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Sample records for wild populations repeatedly

  1. Introgression from cultivated rice alters genetic structures of wild relative populations: implications for in situ conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ping; Li, Chen; Cai, Xingxing; Rong, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Maintaining genetic integrity is essential for in situ and ex situ conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species. However, introgression of crop alleles into CWR species/populations may change their genetic structure and diversity, resulting in more invasive weeds or, in contrast, the extinction of endangered populations. To determine crop-wild introgression and its consequences, we examined the genetic structure and diversity of six wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) populations under in situ conservation in China. Thirty-four simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 34 insertion/deletion markers were used to genotype the wild rice populations and two sets of rice cultivars (O. sativa), corresponding to the two types of molecular markers. Shared alleles and STRUCTURE analyses suggested a variable level of crop-wild introgression and admixture. Principal coordinates and cluster analyses indicated differentiation of wild rice populations, which was associated with the spatial distances to cultivated rice fields. The level of overall genetic diversity was comparable between wild rice populations and rice cultivars, but a great number of wild-specific alleles was detected in the wild populations. We conclude based on the results that crop-wild introgression can considerably alter the pattern of genetic structure and relationships of CWR populations. Appropriate measures should be taken for effective in situ conservation of CWR species under the scenario of crop-wild introgression. PMID:29308123

  2. Intraindividual variability of boldness is repeatable across contexts in a wild lizard.

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    Laura Highcock

    Full Text Available Animals do not behave in exactly the same way when repeatedly tested in the same context or situation, even once systematic variation, such as habituation, has been controlled for. This unpredictability is called intraindividual variability (IIV and has been little studied in animals. Here we investigated how IIV in boldness (estimated by flight initiation distances changed across two seasons--the dry, non-breeding season and the wet, breeding season--in a wild population of the Namibian rock agama, Agama planiceps. We found significant differences in IIV both between individuals and seasons, and IIV was higher in the wet season, suggesting plasticity in IIV. Further, IIV was highly repeatable (r = 0.61 between seasons and we found strong negative correlations between consistent individual differences in flight initiation distances, i.e. their boldness, and individuals' IIVs. We suggest that to understand personality in animals, researchers should generate a personality 'profile' that includes not only the relative level of a trait (i.e. its personality, but also its plasticity and variability under natural conditions.

  3. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Brajkovic, Vladimir; Canu, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    polymorphisms at two linked genes (AMELY and UTY) in a network analysis. A differentiation between wild and domestic populations was observed (FST = 0.229), with commercial breeds sharing no Y haplotype with the sampled wild boar. Similarly, a certain degree of geographic differentiation was observed across...

  4. Effects of rearing environment and population origin on responses to repeated behavioural trials in cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jodie; Whiting, Martin J; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2018-05-02

    Behavioural response to repeated trials in captivity can be driven by many factors including rearing environment, population of origin, habituation to captivity/trial conditions and an individual's behavioural type (e.g., bold versus shy). We tested the effect of rearing environment (captive raised common-garden versus wild-caught) and population origin (range-edge versus range-front) on the responses of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to repeated exploration and risk-taking assays in captivity. We found that behavioural responses to identical assays performed on two occasions were complex and showed few consistent patterns based on rearing environment or population of origin. However, behavioural traits were repeatable across Trial Blocks when all sample populations were grouped together, indicating general consistency in individual toad behaviour across repeated behavioural assays. Our findings exemplify the complexity and unpredictability of behavioural responses and their effects on the repeatability and interpretation of behavioural traits across repeated behavioural assays in captivity. To meaningfully interpret the results from repeated behavioural assays, we need to consider how multiple factors may affect behavioural responses to these tests and importantly, how these responses may affect the repeatability of behavioural traits across time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Transferability of short tandem repeat markers for two wild Canid species inhabiting the Brazilian Cerrado.

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    Rodrigues, F M; Telles, M P C; Resende, L V; Soares, T N; Diniz-Filho, J A F; Jácomo, A T A; Silveira, L

    2006-12-13

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) are two wild-canid species found in the Brazilian Cerrado. We tested cross-amplification and transferability of 29 short tandem repeat primers originally developed for cattle and domestic dogs and cats on 38 individuals of each of these two species, collected in the Emas National Park, which is the largest national park in the Cerrado region. Six of these primers were successfully transferred (CSSM-038, PEZ-05, PEZ-12, LOCO-13, LOCO-15, and PEZ-20); five of which were found to be polymorphic. Genetic parameter values (number of alleles per locus, observed and expected heterozygosities, and fixation indices) were within the expected range reported for canid populations worldwide.

  6. Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots in natural populations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L.S.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2007-01-01

    Many cultivated plant species are able to hybridize with related wild plants. However, it is not clear whether their hybrids are able to survive and reproduce outside managed fields, and if cultivar genes introgress into wild populations. In areas where wild carrots co-occur with carrot root......-crops, pollen and seeds may flow from two different sources in the fields to the surrounding wild populations: from pure cultivar plants that occasionally flower, and from flowering 'bolters' that originate from hybridizations between wild (male) and cultivated carrots (female) in seed production fields...... by AFLP. Four hybrids were identified among the 71 plants analysed, and these were most likely F(2) or backcross individuals, sired by pollen from hybrid bolters. Wild populations close to fields were genetically somewhat more similar to cultivars than wild populations far from fields, suggesting...

  7. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

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    Rocío Pineda-Martos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms.

  8. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae) Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Martos, Rocío; Pujadas-Salvà, Antonio J.; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Stoyanov, Kiril; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms. PMID:25143963

  9. First genealogy for a wild marine fish population reveals multigenerational philopatry

    KAUST Repository

    Salles, Océ ane C.; Pujol, Benoit; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Almany, Glenn R.; Berumen, Michael L.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Srinivasan, Maya; Thorrold, Simon R.; Planes, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Natal philopatry, the return of individuals to their natal area for reproduction, has advantages and disadvantages for animal populations. Natal philopatry may generate local genetic adaptation, but it may also increase the probability of inbreeding that can compromise persistence. Although natal philopatry is well documented in anadromous fishes, marine fish may also return to their birth site to spawn. How philopatry shapes wild fish populations is, however, unclear because it requires constructing multigenerational pedigrees that are currently lacking for marine fishes. Here we present the first multigenerational pedigree for a marine fish population by repeatedly genotyping all individuals in a population of the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) at Kimbe Island (Papua New Guinea) during a 10-y period. Based on 2927 individuals, our pedigree analysis revealed that longitudinal philopatry was recurrent over five generations. Progeny tended to settle close to their parents, with related individuals often sharing the same colony. However, successful inbreeding was rare, and genetic diversity remained high, suggesting occasional inbreeding does not impair local population persistence. Local reproductive success was dependent on the habitat larvae settled into, rather than the habitat they came from. Our study suggests that longitudinal philopatry can influence both population replenishment and local adaptation of marine fishes. Resolving multigenerational pedigrees during a relatively short period, as we present here, provides a framework for assessing the ability of marine populations to persist and adapt to accelerating climate change.

  10. First genealogy for a wild marine fish population reveals multigenerational philopatry

    KAUST Repository

    Salles, Océane C.

    2016-11-01

    Natal philopatry, the return of individuals to their natal area for reproduction, has advantages and disadvantages for animal populations. Natal philopatry may generate local genetic adaptation, but it may also increase the probability of inbreeding that can compromise persistence. Although natal philopatry is well documented in anadromous fishes, marine fish may also return to their birth site to spawn. How philopatry shapes wild fish populations is, however, unclear because it requires constructing multigenerational pedigrees that are currently lacking for marine fishes. Here we present the first multigenerational pedigree for a marine fish population by repeatedly genotyping all individuals in a population of the orange clownfish (Amphiprion percula) at Kimbe Island (Papua New Guinea) during a 10-y period. Based on 2927 individuals, our pedigree analysis revealed that longitudinal philopatry was recurrent over five generations. Progeny tended to settle close to their parents, with related individuals often sharing the same colony. However, successful inbreeding was rare, and genetic diversity remained high, suggesting occasional inbreeding does not impair local population persistence. Local reproductive success was dependent on the habitat larvae settled into, rather than the habitat they came from. Our study suggests that longitudinal philopatry can influence both population replenishment and local adaptation of marine fishes. Resolving multigenerational pedigrees during a relatively short period, as we present here, provides a framework for assessing the ability of marine populations to persist and adapt to accelerating climate change.

  11. Connectivity of the Asiatic wild ass population in the Mongolian Gobi.

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    Kaczensky, Petra; Kuehn, Ralph; Lhagvasuren, Badamjav; Pietsch, Stephanie; Yang, Weikang; Walzer, Chris

    2011-02-01

    Long-distance migrations of wildlife have been identified as important biological phenomena, but their conservation remains a major challenge. The Mongolian Gobi is one of the last refuges for the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and other threatened migratory mammals. Using historic and current distribution ranges, population genetics, and telemetry data we assessed the connectivity of the wild ass population in the context of natural and anthropogenic landscape features and the existing network of protected areas. In the Mongolian Gobi mean biomass production is highly correlated with human and livestock density and seems to predict wild ass occurrence at the upper level. The current wild ass distribution range largely falls into areas below the 250 gC/m(2)/year productivity isoline, suggesting that under the present land use more productive areas have become unavailable for wild asses. Population genetics results identified two subpopulations and delineated a genetic boundary between the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi for which the most likely explanation are the mountain ranges separating the two areas. Home ranges and locations of 19 radiomarked wild asses support the assumed restricting effects of more productive habitats and mountain ranges and additionally point towards a barrier effect of fences. Furthermore, telemetry data shows that in the Dzungarian and Transaltai Gobi individual wild ass rarely ventured outside of the protected areas, whereas in the southeast Gobi asses only spend a small fraction of their time within the protected area network. Conserving the continuity of the wild ass population will need a landscape level approach, also including multi-use landscapes outside of protected areas, particularly in the southeast Gobi. In the southwest Gobi, allowing for openings in the border fence to China and managing the border area as an ecological corridor would connect three large protected areas together covering over 70,000 km(2) of wild ass

  12. Population genetic structure in wild and aquaculture populations of Hemibarbus maculates inferred from microsatellites markers

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    Linlin Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate 4 aquaculture populations Shanghai (SH, Hangzhou (HZ, Kaihua (KH and Xianju (XJ and one wild population Yingshan (YS of spotted barbell (Hemibarbus maculates to assess their genetic diversity level and investigate the genetic structure of the populations. The dendrogram and STRUCTURE revealed that the populations XJ, KH, and HZ jointly formed one cluster, to which the populations SH and YS were sequentially adhered. The genetic diversity of the cultured populations maintained better, possible due to favourable hatchery conditions that decreased the effect of environmental selection present in wild populations. The results of the present study will contribute to the management of spotted barbell genetic resources, but also demonstrates how the genetic diversity of freshwater species is vulnerable to human activity.

  13. A Genetic Study of Wild Populations and Evolution A Genetic Study of Wild Populations and Evolution

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    Hovanitz William

    1944-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the scientific basis of heredity within the last two decades and the verification of the principal conclusions in many different plants and animals has made possible the application of analytical methods in the study of variations in wild populations. As with the physical and chemical sciences, genetics has been enabled to make use of mathematics to compound (often theoretically out of simple units, the genes, the complexity known as an organism, much in the same way as a chemist compounds molecules with atoms and the physicist compounds atoms with protons and electrons. The determination of the scientific basis of heredity within the last two decades and the verification of the principal conclusions in many different plants and animals has made possible the application of analytical methods in the study of variations in wild populations. As with the physical and chemical sciences, genetics has been enabled to make use of mathematics to compound (often theoretically out of simple units, the genes, the complexity known as an organism, much in the same way as a chemist compounds molecules with atoms and the physicist compounds atoms with protons and electrons.

  14. Age structure changes and extraordinary lifespan in wild medfly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Müller, Hans-Georg; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wachter, Kenneth; Yu, Wei; Liedo, Pablo

    2008-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that major changes in age structure occur in wild populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) and that a substantial fraction of individuals survive to middle age and beyond (> 3-4 weeks). We thus brought reference life tables and deconvolution models to bear on medfly mortality data gathered from a 3-year study of field-captured individuals that were monitored in the laboratory. The average time-to-death of captured females differed between sampling dates by 23.9, 22.7, and 37.0 days in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 field seasons, respectively. These shifts in average times-to-death provided evidence of changes in population age structure. Estimates indicated that middle-aged medflies (> 30 days) were common in the population. A surprise in the study was the extraordinary longevity observed in field-captured medflies. For example, 19 captured females but no reference females survived in the laboratory for 140 days or more, and 6 captured but no reference males survived in the laboratory for 170 days or more. This paper advances the study of aging in the wild by introducing a new method for estimating age structure in insect populations, demonstrating that major changes in age structure occur in field populations of insects, showing that middle-aged individuals are common in the wild, and revealing the extraordinary lifespans of wild-caught individuals due to their early life experience in the field.

  15. Putative panmixia in restricted populations of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from wild Triatoma infestans in Bolivia.

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    Christian Barnabe

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is subdivided into six discrete typing units (DTUs; TcI-TcVI of which TcI is ubiquitous and genetically highly variable. While clonality is the dominant mode of propagation, recombinant events play a significant evolutive role. Recently, foci of wild Triatoma infestans have been described in Bolivia, mainly infected by TcI. Hence, for the first time, we evaluated the level of genetic exchange within TcI natural potentially panmictic populations (single DTU, host, area and sampling time. Seventy-nine TcI stocks from wild T. infestans, belonging to six populations were characterized at eight microsatellite loci. For each population, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, linkage disequilibrium (LD, and presence of repeated multilocus genotypes (MLG were analyzed by using a total of seven statistics, to test the null hypothesis of panmixia (H0. For three populations, none of the seven statistics allowed to rejecting H0; for another one the low size did not allow us to conclude, and for the two others the tests have given contradictory results. Interestingly, apparent panmixia was only observed in very restricted areas, and was not observed when grouping populations distant of only two kilometers or more. Nevertheless it is worth stressing that for the statistic tests of "HWE", in order to minimize the type I error (i. e. incorrect rejection of a true H0, we used the Bonferroni correction (BC known to considerably increase the type II error ( i. e. failure to reject a false H0. For the other tests (LD and MLG, we did not use BC and the risk of type II error in these cases was acceptable. Thus, these results should be considered as a good indicator of the existence of panmixia in wild environment but this must be confirmed on larger samples to reduce the risk of type II error.

