

  4. PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DE FRUTA EN CULTIVARES DE FRESA (Fragaria sp. AFECTADOS POR ESTRÉS SALINO YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY OF SALT-STRESSED STRAWBERRY CULTIVARS (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2006-12-01

    levels. This trial was carried out to investigate the relationship between NaCl-salt stress, fruit quality and yield on the strawberries cultivars ‘Sweet Carlie’ ‘Chandler’ and ‘Camarosa’ grown in pots filled with salinized soil in glasshouse. Five salt levels were compared (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM NaCl which induced different electrical conductivity (EC levels (2,68; 6,08; 8,24; 9,98 y 12,62 dS.m-1 respectly. The different EC levels were obtained by adding NaCl progressively to the soil. Fruit yield and quality were negatively influenced by the tested treatments. Sugar content in fruits was influenced by the treatments. Total soluble solids and tritrable acidity in fruits grew as EC levels grew. While the accumulation of dry matter in the roots showed a proportional increase with the level of NaCl in the substrate, the fruits showed an opposite tendency. Although typical stress symptoms such as growth retardation and poor fruit yield were observed in the strawberry tested cultivars, ‘Sweet Charlie’ was less sensitive to the salinity.

  5. Storage of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa L. cv. ‘Oso Grande’, subjected to 1-MCP - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.8790

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyanna Alves Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of 1 - methylcyclopropene (1-MCP on the substances involved in the softening of strawberry, cultivar Oso Grande, stored at room temperature, from the municipality of Itutinga, State of Minas Gerais. The parameters evaluated were: firmness, total pectin, percentage of solubilization, activities of the enzymes pectinmethylesterase (PME (EC 3.1.1.11 and polygalacturonase (PG (EC 3.2.1.15. It was concluded that 1-MCP delayed the softening of the fruits, since the fruits that were treated with 1-MCP after storage, have shown greater firmness, lower activities of PG and PME, and lower contents of total pectin, soluble pectin and percentage of solubilization. 

  6. Assessment of the differences in the phenolic composition and color characteristics of new strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars by HPLC-MS and Imaging Tristimulus Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lara, Rebeca; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Lourdes González-Miret, M; Del Villar-Martínez, Alma A; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Heredia, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    The phenolic composition (by HPLC-DAD-MS) and color characteristics (by Imaging Tristimulus Colorimetry) of four strawberry cultivars that have shown good climate adaptation to subtropical area (Nikte, Zamorana, Jacona and Pakal) have been assessed. 24 monomeric phenolics were identified, including 15 anthocyanins, 5 phenolic acids, 1 flavanol and 4 flavonols. Nikte and Zamorana showed the highest phenolic potential mainly due to their higher content of anthocyanins, while Pakal was richer in phenolic acids. Regarding color, Nikte and Zamorana were the more similar cultivars having the lowest values of lightness and hue. On the contrary, the color of Pakal was quite different from all the rest, due to the specific distribution between pelargonidin and cyanidin. The inclusion of both phenolic and colorimetric information in the Linear Discriminant Analysis allowed reaching very good discriminations among cultivars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. INFLUENCIA DEL CLORURO DE CALCIO Y DE UN TIPO DE EMPAQUE SOBRE LAS PROPIEDADES FISICOQUÍMICAS Y LA TEXTURA DE LA FRESA (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH. DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND A PACKING TYPE ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THE TEXTURE OF THE STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auris Damely García Mendez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de analizar la influencia del cloruro de calcio (CaCl2, sobre la calidad de las fresas (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. de la variedad Capitola para el consumo fresco, se ensayó su aplicación a una concentración de 0,7%, empacando los frutos con y sin este tratamiento en un tipo de envase plástico con y sin cobertura termoplástica (Envoplast®, en condiciones de refrigeración comercial. Como resultado, se encontró que los frutos tratados y envasados con Envoplast®, tuvieron la menor pérdida de peso y cambios en la textura, °Brix acidez, durante un tiempo máximo de siete días de almacenamiento a 5+1 °C y 95+5% HR. Mientras los frutos no tratados, pero envasados sin la cobertura, presentaron un incremento progresivo de su deterioro en el lapso de tres días, atribuido al alto grado perecedero. En conclusión, el uso del CaCl2 al 0,7% y el tipo de envasado con una película de permeabilidad selectiva que promovió una atmósfera modificada pasiva, permitieron reducir las mermas de peso y la deshidratación de las fresas durante el almacenamiento sin que ocurriera daño por frío. Dada la influencia positiva de este tratamiento para mantener las características fisicoquímicas y de frescura en este producto, se recomendó su uso como alternativa de conservación en postcosecha.With the purpose of analyzing the influence of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on quality of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. Capitola variety for fresh consumption, is testing its implement a concentration of 0.7%, packing the fruits with and without this treatment in a type of container and non-coverage thermoplastic (Envoplast® commercial refrigeration conditions. As a result, it was found that processed and packaged fruit with Envoplast® had the least weight loss and changes in texture, acidity and °Brix, for a maximum of seven das time of storage at 5+1 °C and 95+5% RH. While the treated fruits, but packaged without coverage, had a progressive

  8. Low tunnels as a strawberry breeding tool and season-extending production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) are very popular with consumers and economically valuable. Recent changes in weather patterns in prime North American strawberry-producing regions have resulted in reduced production. Partly due to the high perishability of strawberry fruit, impor...

  9. EVALUACIÓN SENSORIAL DE FRESA (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. Y UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. FORTIFICADAS CON VITAMINA E SENSORY EVALUATION OF STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. AND CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L. FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Restrepo Duque

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de tecnologías como la impregnación al vacío (IV, permite ofrecer al consumidor frutos mínimamente procesados, con alto valor nutricional y calidad sensorial similar al producto fresco. En esta investigación se presenta la evaluación sensorial de fresas y uchuvas fortificadas con vitamina E en función de atributos como: intensidad del color, sabor ácido, sabor dulce, sensación grasa, dureza, jugosidad y aceptación global. La evaluación sensorial se realizó para cada fruto mediante pruebas descriptivas escalares de 9 bloques, donde el control (fruto fresco fue posicionado en el centro y los jueces evaluaron el grado de intensidad del atributo en comparación con el control. El proceso de IV mejoró la calidad sensorial de los frutos recién impregnados en términos de sabor y aceptación global. Estas muestras fueron evaluadas como más jugosas, más dulces y menos ácidas que las muestras frescas.The development of technologies such as vacuum impregnation (VI, allows the consumer fruits to offer minimally processed, with high nutritional value and similar sensorial quality to the fresh product. In this investigation the sensorial evaluation of strawberries and cape gooseberry fortified with vitamin E is presented in function of attributes like: intensity of the color, sour flavor, sweet flavor, fatty sensation, hardness, juiciness and global acceptance. The sensorial evaluation was carried out for each fruit by means of scalar descriptive tests of 9 blocks, where the control (fresh fruit was positioned in the central part and the judges evaluated the grade of intensity of the attribute in comparison with the control. The process of VI improved the sensorial quality of the fruits recently impregnated in terms of flavor and global acceptance. These samples were evaluated as juicier, sweeter and less acidic that the fresh samples.

  10. LED Light to improve Strawberry Flavour, Quality and Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanenberg, M.A.A.; Janse, J.; Verkerke, W.

    2016-01-01

    A current demonstration in the greenhouses of Wageningen UR in Bleiswijk (the Netherlands) shows positive results of LED light on the quality and production of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa). In this demonstration two strawberry cultivars, Elsanta and Sonata, are exposed to three different light

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting pseudomonads increases anthocyanin concentration in strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva) in conditions of reduced fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingua, Guido; Bona, Elisa; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Cantamessa, Simone; Copetta, Andrea; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2013-08-06

    Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry.

  12. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Gamalero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species living on and inside the root system are beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. In this work it is shown that inoculation with AM fungi and/or with selected and tested Pseudomonas strains, under conditions of reduced fertilization, increases anthocyanin concentration in the fruits of strawberry.

  13. Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment as Sustainable Alternative to Control Strawberry Tarsenomid Mites and Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Strawberry Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Hoek, H.; Molendijk, L.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    High qualified strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) planting material, mainly for export, is produced by Dutch growers on circa 1100 ha field area in The Netherlands. Planting stock must be destroyed if strawberry tarsonemid mite (Phytonemus pallidus) or infection by the plant parasitic nematode

  14. Molecular genetic studies in Fragaria species : agrobacterium-mediated transformation and fine mapping of the Phytophthora fragariae resistance gene Rpfl.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haymes, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The fungus Phytophthora fragariae, is able to cause red stele root rot in the strawberry. Symptoms of the disease is discolouration of the stele of the roots, rotting away of the infected roots, dwarfism, wilting, and finally plant death. Chemical control of red stele

  15. Evolutionary Origins and Dynamics of Octoploid Strawberry Subgenomes Revealed by Dense Targeted Capture Linkage Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Liston, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Whole-genome duplications are radical evolutionary events that have driven speciation and adaptation in many taxa. Higher-order polyploids have complex histories often including interspecific hybridization and dynamic genomic changes. This chromosomal reshuffling is poorly understood for most polyploid species, despite their evolutionary and agricultural importance, due to the challenge of distinguishing homologous sequences from each other. Here, we use dense linkage maps generated with targeted sequence capture to improve the diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) reference genome and to disentangle the subgenomes of the wild octoploid progenitors of cultivated strawberry, Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis. Our novel approach, POLiMAPS (Phylogenetics Of Linkage-Map-Anchored Polyploid Subgenomes), leverages sequence reads to associate informative interhomeolog phylogenetic markers with linkage groups and reference genome positions. In contrast to a widely accepted model, we find that one of the four subgenomes originates with the diploid cytoplasm donor F. vesca, one with the diploid Fragaria iinumae, and two with an unknown ancestor close to F. iinumae. Extensive unidirectional introgression has converted F. iinumae-like subgenomes to be more F. vesca-like, but never the reverse, due either to homoploid hybridization in the F. iinumae-like diploid ancestors or else strong selection spreading F. vesca-like sequence among subgenomes through homeologous exchange. In addition, divergence between homeologous chromosomes has been substantially augmented by interchromosomal rearrangements. Our phylogenetic approach reveals novel aspects of the complicated web of genetic exchanges that occur during polyploid evolution and suggests a path forward for unraveling other agriculturally and ecologically important polyploid genomes. PMID:25477420

  16. The allo-octoploid strawberry: simply complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Thijs

    2016-01-01

    The garden strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is a fruit species that was developed through human intervention less than 300 years ago. Currently, it is the most important soft fruit in both production as well as value and renowned for its deliciousness. There are many challenges in growing such a

  17. An examination of targeted gene neighborhoods in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontaroli Ana C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strawberry (Fragaria spp. is the familiar name of a group of economically important crop plants and wild relatives that also represent an emerging system for the study of gene and genome evolution. Its small stature, rapid seed-to-seed cycle, transformability and miniscule basic genome make strawberry an attractive system to study processes related to plant physiology, development and crop production; yet it lacks substantial genomics-level resources. This report addresses this deficiency by characterizing 0.71 Mbp of gene space from a diploid species (F. vesca. The twenty large genomic tracks (30-52 kb captured as fosmid inserts comprise gene regions with roles in flowering, disease resistance, and metabolism. Results A detailed description of the studied regions reveals 131 Blastx-supported gene sites and eight additional EST-supported gene sites. Only 15 genes have complete EST coverage, enabling gene modelling, while 76 lack EST support. Instances of microcolinearity with Arabidopsis thaliana were identified in twelve inserts. A relatively high portion (25% of targeted genes were found in unanticipated tandem duplications. The effectiveness of six FGENESH training models was assessed via comparisons among ab initio predictions and homology-based gene and start/stop codon identifications. Fourteen transposable-element-related sequences and 158 simple sequence repeat loci were delineated. Conclusions This report details the structure and content of targeted regions of the strawberry genome. The data indicate that the strawberry genome is gene-dense, with an average of one protein-encoding gene or pseudogene per 5.9 kb. Current overall EST coverage is sparse. The unexpected gene duplications and their differential patterns of EST support suggest possible subfunctionalization or pseudogenization of these sequences. This report provides a high-resolution depiction of targeted gene neighborhoods that will aid whole

  18. Ultrastructure of the early stages of Colletotrichum acutatum infection of strawberry tissues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arroyo, Francisco T; Moreno, Javier; Garcia-Herdugo, Gregorio; Santos, Berta D.l; Barrau, Carmen; Porras, Maria; Blanco, Cesar; Romero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The early stages of the infection of attached leaves and petioles of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. 'Camarosa') by Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy...

  19. Rapid volatile metabolomics and genomics in large strawberry populations segregating for aroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) represent a large portion of the fruit secondary metabolome, and contribute significantly to aroma, flavor, disease resistance, pest resistance and overall fruit quality. Understanding the basis for volatile compound biosynthesis and it...

  20. Analysis of the spatial pattern of strawberry angular leaf spot in California nursery production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. In California, angular leaf spot (ALS) is a common disease in strawberry nursery production, and a major concern for nurseries wishing to export plants. The spatial pattern of disease is an ecological property whose ch...

  1. Chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside content in Fragaria vesca, F. viridis and F. moschata in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, Edita; Jakstas, Valdas; Raudonis, Raimondas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2013-01-01

    In Lithuania, two species of the genus Fragaria L. (Rosaceae), F. vesca L. and F. viridis Weston, occur naturally in the wild and two others, F. moschata Weston and F. × ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier are found escaped from cultivation. The main objective of this study was to establish the variation pattern in the content of chlorogenic acid, rutin and hyperoside in leaves and fruits of the native Lithuanian species. In this work, the chemical polymorphisms of different Fragaria species were studied by growing plants side by side under the same cultivated field conditions. F. vesca fruits had the highest rutin (1.38 ± 0.19 mg g(-1) DM), hyperoside (0.69 ± 0.10 mg g(-1) DM) and chlorogenic acid (2.25 ± 0.34 mg g(-1) DM) content, followed by F. viridis and F. moschata. Our results showed that the leaves should be taken into account as important rutin and hyperoside contributors for strawberries.

  2. The defH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DefH9-iaaM gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. Transgenic DefH9-iaaM eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. However, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased. Results DefH9-iaaM strawberry and raspberry plants grown under standard cultivation conditions show a significant increase in fruit number and size and fruit yield. In all three Rosaceae species tested, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa and Rubus idaeus, DefH9-iaaM plants have an increased number of flowers per inflorescence and an increased number of inflorescences per plant. This results in an increased number of fruits per plant. Moreover, the weight and size of transgenic fruits was also increased. The increase in fruit yield was approximately 180% in cultivated strawberry, 140% in wild strawberry, and 100% in raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed in the flower buds of all three species. The total IAA (auxin content of young flower buds of strawberry and raspberry expressing the DefH9-iaaM gene is increased in comparison to untransformed flower buds. The DefH9-iaaM gene promotes parthenocarpy in emasculated flowers of both strawberry and raspberry. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed and biologically active in Rosaceae. The DefH9-iaaM gene can be used, under cultivation conditions that allow pollination and fertilization, to increase fruit productivity significantly in Rosaceae species. The finding that the DefH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases the number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per inflorescence indicates that auxin plays a role in plant fecundity in these three perennial Rosaceae species.

  3. The defH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Landi, Lucia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo

    2004-03-15

    The DefH9-iaaM gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. Transgenic DefH9-iaaM eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. However, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased. DefH9-iaaM strawberry and raspberry plants grown under standard cultivation conditions show a significant increase in fruit number and size and fruit yield. In all three Rosaceae species tested, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa and Rubus idaeus, DefH9-iaaM plants have an increased number of flowers per inflorescence and an increased number of inflorescences per plant. This results in an increased number of fruits per plant. Moreover, the weight and size of transgenic fruits was also increased. The increase in fruit yield was approximately 180% in cultivated strawberry, 140% in wild strawberry, and 100% in raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed in the flower buds of all three species. The total IAA (auxin) content of young flower buds of strawberry and raspberry expressing the DefH9-iaaM gene is increased in comparison to untransformed flower buds. The DefH9-iaaM gene promotes parthenocarpy in emasculated flowers of both strawberry and raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed and biologically active in Rosaceae. The DefH9-iaaM gene can be used, under cultivation conditions that allow pollination and fertilization, to increase fruit productivity significantly in Rosaceae species. The finding that the DefH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases the number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per inflorescence indicates that auxin plays a role in plant fecundity in these three perennial Rosaceae species.

  4. The defH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases plant fecundity and fruit production in strawberry and raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Landi, Lucia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Spena, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    Background The DefH9-iaaM gene fusion which is expressed specifically in placenta/ovules and promotes auxin-synthesis confers parthenocarpic fruit development to eggplant, tomato and tobacco. Transgenic DefH9-iaaM eggplants and tomatoes show increased fruit production due mainly to an improved fruit set. However, the weight of the fruits is also frequently increased. Results DefH9-iaaM strawberry and raspberry plants grown under standard cultivation conditions show a significant increase in fruit number and size and fruit yield. In all three Rosaceae species tested, Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa and Rubus idaeus, DefH9-iaaM plants have an increased number of flowers per inflorescence and an increased number of inflorescences per plant. This results in an increased number of fruits per plant. Moreover, the weight and size of transgenic fruits was also increased. The increase in fruit yield was approximately 180% in cultivated strawberry, 140% in wild strawberry, and 100% in raspberry. The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed in the flower buds of all three species. The total IAA (auxin) content of young flower buds of strawberry and raspberry expressing the DefH9-iaaM gene is increased in comparison to untransformed flower buds. The DefH9-iaaM gene promotes parthenocarpy in emasculated flowers of both strawberry and raspberry. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed and biologically active in Rosaceae. The DefH9-iaaM gene can be used, under cultivation conditions that allow pollination and fertilization, to increase fruit productivity significantly in Rosaceae species. The finding that the DefH9-iaaM auxin-synthesizing gene increases the number of inflorescences per plant and the number of flowers per inflorescence indicates that auxin plays a role in plant fecundity in these three perennial Rosaceae species. PMID:15113427

  5. The influence of Atonik SL, Betokson Super 050 SL and InsolCa on yielding of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Kent’

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iwona Szot; Tomasz Lipa; Alina Basak

    2014-01-01

    ... (Atonik SL and Betokson Super 050 SL), which were used separately, in combination with each other or with the liquid fertilizer InsolCa, on yielding and fruit quality of two strawberry cultivars: ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Kent’, was tested...

  6. The influence of Atonik SL, Betokson Super 050 SL and InsolCa on yielding of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Kent’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Szot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of strawberry fruit depends mainly on cultivar, fruit maturity degree and climatic conditions in the growing period. Fruit quality is also determined by a cultivation technology. The influence of two biostimulants (Atonik SL and Betokson Super 050 SL, which were used separately, in combination with each other or with the liquid fertilizer InsolCa, on yielding and fruit quality of two strawberry cultivars: ‘Senga Sengana’ and ‘Kent’, was tested. Betokson Super 050 SL + InsolCa tended to improve the yield of both cultivars. Significant differences compared to the control were evident especially in 2001. Fruits of ‘Senga Sengana’ started ripening later and had more ascorbic acid, anthocyanins and acidity than ‘Kent’. The use of Betokson Super 050 SL + InsolCa improved the content of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins and sugar as well as acidity in strawberries of both cultivars. The use of Betokson Super 050 SL + Atonik SL significantly increased the content of ascorbic acid and sugar in fruits of both cultivars. ‘Kent’ strawberries also responded to the treatment with an increase in anthocyanin content and acidity.

  7. Fragaria: a genus with deep historical roots and ripe for evolutionary and ecological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Aaron; Cronn, Richard; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2014-10-01

    The cultivated strawberry, Fragaria ×ananassa, is one of the youngest domesticated plants. Its 18th century origin via hybridization in Europe between the North American F. virginiana and the South American F. chiloensis was documented by the botanist Antoine Nicolas Duchesne. His 1766 "Natural History of Strawberries" is an extraordinary work that integrates fundamental discoveries on the biology, ecology, and phylogeny of Fragaria with applied information on cultivation and ethnobotanical uses, serving as an inspiration for current research in the genus. Fragaria species exhibit the full range of sexual systems in the gynodioecy pathway from hermaphroditism to dioecy (and back again), as well as variation in self-compatibility, and evidence of sex chromosomes with female heterogamety. The genus is also characterized by interspecific hybridization and polyploidy, with a natural range of ploidy levels from diploids to decaploids. This biological diversity, combined with the availability of genomic resources and the ease of growing and experimenting with the plants, makes Fragaria a very attractive system for ecological and evolutionary genomics. The goal of this review is to introduce Fragaria as a model genus and to provide a roadmap for future integrative research. These research directions will deepen our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary context that shaped the ancestors of the cultivated strawberry, not only providing information that can be applied to efforts to shape the future of this important fruit crop but also our understanding of key transitions in plant evolution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Erwinia pyrifoliae, a new pathogen on strawberry in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Bergsma-Vlami, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the late spring of 2013 strawberry plants grown under protection (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta) were found at several locations in the Netherlands showing an intense brown to black discoloration of their immature fruits, their fruit calyx and the attached stems. OBJECTIVE:

  9. Genotyping-by-sequencing in three octoploid cultivated strawberry families

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the goal of evaluating genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) in a species with a complex octoploid genome, GBS was used to survey genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three biparental strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) populations. GBS sequence data were aligned to the F. vesca ‘Fvb’ ref...

  10. Seeking the northern boundary of the Cascade strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaria cascadensis K.E. Hummer, an endemic decaploid strawberry species, was described from the Oregon Cascade Mountains in the Pacific North-western United States. Its range occurs near Mt. Hood, the highest peak in the northern Oregon Cascades, in a band of higher elevation sites southwards to n...

  11. Fragaria cascadensis K.E. Hummer: first investigation of volatile organic compounds of fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, Fragaria cascadensis was described as a decaploid strawberry species from the Oregon Cascade Mountains. The objective of this study was to examine the aroma patterns of fruits of this F. cascadensis in contrast to those of F. vesca ssp. bracteata (A. Heller) Staudt and F. virginiana ssp. pl...

  12. Insights into phylogeny, sex function and age of Fragaria based on whole chloroplast genome sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambui Njunguna; Aaron Liston; Richard Cronn; Tia-Lynn Ashman; Nahla Bassil

    2013-01-01

    The cultivated strawberry is one of the youngest domesticated plants, developed in France in the 1700s from chance hybridization between two western hemisphere octoploid species. However, little is known about the evolution of the species that gave rise to this important fruit crop. Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast genome sequences of 21 Fragaria...

  13. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of strawberry and other rosids reveals significant microsynteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbott Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragaria belongs to the Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes a number of important fruit producing genera such as Malus and Prunus. Using genomic sequences from 50 Fragaria fosmids, we have examined the microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant models. Results In more than half of the strawberry fosmids, we found syntenic regions that are conserved in Populus, Vitis, Medicago and/or Arabidopsis with Populus containing the greatest number of syntenic regions with Fragaria. The longest syntenic region was between LG VIII of the poplar genome and the strawberry fosmid 72E18, where seven out of twelve predicted genes were collinear. We also observed an unexpectedly high level of conserved synteny between Fragaria (rosid I and Vitis (basal rosid. One of the strawberry fosmids, 34E24, contained a cluster of R gene analogs (RGAs with NBS and LRR domains. We detected clusters of RGAs with high sequence similarity to those in 34E24 in all the genomes compared. In the phylogenetic tree we have generated, all the NBS-LRR genes grouped together with Arabidopsis CNL-A type NBS-LRR genes. The Fragaria RGA grouped together with those of Vitis and Populus in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Our analysis shows considerable microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant genomes such as Populus, Medicago, Vitis, and Arabidopsis to a lesser degree. We also detected a cluster of NBS-LRR type genes that are conserved in all the genomes compared.

  14. A gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) shows developmental regulation and pathogen-induced expression in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehli, L.; Schaart, J.G.; Kjellsen, T.D.; Tran, D.H.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Schouten, H.J.; Iversen, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) have been demonstrated to play a role in host defence in several plants. The PGIP now cloned from strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) showed a high degree of homology to other fruit PGIPs. The gene expression of strawberry PGIP was monitored in healthy

  15. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  16. Eugenol Production in Achenes and Receptacles of Strawberry Fruits Is Catalyzed by Synthases Exhibiting Distinct Kinetics1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragüez, Irene; Osorio, Sonia; Hoffmann, Thomas; Rambla, José Luis; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Granell, Antonio; Botella, Miguel Ángel; Schwab, Wilfried; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile that serves as an attractant for pollinators of flowers, acts as a defense compound in various plant tissues, and contributes to the aroma of fruits. Its production in a cultivated species such as strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), therefore, is important for the viability and quality of the fruit. We have identified and functionally characterized three strawberry complementary DNAs (cDNAs) that encode proteins with high identity to eugenol synthases from several plant species. Based on a sequence comparison with the wild relative Fragaria vesca, two of these cDNAs, FaEGS1a and FaEGS1b, most likely correspond to transcripts derived from allelic gene variants, whereas the third cDNA, FaEGS2, corresponds to a different gene. Using coniferyl acetate as a substrate, FaEGS1a and FaEGS1b catalyze the in vitro formation of eugenol, while FaEGS2 catalyzes the formation of eugenol and also of isoeugenol with a lower catalytic efficiency. The expression of these genes is markedly higher in the fruit than in other tissues of the plant, with FaEGS1a and FaEGS1b mostly expressed in the green achenes, whereas FaEGS2 expression is almost restricted to the red receptacles. These expression patterns correlate with the eugenol content, which is highest in the achene at the green stage and in the receptacle at the red stage. The transient expression of the corresponding cDNAs in strawberry fruit and the subsequent volatile analyses confirm FaEGSs as genuine eugenol synthases in planta. These results provide new insights into the diversity of phenylpropene synthases in plants. PMID:23983228

  17. Estudo do efeito da temperatura nas propriedades reológicas da polpa de morango (Fragaria ananassa / A study of the effect of temperature upon the rheological behavior of strawberry pulp (Fragraria ananassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raniere Mazile Vidal Bezerra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO comportamento reológico de polpas de frutas é útil não só como medida de qualidade, mas também em projetos, avaliação e operação dos equipamentos processadores de alimentos tais como as bombas, sistemas de agitação e tubulações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da temperatura no comportamento reológico da polpa de morango (Fragraria ananassa, na forma integral. A polpa integral foi produzida em planta piloto e refinada num finisher com peneira de 1,6 mm. Os dados experimentais dos reogramas para polpa de morango foram bem ajustados pelos modelos de Herschell-Bulkley, Casson e Ostwald-de-Waelle. O melhor ajuste se deu pelo modelo de Herschell-Bulkley. Para a polpa de morango, observou-se que a viscosidade diminui com o aumento da temperatura até 60°C e obteve-se índice de comportamento menor que 1(um para todas as temperaturas investigadas, o que caracteriza comportamento pseudoplástico da polpa. Neste trabalho os parâmetros reológicos foram obtidos com o sistema de medidas de cilindros concêntricos e a viscosidade aparente diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura e da taxa de deformação. O modelo de Arrhenius apresentou uma boa descrição do efeito da temperatura sobre a viscosidade aparente da polpa de morango.Abstractnot only as a quality indicator, but also in projects, assessment and operation of food processing equipments such as pumps, shaker systems and tubes. This paper presents a study of the effects of temperature upon the rheological behavior of whole strawberry pulp (Fragraria ananassa. Whole pulp was produced in a pilot plant and finished with a 1,6 mm mash sieve. The fluid was measured in a 10-60°C temperature range. Rheometry was conducted in a Haake-Rotovisco RV-20 rheometer with concentric cylinders. Temperature effect on rheological parameters of consistency was fitted to the Ostwald-de-Waelle (Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley and Casson model. With this work it was checked that the

  18. Functional characterization of enzymes forming volatile esters from strawberry and banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekwilder, Jules; Alvarez-Huerta, Mayte; Neef, Evert; Verstappen, Francel W A; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Aharoni, Asaph

    2004-08-01

    Volatile esters are flavor components of the majority of fruits. The last step in their biosynthesis is catalyzed by alcohol acyltransferases (AATs), which link alcohols to acyl moieties. Full-length cDNAs putatively encoding AATs were isolated from fruit of wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and banana (Musa sapientum) and compared to the previously isolated SAAT gene from the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The potential role of these enzymes in fruit flavor formation was assessed. To this end, recombinant enzymes were produced in Escherichia coli, and their activities were analyzed for a variety of alcohol and acyl-CoA substrates. When the results of these activity assays were compared to a phylogenetic analysis of the various members of the acyltransferase family, it was clear that substrate preference could not be predicted on the basis of sequence similarity. In addition, the substrate preference of recombinant enzymes was not necessarily reflected in the representation of esters in the corresponding fruit volatile profiles. This suggests that the specific profile of a given fruit species is to a significant extent determined by the supply of precursors. To study the in planta activity of an alcohol acyltransferase and to assess the potential for metabolic engineering of ester production, we generated transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida) plants overexpressing the SAAT gene. While the expression of SAAT and the activity of the corresponding enzyme were readily detected in transgenic plants, the volatile profile was found to be unaltered. Feeding of isoamyl alcohol to explants of transgenic lines resulted in the emission of the corresponding acetyl ester. This confirmed that the availability of alcohol substrates is an important parameter to consider when engineering volatile ester formation in plants.

  19. Glucosylation of 4-Hydroxy-2,5-Dimethyl-3(2H)-Furanone, the Key Strawberry Flavor Compound in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Hong, Xiaotong; Zhao, Shuai; Liu, Jingyi; Schulenburg, Katja; Huang, Fong-Chin; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-05-01

    Strawberries emit hundreds of different volatiles, but only a dozen, including the key compound HDMF [4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone] contribute to the flavor of the fruit. However, during ripening, a considerable amount of HDMF is metabolized to the flavorless HDMF β-d-glucoside. Here, we functionally characterize nine ripening-related UGTs (UDP-glucosyltransferases) in Fragaria that function in the glucosylation of volatile metabolites by comprehensive biochemical analyses. Some UGTs showed a rather broad substrate tolerance and glucosylated a range of aroma compounds in vitro, whereas others had a more limited substrate spectrum. The allelic UGT71K3a and b proteins and to a lesser extent UGT73B24, UGT71W2, and UGT73B23 catalyzed the glucosylation of HDMF and its structural homolog 2(or 5)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone. Site-directed mutagenesis to introduce single K458R, D445E, D343E, and V383A mutations and a double G433A/I434V mutation led to enhanced HDMF glucosylation activity compared to the wild-type enzymes. In contrast, a single mutation in the center of the plant secondary product glycosyltransferase box (A389V) reduced the enzymatic activity. Down-regulation of UGT71K3 transcript expression in strawberry receptacles led to a significant reduction in the level of HDMF-glucoside and a smaller decline in HDMF-glucoside-malonate compared with the level in control fruits. These results provide the foundation for improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF-glucoside. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Growth and nutrient uptake responses of 'Seolhyang' strawberry to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the variation of NH4+:NO3− ratios (meq/l: 0:100, 40:60, 50:50, 65:35 and 100:0) in the nutrient solution on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa var Seolhyang) growth was evaluated. A mixture of large particle size (2 to 5 mm) and small particle size (smaller than 1 mm) of perlite was used as growing substrate and ...

  1. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina-Puche, L.; Molina-Hidalgo, F.J.; Boersma, M.; Schuurink, R.C.; López-Vidriero, I.; Solano, R.; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Caballero, J.L.; Blanco-Portales, R.; Muñoz-Blanco, J.

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and

  2. Molecular cloning of dsRNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, C.D.; Miglino, R.; Jelkmann, W.; Leone, G.

    1998-01-01

    Strawberry mottle virus was transmitted from Fragaria vesca to Chenopodium quinoa and Nicotiana occidentalis 37B. In all plants, SMoV infection-associated dsRNA was detected but dsRNA patterns showed some differences between the herbaceous hosts. The differences were more evident when the dsRNA

  3. Relationship of strawberry yield factors with microclimate under open and covered raised-bed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fresh strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) market in the United States (U.S.) Mid-Atlantic region is primarily dependent on production from just two states. Local production is limited to a single cultivar and a three to five week harvest window and is insufficient to meet the regi...

  4. Identification of a methyltransferase catalyzing the final step of methyl anthranilate synthesis in cultivated strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl anthranilate (MA) contributes an attractive fruity note to the complex flavor and aroma of strawberry (Fragaria spp.), yet it is rarely found in modern cultivars. The genetic basis for its biosynthesis has not been elucidated. Understanding the specific genes required for its synthesis could ...

  5. Genomics tools available for unravelling mechanisms underlying agronomical traits in strawberry with more to come

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last few years, high-throughput genomics promised to bridge the gap between plant physiology and plant sciences. In addition, high-throughput genotyping technologies facilitate marker-based selection for better performing genotypes. In strawberry, Fragaria vesca was the first reference sequen...

  6. Epidemiology of Erwinia pyrifoliae, a new pathogen on strawberry in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Bergsma-Vlami, M.; Steen, van der J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the late spring of 2013 strawberry plants (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. 'Elsanta') were showing an intense blackening of their immature fruits, their fruit calyxes and the peduncule were found at several locations (greenhouses) in The Netherlands. Symptoms include brown petals, green young

  7. Unstable infectivity and abundant viral RNAs associated with strawberry mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Schoen, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    A not yet identified virus (SMoV) associated with the strawberry mottle syndrome was mechanically transmitted from infected Fragaria vesca UC-5 to Chenopodium quinoa and from C. quinoa to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. occidentalis 37B and N. hesperis 67A. C. quinoa, N. benthamiana, and N. occidentalis

  8. CATT as a sustainable method for disinfestation of strawberry mother planting stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Hoek, H.; Verschoor, J.; Molendijk, L.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    From 2009 Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) is scaled up to a commercial level and widely applied by Dutch producers of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) mother planting stock. CATT is a non-chemical and sustainable method to disinfest plant material from insect pests. Frigo plants

  9. Identification of a strawberry flavor gene candidate using an integrated genetic-genomic-analytical chemistry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is interest in improving the flavor of commercial strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties. Fruit flavor is shaped by combinations of sugars, acids and volatile compounds. Many efforts seek to use genomics-based strategies to identify genes controlling flavor, and then designing ...

  10. A new bacterial disease of strawberry in the Netherlands caused by

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Bergsma-Vlami, M.

    2015-01-01

    During the late spring in 2013 strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Elsanta) showing an intense blackening of their immature fruits, their fruit calyxes and the attached stems were found at several locations (greenhouses) in the Netherlands. The isolates differed biochemically from E.

  11. Characterization of DNA methyltransferase and demethylase genes in Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tingting; Ren, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhua; Han, Yuhui; Li, Yi

    2016-06-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification essential for gene regulations in plants, but understanding on how it is involved in fruit development, especially in non-climacteric fleshy fruit, is limited. The diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) is an important model for non-climacteric fruit crops. In this study, we identified DNA methyltransferase genes and demethylase genes in Fragaria vesca and other angiosperm species. In accordance with previous studies, our phylogenetic analyses of those DNA methylation modifiers support the clustering of those genes into several classes. Our data indicate that whole-genome duplications and tandem duplications contributed to the expansion of those DNA methylation modifiers in angiosperms. We have further demonstrated that some DNA methylase and demethylase genes reach their highest expression levels in strawberry fleshy fruits when turning from white to red, suggesting that DNA methylation might undergo a dramatic change at the onset of fleshy fruit-ripening process. In addition, we have observed that expression of some DNA demethylase genes increases in response to various abiotic stresses including heat, cold, drought and salinity. Collectively, our study indicates a regulatory role of DNA methylation in the turning stage of non-climacteric fleshy fruit and responses to environment stimuli, and would facilitate functional studies of DNA methylation in the growth and development of non-climacteric fruits.

  12. Utilização de biofilmes na conservação pós-colheita de morango (Fragaria Ananassa Duch cv IAC Campinas Utilization of biofilms in the postharvest conservation of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch cv IAC Campinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. HENRIQUE

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o uso de biofilmes de fécula de mandioca, na conservação pós-colheita de morango, armazenados em condição ambiente (21ºC; 64,5% UR. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com análise de regressão, com 3 repetições, constituindo dos seguintes tratamentos: testemunha, 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5% de revestimento com biofilme de fécula de mandioca. Foram avaliados 540 frutos durante 10 dias, determinado perda de peso, análise sensorial, aspecto visual (cor e textura. Verificou que houve diminuição da perda de peso nos tratamentos com 1, 2 e 3% de biofilme e aumento de textura, prolongando em até 5 vezes a vida pós-colheita dos frutos. Na análise sensorial não foi detectado sabor e aroma estranho em todos os tratamentos.The objetive of this research was to check the utilization of fecula film to postharvest conservation of strawberry fruits were stored in ambient temperature (21ºC; 64,5% RH. It was set out in a system randomized complete test with 2 factors and submited to Tukey test. In following, the fruits were submited by six differents treatments: 1 control (without film; 2 1% fecula film; 3 2% fecula film; 4 3% fecula film; 5 4% fecula film; 5 5% fecula film. The valuation were done by 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days about weight loss, sensorial evaluation and quality visual (color and texture. At the end of 10 days the following was observed; smaller weight loss in the treatment with 1, 2 and 3% fecula film, and higher texture, increasing in until 5 times the postharvest life in the fruits. The result from the sensorial evaluation showed that no differences were noted.

  13. A Study of the Major Phytocoenotic and Economic Attributes of Fragaria Viridis (Duch. Weston in Natural Conditions (through the Example of East Kazakhstan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Vdovina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides data on the phytocoenotic and economic - morphological attributes of Fragaria viridis Duch., green strawberry, in various locations. The most sustainable habitat for the existence of this species has been located near the village of Zimoviye. The ratio between the generative and vegetative species in the examined coenopopulations allows us to subsume them under the invasional and normal types.

  14. A Study of the Major Phytocoenotic and Economic Attributes of Fragaria Viridis (Duch.) Weston in Natural Conditions (through the Example of East Kazakhstan Region)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana A. Vdovina; Olga A. Serova; Nina M. Kadantseva

    2014-01-01

    This article provides data on the phytocoenotic and economic - morphological attributes of Fragaria viridis Duch., green strawberry, in various locations. The most sustainable habitat for the existence of this species has been located near the village of Zimoviye. The ratio between the generative and vegetative species in the examined coenopopulations allows us to subsume them under the invasional and normal types.

  15. Global identification of alternative splicing via comparative analysis of SMRT- and Illumina-based RNA-seq in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongping; Dai, Cheng; Hu, Chungen; Liu, Zhongchi; Kang, Chunying

    2017-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism, yet little information is known about its roles in fruit crops. Here, AS was globally analyzed in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca genome with RNA-seq data derived from different stages of fruit development. The AS landscape was characterized and compared between the single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) and Illumina RNA-seq platform. While SMRT has a lower sequencing depth, it identifies more genes undergoing AS (57.67% of detected multiexon genes) when it is compared with Illumina (33.48%), illustrating the efficacy of SMRT in AS identification. We investigated different modes of AS in the context of fruit development; the percentage of intron retention (IR) is markedly reduced whereas that of alternative acceptor sites (AA) is significantly increased post-fertilization when compared with pre-fertilization. When all the identified transcripts were combined, a total of 66.43% detected multiexon genes in strawberry undergo AS, some of which lead to a gain or loss of conserved domains in the gene products. The work demonstrates that SMRT sequencing is highly powerful in AS discovery and provides a rich data resource for later functional studies of different isoforms. Further, shifting AS modes may contribute to rapid changes of gene expression during fruit set. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Statement on the dossier for a derogation request of the US authorities concerning cold-treated strawberry plants intended for planting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2009-01-01

    the effectiveness of the cold treatment proposed for the elimination of B. tabaci from strawberry plant consignments prepared for shipment to the EU. In addition, the Panel conducted a preliminary review of the available literature on viruses of strawberry and concluded that no B. tabaci-transmitted viruses...... are currently known to infect strawberry and that no viruses of Fragaria listed in European Council Directive 2000/29/EC are known to be transmitted by B. tabaci. However, adult whiteflies of B. tabaci on strawberry consignments can carry plant viruses irrespective of whether strawberry is a host plant...... for these viruses and thus represent a pathway for the introduction of non-European viruses. There is also some uncertainty concerning the extent to which known or unknown B. tabaci-transmitted viruses could infect strawberry. Irrespective of the presence of B. tabaci, strawberry transplants from the US may...

  17. An expansin gene expressed in ripening strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civello, P M; Powell, A L; Sabehat, A; Bennett, A B

    1999-12-01

    Tissue softening accompanies the ripening of many fruit and initiates the processes of irreversible deterioration. Expansins are plant cell wall proteins proposed to disrupt hydrogen bonds within the cell wall polymer matrix. Expression of specific expansin genes has been observed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) meristems, expanding tissues, and ripening fruit. It has been proposed that a tomato ripening-regulated expansin might contribute to cell wall polymer disassembly and fruit softening by increasing the accessibility of specific cell wall polymers to hydrolase action. To assess whether ripening-regulated expansins are present in all ripening fruit, we examined expansin gene expression in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Strawberry differs significantly from tomato in that the fruit is derived from receptacle rather than ovary tissue and strawberry is non-climacteric. A full-length cDNA encoding a ripening-regulated expansin, FaExp2, was isolated from strawberry fruit. The deduced amino acid sequence of FaExp2 is most closely related to an expansin expressed in early tomato development and to expansins expressed in apricot fruit rather than the previously identified tomato ripening-regulated expansin, LeExp1. Nearly all previously identified ripening-regulated genes in strawberry are negatively regulated by auxin. Surprisingly, FaExp2 expression was largely unaffected by auxin. Overall, our results suggest that expansins are a common component of ripening and that non-climacteric signals other than auxin may coordinate the onset of ripening in strawberry.

  18. Novel Insight into Vascular, Stress and Auxin Dependent and Independent Gene Expression Programs in Strawberry, a Non-Climacteric Fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Bois, G.; Smit, P.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Using cDNA microarrays, a comprehensive investigation of gene expression was carried out in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit to understand the flow of events associated with its maturation and non-climacteric ripening. We detected key processes and novel genes not previously associated with

  19. Prohexadione-calcium changes morphological and physical traits in strawberry plants and preconditions transplants to water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekie, J.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Hicklenton, P.R.; Duval, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Prohexadione-calcium (ProCa) applied as foliar spray, increases root to shoot ratio and reduces specific leaf area (SLA) in strawberry plants ( Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). These effects may help treated plants to survive a transplant shock. Under mild water stress, ProCa caused a transient reduction

  20. Compariative analysis of strawberry total phenolics via fast blue BB vs. folin-ciocalteu: assay interference by ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) fruit were harvested from two field plots of five day-neutral cultivars: Albion, Monterey, Portola, San Andreas and Seacape. Marketable (salable) berries were harvested from each plot on 22 and 25 August, and unblemished fully ripe fruit were selec...

  1. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. PMID:26169681

  2. Effects of ploidy level and haplotype on variation of photosynthetic traits: Novel evidence from two Fragaria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Gao

    Full Text Available To reveal the effects of ploidy level and haplotype on photosynthetic traits, we chose 175 genotypes of wild strawberries belonging to two haplotypes at two types of ploidy levels (diploidy and tetraploidy and measured photosynthetic traits. Our results revealed that ploidy significantly affected the characteristics of light-response curves, CO2-response curves, and leaf gas exchange parameters, except intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci. Tetraploid species had a lower light saturation point (LSP and CO2 saturation point (CSP, higher light compensation point (LCP, dark respiration (Rd, and CO2 compensation point (CCP than diploid species. Furthermore, tetraploid species have lower photosynthetic capacity than diploid species, including net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductivity (Gs, and transpiration rate (Tr. In addition, haplotype had a significant effect on LSP, CSP, Tr, and Ci as well as a significant interactive effect between ploidy and haplotype on the maximal photosynethic rate of the light-response curve and Rd. Most of the variance existed within haplotypes among individuals. These results suggest that polyploidization was the main driver for the evolution of photosynthesis with increasing ploidy level (i.e. from diploidy to tetraploidy in Fragaria species, while the origin of a chromosome could also affect the photosynthetic traits and the polyploidization effect on photosynthetic traits.

  3. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry (Fragaria x ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ece TURHAN

    2012-03-08

    Mar 8, 2012 ... proteins in the apoplastic region (Livingston and Henson,. 1998; Taşgın et al., 2003, 2006). Besides that ..... cereals during 1PH and other mechanisms must be responsible for this adaptation. Even though there .... their abscission under different shading regimes. Ann. Bot. 78: 163-. 168. Anonymous (2011).

  4. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizae formed by Penicillium pinophilum improve the growth, nutrient uptake and photosynthesis of strawberry with two inoculum-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongqiang; Luan, Yushi; An, Lijia; Yu, Kun

    2008-08-01

    Penicillium pinophilum was isolated from the soil in a commercial strawberry field. The strain readily formed arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) with the roots of strawberry 'Zoji' (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. CV.) when plants were inoculated with either fresh cultured hyphae or root/soil mixtures. Fresh hyphae, however, resulted in higher amounts of colonization than root/soil inoculum. Compared with uninoculated strawberries, inoculation increased plant dry weight by 31%, as well as nitrogen content (47%), phosphorus content (57%), and photosynthetic rate (71%). AM inoculation also shortened the blossom and ripening date by 3 and 4 days, respectively. This is the first report of a P. pinophilum strain resulting in mycorrhiza with strawberry roots. The significant advantages of this strain are that it is easy to culture and inoculation of plants results in significant growth benefits that may be useful in strawberry production.

  6. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  7. [Spatial distribution of phytophagous mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) on strawberry plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadini, Marcos A M; Oliveira, Hamilton G; Venzon, Madelaine; Pallini, Angelo; Vilela, Evaldo F

    2007-01-01

    Many phytophagous mites can attack strawberry plants, Fragaria x ananassa, among them the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. They are found together feeding on the same plant on the upper and underside of the leaves, respectively. Here we studied the choice for feeding sites of O. ilicis and T. urticae on strawberry plants. The first hypothesis tested whether the feeding site choice would be related to the fitness of the species. The second hypothesis dealt whether the feeding site would be determined by the presence of a heterospecific mite. We evaluated the preference, biology and reproductive success of O. ilicis and T. urticae on the under and upper side surface of strawberry leaves infested or not by the heterospecific. O. ilicis preferred to stay on the upper side surface while T. urticae preferred the underside. The preference for the leaf surface correlated with the reproductive success of the species (measured by the intrinsic growth rate). The choice pattern of feeding sites did not alter when the choice test was applied using sites previously infested by heterospecific. Although O. ilicis and T. urticae, apparently, do not interact directly for feeding sites, there is a chance that the first species induces defenses in strawberry plant enabling to reduce the fitness of the second species. The possibility of those species stay together on strawberry plant increases the damage capacity to the culture.

  8. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  9. CATT as a sustainable method for disinfestation of strawberry mother planting stock

    OpenAIRE

    Kruistum, van, G.; Hoek, H.; Verschoor, J.; Molendijk, L.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    From 2009 Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) is scaled up to a commercial level and widely applied by Dutch producers of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) mother planting stock. CATT is a non-chemical and sustainable method to disinfest plant material from insect pests. Frigo plants are treated after storage and before planting during 48 h at a temperature of 35°C and 50% CO2. This results in an excellent disinfestation and a mortality of 99.8% of the strawberry tarsonemid mite...

  10. Strawberry Extract’s Effects on Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis Biofilms in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelia Sari Widyarman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis are oral bacteria related to root canal infection and periodontal disease pathogenesis. Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa fruit are rich in vitamins and minerals, have antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Objective: This study investigated the inhibition effect of strawberry extract on monospecies and multispecies E. faecalis and P. gingivalis bacteria grown as biofilms in vitro. Methods: This study used E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277. It analyzed the effect of strawberry extract on bacteria biofilm formation using a biofilm assay on microplate wells. Five concentrations of strawberry extracts were used (100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%, and the inhibition effect was observed after a 1h, 3h, 6h, and 24h incubation period. Biofilms without the strawberry extract were used as the negative controls, and crystal violet and safranin (0.5%w/v were used to count the biofilm mass. The biofilms grown on microplates were counted using an ELISA reader at 450 nm after 200 mL of 90% ethanol was added to attract the absorbed stain. The strawberry extract inhibition effectiveness on the biofilm formation of each bacterium tested was analyzed using one-way Anova, where p<0.05 was defined as a significant difference. Result: The strawberry extract inhibited the tested monospecies and multispecies bacteria biofilm formation. The optimal strawberry extract concentration for the inhibition of either monospecies biofilms was 100%. However, the optimal incubation time for the strawberry extract to inhibit the multispecies biofilm formation was 24h, which was the study’s biofilm maturity phase. Conclusions: The 100% strawberry extract concentration inhibited the formation of both the monospecies and multispecies E. faecalis and P. gingivalis biofilms. Future studies are needed to evaluate the potential of strawberry extract as an alternative dental

  11. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; José F Sánchez-Sevilla; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturon...

  12. Silicon Transporters and Effects of Silicon Amendments in Strawberry under High Tunnel and Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ouellette, Samuel; Goyette, Marie-Hélène; Labbé, Caroline; Laur, Joan; Gaudreau, Linda; Gosselin, André; Dorais, Martine; Deshmukh, Rupesh K.; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Together with longer production periods, the commercial transition to day-neutral strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties has favored the development of diseases such as powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) that thrives in late summer-early fall. In an attempt to find alternative solutions to fungicides currently employed to curb the disease, we wanted to investigate the potential of silicon (Si) amendments that have been associated with prophylactic properties against powdery mildews. To ...

  13. Growth and yield of strawberry plants fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Reinaldo F.; Pereira,Walter E.; Rodrigues,Rummenigge de M.; Nascimento,Ronaldo do; Suassuna,Janivan F.; Dantas,Tony A. G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTStrawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is a crop that has rapid growth and is highly influenced by fertilization. Due to its development speed, the plant needs to absorb sufficient macronutrients in order to meet its demand. The objective of this research was to evaluate growth and yield of strawberry under different doses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization. The treatments, using Box's central composite design, were distributed in randomized blocks with four rep...

  14. Dry matter partitioning in a nursery and a plasticulture fruit field of strawberry cultivars 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Camarosa' as affected by prohexadione-calcium and partial leaf removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekie, J.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Hicklenton, P.; Duval, J.

    2007-01-01

    Strawberry plants ( Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) are planted in Canadian nurseries in spring to be dug in autumn as bare-root transplants for winter annual plasticulture fruit production in the south-eastern U.S.A.. A series of whole plant harvests were performed on 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Camarosa'

  15. The role of petals in development of grey mould in strawberries = Importância das pétalas no desenvolvimento do mofo-cinzento do morangueiro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, P.; Kraker, de J.; Gerlagh, de M.; Köhl, J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies were conducted in annual crops of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) (cv. Elsanta to assess the relative importance of petals as an inoculum source of grey mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea and to identify during which period of flower and fruit development the presence of petals has a

  16. Strawberry Flavor: Diverse Chemical Compositions, a Seasonal Influence, and Effects on Sensory Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Michael L.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Jaworski, Elizabeth A.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Gilbert, Jessica L.; Tieman, Denise M.; Odabasi, Asli Z.; Moskowitz, Howard R.; Folta, Kevin M.; Klee, Harry J.; Sims, Charles A.; Whitaker, Vance M.; Clark, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products. PMID:24523895

  17. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Schwieterman

    Full Text Available Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  18. Strawberry cultivation in Brazil | Cultivo de morangos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is cultivated in different regions of the world. Their cultivation have shown demand larger family hand labor and highly profitable.  The strawberry is a very old fruit. Wild species existed for more 50 million years, but the specie was tamed around the XIV century A.C.  There are various types of cultivation, among them stand out traditional cultivation and organic cultivation. The more important factors affecting the strawberries are climate, pests and diseases. Know the types of cultivation and strawberry it is important for decision making in the future, such as use of lichens in cultivation. The aim of this work is to explain about conventional and organic agriculture with emphasis in lichens on strawberry crop to support scientific research in more depth character.> S

  19. Hormonal regulation of ripening in the strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, N K; Venis, M A; Gierson, D

    1988-06-01

    Anthocyanin accumulation is one measure of ripening in the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit. Neither aminoethoxyvinylglycine, an inhibitor of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid synthase, nor inhibitors of ethylene action (silver, norbornadiene) affected anthocyanin accumulation in ripening fruit. When the achenes were removed from one half of an unripe fruit there was an accelerated accumulation of anthocyanin and induction of phenylalanine ammonia lyase on the de-achened portion of the ripening fruit. These effects of achene removal could be prevented by the application of the synthetic auxins 1-naphthaleneacetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to the de-achened surface. The introduction of 1-naphthalene acetic acid into intact unripe strawberry fruit through the peduncle delayed their subsequent ripening, as measured by the accumulation of anthocyanin, loss of chlorophyll and decrease in firmness. These findings suggest that the decline in the concentration of auxin in the achenes as strawberry fruit mature modulates the rate of fruit ripening.

  20. The Fragaria vesca Homolog of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 Represses Flowering and Promotes Vegetative Growth[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhu, Katriina; Kurokura, Takeshi; Koskela, Elli A.; Albert, Victor A.; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    In the annual long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) integrates endogenous and environmental signals to promote flowering. We analyzed the function and regulation of the SOC1 homolog (Fragaria vesca [Fv] SOC1) in the perennial short-day plant woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca). We found that Fv SOC1 overexpression represses flower initiation under inductive short days, whereas its silencing causes continuous flowering in both short days and noninductive long days, similar to mutants in the floral repressor Fv TERMINAL FLOWER1 (Fv TFL1). Molecular analysis of these transgenic lines revealed that Fv SOC1 activates Fv TFL1 in the shoot apex, leading to the repression of flowering in strawberry. In parallel, Fv SOC1 regulates the differentiation of axillary buds to runners or axillary leaf rosettes, probably through the activation of gibberellin biosynthetic genes. We also demonstrated that Fv SOC1 is regulated by photoperiod and Fv FLOWERING LOCUS T1, suggesting that it plays a central role in the photoperiodic control of both generative and vegetative growth in strawberry. In conclusion, we propose that Fv SOC1 is a signaling hub that regulates yearly cycles of vegetative and generative development through separate genetic pathways. PMID:24038650

  1. Up- and down-regulation of Fragaria x ananassa O-methyltransferase: impacts on furanone and phenylpropanoid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunkenbein, Stefan; Salentijn, Elma M J; Coiner, Heather A; Boone, Marjan J; Krens, Frans A; Schwab, Wilfried

    2006-01-01

    A complex mixture of hundreds of substances determines strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) aroma, but only approximately 15 volatiles are considered as key flavour compounds. Of these, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) is regarded as the most important, but it is methylated further by FaOMT (Fragaria x ananassa O-methyltransferase) to 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMMF) during the ripening process. It is shown here that transformation of strawberry with the FaOMT sequence in sense and antisense orientation, under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, resulted in a near total loss of DMMF, whereas the levels of the other volatiles remained unchanged. FaOMT repression also affected the ratio of feruloyl 1-O-beta-D-glucose and caffeoyl 1-O-beta-D-glucose, indicating a dual function of the enzyme in planta. Thus, FaOMT is involved in at least two different biochemical pathways in ripe strawberry fruit.

  2. Successful strategy for the selection of new strawberry-associated rhizobacteria antagonistic to Verticillium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, G; Kurze, S; Buchner, A; Wellington, E M; Smalla, K

    2000-12-01

    In order to isolate and characterize new strawberry-associated bacteria antagonistic to the soil-borne pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., rhizobacterial populations from two different strawberry species, Greenish Strawberry (Fragaria viridis) and Garden Strawberry (F. x ananassa) obtained after plating onto King's B and glycerol-arginine agar, were screened for in vitro antagonism toward V. dahliae. The proportion of isolates with antifungal activity determined in in vitro assay against V. dahliae was higher for the Garden Strawberry than for the Greenish Strawberry. From 300 isolates, 20 isolates with strong antifungal activity were selected characterized by physiological profiling and molecular fingerprinting methods. Diversity among the isolates was characterized with molecular fingerprints using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and the more discriminating BOX-PCR fingerprint method. The physiological profiles were well correlated with molecular fingerprinting pattern analysis. Significant reduction of Verticillium wilt by bacterial dipping bath treatment was shown in the greenhouse and in fields naturally infested by V. dahliae. The relative increase of yield ranged from 117% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 344% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P10) in greenhouse trials, and 113% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 247% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6) in field trials. Evaluation resulted in the selection of three effective biocontrol agents (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6, P10, and Streptomyces diastatochromogenes S9) antagonistic to the Verticillium wilt pathogen.

  3. COMPARISON OF QUALITY BETWEEN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL STRAWBERRIES FROM MULTIPLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA AMANDA WIPPICH ANDRADE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Strawberries are appreciated worldwide. However, a large quantity of agrochemicals is used in their production because of their highly susceptibility to pests and diseases. Many studies have compared the quality of fruits grown on organic production system and conventional system, but results are often contradictory. The aim of this study was to compare the strawberries fruits quality (Fragaria ananassa Duch grown under organic and conventional production systems. Seven pairs of farms were selected, and fruits were collected at different times and production locations. Experimental design was completely randomized, with a 2 x 5 factorial scheme (two production system types x five storage periods with four replicates of ten strawberries. Strawberries produced under organic production system exhibited higher soluble solids contents and firmer pulp than those produced under conventional system. Weight loss, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid concentrations were not influenced by farming systems. Conventional system resulted in fruits with lower rot index, while strawberries produced under organic production system exhibited higher soluble solids contents and firmer pulp. Thus, in this study it was observed that each production system was responsible for benefit different attributes in strawberries.

  4. Genomic identification, phylogeny, and expression analysis of MLO genes involved in susceptibility to powdery mildew in Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L X; Jiang, M; Zhang, Y C; Yang, X F; Zhang, H Q; Zhang, Z F; Wang, Y Z; Jiang, G H

    2016-08-05

    The MLO (powdery mildew locus O) gene family is important in resistance to powdery mildew (PM). In this study, all of the members of the MLO family were identified and analyzed in the strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome. The strawberry contains at least 20 members of the MLO family, and the protein sequence contained between 171 and 1485 amino acids, with 0-34 introns. Chromosomal localization showed that the MLOs were unevenly distributed on each of the chromosomes, except for chromosome 4. The greatest number of MLOs (seven) was found on chromosome 3. A phylogenetic tree showed that the MLOs were divided into seven groups (I-VII), four of which consisted of MLOs from strawberry, Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and maize, suggesting that these genes may have evolved after the divergence of monocots and dicots. Multiple sequence alignment showed that strawberry MLO candidates related to powdery mildew resistance possessed seven highly conserved transmembrane domains, a calmodulin-binding domain, and two conserved regions, all of which are important domains for powdery mildew resistance genes. Expressed sequence tag analysis revealed that the MLOs were induced by multiple abiotic stressors, including low and high temperature, drought, and high salinity. These findings will contribute to the functional characterization of MLOs related to PM susceptibility, and will assist in the development of disease resistance in strawberries.

  5. PCR-based specific techniques used for detecting the most important pathogens on strawberry: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmajlessi, Seyed Mahyar; Destefanis, Marialaura; Gottsberger, Richard Alexander; Mänd, Marika; Loit, Evelin

    2015-01-15

    Strawberry diseases are a major limiting factor that severely impact plant agronomic performance. Regarding limitations of traditional techniques for detection of pathogens, researchers have developed specific DNA-based tests as sensitive and specific techniques. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods used for detection or quantification of the most widespread strawberry pathogens, such as Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. fragariae, Phytophthora fragariae, Colletotrichum acutatum, Verticillium dahliae, Botrytis cinerea, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Xanthomonas fragariae. An updated and detailed list of published PCR protocols is presented and discussed, aimed at facilitating access to information that could be particularly useful for diagnostic laboratories in order to develop a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable monitoring technique. The study design was a systematic review of PCR-based techniques used for detection and quantification of strawberry pathogens. Using appropriate subject headings, AGRICOLA, AGRIS, BASE, Biological Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and SpringerLink databases were searched from their inception up to April 2014. Two assessors independently reviewed the titles, abstracts, and full articles of all identified citations. Selected articles were included if one of the mentioned strawberry pathogens was investigated based on PCR methods, and a summary of pre-analytical requirements for PCR was provided. A total of 259 titles and abstracts were reviewed, of which 22 full texts met all the inclusion criteria. Our systematic review identified ten different protocols for X. fragariae, eight for P. fragariae, four for B. cinerea, six for C. acutatum, three for V. dahlia, and only one for F. oxysporum. The accuracy and sensitivity of PCR diagnostic methods is the focus of most studies included in this review. However, a large proportion of errors in laboratories

  6. Razlikovanje vrst jagodnjakov (Fragaria L.) v Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Katja

    2017-01-01

    V slovenski naravi uspevajo tri vrste jagodnjakov: Fragaria viridis, Fragaria vesca in Fragaria moschata. Čeprav se vrste med seboj dobro ločijo, jih je po domačem določevalnem ključu Mala flora Slovenije (Martinčič idr., 2007) težko razlikovati. Zato sem na osnovi pregleda tuje literature in lastnih opažanj izdelala določevalni ključ, ki upošteva več razlikovalnih znakov in je uporaben za določanje tako svežih kot herbariziranih primerkov, ki so lahko nabrani tudi brez podzemnih delov in pri...

  7. Differentiation of Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose of strawberry by arbitrarily primed PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of 39 isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides, which cause anthracnose on strawberry, was grouped into species based on the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR). All isolates used had previously been identified according to classical taxonomic morphology. Ap-PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of C. acutatum, C. fragariae and two genotypes of C. gloeosporioides. Fifteen of the 18 C. acutatum isolates were very similar, although three isolates which produced a red pigment had distinctly different banding patterns. Nearly identical banding patterns were observed for all nine isolates of C. fragariae. The 12 C. gloeosporioides isolates were more diverse and two separate genotypes, Cgl-1 (six isolates) and Cgl-2 (five isolates) were distinguished by ap-PCR. An additional isolate did not conform to either the Cgl-1 or Cgl-2 genotypes. The utility of ap-PCR compared with other molecular techniques for reliable identification of Colletotrichum isolates pathogenic on strawberry is discussed.

  8. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  9. Embryological studies on Fragaria x ananassa Duch. after pollination by three species of Potentilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Niemirowicz-Szczytt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryological studies were carried out after pollinating four female varieties of Fragaria ananassa Duch. (Freja, Sonja, Mieze Schindler, Reine des Precoce with three species of Poteiatilla (P. geoides, P. rupestris, P. fruticosa. The aim was to elucidate the manner in which matroclinous progeny arises after pollination of the strawberry with Potentilla pollen. In addition to meiotic, apo- and diplosporous embryo sacs were formed in the Freja variety. On the average, in the four studied varieties,, 49% of the ovules contained more than one embryo sac. At the most, five embryo sacs developed, but only two of them attained full maturity. Pollen from Potentilla germinated on the stigma of the strawberry and the pollen tubes grew through the style to the ovule. Symptoms of fertilization were not found in the strawberry ovules after pollination with Potentilla, however, after pollination with the Redgauntlet F. x ananassa variety, extra nucleoli or chromatin grains were found in the ovule. False polyembryony was found in the Mieze Schindler (16 cases, Sonja (2 cases and Freja (1 case varieties. The germination of two plants from one seed was observed, which shows the possibility of full development of twin embryos. The low germination ability of the seeds was caused by abnormalities in the development of the embryos.