  16. Putative Panmixia in Restricted Populations of Trypanosoma cruzi Isolated from Wild Triatoma infestans in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabe, Christian; Buitrago, Rosio; Bremond, Philippe; Aliaga, Claudia; Salas, Renata; Vidaurre, Pablo; Herrera, Claudia; Cerqueira, Frédérique; Bosseno, Marie-France; Waleckx, Etienne; Breniere, Simone Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is subdivided into six discrete typing units (DTUs; TcI–TcVI) of which TcI is ubiquitous and genetically highly variable. While clonality is the dominant mode of propagation, recombinant events play a significant evolutive role. Recently, foci of wild Triatoma infestans have been described in Bolivia, mainly infected by TcI. Hence, for the first time, we evaluated the level of genetic exchange within TcI natural potentially panmictic populations (single DTU, host, area and sampling time). Seventy-nine TcI stocks from wild T. infestans, belonging to six populations were characterized at eight microsatellite loci. For each population, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), and presence of repeated multilocus genotypes (MLG) were analyzed by using a total of seven statistics, to test the null hypothesis of panmixia (H0). For three populations, none of the seven statistics allowed to rejecting H0; for another one the low size did not allow us to conclude, and for the two others the tests have given contradictory results. Interestingly, apparent panmixia was only observed in very restricted areas, and was not observed when grouping populations distant of only two kilometers or more. Nevertheless it is worth stressing that for the statistic tests of "HWE", in order to minimize the type I error (i. e. incorrect rejection of a true H0), we used the Bonferroni correction (BC) known to considerably increase the type II error ( i. e. failure to reject a false H0). For the other tests (LD and MLG), we did not use BC and the risk of type II error in these cases was acceptable. Thus, these results should be considered as a good indicator of the existence of panmixia in wild environment but this must be confirmed on larger samples to reduce the risk of type II error. PMID:24312410

  17. EPINEPHRINE CONCENTRATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA L. SERUM AFTER REPEATED ELISA TESTED FREEZE-THAWING CYCLES

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    Neška Vukšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples for determining of epinephrine concentration and biochemical parameters in the blood serum of wild boars were taken from 42 healthy wild boars, both sexes, during the hunting season. All animals in good condition, body weight 20 to 95 kg, were divided into two groups up to 50 kg (group A and up to 95 kg (Group B. Epinephrine concentration was determined by ELISA twice: one week after taking samples and a month after repeated freezing at -80°C. It was higher in relation to the reference value of domestic pigs and human (109.45 pg/ml in A and 119.54 pg/ml in B group. Repeated freezing and re-analysis after a month were resulted in lower concentrations of epinephrine (12% in young and 11.17% in adult animal, but without statistical significance (P>0.05. Biochemical analysis results’ show increased glucose and triglycerides concentrations compared to the reference values, while other indicators were observed within or slightly increased referring to the normal range. The correlation between glucose and epinephrine was not determined.

  18. Severe inbreeding depression in a wild wolf (Canis lupus) population.

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    Liberg, Olof; Andrén, Henrik; Pedersen, Hans-Christian; Sand, Håkan; Sejberg, Douglas; Wabakken, Petter; Kesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan

    2005-03-22

    The difficulty of obtaining pedigrees for wild populations has hampered the possibility of demonstrating inbreeding depression in nature. In a small, naturally restored, wild population of grey wolves in Scandinavia, founded in 1983, we constructed a pedigree for 24 of the 28 breeding pairs established in the period 1983-2002. Ancestry for the breeding animals was determined through a combination of field data (snow tracking and radio telemetry) and DNA microsatellite analysis. The population was founded by only three individuals. The inbreeding coefficient F varied between 0.00 and 0.41 for wolves born during the study period. The number of surviving pups per litter during their first winter after birth was strongly correlated with inbreeding coefficients of pups (R2=0.39, pwolf population.

  19. Trans-generational effects on ageing in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, S.; Charmantier, A.; Verhulst, S.; Sheldon, B. C.

    Ageing, long thought to be too infrequent to study effectively in natural populations, has recently been shown to be ubiquitous, even in the wild. A major challenge now is to explain variation in the rates of ageing within populations. Here, using 49 years of data from a population of great tits

  20. Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon

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    Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

    2012-01-01

    While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F1 females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

  1. Population growth in a wild bird is buffered against phenological mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reed, T.; Grotan, V.; Jenouvrier, S.; Saether, B.E.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    road-scale environmental changes are altering patterns of natural selection in the wild, but few empirical studies have quantified the demographic cost of sustained directional selection in response to these changes. We tested whether population growth in a wild bird is negatively affected by

  2. Multilocus Sex Determination Revealed in Two Populations of Gynodioecious Wild Strawberry, Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Tennessen, Jacob A; Dalton, Rebecca M; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Koski, Matthew H; Liston, Aaron

    2015-10-19

    Gynodioecy, the coexistence of females and hermaphrodites, occurs in 20% of angiosperm families and often enables transitions between hermaphroditism and dioecy. Clarifying mechanisms of sex determination in gynodioecious species can thus illuminate sexual system evolution. Genetic determination of gynodioecy, however, can be complex and is not fully characterized in any wild species. We used targeted sequence capture to genetically map a novel nuclear contributor to male sterility in a self-pollinated hermaphrodite of Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata from the southern portion of its range. To understand its interaction with another identified locus and possibly additional loci, we performed crosses within and between two populations separated by 2000 km, phenotyped the progeny and sequenced candidate markers at both sex-determining loci. The newly mapped locus contains a high density of pentatricopeptide repeat genes, a class commonly involved in restoration of fertility caused by cytoplasmic male sterility. Examination of all crosses revealed three unlinked epistatically interacting loci that determine sexual phenotype and vary in frequency between populations. Fragaria vesca subsp. bracteata represents the first wild gynodioecious species with genomic evidence of both cytoplasmic and nuclear genes in sex determination. We propose a model for the interactions between these loci and new hypotheses for the evolution of sex determining chromosomes in the subdioecious and dioecious Fragaria. Copyright © 2015 Ashman et al.

  3. Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower

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    Terzić Sreten

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.

  4. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Hartman, Y.; Tienderen, van P.H.; Jansen, J.; McHale, L.K.; Michelmore, R.; Visser, R.G.F.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The

  5. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

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    Jie Qiu

    Full Text Available Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou and a wild line (Lanxi 1 collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1 no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2 besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3 high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49 were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4 over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure.

  6. Pooled Enrichment Sequencing Identifies Diversity and Evolutionary Pressures at NLR Resistance Genes within a Wild Tomato Population

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    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing proteins that are important in plant resistance signaling. Many of the known pathogen resistance (R) genes in plants are NLRs and they can recognize pathogen molecules directly or indirectly. As such, divergence and copy number variants at these genes are found to be high between species. Within populations, positive and balancing selection are to be expected if plants coevolve with their pathogens. In order to understand the complexity of R-gene coevolution in wild nonmodel species, it is necessary to identify the full range of NLRs and infer their evolutionary history. Here we investigate and reveal polymorphism occurring at 220 NLR genes within one population of the partially selfing wild tomato species Solanum pennellii. We use a combination of enrichment sequencing and pooling ten individuals, to specifically sequence NLR genes in a resource and cost-effective manner. We focus on the effects which different mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism calling software and settings have on calling polymorphisms in customized pooled samples. Our results are accurately verified using Sanger sequencing of polymorphic gene fragments. Our results indicate that some NLRs, namely 13 out of 220, have maintained polymorphism within our S. pennellii population. These genes show a wide range of πN/πS ratios and differing site frequency spectra. We compare our observed rate of heterozygosity with expectations for this selfing and bottlenecked population. We conclude that our method enables us to pinpoint NLR genes which have experienced natural selection in their habitat. PMID:27189991

  7. Genome-wide analysis of allele frequency change in sunflower crop-wild hybrid populations evolving under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization is known to occur between cultivated and wild populations of numerous plant species. This represents a major mechanism by which a wild population’s genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics could be altered. Studying crop-derived alleles in wild populations is also relevant to assess...

  8. Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes. PMID:22754378

  9. Introgression between cultivars and wild populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes.

  10. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Daniel; Alvina, Andres

    2000-01-01

    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  11. ATYPICAL CHLAMYDIACEAE IN WILD POPULATIONS OF HAWKS ( BUTEO SPP.) IN CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Vega, Charlene; Hawkins, Michelle G; Johnson, Christine K; Briggs, Christopher; Vennum, Chris; Bloom, Peter H; Hull, Joshua M; Cray, Carolyn; Pesti, Denise; Johnson, Lisa; Ciembor, Paula; Ritchie, Branson R

    2018-03-01

    Chlamydiaceae bacteria infect many vertebrate hosts, and previous reports based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and serologic assays that are prone to cross-reaction among chlamydial organisms have been used to describe the prevalence of either DNA fragments or antibodies to Chlamydia spp. in wild raptorial populations. This study reports the PCR-based prevalence of Chlamydiaceae DNA that does not 100% match any avian or mammalian Chlamydiaceae in wild populations of hawks in California Buteo species. In this study, multimucosal swab samples ( n = 291) for quantitative PCR (qPCR) and plasma ( n = 78) for serology were collected from wild hawks. All available plasma samples were negative for antibodies using a C. psittaci-specific elementary body agglutination test (EBA; n = 78). For IgY antibodies all 51 available samples were negative using the indirect immunofluorescent assay. The overall prevalence of Chlamydiaceae DNA detection in wild Buteo species sampled was 1.37% (4/291) via qPCR-based analysis. Two fledgling Swainson's hawks ( Buteo swainsoni) and two juvenile red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis) were positive by qPCR-based assay for an atypical chlamydial sequence that did not 100% match any known C. psittaci genotype. Positive swab samples from these four birds were sequenced based on the ompA gene and compared by high-resolution melt analysis with all known avian and mammalian Chlamydiaceae. The amplicon sequence did not 100% match any known avian chlamydial sequence; however, it was most similar (98.6%) to C. psittaci M56, a genotype that is typically found in muskrats and hares. Culture and full genome sequence analysis of Chlamydia spp. isolated from diseased hawks will be necessary to classify this organism and to better understand its epizootiology and potential health impact on wild Buteo populations in California.

  12. Pooled Enrichment Sequencing Identifies Diversity and Evolutionary Pressures at NLR Resistance Genes within a Wild Tomato Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-06-02

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing proteins that are important in plant resistance signaling. Many of the known pathogen resistance (R) genes in plants are NLRs and they can recognize pathogen molecules directly or indirectly. As such, divergence and copy number variants at these genes are found to be high between species. Within populations, positive and balancing selection are to be expected if plants coevolve with their pathogens. In order to understand the complexity of R-gene coevolution in wild nonmodel species, it is necessary to identify the full range of NLRs and infer their evolutionary history. Here we investigate and reveal polymorphism occurring at 220 NLR genes within one population of the partially selfing wild tomato species Solanum pennellii. We use a combination of enrichment sequencing and pooling ten individuals, to specifically sequence NLR genes in a resource and cost-effective manner. We focus on the effects which different mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism calling software and settings have on calling polymorphisms in customized pooled samples. Our results are accurately verified using Sanger sequencing of polymorphic gene fragments. Our results indicate that some NLRs, namely 13 out of 220, have maintained polymorphism within our S. pennellii population. These genes show a wide range of πN/πS ratios and differing site frequency spectra. We compare our observed rate of heterozygosity with expectations for this selfing and bottlenecked population. We conclude that our method enables us to pinpoint NLR genes which have experienced natural selection in their habitat. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  14. Population genetics of foxtail millet and its wild ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongfang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv., one of the most ancient domesticated crops, is becoming a model system for studying biofuel crops and comparative genomics in the grasses. However, knowledge on the level of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD is very limited in this crop and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L. P. Beauv.. Such information would help us to understand the domestication process of cultivated species and will allow further research in these species, including association mapping and identification of agricultural significant genes involved in domestication. Results In this study, we surveyed DNA sequence for nine loci across 50 accessions of cultivated foxtail millet and 34 of its wild progenitor. We found a low level of genetic diversity in wild green foxtail (θ = 0.0059, θ means Watterson's estimator of θ. Despite of a 55% loss of its wild diversity, foxtail millet still harbored a considerable level of diversity (θ = 0.0027 when compared to rice and sorghum (θ = 0.0024 and 0.0034, respectively. The level of LD in the domesticated foxtail millet extends to 1 kb, while it decayed rapidly to a negligible level within 150 bp in wild green foxtail. Using coalescent simulation, we estimated the bottleneck severity at k = 0.6095 when ρ/θ = 1. These results indicated that the domestication bottleneck of foxtail millet was more severe than that of maize but slightly less pronounced than that of rice. Conclusions The results in this study establish a general framework for the domestication history of foxtail millet. The low level of genetic diversity and the increased level of LD in foxtail millet are mainly caused by a population bottleneck, although gene flow from foxtail millet to green foxtail is another factor that may have shaped the pattern of genetic diversity of these two related gene pools. The knowledge provided in this study will benefit future population

  15. Detection of Wolbachia in wild Tunisian populations of Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimouni, Wafa

    2009-01-01

    For the pest management programmes, we used the Wolbavhia pipientis, this bacteria caused a hight sterility in the medfly. by the technique of molecular biology, we have detect the Wolbachia pipientis in the wild populations in Tunisia.

  16. Parturition date for a given female is highly repeatable within five roe deer populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Bonenfant, Christophe; Hewison, A. J. Mark; Delorme, Daniel; Cargnelutti, Bruno; Kjellander, Petter; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Coulson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Births are highly synchronized among females in many mammal populations in temperate areas. Although laying date for a given female is also repeatable within populations of birds, limited evidence suggests low repeatability of parturition date for individual females in mammals, and between-population variability in repeatability has never, to our knowledge, been assessed. We quantified the repeatability of parturition date for individual females in five populations of roe deer, which we found to vary between 0.54 and 0.93. Each year, some females gave birth consistently earlier in the year, whereas others gave birth consistently later. In addition, all females followed the same lifetime trajectory for parturition date, giving birth progressively earlier as they aged. Giving birth early should allow mothers to increase offspring survival, although few females managed to do so. The marked repeatability of parturition date in roe deer females is the highest ever reported for a mammal, suggesting low phenotypic plasticity in this trait. PMID:23234861

  17. Production and evaluation of YY-male Brook Trout to eradicate nonnative wild brook trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Patrick; Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Campbell, Matthew R.; Vu, Ninh V.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis were introduced throughout western North America in the early 1900s, resulting in widespread self-sustaining populations that are difficult to eradicate and often threaten native salmonid populations. A novel approach for their eradication involves use of YY male (MYY) Brook Trout (created in the hatchery by feminizing XY males and crossing them with normal XY males). If MYY Brook Trout survive after stocking, and reproduce successfully with wild females, in theory this could eventually drive the sex ratio of the wild population to 100% males, at which point the population would not be able to reproduce and would be eradicated. This study represents the first successful development of a FYY and MYY salmonid broodstock, which was produced in four years at relatively low cost. Field trials demonstrated that stocked hatchery MYY Brook Trout survived and produced viable MYY offspring in streams, although reproductive fitness appeared to have been lower than their wild conspecifics. Even if reduced fitness is the norm in both streams and alpine lakes, our population simulations suggest that eradication can be achieved in reasonable time periods under some MYY stocking scenarios, especially when wild Brook Trout are simultaneously suppressed in the population.

  18. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  19. Genetic diversity in Oryza glumaepatula wild rice populations in Costa Rica and possible gene flow from O. sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Eric J; Meneses Martínez, Allan; Calvo, Amanda; Muñoz, Melania; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda

    2016-01-01

    Wild crop relatives are an important source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Diversity estimates are generally lacking for many wild crop relatives. The objective of the present study was to analyze how genetic diversity is distributed within and among populations of the wild rice species Oryza glumaepatula in Costa Rica. We also evaluated the likelihood of gene flow between wild and commercial rice species because the latter is commonly sympatric with wild rice populations. Introgression may change wild species by incorporating alleles from domesticated species, increasing the risk of losing original variation. Specimens from all known O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica were analyzed with 444 AFLP markers to characterize genetic diversity and structure. We also compared genetic diversity estimates between O. glumaepatula specimens and O. sativa commercial rice. Our results showed that O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica have moderately high levels of genetic diversity, comparable to those found in South American populations. Despite the restricted distribution of this species in Costa Rica, populations are fairly large, reducing the effects of drift on genetic diversity. We found a dismissible but significant structure (θ = 0.02 ± 0.001) among populations. A Bayesian structure analysis suggested that some individuals share a significant proportion of their genomes with O. sativa. These results suggest that gene flow from cultivated O. sativa populations may have occurred in the recent past. These results expose an important biohazard: recurrent hybridization may reduce the genetic diversity of this wild rice species. Introgression may transfer commercial traits into O. glumaepatula, which in turn could alter genetic diversity and increase the likelihood of local extinction. These results have important implications for in situ conservation strategies of the only wild populations of O. glumaepatula in Costa Rica.