  10. The strawberry gene FaGAST affects plant growth through inhibition of cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José I; Amaya, Iraida; Castillejo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Quesada, Miguel A; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2006-01-01

    The strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) FaGAST gene encodes a small protein with 12 cysteine residues conserved in the C-terminal region similar to a group of proteins identified in other species with diverse assigned functions such as cell division, elongation, or elongation arrest. This gene is expressed in the fruit receptacle, with two peaks during ripening at the white and the red-ripe stages, both coincident with an arrest in the growth pattern. Expression is also high in the roots but confined to the cells at the end of the elongation zone. Exogenous application of gibberellin increased the transcript level of the FaGAST gene in strawberry fruits. Ectopic expression of FaGAST in transgenic Fragaria vesca under the control of the CaMV-35S promoter caused both delayed growth of the plant and fruits with reduced size. The same growth defect was observed in Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing FaGAST. In addition, the transgenic plants exhibited late flowering and low sensitivity to exogenous gibberellin. Taken together, the expression pattern, the regulation by gibberellin, and the transgenic phenotypes point to a role for FaGAST in arresting cell elongation during strawberry fruit ripening.

  11. Ethylene is involved in strawberry fruit ripening in an organ-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of the strawberry Fragaria×ananassa has traditionally been classified as non-climacteric because its ripening process is not governed by ethylene. However, previous studies have reported the timely endogenous production of minor amounts of ethylene by the fruit as well as the differential expression of genes of the ethylene synthesis, reception, and signalling pathways during fruit development. Mining of the Fragaria vesca genome allowed for the identification of the two main ethylene biosynthetic genes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. Their expression pattern during fruit ripening was found to be stage and organ (achene or receptacle) specific. Strawberry plants with altered sensitivity to ethylene could be employed to unravel the role of ethylene in the ripening process of the strawberry fruit. To this end, independent lines of transgenic strawberry plants were generated that overexpress the Arabidopsis etr1-1 mutant ethylene receptor, which is a dominant negative allele, causing diminished sensitivity to ethylene. Genes involved in ethylene perception as well as in its related downstream processes, such as flavonoid biosynthesis, pectin metabolism, and volatile biosynthesis, were differently expressed in two transgenic tissues, the achene and the receptacle. The different transcriptional responsiveness of the achene and the receptacle to ethylene was also revealed by the metabolic profiling of the primary metabolites in these two organs. The free amino acid content was higher in the transgenic lines compared with the control in the mature achene, while glucose and fructose, and citric and malic acids were at lower levels. In the receptacle, the most conspicuous change in the transgenic lines was the depletion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the white stage of development, most probably as a consequence of diminished respiration. The results are discussed in the context of the importance of

  12. Ethylene is involved in strawberry fruit ripening in an organ-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchante, Catharina; Vallarino, José G; Osorio, Sonia; Aragüez, Irene; Villarreal, Natalia; Ariza, María T; Martínez, Gustavo A; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Civello, Marcos P; Fernie, Alisdair R; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2013-11-01

    The fruit of the strawberry Fragaria×ananassa has traditionally been classified as non-climacteric because its ripening process is not governed by ethylene. However, previous studies have reported the timely endogenous production of minor amounts of ethylene by the fruit as well as the differential expression of genes of the ethylene synthesis, reception, and signalling pathways during fruit development. Mining of the Fragaria vesca genome allowed for the identification of the two main ethylene biosynthetic genes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase. Their expression pattern during fruit ripening was found to be stage and organ (achene or receptacle) specific. Strawberry plants with altered sensitivity to ethylene could be employed to unravel the role of ethylene in the ripening process of the strawberry fruit. To this end, independent lines of transgenic strawberry plants were generated that overexpress the Arabidopsis etr1-1 mutant ethylene receptor, which is a dominant negative allele, causing diminished sensitivity to ethylene. Genes involved in ethylene perception as well as in its related downstream processes, such as flavonoid biosynthesis, pectin metabolism, and volatile biosynthesis, were differently expressed in two transgenic tissues, the achene and the receptacle. The different transcriptional responsiveness of the achene and the receptacle to ethylene was also revealed by the metabolic profiling of the primary metabolites in these two organs. The free amino acid content was higher in the transgenic lines compared with the control in the mature achene, while glucose and fructose, and citric and malic acids were at lower levels. In the receptacle, the most conspicuous change in the transgenic lines was the depletion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates at the white stage of development, most probably as a consequence of diminished respiration. The results are discussed in the context of the importance of

  13. Transcript Quantification by RNA-Seq Reveals Differentially Expressed Genes in the Red and Yellow Fruits of Fragaria vesca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchao Zhang

    Full Text Available Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14, the woodland strawberry, is a perennial herbaceous plant with a small sequenced genome (240 Mb. It is commonly used as a genetic model plant for the Fragaria genus and the Rosaceae family. Fruit skin color is one of the most important traits for both the commercial and esthetic value of strawberry. Anthocyanins are the most prominent pigments in strawberry that bring red, pink, white, and yellow hues to the fruits in which they accumulate. In this study, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of woodland strawberry and compared the gene expression profiles with yellow (Yellow Wonder, YW and red (Ruegen, RG fruits. De novo assembly yielded 75,426 unigenes, 21.3% of which were longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 45,387 (60.2% had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 595 genes, representing 0.79% of total unigenes, were differentially expressed in YW and RG. Among them, 224 genes were up-regulated and 371 genes were down-regulated in the fruit of YW. Particularly, some flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR and ANS, as well as some transcription factors (TFs, including MYB (putative MYB86 and MYB39, WDR and MADS, were down-regulated in YW fruit, concurrent with a reduction in anthocyanin accumulation in the yellow pigment phenotype, whereas a putative transcription repressor MYB1R was up-regulated in YW fruit. The altered expression levels of the genes encoding flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes and TFs were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the yellow pigment phenotype in F. vesca.

  14. Transcript Quantification by RNA-Seq Reveals Differentially Expressed Genes in the Red and Yellow Fruits of Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Weijia; Dou, Yujuan; Zhang, Junxiang; Jiang, Guihua; Miao, Lixiang; Han, Guofen; Liu, Yuexue; Li, He; Zhang, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14), the woodland strawberry, is a perennial herbaceous plant with a small sequenced genome (240 Mb). It is commonly used as a genetic model plant for the Fragaria genus and the Rosaceae family. Fruit skin color is one of the most important traits for both the commercial and esthetic value of strawberry. Anthocyanins are the most prominent pigments in strawberry that bring red, pink, white, and yellow hues to the fruits in which they accumulate. In this study, we conducted a de novo assembly of the fruit transcriptome of woodland strawberry and compared the gene expression profiles with yellow (Yellow Wonder, YW) and red (Ruegen, RG) fruits. De novo assembly yielded 75,426 unigenes, 21.3% of which were longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 45,387 (60.2%) had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 595 genes, representing 0.79% of total unigenes, were differentially expressed in YW and RG. Among them, 224 genes were up-regulated and 371 genes were down-regulated in the fruit of YW. Particularly, some flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR and ANS, as well as some transcription factors (TFs), including MYB (putative MYB86 and MYB39), WDR and MADS, were down-regulated in YW fruit, concurrent with a reduction in anthocyanin accumulation in the yellow pigment phenotype, whereas a putative transcription repressor MYB1R was up-regulated in YW fruit. The altered expression levels of the genes encoding flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes and TFs were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Our study provides important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the yellow pigment phenotype in F. vesca.

  15. Quality development of Danish strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Peder; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    of new strawberry varieties and growing methods and also to support better distribution and sale of strawberries. During 1999, focus group interviews and a representative study with 1174 householdswere carried out. In-home tests of existing and new varieties of strawberries will be carried out during...

  16. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A; Lane, Charles R; Thon, Michael R; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production.

  17. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A.; Lane, Charles R.; Thon, Michael R.; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production. PMID:26086351

  18. Partial Activation of SA- and JA-Defensive Pathways in Strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Gadea, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; de los Santos, Berta; Arroyo, Francisco T.; Aguado-Puig, Ana; Romero, Fernando; Mercado, José-Ángel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5, and FaPR10) were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen. PMID:27471515

  19. Biochemical Defenses Induced by Mycorrhizae Fungi Glomus Mosseae in Controlling Strawberry Fusarium Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanan, Wang; Xusheng, Zhao; Baozhong, Yin; Wenchao, Zhen; Jintang, Guo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of VAM on reducing wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. fragariae Winks et Williams (FO) infection in strawberry and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. Two key substance involved in disease defenses, lignin and hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein were induced and formed in the cell wall of strawberry root, and the peak content of lignin and hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein occurred on the 25(th) day (149.52mg/g) and on the 15(th) day (10.08 mg/g). The activity of protective enzymes SOD, POD and CAT inoculation with VAM significantly increased when compared with the control under both CK (natural growth) and inoculated with FO. The conductivity of VAM plus FO treatment was higher than the CK treatment, but significantly was lower than the FO treatment.

  20. Measurement of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in apple and strawberry fruits by using different extractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocleita Peruzzo Ferrareze

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different solvents in extracting phenolic compounds and the evaluation of antioxidant capacity in apple (Malus domestica Borkh and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. The values of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity found in the literature show a large discrepancy, even when it comes to the same species, or even the same cultivar. The existing literature shows ethanol, acetone and methanol, as the mainly extractors of polyphenols in fruits at different concentrations. There is no consensus on the most effective. In the present study we tested methanol, ethanol and acetone at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% extractor/H2O (v/v in peel and pulp of apple and strawberry. Our findings show that acetone 75% is the best extractor for phenolic compounds and their corresponding antioxidant capacity, better estimating the actual composition of strawberries and apples for both tissues studied. Methanol, known for its high toxicity showed the lowest extraction capacity among the tested extractors followed by ethanol. It was also observed that apples peel has phenolic compounds and antioxidant levels substantially higher than apple pulp and strawberry.

  1. Formation of β-glucogallin, the precursor of ellagic acid in strawberry and raspberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenburg, Katja; Feller, Antje; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schecker, Johannes H; Martens, Stefan; Schwab, Wilfried

    2016-04-01

    Ellagic acid/ellagitannins are plant polyphenolic antioxidants that are synthesized from gallic acid and have been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we report the identification and characterization of five glycosyltransferases (GTs) from two genera of the Rosaceae family (Fragaria and Rubus; F. × ananassa FaGT2*, FaGT2, FaGT5, F. vesca FvGT2, and R. idaeus RiGT2) that catalyze the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (β-glucogallin) the precursor of ellagitannin biosynthesis. The enzymes showed substrate promiscuity as they formed glucose esters of a variety of (hydroxyl)benzoic and (hydroxyl)cinnamic acids. Determination of kinetic values and site-directed mutagenesis revealed amino acids that affected substrate preference and catalytic activity. Green immature strawberry fruits were identified as the main source of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and ellagic acid in accordance with the highest GT2 gene expression levels. Injection of isotopically labeled gallic acid into green fruits of stable transgenic antisense FaGT2 strawberry plants clearly confirmed the in planta function. Our results indicate that GT2 enzymes might contribute to the production of ellagic acid/ellagitannins in strawberry and raspberry, and are useful to develop strawberry fruit with additional health benefits and for the biotechnological production of bioactive polyphenols. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  2. The memory of iron stress in strawberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Florinda; Saavedra, Teresa; da Silva, José Paulo; Miguel, Maria Graça; de Varennes, Amarilis; Correia, Pedro José; Pestana, Maribela

    2016-07-01

    To provide information towards optimization of strategies to treat Fe deficiency, experiments were conducted to study the responses of Fe-deficient plants to the resupply of Fe. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was used as model plant. Bare-root transplants of strawberry (cv. 'Diamante') were grown for 42 days in Hoagland's nutrient solutions without Fe (Fe0) and containing 10 μM of Fe as Fe-EDDHA (control, Fe10). For plants under Fe0 the total chlorophyll concentration of young leaves decreased progressively on time, showing the typical symptoms of iron chlorosis. After 35 days the Fe concentration was 6% of that observed for plants growing under Fe10. Half of plants growing under Fe0 were then Fe-resupplied by adding 10 μM of Fe to the Fe0 nutrient solution (FeR). Full Chlorophyll recovery of young leaves took place within 12 days. Root ferric chelate-reductase activity (FCR) and succinic and citric acid concentrations increased in FeR plants. Fe partition revealed that FeR plants expressively accumulated this nutrient in the crown and flowers. This observation can be due to a passive deactivation mechanism of the FCR activity, associated with continuous synthesis of succinic and citric acids at root level, and consequent greater uptake of Fe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of mulching and fertilization on the quality of strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. MOOR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the research carried out with strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa has been with the aim of gaining higher yields. At the same time postharvest losses are remarkable. Therefore the need for research with the aim of increasing quality is rising. The aim of the present research was to study the influence of mulch (plastic and straw, fertilization and the age of plants (two, three and four years on the quality of strawberry fruits. Experiments were carried out with cultivar Bounty during 2000–2002 at the Estonian Agricultural University. Results showed that fertilization had a positive effect on the yield of first grade fruits with both mulches. With plastic mulch, fertilization had a positive influence on vitamin C content. With straw mulch, fertilization decreased fruit damage. None of the experimental factors had an impact on the content of soluble solids. We concluded that injecting fertilizer solution into the soil under plastic mulch is an effective and inexpensive way to avoid a decrease in fruit size in the third year of production. Vitamin C content was negatively influenced by plant age, and in the three-year-old plantation, smaller fruits contained more vitamin C than larger fruits.;

  4. Characterization and functional analysis of Calmodulin and Calmodulin-like genes in Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is a universal messenger that is involved in the modulation of diverse developmental and adaptive processes in response to various stimuli. Calmodulin (CaM and calmodulin-like (CML proteins are major calcium sensors in all eukaryotes, and they have been extensively investigated for many years in plants and animals. However, little is known about CaMs and CMLs in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the strawberry genome and identified 4 CaM and 36 CML genes. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene structure, phylogenetic tree, synteny and three-dimensional model assessments, revealed the conservation and divergence of FvCaMs and FvCMLs, thus providing insight regarding their functions. In addition, the transcript abundance of four FvCaM genes and the four most related FvCML genes were examined in different tissues and in response to multiple stress and hormone treatments. Moreover, we investigated the subcellular localization of several FvCaMs and FvCMLs, revealing their potential interactions based on the localizations and potential functions. Furthermore, overexpression of five FvCaM and FvCML genes could not induce a hypersensitive response, but four of the five genes could increase resistance to Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. This study provides evidence for the biological roles of FvCaM and CML genes, and the results lay the foundation for future functional studies of these genes.

  5. Impact Of Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. And Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Bark Extracts On Important Strawberry Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minova Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi induced considerable economic losses in strawberry production industry; therefore, more attention should be paid to development and implementation of preventative treatment that is environmentally friendly. Coniferous trees produce a wide variety of compounds, such as terpenoids and phenolics. Several studies are known on fungicidal activity of different components of coniferous tree bark. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. bark ethanol extracts impact on pathogenous fungi causing diseases of strawberries. Products of processed pine (Pinus sylvestris and spruce (Picea abies bark were tested. During 2011 to 2013, several in vitro experiments were carried out to test the effectiveness of pine and spruce bark extracts against various phytopathogenic fungi isolated from strawberries: Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Phytophthora cactorum and Mycosphaerella fragariae. Radial growth tests showed that coniferous bark extracts inhibit mycelial growth of B. cinerea, C. acutatum, P. cactorum and M. fragariae. Extracts had the highest antifungal effect on B. cinerea two and five days after inoculation (p < 0.05. Bark extracts can reduce the sporulation of B. cinerea, C. acutatum and P. cactorum.

  6. Altered regulation of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 causes the unique vernalisation response in an arctic woodland strawberry accession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Elli A; Kurokura, Takeshi; Toivainen, Tuomas; Sønsteby, Anita; Heide, Ola M; Sargent, Daniel J; Isobe, Sachiko; Jaakola, Laura; Hilmarsson, Hrannar; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2017-11-01

    Vernalisation requirement is an agriculturally important trait that postpones the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the spring. The family Rosaceae includes many agriculturally important fruit and berry crops that suffer from crop losses caused by frost injury to overwintering flower buds. Recently, a vernalisation-requiring accession of the Rosaceae model woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been identified in northern Norway. Understanding the molecular basis of the vernalisation requirement in this accession would advance the development of strawberry cultivars better adapted to temperate climate. We use gene silencing, gene expression analysis, genetic mapping and population genomics to study the genetic basis of the vernalisation requirement in woodland strawberry. Our results indicate that the woodland strawberry vernalisation requirement is endemic to northern Norwegian population, and mapping data suggest the orthologue of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) as the causal floral repressor. We demonstrate that exceptionally low temperatures are needed to downregulate FvTFL1 and to make these plants competent to induce flowering at low postvernalisation temperatures in the spring. We show that altered regulation of FvTFL1 in the northern Norwegian woodland strawberry accession postpones flower induction until the spring, allowing plants to avoid winter injuries of flower buds that commonly occur in temperate regions. © 2017 The Authors New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Spatial distribution of phytophagous mites (Aca ri: Tetranychidae) on strawberry plants; Distribuicao espacial de acaros fitofagos (Acari: Tetranychidae) em morangueiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadini, Marcos A.M.; Venzon, Madelaine [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: fadini@epamig.br; Oliveira, Hamilton G.; Pallini, Angelo; Vilela, Evaldo F. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: pallini@ufv.br

    2007-09-15

    Many phytophagous mites can attack strawberry plants, Fragaria x ananassa, among them the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. They are found together feeding on the same plant on the upper and underside of the leaves, respectively. Here we studied the choice for feeding sites of O. ilicis and T. urticae on strawberry plants. The first hypothesis tested whether the feeding site choice would be related to the fitness of the species. The second hypothesis dealt whether the feeding site would be determined by the presence of a heterospecific mite. We evaluated the preference, biology and reproductive success of O. ilicis and T. urticae on the under and upper side surface of strawberry leaves infested or not by the heterospecific. O. ilicis preferred to stay on the upper side surface while T. urticae preferred the underside. The preference for the leaf surface correlated with the reproductive success of the species (measured by the intrinsic growth rate). The choice pattern of feeding sites did not alter when the choice test was applied using sites previously infested by heterospecific. Although O. ilicis and T. urticae, apparently, do not interact directly for feeding sites, there is a chance that the first species induces defenses in strawberry plant enabling to reduce the fitness of the second species. The possibility of those species stay together on strawberry plant increases the damage capacity to the culture. (author)

  8. The strawberry fruit Fra a allergen functions in flavonoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Cristina; Hoffmann, Thomas; Escobar, Nieves Medina; Ludemann, Felix; Botella, Miguel A; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Schwab, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The strawberry Fra a 1 allergen is a homolog of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. It is synthesized by red ripe fruits of Fragaria x ananassa while white fruits of a mutant genotype, which is known to be tolerated by individuals affected by allergy, are devoid of it. Proteomic analyses have shown that Fra a 1 is down-regulated in the tolerated white-fruited genotype along with enzymes of the anthocyanin pigment pathway. In this study, we report the spatial and temporal expression of three Fra a genes that encode different isoforms, and the transient RNAi-mediated silencing of the Fra a genes in strawberry fruits of the red-fruited cultivar Elsanta with an ihpRNA construct. As a consequence of reduced levels of Fra a mRNAs, fruits were obtained that produced significantly decreased levels of anthocyanins and upstream metabolites. This effect is consistent with the parallel down-regulation of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (FaPAL) and to a lesser extent of the chalcone synthase (FaCHS) transcript levels also found in these fruits. In naturally occurring white-fruited genotypes of F. chiloensis and F. vesca, Fra a transcript levels are higher than those of the red-fruited varieties, likely to compensate for the low expression levels of FaPAL and FaCHS in these mutant genotypes. The results demonstrate that Fra a expression is directly linked to flavonoid biosynthesis and show that the Fra a allergen has an essential biological function in pigment formation in strawberry fruit.

  9. Effects of high CO₂ levels on fermentation, peroxidation, and cellular water stress in Fragaria vesca stored at low temperature in conditions of unlimited O₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Maria; Rosales, Raquel; Mateos, Raquel; Perez-Gago, María B; Sanchez-Ballesta, Maria T; Escribano, María I; Merodio, Carmen

    2015-01-28

    To better understand the tolerance of strawberries (Fragaria vesca L.) to high CO2 in storage atmospheres, fermentation and cellular damage were investigated. Fruits were stored for 3 and 6 days at 0 °C in the presence of different CO2 levels (0, 20, or 40%) with 20% O2. Changes in pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene expression and in fermentative metabolites, as well as in bound water and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, were analyzed. In strawberries stored without added CO2, up-regulation of PDC and ADH was not associated with an increase in fermentative metabolites. By contrast, moderate ethanol fermentation in fruits exposed to 20% CO2 seems to be essential to maintain fruit metabolism, reducing both lipid peroxidation and cellular water stress. However, if the CO2 concentration increases (40%), the excess acetaldehyde and ethanol produced were closely correlated with a decrease in bound water and production of MDA.

  10. Draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas fragariae reveals reductive evolution and distinct virulence-related gene content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandroemme, Joachim; Cottyn, Bart; Baeyen, Steve; De Vos, Paul; Maes, Martine

    2013-11-25

    Xanthomonas fragariae (Xf) is a bacterial strawberry pathogen and an A2 quarantine organism on strawberry planting stock in the EU. It is taxonomically and metabolically distinct within the genus Xanthomonas, and known for its host specificity. As part of a broader pathogenicity study, the genome of a Belgian, virulent Xf strain (LMG 25863) was assembled to draft status and examined for its pathogenicity related gene content. The Xf draft genome (4.2 Mb) was considerably smaller than most known Xanthomonas genomes (~5 Mb). Only half of the genes coding for TonB-dependent transporters and cell-wall degrading enzymes that are typically present in other Xanthomonas genomes, were found in Xf. Other missing genes/regions with a possible impact on its plant-host interaction were: i) the three loci for xylan degradation and metabolism, ii) a locus coding for a ß-ketoadipate phenolics catabolism pathway, iii) xcs, one of two Type II Secretion System coding regions in Xanthomonas, and iv) the genes coding for the glyoxylate shunt pathway. Conversely, the Xf genome revealed a high content of externally derived DNA and several uncommon, possibly virulence-related features: a Type VI Secretion System, a second Type IV Secretion System and a distinct Type III Secretion System effector repertoire comprised of multiple rare effectors and several putative new ones. The draft genome sequence of LMG 25863 confirms the distinct phylogenetic position of Xf within the genus Xanthomonas and reveals a patchwork of both lost and newly acquired genomic features. These features may help explain the specific, mostly endophytic association of Xf with the strawberry plant.

  11. Infrared drying of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Nafiye; Heybeli, Nursel; Ertekin, Can

    2017-03-15

    The effects of different drying conditions, such as infrared power, drying air temperature and velocity, on quality of strawberry were evaluated. Drying time decreased with increased infrared power, air temperature and velocity. An increase in power from 100W to 300W, temperature from 60 to 80°C and velocity from 1.0m.s(-1) to 2.0m.s(-1) decreased fruit color quality index. For total phenol and anthocyanin content, 300W, 60°C, and 1.0m.s(-1) were superior to the other experimental conditions. The drying processes increased N, P and K and decreased Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents. The optimal conditions to preserve nutrients in infrared drying of strawberry were 200W, 100°C and 1.5m.s(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Keeping Quality of Strawberry Batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Kooten, van O.

    2001-01-01

    Post-harvest life of strawberries is largely limited by Botrytis cinerea infection. It is assumed that there are two factors influencing the batch keeping quality: the botrytis pressure and the resistance of the strawberry against infection. The latter factor will be discussed here. A model is

  13. Genetic similarity among strawberry cultivars assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne cultivars used in Brazil are developed in other countries, it became clear the need to start the strawberry breeding program in the country. To start a breeding program is necessary the genetic characterization of the germplasm available. Molecular markers are important tools that can be used for this purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic similarity among 11 strawberry cultivars using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers and to indicate the possible promising crosses. The DNA of the eleven strawberry cultivars was extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA fragments were separated in agarose gel for the RAPD markers and in polyacrylamide gel for the ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. Based on this matrix, the cultivars were grouped using the UPGMA method. The dendogram generated by the RAPD markers distributed the cultivars in three groups while the ISSR markers generated two groups. There was no direct relationship between the marker groups when the two types of markers were compared. The grouping proposed by the ISSR markers was more coherent with the origin and the genealogy of the cultivars than that proposed by the RAPD markers, and it can be considered the most efficient method for the study of genetic divergence in strawberry. The most promising crosses, based on the genetic divergence estimated from the RAPD and ISSR molecular data were between the Tudla and Ventana and the Oso Grande and Ventana cultivars, respectively.

  14. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  15. SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2.6, an Ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1, Is a Negative Regulator of Strawberry Fruit Development and Ripening1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ruihong; Li, Jinxi; Jiang, Jinzhu; Zhang, Ning; Jia, Meiru; Wei, Lingzhi; Li, Ziqiang; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that direct fruit ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process, especially for nonclimacteric fruits. In this study, we demonstrated that a SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, designated as FaSnRK2.6, is a negative regulator of fruit development and ripening in the nonclimacteric fruit strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and can also mediate temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was identified as an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1. Levels of FaSnRK2.6 transcript rapidly decreased during strawberry fruit development and ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was found to be capable of physically interacting with strawberry ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1, a negative regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. RNA interference-induced silencing of FaSnRK2.6 significantly promoted fruit ripening. By contrast, overexpression of FaSnRK2.6 arrested fruit ripening. Strawberry fruit ripening is highly sensitive to temperature, with high temperatures promoting ripening and low temperatures delaying it. As the temperature increased, the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression declined. Furthermore, manipulating the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression altered the expression of a variety of temperature-responsive genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that FaSnRK2.6 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening and, furthermore, that FaSnRK2.6 mediates temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. PMID:25609556

  16. Identification of a methyltransferase catalyzing the final step of methyl anthranilate synthesis in cultivated strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, Jeremy; Chambers, Alan H; Barbey, Christopher; Bao, Zhilong; Plotto, Anne; Bai, Jinhe; Schwieterman, Michael; Johnson, Timothy; Harrison, Benjamin; Whitaker, Vance M; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2017-08-31

    Methyl anthranilate (MA) contributes an attractive fruity note to the complex flavor and aroma of strawberry (Fragaria spp.), yet it is rare in modern cultivars. The genetic basis for its biosynthesis has not been elucidated. Understanding the specific genes required for its synthesis could allow  the development of gene/allele-specific molecular markers to speed breeding of flavorful strawberries. Ripe fruits from individuals in an F1 population resulting from a cross between a MA producer and a non-producer were examined using a bulk-segregant transcriptome approach. MA producer and non-producer transcriptomes were compared, revealing five candidate transcripts that strictly co-segregated with MA production. One candidate encodes an annotated methyltransferase. MA levels are lower when this transcript is suppressed with RNAi, and bacterial cultures expressing the protein produced MA in the presence of anthranilic acid. Frozen fruit powders reconstituted with anthranilic acid and a methyl donor produced MA only if the transcript was detected in the fruit powder. A DNA-based molecular marker was developed that segregates with the MA-producing gene variant. These analyses indicate that the methyltransferase, now noted ANTHRANILIC ACID METHYL TRANSFERASE (FanAAMT), mediates the ultimate step of MA production in cultivated strawberry. Identification of this gene and its associated molecular marker may hasten breeding efforts to introduce this important volatile into modern cultivars.

  17. Effects of insecticides on strawberry aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) on resistant and susceptible strawberry genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Slobodan Milenković; Dejan Marčić; Pantelija Perić

    2011-01-01

    Strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell), is the most important vector of strawberry virus. Breeding of genotypes resistant to this pest is an important preventive control measure, which can be compatible with rational insecticide application. The aim of the paper was to determine effects of dimethoate and deltamethrin on C. fragaefolii populations reared on two strawberry genotypes different in susceptibility: susceptible strawberry cultivar ...

  18. Functional characterization of enone oxidoreductases from strawberry and tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dorothée; Fink, Barbara; Arold, Beate; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Schwab, Wilfried

    2007-08-08

    Fragaria x ananassa enone oxidoreductase (FaEO), earlier putatively assigned as quinone oxidoreductase, is a ripening-induced, negatively auxin-regulated enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF), the key flavor compound in strawberry fruit by the reduction of the alpha,beta-unsaturated bond of the highly reactive precursor 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone (HMMF). Here we show that recombinant FaEO does not reduce the double bond of straight-chain 2-alkenals or 2-alkenones but rather hydrogenates previously unknown HMMF derivatives substituted at the methylene functional group. The furanones were prepared from 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone with a number of aldehydes and a ketone. The kinetic data for the newly synthesized aroma-active substrates and products are similar to the values obtained for an enone oxidoreductase from Arabidopsis thaliana catalyzing the alpha,beta-hydrogenation of 2-alkenals. HMMF, the substrate of FaEO that is formed during strawberry fruit ripening, was also detected in tomato and pineapple fruit by HPLC-ESI-MSn and became 13C-labeled when d-[6-13C]-glucose was applied to the fruits, which suggested that a similar HDMF biosynthetic pathway occurs in the different plant species. With a database search (http://ted.bti.cornell.edu/ and http://genet.imb.uq.edu.au/Pineapple/), we identified a tomato and pineapple expressed sequence tag that shows significant homology to FaEO. Solanum lycopersicon EO (SlEO) was cloned from cDNA, and the protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Biochemical studies confirmed the involvement of SlEO in the biosynthesis of HDMF in tomato fruit.

  19. Hormonal changes during non-climacteric ripening in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, G M; Chua, Y-J; Ross, J J; Quittenden, L J; Davies, N W; Reid, J B

    2012-08-01

    In contrast to climacteric fruits, where ethylene is known to be pivotal, the regulation of ripening in non-climacteric fruits is not well understood. In the non-climacteric strawberry (Fragaria anannassa), auxin and abscisic acid (ABA) are thought to be important, but the roles of other hormones suggested to be involved in fruit development and ripening are not clear. Here changes in the levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ABA, GA1, and castasterone from anthesis to fully ripened fruit are reported. The levels of IAA and GA1 rise early in fruit development before dropping to low levels prior to colour accumulation. Castasterone levels are highest at anthesis and drop to very low levels well before ripening commences, suggesting that brassinosteroids do not play an important role in ripening in strawberry. ABA levels are low at anthesis and gradually rise through development and ripening. The synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), can delay ripening, but the application of GA3, the gibberellin biosythesis inhibitor paclobutrazol, and ABA had no significant effect. IAA and ABA levels are higher in the developing achenes than in the receptacle tissue and may be important for receptacle enlargement and ripening, and seed maturation, respectively. Contrary to a recent report, the biologically active GA4 was not detected. The pattern of changes in the levels of the hormones are different from those reported in another well studied non-climateric fruit, grape, suggesting that a single consistent pattern of hormone changes does not occur in this group of fruit during ripening.

  20. New insights into the operative network of FaEO, an enone oxidoreductase from Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collu, Gabriella; Farci, Domenica; Esposito, Francesca; Pintus, Francesca; Kirkpatrick, Joanna; Piano, Dario

    2017-05-01

    The 2-methylene-furan-3-one reductase or Fragaria x ananassa Enone Oxidoreductase (FaEO) catalyses the last reductive step in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, a major component in the characteristic flavour of strawberries. In the present work, we describe the association between FaEO and the vacuolar membrane of strawberry fruits. Even if FaEO lacks epitopes for stable or transient membrane-interactions, it contains a calmodulin-binding region, suggesting that in vivo FaEO may be associated with the membrane via a peripheral protein complex with calmodulin. Moreover, we also found that FaEO occurs in dimeric form in vivo and, as frequently observed for calmodulin-regulated proteins, it may be expressed in different isoforms by alternative gene splicing. Further mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the isolated FaEO consists in the already known isoform and that it is the most characteristic during ripening. Finally, a characterization by absorption spectroscopy showed that FaEO has specific flavoprotein features. The relevance of these findings and their possible physiological implications are discussed.