  20. Inbreeding avoidance influences the viability of reintroduced populations of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny A Becker

    Full Text Available The conservation of many fragmented and small populations of endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus relies on understanding the natural processes affecting genetic diversity, demographics, and future viability. We used extensive behavioural, life-history, and genetic data from reintroduced African wild dogs in South Africa to (1 test for inbreeding avoidance via mate selection and (2 model the potential consequences of avoidance on population persistence. Results suggested that wild dogs avoided mating with kin. Inbreeding was rare in natal packs, after reproductive vacancies, and between sibling cohorts (observed on 0.8%, 12.5%, and 3.8% of occasions, respectively. Only one of the six (16.7% breeding pairs confirmed as third-order (or closer kin consisted of animals that were familiar with each other, while no other paired individuals had any prior association. Computer-simulated populations allowed to experience inbreeding had only a 1.6% probability of extinction within 100 years, whereas all populations avoiding incestuous matings became extinct due to the absence of unrelated mates. Populations that avoided mating with first-order relatives became extinct after 63 years compared with persistence of 37 and 19 years for those also prevented from second-order and third-order matings, respectively. Although stronger inbreeding avoidance maintains significantly more genetic variation, our results demonstrate the potentially severe demographic impacts of reduced numbers of suitable mates on the future viability of small, isolated wild dog populations. The rapid rate of population decline suggests that extinction may occur before inbreeding depression is observed.

  1. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  2. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28–45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0–69.1% common alleles and 45.6–48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8–77.0% common alleles and 51.7–60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection. PMID:27494031

  3. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; Visser, Richard G F; van de Wiel, Clemens C M

    2012-03-26

    After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F(1) hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC(1) and BC(2) populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC(1)S(1) and BC(2)S(1)). Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency). Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC(1)S(1) and BC(2)S(1) hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC(1) and BC(2) hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a positive

  4. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwimana Brigitte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (transgenes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1. Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency. Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop

  5. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1). Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency). Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a

  6. The environmental dependence of inbreeding depression in a wild bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szulkin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Inbreeding depression occurs when the offspring produced as a result of matings between relatives show reduced fitness, and is generally understood as a consequence of the elevated expression of deleterious recessive alleles. How inbreeding depression varies across environments is of importance for the evolution of inbreeding avoidance behaviour, and for understanding extinction risks in small populations. However, inbreeding-by-environment (IxE interactions have rarely been investigated in wild populations.We analysed 41 years of breeding events from a wild great tit (Parus major population and used 11 measures of the environment to categorise environments as relatively good or poor, testing whether these measures influenced inbreeding depression. Although inbreeding always, and environmental quality often, significantly affected reproductive success, there was little evidence for statistically significant I x E interactions at the level of individual analyses. However, point estimates of the effect of the environment on inbreeding depression were sometimes considerable, and we show that variation in the magnitude of the I x E interaction across environments is consistent with the expectation that this interaction is more marked across environmental axes with a closer link to overall fitness, with the environmental dependence of inbreeding depression being elevated under such conditions. Hence, our analyses provide evidence for an environmental dependence of the inbreeding x environment interaction: effectively an I x E x E.Overall, our analyses suggest that I x E interactions may be substantial in wild populations, when measured across relevant environmental contrasts, although their detection for single traits may require very large samples, or high rates of inbreeding.

  7. Simulating the spread of classical swine fever virus between a hypothetical wild-boar population and domestic pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Goldbach, Stine G.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2008-01-01

    of CSFV between the hypothetical wild-boar population and the domestic population. Furthermore, the economic impact is assessed taking the perspective of the Danish national budget and the Danish pig industry. We used InterSpreadPlus to model the differential classical swine fever (CSF) risk due to wild......Denmark has no free-range wild-boar population. However, Danish wildlife organizations have suggested that wild boar should be reintroduced into the wild to broaden national biodiversity. Danish pig farmers fear that this would lead to a higher risk of introduction of classical swine fever virus...

  8. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Hartman, Y.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Jansen, J.; McHale, L.K.; Michelmore, R.W.; Visser, R.G.F.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural

  9. Comparisons of genetic diversity in captive versus wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr; Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Pratt, Gordon F.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Captive populations can play a significant role in threatened and endangered species management. An important consideration when developing and managing captive populations, however, is the maintenance of genetic diversity to ensure that adequate variation exists to avoid the negative consequences of inbreeding. In this investigation, we compared genetic diversity patterns within captive and wild populations of the federally endangered Quino checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino Behr [Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae]), a taxon with a restricted distribution to chaparral and sage shrublands within Riverside and San Diego counties, California. Our analyses revealed that medium to high-frequency alleles from the wild populations were also present in the captive populations. While there was no significant difference in genetic diversity as quantified by expected heterozygosity, the captive populations showed tendencies toward significantly lower allelic richness than their wild counterparts. Given that alleles from the wild populations were occasionally not detected in captive populations, periodic incorporation of new wild specimens into the captive population would help ensure that allelic diversity is maintained to the extent possible. If performed in advance, genetic surveys of wild populations may provide the clearest insights regarding the number of individuals needed in captivity to adequately reflect wild populations.

  10. Application of novel polymorphic microsatellite loci identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae)) in the genetic characterization of wild and released populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Hong, Seong Wan

    2012-01-01

    The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp) reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5) was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (F(ST) = 0.002, p > 0.05). Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05), the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies aimed at

  11. Genetic variation within native populations of endemic silkmoth Antheraea assamensis (Helfer from Northeast India indicates need for in situ conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Tunginba Singh

    Full Text Available A. assamensis is a phytophagous Lepidoptera from Northeast India reared on host trees of Lauraceae family for its characteristic cocoon silk. Source of these cocoons are domesticated farm stocks that crash frequently and/or wild insect populations that provide new cultures. The need to reduce dependence on wild populations for cocoons necessitates assessment of genetic diversity in cultivated and wild populations. Molecular markers based on PCR of Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR and simple sequence repeats (SSR were used with four populations of wild insects and eleven populations of cultivated insects. Wild populations had high genetic diversity estimates (H(i = 0.25; H(S = 0.28; H(E = 0.42 and at least one population contained private alleles. Both marker systems indicated that genetic variability within populations examined was significantly high. Among cultivated populations, insects of the Upper Assam region (H(i = 0.19; H(S = 0.18; H(E = 0 were genetically distinct (F(ST = 0.38 with both marker systems from insects of Lower Assam (H(i =0.24; H(S =0.25; H(E = 0.3. Sequencing of polymorphic amplicons suggested transposition as a mechanism for maintaining genomic diversity. Implications for conservation of native populations in the wild and preserving in-farm diversity are discussed.

  12. Genetic diversity of wild and hatchery lake trout populations: Relevance for management and restoration in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Burnham-Curtis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The biological diversity of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the upper Great Lakes was historically high, consisting of many recognizable morphological types and discrete spawning populations. During the 1950s and 1960s, lake trout populations were extirpated from much of the Great Lakes primarily as a result of overfishing and predation by the parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Investigations of how genetic diversity is partitioned among remnant wild lake trout populations and hatchery broodstocks have been advocated to guide lake trout management and conservation planning. Using microsatellite genetic markers, we estimated measures of genetic diversity and the apportionment of genetic variance among 6 hatchery broodstocks and 10 wild populations representing three morphotypes (lean, humper, and siscowet). Analyses revealed that different hatchery broodstocks and wild populations contributed disproportionally to the total levels of genetic diversity. The genetic affinities of hatchery lake trout reflected the lake basins of origin of the wild source populations. The variance in allele frequency over all sampled extant wild populations was apportioned primarily on the basis of morphotype (??MT = 0.029) and secondarily among geographically dispersed populations within each morphotype (??ST = 0.024). The findings suggest that the genetic divergence reflected in recognized morphotypes and the associated ecological and physiological specialization occurred prior to the partitioning of large proglacial lakes into the Great Lakes or as a consequence of higher contemporary levels of gene flow within than among morphotypes. Information on the relative contributions of different broodstocks to total gene diversity within the regional hatchery program can be used to prioritize the broodstocks to be retained and to guide future stocking strategies. The findings highlight the importance of ecological and phenotypic diversity in Great Lakes fish communities and

  13. Evolution and Adaptation of Wild Emmer Wheat Populations to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Raats, Dina; Sela, Hanan; Klymiuk, Valentina; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel; Feng, Lihua; Krugman, Tamar; Fahima, Tzion

    2016-08-04

    The genetic bottlenecks associated with plant domestication and subsequent selection in man-made agroecosystems have limited the genetic diversity of modern crops and increased their vulnerability to environmental stresses. Wild emmer wheat, the tetraploid progenitor of domesticated wheat, distributed along a wide range of ecogeographical conditions in the Fertile Crescent, has valuable "left behind" adaptive diversity to multiple diseases and environmental stresses. The biotic and abiotic stress responses are conferred by series of genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control complex resistance pathways. The study of genetic diversity, genomic organization, expression profiles, protein structure and function of biotic and abiotic stress-resistance genes, and QTLs could shed light on the evolutionary history and adaptation mechanisms of wild emmer populations for their natural habitats. The continuous evolution and adaptation of wild emmer to the changing environment provide novel solutions that can contribute to safeguarding food for the rapidly growing human population.

  14. Concerning RNA-guided gene drives for the alteration of wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esvelt, Kevin M; Smidler, Andrea L; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Church, George M

    2014-07-17

    Gene drives may be capable of addressing ecological problems by altering entire populations of wild organisms, but their use has remained largely theoretical due to technical constraints. Here we consider the potential for RNA-guided gene drives based on the CRISPR nuclease Cas9 to serve as a general method for spreading altered traits through wild populations over many generations. We detail likely capabilities, discuss limitations, and provide novel precautionary strategies to control the spread of gene drives and reverse genomic changes. The ability to edit populations of sexual species would offer substantial benefits to humanity and the environment. For example, RNA-guided gene drives could potentially prevent the spread of disease, support agriculture by reversing pesticide and herbicide resistance in insects and weeds, and control damaging invasive species. However, the possibility of unwanted ecological effects and near-certainty of spread across political borders demand careful assessment of each potential application. We call for thoughtful, inclusive, and well-informed public discussions to explore the responsible use of this currently theoretical technology.

  15. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  16. Transposable elements generate population-specific insertional patterns and allelic variation in genes of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Katherine; Keidar, Danielle; Yaakov, Beery; Khasdan, Vadim; Kashkush, Khalil

    2017-10-27

    Natural populations of the tetraploid wild emmer wheat (genome AABB) were previously shown to demonstrate eco-geographically structured genetic and epigenetic diversity. Transposable elements (TEs) might make up a significant part of the genetic and epigenetic variation between individuals and populations because they comprise over 80% of the wild emmer wheat genome. In this study, we performed detailed analyses to assess the dynamics of transposable elements in 50 accessions of wild emmer wheat collected from 5 geographically isolated sites. The analyses included: the copy number variation of TEs among accessions in the five populations, population-unique insertional patterns, and the impact of population-unique/specific TE insertions on structure and expression of genes. We assessed the copy numbers of 12 TE families using real-time quantitative PCR, and found significant copy number variation (CNV) in the 50 wild emmer wheat accessions, in a population-specific manner. In some cases, the CNV difference reached up to 6-fold. However, the CNV was TE-specific, namely some TE families showed higher copy numbers in one or more populations, and other TE families showed lower copy numbers in the same population(s). Furthermore, we assessed the insertional patterns of 6 TE families using transposon display (TD), and observed significant population-specific insertional patterns. The polymorphism levels of TE-insertional patterns reached 92% among all wild emmer wheat accessions, in some cases. In addition, we observed population-specific/unique TE insertions, some of which were located within or close to protein-coding genes, creating allelic variations in a population-specific manner. We also showed that those genes are differentially expressed in wild emmer wheat. For the first time, this study shows that TEs proliferate in wild emmer wheat in a population-specific manner, creating new alleles of genes, which contribute to the divergent evolution of homeologous genes

  17. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, J.

    2007-01-01

    I projected costs for several contraceptive treatments that could be used by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to manage 4 wild horse (Equus caballus) populations. Potential management alternatives included existing roundup and selective removal methods combined with contraceptives of different duration and effectiveness. I projected costs for a 20-year economic life using the WinEquus?? wild horse population model and state-by-state cost estimates reflecting BLM's operational expenses. Findings revealed that 1) currently available 2-year contraceptives in most situations are capable of reducing variable operating costs by 15%, 2) experimental 3-year contraceptives may be capable of reducing costs by 18%, and 3) combining contraceptives with modest changes to herd sex ratio (e.g., 55-60% M) could trim costs by 30%. Predicted savings can increase when contraception is applied in conjunction with a removal policy that targets horses aged 0-4 years instead of 0-5 years. However, reductions in herd size result in greater variation in annual operating expenses. Because the horse program's variable operating costs make up about half of the total program costs (which include other fixed costs), contraceptive application and management can only reduce total costs by 14%, saving about $6.1 million per year. None of the contraceptive options I examined eliminated the need for long-term holding facilities over the 20-year period simulated, but the number of horses held may be reduced by about 17% with contraceptive treatment. Cost estimates were most sensitive to the oldest age adoptable and per-day holding costs. The BLM will experience significant cost savings as carefully designed contraceptive programs become widespread in the wild horse herds it manages.

  18. Alu repeats as markers for human population genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bazan, H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 97.9% nucleotide identity with each other and an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence. HS Alu family members are thought to be derived from a single source ``master`` gene, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 in. and 3 in. unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allows the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of an Alu repeat. Individual HS Alu sequences were found to be either monomorphic or dimorphic for the presence or absence of each repeat. The monomorphic HS Alu family members inserted in the human genome after the human/great ape divergence (which is thought to have occurred 4--6 million years ago), but before the radiation of modem man. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem man (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project as well. HS Alu family member insertion dimorphism differs from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) because individuals share HS Alu family member insertions based upon identity by descent from a common ancestor as a result of a single event which occurred one time within the human population. The VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times within a population and are identical by state only.

  19. Evolution under domestication: ongoing artificial selection and divergence of wild and managed Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) populations in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Fabiola; Casas, Alejandro; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Cortés-Palomec, Aurea C; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; González-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    The Tehuacán Valley in Mexico is a principal area of plant domestication in Mesoamerica. There, artificial selection is currently practised on nearly 120 native plant species with coexisting wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations, providing an excellent setting for studying ongoing mechanisms of evolution under domestication. One of these species is the columnar cactus Stenocereus pruinosus, in which we studied how artificial selection is operating through traditional management and whether it has determined morphological and genetic divergence between wild and managed populations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 households of three villages to investigate motives and mechanisms of artificial selection. Management effects were studied by comparing variation patterns of 14 morphological characters and population genetics (four microsatellite loci) of 264 plants from nine wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations. Variation in fruit characters was recognized by most people, and was the principal target of artificial selection directed to favour larger and sweeter fruits with thinner or thicker peel, fewer spines and pulp colours other than red. Artificial selection operates in agroforestry systems favouring abundance (through not felling plants and planting branches) of the preferred phenotypes, and acts more intensely in household gardens. Significant morphological divergence between wild and managed populations was observed in fruit characters and plant vigour. On average, genetic diversity in silvicultural populations (H(E) = 0.743) was higher than in wild (H(E) = 0.726) and cultivated (H(E) = 0.700) populations. Most of the genetic variation (90.58 %) occurred within populations. High gene flow (Nm(FST) > 2) was identified among almost all populations studied, but was slightly limited by mountains among wild populations, and by artificial selection among wild and managed populations. Traditional management of S. pruinosus involves

  20. Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes.

  1. Genetic wealth, population health: Major histocompatibility complex variation in captive and wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Kathleen E; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Drea, Christine M

    2017-10-01

    Across species, diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is critical to individual disease resistance and, hence, to population health; however, MHC diversity can be reduced in small, fragmented, or isolated populations. Given the need for comparative studies of functional genetic diversity, we investigated whether MHC diversity differs between populations which are open, that is experiencing gene flow, versus populations which are closed, that is isolated from other populations. Using the endangered ring-tailed lemur ( Lemur catta ) as a model, we compared two populations under long-term study: a relatively "open," wild population ( n  = 180) derived from Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar (2003-2013) and a "closed," captive population ( n  = 121) derived from the Duke Lemur Center (DLC, 1980-2013) and from the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Zoos (2012). For all animals, we assessed MHC-DRB diversity and, across populations, we compared the number of unique MHC-DRB alleles and their distributions. Wild individuals possessed more MHC-DRB alleles than did captive individuals, and overall, the wild population had more unique MHC-DRB alleles that were more evenly distributed than did the captive population. Despite management efforts to maintain or increase genetic diversity in the DLC population, MHC diversity remained static from 1980 to 2010. Since 2010, however, captive-breeding efforts resulted in the MHC diversity of offspring increasing to a level commensurate with that found in wild individuals. Therefore, loss of genetic diversity in lemurs, owing to small founder populations or reduced gene flow, can be mitigated by managed breeding efforts. Quantifying MHC diversity within individuals and between populations is the necessary first step to identifying potential improvements to captive management and conservation plans.

  2. Interactions between Behaviour and Genetics in Wild and Domestic Bird Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Oers, van K.

    2010-01-01

    Personality traits can be favoured by both natural and artificial selection, if they result in increased fitness or productivity, and therefore play an important role in both wild and domestic populations. Here, we review how personality traits affect and are affected by natural and artificial

  3. Effect of haemolysis and repeated freeze-thawing cycles on wild boar serum antibody testing by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boadella Mariana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring wildlife diseases is needed to identify changes in disease occurrence. Wildlife blood samples are valuable for this purpose but are often gathered haemolysed. To maximise information, sera often go through repeated analysis and freeze-thaw cycles. Herein, we used samples of clean and haemolysed Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa serum stored at -20°C and thawed up to five times to study the effects of both treatments on the outcome of a commercial ELISA test for the detection of antibodies against Suid Herpesvirus 1 (ADV. Results The estimated prevalence of antibodies against ADV was 50-53% for clean and haemolysed sera. Hence, haemolysis did not reduce the mean observed serum antibody prevalence. However, 10 samples changed their classification after repeated freeze-thawing. This included 3 (15% of the clean sera and 7 (41% of the haemolysed sera. Conclusions We recommend (1 establishing more restrictive cut-off values when testing wildlife sera, (2 recording serum quality prior to sample banking, (3 recording the number of freezing-thawing cycles and (4 store sera in various aliquots to reduce repeated usage. For instance, sera with more than 3 freeze-thaw cycles and a haemolysis of over 3 on a scale of 4 should better be discarded for serum antibody monitoring. Even clean (almost not haemolysed sera should not go through more than 5 freeze-thaw cycles.

  4. Seasonality of helminth infection in wild red deer varies between individuals and between parasite taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, Gregory F; Kenyon, Fiona; Morris, Alison; Morris, Sean; Nussey, Daniel H; Pemberton, Josephine M

    2018-03-09

    Parasitism in wild mammals can vary according to myriad intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many of which vary seasonally. However, seasonal variation in parasitism is rarely studied using repeated samples from known individuals. Here we used a wild population of individually recognized red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Isle of Rum to quantify seasonality and intrinsic factors affecting gastrointestinal helminth parasitism over the course of a year. We collected 1020 non-invasive faecal samples from 328 known individuals which we then analysed for propagules of three helminth taxa: strongyle nematodes, the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and the tissue nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi. Zero-inflated Poisson models were used to investigate how season, age and sex were associated with parasite prevalence and count intensity, while Poisson models were used to quantify individual repeatability within and between sampling seasons. Parasite intensity and prevalence varied according to all investigated factors, with opposing seasonality, age profiles and sex biases between parasite taxa. Repeatability was moderate, decreased between seasons and varied between parasites; both F. hepatica and E. cervi showed significant between-season repeatability, while strongyle nematode counts were only repeatable within-season and showed no repeatability within individuals across the year.

  5. Do wild chimpanzee populations develop diverse cultures? [Latest Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Humans pride themselves on having extensive and diverse cultures. However, cultures can also be observed in animals. The research presented in this video aims at understanding the cultures of wild chimpanzee populations in several African countries and how they differ from each other. As chimpanzees avoid human contact, CHRISTOPHE BOESCH explains, the research team conducted the study by setting up camera traps to catch chimpanzee behavior on video. Forty locations were carefully selected to ...

  6. Captive-rearing piping plovers: Developing techniques to augment wild populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A.N.; Cuthbert, F.J.; Wemmer, L.C.; Doolittle, A.W.; Feirer, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for captive-rearing and releasing piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) were developed using a surrogate species, killdeer (Charadrius vociferus). We compared captive-and parent-reared killdeer, and parent-reared piping plovers and determined that growth and behavior were similar. After surrogate trials determined that captive-rearing was feasible, we used the same methods to raise piping plover chicks from salvaged eggs. For captive-reared chick of both species, survival to fledging was higher than and behaviors similar to parent-reared chicks in the wild. Rearing techniques were fine-tuned, and ten piping plover fledglings were released to the wild. Based on our results, we developed recommendations for captive-rearing piping plovers using salvaged eggs to enhance productivity of small populations. ?? 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Assessing the impact of stocking northern-origin hatchery brook trout on the genetics of wild populations in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazyak, David C.; Rash, Jacob; Lubinski, Barbara A.; King, Tim L.

    2018-01-01

    The release of hatchery-origin fish into streams with endemics can degrade the genetics of wild populations if interbreeding occurs. Starting in the 1800s, brook trout descendent from wild populations in the northeastern United States were stocked from hatcheries into streams across broad areas of North America to create and enhance fishery resources. Across the southeastern United States, many millions of hatchery-origin brook trout have been released into hundreds of streams, but the extent of introgression with native populations is not well resolved despite large phylogeographic distances between these groups. We used three assessment approaches based on 12 microsatellite loci to examine the extent of hatchery introgression in 406 wild brook trout populations in North Carolina. We found high levels of differentiation among most collections (mean F′ST = 0.718), and among most wild collections and hatchery strains (mean F′ST = 0.732). Our assessment of hatchery introgression was consistent across the three metrics, and indicated that most wild populations have not been strongly influenced by supplemental stocking. However, a small proportion of wild populations in North Carolina appear to have been strongly influenced by stocked conspecifics, or in some cases, may have been founded entirely by hatchery lineages. In addition, we found significant differences in the apparent extent of hatchery introgression among major watersheds, with the Savannah River being the most strongly impacted. Conversely, populations in the Pee Dee River watershed showed little to no evidence of hatchery introgression. Our study represents the first large-scale effort to quantify the extent of hatchery introgression across brook trout populations in the southern Appalachians using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers.

  8. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Scandura, Massimo; J. Goedbloed, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly manag...

  9. Impacts of neonicotinoid use on long-term population changes in wild bees in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Ben A.; Isaac, Nicholas J. B.; Bullock, James M.; Roy, David B.; Garthwaite, David G.; Crowe, Andrew; Pywell, Richard F.

    2016-08-01

    Wild bee declines have been ascribed in part to neonicotinoid insecticides. While short-term laboratory studies on commercially bred species (principally honeybees and bumblebees) have identified sub-lethal effects, there is no strong evidence linking these insecticides to losses of the majority of wild bee species. We relate 18 years of UK national wild bee distribution data for 62 species to amounts of neonicotinoid use in oilseed rape. Using a multi-species dynamic Bayesian occupancy analysis, we find evidence of increased population extinction rates in response to neonicotinoid seed treatment use on oilseed rape. Species foraging on oilseed rape benefit from the cover of this crop, but were on average three times more negatively affected by exposure to neonicotinoids than non-crop foragers. Our results suggest that sub-lethal effects of neonicotinoids could scale up to cause losses of bee biodiversity. Restrictions on neonicotinoid use may reduce population declines.

  10. Genetic diversity and relationships between wild and cultivated populations of the sea lettuce, Enteromorpha prolifera, in Korea revialed by RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Man; Lee, Hak; Lee, Bok; Choi, Joo

    2004-01-01

    RAPD analysis was conducted to estimate genetic diversity and population structure of the wild (natural) and cultivated sea lettuce, Enteromorpha prolifera. The objectives of this study were to estimate the levels of genetic diversity in the wild and cultivated populations and to describe how the genetic variation of this species is distributed within and among its populations. In wild sea lettuce, 93.2% of loci at the species level showed polymorphism. The cultivated populations were found t...

  11. An Infectious Disease and Mortality Survey in a Population of Free-Ranging African Wild Dogs and Sympatric Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flacke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease can cause declines in wildlife populations and significantly threaten their survival. Recent expansion of human and domestic animal populations has made wildlife more susceptible to transmission of pathogens from domestic animal hosts. We conducted a pathogen surveillance and mortality survey for the population of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, from January 2006–February 2007. Samples were obtained from 24 wild dogs for canine distemper virus (CDV and canine parvovirus (CPV serological testing. Data were collected on the presence of CDV, CPV, and rabies virus in the KZN domestic dog (Canis familiaris population from 2004–06. The presence of these pathogens was confirmed in domestic dogs throughout KZN. Wild dogs exhibited 0% and 4.2% prevalence for CDV and CPV antibodies, respectively. In 2006 the largest wild dog pack in KZN was reduced from 26 individuals to a single animal; disease due to rabies virus was considered the most probable cause. This study provides evidence that CDV, CPV and rabies are potential threats to African wild dog conservation in KZN. The most economical and practical way to protect wild dogs from canine pathogens may be via vaccination of sympatric domestic dogs; however, such programmes are currently limited.

  12. Distribution and numbers of the wild boar population in south eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca, C.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available By using both plot sampling and line intercept snow track index, the population density and numbers of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains and Bieszczady Foothills was estimated during February 2000. The total number of wild boar inhabiting the study area (140.4 thousands ha of forest was equal to 655 animals with an average population density of 4.66 wild boar per 1000 ha, ranging from 0.0 (Forest Districts of Cisna and Wetlina to 23.21 individuals/1000 ha (Krasiczyn Forest District. The low density of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains is caused by the high wolf prédation and overharvest rate. The recomendation is to stop wild boar hunting in Bieszczady Mountains during the next 4 hunting seasons, and to use the harvest rate equal to 30% of the population size in February.

    [fr]
    En février 2000, nous avons estimé la densité de population et le nombre de sangliers sauvages dans les montagnes Bieszczady et les collines Bieszczady. Pour cela, un index des empreintes sur la neige interceptant une ligne ainsi que des parcelles d'échantillonage ont été utilisées. Le nombre total de sangliers habitant dans la zone d'étude -140.400 ha de forêts- s'élevait à 655 animais; la densité moyenne de population était de 4,66 sangliers sauvages par 1000 ha, chiffre oscillant entre 0,0 (Districts Forestiers de Cisna et Wetlina et 23,21 individus par 1000 ha (District de Krasiczyn. La très basse densité de sangliers sauvages dans les Montagnes Bieszczady est sans doute la conséquence de la forte prédation par le loup et de la chasse importante. Les auteurs proposent d'arrêter la chasse dans les Montagnes Bieszczady durant les 4 saisons suivantes et de limiter le taux d'extraction à 30% du niveau de la population en février.
    [es]
    Durante febrero de 2000, en las montañas Bieszczady y sus estribaciones, se estimó la densidad poblacional y número de jabalíes por medio del índice de intercepción lineal de huellas en nieve

  13. Wild reindeer in Norway – population ecology, management and harvest

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    Eigil Reimers

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild reindeer in Norway, presently (winter 2005-06 numbering some 25 000 animals, are found in 23 more or less separated areas in the mountainous southern part of the country (see map in appendix. All herds are hunted and management is organized in close cooperation between owner organizations and state agencies. I will provide a historical review of the wild reindeer management and research in Norway and conclude with the present situation. We identify 3 types of wild reindeer on basis of their origin: (1 the original wild reindeer with minor influence from previous domestic reindeer herding activities (Snøhetta, Rondane and Sølenkletten, (2 wild reindeer with some influx of animals from past domestic reindeer herding in the area (Nordfjella, Hardangervidda, Setesdal-Ryfylke and (3 feral reindeer with a domesticated origin (reindeer released or escaped from past reindeer husbandry units; Forolhogna, Ottadalen North and Ottadalen South, Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell and several smaller areas. In Norway, genetic origin (wild or domesticated, body size and reproductive performance of reindeer differ among areas. Feral reindeer have higher body weights and enjoy higher reproductive rates than their originally wild counterparts. These differences may partially be explained by differences in food quality and availability among the populations. However, there is a growing suspicion that other explanatory factors are also involved. Wild reindeer are more vigilant and show longer fright and flight distances than feral reindeer. Number of animals harvested was 4817, or ca. 20% of the total population in 2005, but varies between 40% in feral reindeer areas to below 20% in some of the "wild" reindeer areas. Causal factors behind this variation include differences in age at maturation, postnatal calf mortality and herd structure. The Norwegian Institute for nature research (NINA in cooperation with the Directorate for nature management (DN allocate considerable

  14. The population structure of wild sorghum species in agro-ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The range of allelic frequencies varied from low (˂0.4), to moderate (0.4-0.7) and to high (0.7) in the AEZs. Wild sorghum populations had moderate to high expected heterozygosity (HE) values of between 0.453 in LM1 to 0.715 in LM2. Differences in the magnitude of diversity was significant in the counties (Busia HE = 0.59 ...

  15. Susceptibility and resistance to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae: Triatominae in Bolivia: new discoveries

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    Stéphanie Depickère

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bolivia is a high-endemic country for Chagas disease, for which the principal vector is Triatoma infestans (Triatominae. This is a mainly domestic species that is also found in the wild environment. Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown the importance of Triatominae resistance to insecticides, especially in Bolivia. Data regarding the susceptibility/resistance of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin are presented. For the first time, domestic populations of the department of Santa Cruz were tested, showing low resistance. Although most of the wild populations were found to be susceptible to deltamethrin, three populations from three departments showed a mortality rate of less than 100%. This result is emphasised here.