  1. Ruscus hypophyllum: A New Host for Aphelenchoides fragariae

    OpenAIRE

    Mor, M.; Spiegel, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Aphelenchoides fragariae was isolated from the phylloclades of the ornamental plant Ruscus hypophyllum (Liliaceae). Rotylenchus buxophilus, Scutellonema brachyurum, and Meloidogyne were identified as the most common plant-parasitic nematodes in the soil near the roots. The pathology and life history of A. fragariae were closely related to the climate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. hypophyllum as a host of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  2. Ruscus hypophyllum: A New Host for Aphelenchoides fragariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, M; Spiegel, Y

    1993-06-01

    Aphelenchoides fragariae was isolated from the phylloclades of the ornamental plant Ruscus hypophyllum (Liliaceae). Rotylenchus buxophilus, Scutellonema brachyurum, and Meloidogyne were identified as the most common plant-parasitic nematodes in the soil near the roots. The pathology and life history of A. fragariae were closely related to the climate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. hypophyllum as a host of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  3. Bioinformatic and expression analyses on carotenoid dioxygenase genes in fruit development and abiotic stress responses in Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Ding, Guanqun; Gu, Tingting; Ding, Jing; Li, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Carotenoid dioxygenases, including 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases (NCEDs) and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs), can selectively cleave carotenoids into various apocarotenoid products that play important roles in fleshy fruit development and abiotic stress response. In this study, we identified 12 carotenoid dioxygenase genes in diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca, and explored their evolution with orthologous genes from nine other species. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the NCED and CCDL groups moderately expanded during their evolution, whereas gene numbers of the CCD1, CCD4, CCD7, and CCD8 groups maintained conserved. We characterized the expression profiles of FveNCED and FveCCD genes during flower and fruit development, and in response to several abiotic stresses. FveNCED1 expression positively responded to osmotic, cold, and heat stresses, whereas FveNCED2 was only induced under cold stress. In contrast, FveNCED2 was the unique gene highly and continuously increasing in receptacle during fruit ripening, which co-occurred with the increase in endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) content previously reported in octoploid strawberry. The differential expression patterns suggested that FveNCED1 and FveNCED2 were key genes for ABA biosynthesis in abiotic stress responses and fruit ripening, respectively. FveCCD1 exhibited the highest expression in most stages of flower and fruit development, while the other FveCCDs were expressed in a subset of stages and tissues. Our study suggests distinct functions of FveNCED and FveCCD genes in fruit development and stress responses and lays a foundation for future study to understand the roles of these genes and their metabolites, including ABA and other apocarotenoid products, in the growth and development of strawberry.

  4. Risk of contamination of wild berries from upper Orava region by cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Zupka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper Orava region is located at the North Slovakia, near of potential sources of environmental contamination due by mining of coal, zinc and lead ores. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of consumption of wild forest fruit from Upper Orava region from the aspect of cadmium content. Ten sampling points were found by random search. From these points samples of soil, leaves and fruits of wild berries (9 samples of blueberries Vaccinium Myrtillus and 1 sample of strawberries Fragaria Vesca were collected. In soil samples the active soil reaction (pH/H2O ranged from 3.53 (strong acidity to 4.56 (extremly strong acidity, and the determined percentage of humus ranged from 1.66 (low humic soil to 4.90 (high humic soil.  In two soil samples the total content of cadmium determinated in soil extracts by aqua regia exceeded limit 0.70 mg.kg-1 given by the legislation in tne Slovak Republic. In three soil samples the determined content of cadmium mobile forms determined in soil extracts by NH4NO3 exceeded the limit 0.10 mg.kg-1. The content of Cd determined in leaves as well as in fruits was evaluated according to Food Codex of the Slovak Republic. Only in one sample of leaf samples the limit 1.00 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. The other leaf samples are safely when used as an ingredient in tea mixtures. On the other hand even in 7 fruit samples the limit 0.05 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. This fruit can pose a risk for the human organism when is directly consumed as well as may negatively affect the human health when is used as raw materials in the food industry. 

  5. FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothée; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-04-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of approximately 37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria x ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF.

  6. DNA tests for strawberry: perpetual flowering - Bx215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetual flowering strawberries have great economic value to the fresh market industry. Floral initiation in strawberry is largely determined by photoperiod, temperature, and genetics. Commercially grown strawberries are generally classified as remontant (repeated or perpetual flowering, day neutr...

  7. Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits; Avaliacao e aceitacao de morangos e citros irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mastro, Nelida L.; Kikuchi, Olivia K.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Sabato, Susy F.; Rela, Paulo R.; Taipina, Magda S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mattiolo-Marchse, Sandra R. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-11-01

    Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Biochemical and morpho-anatomical analyses of strawberry vitroplants hyperhydric tissues affected by BA and gelling agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Mascarenhas Pereira Barbosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro propagation has become an effective practice for large-scale production of strawberry plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hyperhydricity and the multiplication capacity of two strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. 'Dover' and 'Burkley' propagated in vitro. Plants maintained in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 BA were individualized and transferred to the same medium solidified with Agar (6.5 g L-1 or Phytagel® (2.5 g L-1 and BA at different concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 mg L-1. Biochemical and anatomical analyses were carried out, as well as the analysis of the morphological hyperhydricity characteristics. The analysis of data showed: a the increase in cytokinin concentration increased hyperhydricity frequency in both varieties; b at concentrations up to 2.0 mg L-1 BA, the replacement of Agar by Phytagel® induced a higher formation of hyperhydric shoots; and c the addition of BA induced oxidative stress, which is characterized by increased antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation, as well as alterations at the cellular level, such as malformation of stomata and epidermal cells. In conclusion, the culture medium containing 0.5 mg L-1 BA solidified with Agar provided lower hyperhydricity percentages in association with higher rates of shoot proliferation in strawberry.

  9. Biological control of tortricids and aphids in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Enkegaard, Annie; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising.......Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising....

  10. Volatile organic compounds from Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibit growth of decay causing fungi and control postharvest diseases of strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oro, Lucia; Feliziani, Erica; Ciani, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Comitini, Francesca

    2018-01-16

    The effectiveness of Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biocontrol agents on postharvest decay of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cv. 'Alba') fruit, and their inhibitory activities on some decay-causing fungi were evaluated. Volatile organic compounds from these yeasts decreased mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea by 69%, and by less for Monilinia fructicola, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus carbonarius, Penicillium digitatum, Cladosporium spp., and Colletotrichum spp. Strawberry fruit exposed to 6-day-old liquid cultures of W. anomalus, M. pulcherrima and S. cerevisiae for 48h showed 89%, 40%, and 32% reductions, respectively, in gray mold McKinney Index. Vapours of ethyl acetate, the main volatile organic compound of these yeasts, completely inhibited B. cinerea growth at 8.97mg/cm3, and suppressed gray mold on strawberry fruit at 0.718mg/cm3. The biocontrol activities of these yeasts can be ascribed to ethyl acetate, which can be used for control of postharvest gray mold of strawberry fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A SHATTERPROOF-like gene controls ripening in non-climacteric strawberries, and auxin and abscisic acid antagonistically affect its expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminato, Margherita; Guzzo, Flavia; Casadoro, Giorgio

    2013-09-01

    Strawberries (Fragaria×ananassa) are false fruits the ripening of which follows the non-climacteric pathway. The role played by a C-type MADS-box gene [SHATTERPROOF-like (FaSHP)] in the ripening of strawberries has been studied by transiently modifying gene expression through either over-expression or RNA-interference-mediated down-regulation. The altered expression of the FaSHP gene caused a change in the time taken by the over-expressing and the down- regulated fruits to attain the pink stage, which was slightly shorter and much longer, respectively, compared to controls. In parallel with the modified ripening times, the metabolome components and the expression of ripening-related genes also appeared different in the transiently modified fruits. Differences in the response time of the analysed genes suggest that FaSHP can control the expression of ripening genes either directly or indirectly through other transcription factor-encoding genes. Because fleshy strawberries are false fruits these results indicate that C-type MADS-box genes like SHATTERPROOF may act as modulators of ripening in fleshy fruit-like structures independently of their anatomical origin. Treatment of strawberries with either auxin or abscisic acid had antagonistic impacts on both the expression of FaSHP and the expression of ripening-related genes and metabolome components.

  12. Novel insight into vascular, stress, and auxin-dependent and -independent gene expression programs in strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, Asaph; Keizer, Leopold C P; Van Den Broeck, Hetty C; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Bois, Gregory; Smit, Patrick; De Vos, Ric C H; O'Connell, Ann P

    2002-07-01

    Using cDNA microarrays, a comprehensive investigation of gene expression was carried out in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit to understand the flow of events associated with its maturation and non-climacteric ripening. We detected key processes and novel genes not previously associated with fruit development and ripening, related to vascular development, oxidative stress, and auxin response. Microarray analysis during fruit development and in receptacle and seed (achene) tissues established an interesting parallelism in gene expression between the transdifferentiation of tracheary elements in Zinnia elegans and strawberry. One of the genes, CAD, common to both systems and encoding the lignin-related protein cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, was immunolocalized to immature xylem cells of the vascular bundles in the strawberry receptacle. To examine the importance of oxidative stress in ripening, gene expression was compared between fruit treated on-vine with a free radical generator and non-treated fruit. Of 46 genes induced, 20 were also ripening regulated. This might suggest that active gene expression is induced to cope with oxidative stress conditions during ripening or that the strawberry ripening transcriptional program is an oxidative stress-induced process. To gain insight into the hormonal control of non-climacteric fruit ripening, an additional microarray experiment was conducted comparing gene expression in fruit treated exogenously with auxin and control fruit. Novel auxin-dependent genes and processes were identified in addition to transcriptional programs acting independent of auxin mainly related to cell wall metabolism and stress response.

  13. Nitrate concentration effects on NO3-N uptake and reduction, growth, and fruit yield in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, R. L.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Strawberries (Fragaria xananassa Duch. 'Osogrande') were grown hydroponically with three NO3-N concentrations (3.75, 7.5, or 15.0 mM) to determine effects of varying concentration on NO3-N uptake and reduction rates, and to relate these processes to growth and fruit yield. Plants were grown for 32 weeks, and NO3-N uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) activities in roots and shoots were measured during vegetative and reproductive growth. In general, NO3-N uptake rates increased as NO3-N concentration in the hydroponics system increased. Tissue NO3- concentration also increased as external NO3-N concentration increased, reflecting the differences in uptake rates. There was no effect of external NO3-N concentration on NR activities in leaves or roots during either stage of development. Leaf NR activity averaged approximately 360 nmol NO2 formed/g fresh weight (FW)/h over both developmental stages, while NR activity in roots was much lower, averaging approximately 115 nmol NO2 formed/g FW/h. Vegetative organ FW, dry weight (DW), and total fruit yield were unaffected by NO3-N concentration. These data suggest that the inability of strawberry to increase growth and fruit yield in response to increasing NO3-N concentrations is not due to limitations in NO3-N uptake rates, but rather to limitations in NO3- reduction and/or assimilation in both roots and leaves.

  14. Biosynthesis of Acylphloroglucinol Glucosides in Strawberry Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chuankui

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that strawberry plants are able to synthesize and accumulate acylphloroglucinols (APG) with exciting pharmacological properties due to the catalytic properties of bifunctional polyketide synthase enzymes. The APG aglycones can be further glucosylated by FaGT07876 in strawberry. Besides, we describe an UDP-glucose: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone glucosyltransferase from strawberry fruit. Wir zeigen, dass Erdbeerpflanzen aufgrund der katalytischen Eigenschaften von bifu...

  15. Environmental responses of the FT/TFL1 gene family and their involvement in flower induction in Fragaria × ananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoshihiro; Higuchi, Yohei; Yoshida, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2015-04-01

    Flowering time control is important for fruit production in Fragaria × ananassa. The flowering inhibition pathway has been extensively elucidated in the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca, whereas the factors involved in its promotion remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the environmental responses of F. × ananassa FT and TFL1-like genes, which are considered key floral promoters and repressors in many plants, respectively. A putative floral promoter, FaFT3, was up-regulated in the shoot tip under short-day and/or low growth temperature, in accordance with the result that these treatments promoted flowering. FaFT3 mRNA accumulated before induction of a floral meristem identity gene, FaAP1. FaFT2, a counterpart of FvFT2, expressed in the flower bud of F. vesca, was not induced in the shoot tip differentiating sepal or stamen, suggesting that this gene works at a later stage than stamen formation. In F. vesca, FvFT1 transmits the long-day signal perceived in the leaves to the shoot tip, and induces the potent floral inhibitor FvTFL1. FaFT1 was expressed in the leaves under long-day conditions in F. × ananassa. Expression of FaTFL1 was higher in the shoot tip under long-day than short-day conditions. Independent of day-length, FaTFL1 expression was higher under high temperature than low temperature conditions. These results suggest that FaFT3 induction by short-day or low temperature stimuli is a key step for flowering initiation. As in F. vesca, F. × ananassa floral inhibition pathways depend on FaTFL1 regulation by day-length via FaFT1, and by temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics in 25 wild or cultivated berry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Schmitzer, Valentina; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic content in fruit of 25 wild and cultivated berry species were identified and quantified with high-performance liquid chromatograph. The composition of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolic compounds in various species of Vaccinium, Rubus, Ribes, and Fragaria genus was evaluated. Additonally, total phenolics of less known berry species of the Morus, Amelanchier, Sorbus, Sambucus, Rosa, Lycium, Actinidia, and Aronia genus were determined in wild growing as well as in cultivated fruits. Significant differences in the concentration of sugars and organic acids were detected among the berry species. Glucose and fructose were the most abundant sugars in berry fruits and the major organic acids were malic and citric acid. However, in kiwi fruit, sucrose represented as much as 71.9% of total sugars. Sorbitol has been detected and quantified in chokeberry, rowanberry, and eastern shadbush fruit. The highest content of total analyzed sugars was determined in rowanberry fruit, followed by dog rose, eastern shadbush, hardy kiwifruit, American cranberry, chokeberry, and jostaberry fruit. Rowanberry stands out as the fruit with the highest content of total analyzed organic acids, followed by jostaberry, lingonberry, red gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, and black currant. The berries of white gooseberry, black currant, red currant, and white currant had the lowest sugar/organic acid ratio and were thus perceptively the sourest species analyzed. On the other hand, the species with highest sugar/organic acid ratio were goji berry, eastern shadbush, black mulberry, and wild grown blackberry. The highest amounts of total phenols were quantified in chokeberry fruit. Wild strawberry, raspberry, and blackberry had 2- to 5-fold more total phenolics compared to cultivated plants. The fruit of analyzed berry species contained different levels of sugars, organic acids, and total phenolics. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that wild grown species

  17. The History Of Genome Mapping In Fragaria Spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Rahman Moustafa Abdel-Wahab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This overview summarizes the research programs devoted to mapping the genomes within Fragaria genus. A few genetic linkage maps of diploid and octoploid Fragaria species as well as impressive physical map of F. vesca were developed in the last decade and resulted in the collection of data useful for further fundamental and applied studies. The information concerning the rules for proper preparation of mapping population, the choice of markers useful for generating linkage map, the saturation of existing maps with new markers linked to economically important traits, as well as problems faced during mapping process are presented in this paper.

  18. Silicon Transporters and Effects of Silicon Amendments in Strawberry under High Tunnel and Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Samuel; Goyette, Marie-Hélène; Labbé, Caroline; Laur, Joan; Gaudreau, Linda; Gosselin, André; Dorais, Martine; Deshmukh, Rupesh K; Bélanger, Richard R

    2017-01-01

    Together with longer production periods, the commercial transition to day-neutral strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) varieties has favored the development of diseases such as powdery mildew ( Podosphaera aphanis ) that thrives in late summer-early fall. In an attempt to find alternative solutions to fungicides currently employed to curb the disease, we wanted to investigate the potential of silicon (Si) amendments that have been associated with prophylactic properties against powdery mildews. To this end, our first objective was to determine if strawberry was a Si-competent species following the recent characterization of the properties of Si transporters that plants must carry to uptake silicic acid. Based on genomic data, we were able to conclude that strawberry contained both functional influx (Lsi1) and efflux (Lsi2) transporters for Si uptake. Subsequently commercial experiments under high tunnel and field conditions were conducted with different Si fertilization regimes: constant soluble Si feeding in high tunnel, and bi-weekly soluble Si feeding or three concentrations of calcium silicate fertilization in the field. Results from high tunnel experiments showed that strawberry could accumulate as much as 3% Si on a dry-weight basis, the highest concentration ever reported for this species. All six tested cultivars contained roughly the same concentration, thereby confirming the limited genetic variability, also observed in other species, associated with the trait. Silicon fertilization under high tunnel led to a significant reduction of powdery mildew severity in both years and on all cultivars, and a significant increase in yield of marketable fruits reaching as much as 300% with cv. Monterey. By contrast, Si fertilization under field conditions in soils deficient in plant available Si, either in soluble or solid form, did not result in significant accumulation of Si in plants, regardless of the cultivars, year or concentrations. Our results have thus

  19. Silicon Transporters and Effects of Silicon Amendments in Strawberry under High Tunnel and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Ouellette

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with longer production periods, the commercial transition to day-neutral strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa varieties has favored the development of diseases such as powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis that thrives in late summer-early fall. In an attempt to find alternative solutions to fungicides currently employed to curb the disease, we wanted to investigate the potential of silicon (Si amendments that have been associated with prophylactic properties against powdery mildews. To this end, our first objective was to determine if strawberry was a Si-competent species following the recent characterization of the properties of Si transporters that plants must carry to uptake silicic acid. Based on genomic data, we were able to conclude that strawberry contained both functional influx (Lsi1 and efflux (Lsi2 transporters for Si uptake. Subsequently commercial experiments under high tunnel and field conditions were conducted with different Si fertilization regimes: constant soluble Si feeding in high tunnel, and bi-weekly soluble Si feeding or three concentrations of calcium silicate fertilization in the field. Results from high tunnel experiments showed that strawberry could accumulate as much as 3% Si on a dry-weight basis, the highest concentration ever reported for this species. All six tested cultivars contained roughly the same concentration, thereby confirming the limited genetic variability, also observed in other species, associated with the trait. Silicon fertilization under high tunnel led to a significant reduction of powdery mildew severity in both years and on all cultivars, and a significant increase in yield of marketable fruits reaching as much as 300% with cv. Monterey. By contrast, Si fertilization under field conditions in soils deficient in plant available Si, either in soluble or solid form, did not result in significant accumulation of Si in plants, regardless of the cultivars, year or concentrations. Our results have

  20. Silicon Transporters and Effects of Silicon Amendments in Strawberry under High Tunnel and Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Samuel; Goyette, Marie-Hélène; Labbé, Caroline; Laur, Joan; Gaudreau, Linda; Gosselin, André; Dorais, Martine; Deshmukh, Rupesh K.; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2017-01-01

    Together with longer production periods, the commercial transition to day-neutral strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) varieties has favored the development of diseases such as powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) that thrives in late summer-early fall. In an attempt to find alternative solutions to fungicides currently employed to curb the disease, we wanted to investigate the potential of silicon (Si) amendments that have been associated with prophylactic properties against powdery mildews. To this end, our first objective was to determine if strawberry was a Si-competent species following the recent characterization of the properties of Si transporters that plants must carry to uptake silicic acid. Based on genomic data, we were able to conclude that strawberry contained both functional influx (Lsi1) and efflux (Lsi2) transporters for Si uptake. Subsequently commercial experiments under high tunnel and field conditions were conducted with different Si fertilization regimes: constant soluble Si feeding in high tunnel, and bi-weekly soluble Si feeding or three concentrations of calcium silicate fertilization in the field. Results from high tunnel experiments showed that strawberry could accumulate as much as 3% Si on a dry-weight basis, the highest concentration ever reported for this species. All six tested cultivars contained roughly the same concentration, thereby confirming the limited genetic variability, also observed in other species, associated with the trait. Silicon fertilization under high tunnel led to a significant reduction of powdery mildew severity in both years and on all cultivars, and a significant increase in yield of marketable fruits reaching as much as 300% with cv. Monterey. By contrast, Si fertilization under field conditions in soils deficient in plant available Si, either in soluble or solid form, did not result in significant accumulation of Si in plants, regardless of the cultivars, year or concentrations. Our results have thus provided

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis in Strawberry Fruits Reveals Active Auxin Biosynthesis and Signaling in the Ripe Receptacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Estrada-Johnson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of auxin in ripening strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa fruits has been restricted to the early stages of development where the growth of the receptacle is dependent on the delivery of auxin from the achenes. At later stages, during enlargement of the receptacle, other hormones have been demonstrated to participate to different degrees, from the general involvement of gibberellins and abscisic acid to the more specific of ethylene. Here we report the involvement of auxin at the late stages of receptacle ripening. The auxin content of the receptacle remains constant during ripening. Analysis of the transcriptome of ripening strawberry fruit revealed the changing expression pattern of the genes of auxin synthesis, perception, signaling and transport along with achene and receptacle development from the green to red stage. Specific members of the corresponding gene families show active transcription in the ripe receptacle. For the synthesis of auxin, two genes encoding tryptophan aminotransferases, FaTAA1 and FaTAR2, were expressed in the red receptacle, with FaTAR2 expression peaking at this stage. Transient silencing of this gene in ripening receptacle was accompanied by a diminished responsiveness to auxin. The auxin activity in the ripening receptacle is supported by the DR5-directed expression of a GUS reporter gene in the ripening receptacle of DR5-GUS transgenic strawberry plants. Clustering by co-expression of members of the FaAux/IAA and FaARF families identified five members whose transcriptional activity was increased with the onset of receptacle ripening. Among these, FaAux/IAA11 and FaARF6a appeared, by their expression level and fold-change, as the most likely candidates for their involvement in the auxin activity in the ripening receptacle. The association of the corresponding ARF6 gene in Arabidopsis to cell elongation constitutes a suggestive hypothesis for FaARF6a involvement in the same cellular process in the growing and

  2. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (emission of benzenoid II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Nutritional and nutraceutical comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (common guava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook-Russell, Kayanne P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Facey, Petrea C; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S

    2012-09-15

    Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is one of many underutilised edible fruits that grow wild in Jamaica, and could potentially be commercially exploited to yield health and economic benefits. In this study, the total phenolics, proximate contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of P. cattleianum and P. guajava (common guava), a well-known species, were compared. Strawberry guavas were found to be superior to common guavas in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, total phenolics and vitamin C content. They also possessed relatively high fibre content (24.9%). The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of strawberry guavas showed cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of 18.3% and 26.5%, respectively (250 μg/mL), indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of P. guajava showed 56.4% (COX-2) and 44.1% (COX-1) inhibitory activity, respectively. Additionally, nine compounds were isolated from strawberry guava fruits, some of which demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that strawberry guavas are beneficial for health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Occupational allergy in strawberry greenhouse workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiwael, J A; Vullings, L G J; de Jong, N W; van Toorenenbergen, A W; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    2010-01-01

    Employees in strawberry greenhouses are highly exposed to several (potential) allergenic agents. However, no occupational allergy in this branch has been described before. First, the presence of work-related allergic symptoms in strawberry workers was explored. Second, we aimed to prove the concept that an IgE-mediated allergy could be responsible for work-related symptoms. To test the possibility of an IgE response secondary to cross-reactivity to birch or grass pollen, inhibition experiments were performed. First, a questionnaire survey concerning work-related allergic symptoms among strawberry workers in the Netherlands was carried out. Second, 3 workers with work-related symptoms were investigated in detail. Skin tests, serum-specific IgE tests with home-made extracts of strawberry pollen and other possible allergenic agents of the strawberry greenhouse environment were executed. Furthermore, immunoblots and nasal provocations with strawberry pollen extract were performed. In addition, inhibition experiments were performed. 29 of 75 questionnaire respondents (38.7%) reported work-related symptoms. Sensitization to strawberry pollen was found in skin tests in all 3 employees with work-related symptoms. ELISA and immunoblotting with strawberry pollen showed positive results in 2 employees. Birch and grass pollen failed to inhibit IgE binding to strawberry pollen in 1 of 2 employees. Partial inhibition was seen in the second employee. Nasal provocation validated clinically relevant allergy to these pollens in 2 of 3 subjects. Allergic symptoms attributable to the workplace are present among a proportion of strawberry greenhouse employees. An IgE-mediated occupational allergy to strawberry pollen may contribute to these symptoms. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Stable Epigenetic Variants Selected from an Induced Hypomethylated Fragaria vesca Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jihua; Tanino, Karen K; Robinson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic inheritance was transmitted through selection over five generations of extreme early, but not late flowering time phenotypic lines in Fragaria vesca. Epigenetic variation was initially artificially induced using the DNA demethylation reagent 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). It is the first report to explore epigenetic variant selection and phenotypic trait inheritance in strawberry. Transmission frequency of these traits was determined across generations. The early flowering (EF4) and late stolon (LS) phenotypic traits were successfully transmitted across five and three generations through meiosis, respectively. Stable mitotic transmission of the early flowering phenotype was also demonstrated using clonal daughters derived from the 4th Generation (S4) mother plant. In order to further explore the DNA methylation patterns underlying the early flowering trait, the standard MSAP method using isoschizomers Hpa II/Msp I, and newly modified MSAP method using isoschizomers Tfi I/Pfe I which detected DNA methylation at CG, CHG, CHH sites were used in two early flowering lines, EF lines 1 (P2) and EF lines 2 (P3), and control lines (P1). A significant reduction in the number of fully-methylated bands was detected in P2 and P3 when compared to P1 using the novel MSAP method. In the standard MSAP, the symmetric CG and CHG methylation was maintained over generations in the early flowering lines based on the clustering in P2 and P3, the novel MSAP approach revealed the asymmetric CHH methylation pattern was not maintained over generations. This study provides evidence of stable selection of phenotypic traits, particularly early flowering through both meiosis and mitosis, which is meaningful to both breeding programs and commercial horticulture. The maintenance in CG and CHG methylation over generations suggests the early flowering phenotype might be related to DNA methylation alterations at the CG or CHG sites. Finally, this work provides a new approach for studying the role

  6. Metabolic Interaction between Anthocyanin and Lignin Biosynthesis Is Associated with Peroxidase FaPRX27 in Strawberry Fruit1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Ludwig; Yeh, Su-Ying; Hücherig, Stephanie; Hoffmann, Thomas; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Fouche, Mathieu; Villatoro, Carmen; Denoyes, Béatrice; Monfort, Amparo; Caballero, José Luis; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Gershenson, Jonathan; Schwab, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Plant phenolics have drawn increasing attention due to their potential nutritional benefits. Although the basic reactions of the phenolics biosynthetic pathways in plants have been intensively analyzed, the regulation of their accumulation and flux through the pathway is not that well established. The aim of this study was to use a strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) microarray to investigate gene expression patterns associated with the accumulation of phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in strawberry fruit. An examination of the transcriptome, coupled with metabolite profiling data from different commercial varieties, was undertaken to identify genes whose expression correlated with altered phenolics composition. Seventeen comparative microarray analyses revealed 15 genes that were differentially (more than 200-fold) expressed in phenolics-rich versus phenolics-poor varieties. The results were validated by heterologous expression of the peroxidase FaPRX27 gene, which showed the highest altered expression level (more than 900-fold). The encoded protein was functionally characterized and is assumed to be involved in lignin formation during strawberry fruit ripening. Quantitative trait locus analysis indicated that the genomic region of FaPRX27 is associated with the fruit color trait. Down-regulation of the CHALCONE SYNTHASE gene and concomitant induction of FaPRX27 expression diverted the flux from anthocyanins to lignin. The results highlight the competition of the different phenolics pathways for their common precursors. The list of the 15 candidates provides new genes that are likely to impact polyphenol accumulation in strawberry fruit and could be used to develop molecular markers to select phenolics-rich germplasm. PMID:23835409

  7. Variability in Damage Caused by the Mite Tetranychus urticae (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) Koch on Three Varieties of Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, S G; Santillán-Galicia, M T; González-Hernández, V; Suárez Espinosa, J; González-Hernández, H

    2015-06-01

    The strawberry, Fragaria×ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae), is an important crop in Mexico. We evaluated the tolerance of three newly developed Mexican strawberry varieties (CP0615, CPLE-7, and CPJacona) to Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae), the most important pest of strawberry. We evaluated the effect of three different initial mite densities on population growth, duration of each developmental stage and survival of T. urticae on the three strawberry varieties. We also compared the photosynthetic activity (Pn), sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci), stomatal conductance (gs) and the area of leaf damaged in the three varieties. The largest final density of mites occurred on the variety CP0615, followed by the varieties CPLE-7 and CPJacona. There were no significant differences in the duration of T. urticae developmental stages amongst the varieties, except for larvae where the shortest duration was on variety CPLE-7. The proportion of eggs reaching the adult stage (survival) was significantly lower on the variety CPLE-7. The number and morphology of the trichomes did not play an important role in the outcomes, as they were similar in the three varieties. There were no significant differences in Pn, Ci, and gs values amongst the three varieties in the presence and absence of T. urticae. The area of leaf damaged in variety CPLE-7 was significantly smaller than for the other varieties. Based on these results, and with regard to spider mite tolerance, we believe that the variety CPLE-7 has the greatest potential for further development, and eventually, for use on a commercial scale in Mexico. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evaluation of site-specific tactics using bifenazate and Neoseiulus californicus for management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruohan; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2016-10-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of site-specific tactics for management of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, a major pest of greenhouse and field-grown strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). Two site-specific (spot) treatments, the miticide bifenazate (Acramite(®)) and the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor, were compared with whole-plot treatments of bifenazate or N. californicus to determine whether T. urticae could be effectively managed in field-grown strawberry using only site-specific tactics. Additionally, the cost of site-specific tactics was compared with whole-plot treatments to determine the economic value of using site-specific management tactics for T. urticae in strawberries. In the greenhouse, all treatments equivalently reduced the number of T. urticae below control. In the field during the 2011-2012 season, more T. urticae eggs and motiles were in the whole-plot treatments of both N. californicus and bifenazate in the mid-season and late season, respectively, compared with the spot treatments. With the exception of site-specific N. californicus during the 2011-2012 field season, there were no differences in marketable yields between plots with site-specific treatments and whole-plot management. An economic analysis demonstrated a significant cost savings (75.3 %) with site-specific treatments of N. californicus compared with whole-plot application of N. californicus. Similarly, a 24.7 % reduction in cost was achieved in using site-specific bifenazate compared with whole-plot application of bifenazate. The findings indicate that site-specific treatments with N. californicus and bifenazate are competitive alternatives to whole-field application for T. urticae management in strawberries.