  16. Repeatability and reproducibility of Population Viability Analysis (PVA and the implications for threatened species management

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    Clare Morrison

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage focuses on prioritizing species, populations or habitats based on urgency, biodiversity benefits, recovery potential as well as cost. Population Viability Analysis (PVA is frequently used in population focused conservation prioritizations. The critical nature of many of these management decisions requires that PVA models are repeatable and reproducible to reliably rank species and/or populations quantitatively. This paper assessed the repeatability and reproducibility of a subset of previously published PVA models. We attempted to rerun baseline models from 90 publicly available PVA studies published between 2000-2012 using the two most common PVA modelling software programs, VORTEX and RAMAS-GIS. Forty percent (n = 36 failed, 50% (45 were both repeatable and reproducible, and 10% (9 had missing baseline models. Repeatability was not linked to taxa, IUCN category, PVA program version used, year published or the quality of publication outlet, suggesting that the problem is systemic within the discipline. Complete and systematic presentation of PVA parameters and results are needed to ensure that the scientific input into conservation planning is both robust and reliable, thereby increasing the chances of making decisions that are both beneficial and defensible. The implications for conservation triage may be far reaching if population viability models cannot be reproduced with confidence, thus undermining their intended value.

  17. Genetic and morphological contrasts between wild and anthropogenic populations of Agave parryi var. huachucensis in south-eastern Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kathleen C; Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, J L; Hodgson, Wendy C

    2014-05-01

    At least seven species of Agave, including A. parryi, were cultivated prehistorically in Arizona, serving as important sources of food and fibre. Many relict populations from ancient cultivation remain in the modern landscape, offering a unique opportunity to study pre-Columbian plant manipulation practices. This study examined genetic and morphological variation in six A. p. var. huachucensis populations of unknown origin to compare them with previous work on A. parryi populations of known origin, to infer their cultivation history and to determine whether artificial selection is evident in populations potentially managed by early agriculturalists. Six A. p. var. huachucensis and 17 A. parryi populations were sampled, and morphometric, allozyme and microsatellite data were used to compare morphology and genetic structure in purportedly anthropogenic and wild populations, as well as in the two taxa. Analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering were performed to partition variation associated with taxonomic identity and hypothesized evolutionary history, to highlight patterns of similarity among populations and to identify potential wild sources for the planting stock. A p. var. huachucensis and A. parryi populations differed significantly both morphologically and genetically. Like A. parryi, wild A. p. var. huachucensis populations were more genetically diverse than the inferred anthropogenic populations, with greater expected heterozygosity, percentage of polymorphic loci and number of alleles. Inferred anthropogenic populations exhibited many traits indicative of past active cultivation: greater morphological uniformity, fixed heterozygosity for several loci (non-existent in wild populations), fewer multilocus genotypes and strong differentiation among populations. Where archaeological information is lacking, the genetic signature of many Agave populations in Arizona can be used to infer their evolutionary history and to identify potentially fruitful

  18. First Report of Widespread Wild Populations of Triatoma infestans (Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the Valleys of La Paz, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Rosio; Waleckx, Etienne; Bosseno, Marie-France; Zoveda, Faustine; Vidaurre, Pablo; Salas, Renata; Mamani, Elio; Noireau, François; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2010-01-01

    Wild populations of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in the Southern Cone countries, may be involved in reinfestation of human dwellings, limiting the success of vector-control campaigns in Bolivia. Knowledge of the distribution of these populations remains incomplete. We report here the detection of T. infestans wild populations in large areas in the department of La Paz, Bolivia. Among 18 sylvatic areas investigated, 17 were positive with T. infestans specimens. The infection rate of captured T. infestans with Trypanosoma cruzi was 85.7% in adult specimens. These results expand the geographical distribution of wild populations of T. infestans; it may be distributed throughout the Inter-Andean Dry Forest eco-region of Bolivia. The current information allows us to propose the hypothesis that a sylvatic origin of the reinfestation is located in the valleys of La Paz. PMID:20348501

  19. Distribution of genetic diversity in wild European populations of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola): implications for plant genetic resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Sretenovic Rajicic, T.; Treuren, van R.; Dehmer, K.J.; Linden, van der C.G.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variation in Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was studied across Europe from the Czech Republic to the United Kingdom, using three molecular marker systems, simple sequence repeat (SSR, microsatellites), AFLP and nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling. The

  20. X-Chromosomal short tandem repeat loci in the Turkish population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the importance and utility of polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) found on the human X chromosome and to provide the first allelic frequency data of X-STR (X chromosomal) loci in the Turkish population. Blood samples were taken from unrelated individuals (135 males and 129 ...

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, J R; Dechaine, J M; Marek, L F; Burke, J M

    2011-09-01

    Crop germplasm collections are valuable resources for ongoing plant breeding efforts. To fully utilize such collections, however, researchers need detailed information about the amount and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. Here, we report the results of a population genetic analysis of the primary gene pool of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) based on a broad sampling of 433 cultivated accessions from North America and Europe, as well as a range-wide collection of 24 wild sunflower populations. Gene diversity across the cultivars was 0.47, as compared with 0.70 in the wilds, indicating that cultivated sunflower harbors roughly two-thirds of the total genetic diversity present in wild sunflower. Population structure analyses revealed that wild sunflower can be subdivided into four genetically distinct population clusters throughout its North American range, whereas the cultivated sunflower gene pool could be split into two main clusters separating restorer lines from the balance of the gene pool. Use of a maximum likelihood method to estimate the contribution of the wild gene pool to the cultivated sunflower germplasm revealed that the bulk of the cultivar diversity is derived from two wild sunflower population genetic clusters that are primarily composed of individuals from the east-central United States, the same general region in which sunflower domestication is believed to have occurred. We also identified a nested subset of accessions that capture as much of the allelic diversity present within the sampled cultivated sunflower germplasm collection as possible. At the high end, a core set of 288 captured nearly 90% of the alleles present in the full set of 433, whereas a core set of just 12 accessions was sufficient to capture nearly 50% of the total allelic diversity present within this sample of cultivated sunflower.

  2. Micro-evolutionary divergence patterns of mandible shapes in wild house mouse (Mus musculus populations

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    Tautz Diethard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insights into the micro-evolutionary patterns of morphological traits require an assessment of the natural variation of the trait within and between populations and closely related species. The mouse mandible is a particularly suitable morphological trait for such an analysis, since it has long been used as a model to study the quantitative genetics of shape. In addition, many distinct populations, sub-species and closely related species are known for the house mouse. However, morphological comparisons among wild caught animals require an assessment in how far environmental and technical factors could interfere with the shape change measurements. Results Using geometric morphometrics, we have surveyed mandible shapes in 15 natural populations of the genus Mus, with a focus on the subspecies Mus musculus domesticus. In parallel we have carefully assessed possibly confounding technical and biological factors. We find that there are distinct differences on average between populations, subspecies and species, but these differences are smaller than differences between individuals within populations. Populations from summer-dry regions, although more ancestral, are less distinct from each other than are populations from the more recently colonized northern areas. Populations with especially distinct shapes occur in an area of sympatry of M. m. domesticus and M. spretus and on recently colonized sub-antarctic islands. We have also studied a number of inbred strains to assess in how far their mandible shapes resemble those from the wild. We find that they fall indeed into the shape space of natural variation between individuals in populations. Conclusions Although mandible shapes in natural populations can be influenced by environmental variables, these influences are insufficient to explain the average extent of shape differences between populations, such that evolutionary processes must be invoked to explain this level of diversity

  3. Inherited XX sex reversal originating from wild medaka populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinomiya, A; Otake, H; Hamaguchi, S; Sakaizumi, M

    2010-11-01

    The teleost fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), has an XX/XY sex-determining mechanism. A Y-linked DM domain gene, DMY, has been isolated by positional cloning as the sex-determining gene in this species. Previously, we conducted a field survey of genotypic sex and found that approximately 1% of wild medaka are sex-reversed (XX males and XY females). Here, we performed genetic analyses of nine spontaneous XX sex-reversed males to elucidate its genetic basis. In all cases, the F(1) progeny were all females, whereas XX males reappeared in the backcross (BC) progeny, suggesting that XX sex reversal is a recessive trait. Although the incidences of sex reversal in the BC progeny were mostly low, 40% were males derived from one XX male. We performed linkage analysis using 55 BC males and located a single major factor, sda-1 (sex-determining autosomal factor-1), controlling sex reversal in an autosomal linkage group. Thus, genes involved in the sex-determining pathway can be isolated from spontaneous mutants in wild populations.

  4. Evolution under domestication: ongoing artificial selection and divergence of wild and managed Stenocereus pruinosus (Cactaceae) populations in the Tehuacán Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Fabiola; Casas, Alejandro; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan Manuel; Cortés-Palomec, Aurea C.; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; González-Rodríguez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The Tehuacán Valley in Mexico is a principal area of plant domestication in Mesoamerica. There, artificial selection is currently practised on nearly 120 native plant species with coexisting wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations, providing an excellent setting for studying ongoing mechanisms of evolution under domestication. One of these species is the columnar cactus Stenocereus pruinosus, in which we studied how artificial selection is operating through traditional management and whether it has determined morphological and genetic divergence between wild and managed populations. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 83 households of three villages to investigate motives and mechanisms of artificial selection. Management effects were studied by comparing variation patterns of 14 morphological characters and population genetics (four microsatellite loci) of 264 plants from nine wild, silvicultural and cultivated populations. Key Results Variation in fruit characters was recognized by most people, and was the principal target of artificial selection directed to favour larger and sweeter fruits with thinner or thicker peel, fewer spines and pulp colours others than red. Artificial selection operates in agroforestry systems favouring abundance (through not felling plants and planting branches) of the preferred phenotypes, and acts more intensely in household gardens. Significant morphological divergence between wild and managed populations was observed in fruit characters and plant vigour. On average, genetic diversity in silvicultural populations (HE = 0·743) was higher than in wild (HE = 0·726) and cultivated (HE = 0·700) populations. Most of the genetic variation (90·58 %) occurred within populations. High gene flow (NmFST > 2) was identified among almost all populations studied, but was slightly limited by mountains among wild populations, and by artificial selection among wild and managed populations. Conclusions

  5. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  6. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Wan Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5 was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05. Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05, the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci

  7. Genome sequence, population history, and pelage genetics of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Michael G; Parker, Lillian D; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Young, Hillary S; Helgen, Kristofer M; Szykman Gunther, Micaela; Woodroffe, Rosie; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2016-12-09

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered African canid threatened by severe habitat fragmentation, human-wildlife conflict, and infectious disease. A highly specialized carnivore, it is distinguished by its social structure, dental morphology, absence of dewclaws, and colorful pelage. We sequenced the genomes of two individuals from populations representing two distinct ecological histories (Laikipia County, Kenya and KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa). We reconstructed population demographic histories for the two individuals and scanned the genomes for evidence of selection. We show that the African wild dog has undergone at least two effective population size reductions in the last 1,000,000 years. We found evidence of Lycaon individual-specific regions of low diversity, suggestive of inbreeding or population-specific selection. Further research is needed to clarify whether these population reductions and low diversity regions are characteristic of the species as a whole. We documented positive selection on the Lycaon mitochondrial genome. Finally, we identified several candidate genes (ASIP, MITF, MLPH, PMEL) that may play a role in the characteristic Lycaon pelage.

  8. The Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico Suggests Genetic Differentiation Between Populations from Cultivated Potato and Wild Solanum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flier, Wilbert G; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Kroon, Laurens P N M; Sturbaum, Anne K; van den Bosch, Trudy B M; Garay-Serrano, Edith; Lozoya-Saldaña, Hector; Fry, William E; Turkensteen, Lod J

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected from cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xendinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) multi-locus fingerprint genotype. Isolate samples were monomorphic for mtDNA haplotype because all isolates tested were of the Ia haplotype. A total of 158 multilocus AFLP genotypes were identified among the 170 P. infestans isolates included in this study. P. infestans populations sampled in the Toluca Valley in 1997 were highly variable and almost every single isolate represented a unique genotype based on the analysis of 165 AFLP marker loci. Populations of P. infestans collected from the commercial potato-growing region in the valley, the subsistence potato production area along the slopes of the Nevado de Toluca, and the native Solanum spp. on the forested slopes of the volcano showed a high degree of genetic diversity. The number of polymorphic loci varied from 20.0 to 62.4% for isolates collected from the field station and wild Solanum spp. On average, 81.8% (135) of the AFLP loci were polymorphic. Hetero-zygosity varied between 7.7 and 19.4%. Significant differentiation was found at the population level between strains originating from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum spp. (P = 0.001 to 0.022). Private alleles were observed in individual isolates collected from all three populations, with numbers of unique dominant alleles varying from 9 to 16 for isolates collected from commercial potato crops and native Solanum spp., respectively. Four AFLP markers were exclusively found present in isolates collected from S. demissum. Indirect estimation of gene flow between populations indicated restricted gene flow between both P. infestans populations from cultivated potatoes and wild Solanum hosts. There was no evidence

  9. 137Cs monitoring in the meat of wild boar population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Beňová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the elapsed time and the nature of the Chernobyl accident, the only artificial radionuclide present in the soil is 137Cs, with a physical half-life conversion of 30.17 years. The 137Cs is quickly integrated into a biological cycle, similar to potassium. Generally, radionuclides are characterized by their mobility in soil. Contamination of materials and food by radionuclides represent a serious problem and has a negative impact on human health. The threat of international terrorism and the inability to forestall the impact of natural disasters on nuclear energetic (Fukushima accident, are also reasons for continuous monitoring of food safety. According screening measurement performed in European countries, high radioactivity levels were reported in the wild boars muscles from Sumava (Czech Republic. Seasonal fluctuation of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples was observed in the forests on the southern Rhineland. Monitoring of 137Cs activity in the wild boar meat samples in the hunting grounds in Slovakia was initiated based on the reports on exceeding limits of the content of radiocaesium in the meat of wild boar from the surrounding countries. The aim of this study was to determine the 137Cs post Chernobyl contamination of wild boars population in different hunting districts of Slovakia during 2013 - 2014. A total of 60 thigh muscle samples from wild boars of different age categories (4 months - 2 years were evaluated. 137Cs activity was measured by gamma spectrometry (Canberra. Despite the fact Slovakia is closer to Chernobyl as Czech Republic and Germany, the 137Cs activity measured was very low and far below the permitted limit. The highest radiocaesium activity level measured in muscle was 37.2 Bq.kg-1 ±4.7%. Wild boar originated from Zlate Moravce district. The measurement results show, that 137Cs contamination levels of game in Slovakia are low. Radiocaesium activity in examined samples was very low and

  10. Dynamics of urban population growth in Nigeria: The role of repeated migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, A

    1976-02-01

    The paper examines the direct contribution of migration to the growth of the urban population both in terms of its mobility and stability components with special reference to Western Nigeria. The basis of the paper is a survey of urban migration conducted by the author in 1971-1972; the findings are supplemented where necessary by the 1952-1953 and 1963 census figures. Migration is a major factor in the growth of the urban population. The direct contribution by migrants to such growth can be traced to the following groups: the initial streams of migrants, the follow-up migrants and the potentially mobile migrants attracted from the migrants' communities of origin to the towns. Repeated migration by some migrants, particularly the young, the educated and the white collar-workers, are also major factors in the urban population growth. Such repeated migrations are predominantly urban to urban or turnover moves. The high mobility rate among a group of migrants tends to conceal the relative stability among the migrant population as a whole. Repeated migrants usually stay between 3 and 5 years at each destination, before moving on. A substantial proportion of migrants, mainly farmers, the less educated and the old, are relatively stable in the survey towns (Ife and Oshogho). The urban residence ration indices also indicate an increase in the rate of immigration, mainly of young persons, to the towns. The youthful age structure, the age selectivity in migration and the marital status of the young migrants tend to exacerbate the masculinity in the form of unbalanced sex ratio prevailing in most urban centers. The urban population is unlikely to be stable. The tendency for old migrants of rural origin to return to their villages at the end of their migration career and for contemporary migrants to consist predominantly of youths, will for the next generation or 2 lead to a young and unstable urban population.

  11. Footprints of selection in wild populations of Bicyclus anynana along a latitudinal cline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.A.; Collins, S.; Beldade, P.; Brakefield, P.M.; Zwaan, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology is how variation in the genome enables species to adapt to divergent environments. Here, we study footprints of thermal selection in candidate genes in six wild populations of the afrotropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana sampled along a

  12. The social and ecological integration of captive-raised adolescent male African elephants (Loxodonta africana into a wild population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be

  13. Causes of morbidity in wild raptor populations admitted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre in Spain from 1995-2007: a long term retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2011-01-01

    Morbidity studies complement the understanding of hazards to raptors by identifying natural or anthropogenic factors. Descriptive epidemiological studies of wildlife have become an important source of information about hazards to wildlife populations. On the other hand, data referenced to the overall wild population could provide a more accurate assessment of the potential impact of the morbidity/mortality causes in populations of wild birds. The present study described the morbidity causes of hospitalized wild raptors and their incidence in the wild populations, through a long term retrospective study conducted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre of Catalonia (1995-2007). Importantly, Seasonal Cumulative Incidences (SCI) were calculated considering estimations of the wild population in the region and trend analyses were applied among the different years. A total of 7021 birds were analysed: 7 species of Strigiformes (n = 3521) and 23 of Falconiformes (n = 3500). The main causes of morbidity were trauma (49.5%), mostly in the Falconiformes, and orphaned/young birds (32.2%) mainly in the Strigiformes. During wintering periods, the largest morbidity incidence was observed in Accipiter gentillis due to gunshot wounds and in Tyto alba due to vehicle trauma. Within the breeding season, Falco tinnunculus (orphaned/young category) and Bubo bubo (electrocution and metabolic disorders) represented the most affected species. Cases due to orphaned/young, infectious/parasitic diseases, electrocution and unknown trauma tended to increase among years. By contrast, cases by undetermined cause, vehicle trauma and captivity decreased throughout the study period. Interestingly, gunshot injuries remained constant during the study period. Frequencies of morbidity causes calculated as the proportion of each cause referred to the total number of admitted cases, allowed a qualitative assessment of hazards for the studied populations. However, cumulative incidences based on

  14. How much gene flow is needed to avoid inbreeding depression in wild tiger populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, John; Allendorf, Fred W; McDougal, Charles; Smith, James L D

    2014-08-22

    The number and size of tiger populations continue to decline owing to habitat loss, habitat fragmentation and poaching of tigers and their prey. As a result, tiger populations have become small and highly structured. Current populations have been isolated since the early 1970s or for approximately seven generations. The objective of this study is to explore how inbreeding may be affecting the persistence of remaining tiger populations and how dispersal, either natural or artificial, may reduce the potentially detrimental effect of inbreeding depression. We developed a tiger simulation model and used published levels of genetic load in mammals to simulate inbreeding depression. Following a 50 year period of population isolation, we introduced one to four dispersing male tigers per generation to explore how gene flow from nearby populations may reduce the negative impact of inbreeding depression. For the smallest populations, even four dispersing male tigers per generation did not increase population viability, and the likelihood of extinction is more than 90% within 30 years. Unless habitat connectivity is restored or animals are artificially introduced in the next 70 years, medium size wild populations are also likely to go extinct, with only four to five of the largest wild tiger populations likely to remain extant in this same period without intervention. To reduce the risk of local extinction, habitat connectivity must be pursued concurrently with efforts to increase population size (e.g. enhance habitat quality, increase habitat availability). It is critical that infrastructure development, dam construction and other similar projects are planned appropriately so that they do not erode the extent or quality of habitat for these populations so that they can truly serve as future source populations. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological and Molecular Data Reveal Three Distinct Populations of Indian Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwant; Singh, Nisha; Mishra, Shefali; Tripathi, Kabita; Singh, Bikram P; Rai, Vandna; Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Nagendra K

    2018-01-01

    Wild relatives of crops possess adaptive mutations for agronomically important traits, which could play significant role in crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. However, global climate change and human activities pose serious threats to the natural habitats leading to erosion of genetic diversity of wild rice populations. The purpose of this study was to explore and characterize India's huge untapped wild rice diversity in Oryza rufipogon Griff. species complex from a wide range of ecological niches. We made strategic expeditions around diversity hot spots in 64 districts of nine different agro-climatic zones of the country and collected 418 wild rice accessions. Significant variation was observed among the accessions for 46 morphological descriptors, allowing classification into O. nivara, O. rufipogon , and O. sativa f. spontanea morpho-taxonomic groups. Genome-specific pSINE1 markers confirmed all the accessions having AA genome, which were further classified using ecotype-specific pSINE1 markers into annual, perennial, intermediate, and an unknown type. Principal component analysis revealed continuous variation for the morphological traits in each ecotype group. Genetic diversity analysis based on multi-allelic SSR markers clustered these accessions into three major groups and analysis of molecular variance for nine agro-climatic zones showed that 68% of the genetic variation was inherent amongst individuals while only 11% of the variation separated the zones, though there was significant correlation between genetic and spatial distances of the accessions. Model based population structure analysis using genome wide bi-allelic SNP markers revealed three sub-populations designated 'Pro-Indica,' 'Pro-Aus,' and 'Mid-Gangetic,' which showed poor correspondence with the morpho - taxonomic classification or pSINE1 ecotypes. There was Pan-India distribution of the 'Pro-Indica' and 'Pro-Aus' sub-populations across agro-climatic zones, indicating a more

  16. Morphological and Molecular Data Reveal Three Distinct Populations of Indian Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwant; Singh, Nisha; Mishra, Shefali; Tripathi, Kabita; Singh, Bikram P.; Rai, Vandna; Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Nagendra K.

    2018-01-01

    Wild relatives of crops possess adaptive mutations for agronomically important traits, which could play significant role in crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. However, global climate change and human activities pose serious threats to the natural habitats leading to erosion of genetic diversity of wild rice populations. The purpose of this study was to explore and characterize India’s huge untapped wild rice diversity in Oryza rufipogon Griff. species complex from a wide range of ecological niches. We made strategic expeditions around diversity hot spots in 64 districts of nine different agro-climatic zones of the country and collected 418 wild rice accessions. Significant variation was observed among the accessions for 46 morphological descriptors, allowing classification into O. nivara, O. rufipogon, and O. sativa f. spontanea morpho-taxonomic groups. Genome-specific pSINE1 markers confirmed all the accessions having AA genome, which were further classified using ecotype-specific pSINE1 markers into annual, perennial, intermediate, and an unknown type. Principal component analysis revealed continuous variation for the morphological traits in each ecotype group. Genetic diversity analysis based on multi-allelic SSR markers clustered these accessions into three major groups and analysis of molecular variance for nine agro-climatic zones showed that 68% of the genetic variation was inherent amongst individuals while only 11% of the variation separated the zones, though there was significant correlation between genetic and spatial distances of the accessions. Model based population structure analysis using genome wide bi-allelic SNP markers revealed three sub-populations designated ‘Pro-Indica,’ ‘Pro-Aus,’ and ‘Mid-Gangetic,’ which showed poor correspondence with the morpho-taxonomic classification or pSINE1 ecotypes. There was Pan-India distribution of the ‘Pro-Indica’ and ‘Pro-Aus’ sub-populations across agro-climatic zones

  17. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Development of a Core Collection of Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Bai, Lin; Lu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yuhong; Jiang, Lan; Diao, Mengyang; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.), the progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L.), is endangered due to habitat loss. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic diversity of wild rice species in isolated populations and to develop a core collection of representative genotypes for ex situ conservation. We collected 885 wild rice accessions from eight geographically distinct regions and transplanted these accessions in a protected conservation garden over a period of almost two decades. We evaluated these accessions for 13 morphological or phenological traits and genotyped them for 36 DNA markers evenly distributed on the 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of variation of quantitative traits was 0.56 and ranged from 0.37 to 1.06. SSR markers detected 206 different alleles with an average of 6 alleles per locus. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.64 in all populations, indicating that the marker loci have a high level of polymorphism and genetic diversity in all populations. Phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data revealed remarkable differences in the genetic diversity of common wild rice populations. The results showed that the Zengcheng, Gaozhou, and Suixi populations possess higher levels of genetic diversity, whereas the Huilai and Boluo populations have lower levels of genetic diversity than do the other populations. Based on their genetic distance, 130 accessions were selected as a core collection that retained over 90% of the alleles at the 36 marker loci. This genetically diverse core collection will be a useful resource for genomic studies of rice and for initiatives aimed at developing rice with improved agronomic traits.

  18. Epidemiology of the Emergent Disease Paridae pox in an Intensively Studied Wild Bird Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2012-01-01

    Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations. PMID:23185230

  19. Epidemiology of the emergent disease Paridae pox in an intensively studied wild bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Lachish

    Full Text Available Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%, but was far less prevalent (<1% in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations.

  20. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Sam; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males has been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales = 70, NFemales...... = 73) and captive (NMales = 25, NFemales = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting bi-parental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations...

  1. The effects of tradition on problem solving by two wild populations of bearded capuchin monkeys in a probing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Raphael Moura; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2016-11-01

    The effects of culture on individual cognition have become a core issue among cultural primatologists. Field studies with wild populations provide evidence on the role of social cues in the ontogeny of tool use in non-human primates, and on the transmission of such behaviours over generations through socially biased learning. Recent experimental studies have shown that cultural knowledge may influence problem solving in wild populations of chimpanzees. Here, we present the results from a field experiment comparing the performance of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) from two wild savannah populations with distinct toolkits in a probing task. Only the population that already exhibited the customary use of probing tools succeeded in solving the new problem, suggesting that their cultural repertoire shaped their approach to the new task. Moreover, only this population, which uses stone tools in a broader range of contexts, tried to use them to solve the problem. Social interactions can affect the formation of learning sets and they affect the performance of the monkeys in problem solving. We suggest that behavioural traditions affect the ways non-human primates solve novel foraging problems using tools. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. CRISPR/Cas9 gene drives in genetically variable and nonrandomly mating wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W; Dapper, Amy L; Siniard, Dylan J; Zentner, Gabriel E; Wade, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    Synthetic gene drives based on CRISPR/Cas9 have the potential to control, alter, or suppress populations of crop pests and disease vectors, but it is unclear how they will function in wild populations. Using genetic data from four populations of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum , we show that most populations harbor genetic variants in Cas9 target sites, some of which would render them immune to drive (ITD). We show that even a rare ITD allele can reduce or eliminate the efficacy of a CRISPR/Cas9-based synthetic gene drive. This effect is equivalent to and accentuated by mild inbreeding, which is a characteristic of many disease-vectoring arthropods. We conclude that designing such drives will require characterization of genetic variability and the mating system within and among targeted populations.

  3. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  4. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  5. Comparisons of Growth and Survival Performance Among Selected Families and Wild Populations of Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Kong, Jie; Meng, Xianhong; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Chen, Baolong

    2018-04-01

    In this study, families of selected population for growth (SP_BWT), selected population for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistance (SP_RW), Bohai wild population (WP_BH) and Huanghai wild population (WP_HH) of F. chinensis were constructed through artificial insemination and with the standardized procedure of larvae rearing. Growth and survival performance were studied among four populations after a 70 days common test. The results showed that the maximum least square mean of body weight was 17.50 g in SP_BWT while the minimum was 13.03 g in WP_HH. Compared with WP_BH, body weight of SP_BWT increased by 23.41% ( P 0.05). Body weights of SP_BWT and SP_RW were significantly higher than that of WP_HH, which increased by 34.31% ( P populations was 0.19, 0.18, 0.17 and 0.16 g d-1, respectively. Coefficient of variation of body weight among four populations was high, which ranged from 32.67% to 35.25%. Such a range showed that there was the potentiality for further improvement in selected populations. Coefficient of variation of survival rate among four populations was low, varying between 3.20% and 5.90%. The difference of survival was highly significant ( P populations ( P growth performances were also observed among different families in each population. The body weight of 798F family was the highest. The absolute growth rate (AGR) was 0.25 g d-1, 150% higher than that of the lowest one, 0.1 g d-1 in 807F family. Survival rate of families among four populations was different. The highest was 94.74%, and the lowest was 71.88%.

  6. Causes of Morbidity in Wild Raptor Populations Admitted at a Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Spain from 1995-2007: A Long Term Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A.; Casal, Jordi; Darwich, Laila

    2011-01-01

    Background Morbidity studies complement the understanding of hazards to raptors by identifying natural or anthropogenic factors. Descriptive epidemiological studies of wildlife have become an important source of information about hazards to wildlife populations. On the other hand, data referenced to the overall wild population could provide a more accurate assessment of the potential impact of the morbidity/mortality causes in populations of wild birds. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study described the morbidity causes of hospitalized wild raptors and their incidence in the wild populations, through a long term retrospective study conducted at a wildlife rehabilitation centre of Catalonia (1995–2007). Importantly, Seasonal Cumulative Incidences (SCI) were calculated considering estimations of the wild population in the region and trend analyses were applied among the different years. A total of 7021 birds were analysed: 7 species of Strigiformes (n = 3521) and 23 of Falconiformes (n = 3500). The main causes of morbidity were trauma (49.5%), mostly in the Falconiformes, and orphaned/young birds (32.2%) mainly in the Strigiformes. During wintering periods, the largest morbidity incidence was observed in Accipiter gentillis due to gunshot wounds and in Tyto alba due to vehicle trauma. Within the breeding season, Falco tinnunculus (orphaned/young category) and Bubo bubo (electrocution and metabolic disorders) represented the most affected species. Cases due to orphaned/young, infectious/parasitic diseases, electrocution and unknown trauma tended to increase among years. By contrast, cases by undetermined cause, vehicle trauma and captivity decreased throughout the study period. Interestingly, gunshot injuries remained constant during the study period. Conclusions/Significance Frequencies of morbidity causes calculated as the proportion of each cause referred to the total number of admitted cases, allowed a qualitative assessment of hazards for

  7. An evaluation of the effects of conservation and fishery enhancement hatcheries on wild populations of salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Kerry A.; Taylor, Joseph E.; Levin, Phillip S.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Winton, James R.; Huppert , Daniel; Hilborn , Ray

    2007-01-01

    The historical, political and scientific aspects of salmon hatchery programmes designed to enhance fishery production, or to recover endangered populations, are reviewed. We start by pointing out that the establishment of hatcheries has been a political response to societal demands for harvest and conservation; given this social context, we then critically examined the levels of activity, the biological risks, and the economic analysis associated with salmon hatchery programmes. A rigorous analysis of the impacts of hatchery programmes was hindered by the lack of standardized data on release sizes and survival rates at all ecological scales, and since hatchery programme objectives are rarely defined, it was also difficult to measure their effectiveness at meeting release objectives. Debates on the genetic effects of hatchery programmes on wild fish have been dominated by whether correct management practices can reduce negative outcomes, but we noted that there has been an absence of programmatic research approaches addressing this important issue. Competitive interactions between hatchery and wild fish were observed to be complex, but studies researching approaches to reduce these interactions at all ecological scales during the entire salmon life history have been rare, and thus are not typically considered in hatchery management. Harvesting of salmon released from fishery enhancement hatcheries likely impacts vulnerable wild populations; managers have responded to this problem by mass marking hatchery fish, so that fishing effort can be directed towards hatchery populations. However, we noted that the effectiveness of this approach is dependant on accurate marking and production of hatchery fish with high survival rates, and it is not yet clear whether selective fishing will prevent overharvest of wild populations. Finally, research demonstrating disease transmission from hatchery fish to wild populations was observed to be equivocal; evidence in this area has

  8. Notes on wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo population trends during a drought in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.L. Mills

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo populations in the Kruger National Park appeared to undergo an increase during a drought period in the early 1990s. Newly established packs, high adult survival and pup productivity contributed to an increase in the wild dog population and evidence for high predation success during the height of the drought is presented. An increase in the lion density between 1989 and 1993 on the northern basalt plains, as well as changes in the structure of the population, seem to be related to changes in prey populations, particularly to a decline in numbers and condition of buffalo Syncerus cafer.