  9. Occupational allergy in Strawberry Greenhouse workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Patiwael (Jiska); L.G.J. Vullings; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); H. de Groot (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Employees in strawberry greenhouses are highly exposed to several (potential) allergenic agents. However, no occupational allergy in this branch has been described before. First, the presence of work-related allergic symptoms in strawberry workers was explored. Second, we

  10. Predictability of Keeping Quality for Strawberry Batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Kessler, D.; Orcaray, L.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    Postharvest life of strawberries is largely limited by Botrytis cinerea infection. It is assumed that there are two factors influencing the batch keeping quality: the Botrytis pressure and the resistance of the strawberry to infection. The latter factor will be discussed in this article. A colour

  11. Effect of iodine citrate of cupper (Citrubact on Botrytis cinerea Pers in Fragaria vesca L. cv. Albion at Tungurahua province, Ecuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Mauricio Rivera Casignia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, the principal disease in strawberry is the grey mould caused by B. cinerea. Chemical fungicides are used only for its control but sometime cause phyto-toxicity due frequent application, high doses and non-rotation of active ingredients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of iodinecitrate of cupper (Citrubact on fruits number afected by B. cinereain Fragaria vesca L. cv. Albion in Tungurahua province. Iodinecitrate reduced the number of infected flowers with B. cinerea. Doses of 0.588 g L-1 each 14 days; 0.588 g L-1 each 7 days; 0.392 g L-1 each 14 days and 0.196 g L-1 each 7 days of active ingredient increase the number of healthy fruit in comparison with unprotected fruits. Based on results Citrubact is an efficient chemical alternative to control B. cinerea in F. vesca. This fungicide is accepted in strawberry organic production system in Ecuador and other producing countries which conferee added value.

  12. Genetic evidence that two independent S-loci control RNase-based self-incompatibility in diploid strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, Radovan I; Sargent, Daniel J; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2010-03-01

    The self-incompatibility mechanism that reduces inbreeding in many plants of the Rosaceae is attributed to a multi-allelic S locus which, in the Prunoideae and Maloideae subfamilies, comprises two complementary genes, a stylar-expressed S-RNase and a pollen-expressed SFB. To elucidate incompatibility in the subfamily Rosoideae, stylar-specific RNases and self-(in)compatibility status were analysed in various diploid strawberries, especially Fragaria nubicola and F. viridis, both self-incompatible, and F. vesca, self-compatible, and in various progenies derived from them. Unexpectedly, two unlinked RNase loci, S and T, were found, encoding peptides distinct from Prunoideae and Maloideae S-RNases; the presence of a single active allele at either is sufficient to confer self-incompatibility. By contrast, in diploid Maloideae and Prunoideae a single locus encodes S-RNases that share several conserved regions and two active alleles are required for self-incompatibility. Our evidence implicates the S locus in unilateral inter-specific incompatibility and shows that S and T RNases can, remarkably, confer not only allele-specific rejection of cognate pollen but also unspecific rejection of Sn Tn pollen, where n indicates a null allele, consistent with the the presence of the pollen component, SFB, activating the cognitive function of these RNases. Comparison of relevant linkage groups between Fragaria and Prunus suggests that Prunus S-RNases, unique in having two introns, may have resulted from gene conversion in an ancestor of Prunus. In addition, it is shown that there is a non-S locus that is essential for self-incompatibility in diploid Fragaria.

  13. Naar een bemonsteringsmethodiek voor Xanthomonas fragariae in aardbei : verdeling van Xanthomonas fragariae in twee natuurlijk-besmette vermeerderingsgewassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, T.H.; Kastelein, P.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2008-01-01

    In november 2007 werden twee percelen met aardbeivoortkwekingsmateriaal, natuurlijk geïnfecteerd met X. fragariae, systematisch bemonsterd. Op een plot met een oppervlakte van ca. 100 m2 werden van ca. 120 planten rond een symptomatische plant, de (negen) samengestelde bladeren geanalyseerd op

  14. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  15. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  16. Co-pigmentation of pelargonidin derivatives in strawberry and red radish model solutions by the addition of phenolic fractions from mango peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bechtold, Lena; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2016-12-15

    Pelargonidin-based colors suffer from notorious instability. A phenolic mango peel extract and defined phenolic fractions thereof were shown to effectively modulate the visible absorption of anthocyanins from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and red radish (Raphanus sativus L.) by intermolecular co-pigmentation. Consistently, non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives from strawberry exerted significantly greater hyper- and bathochromic spectral shifts than their acylated counterparts from red radish. The addition of low molecular-weight co-pigments such as gallic acid and monogalloyl glucoses to strawberry anthocyanins led to strong hyperchromic shifts from 30% to 48%, while gallotannins (>six galloyl units) exerted smaller co-pigmentation effects (36±2%; Δλmax 13nm), possibly due to steric hindrances. In contrast, penta- and hexa-O-galloyl-glucose induced greatest and most stable co-pigmentation effects (53±2%; Δλmax 13nm). Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms and the responsible compounds, phenolic mango peel extracts might represent suitable color enhancers for coloring foodstuff, particularly for those containing non-acylated pelargonidin derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Waste materials derived bio-effectors used as growth promoters for strawberry plants. An agronomic and metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Brankica; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a novel concept of bio-effectors has emerged to describe a group of products that are able to improve plant performance more than fertilizers. In this study, three different agro-industrial residues, i.e. brewers' spent grain (BSG), fennel processing residues (FPR) and lemon processing residues (LPR) were chosen as potential bio-effectors. A greenhouse soilless pot experiment was conducted on strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa var. Festival) in order to study the effect of BSG, FPR and LPR water extracts, at different concentrations, on plant growth and fruit quality. Their effect was compared with humic-like substances as a positive/reference control (Ctrl+) and with Hoagland solution as a negative control (Ctrl-). Agronomic parameters and the nutrient uptake were measured on shoots, roots and fruits. Metabolomic profiling tests were carried out on leaves, roots and fruit juices through the NMR technique. Plants treated with the FPR extract showed better vegetative growth, while plants treated with the BSG extract gave higher yield and better fruit size. Metabolomic profiling showed that fruits and roots of plants treated with FPR and LPR extracts had higher concentrations of sucrose, malate and acetate, while BSG treated plants had higher concentrations of citrate and β-glucose. In conclusion, according to the results achieved, the bio-effectors used in this study promote plant growth and fruit quality regardless of their nutritional content. Keywords: bio-effectors, agro-industrial waste, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), strawberry, growth promotion, fruit quality.

  18. Evaluation of predatory mites and Acramite for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries in north central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Elena M; Liburd, Oscar E

    2006-08-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted from 2003 to 2005 to determine the effectiveness of two predatory mite species, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and a reduced-risk miticide, Acramite 50 WP (bifenazate), for control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). In greenhouse tests, three treatments consisting of releases of P. persimilis, N. californicus, and an untreated control were evaluated. Both species of predatory mites significantly reduced twospotted spider mite numbers below those found in the control during the first 3 wk of evaluation. However, during week 4, twospotted spider mite numbers on the plants treated with P. persimilis increased and did not differ significantly from the control. Field studies used releases of P. persimilis and N. californicus, applications of Acramite, and untreated control plots. Both N. californicus and P. persimilis significantly reduced populations of twospotted spider mite below numbers recorded in the control plots. During the 2003-2004 field season P. persimilis took longer than N. californicus to bring the twospotted spider mite population under control (mites per leaflet). Acramite was effective in reducing twospotted spider mite populations below 10 mites per leaflet during the 2003-2004 field season but not during the 2004-2005 field season, possibly because of a late application. These findings indicate that N. californicus releases and properly timed Acramite applications are promising options for twospotted spider mite control in strawberries for growers in north Florida and other areas of the southeast.

  19. Reconfiguration of the achene and receptacle metabolic networks during strawberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fait, Aaron; Hanhineva, Kati; Beleggia, Romina; Dai, Nir; Rogachev, Ilana; Nikiforova, Victoria J; Fernie, Alisdair R; Aharoni, Asaph

    2008-10-01

    The anatomy of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit, in which the achene is found on the outer part of the fruit, makes it an excellent species for studying the regulation of fruit development. It can provide a model for the cross talk between primary and secondary metabolism, whose role is of pivotal importance in the process. By combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with the aim of addressing the metabolic regulation underlying fruit seed development, we simultaneously analyzed the composition of primary and secondary metabolites, separately, in achene and receptacle during fruit ripening of strawberry cultivar Herut. The results from these analyses suggest that changes in primary and secondary metabolism reflect organ and developmental specificities. For instance, the receptacle was characterized by increases in sugars and their direct derivatives, while the achene was characterized by a major decrease in the levels of carbon- and nitrogen-rich compounds, with the exception of storage-related metabolites (e.g. raffinose). Furthermore, the receptacle, and to a lesser extent the achene, exhibited dynamic fluctuations in the levels and nature of secondary metabolites across the ripening process. In the receptacle, proanthocyanidins and flavonol derivatives characterized mainly early developmental stages, while anthocyanins were abundant in the mature red stage; in the achene, ellagitannin and flavonoids were abundant during early and late development, respectively. Correlation-based network analysis suggested that metabolism is substantially coordinated during early development in either organ. Nonetheless, a higher degree of connectivity within and between metabolic pathways was measured in the achenes. The data are discussed within the context of current models both of the interaction of primary and secondary metabolism and of the metabolic interaction between the different plant organs.

  20. The effect of floral resources on parasitoid and host longevity: prospects for conservation biological control in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Betzer, Cathrine; Naulin, Cyril; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Enkegaard, Annie; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important pest in Danish strawberry production. Its most common parasitoid is Copidosoma aretas (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae). To identify selective flowering plants that could be used to increase functional biodiversity, the longevity of C. aretas and its host A. comariana was assessed on 5 flowering species: buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Caryophyllales: Polygonaceae); borage, Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae); strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae); phacelia, Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (Boraginaceae); and dill, Anethum graveolens L. (Apiales: Apiaceae). Dill was only tested with C. aretas. Sucrose and pollen served as positive controls, and pure water as a negative control. In a subsequent field experiment, A. comariana larval density was assessed at 1, 6, and 11 m distances from buckwheat flower strips in 3 fields. The proportion of field-collected larvae that were parasitized by C. aretas or fungi was assessed. Among the tested floral diets, buckwheat was superior for C. aretas, increasing its longevity by 1.4 times compared to water. Although buckwheat also increased longevity of A. comariana, its longevity and survival on buckwheat, borage, and strawberry was not significantly different, so buckwheat was chosen for field experiments. A. comariana densities in the 3 fields with sown buckwheat flower strips were 0.5, 4.0, and 8.3 larvae per m per row of strawberry respectively. Of the collected larvae, a total of 1%, 39%, and 65% were parasitized by C. aretas, respectively. The density of A. comariana and the proportion parasitized by C. aretas were highly significantly correlated. Distance from floral strips had no significant effect on either A. comariana larval density or on the proportion of individuals parasitized by C. aretas. Few other parasitoids emerged from collected larvae, and no larvae were

  1. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Puche, Laura; Molina-Hidalgo, Francisco Javier; Boersma, Maaike; Schuurink, Robert C.; López-Vidriero, Irene; Solano, Roberto; Franco-Zorrilla, José-Manuel; Caballero, José Luis; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and functionally characterized an R2R3 MYB transcription factor (EMISSION OF BENZENOID II [FaEOBII]) that seems to be the orthologous gene of PhEOBII from Petunia hybrida, which contributes to the regulation of eugenol biosynthesis in petals. The expression of FaEOBII was ripening related and fruit receptacle specific, although high expression values were also found in petals. This expression pattern of FaEOBII correlated with eugenol content in both fruit receptacle and petals. The expression of FaEOBII was repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid, in parallel to the ripening process. In ripe strawberry receptacles, where the expression of FaEOBII was silenced, the expression of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE1 and FaEGS2, two structural genes involved in eugenol production, was down-regulated. A subsequent decrease in eugenol content in ripe receptacles was also observed, confirming the involvement of FaEOBII in eugenol metabolism. Additionally, the expression of FaEOBII was under the control of FaMYB10, another R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates the early and late biosynthetic genes from the flavonoid/phenylpropanoid pathway. In parallel, the amount of eugenol in FaMYB10-silenced receptacles was also diminished. Taken together, these data indicate that FaEOBII plays a regulating role in the volatile phenylpropanoid pathway gene expression that gives rise to eugenol production in ripe strawberry receptacles. PMID:25931522

  2. RNAi-mediated endogene silencing in strawberry fruit: detection of primary and secondary siRNAs by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Katja; Kalinowski, Gregor; Hoffmann, Thomas; Preuss, Anja; Schwab, Wilfried

    2017-05-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been exploited as a reverse genetic tool for functional genomics in the nonmodel species strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) since 2006. Here, we analysed for the first time different but overlapping nucleotide sections (>200 nt) of two endogenous genes, FaCHS (chalcone synthase) and FaOMT (O-methyltransferase), as inducer sequences and a transitive vector system to compare their gene silencing efficiencies. In total, ten vectors were assembled each containing the nucleotide sequence of one fragment in sense and corresponding antisense orientation separated by an intron (inverted hairpin construct, ihp). All sequence fragments along the full lengths of both target genes resulted in a significant down-regulation of the respective gene expression and related metabolite levels. Quantitative PCR data and successful application of a transitive vector system coinciding with a phenotypic change suggested propagation of the silencing signal. The spreading of the signal in strawberry fruit in the 3' direction was shown for the first time by the detection of secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) outside of the primary targets by deep sequencing. Down-regulation of endogenes by the transitive method was less effective than silencing by ihp constructs probably because the numbers of primary siRNAs exceeded the quantity of secondary siRNAs by three orders of magnitude. Besides, we observed consistent hotspots of primary and secondary siRNA formation along the target sequence which fall within a distance of less than 200 nt. Thus, ihp vectors seem to be superior over the transitive vector system for functional genomics in strawberry fruit. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Múltiple natural enemies do not improve two spotted spider mite and flower western thrips control in strawberry tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Albendín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological control techniques are commonly used in many horticultural crops in Spain, however the application of these techniques to Spanish strawberries are relatively recent. In this study the effectiveness of augmentative biological control techniques to control the two main strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duchesne pest: the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, and the western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, through releases of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae, and Orius laevigatus (Fieber (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae were tested. Two-year results on the performance of treatments using combinations of these biocontrol agents are presented. In both years, all treatments resulted in the reduction of TSSM numbers; but no treatment was better than the release of P. persimilis alone (P < 0.05. TSSM suppression varied among crop phases being greater early in the season. None of the treatments reduced significantly WFT numbers (P < 0.05, and the established economic injury level (EIL was surpassed from March to late April in both years. However, EIL was surpassed less times when treatment included O. laevigatus (2009: 20.7%; 2010: 22.7% of samples. No effect of A. swirskii was observed when this mite was released. Results corroborate that biological control techniques for TSSM and WFT are feasible for high-plastic tunnel strawberries. Under the conditions in our study no additive effects were observed, and there was not advantage in the release of multiple natural enemies.

  4. Shallot Aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in Strawberry: Biocontrol Potential of Three Predators and Three Parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish assays, both Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and A. ervi Haliday readily stung shallot aphids, with no significant difference in stinging frequency between the two species. A. ervi induced a significantly higher mortality (79.0 ± 7.2%) in terms of stung aphids compared with A. colemani (55.3 ± 4.1%); however, only a minor fraction (2.7 ± 1.8% and 7.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) of the killed aphids resulted in formation of mummies, presumably due to a physiological response to parasitism. The low percentage of mummification precludes the use of either Aphidius species in anything but inundative biocontrol. In similar set-ups, Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) killed almost half (49.6 ± 5.3%) of the exposed aphids through host feeding. In addition, 23.2 ± 7.3% of non-host-fed aphids developed into mummified aphids, and 38.1 ± 13.2% of non-host-fed aphids died from other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Third instars of all 3 predators readily preyed upon the shallot aphid in Petri dish set-ups with significant differences in daily

  5. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry: biocontrol potential of three predators and three parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish assays, both Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) and A. ervi Haliday readily stung shallot aphids, with no significant difference in stinging frequency between the two species. A. ervi induced a significantly higher mortality (79.0 ± 7.2%) in terms of stung aphids compared with A. colemani (55.3 ± 4.1%); however, only a minor fraction (2.7 ± 1.8% and 7.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) of the killed aphids resulted in formation of mummies, presumably due to a physiological response to parasitism. The low percentage of mummification precludes the use of either Aphidius species in anything but inundative biocontrol. In similar set-ups, Aphelinus abdominalis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) killed almost half (49.6 ± 5.3%) of the exposed aphids through host feeding. In addition, 23.2 ± 7.3% of non-host-fed aphids developed into mummified aphids, and 38.1 ± 13.2% of non-host-fed aphids died from other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). Third instars of all 3 predators readily preyed upon the shallot aphid in Petri dish set-ups with significant differences in daily

  6. Growth and yield of strawberry plants fertilized with nitrogen and phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo F. Medeiros

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTStrawberry (Fragaria x ananassa is a crop that has rapid growth and is highly influenced by fertilization. Due to its development speed, the plant needs to absorb sufficient macronutrients in order to meet its demand. The objective of this research was to evaluate growth and yield of strawberry under different doses of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilization. The treatments, using Box's central composite design, were distributed in randomized blocks with four replicates and consisted of five N doses (0.16, 0.37, 0.88, 1.4 and 1.6 g plant-1 and five P doses (0.3, 0.58, 1.2, 1.8 and 2.1 g plant-1, in the presence (1.67 g plant-1 and absence of K. Seedlings of the cultivar 'Oso Grande' were cultivated in 10-L pots. The analysed variables were: plant height, fresh fruit mass, number of leaves, number of fruits, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fertilization with N and P increased the values for most of the studied variables. At the highest doses of N and P, K stimulated plant yield.

  7. Method for estimating leaf coverage in strawberry plants using digital image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Sandino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In farming the measurement of leaf coverage is considered as an exhaustive task for the researchers due to most of the time they do not have access to the adequate tool for this purpose. A new algorithm, implemented in this investigation, allows to estimate by means of a non-destructive method, the leaf coverage value of strawberry plants (fragaria x ananassa of the cultivar Albion in the Cajicá region, Colombia, by using digital image processing techniques ( DPI. The DPI based technique includes the smoothing, dilatation, contour detection, threshold and edges detection operations. The image acquisition system was conducted by means of photographic images in plants in study, directly from the beds of the crop and the captures were subsequently processed through the proposed algorithm. The obtained results show the measured values of the plants leaf coverage in cm2, with up to 90% of accuracy. This system gives an important contribution to the crop evolution analysis by computational tools, making easier the monitoring work.

  8. XTHs from Fragaria vesca: genomic structure and transcriptomic analysis in ripening fruit and other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo, María Cecilia; Lizana, Rodrigo; Stappung, Yazmina; Davis, Thomas M; Herrera, Raúl; Moya-León, María Alejandra

    2017-11-07

    Fragaria vesca or 'woodland strawberry' has emerged as an attractive model for the study of ripening of non-climacteric fruit. It has several advantages, such as its small genome and its diploidy. The recent availability of the complete sequence of its genome opens the possibility for further analysis and its use as a reference species. Fruit softening is a physiological event and involves many biochemical changes that take place at the final stages of fruit development; among them, the remodeling of cell walls by the action of a set of enzymes. Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is a cell wall-associated enzyme, which is encoded by a multigene family. Its action modifies the structure of xyloglucans, a diverse group of polysaccharides that crosslink with cellulose microfibrills, affecting therefore the functional structure of the cell wall. The aim of this work is to identify the XTH-encoding genes present in F. vesca and to determine its transcription level in ripening fruit. The search resulted in identification of 26 XTH-encoding genes named as FvXTHs. Genetic structure and phylogenetic analyses were performed allowing the classification of FvXTH genes into three phylogenetic groups: 17 in group I/II, 2 in group IIIA and 4 in group IIIB. Two sequences were included into the ancestral group. Through a comparative analysis, characteristic structural protein domains were found in FvXTH protein sequences. In complement, expression analyses of FvXTHs by qPCR were performed in fruit at different developmental and ripening stages, as well as, in other tissues. The results showed a diverse expression pattern of FvXTHs in several tissues, although most of them are highly expressed in roots. Their expression patterns are not related to their respective phylogenetic groups. In addition, most FvXTHs are expressed in ripe fruit, and interestingly, some of them (FvXTH 18 and 20, belonging to phylogenic group I/II, and FvXTH 25 and 26 to group IIIB) display an

  9. Strategies to enhance high pressure inactivation of murine norovirus in strawberry puree and on strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runze; Li, Xinhui; Huang, Yaoxin; Chen, Haiqiang

    2014-08-18

    Due to the increasing concern of viral infection related to berries, this study investigated strategies to enhance high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogate, on strawberries and in strawberry puree. Strawberry puree was inoculated with ~10(6)PFU/g of MNV-1 and treated at 350 MPa for 2 min at initial sample temperatures of 0, 5, 10 and 20°C. MNV-1 became more sensitive to HHP as initial sample temperature decreased from 20 to 0°C. To determine the effect of pressure cycling on MNV-1 inactivation, inoculated puree samples were treated at 300 MPa and 0°C with 1, 2 and 4 cycles. Pressure cycling offered no distinct advantage over continuous HHP treatment. To determine the effect of presence of water during HHP on MNV-1 inactivation, strawberries inoculated with ~ 4 × 10(5)PFU/g of MNV-1 were either pressure-treated directly (dry state) or immersed in water during pressure treatment. MNV-1 was very resistant to pressure under the dry state condition, but became sensitive to pressure under the wet state condition. The inactivation curves of MNV-1 in strawberry puree and on strawberries were obtained at 300 and 350 MPa and initial sample temperature of 0°C. Except for the curve of strawberries treated at 350 MPa which had a concave downward shape, the other three curves were almost linear with R(2) value of 0.99. The fate of MNV-1 in the un-treated and pressure-treated strawberries and strawberry puree during frozen storage was determined. The virus was relatively stable and only reduced by puree assuming that HuNoV behaved similarly to MNV-1 when treated by HHP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioinformatic Analysis of Strawberry GSTF12 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiran; Jiang, Leiyu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-01-01

    GSTF12 has always been known as a key factor of proanthocyanins accumulate in plant testa. Through bioinformatics analysis of the nucleotide and encoded protein sequence of GSTF12, it is more advantageous to the study of genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis accumulation pathway. Therefore, we chosen GSTF12 gene of 11 kinds species, downloaded their nucleotide and protein sequence from NCBI as the research object, found strawberry GSTF12 gene via bioinformation analyse, constructed phylogenetic tree. At the same time, we analysed the strawberry GSTF12 gene of physical and chemical properties and its protein structure and so on. The phylogenetic tree showed that Strawberry and petunia were closest relative. By the protein prediction, we found that the protein owed one proper signal peptide without obvious transmembrane regions.

  11. Comparative evaluation of post-column free radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays for screening of antioxidants in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudonis, Raimondas; Raudone, Lina; Jakstas, Valdas; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2012-04-13

    ABTS and FRAP post-column techniques evaluate the antioxidant characteristics of HPLC separated compounds with specific reagents. ABTS characterize their ability to scavenge free radicals by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in the absorbance decrease of the chromophoric radical. FRAP - is based on the reduction of Fe(III)-tripyridyltriazine complex to Fe(II)-tripyridyltriazine at low pH by electron-donating antioxidants, resulting in an absorbance increase. Both post-column assays were evaluated and compared according to the following validation parameters: specificity, precision, limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ) and linearity. ABTS and FRAP post-column assays were specific, repeatable and sensitive and thus can be used for the evaluation of antioxidant active compounds. Antioxidant active compounds were quantified according to TEAC for each assay and ABTS/FRAP ratio was derived. No previous records of antioxidative activity of leaves and fruits of strawberries (Fragaria viridis, Fragaria moschata) research have been found. The research results confirm the reliability of ABTS and FRAP post-column assays for screening of antioxidants in complex mixtures and the determination of radical scavenging and ferric reducing ability by their TEAC values. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sweet, red and Danish: New strawberry varieties on their way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Fjord, Thomas Ahle

    2000-01-01

    A strawberry isn't just a strawberry. Some are sweeter than others, more fragrant and juicier. It is therefore a difficult task to develop a strawberry that tastes like in childhood memories of endless sunny days, and which also is suitablefor the distribution system of today. But new varieties...... are on their way. And this time consumers have participated in the development process. The new strawberry varieties are the result of extensive product development in the research project 'Better Danish strawberries' in which the Danish Institute of Agricultural Science, Danish Fruit Growers' Association......, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration and MAPP participated. Danish strawberry growers initiated the project and the purpose is to assure the quality of strawberries and to improve the distribution and sale. In order to get consumers to evaluate both new and existing varieties the MAPP Centre carried...

  13. Effect van loofdoodmiddel op de overleving van Xanthomonas fragariae in ondergewerkte gewasresten van aardbei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, P.; Vries, de P.M.; Krijger, M.C.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2009-01-01

    De bacterie Xanthomonas fragariae veroorzaakt de bacteriebladvlekkenziekte in aardbei. De bacteriebladvlekkenziekte is een quarantaineziekte. Wanneer de ziekte voorkomt worden maatregelen getroffen om verspreiding te voorkomen. Het aangetaste gewas wordt doodgespoten met een herbicide en verbrand,

  14. A new approach for strawberry disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawberry is grown around the world in different production systems and diverse environmental conditions, which creates challenges in controlling fruit-rot causing pathogens before and after harvest. Fungicides have been traditionally used to control these diseases, and in some areas, as many as 2...

  15. Efficacy of highland production of strawberry transplants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of propagation environment (high and low elevation) on runner productivity and quality of 'Maehyang' and 'Red Pearl' strawberry cultivars. Two propagation methods (bare root plants and plug plants) were used for both environments. Regardless of cultivar or.

  16. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  17. Effect of hydro-ethanolic extracts of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L. on incidence and severity of Botrytis cinerea on strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazmiño-Miranda Pilar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of application of three dosages (5, 10 and 15 mL/L and two frequencies (each 6 and 8 days of ethanoic extracts obtained from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L. on incidence and severity of grey mould (Botrytis cinerea on strawberry crop (Fragaria ananassa cv. Albion was evaluated. Experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with factorial arrangement 2 x 3 x 2 + 1, with three replications. Lower incidence and severity percentage in flower and fruit (10.24 and 24.43%, respectively were observed after application of cinnamon extract at 15 mL/L at 6 days interval. Similarly, lower fruit severity (11.86% was observed with the same treatment. In general, reduction in B. cinerea incidence and severity was lower when common horsetail extract was used, compared to cinnamon extracts. According to our results, using of cinnamon hydro-ethanoic extracts could be considered as sustainable alternative for grey mold management in strawberry crops.

  18. Development of colour and firmness in strawberry crops is UV light sensitive, but colour is not a good predictor of several quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordidge, Matthew; García-Macías, Paulina; Battey, Nicholas H; Gordon, Michael H; John, Philip; Lovegrove, Julie A; Vysini, Eleni; Wagstaffe, Alexandra; Hadley, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne var. Elsanta) plants were grown in polytunnels covered with three polythene films that transmitted varying levels of ultraviolet (UV) light. Fruit were harvested under near-commercial conditions and quality and yield were measured. During ripening, changes in the colour parameters of individual fruit were monitored, and the accuracy of using surface colour to predict other quality parameters was determined by analysing the correlation between colour and quality parameters within UV treatments. Higher exposure to UV during growth resulted in the fruit becoming darker at harvest and developing surface colour more quickly; fruit were also firmer at harvest, but shelf life was not consistently affected by the UV regime. Surface colour measurements were poorly correlated to firmness, shelf life or total phenolics, anthocyanins and ellagic acid contents. Although surface colour of strawberry fruits was affected by the UV regime during growth, and this parameter is an important factor in consumer perception, we concluded that the surface colour at the time of harvest was, contrary to consumer expectations, a poor indicator of firmness, potential shelf life or anthocyanin content. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Can Mass Trapping Reduce Thrips Damage and Is It Economically Viable? Management of the Western Flower Thrips in Strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Clare; Kirk, William D. J.

    2013-01-01

    The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa). The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S)-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers. PMID:24282554

  20. Can mass trapping reduce thrips damage and is it economically viable? Management of the Western flower thrips in strawberry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Sampson

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is a cosmopolitan, polyphagous insect pest that causes bronzing to fruit of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa. The main aim of this study was to test whether mass trapping could reduce damage and to predict whether this approach would be economically viable. In semi-protected strawberry crops, mass trapping of F. occidentalis using blue sticky roller traps reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 61% and fruit bronzing by 55%. The addition of the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone, neryl (S-2-methylbutanoate, to the traps doubled the trap catch, reduced adult thrips numbers per flower by 73% and fruit bronzing by 68%. The factors affecting trapping efficiency through the season are discussed. Damage that would result in downgrading of fruit to a cheaper price occurred when bronzing affected about 10% of the red fruit surface. Cost-benefit analysis using this threshold showed that mass trapping of thrips using blue sticky roller traps can be cost-effective in high-value crops. The addition of blue sticky roller traps to an integrated pest management programme maintained thrips numbers below the damage threshold and increased grower returns by a conservative estimate of £2.2k per hectare. Further work is required to develop the F. occidentalis aggregation pheromone for mass trapping and to determine the best timing for trap deployment. Mass trapping of thrips is likely to be cost-effective in other countries and other high-value crops affected by F. occidentalis damage, such as cucumber and cut flowers.

  1. Temperature affects long-term productivity and quality attributes of day-neutral strawberry for a space life-support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D; Chase, Elaine; Santini, Judith B; Mitchell, Cary A

    2015-04-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa L.) is a promising candidate crop for space life-support systems with desirable sensory quality and health attributes. Day-neutral cultivars such as 'Seascape' are adaptable to a range of photoperiods, including short days that would save considerable energy for crop lighting without reductions in productivity or yield. Since photoperiod and temperature interact to affect strawberry growth and development, several diurnal temperature regimes were tested under a short photoperiod of 10 h per day for effects on yield and quality attributes of 'Seascape' strawberry during production cycles longer than 270 days. The coolest day/night temperature regime, 16°/8 °C, tended to produce smaller numbers of larger fruit than did the intermediate temperature range of 18°/10 °C or the warmest regime, 20°/12 °C, both of which produced similar larger numbers of smaller fruit. The intermediate temperature regime produced the highest total fresh mass of berries over an entire production cycle. Independent experiments examined either organoleptic or physicochemical quality attributes. Organoleptic evaluation indicated that fruit grown under the coolest temperature regime tended to score the highest for both hedonic preference and descriptive evaluation of sensory attributes related to sweetness, texture, aftertaste, and overall approval. The physicochemical quality attributes Brix, pH, and sugar/acid ratio were highest for fruits harvested from the coolest temperature regime and lower for those from the warmer temperature regimes. The cool-regime fruits also were lowest in titratable acidity. The yield parameters fruit number and size oscillated over the course of a production cycle, with a gradual decline in fruit size under all three temperature regimes. Brix and titratable acidity both decreased over time for all three temperature treatments, but sugar/acid ratio remained highest for the cool temperature regime over the entire production

  2. Effects of Insecticides on Strawberry Aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell on Resistant and Susceptible Strawberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell, is the most important vector ofstrawberry virus. Breeding of genotypes resistant to this pest is an important preventivecontrol measure, which can be compatible with rational insecticide application. The aimof the paper was to determine effects of dimethoate and deltamethrin on C. fragaefoliipopulations reared on two strawberry genotypes different in susceptibility: susceptiblestrawberry cultivar Čačanska rana and medium resistant hybrid, zf/1/94/96 (Senga Fructarinax Del Norte. Lower toxicity of deltamethrin was observed (laboratory assay as well aslower biological efficacy of dimethoate at lower concentrations (field trial for specimensfrom C. fragaefolii population reared on susceptible strawberry cultivar Čačanska rana.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Strawberry Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat TAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry drying was investigated experimentally and numerically in this study. In the experiments, samples of strawberry slices with 1 cm thicknesses were used to investigate the effect of the drying air velocity. 5-hour experiments were conducted for three different velocities (0.5, 1 and 2m/s at 70°C air temperature. It was observed that increasing the drying air velocity up to 2 m/s decreased the drying duration by 17% on average.  Moreover, the data obtained from the experimental study were compared to the numerical results. The results were found compatible with each other. Finally, the effect of air temperature and product thickness on drying was examined numerically.