  9. [Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, José Alfredo Hernández; Urpí, Jorge Mora; Nuñez, Oscar Rocha

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity of the peach palm (Pejibaye, Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was evaluated using four nuclear DNA microsatellites in an effort to elucidate the evolution and domestication of this crop. A total of 258 samples from seven wild populations and eleven races were analyzed. All loci were polymorphic and a total of 50 alleles were identified. Average genetic diversity (0.67) and genetic differentiation among populations (Fst=0.16) were high when all populations were considered. Genetic differentiation was lower when the populations were grouped according to their origin into Western and Eastern populations (Fst=0.13 for both). Gene flow was slightly higher among Western populations (Nm=1.71) than among Eastern populations (Nm=1.62). The Putumayo, Yurimaguas, Vaupés, Tucurrique and Guatuso races seem to have been subjected to intense human selection. Hybrid populations exist in Azuero, Tuira, Cauca, Vaupés, Puerto Ayacucho and Solimões, probably resulting from exchange and introgressions among sympatric wild and cultivated populations. Genetic distance (Dm) was estimated to determine the degree of relationship among populations using the neighbor-joining method; the wild populations from Maracaibo were used as the outgroup. The populations were divided into three general groups: Maracaibo (B. caribaea, B. macana var veragua and B. macana var arapuey), Eastern Amazon (Tembe, Pará and Acre) and a third group with two subgroups, Western (Azuero, Chontilla, Tuira, Cauca, Tucurrique and Guatuso) and Upper Amazon (B. dahlgreniana, Puerto Ayacucho, Solimões, Vaupés and Putumayo). The genetic relationships strongly support the hypothesis that peach palm was brought into cultivation independently in no less than three areas: the Western Andes (extending into lower Central America); Upper Amazon (extending

  10. Diversity and structure of landraces of Agave grown for spirits under traditional agriculture: A comparison with wild populations of A. angustifolia (Agavaceae) and commercial plantations of A. tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Coello-Coello, Julián; Colunga-Garcíamarín, Patricia

    2009-02-01

    Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural practices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management of wild populations. These systems, rooted in a 9000-year-old tradition of using agaves as food in Mesoamerica, are endangered by the expansion of commercial monoculture plantations of the blue agave variety (A. tequilana Weber var. Azul), the only agave certified for sale as tequila, the best-known mezcal. Using intersimple sequence repeats and Bayesian estimators of diversity and structure, we found that A. angustifolia traditional landraces had a genetic diversity (H(BT) = 0.442) similar to its wild populations (H(BT) = 0.428) and a higher genetic structure ((B) = 0.405; (B) =0. 212). In contrast, the genetic diversity in the blue agave commercial system (H(B) = 0.118) was 73% lower. Changes to agave spirits certification laws to allow the conservation of current genetic, ecological and cultural diversity can play a key role in the preservation of the traditional agroecosystems.

  11. Immune- and Pollution-mediated DNA Damage in Two Wild Mya arenaria Clam Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Gagné

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In aquatic environments, genotoxicity results from the effects of pollution combined with the inflammatory response triggered by the immune system. Indeed, the production of nitrosylated DNA and proteins are though to arise from the production of peroxinitrite during phagocytosis and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine new DNA biomarkers that differentiate between immune- and pollution-mediated genotoxicity in wild clam populations. Intertidal clam populations were sampled and analyzed for gonadal DNA strand breaks, DNA nitrosylation and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR activity (purine salvage pathway. The clam weight-to-shell-length ratio, the gonado-somatic index (GSI, age status, lipid peroxidation, xenobiotic conjugation activity (glutathione S-transferase (GST and phagocytic activity were examined to shed light on their relationships with the observed genotoxic endpoints. XOR activity and DNA strand breaks were generally elevated at polluted sites and correlated significantly with clam weight-to-shell-length ratios and DNA nitrosylation. DNA nitrosylation was also higher at some sites and correlated significantly with phagocytic activity and with DNA strand breaks. This study showed that DNA strand breaks were associated with both immune- and pollution-mediated effects. This suggests that there is a loss of DNA repair capacity due to the combined effects of aging, pollution and immune response in wild clam populations that are impacted by anthropogenic activity.

  12. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  13. Wild boar mapping using population-density statistics: From polygons to high resolution raster maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Claudia; Khomenko, Sergei; Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The wild boar is an important crop raider as well as a reservoir and agent of spread of swine diseases. Due to increasing densities and expanding ranges worldwide, the related economic losses in livestock and agricultural sectors are significant and on the rise. Its management and control would strongly benefit from accurate and detailed spatial information on species distribution and abundance, which are often available only for small areas. Data are commonly available at aggregated administrative units with little or no information about the distribution of the species within the unit. In this paper, a four-step geostatistical downscaling approach is presented and used to disaggregate wild boar population density statistics from administrative units of different shape and size (polygons) to 5 km resolution raster maps by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. 1) First a stratification method was used to define homogeneous bioclimatic regions for the analysis; 2) Under a geostatistical framework, the wild boar densities at administrative units, i.e. subnational areas, were decomposed into trend and residual components for each bioclimatic region. Quantitative relationships between wild boar data and environmental variables were estimated through multiple regression and used to derive trend components at 5 km spatial resolution. Next, the residual components (i.e., the differences between the trend components and the original wild boar data at administrative units) were downscaled at 5 km resolution using area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components obtained at 5 km resolution were finally added to generate fine scale wild boar estimates for each bioclimatic region. 3) These maps were then mosaicked to produce a final output map of predicted wild boar densities across most of Eurasia. 4) Model accuracy was assessed at each different step using input as well as independent data. We discuss advantages and limits of the method and its

  14. Source-Sink Estimates of Genetic Introgression Show Influence of Hatchery Strays on Wild Chum Salmon Populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Jasper, James R.; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D.; Grant, W. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. H...

  15. The genomics of wild yeast populations sheds light on the domestication of man's best (micro) friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Chris; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R

    2015-11-01

    The domestication of plants, animals and microbes by humans are the longest artificial evolution experiments ever performed. The study of these long-term experiments can teach us about the genomics of adaptation through the identification of the genetic bases underlying the traits favoured by humans. In laboratory evolution, the characterization of the molecular changes that evolved specifically in some lineages is straightforward because the ancestors are readily available, for instance in the freezer. However, in the case of domesticated species, the ancestor is often missing, which leads to the necessity of going back to nature in order to infer the most likely ancestral state. Significant and relatively recent examples of this approach include wolves as the closest wild relative to domestic dogs (Axelsson et al. 2013) and teosinte as the closest relative to maize (reviewed in Hake & Ross-Ibarra 2015). In both cases, the joint analysis of domesticated lineages and their wild cousins has been key in reconstructing the molecular history of their domestication. While the identification of closest wild relatives has been done for many plants and animals, these comparisons represent challenges for micro-organisms. This has been the case for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose natural ecological niche is particularly challenging to define. For centuries, this unicellular fungus has been the cellular factory for wine, beer and bread crafting, and currently for bioethanol and drug production. While the recent development of genomics has lead to the identification of many genetic elements associated with important wine characteristics, the historical origin of some of the domesticated wine strains has remained elusive due to the lack of knowledge of their close wild relatives. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Almeida et al. (2015) identified what is to date the closest known wild population of the wine yeast. This population is found associated with

  16. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  17. It's a bear market: evolutionary and ecological effects of predation on two wild sockeye salmon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J E; Hard, J J; Naish, K A; Peterson, D; Hilborn, R; Hauser, L

    2016-05-01

    Predation can affect both phenotypic variation and population productivity in the wild, but quantifying evolutionary and demographic effects of predation in natural environments is challenging. The aim of this study was to estimate selection differentials and coefficients associated with brown bear (Ursus arctos) predation in wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations spawning in pristine habitat that is often subject to intense predation pressure. Using reconstructed genetic pedigrees, individual reproductive success (RS) was estimated in two sockeye salmon populations for two consecutive brood years with very different predation intensities across brood years. Phenotypic data on individual adult body length, body depth, stream entry timing and reproductive lifespan were used to calculate selection coefficients based on RS, and genetic variance components were estimated using animal models. Bears consistently killed larger and more recently arrived adults, although selection differentials were small. In both populations, mean RS was higher in the brood year experiencing lower predation intensity. Selection coefficients were similar across brood years with different levels of predation, often indicating stabilizing selection on reproductive lifespan as well as directional selection for longer reproductive lifespan. Despite these selection pressures, genetic covariation of morphology, phenology and lifespan appears to have maintained variation in spawner body size and stream entry timing in both populations. Our results therefore suggest considerable demographic but limited evolutionary effects of bear predation in the two study populations.

  18. The Recombination Landscape in Wild House Mice Inferred Using Population Genomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Tom R; Ness, Rob W; Keightley, Peter D

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing variation in the rate of recombination across the genome is important for understanding several evolutionary processes. Previous analysis of the recombination landscape in laboratory mice has revealed that the different subspecies have different suites of recombination hotspots. It is unknown, however, whether hotspots identified in laboratory strains reflect the hotspot diversity of natural populations or whether broad-scale variation in the rate of recombination is conserved between subspecies. In this study, we constructed fine-scale recombination rate maps for a natural population of the Eastern house mouse, Mus musculus castaneus We performed simulations to assess the accuracy of recombination rate inference in the presence of phase errors, and we used a novel approach to quantify phase error. The spatial distribution of recombination events is strongly positively correlated between our castaneus map, and a map constructed using inbred lines derived predominantly from M. m. domesticus Recombination hotspots in wild castaneus show little overlap, however, with the locations of double-strand breaks in wild-derived house mouse strains. Finally, we also find that genetic diversity in M. m. castaneus is positively correlated with the rate of recombination, consistent with pervasive natural selection operating in the genome. Our study suggests that recombination rate variation is conserved at broad scales between house mouse subspecies, but it is not strongly conserved at fine scales. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santure, Anna W.; Poissant, Jocelyn; Cauwer, De Isabelle; Oers, Van Kees; Robinson, Matthew R.; Quinn, John L.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Visser, M.E.; Sheldon, Ben C.; Slate, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar

  20. Replicated analysis of the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in two wild great tit populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santure, Anna W; Poissant, Jocelyn; De Cauwer, Isabelle; van Oers, Kees; Robinson, Matthew R; Quinn, John L; Groenen, Martien A M; Visser, Marcel E; Sheldon, Ben C; Slate, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is much debate on the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in wild populations. Is trait variation influenced by many genes of small effect or by a few genes of major effect? Where is additive genetic variation located in the genome? Do the same loci cause similar phenotypic

  1. Lowered Diversity and Increased Inbreeding Depression within Peripheral Populations of Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Zhi; Gao, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of genetic variability from the interior towards the periphery of a species' range is of great interest to evolutionary biologists. Although it has been long presumed that population genetic variation should decrease as a species' range is approached, results of empirical investigations still remain ambiguous. Knowledge regarding patterns of genetic variability as well as affected factors is particularly not conclusive in plants. To determine genetic divergence in peripheral populations of the wild rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. from China, genetic diversity and population structure were studied in five northern & northeastern peripheral and 16 central populations using six microsatellite loci. We found that populations resided at peripheries of the species possessed markedly decreased microsatellite diversity than those located in its center. Population size was observed to be positively correlated with microsatellite diversity. Moreover, there are significantly positive correlations between levels of microsatellite diversity and distances from the northern and northeastern periphery of this species. To investigate genetic structure and heterozygosity variation between generations of O. rufipogon, a total of 2382 progeny seeds from 186 maternal families were further assayed from three peripheral and central populations, respectively. Peripheral populations exhibited significantly lower levels of heterozygosities than central populations for both seed and maternal generations. In comparisons with maternal samples, significantly low observed heterozygosity (HO) and high heterozygote deficit within populations (FIS) values were detected in seed samples from both peripheral and central populations. Significantly lower observed heterozygosity (HO) and higher FIS values were further observed in peripheral populations than those in central populations for seed samples. The results indicate an excess of homozygotes and thus high inbreeding depression in

  2. Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) analysis of wild and cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... for 2 h at constant voltage of 100 V. The gel picture was taken after staining with ethidium ..... systems will provide a useful tool in the future design of collection strategies for ... The drop in diversity is substantially greater for genes involved in .... confirm the occurrence and distribution of wild rice species.

  3. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  4. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  5. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  6. Enriching the captive elephant population genetic pool through artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen collected in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, T B; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J; Potier, R; Schwammer, H M; Balfanz, F; Vielgrader, H; Baker, B; Bartels, P; Göritz, F

    2012-10-01

    The first successful AI in an elephant was reported in 1998, using fresh semen. Since then almost 40 calves have been produced through AI in both Asian and African elephants worldwide. Following these successes, with the objective of enriching the captive population with genetic material from the wild, we evaluated the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen collected from wild bulls for AI in captivity. Semen, collected from a 36-yr-old wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) in South Africa was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen-thawed semen was used for four inseminations over two consecutive days, two before and two after ovulation, in a 26-yr-old female African savanna elephant in Austria. Insemination dose of 1200 × 10(6) cells per AI with 61% motility resulted in pregnancy, which was confirmed through ultrasound examination 75, 110 and 141 days after the AI procedure. This represents the first successful AI using wild bull frozen-thawed semen in elephants. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or, as was done in this study, between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease-carrying animals or to remove animals from the wild. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for genetic diversity management and phenotype selection in these endangered mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Urban domestic dog populations as a source of canine distemper virus for wild carnivores in the Coquimbo region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Chalmers, W S K; Cunningham, A A; Cleaveland, S; Handel, I G; Bronsvoort, B M deC

    2011-09-28

    Urban areas can support dog populations dense enough to maintain canine distemper virus (CDV) and can be a source of infection for rural dogs and free-ranging carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between urban and rural domestic dog and wild carnivore populations and their effects on the epidemiology of CDV to explain retrospectively a CD outbreak in wild foxes in 2003. From 2005 to 2007 a cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Coquimbo and Ovalle cities, in three towns and in rural sites along two transects from these cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region, Chile. Blood samples were collected from unvaccinated dogs at surveyed households and from free-ranging foxes in rural areas along the transects. The seroprevalence of CDV in domestic dogs was higher in urban than in rural areas and in the later was highest in dogs born before 2001-2002. The seroprevalence of CDV in foxes was higher in areas closer to human settlements. A high seroprevalence in dogs born before 2001-2002 further supports a link between CDV patterns in rural dog and fox populations. In our study area, urban dogs are proposed to be the source of CDV infection to wild carnivores. The large dog population size and density detected in Coquimbo and Ovalle provides optimal conditions for maintaining a large and dense susceptible population of dogs, which can act as a reservoir for highly infectious diseases and could have been the source of infection in the CD outbreak in wild foxes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. AFLP analysis of genetic diversity in leafy kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef.) landraces, cultivars and wild populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stina; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, G.