  4. Effectiveness of mixtures of vivianite and organic materials in preventing iron chlorosis in strawberry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, A. de; Carmona, E.; Quintero, J. M.; Delgado, A.

    2013-05-01

    Application of Fe salts with different organic matter sources has been demonstrated to be effective in preventing Fe deficiency chlorosis. The main objective of this work was to study the effectiveness of different Fe sources based on mixtures of humic substances or compost with vivianite in preventing this nutritional disorder in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv Camarosa). To this end, a randomised block experiment involving four replications (3 plants per replication) and one factor (Fe source) was performed in a greenhouse using a calcareous growing medium. Iron sources studied were: (i) control without Fe, (ii) control with an effective Fe source in calcareous media (EDDHA-Fe, 0.1 g kg{sup -}1), (iii) vivianite (1 g kg{sup -}1 medium, which is the recommended rate), (iv) vivianite (1 g kg{sup -}1) + humic substances (HS 0.06 g kg{sup -}1), (v) vivianite (0.5 g kg{sup -}1) + HS (0.06 g kg{sup -}1) and (vi) a mixture of composted cork residue and vivianite at a 6:1 mass ratio (CORVIV) applied at a dose of 6 g kg-1 medium. All Fe sources were effective in increasing SPAD readings when compared with control without Fe. Treatments based on vivianite provided non-significantly different SPAD readings from that obtained with EDDHA-Fe. However, only CORVIV showed non-significantly different dry matter (DM) production, leaf area index, and total Fe content in the aerial part than EDDHA-Fe. Humic substances and vivianite at 1 g kg{sup -}1 increased DM yield in plants when compared with vivianite without HS, results with this last treatment being similar to those obtained with vivianite at 0.5 g kg–1 with HS. It can be concluded that studied sources of organic matter increased the efficiency of vivianite in preventing Fe chlorosis in strawberry, especially vivianite enriched cork compost which was as effective as EDDHA-Fe. (Author) 50 refs.

  5. Drying studies on peach and strawberry slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbu Clemensis Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were carried out on peach and strawberry slices using a laboratory scale tray dryer with chamber dimension 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm at temperatures of 50, 60, and 70°C for air flow velocities of 0.18, 0.22, and 0.26 m/s. The experimental data were found to fit well with the Page thin-layer drying model. Transport of water during drying was described by Fick’s second law of diffusion and the diffusion coefficients were 3.99, 5.37, and 7 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for peach and 5.39, 7.41, and 8.59 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for strawberry. Activation energy was determined to be 25.92 kJ/mol for peach and 21.49 kJ/mol for strawberry using Arrhenius-type equation.

  6. Influence of colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on three strawberry cultivars under salty conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Sinclair

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant adaptation to hyperosmotic environments is generally associated with reduced growth and ultimately yield loss, making farming difficult. The potential of mycorrhizal symbioses to alleviate salt stress has been documented and benefits to plant revealed to be specific and dependent to both plant cultivars and fungal strains.  A factorial greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the effects of three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF species (Funneliformis caledonius, F. mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis on three ‘day-neutral’ strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cultivars (‘Albion’, ‘Charlotte’ and ‘Seascape’, and a mixture of R. irregularis and F. mosseae on ‘Seascape’, under four salt conditions (0–200 mM NaCl.  The overall results showed that plant biomass decreased with increasing salinity.  The cultivars responded differently to both AMF and salinity, and ‘Seascape’ was more tolerant to salinity than the other cultivars.  AMF enhanced plant growth and improved salt tolerance by increasing the proportion of medium (0.51.5 mm diameter roots. The mixture of two AMF species increased root and shoot mass to a higher degree than each species alone at low salinity (0–50 mM but reduced fruit quality.  At higher levels (100–200 mM, R. irregularis alleviated salt stress and improved fruit quality to a higher degree than the other AMF species.  Our results support the use of bio-inoculants in saline horticultural areas.  Because cultivars respond differently to fungal inoculants, and inoculants prefer specific environmental conditions, fungal inoculants need to be screened on a cultivar- and condition-specific basis.

  7. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control.

  8. Strawberry Production in Soilless Substrate Troughs – Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilless substrates made of peat moss, coconut coir, perlite, rockwool or bark are pathogen free and they have been used in strawberry production in Europe in troughs or containers. Open field strawberry production in soilless substrate is new to California growers. The objective of this study was t...

  9. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control. After packaging, fruits were ...

  10. Hanseniaspora uvarum prolongs shelf life of strawberry via volatile production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Xiaojie; Xiao, Hongmei; Cheng, Xu; Zhou, Hailian; Si, Linyuan

    2017-01-01

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea led to severe postharvest losses for strawberry industry. In recent years, some studies have shown that postharvest diseases of strawberry can be controlled by using bacterial, fungal and yeast strains. The yeast strain Hanseniaspora uvarum was shown as an

  11. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  12. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  13. Biologia e tabela de vida de fertilidade de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em morangueiro e videira Biology, fertility life table and effect of insecticides on Spodoptera eridania (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in strawberry and grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Caroline Bortoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Spodoptera eridania foi estudada em laboratório (22±1ºC, UR 70±10%, fotofase de 14 horas, em folhas de morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' e videira (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo total foram, respectivamente, de 52,2±1,32 dias e 37,6% para morangueiro e 42,2±0,45 dias e 25,5% para videira. A razão sexual em morangueiro foi de 0,58, e 0,48 em videira. A longevidade média de machos e fêmeas em morangueiro foi de 16,3±1,16 e 15,8±1,85 dias, respectivamente, e 5,6±0,88 e 7,3±0,83 dias em videira. A fecundidade média total foi de 1.747,5±187,32 ovos por fêmea em morangueiro, e 1.764,9±289,04 em videira. A tabela de vida de fertilidade mostrou que a taxa líquida de reprodução e a razão finita de aumento foram de 394,89 e 1,10, respectivamente, para morangueiro, e de 213,98 e 1,12 para videira. As culturas do morangueiro cv. 'Aromas' e da videira cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' são hospedeiras favoráveis e equivalentes quanto ao potencial de crescimento populacional de S. eridania.The biology of Spodoptera eridania was studied in the laboratory (22±1ºC, RH 70±10%, 14 hours of photoperiod in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. 'Aromas' and grape (Vitis vinifera cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. The duration and viability of the entire cycle were respectively 52.2±1.32 days and 37.6% for strawberry and 42.2±0.45 days and 25.5% for grapes. The sex ratio in strawberry was 0.58 and 0.48 on grape. The average longevity of males and females in strawberry was 16.3±1.16 and 15.8±1.85 days, respectively, and 5.6±0.88 and 7.3±0.83 days in grape. The mean fecundity was 1,747.5±187.32 eggs per female in strawberry and 1,764.9±289.04 on grape. The life table of fertility showed that the net reproduction rate and finite rate of increase were 394.89 and 1.10, respectively, for strawberry and 213.98 and 1.12 for grapevine. Strawberry cv. 'Aromas' and grape cv

  14. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  15. Independent Preharvest Applications of Methyl Jasmonate and Chitosan Elicit Differential Upregulation of Defense-Related Genes with Reduced Incidence of Gray Mold Decay during Postharvest Storage of Fragaria chiloensis Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela M. Saavedra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis fruit has interesting organoleptic properties, but its postharvest life is affected by gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea. The effect of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA or chitosan on the molecular defense-related responses and protection against gray mold decay were investigated in Chilean strawberry fruit during postharvest storage. Specifically, we inoculated harvested fruit with B. cinerea spores and studied the expression of genes encoding for the pathogenesis-related (PR proteins β-1,3-glucanases (FcBG2-1, FcBG2-2 and FcBG2-3 and chitinases (FcCHI2-2 and FcCHI3-1, and for polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (FcPGIP1 and FcPGIP2 at 0, 2, 24, 48, and 72 h post inoculation (hpi. Remarkably, MeJA- and chitosan-treated fruit exhibited a lower incidence of B. cinerea infection than the control-treated at 48 and 72 hpi. At the molecular level, both are efficient elicitors for priming in F. chiloensis fruit since we observed an upregulation of the FcBG2-1, FcBG2-3, FcPGIP1, and FcPGIP2 at 0 hpi. Moreover, a chitosan-mediated upregulation of FcPGIPs at early times post inoculation (2–24 hpi and MeJA upregulated FcBGs (24–72 hpi and FcPGIP1 at later times could contribute to reduce B. cinerea incidence by differential upregulation of defense genes. We concluded that preharvest applications of MeJA or chitosan had a long-lasting effect on the reduction of B. cinerea incidence during postharvest as well as an enhancer effect on the induction of PR and PGIP gene expression.

  16. Independent Preharvest Applications of Methyl Jasmonate and Chitosan Elicit Differential Upregulation of Defense-Related Genes with Reduced Incidence of Gray Mold Decay during Postharvest Storage of Fragaria chiloensis Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Gabriela M; Sanfuentes, Eugenio; Figueroa, Pablo M; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2017-07-03

    The Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) fruit has interesting organoleptic properties, but its postharvest life is affected by gray mold decay caused by Botrytis cinerea. The effect of preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or chitosan on the molecular defense-related responses and protection against gray mold decay were investigated in Chilean strawberry fruit during postharvest storage. Specifically, we inoculated harvested fruit with B. cinerea spores and studied the expression of genes encoding for the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins β-1,3-glucanases (FcBG2-1, FcBG2-2 and FcBG2-3) and chitinases (FcCHI2-2 and FcCHI3-1), and for polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (FcPGIP1 and FcPGIP2) at 0, 2, 24, 48, and 72 h post inoculation (hpi). Remarkably, MeJA- and chitosan-treated fruit exhibited a lower incidence of B. cinerea infection than the control-treated at 48 and 72 hpi. At the molecular level, both are efficient elicitors for priming in F. chiloensis fruit since we observed an upregulation of the FcBG2-1, FcBG2-3, FcPGIP1, and FcPGIP2 at 0 hpi. Moreover, a chitosan-mediated upregulation of FcPGIPs at early times post inoculation (2-24 hpi) and MeJA upregulated FcBGs (24-72 hpi) and FcPGIP1 at later times could contribute to reduce B. cinerea incidence by differential upregulation of defense genes. We concluded that preharvest applications of MeJA or chitosan had a long-lasting effect on the reduction of B. cinerea incidence during postharvest as well as an enhancer effect on the induction of PR and PGIP gene expression.

  17. Efficacy of Insecticides for Control of Aphelenchoides fragariae and Ditylenchus dipsaci in Flowering Perennial Ornamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamondia, J A

    1999-12-01

    The effects of abamectin B1, diazinon, and methiocarb insecticides on Aphelenchoides fragariae and Ditylenchus dipsaci in Lamium maculatum, Phlox subulata, Rhododendron indicum, and Begonia x tuberhybrida were determined in a series of greenhouse experiments. Abamectin at 0.005 or 0.011 g a.i./liter (0.3 or 0.6 ml/liter Avid 0.15 EC), diazinon at 0.62 or 1.87 g a.i./liter (2.6 or 7.8 ml/liter KnoxOut GH), or methiocarb at 3.5 g a.i./liter (4.7 g/liter Mesurol) were applied in two to six weekly or biweekly applications to foliage until runoff. Diazinon and abamectin reduced both A. fragariae and D. dipsaci populations in Lamium and Phlox, especially after repeated applications. Diazinon was generally more effective than abamectin. While methiocarb reduced A. fragariae densities in Lamium, it was not as efficacious as diazinon or abamectin. Nematode populations varied widely between host plant species and over time. Management of high nematode populations was difficult, and none of the materials tested was effective against A. fragariae in azalea or begonia. Both abamectin and diazinon are currently registered for insect control in ornamentals and may be combined with cultural control tactics to manage foliar nematodes.

  18. Upregulation of pyrophosphate: fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) activity in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, C E; Groenewald, J-H; Kossmann, J; Cronjé, C; Bauer, R

    2011-08-01

    Pyrophosphate: fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) is a cytosolic enzyme catalyzing the first committed step in glycolysis by reversibly phosphorylating fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. The position of PFP in glycolytic and gluconeogenic metabolism, as well as activity patterns in ripening strawberry, suggest that the enzyme may influence carbohydrate allocation to sugars and organic acids. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate activates and tightly regulates PFP activity in plants and has hampered attempts to increase PFP activity through overexpression. Heterologous expression of a homodimeric isoform from Giardia lamblia, not regulated by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, was therefore employed to ensure in vivo increases in PFP activity. The coding sequence was placed into a constitutive expression cassette under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced into strawberry by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Heterologous expression of PFP resulted in an up to eightfold increase in total activity in ripe berries collected over two consecutive growing seasons. Total sugar and organic acid content of transgenic berries harvested during the first season were not affected when compared to the wild type, however, fructose content increased at the expense of sucrose. In the second season, total sugar content and composition remained unchanged while the citrate content increased slightly. Considering that PFP catalyses a reversible reaction, PFP activity appears to shift between gluconeogenic and glycolytic metabolism, depending on the metabolic status of the cell.

  19. The natural fenhexamid-resistant grey mould populations from strawberry in Zhejiang Province are dominated by Botrytis cinerea group S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dafang; Wu, Sisi; Liu, Na; Yin, Yanni; Ma, Zhonghua

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a novel clade Botrytis cinerea group S was found to be common in B. cinerea populations from Germany and New Zealand. Fenhexamid, an effective antibotrytis fungicide, has not been registered in China, but our preliminary study detected fenhexamid-resistant (HydR) isolates from strawberry in Zhejiang Province. Genetic identification of 639 B. cinerea isolates from strawberry found that 331 (62.9%) belonged to B. cinerea group S. The frequency of HydR isolates ranged from 0 to 37.5% among the nine locations. Of the 74 HydR isolates, 71 were B. cinerea group S and moderately resistant to fenhexamid (HydR). Seven new mutations S9G, P57A, P269L, V365A, E368D, E375K and A378T in the target gene erg27 were reported for the first time. Sixty-two (83.8%) HydR isolates simultaneously carried P57A and A378T mutations, and further transformation assays showed that integration of one copy of erg27(P57A) (,) (A378T) into a wild-type strain led to partial resistance. Detached fruit studies showed that fenhexamid at the recommended field rate could control the disease incited by moderately resistant isolates but not by highly resistant isolates. B. cinerea group S isolates are widespread in all strawberry-growing locations in Zhejiang Province. The natural HydR populations from strawberry are dominated by B. cinerea group S. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Financial results achieved in short-day strawberry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South-western Ontario's continental climate (short days, hot summers and very cold winters the matted-row system was the dominant production system to grow short-day strawberries. Varieties-staggered production (planting a combination of early, mid and late-season varieties provides strawberry harvest from five to seven weeks. Short-day strawberries are vegetative grown in the first year, and harvested for two consecutive years. The total cost of short-day strawberry production was 54,370 $CAD/ha. The production and harvest costs in the first and second years were 20,812 $CAD/ha and 16,930 $CAD/ ha, respectively, and accounted for 69.42% of the total. Pre-plans operations were the least expensive procedures costing 8.13%, while planting and care of young plants made up 22.45% of the total costs. The total income of growing short-day strawberries under a matted-row system was 76,671 $CAD/ha (the first and second production years 41,330 $CAD/ha and 35,341 $CAD/ha, respectively. The short-day strawberries in matted-row system, with average yield of 15,722 kg/ha, generated a net revenue of 22,300 $CAD/ha.

  1. Escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da mancha-de-micosferela em morangueiro Diagramatic scale to evaluate the mycosphaerella blight severity in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Miguel Mazaro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma escala diagramática com cinco níveis: 0,11; 0,51; 2,4; 10,2 e 34,9% foi desenvolvida e validada para quantificar a severidade da mancha-de-micosferela do morangueiro, causado por Mycosphaerella fragariae (Tul. Lin. A escala considerou os limites de severidade mínima e máxima da doença observados no campo e os níveis intermediários seguiram incrementos logarítmicos, obedecendo-se à "Lei do estímulo de Weber-Fechner". Inicialmente, a estimativa da severidade foi feita sem auxílio da escala em 30 folíolos com diferentes níveis de severidade, por sete indivíduos, sem experiência na avaliação da mancha-de-micosferela do morangueiro . Em seguida, os mesmos avaliadores utilizaram a escala diagramática proposta. As avaliações com a escala diagramática foram mais precisas e acuradas nas estimativas de todos os avaliadores, não ocorrendo erro sistemático na superestimativa ou subestimativa da doença entre estes. A escala diagramática proposta foi considerada adequada para estimar a severidade de mancha-de-micosferela em morangueiro.A diagramatic scale with five levels of disease severity: 0.11; 0.51; 2.4; 10.2 and 34.9% was developed and validated to assess mycosphaerella blight in strawberry, caused by Mycosphaerella fragariae. The scale was developed considering the maximum and minimum limits of disease severity observed in the field and the intermediate values followed logarithmic increments according to the "Stimulus Law by Weber-Fechner". Initially the estimates of severity were performed without the use of the scale in 30 leaves with different levels of severity. Validation was carried out by seven appraisers, without previous pratice in assessing mycosphaerella blight in strawberry. Then, the appraisers estimated the severity of the same leaves previously assessed using the proposed diagrammatic scale. Assessments with the diagrammatic scale were of great precision for all raters and did not constitute systematic

  2. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria de; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Prunus spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)...

  3. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Georg K S; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G

    2012-01-01

    Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1) if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2) if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  4. Organic farming improves pollination success in strawberries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg K S Andersson

    Full Text Available Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on pollination of strawberry plants focusing on (1 if pollination success was higher on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and (2 if there was a time lag from conversion to organic farming until an effect was manifested. We found that pollination success and the proportion of fully pollinated berries were higher on organic compared to conventional farms and this difference was already evident 2-4 years after conversion to organic farming. Our results suggest that conversion to organic farming may rapidly increase pollination success and hence benefit the ecosystem service of crop pollination regarding both yield quantity and quality.

  5. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  6. Genetic Analysis of Strawberry Fruit Aroma and Identification of O-Methyltransferase FaOMT as the Locus Controlling Natural Variation in Mesifurane Content1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Rambla, José-Luis; Cabeza, Amalia; Medina, Juan J.; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Botella, Miguel A.; Granell, Antonio; Amaya, Iraida

    2012-01-01

    Improvement of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit flavor is an important goal in breeding programs. To investigate genetic factors controlling this complex trait, a strawberry mapping population derived from genotype ‘1392’, selected for its superior flavor, and ‘232’ was profiled for volatile compounds over 4 years by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. More than 300 volatile compounds were detected, of which 87 were identified by comparison of mass spectrum and retention time to those of pure standards. Parental line ‘1392’ displayed higher volatile levels than ‘232’, and these and many other compounds with similar levels in both parents segregated in the progeny. Cluster analysis grouped the volatiles into distinct chemically related families and revealed a complex metabolic network underlying volatile production in strawberry fruit. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection was carried out over 3 years based on a double pseudo-testcross strategy. Seventy QTLs covering 48 different volatiles were detected, with several of them being stable over time and mapped as major QTLs. Loci controlling γ-decalactone and mesifurane content were mapped as qualitative traits. Using a candidate gene approach we have assigned genes that are likely responsible for several of the QTLs. As a proof of concept we show that one homoeolog of the O-methyltransferase gene (FaOMT) is the locus responsible for the natural variation of mesifurane content. Sequence analysis identified 30 bp in the promoter of this FaOMT homoeolog containing putative binding sites for basic/helix-loop-helix, MYB, and BZIP transcription factors. This polymorphism fully cosegregates with both the presence of mesifurane and the high expression of FaOMT during ripening. PMID:22474217

  7. Use of honeybees (Apis mellifera) to protect strawberry from grey mould (Botrytis cinerea)

    OpenAIRE

    Bevk, Danilo; Pirc, Manca; Dreo, Tanja; Treven, Vinko; Čokl, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    BICOPOLL is a CORE Organic II European project on protecting strawberries from its most important disease, the grey mould (Botrytis cinerea). Protective spores of fungi Gliocladium catenulatum in Prestop® Mix (PM) are delivered to the flowers of strawberry by honeybees. We assessed effectiveness of honeybees as vectors under field conditions. Flower visits of bees, and fruit yield were monitored and departing and returning bees and strawberry flowers were sampled. Bees visited strawberry flow...

  8. The role of profilin and lipid transfer protein in strawberry allergy in the Mediterranean area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, L.; Salentijn, E.; Rivas, M. F.; Mancebo, E. G.; Asero, R.; Matos, C. I.; Pelgrom, K. T. B.; Gilissen, L. J. W. J.; van Ree, R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to other Rosaceae fruit, only few cases of patients with adverse reactions to strawberry are listed in literature. OBJECTIVE To identify allergenic proteins in strawberry and to express and characterize recombinant strawberry lipid transfer protein (LTP; rFra a 3). METHODS:

  9. Wild Yam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laboratory into various steroids, such as estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The root and the bulb of the plant ... wild yam and diosgenin promoted as a “natural DHEA.” This is because in the laboratory DHEA is ...

  10. Characterization of FaSPT, a SPATULA gene encoding a bHLH transcriptional factor from the non-climacteric strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisza, Viktória; Kovács, László; Balogh, Andrea; Heszky, László; Kiss, Erzsébet

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors in essential physiological and developmental processes is well established. Although a lot of animal bHLH proteins were characterized functionally, much less bHLHs of plant origin have been studied so far. Using a cDNA-AFLP approach, a ripening-related SPATULA gene was identified from strawberry fruit (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.), which encodes a bHLH protein. It is an orthologue of an Arabidopsis SPATULA protein, which has an important role in carpel and fruit development. Our experiments revealed that FaSPT is repressed by auxin in green fruits, and shows different expression patterns in receptacles at various stages of fruit ripening by ethylene treatment. Moreover, we applied a reverse genetic tool to elucidate the in planta function of FaSPT in early fruit development. To our knowledge, this work is the first report for the characterization of a SPATULA gene from a non-climacteric fruit. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  12. Technological process for production of persimmon and strawberry vinegars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hidalgo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Hidalgo1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Ana Belen Cerezo2, Maria-Jesús Torija1, Albert Mas11Biotecnologia Enològica, Departament de Bioquimica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’Enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcel-li Domingo, Tarragona; 2Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, SpainAbstract: Fruit surplus is common in intensive agriculture in many countries. This ecologic and economic problem requires alternative uses to be found for fruit. The aim of this study was to use surplus fruit to produce vinegar by traditional methods (alcoholic fermentation and acetification from persimmon and strawberry. The process was performed with naturally occurring microorganisms and compared with inoculated commercial wine yeast for alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation proceeded faster when inoculated due to the length of the lag phases observed in spontaneous fermentations. The alcoholic fermentations of strawberry mash were faster than those of persimmon mash. In contrast, acetifications were much faster in persimmon (30 days than in strawberry (70 days, in the latter some acetifications were not finished. From the technologic point of view, to produce persimmon and strawberry wine and vinegar, it is better to avoid fruit pressing and perform the process with fruit mash. Inoculation is recommended for persimmon and is necessary for strawberry.Keywords: wine, vinegar, fruit seasonings, acetic acid bacteria

  13. Nutrient composition of strawberry genotypes cultivated in a horticulture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ashrafi; Begum, Parveen; Salma Zannat, M; Hafizur Rahman, Md; Ahsan, Monira; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-05-15

    This article decribes the nutrient composition of four strawberry genotypes cultivated at the Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University horticulture farm in Dhaka (Bangladesh). AOAC and standard validated methods were employed to analyse the nutrient composition. Protein, fat and ash contents were found to be vary significantly (LSD<0.05), while the variation in moisture (LSD<1.33), dietary fibre (LSD<0.15) and total sugar (LSD<0.09) were found to be insignificant among the genotypes. Vitamin C content ranged from 26.46 mg to 37.77 mg per 100g edible strawberries (LSD<0.060). Amount of carotenoids were found to be very low being in a range of 0.99-3.30 μg per 100g edible fruit. Analysis of mineral revealed that strawberry genotypes contained a wide array of minerals including Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe; most of which varied significantly (LSD<0.05) among the genotypes. Strawberries could be a potential dietary supplement for vitamin C along with minerals, particularly for the children who do not like local fruits, but love to eat the colourful strawberries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fruit and soil quality of organic and conventional strawberry agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reganold, John P; Andrews, Preston K; Reeve, Jennifer R; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Schadt, Christopher W; Alldredge, J Richard; Ross, Carolyn F; Davies, Neal M; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-09-01

    Sale of organic foods is one of the fastest growing market segments within the global food industry. People often buy organic food because they believe organic farms produce more nutritious and better tasting food from healthier soils. Here we tested if there are significant differences in fruit and soil quality from 13 pairs of commercial organic and conventional strawberry agroecosystems in California. At multiple sampling times for two years, we evaluated three varieties of strawberries for mineral elements, shelf life, phytochemical composition, and organoleptic properties. We also analyzed traditional soil properties and soil DNA using microarray technology. We found that the organic farms had strawberries with longer shelf life, greater dry matter, and higher antioxidant activity and concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, but lower concentrations of phosphorus and potassium. In one variety, sensory panels judged organic strawberries to be sweeter and have better flavor, overall acceptance, and appearance than their conventional counterparts. We also found the organically farmed soils to have more total carbon and nitrogen, greater microbial biomass and activity, and higher concentrations of micronutrients. Organically farmed soils also exhibited greater numbers of endemic genes and greater functional gene abundance and diversity for several biogeochemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and pesticide degradation. Our findings show that the organic strawberry farms produced higher quality fruit and that their higher quality soils may have greater microbial functional capability and resilience to stress. These findings justify additional investigations aimed at detecting and quantifying such effects and their interactions.

  15. Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Morais da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites.

  16. Effects of Lavender Essential Oil and Methyl Salicylate on Gray Mold Control and Postharvest Quality of Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Strawberry (fragaria×ananassa Duch. fruit characterized by short storage life, often estimated last less than one week even under optimum conditions at 8°C. The loss of fruit quality is often caused by gray mold (Botrytis cinerea that is the most frequent reported postharvest disease in strawberry during storage (6. In recent years, considerable attention has given to elimination of synthetic chemical and fungicides application and development of various alternative strategies for controlling fruit and vegetables diseases (2. One strategy is replacement of natural products with plant origin such as essential oil and methyl salicylate (MeSA. Essential oils are volatile, natural and complex compounds characterized by a strong odor formed by aromatic plants in form of secondary metabolites. In nature, essential similar oils that extract from lavender (Lavandula angustifolia play an important role in protection of the plants against pathogen incidence that can be replaced by synthetic fungicides (1, 4 and 14. MeSA is also a volatile natural compound synthesized from salicylic acid which has an important role in the plant defense-mechanism, as well as plant growth and development (5, 19 and 20. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to study the effects of MeSA and lavender essential oil (LEO on decay control caused by Botrytis cinerea as well as post-harvest quality indices of strawberry fruits during cold storage. Material and Methods: First, antifungal activity was studied by using a contact assay (in vitro, which produces hyphal growth inhibition. Briefly, potato dextrose agar (PDA plates were prepared using 8 cm diameter glass petri dishes and inhibitory percentage was determined. For in-vivo assessment of LEO and MeSA effects on Botrytis-caused fungal disease control, the experiment was conducted as factorial in completely randomized design (CRD with 3 replicates. The treatments were 3 concentration of LEO including

  17. Population Dynamics and Dispersal of Aphelenchoides fragariae in Nursery-grown Lantana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Lisa M.; Warfield, Colleen Y.; Benson, D. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Population dynamics of Aphelenchoides fragariae were assessed over three growing seasons and during overwintering for naturally-infected, container-grown lantana (Latana camara) plants in a North Carolina nursery. During the growing season, the foliar nematode population in symptomatic leaves peaked in July each year then remained above 100 nematodes/g fresh weight into late summer. Foliar nematodes were also detected in asymptomatic and abscised leaves. Results suggest that leaves infected with foliar nematodes first develop symptoms at populations of about 10 nematodes/g. Foliar nematodes were detected in symptomatic and asymptomatic plant leaves and in abscised leaves during overwintering in a polyhouse, but the number of infected plants was low. A steep disease gradient was found for infection of lantana plants by A. fragariae on a nursery pad with sprinkler irrigation. When the canopies of initially healthy plants were touching the canopies of an infected plants, 100% of the plants became infected within 11 wk, but only 5 to 10% became infected at a canopy distance of 30 cm. Overwintering of A. fragariae in infected plants and a steep disease gradient during the growing season suggests strict sanitation and an increase in plant spacing are needed to mitigate losses from this nematode pest. PMID:22736867

  18. The impact of freeze-drying on strawberry quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahacine Amrani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses and models the dehydration kinetics for whole and sliced strawberries during freeze-drying. A Virtis 35L Gardiner lyophyliser was used. Freeze-drying was carried out at various hotplate temperatures and several product thicknesses. It was observed that increasing hotplate temperature from 30°C to 70°C during the course of freeze-drying led to reducing the process from 48h to 36h for whole strawberries and from 12h to 8h for the slices, stable dry products being obtained. Studying several strawberry freeze -drying parameters showed that temperature has an important effect on reducing the process’ duration. It lowers the process’ cost whilst pre-serving dry fruit quality, thereby opening up the field by applying this technology to treating new food products.

  19. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  20. Down-regulation of the strawberry Bet v 1-homologous allergen in concert with the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in colorless strawberry mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Alm, Rikard; Canbäck, Björn

    2006-01-01

    to the nomenclature for allergen proteins, showed sequence identity of 54 and 77%, respectively, with corresponding allergens from birch and apple. Differential expression, as evaluated by 2-D DIGE, occurred in 10% of protein spots when red strawberries were compared to a colorless (white) strawberry mutant. White...... strawberries, known to be tolerated by individuals affected by allergy, were found to be virtually free from the strawberry allergen. Also several enzymes in the pathway for biosynthesis of flavonoids, to which the red color pelargonidin belongs, were down-regulated. This approach to assess differential...

  1. The Strawberry Tree Sample Tasting Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    The Strawberry Tree

    2017-01-01

    The only certified organic restaurant in Ireland, with a daily changing menu that reflects the seasons, and featuring the freshest organic and wild foods, many grown to order on nearby organic farms, or foraged by our own chefs and full time food forager, on the lanes and in the fields and woods surrounding Macreddin. Winner of the Best Leinster Restaurant 2010 and 2014. The innovative cuisine is matched by the dramatic surroundings, which includes a walk-in Wild Foods Pantry, featuring much ...

  2. The Strawberry Tree Big Harvest Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    The Strawberry Tree

    2017-01-01

    The only certified organic restaurant in Ireland, with a daily changing menu that reflects the seasons, and featuring the freshest organic and wild foods, many grown to order on nearby organic farms, or foraged by our own chefs and full time food forager, on the lanes and in the fields and woods surrounding Macreddin. Winner of the Best Leinster Restaurant 2010 and 2014. The innovative cuisine is matched by the dramatic surroundings, which includes a walk-in Wild Foods Pantry, featuring much ...

  3. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  4. Detection and tentative grouping of Strawberry crinkle virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerks, M.M.; Lindner, J.L.; Vasková, D.; Spak, J.; Thompson, J.R.; Jelkmann, W.; Schoen, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    A partial sequence of the putative polymerase (L) protein of Strawberry crinkle virus (SCV), genus Cytorhabdovirus, is described. The virus protein was found to be distantly related to the L protein of the rhabdoviruses Northern cereal mosaic virus, Rice yellow stunt virus and Sonchus yellow net

  5. Late-season nitrogen applications in high-latitude strawberry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... The influence of late-season nitrogen (N) applications on the fruiting pattern of strawberry runner plants of 'Camarosa' was determined over three growing seasons. Experiments were carried out in high- latitude nurseries in northern California and fruit production trials were established in southern.

  6. Response of strawberry quality and profitability to farmyard manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of strawberries in the tropics is partly limited by poor soil fertility, while profitability of different nutrient management strategies has not been established. The present study determined the effect of 0, 18, 36, and 54 t/ha farmyard manure (FYM) and triple super phosphate (TSP), equivalent to 0, 17, 34 and 68 kg/ha ...

  7. Current progress in trans- and cisgenic apple and strawberry Breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krens, F.A.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Schaart, J.; Schouten, H.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    2012-01-01

    A summary is presented of the state-of-the-art in apple and strawberry biotechnological research going on in the department of Plant Breeding at Wageningen University and Research Centre. In apple, the research directed towards the introduction of scab resistance by inserting a barley gene has

  8. Evaluating host resistance to Macrophomina crown rot in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrophomina crown rot, caused by the soilborne fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, is an emerging pathogen in California strawberry production. When established, the pathogen can cause extensive plant decline and mortality. Host resistance will be a critical tool for managing this disease and guiding ...

  9. Late-season nitrogen applications in high-latitude strawberry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of late-season nitrogen (N) applications on the fruiting pattern of strawberry runner plants of 'Camarosa' was determined over three growing seasons. Experiments were carried out in highlatitude nurseries in northern California and fruit production trials were established in southern California. A total of 80 ...

  10. Refining ASD for disease management in strawberry and apple production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been studied as an industry level option for replacing soil fumigants to manage soil-borne diseases in both annual and perennial crop production systems. Although ASD has proven effective for the suppression of certain soil-borne pathogens in both strawberry ...

  11. Efficacy of highland production of strawberry transplants | Ruan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of propagation environment (high and low elevation) on runner productivity and quality of 'Maehyang' and 'Red Pearl' strawberry cultivars. Two propagation methods (bare root plants and plug plants) were used for both environments. Regardless of cultivar or propagation ...

  12. Single-molecule sequencing and optical mapping yields an improved genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with chromosome-scale contiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although draft genomes are available for most agronomically important plant species, the majority are incomplete, highly fragmented, and often riddled with assembly and scaffolding errors. These assembly issues hinder advances in tool development for functional genomics and systems biology. Here we ...

  13. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonads Increases Anthocyanin Concentration in Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria x ananassa var. Selva) in Conditions of Reduced Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lingua, Guido; Bona, Elisa; Manassero, Paola; Marsano, Francesco; Todeschini, Valeria; Cantamessa, Simone; Copetta, Andrea; D'Agostino, Giovanni; Gamalero, Elisa; Berta, Graziella

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition...

  14. An Apple Fruit Fermentation (AFF) Treatment Improves the Composition of the Rhizosphere Microbial Community and Growth of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch ‘Benihoppe’) Seedlings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Jie; Pang, Hui; Ma, Mengxia; Bu, Yufen; Shao, Wei; Huang, Weijing; Ji, Qianlong; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

      Plant growth can be promoted by the application of apple fruit fermentation (AFF), despite unclear of the underlying mechanisms, the effects involved in AFF on rhizosphere microorganisms have been hypothesized...

  15. Wild immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Amy B; Babayan, Simon A

    2011-03-01

    In wild populations, individuals are regularly exposed to a wide range of pathogens. In this context, organisms must elicit and regulate effective immune responses to protect their health while avoiding immunopathology. However, most of our knowledge about the function and dynamics of immune responses comes from laboratory studies performed on inbred mice in highly controlled environments with limited exposure to infection. Natural populations, on the other hand, exhibit wide genetic and environmental diversity. We argue that now is the time for immunology to be taken into the wild. The goal of 'wild immunology' is to link immune phenotype with host fitness in natural environments. To achieve this requires relevant measures of immune responsiveness that are both applicable to the host-parasite interaction under study and robustly associated with measures of host and parasite fitness. Bringing immunology to nonmodel organisms and linking that knowledge host fitness, and ultimately population dynamics, will face difficult challenges, both technical (lack of reagents and annotated genomes) and statistical (variation among individuals and populations). However, the affordability of new genomic technologies will help immunologists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists work together to translate and test our current knowledge of immune mechanisms in natural systems. From this approach, ecologists will gain new insight into mechanisms relevant to host health and fitness, while immunologists will be given a measure of the real-world health impacts of the immune factors they study. Thus, wild immunology can be the missing link between laboratory-based immunology and human, wildlife and domesticated animal health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Saskatoon and wild blueberries have higher anthocyanin contents than other Manitoba berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, Farah S; Beta, Trust

    2007-12-26

    Studies have shown that anthocyanins present in berry fruits have some beneficial health effects such as reducing age-associated oxidative stress and possessing anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, six Manitoba berries (wild blueberry, Saskatoon berry, raspberry, chokecherry, strawberry, and seabuckthorn) were studied for their anthocyanin compositions (mg/100 g) on dry weight basis. Saskatoon berry and wild blueberry showed a high content of total anthocyanins (562.4 and 558.3 mg/100 g, respectively) that were not significantly (P>0.05) different from each other. The corresponding values for other berries: raspberry (365.2 mg/100 g), chokecherry (177.39 mg/100 g), and strawberry (97.5 mg/100 g) were significantly different from each other (Pblueberries have high potential value for fruit growers as well as the food and nutraceutical manufacturers because of their high anthocyanin contents.

  17. Up- and downregulation of Fragaria x ananassa O-methyltransferase: Impacts on Furanone and Phenylpropanoid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenbein, S.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Coiner, H.; Boone, M.J.; Krens, F.A.; Schwab, W.

    2006-01-01

    A complex mixture of hundreds of substances determines strawberry (Fragariaxananassa) aroma, but only 15 volatiles are considered as key flavour compounds. Of these, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) is regarded as the most important, but it is methylated further by FaOMT

  18. Fruit and soil quality of organic and conventional strawberry agroecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Reganold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sale of organic foods is one of the fastest growing market segments within the global food industry. People often buy organic food because they believe organic farms produce more nutritious and better tasting food from healthier soils. Here we tested if there are significant differences in fruit and soil quality from 13 pairs of commercial organic and conventional strawberry agroecosystems in California. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At multiple sampling times for two years, we evaluated three varieties of strawberries for mineral elements, shelf life, phytochemical composition, and organoleptic properties. We also analyzed traditional soil properties and soil DNA using microarray technology. We found that the organic farms had strawberries with longer shelf life, greater dry matter, and higher antioxidant activity and concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, but lower concentrations of phosphorus and potassium. In one variety, sensory panels judged organic strawberries to be sweeter and have better flavor, overall acceptance, and appearance than their conventional counterparts. We also found the organically farmed soils to have more total carbon and nitrogen, greater microbial biomass and activity, and higher concentrations of micronutrients. Organically farmed soils also exhibited greater numbers of endemic genes and greater functional gene abundance and diversity for several biogeochemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and pesticide degradation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that the organic strawberry farms produced higher quality fruit and that their higher quality soils may have greater microbial functional capability and resilience to stress. These findings justify additional investigations aimed at detecting and quantifying such effects and their interactions.

  19. Fruit and Soil Quality of Organic and Conventional Strawberry Agroecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reganold, John P. [Washington State University; Andrews, Preston K. [Washington State University; Reeve, Jennifer [Washington State University; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne [Washington State University; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Alldredge, J. Richard [Washington State University; Ross, Carolyn [Washington State University; Davies, Neil [Washington State University; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sale of organic foods is one of the fastest growing market segments within the global food industry. People often buy organic food because they believe organic farms produce more nutritious and better tasting food from healthier soils. Here we tested if there are significant differences in fruit and soil quality from 13 pairs of commercial organic and conventional strawberry agroecosystems in California. Methodology/Principal Findings: At multiple sampling times for two years, we evaluated three varieties of strawberries for mineral elements, shelf life, phytochemical composition, and organoleptic properties. We also analyzed traditional soil properties and soil DNA using microarray technology. We found that the organic farms had strawberries with longer shelf life, greater dry matter, and higher antioxidant activity and concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, but lower concentrations of phosphorus and potassium. In one variety, sensory panels judged organic strawberries to be sweeter and have better flavor, overall acceptance, and appearance than their conventional counterparts. We also found the organically farmed soils to have more total carbon and nitrogen, greater microbial biomass and activity, and higher concentrations of micronutrients. Organically farmed soils also exhibited greater numbers of endemic genes and greater functional gene abundance and diversity for several biogeochemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and pesticide degradation. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings show that the organic strawberry farms produced higher quality fruit and that their higher quality soils may have greater microbial functional capability and resilience to stress. These findings justify additional investigations aimed at detecting and quantifying such effects and their interactions.

  20. Fruit and Soil Quality of Organic and Conventional Strawberry Agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reganold, John P.; Andrews, Preston K.; Reeve, Jennifer R.; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynne; Schadt, Christopher W.; Alldredge, J. Richard; Ross, Carolyn F.; Davies, Neal M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-01-01

    Background Sale of organic foods is one of the fastest growing market segments within the global food industry. People often buy organic food because they believe organic farms produce more nutritious and better tasting food from healthier soils. Here we tested if there are significant differences in fruit and soil quality from 13 pairs of commercial organic and conventional strawberry agroecosystems in California. Methodology/Principal Findings At multiple sampling times for two years, we evaluated three varieties of strawberries for mineral elements, shelf life, phytochemical composition, and organoleptic properties. We also analyzed traditional soil properties and soil DNA using microarray technology. We found that the organic farms had strawberries with longer shelf life, greater dry matter, and higher antioxidant activity and concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, but lower concentrations of phosphorus and potassium. In one variety, sensory panels judged organic strawberries to be sweeter and have better flavor, overall acceptance, and appearance than their conventional counterparts. We also found the organically farmed soils to have more total carbon and nitrogen, greater microbial biomass and activity, and higher concentrations of micronutrients. Organically farmed soils also exhibited greater numbers of endemic genes and greater functional gene abundance and diversity for several biogeochemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and pesticide degradation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that the organic strawberry farms produced higher quality fruit and that their higher quality soils may have greater microbial functional capability and resilience to stress. These findings justify additional investigations aimed at detecting and quantifying such effects and their interactions. PMID:20824185

  1. HPLC-MSn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-12-15

    Berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. More than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with HPLC-MS(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, Japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog rose, Chinese and midland hawthorn, wild and cultivated species of blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and elderberry. The phenolic constituents and contents varied considerably among the analyzed berry species. Elderberry contained the highest amount of total flavonols (450-568 mgkg(-1) FW), followed by berry species, containing more than 200 mgkg(-1) FW of total: chokeberry (267mgkg(-1)), eastern shadbush (261 mgkg(-1)), wild grown blackberry (260 mgkg(-1)), rowanberry (232 mgkg(-1)), american cranberry (213 mgkg(-1)) and blackcurrants (204 mgkg(-1)). Strawberry (10.5 mgkg(-1)) and white currants (4.5 mgkg(-1)) contained the lowest amount of total flavonols. Quercetins represent the highest percentage (46-100%) among flavonols in most analyzed berries. In wild strawberry and gooseberry the prevailing flavonols belong to the group of isorhamnetins (50-62%) and kaempferols, which represent the major part of flavonols in currants (49-66%). Myricetin glycosides could only be detected in chokeberry, rowanberry and species from the Grossulariaceae, and Adoxaceae family and Vaccinium genus. Wild strawberry and blackberry contained from 3- to 5-fold higher total flavonols than the cultivated one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Light and abscisic acid independently regulated FaMYB10 in Fragaria × ananassa fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadomura-Ishikawa, Yasuko; Miyawaki, Katsuyuki; Takahashi, Akira; Masuda, Toshiya; Noji, Sumihare

    2015-04-01

    Light and ABA independently regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis via activation of FaMYB10 expression. FaMYB10 accelerated anthocyanin synthesis of pelargonidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside during strawberry fruit ripening. Light is an integral factor in fruit ripening. Ripening in non-climacteric fruit is also effected by the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). However, how light and/or ABA regulate fruit ripening processes, such as strawberry color development remains elusive. Results of the present study showed light and ABA regulated strawberry fruit coloration via activation of FaMYB10 expression, an R2R3 MYB transcription factor. Light exposure increased FaMYB10 transcript levels, flavonoid pathway genes, and anthocyanin content. Exogenous ABA promoted FaMYB10 expression, and anthocyanin content, accompanied by increased ABA-responsive transcript levels and flavonoid pathway genes. ABA biosynthesis inhibitor treatment, and RNAi-mediated down-regulation of the ABA biosynthetic gene (9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase: FaNCED1), and ABA receptor (magnesium chelatase H subunit: FaCHLH/ABAR) showed inverse ABA effects. Furthermore, additive effects were observed in anthocyanin accumulation under combined light and ABA, indicating independent light and ABA signaling pathways. FaMYB10 down-regulation by Agrobacterium-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) in strawberry fruits showed decreased pelargonidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside levels, accompanied by consistent flavonoid pathway gene expression levels. FaMYB10 over-expression showed opposite FaMYB10 RNAi phenotypes, particularly cyanidin 3-glucoside synthesis by FaMYB10, which was correlated with FaF3'H transcript levels. These data provided evidence that light and ABA promoted FaMYB10 expression, resulting in anthocyanin accumulation via acceleration of flavonoid pathway gene expression. Finally, our results suggested FaMYB10 serves a role as a signal transduction mediator from light and ABA perception

  3. Avaliação da biomassa foliar de morangueiro hidropônico em diferentes ambientes protegidos Leaf biomass evaluation of hydroponic strawberry in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se experimentos na Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola na Universidade Estadual de Campinas, utilizando quatro cultivares de morangueiro [Fragaria x ananassa (Weston Duchesne ex Rozier], quatro sistemas de produção hidropônica (canal de 100mm, canal de 150mm, canal de 150mm, com vaso contendo fibra de coco e tubo vertical contendo casca de arroz carbonizada e três ambientes protegidos (casa-de-vegetação sem resfriamento evaporativo do ar e sem injeção aérea de CO2, casa-de-vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e sem resfriamento evaporativo do ar e casa-de-vegetação com injeção aérea de CO2 e resfriamento evaporativo do ar. Foram avaliados os parâmetros foliares massa fresca foliar (MFF e massa seca foliar (MSF em gramas e área foliar (AF em mm², correlacionando à biomassa da planta. O melhor sistema foi o de canais de 150mm com vaso contendo fibra de coco. O melhor ambiente foi o de resfriamento evaporativo do ar e injeção aérea de CO2.Analyses were made in the experimental field of the Agricultural Engineering College at State University of Campinas (Unicamp. Four varieties of strawberry [Fragaria x ananassa (Weston Duchesne ex Rozier] were tested in four hydroponics production systems (100mm and 150mm channels and 150mm channel with a vase containing coconut fiber and a vertical pipe containing carbonized rice rusk. Three greenhouses were tested: i a greenhouse without air evaporative cooling nor CO2 aerial injection, ii a greenhouse with CO2 aerial injection and without air evaporative cooling and iii a greenhouse with CO2 aerial injection and air evaporative cooling. It was analyzed the leaf fresh (MFF and dry mass in gram (MSF and the leaf area in mm² (AF. The best hydroponics system was 150mm channel with a vase containing coconut fiber. The best environment condition was the one with air evaporative cooling and aerial injection of CO2.

  4. The Effect of Freezing and Hydrocolloids on the Physical Parameters of Strawberry Mass-Based Desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boča Sigita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of freezing, thickening and storage on the physical properties of the strawberry desserts made with addition of various hydrocolloids. The strawberry cultivars ‘Polka’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Senga Sengana’ harvested in Latvia were used in the study. The strawberries were processed in a blender for obtaining a homogenous mass. The strawberry mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at -18 °C. Both fresh and frozen strawberry mass samples with added gelatine, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were whisked until obtaining dessert. For determination of the optimum hydrocolloid amount, sensory evaluation was done using a five-point hedonic scale. Moisture, soluble solids content, density, and pH of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Consistency of the dessert during its storage was evaluated using a texture analyser TA.XT.plus. The results of sensory evaluation allow concluding that in order to provide the most acceptable consistency, colour, and taste of strawberry dessert, the optimum quantity of carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum to be added is 0.6% and that of gelatine is 6%. During freezing, the soluble solids content and pH level decreased in the strawberry mass, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased these values. The moisture content in strawberry puree, in its turn, as a result of freezing increased under the influence of syneresis, but added hydrocolloids, on the contrary, decreased this influence. Also the viscosity and consistency of the strawberry puree prepared from the researched cultivars decreased under the influence of freezing, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased both the values, making the strawberry dessert firmer. The research suggests that strawberry dessert with gelatine had the most pronounced changes during storage, but strawberry dessert with added xanthan

  5. Inoculation of drought-stressed strawberry with a mixed inoculum of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: effects on population dynamics of fungal species in roots and consequential plant tolerance to water deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Louisa Robinson; Brain, Philip; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Jeffries, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The effect of inoculation with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and drought tolerance of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) was studied. Three treatments (a single treatment either of Funneliformis mosseae BEG25, Funneliformis geosporus BEG11 or a 50:50 mixed inoculation treatment of both species) were compared to uninoculated plants. Species-specific primers for qPCR quantification of F. geosporus and F. mosseae DNA were developed to quantify the relative abundance of each fungus in roots of strawberry under different conditions of water stress. Co-occupation of the same root by both species was shown to commonly occur, but their relative abundance varied with water stress (reduced irrigation of up to 40%). Greater root colonisation was observed microscopically under water stress, but this increased colonisation was often accompanied with decreased amounts of fungal DNA in the root. F. mosseae tended to become more abundant under water stress relative to F. geosporus. There was significant correlation in the fungal colonisation measurements from the microscopic and qPCR methods under some conditions, but the nature of this relationship varied greatly with AMF inoculum and abiotic conditions. Single-species inoculation treatments gave similar benefits to the host to the mixed inoculation treatment regardless of irrigation regime; here, amount of colonisation was of greater importance than functional diversity. The addition of AMF inocula to plants subjected to reduced irrigation restored plant growth to the same or higher values as the non-mycorrhizal, fully-watered plants. The water use efficiency of plants was greater under the regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regime and in AMF-inoculated plants, but there were no significant differences between plants inoculated with the single or combined inoculum. This study demonstrated that the increase in plant growth was directly influenced by an increase in root colonisation by AMF when

  6. Elemental composition of strawberry plants inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, assessed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, M F; Lovaisa, N C; Salazar, S M; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2014-07-01

    The elemental composition of strawberry plants (Fragaria ananassa cv. Macarena) inoculated with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense REC3, and non-inoculated controls, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. This allowed simultaneous semi-quantification of different elements in a small, solid sample. Plants were inoculated and grown hydroponically in 50% or 100% Hoagland solution, corresponding to limited or optimum nutrient medium, respectively. Bacteria-inoculated plants increased the growth index 45% and 80% compared to controls when grown in 100% and 50% Hoagland solution, respectively. Thus, inoculation with A. brasilense REC3 in a nutrient-limited medium had the strongest effect in terms of increasing both shoot and root biomass and growth index, as already described for Azospirillum inoculated into nutrient-poor soils. SEM-EDS spectra and maps showed the elemental composition and relative distribution of nutrients in strawberry tissues. Leaves contained C, O, N, Na, P, K, Ca and Cu, while roots also had Si and Cl. The organic fraction (C, O and N) accounted for over 96.3% of the total chemical composition; of the mineral fraction, Na had higher accumulation in both leaves and roots. Azospirillum-inoculated and control plants had similar elemental quantities; however, in bacteria-inoculated roots, P was significantly increased (34.33%), which constitutes a major benefit for plant nutrition, while Cu content decreased (35.16%). © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. The development and mapping of functional markers in Fragaria and their transferability and potential for mapping in other genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, D J; Rys, A; Nier, S; Simpson, D W; Tobutt, K R

    2007-01-01

    We have developed 46 primer pairs from exon sequences flanking polymorphic introns of 23 Fragaria gene sequences and one Malus sequence deposited in the EMBL database. Sequencing of a set of the PCR products amplified with the novel primer pairs in diploid Fragaria showed the products to be homologous to the sequences from which the primers were originally designed. By scoring the segregation of the 24 genes in two diploid Fragaria progenies FV x FN (F. vesca x F. nubicola F(2)) and 815 x 903BC (F. vesca x F. viridis BC(1)) 29 genetic loci at discrete positions on the seven linkage groups previously characterised could be mapped, bringing to 35 the total number of known function genes mapped in Fragaria. Twenty primer pairs, representing 14 genes, amplified a product of the expected size in both Malus and Prunus. To demonstrate the applicability of these gene-specific loci to comparative mapping in Rosaceae, five markers that displayed clear polymorphism between the parents of a Malus and a Prunus mapping population were selected. The markers were then scored and mapped in at least one of the two additional progenies.

  8. Strawberry yield efficiency and its correlation with temperature and solar radiation Eficiencia de la producción de fresa y su correlación con la temperatura y la radiación solar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Palencia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact that future climatic conditions will have on agricultural productivity depends on the sensitivity to each environmental factor and relative changes in temperature, precipitation and UV-B radiation. The strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa is a microclimatic crop cultivated almost worldwide and Spain is the world's second-largest strawberry producer after the USA. Strawberry production in Huelva has been affected by climate change in recent decades. Temperature and solar radiation are primary environmental factors controlling short-day strawberry plant growth and development. Temperature is a limiting factor in crop productivity. We assessed the effect of variations in temperature and solar radiation on strawberry production and crop cycle duration. The study was carried out in commercial strawberry fruit production fields in the province of Huelva (Spain's southwestern coast. Fresh plants of cv. Camarosa were cultivated from October to June. The resulting crop was recorded weekly in the production field: early and total strawberry productions (g/plant, were recorded from January to March and from January to May, respectively. Data revealed that between early production and temperature (R²= 0.86 and between early production and solar radiation (R²= 0.73 there was a linear relationship. However, total production and temperature (R²= 0.69 and total production and solar radiation (R²= 0.69 were related by a quadratic relationship. Our estimates suggest that strawberry production could be affected by climate change. Due to the relationship between yield and temperature, and between yield and solar radiation, climate change scenarios were found to result in reductions in crop cycle duration.El impacto que las condiciones climáticas futuras tendrán en la productividad agrícola, depende de la sensibilidad de cada factor ambiental y de los cambios relativos en la temperatura, precipitación y radiación UV-B. La fresa (Fragaria x ananassa es

  9. Effect of Vermicompost on Nitrate Leaching and Strawberry Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, A. P.; Verma, P.; Appel, C.; Stubler, C.; Yost, J.; Hurley, S.

    2016-12-01

    The use of vermicompost is suggested as a method to reduce nitrogen losses in crop production; however, it is unclear whether and how vermicompost can affect water quality after a significant irrigation or rainfall event. The objectives of this experiment were to: a) determine the concentration of nitrate-nitrogen in drainage water from vermicompost-amended media planted with strawberry in a greenhouse setting and b) determine vegetative biomass of strawberry grown in vermicompost-amended media. Bare-root strawberry plugs were grown in one-gallon plastic pots. The treatments consisted of two media: 1) a peat:perlite soil-less mix and 2) a fine sand soil with three levels of dairy manure vermicompost addition: 0%, 10%, 25% by weight, and a biweekly synthetic fertilizer treatment of 150 mg N-P-K L-1 evaluated in a full factorial randomized block design. Drainage water from each plant was collected for 18 weeks and analyzed for NO3- concentration. High (1000-5000 mg l-1) amounts of NO3- leaching in vermicompost -amended media were observed during the first two weeks of drainage collection relative to non vermicompost-amended media. Plants grown with vermicompost at 25% with synthetic fertilizer had the highest above-ground vegetative biomass (15.3 g) relative to plants with synthetic fertilizer alone (5.3 g). These data suggest vermicompost addition rates of 10% and 25% by weight promote high vegetative biomass in greenhouse strawberry but may facilitate high nitrate leaching, which can negatively affect water quality and environmental health.

  10. Evaluation of strawberry varieties in hydroponics systems in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Costaz, E; Leal, PM

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were accomplished in the experimental field of the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering at State University of Campinas (Unicamp). Four varieties of strawberry were tested (Campinas, Seascape, Sweet Charlie and Tudla) in four hydroponics production systems (100mm and 150mm channels and 150mm channel with a vase containing coconut fiber and a vertical pipe containing carbonized rice skin) in three greenhouses with different technical: i) greenhouse without air evaporative cooling no...

  11. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S. E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Sontag, G

    2003-06-01

    In unirradiated strawberries four phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), the flavonoids (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and glycosides from kaempferol and quercetin were determined by reversed phase chromatography with diode array detection. Characteristic linear dose/concentration relationships were found for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and two unidentified compounds. One of them may be usable as marker to prove an irradiation treatment.

  12. 78 FR 13304 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... permits for the importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. Based... weeds via the importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: February 27, 2013...

  13. [Disinfection treatment for lettuces (Lactuca sativa) and strawberries (Fragatia Chiloensis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, L; Romero, J; Ureta, F

    2001-12-01

    The disinfection of vegetables and fruits is a treatment applied in order to reduce their natural contamination or processes to the product along the different steps of the food chain until its consumption. In the present work the effect of two disinfectants products was studied: grapefruit seed extract (400 ppm) for 10 min and peracetic acid (2000 ppm) for 1 min (action times assayed according to the manufacturer recommendations) and other additional times. The germicidal action was carried out against the natural contaminants of lettuces and strawberries, through the determination of the germicidal efficiency (%). Treated and untreated strawberries were also evaluated for flavor changes through a sensorial difference test, triangular test. None of the assayed products reached the 99.999% destruction of the natural contaminants according to the Chambers test. Peracetic acid was the most effective disinfectant, reaching the highest destruction percentages at a time lower than that for grapefruit seed extract. Sensory analysis showed no significant differences (p = .05) between strawberries with and without disinfection treatments, at the conditions suggested by the manufacturer.

  14. Influence of silicon on production and fruit quality of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Souza Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the culture of strawberries is an important activity for small and medium farmers. Among the important factors for culture is fertilization, which can interfere in production and fruit quality. Silicon (Si is one of the little studied in fertilization, which demonstrated some beneficial to several different cultures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Si on production and concentration of anthocyanin and titratable acid in the fruit and reading SPAD (chlorophyll in the leaves of the strawberry. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using pots containing 14.5 kg of limed soil, fertilized and three plants (cultivar Milsei Tudla were transplanted to pots. Treatments consisted of application of Si at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 rates, via soil or foliar. During this experiment the reading of SPAD (chlorophyll and the end of the experiment, the shoots was collected, dried, weighed, ground and analyzed by content and accumulation Si. The fruits were weighed and analyzed the concentration of anthocyanin, titratable acidity and Si concentration. The fertilization with Si, via soil or foliar applied, contributed to the increase in fruit production, especially with the application via soil. Applying foliar or soil promoted an increase in the values of titratable acidity and anthocyanins. Rates of Si via soil or foliar applied influenced the reading SPAD (chlorophyll, in the leaves. The Si independent of the form of application promoted improvements in strawberry crop.

  15. Greenhouse strawberry production in Iran, efficient or inefficient in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaeian, N.; Omid, M.; Ahmadi, H. [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    This paper attempts to identify origins of inefficient used resource for greenhouse strawberry production in Tehran. A nonparametric method, data envelopment analysis (DEA), was used to study the technical efficiency of producers with regard to effective energy utilization on strawberry yield. Data for the production of strawberries were collected from 25 greenhouses by using a face-to-face questionnaire method. Both constant and variable returns to scale DEA models were used to evaluate and rank technical efficiency of greenhouses based on four energy inputs: fertilizer, human labor, diesel fuel, and electricity. Pure technical efficiency specification shows that 10 greenhouses are producing at an efficient scale. The study has also helped to segregate efficient greenhouses from inefficient ones to get insights into the performance of individual producers, to identify wasteful uses of energy, and to suggest reasonable savings in energy uses from different sources. The results reveal that, on an average, about 16% of the total input energy could be saved if the producers follow the input package recommended by the study. The results of analysis show that DEA is a pivotal tool for analyzing productive efficiency of agricultural units.

  16. Abscisic acid perception and signaling transduction in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunli; Jia, Haifeng; Chai, Yemao; Shen, Yuanyue

    2011-01-01

    On basis of fruit differential respiration and ethylene effects, climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have been classically defined. Over the past decades, the molecular mechanisms of climacteric fruit ripening were abundantly described and found to focus on ethylene perception and signaling transduction. In contrast, until our most recent breakthroughs, much progress has been made toward understanding the signaling perception and transduction mechanisms for abscisic acid (ABA) in strawberry, a model for non-climacteric fruit ripening. Our reports not only have provided several lines of strong evidences for ABA-regulated ripening of strawberry fruit, but also have demonstrated that homology proteins of Arabidopsis ABA receptors, including PYR/PYL/RCAR and ABAR/CHLH, act as positive regulators of ripening in response to ABA. These receptors also trigger a set of ABA downstream signaling components, and determine significant changes in the expression levels of both sugar and pigment metabolism-related genes that are closely associated with ripening. Soluble sugars, especially sucrose, may act as a signal molecular to trigger ABA accumulation through an enzymatic action of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (FaNCED1). This mini-review offers an overview of these processes and also outlines the possible, molecular mechanisms for ABA in the regulation of strawberry fruit ripening through the ABA receptors. PMID:22095148

  17. Structural basis for the enzymatic formation of the key strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefner, André; Sinz, Quirin; Neumaier, Irmgard; Schwab, Wilfried; Skerra, Arne

    2013-06-07

    The last step in the biosynthetic route to the key strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF) is catalyzed by Fragaria x ananassa enone oxidoreductase (FaEO), earlier putatively assigned as quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The ripening-induced enzyme catalyzes the reduction of the exocyclic double bond of the highly reactive precursor 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone (HMMF) in a NAD(P)H-dependent manner. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of this peculiar reaction, we determined the crystal structure of FaEO in six different states or complexes at resolutions of ≤1.6 Å, including those with HDMF as well as three distinct substrate analogs. Our crystallographic analysis revealed a monomeric enzyme whose active site is largely determined by the bound NAD(P)H cofactor, which is embedded in a Rossmann-fold. Considering that the quasi-symmetric enolic reaction product HDMF is prone to extensive tautomerization, whereas its precursor HMMF is chemically labile in aqueous solution, we used the asymmetric and more stable surrogate product 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (EHMF) and the corresponding substrate (2E)-ethylidene-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (EDHMF) to study their enzyme complexes as well. Together with deuterium-labeling experiments of EDHMF reduction by [4R-(2)H]NADH and chiral-phase analysis of the reaction product EHMF, our data show that the 4R-hydride of NAD(P)H is transferred to the unsaturated exocyclic C6 carbon of HMMF, resulting in a cyclic achiral enolate intermediate that subsequently becomes protonated, eventually leading to HDMF. Apart from elucidating this important reaction of the plant secondary metabolism our study provides a foundation for protein engineering of enone oxidoreductases and their application in biocatalytic processes.

  18. Strawberry: Fast and accurate genome-guided transcript reconstruction and quantification from RNA-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolin Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method and software tool, Strawberry, for transcript reconstruction and quantification from RNA-Seq data under the guidance of genome alignment and independent of gene annotation. Strawberry consists of two modules: assembly and quantification. The novelty of Strawberry is that the two modules use different optimization frameworks but utilize the same data graph structure, which allows a highly efficient, expandable and accurate algorithm for dealing large data. The assembly module parses aligned reads into splicing graphs, and uses network flow algorithms to select the most likely transcripts. The quantification module uses a latent class model to assign read counts from the nodes of splicing graphs to transcripts. Strawberry simultaneously estimates the transcript abundances and corrects for sequencing bias through an EM algorithm. Based on simulations, Strawberry outperforms Cufflinks and StringTie in terms of both assembly and quantification accuracies. Under the evaluation of a real data set, the estimated transcript expression by Strawberry has the highest correlation with Nanostring probe counts, an independent experiment measure for transcript expression.Strawberry is written in C++14, and is available as open source software at https://github.com/ruolin/strawberry under the MIT license.