    2011-01-01

    AFLP markers were used to characterize diversity and asses the genetic structure among 17 accessions of kale landraces, cultivars and wild populations from Europe. The range of average gene diversity in accessions was 0.11–0.27. Several landraces showed higher levels of diversity than the wild...... populations and one cultivar had the lowest diversity measures. The landraces that were most genetically diverse were from areas where kales are known to be extensively grown, suggesting in situ conservation in these areas as a supplement to storage of seeds in gene banks. An analysis of molecular variance...... the relationship among them is due to seed dispersal through human interactions. Our results indicate that a kale population found in a natural habitat in Denmark was probably not truly wild but most likely an escape from a cultivated Danish kale that had subsequently become naturalized....

  9. Allele-specific gene expression in a wild nonhuman primate population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, J.; Akinyi, M. Y.; Mutura, S.; Altmann, J.; Wray, G. A.; Alberts, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations hold enormous potential for evolutionary genetic studies, especially when phenotypic, genetic and environmental data are all available on the same individuals. However, untangling the genotype-phenotype relationship in natural populations remains a major challenge. Here, we describe results of an investigation of one class of phenotype, allele-specific gene expression (ASGE), in the well-studied natural population of baboons of the Amboseli basin, Kenya. ASGE measurements identify cases in which one allele of a gene is overexpressed relative to the alternative allele of the same gene, within individuals, thus providing a control for background genetic and environmental effects. Here, we characterize the incidence of ASGE in the Amboseli baboon population, focusing on the genetic and environmental contributions to ASGE in a set of eleven genes involved in immunity and defence. Within this set, we identify evidence for common ASGE in four genes. We also present examples of two relationships between cis-regulatory genetic variants and the ASGE phenotype. Finally, we identify one case in which this relationship is influenced by a novel gene-environment interaction. Specifically, the dominance rank of an individual’s mother during its early life (an aspect of that individual’s social environment) influences the expression of the gene CCL5 via an interaction with cis-regulatory genetic variation. These results illustrate how environmental and ecological data can be integrated into evolutionary genetic studies of functional variation in natural populations. They also highlight the potential importance of early life environmental variation in shaping the genetic architecture of complex traits in wild mammals. PMID:21226779

  10. Population genetics and disease ecology of European wild boar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Welke factoren beïnvloeden de frequentie van de ziekten in wilde populaties? Het promotieonderzoek van Daniel Goedbloed beoordeelde de invloed van demografische, genetische en omgevingsfactoren op de frequentie van twee infectieziekten in Noordwest-Europese wilde zwijnen populaties.

  11. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Chernyavskii

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  13. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  14. Susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of Triatoma infestans of the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Marinely Bustamante; D'Avila, Grasielle Caldas Pessoa; Orellana, Ana Lineth Garcia; Cortez, Mirko Rojas; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Noireau, François; Diotaiuti, Liléia Gonçalves

    2014-11-14

    The persistence of Triatoma infestans and the continuous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Inter-Andean Valleys and in the Gran Chaco of Bolivia are of great significance. Coincidentally, it is in these regions the reach of the vector control strategies is limited, and reports of T. infestans resistance to insecticides, including in wild populations, have been issued. This study aims to characterize the susceptibility to deltamethrin of wild and domestic populations of T. infestans from Bolivia, in order to better understand the extent of this relevant problem. Susceptibility to deltamethrin was assessed in nine, wild and domestic, populations of T. infestans from the Gran Chaco and the Inter-Andean Valleys of Bolivia. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin in acetone (0.2 μL) were topically applied in first instar nymphs (F1, five days old, fasting, weight 1.2 ± 0.2 mg). Dose response results were analyzed with PROBIT version 2, determining the lethal doses, slope and resistance ratios (RR). Qualitative tests were also performed. Three wild T. infestans dark morph samples of Chaco from the Santa Cruz Department were susceptible to deltamethrin with RR50 of Bolivia are less susceptible.

  15. Isolation and characterization of repeat elements of the oak genome and their application in population analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluch, S.; Burg, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four minisatellite sequence elements have been identified and isolated from the genome of the oak species Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. Minisatellites 1 and 2 are putative members of repeat families, while minisatellites 3 and 4 show repeat length variation among individuals of test populations. A 590 base pair (bp) long element has also been identified which reveals individual-specific autoradiographic patterns when used as probe in Southern hybridisations of genomic oak DNA. (author)

  16. Allele Frequency Data for 17 Short Tandem Repeats in a Czech Population Sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, H.; Faltus, Václav; Marván, Richard; Pexa, T.; Stenzl, V.; Brouček, J.; Hořínek, A.; Mazura, Ivan; Zvárová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2009), e15-e17 ISSN 1872-4973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : short tandem repeat (STR) * allelic frequency * PowerPlex 16 System * AmpflSTR Identifiler * population genetics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2009

  17. Individual and population-level impacts of an emerging poxvirus disease in a wild population of great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Lachish

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife can have severe effects on host populations and constitute a pressing problem for biodiversity conservation. Paridae pox is an unusually severe form of avipoxvirus infection that has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease particularly affecting an abundant songbird, the great tit (Parus major, in Great Britain. In this study, we study the invasion and establishment of Paridae pox in a long-term monitored population of wild great tits to (i quantify the impact of this novel pathogen on host fitness and (ii determine the potential threat it poses to population persistence. We show that Paridae pox significantly reduces the reproductive output of great tits by reducing the ability of parents to fledge young successfully and rear those young to independence. Our results also suggested that pathogen transmission from diseased parents to their offspring was possible, and that disease entails severe mortality costs for affected chicks. Application of multistate mark-recapture modelling showed that Paridae pox causes significant reductions to host survival, with particularly large effects observed for juvenile survival. Using an age-structured population model, we demonstrate that Paridae pox has the potential to reduce population growth rate, primarily through negative impacts on host survival rates. However, at currently observed prevalence, significant disease-induced population decline seems unlikely, although pox prevalence may be underestimated if capture probability of diseased individuals is low. Despite this, because pox-affected model populations exhibited lower average growth rates, this emerging infectious disease has the potential to reduce the resilience of populations to other environmental factors that reduce population size.

  18. Vitamin D status predicts reproductive fitness in a wild sheep population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Ian; Watt, Kathryn A; Pilkington, Jill G; Pemberton, Josephine M; Macrae, Alastair; Scott, Philip; McNeilly, Tom N; Berry, Jacqueline L; Clements, Dylan N; Nussey, Daniel H; Mellanby, Richard J

    2016-01-13

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the development of many human diseases, and with poor reproductive performance in laboratory rodents. We currently have no idea how natural selection directly acts on variation in vitamin D metabolism due to a total lack of studies in wild animals. Here, we measured serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in female Soay sheep that were part of a long-term field study on St Kilda. We found that total 25(OH)D was strongly influenced by age, and that light coloured sheep had higher 25(OH)D3 (but not 25(OH)D2) concentrations than dark sheep. The coat colour polymorphism in Soay sheep is controlled by a single locus, suggesting vitamin D status is heritable in this population. We also observed a very strong relationship between total 25(OH)D concentrations in summer and a ewe's fecundity the following spring. This resulted in a positive association between total 25(OH)D and the number of lambs produced that survived their first year of life, an important component of female reproductive fitness. Our study provides the first insight into naturally-occurring variation in vitamin D metabolites, and offers the first evidence that vitamin D status is both heritable and under natural selection in the wild.

  19. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  20. Analysis of near infrared spectra for age-grading of wild populations of Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajacich, Benjamin J; Meyers, Jacob I; Alout, Haoues; Dabiré, Roch K; Dowell, Floyd E; Foy, Brian D

    2017-11-07

    Understanding the age-structure of mosquito populations, especially malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae, is important for assessing the risk of infectious mosquitoes, and how vector control interventions may impact this risk. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for age-grading has been demonstrated previously on laboratory and semi-field mosquitoes, but to date has not been utilized on wild-caught mosquitoes whose age is externally validated via parity status or parasite infection stage. In this study, we developed regression and classification models using NIRS on datasets of wild An. gambiae (s.l.) reared from larvae collected from the field in Burkina Faso, and two laboratory strains. We compared the accuracy of these models for predicting the ages of wild-caught mosquitoes that had been scored for their parity status as well as for positivity for Plasmodium sporozoites. Regression models utilizing variable selection increased predictive accuracy over the more common full-spectrum partial least squares (PLS) approach for cross-validation of the datasets, validation, and independent test sets. Models produced from datasets that included the greatest range of mosquito samples (i.e. different sampling locations and times) had the highest predictive accuracy on independent testing sets, though overall accuracy on these samples was low. For classification, we found that intramodel accuracy ranged between 73.5-97.0% for grouping of mosquitoes into "early" and "late" age classes, with the highest prediction accuracy found in laboratory colonized mosquitoes. However, this accuracy was decreased on test sets, with the highest classification of an independent set of wild-caught larvae reared to set ages being 69.6%. Variation in NIRS data, likely from dietary, genetic, and other factors limits the accuracy of this technique with wild-caught mosquitoes. Alternative algorithms may help improve prediction accuracy, but care should be taken to either maximize

  1. Diseases and parasites of laboratory reared and wild population of banded pearl spot Etroplus suratensis (Cichlidae) in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, P.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Banded Pearl spot Etroplus suratensis, the inhabitant of coastal backwaters and lagoons is one among the few finfish species identified for brackishwater farming. Common diseases and parasites from the wild population of Goa and from the laboratory...

  2. C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions are a frequent cause of Huntington disease phenocopies in the Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Kartanou, Chrisoula; Kladi, Athina; Panas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    An expanded hexanucleotide repeat in C9ORF72 has been identified as the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and/or frontotemporal dementia in many populations, including the Greek. Recently, C9ORF72 expansions were reported as the most common genetic cause of Huntington disease (HD) phenocopies in a UK population. In the present study, we screened a selected cohort of 40 Greek patients with HD phenocopies for C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions using repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction. We identified 2 patients (5%) with pathologic expansions. The first patient had chorea, behavioral-psychiatric disturbance, cognitive impairment, and a positive family history, fulfilling the strictest criteria for HD phenocopy. The second patient was sporadic and had parkinsonism, behavioral-psychiatric disturbance, and cognitive impairment, corresponding to a broader definition of HD phenocopy. These findings identify C9ORF72 expansions as a frequent cause of HD phenocopies in the Greek population, confirming recent findings in other populations and supporting proposed diagnostic testing for C9ORF72 expansions in patients with HD-like syndromes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastrointestinal helminths of two populations of wild pigeons (Columba livia) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Silva, Lidiane Aparecida Firmino da; Ferreira, Vivian Lindmayer; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    2017-01-01

    The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia) living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144) and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7%) presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae) and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae). The birds' weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%). The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.

  4. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley

    KAUST Repository

    Saade, Stephanie

    2016-09-02

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. The population structure of Phytophthora infestans from the Toluca Valley of Central Mexico suggests genetic differentiation between populations from cultivated potato and wild Solanum spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Grünwald, N.J.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Lozoya-Saldaña, H.; Fry, W.E.; Turkensteen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley of central Mexico was assessed using 170 isolates collected front cultivated potatoes and the native wild Solanum spp., S. demissum and S. xedinense. All isolates were analyzed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype and

  6. Quantifying rooting at depth in a wheat doubled haploid population with introgression from wild emmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina K; Gregory, Peter J; Lukac, Martin; Burridge, Amanda J; Allen, Alexandra M; Edwards, Keith J; Gooding, Mike J

    2017-09-01

    The genetic basis of increased rooting below the plough layer, post-anthesis in the field, of an elite wheat line (Triticum aestivum 'Shamrock') with recent introgression from wild emmer (T. dicoccoides), is investigated. Shamrock has a non-glaucous canopy phenotype mapped to the short arm of chromosome 2B (2BS), derived from the wild emmer. A secondary aim was to determine whether genetic effects found in the field could have been predicted by other assessment methods. Roots of doubled haploid (DH) lines from a winter wheat ('Shamrock' × 'Shango') population were assessed using a seedling screen in moist paper rolls, in rhizotrons to the end of tillering, and in the field post-anthesis. A linkage map was produced using single nucleotide polymorphism markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for rooting traits. Shamrock had greater root length density (RLD) at depth than Shango, in the field and within the rhizotrons. The DH population exhibited diversity for rooting traits within the three environments studied. QTLs were identified on chromosomes 5D, 6B and 7B, explaining variation in RLD post-anthesis in the field. Effects associated with the non-glaucous trait on RLD interacted significantly with depth in the field, and some of this interaction mapped to 2BS. The effect of genotype was strongly influenced by the method of root assessment, e.g. glaucousness expressed in the field was negatively associated with root length in the rhizotrons, but positively associated with length in the seedling screen. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify QTLs for rooting at depth in field-grown wheat at mature growth stages. Within the population studied here, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that some of the variation in rooting is associated with recent introgression from wild emmer. The expression of genetic effects differed between the methods of root assessment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  7. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Repeat Colonoscopy within 6 Months after Initial Outpatient Colonoscopy in Ontario: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Paszat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this study is to examine utilization of early repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure. Methods. We identified persons having repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months following outpatient colonoscopy without prior colonoscopy ≤ 5 years or prior diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC. We modeled repeat colonoscopy using a generalized estimating equation with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for clustering of patients by endoscopist. Results. The population included 334,663 persons, 7,892 (2.36% of whom had an early repeat colonoscopy within 6 months. Overall, endoscopist prior year colonoscopy volume was inversely related to repeat ≤ 6 months. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months varied by the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy (adjusted OR = 1.41 (95% CI 1.29–1.55 at nonhospital facilities compared to teaching or community hospitals. Among those who had polypectomy or biopsy, the adjusted OR for early repeat ≤ 6 months was elevated among those whose index colonoscopy was at a nonhospital facility (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.30–1.60, compared to those at a teaching hospital or community hospital. Conclusions. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure is associated with the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy.

  9. Population data of 17 short tandem repeat loci in 2923 individuals from the Han population of Nantong in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Li, Liming; Han, Haijun; Jin, Li; Jia, Dongtao; Li, Shilin

    2016-09-01

    Nantong is located in mid-eastern China, and the Han population in Nantong may be greatly affected by population admixture between northern and southern Han Chinese populations. In this study, we analyzed 17 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci on 2923 unrelated individuals collected from the Han population of Nantong