  19. Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of strawberry puree by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in a pilot plant system has never been evaluated. In addition, a method does not exist to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during PEF processing. Both buffered peptone water (BPW) and fresh strawberry puree (...

  20. Biological control of gray mold with ulocladium atrum in annual strawberry crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, P.; Köhl, J.; Jansen, M.L.E.; Horsten, P.J.F.M.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Gerlagh, de M.

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of the fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum to control gray mold in annual strawberry crops using waiting-bed transplants under field conditions was investigated. Seven field experiments were conducted with strawberry cv. Elsanta during the summer seasons of 1996-99 in the Netherlands.

  1. CATT as a non-chemical pest and nematode control method in strawberry mohter planting stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Hoek, J.; Verschoor, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Until 2008 methyl bromide (MeBr) was used in The Netherlands for fumigation of strawberry runners, intended as mother planting stock, to make them free of contamination by strawberry tarsonemid mites (Phytonemus pallidus). As an alternative of MeBr fumigation a 48 h CATT method was developed and

  2. Processing factors and variability of pyrimethanil, fenhexamid and tolylfluanid in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Granby, Kit; Rabølle, M.

    2003-01-01

    An HPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of three pesticides in strawberries was developed and validated. Recoveries were measured at three spiking levels and ranged from 85 to 99% (mean recoveries). The effects of processing of strawberries ranging from rinsing to jam production were investigated...

  3. DNA tests for strawberry: mesifurane "sherry" aroma - FaOMT-SI/NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amazing flavor and texture in strawberries is caused by a complex balance of numerous sugars and aromatic compounds. One of the most important aromatic compounds contributing to the flavor we have come to love in strawberries is mesifurane. Mesifurane produces a sweet sherry-like aroma and incre...

  4. Towards the production of genetically modified strawberries which are acceptable to consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Kjellsen, T.D.; Heggem, R.; Iversen, T.H.; Schouten, H.J.; Krens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript discusses different aspects that are relevant to genetically modified strawberry plants with improved characteristics and ‘acceptable’ to consumers and growers of strawberry. It starts with a consumer acceptance survey, held in Norway, Denmark and the UK, studying public perception

  5. Towards consumer-friendly cisgenic strawberries which are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of genetically modified (GM) strawberries which are less susceptible to fruit rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. To achieve Botrytis resistance, a polygalacuronase inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene has been isolation from strawberry and was characterised.

  6. Modelling the colour of strawberry spread during storage, including effects of technical variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadivec, Mirta; Tijskens, Pol; Kopjar, Mirela; Simčič, Marjan; Požrl, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    The colour of freshly processed strawberry spread changes relatively rapidly from a bright red to a dull red, which then makes its appearance generally less acceptable for consumers. The colours of strawberry spreads following several processing conditions were measured under different storage

  7. Review of Factors Affecting Organogenesis, Somatic Embryogenesis and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husaini, A.M.; Mercado, J.A.; Abdin, M.Z.; Teixeira da Silva, J.A.; Schaart, J.

    2011-01-01

    Invited Review: Standardization of an efficient regeneration system for each strawberry genotype is generally an indispensible pre-requisite for the successful development of transgenic plants. In this paper, we review some key factors affecting the regeneration of strawberry plants via adventitious

  8. Virus outbreak in several Nova Scotia strawberry nurseries affects fruit growers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many strawberry plants grown in eastern Canada are destined for fruit growers in the United States. For early season production, strawberry plants are grown in Canada to get early chilling required for flower bud initiation and then the plants are dug and shipped to the southeastern United States. ...

  9. [Common presence on strawberries of ascospores of Byssochlamys nivea capable of producing patulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percebois, G; Basile, A M; Schwertz, A

    1975-12-23

    Tha auteurs have obtained a strain of Byssochlamys nivea from heat processed strawberries. The mold grown on synthetic media shows antibiotic properties. The metabolite responsible is patulin which has been purified and characterized. Several strains of B. nivea produced this mycotoxin. Patulin seems to be stable in strawberries juice.

  10. Manipulating transplant morphology to advance post-transplant growth and yield in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekie, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Two methods were developed to enhance transplant success and minimize water use of strawberry transplants harvested in Canadian nurseries for use in the annual strawberry production system in the Southern United States: mechanical leaf removal by mowing, and chemical control of growth and

  11. Gain and loss of fruit flavour compounds produced by wild and cultivated strawberry species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Giri, A.P.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bertea, C.M.; Sevenier, R.E.; Sun, Z.; Jongsma, M.A.; Schwab, W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The blends of flavor compounds produced by fruits serve as biological perfumes used to attract living creatures, including humans. They include hundreds of metabolites and vary in their characteristic fruit flavor composition. The molecular mechanisms by which fruit flavor and aroma compounds are

  12. Effect of ultrasonic and osmotic dehydration pre-treatments on the colour of freeze dried strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Noguera, Juan; Oliveira, Francisca I P; Weller, Curtis L; Rodrigues, Sueli; Fernandes, Fabiano A N

    2014-09-01

    The effect of pre-treatments on the colour of freeze-dried strawberries was studied. Strawberries were subjected to different ultrasound and osmotic dehydration conditions followed by freeze-drying. Two concentration levels of sucrose solution (25 and 50 % w/w) and four levels of processing time (from 10 min to 45 min) were studied. Also, ultrasound application without using an osmotic solution was studied. Colour was quantified with a colorimetric analysis (CIE LCh). Sonicated strawberries presented higher lightness (L) and lower hue (h) than fresh and non-treated strawberries (control samples). The sonicated and osmo-sonicated strawberries have presented a more reddish and vivid colour then the control samples.

  13. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  14. Ocorrência do vírus do mosqueado do morangueiro no estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the strawberry mottle virus in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria B. Carvalho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a ocorrência de estirpes do vírus do grupo denominado mosqueado («strawberry mottle» em plantações de morangueiro no Estado de São Paulo. Variedades antigas, como a Dr. Morère. acham-se totalmente infetatas. sendo portadoras sem sintomas. Alguns clones novos plantados apenas por poucos anos em campo, já se acham parcialmente infetados, indicando que há transmissão da moléstia sob condições naturais. Sintomas de palidez das nervuras, mosqueado, paralisação no crescimento e encrespamento são apresentados por plantas de Fragaria vesca infetadas pelos vírus dêsse grupo. Numerosas espécies de plantas-teste habituais foram inoculadas com diferentes isolados do vírus, por meio do vetor, mas os resultados foram geralmente negativos. Afídios virulíferos, colonizados sôbre plantas novas de Cassia accidentalis, Chenopodiam quinoa, Leonotis nepaetifolia e Leonurus sibiricus. induziram o aparecimento de sintomas. Não se conseguiu retransmitir o vírus dessas espécies para F. vesca, existindo, portanto, dúvidas sôbre a verdadeira identidade do vírus que infetava tais plantas. O vírus do mosqueado não foi aparentemente transmitido pela semente. Também não se mostrou transmissível mecânicamente para Frogaria vesca. O virus obtido por inoculação com o vetor em Chenopodium quinoa e que se supõe ser o do mosqueado, pôde se transmitido mecânicamente de C. quinoa para C. quinoa. mas não para F. vesca. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii mostrou-se eficiente vetor do mosqueado, conseguindo-se obter em média mais de 50% de infecção em infestações com 1 afidio por planta. Aphis gossypii também transmitiu o vírus do mosqueado, mas com muito menor eficiência. Não se conseguiu transmitir o mosqueado com uma espécie de Cuscuta que ocorre comumeute em Campinas. Em testes de transmissão por enxertia de fôlhas, os resultados foram muito fracos devido ao mau pegamento. O pulgão Pentatrichopus fragaefolii

  15. Métodos de inoculação de Colletotrichum fragariae em morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Maria Aparecida de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A antracnose do morangueiro, causada por Colletotrichum fragariae Brooks, é uma das mais importantes doenças da cultura. Além dos rizomas, o fungo causa lesões em estolhos, pecíolos, limbos foliares, pedúnculos e frutos. A inoculação de plantas com este patógeno é muitas vezes imprescindível em trabalhos que necessitam uniformidade de inóculo e reprodução de sintomas da doença. Isso ocorre em testes de patogenicidade, em testes de eficácia de métodos de controle, em estudos sobre a variabilidade de diferentes isolados do patógeno e em avaliação de germoplasma quanto à resistência à doença. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar comparativamente sete métodos de inoculação de morangueiro com C. fragariae, descrevendo os sintomas obtidos em diferentes órgãos da planta. Sintomas foliares (mancha preta da folha foram observados principalmente quando se utilizou pulverização do inóculo. Os métodos mais eficientes em produzir murcha e lesões nos rizomas foram: ferimento e deposição de 5 mL de inóculo nos rizomas, ferimento e deposição de uma gota de inóculo nos pecíolos e injeção de inóculo nos rizomas.

  16. An improved method for genomic DNA extraction from strawberry leaves Otimização de um método para extração de DNA genômico a partir de folhas de morangueiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Ferreira Nunes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several extraction methods of genomic DNA for identification and characterization of genetic diversity in different plant species are routinely applied during molecular analysis. However, the presence of undesirable compounds such as polyphenols and polysaccharides is one of the biggest problems faced during the isolation and purification of high quality DNA in plants. Therefore, achievement of fast and accurate methods for DNA extraction is crucial in order to produce pure samples. Leaves of strawberry genotypes (Fragaria ananassa have high contents of polysaccharides and polyphenols which increase the sample viscosity and decrease the DNA quality, interfering with the PCR performance. Thereby, in this study we evaluated the quality and amount of genomic DNA extracted from young leaves of strawberry after tissue lyophilization and maceration in presence of polivinilpirrolidone (PVP. The CTAB method was used as reference procedure and it was modified to improve the DNA extraction. The modifications consisted of tissue lyophilization overnight until it was completely freeze-dried and addition of PVP during the tissue maceration in liquid nitrogen. The results showed the efficiency and reliability of the modified method compared to the unmodified method, indicating that combination of lyophilization and PVP improve the quality and amount of the DNA extracted from strawberry leaves.Vários métodos de extração de DNA genômico para a identificação e caracterização da diversidade genética em diferentes espécies de plantas são rotineiramente aplicados durante a análise molecular. Entretanto, a presença de compostos indesejáveis, tais como polifenóis e polissacarídeos, é um dos maiores problemas que ocorrem durante o isolamento e purificação de DNA de alta qualidade em plantas. Dessa forma, o sucesso no desenvolvimento de métodos de extração de DNA rápidos e acurados é crucial para produzir amostras puras. Folhas de genótipos de

  17. Wilde?s worlds: Sir William Wilde in Victorian Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    McGeachie, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde. Aims To provide an overall assessment of his career. Materials and methods Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Cens...

  18. The effect of biostimulator applications on nutrient composition of strawberries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Eşítken; Lütfi Pirlak

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in greenhouse on strawberries grown in a column system in Uzundere district, Erzurum, Turkey. The biostimulator 'Macrocrop' and 'Goldmarine' were foliar-applied to the cv. Fern at the rates of 250, 500 and 750 ppm 1, 2, 4and 8 times at 15 days intervals beginning 15 days after planting. Two months after the last application, the content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn in the leaves was analyzed. According to the results, there were significant differences between ...

  19. Over-expression of Gene FaASR Promotes Strawberry Fruit Coloring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongjie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit development and ripening is a complicate process. Although much progress has been made on the ripenig process, the molecular mechamism of fruit development is not yet clear. In this study, we used ‘Sweet Charlie’ strawberry as test materials, based on cloning the strawberries ASR homologous gene, we carried out the bioinformatics and temporal expression analysis of FaASR, by manipulating ASR gene expression level in strawberry fruit, we tested the changes of physiological indicators, including sugar, ABA, pigments content, and fruit firmness, as well as phenotypic changes. In addition, we measured the expression changes of some anthocyanin-related gene, such as CHS and UFGT, by which we revealed the regulation mechanisms of ASR gene over strawberry fruit ripening. Strawberry ASR contained a typical domain of ABA/WDS that was related to fruit ripening and stress-resistance, and ASR gene over-expression could promote strawberry fruit coloring, endogenous ABA and sucrose accumulation, fruit softening, and induced the transcription levels of anthocyanin-related genes CHS and UFGT. The present study will further reveal the molecular mechanisms of information transmission in fruit development, and will also play an important foundation for future molecular improvement of strawberries breeding.

  20. Influence of Fermentation Process on the Anthocyanin Composition of Wine and Vinegar Elaborated from Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Cerezo, Ana B; Garcia-Garcia, Isidoro; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are the major polyphenolic compounds in strawberry fruit responsible for its color. Due to their sensitivity, they are affected by food processing techniques such as fermentation that alters both their chemical composition and organoleptic properties. This work aims to evaluate the impact of different fermentation processes on individual anthocyanins compounds in strawberry wine and vinegar by UHPLC-MS/MS Q Exactive analysis. Nineteen, 18, and 14 anthocyanin compounds were identified in the strawberry initial substrate, strawberry wine, and strawberry vinegar, respectively. Four and 8 anthocyanin compounds were tentatively identified with high accuracy for the 1st time to be present in the beverages obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of strawberry, respectively. Both, the total and the individual anthocyanin concentrations were decreased by both fermentation processes, affecting the alcoholic fermentation to a lesser extent (19%) than the acetic fermentation (91%). Indeed, several changes in color parameters have been assessed. The color of the wine and the vinegar made from strawberry changed during the fermentation process, varying from red to orange color, this fact is directly correlated with the decrease of anthocyanins compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Antidiabetic, Lipid Normalizing, and Nephroprotective Actions of the Strawberry: A Potent Supplementary Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Mandave

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to assess the effect of different strawberry extracts on glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress in nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NIC-STZ induced diabetic rats. The associated changes were evaluated through biochemical, molecular, and histological assays. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ to albino Wistar rats after treatment with nicotinamide. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and alcoholic strawberry extracts were administrated orally to diabetic rats. Treatment of strawberry extracts improved lipid profile, liver function, and serum creatinine and led to a significant increase in antioxidant status in diabetic rats. Real-time PCR expression analysis of genes from the liver of animals treated with strawberry extracts exhibited downregulation of several fatty acid synthesis genes, transcription factors, such as Sterol regulatory Element Binding Transcription factor (SREBP and Nuclear Factor-κβ (NF-κβ, and inflammatory markers, like Interleukin 6 (IL6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α. Strawberry extracts also upregulated liver Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ (PPAR-γ. Histological examination confirmed the nephroprotective and β-cell regeneration/protection effects of strawberry extracts. The present study demonstrates several beneficial effects of strawberry extracts along with its probable mechanism of action.

  2. Antidiabetic, Lipid Normalizing, and Nephroprotective Actions of the Strawberry: A Potent Supplementary Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandave, Pallavi; Khadke, Suresh; Karandikar, Manjiri; Pandit, Vijaya; Ranjekar, Prabhakar; Kuvalekar, Aniket; Mantri, Nitin

    2017-01-11

    The study was designed to assess the effect of different strawberry extracts on glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress in nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NIC-STZ) induced diabetic rats. The associated changes were evaluated through biochemical, molecular, and histological assays. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ to albino Wistar rats after treatment with nicotinamide. Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, and alcoholic strawberry extracts were administrated orally to diabetic rats. Treatment of strawberry extracts improved lipid profile, liver function, and serum creatinine and led to a significant increase in antioxidant status in diabetic rats. Real-time PCR expression analysis of genes from the liver of animals treated with strawberry extracts exhibited downregulation of several fatty acid synthesis genes, transcription factors, such as Sterol regulatory Element Binding Transcription factor (SREBP) and Nuclear Factor-κβ (NF-κβ), and inflammatory markers, like Interleukin 6 (IL6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α). Strawberry extracts also upregulated liver Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Histological examination confirmed the nephroprotective and β-cell regeneration/protection effects of strawberry extracts. The present study demonstrates several beneficial effects of strawberry extracts along with its probable mechanism of action.

  3. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS in adults [n=60; age: 49±10 years; BMI: 36±5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS, low dose control beverage (LD-C, high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS, and high dose control beverage (HD-C for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc, whole blood glutathione (GSH, and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were examined at screening (0 week and after 12 weeks’ intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.; glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p<0.05. Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43% versus control group (p<0.01. No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids.

  4. Influence of Sound Wave Stimulation on the Growth of Strawberry in Sunlight Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lirong; Teng, Guanghui; Hou, Tianzhen; Zhu, Baoying; Liu, Xiaona

    In this paper, we adopt the QGWA-03 plant audio apparatus to investigate the sound effects on strawberry in the leaf area, the photosynthetic characteristics and other physiological indexes. It was found that when there were no significant differences between the circumstances of the two sunlight greenhouses, the strawberry after the sound wave stimulation grew stronger than in the control and its leaf were deeper green, and shifted to an earlier time about one week to blossom and bear fruit. It was also found that the resistance of strawberry against disease and insect pest were enhanced. The experiment results show that sound wave stimulation can certainly promote the growth of plants.

  5. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilas Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micro-chemical composition, as well as antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars, Marmolada and Clery, were studied. Results showed a noticeable difference in the sugar, protein and pectin contents. Clery had 6.92% and Marmolada 4.93% of total sugar. Also, protein and pectin contents were higher in the Clery cultivar. No significant difference was observed in acidity, as well as in ash and cellulose content. Marmolada had a higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids (228.04 mg GAE /100 g FW and 136.01 mg RE/100 g FW, respectively . The anthocyanins content in Marmolada (32.0 mg CGE/100 g FW was slightly lower than in Clery (36.0 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as EC50 value, of Marmolada (0.77 mg/ml was higher than of Clery (0.83 mg/ml. There was a significant positive correlation (R2>0.90 between the concentration of phenolics/flavonoids/anthocyanins and DPPH radical scavenging activity of both strawberry cultivars. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW Marmolada and Clery is equivalent to 237.91 mg and 219.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively.

  6. Mycorrhizal inoculation affects the phytochemical content in strawberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cecatto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation date of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the fruit quality and the content of phytochemicals in a strawberry soilless growing system. The experiment was performed in Huelva (Spain and was conducted in a greenhouse on the La Rábida Campus of Huelva University under natural light and temperature from October 2013 to June 2014. Three short-day strawberry cultivars (‘Splendor’, ‘Sabrina’ and ‘Fortuna’ were grown in polyethylene bags filled with coconut fibres. Randomized block design, with 3 repetitions and factorial arrangement (3 cultivars x 3 treatments, was established. Each replicate consisted of one bag with 12 plants supporting structures at 40 cm height. The treatments were: T1 = mycorrhizal inoculation in the transplantation; T2 = mycorrhizal inoculation 30 days after transplantation (DAT; and T0 = control treatment, without inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation significantly affected the contents of anthocyanin and phenolics. When the inoculation is performed in the transplantation, the fruits showed a high content of anthocyanin and total phenolics. The mycorrhizal inoculation influences decreasing the acidity in fruit throughout the growing season and increase firmness only during the early stage of production.

  7. Analysis of strawberry ripening by dynamic speckle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulone, C.; Budini, N.; Vincitorio, F. M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil Rego, A.

    2013-11-01

    This work seeks to determine the age of a fruit from observation of its dynamic speckle pattern. A mobile speckle pattern originates on the fruit's surface due to the interference of the wavefronts reflected from moving scatterers. For this work we analyzed two series of photographs of a strawberry speckle pattern, at different stages of ripening, acquired with a CMOS camera. The first day, we took ten photographs at an interval of one second. The same procedure was repeated the next day. From each series of images we extracted several statistical descriptors of pixel-to-pixel gray level variation during the observation time. By comparing these values from the first to the second day we noticed a diminution of the speckle activity. This decay demonstrated that after only one day the ripening process of the strawberry can be detected by dynamic speckle pattern analysis. For this study we employed a simple new algorithm to process the data obtained from the photographs. This algorithm allows defining a global mobility index that indicates the evolution of the fruit's ripening.

  8. Modelling formulae of strawberry whey drinks of prophylactic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Expediency of the development of formulae and innovative technologies for production of prophylactic application drinks possessing antioxidant, probiotic and hepatoprotective properties with the use of the secondary dairy product – whey, as well as the domestic vegetable raw materials having a high content of bioactive substances has been substantiated.Formulation composition of the prophylactic drinks based on cheese whey, extract of Tagetes patula flowers and the berry filler “Strawberry” with the use of the response surface method has been developed. Bioactivity of the drinks and the complex quality indicator which accounts for the total influence of the bioactivity, organoleptic assessment and weight coefficients of the specified unit indicators were taken as the optimization criteria; as the independent factors that were varied in the course of the experiment, the mass fractions of the marigold flowers extract and the strawberries filler were selected. It is recommended that the mass fractions of the berry filler “Strawberry” and the extract of Tagetes patula flowers in the prophylactic drinks are set as 7 and 20 % of the finished product, accordingly. The practical mass fraction of the citric acid of 0.2 % was determined as it ensures high organoleptic characteristics of the finished drinks. Recommendations are given concerning development of innovative technologies of unfermented and fermented strawberry whey drinks of prophylactic application enriched with the extract of Tagetes patula flowers.

  9. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity during maturation of strawberry guava fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dantas, Ana Lima; Silva, Silvanda de Melo; Lima, Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de; Dantas, Renato Lima; Mendonça, Rejane Maria Nunes

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of the fruit of strawberry-guava genotypes during maturation, and identify the characteristics that influenced...

  10. Tamanho e forma de parcela em experimentos com morangueiro cultivado em solo ou em hidroponia Plot size and shape in trials using strawberry cultivated with soil or using hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Cocco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a forma e o tamanho de parcela ótimos para ensaios com a cultura do morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa em cultivo hidropônico e em solo. Foram conduzidos dois, experimentos, um em cultivo convencional no solo, em túneis baixos, e outro em cultivo hidropônico. Em cada experimento, avaliaram-se os efeitos do tamanho e do formato das parcelas sobre a precisão experimental. Cada planta foi considerada uma unidade básica, e o número de unidades básicas por parcela variou de 1 (48 parcelas a 24 (duas parcelas. Foram ajustadas funções para a determinação do coeficiente de variação entre as parcelas e para a determinação da variância por unidade básica entre as parcelas. O cultivo no solo apresentou maior variabilidade experimental que o cultivo hidropônico. O aumento no número de plantas por parcela causou redução acentuada na variabilidade experimental, especialmente quando se usou o formato de parcela retangular. O tamanho ótimo estimado das parcelas é de dez plantas, no cultivo com solo, e de seis plantas, no cultivo hidropônico.The objective of this work was to estimate the optimal size and shape of plots to be used in experiments of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cultivation in soil or using hydroponics. Two experiments were conducted, one in soil in low tunnels, and another in a hydroponic system. In each experiment, the effects of plot sizes and shapes on experimental accuracy were evaluated. Each plant was considered an experimental basic unit, and the number of plants per plot varied from 1 (48 plots to 24 (two plots. Functions were adjusted to determine the coefficient of variation among plots and the variance per basic unit between plots. Plants grown in soil had higher experimental variability than the plants grown in hydroponics. Increasing the number of plants per plot caused strong reduction in the experimental variability, especially when a rectangular plot shape was used

  11. Rheological properties of strawberry fruit coating with methylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nadim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The maintenance of the quality of fresh products is still a major challenge for the consumers. The most important quality attributes contributing to the marketability of fresh fruit include appearance, color, texture, flavor, nutritional value and microbial safety. Strawberry fruits should be firm but not crunchy. Decreased quality during postharvest handling is most often associated with water loss and decay. The postharvest life of strawberries can be extended by coating technique combined with refrigeration. Application of edible coatings is a conventional method to increase shelf life and maintain fruit quality. Edible coatings can provide an alternative to enlarge fresh fruits’ postharvest life. In this study, the effects of application of methyl cellulose edible coatings and storage time on some mechanical properties, including: the yield stress, yield strain, energy of rupture and modulus of elasticity and also, the viscoelastic behavior of the strawberry fruit was investigated. Materials and Methods: MC (Methocel, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI coating was prepared by solubilizing MC powder (3.0 g per 100 mL in a water–ethyl alcohol mixture (2:1 at 75ºC under the high speedmixer (900 rpm for 15 min. Coatings were used directly on the fruit surface. The physical and mechanical characteristics of fruits were analyzed on 2, 5, 8 and 11 days of storage. The puncture test and relaxation test were done using a texture analyzer (Zwick/Roell Model BT1_FR0.5TH.D14, Zwick GmbH Co., Ulm, Germany; using Xforce HP model of loadcell with capacity of 500 N, by 2 mv/v characteristic. General Maxwell model is widely used to analyze experimental results of the stress tests applied for relaxation. The obtained model coefficients were determined and evaluated from relaxation stress curves. Residues were determined using the sequential model. Usually, multicomponent models can properly describe the actual behavior of agricultural

  12. Biological control of grey mould in strawberry fruits by halophilic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Essghaier, B.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Hajlaoui, M. R.; Boudabous, A.; Jijakli, H.; Sadfi Zouaoui, N.

    2009-01-01

    Grey mould caused by Botrytis cinerea is an economically important disease of strawberries in Tunisia and worldwide. The aim of this study was to select effective halophilic bacteria from hypersaline ecosystems and evaluate the abilities of antifungal bacteria to secrete extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, anti-Botrytis metabolites and volatiles. Grey mould was reduced in strawberry fruits treated with halophilic antagonists and artificially inoculated with B. cinerea. Thirty strains (20.2%) we...

  13. Iodide and iodate effects on the growth and fruit quality of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Liu, Hui-Ping; Hong, Chun-Lai; Dai, Zi-Xi; Liu, Jia-Wei; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Chun-Qing; Weng, Huan-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is an environmental health problem affecting one-third of the global population. An iodine biofortification hydroponic experiment was conducted to explore the iodide and iodate uptake characteristics of strawberry plants, to measure the dosage effects of iodine on plant growth and to evaluate the influence of I - or IO 3 - application on fruit quality. After biofortification, the iodine contents of the fresh strawberry fruits were 600-4000 µg kg -1 , covering the WHO dietary iodine allowance of 150 µg · day -1 for adults. The iodine uptake of the strawberry plants increased with increasing I - or IO 3 - concentration of the culture solution. At the same iodine concentration, the iodate uptakes of various plant organs under I - treatments were apparently more than those under IO 3 - treatments. Low-level exogenous iodine (I - ≤ 0.25 mg L -1 or IO 3 - ≤ 0.50 mg L -1 ) not only promoted plant growth and increased biomass per plant, but also improved fruit quality by enhancing the vitamin C and soluble sugar contents of the strawberry fruits. Nevertheless, excessive exogenous iodine inhibited plant growth and reduced biomass per plant. IO 3 - uptake apparently increased the total acidity and nitrate content of the fruits, reducing the quality of the strawberry fruits. Conversely, I - uptake obviously decreased the total acidity and nitrate content of the strawberry fruits, improving the fruit quality. The strawberry can be used as a target crop for iodine biofortification. Furthermore, applying an appropriate dose of KI can improve the fruit quality of the strawberry plants. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wei; Wei Wei; Xu Wang; Zhongwen Xie; Wen Wang; Junfeng Xu; Yuanjing Liu; Haiyan Gao; Yu Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH), 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC), and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC)] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmon...

  15. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries

    OpenAIRE

    Emamifar, Aryou; Mohammadizadeh, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content a...

  16. Research on Automatic Irrigation Algorithm of Strawberry Greenhouse Based on PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Jianlun, Wang; Shuting, Wang; Jianshu, Chen; Hao, Liu; Dongbo, Xu

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In order to realize efficient water-saving irrigation of strawberry greenhouse in precision agriculture, the paper proposed an automatic irrigation algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation irrigation based on PLC and the configuration software, and build a remote control system. By measuring the greenhouse soil parameters and strawberry soil moisture data to determine the upper and lower limits of irrigation and set buried position of moisture sensors. Use fuz...

  17. Effect of Storage on the Physico-Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Strawberry and Kiwi Leathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal A; D'Ignoti, Valeria; Saez, Barbara; Diaz, Ricardo I; Torres, Carolina A

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry and kiwi leathers were used to develop a new healthy and preservative-free fruit snack for new markets. Fruit puree was dehydrated at 60 °C for 20 h and subjected to accelerated storage. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, water activity (aw ), total phenolic (TP), antioxidant activity (AOA) and capacity (ORAC), and color change (browning index) were measured in leathers, cooked, and fresh purees. An untrained panel was used to evaluate consumer acceptability. Soluble solids of fresh purees were 11.24 to 13.04 °Brix, whereas pH was 3.46 to 3.39. Leathers presented an aw of 0.59 to 0.67, and a moisture content of 21 kg water/100 kg. BI decreased in both leathers over accelerated storage period. TP and AOA were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in strawberry formulations. ORAC decreased 57% in strawberry and 65% in kiwi leathers when compared to fruit puree. TP and AOA increased in strawberries during storage. Strawberry and Kiwi leathers may be a feasible new, natural, high antioxidant, and healthy snack for the Chilean and other world markets, such as Europe, particularly the strawberry leather, which was preferred by untrained panelists. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. The effect of selected fungicides on the chemical composition of strawberry fruits and contamination with dithiocarbamate residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysocki Karol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a four-year field experiment, fenhexamid, iprodione, pyrimethanil and thiram were applied in four different series as fungicides recommended for the control of grey mold (Botrytis cinerea in strawberries. The plant protection products had no significant effect on the chemical composition of strawberry fruits of the Kent and Senga Sengana cultivars with the exception of an increase in the vitamin C level in ‘Kent’ strawberries. They also contributed to minor variations in the content of extract, total sugars, organic acids, polyphenols and anthocyanins. Dithiocarbamate residues were detected in all samples from the first harvest of strawberries that had been treated with the thiram fungicide

  19. An anthocyanin rich strawberry extract induces apoptosis and ROS while decreases glycolysis and fibrosis in human uterine leiomyoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Soriful; Giampieri, Francesca; Janjusevic, Milijana; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Mazzoni, Luca; Greco, Stefania; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Ciavattini, Andrea; Mezzetti, Bruno; Capocasa, Franco; Castellucci, Mario; Battino, Maurizio; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2017-04-04

    Uterine leiomyomas are highly prevalent benign tumors in reproductive aged women. Unfortunately, medical treatments are still limited and no preventive therapies have been developed. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of strawberry extract on uterine leiomyoma cells. Leiomyoma and myometrial cells were treated with strawberry (cultivar Alba) extract (250 μg/ml) for 48 h to measure apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative phosphorylation (OCR, oxygen consumption rate) and glycolysis (ECAR, extracellular acidification rate) as well as fibrosis associated gene and/or protein expression. In leiomyoma cells, strawberry increased the percentage of apoptotic and dead cells. Strawberry significantly increased ROS concentration in leiomyoma cells, while decreased it in myometrial cells. After strawberry treatment, leiomyoma cells showed a significant decreased rate of ECAR, while OCR was unchanged in both myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Strawberry significantly decreased collagen1A1, fibronectin and versican mRNA expression in leiomyoma cells. The reduced protein expression of fibronectin was observed by strawberry extract in leiomyoma cells as well. Furthermore, strawberry was able to reduce activin A induced fibronectin, collagen1A1, and versican as well as activin A and PAI-1 mRNA expression in leiomyoma cells. This study suggests that strawberry can be developed as therapeutic and/or preventive agent for uterine leiomyomas.

  20. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its natural enemies, and the presence of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Cropping practice can affect pests and natural enemies. A three-year study of the strawberry tortricid, Acleris comariana (Lienig and Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its parasitoid Copidosoma aretas Walker (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and its entomopathogenic fungi was conducted in seven pairs...... and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropp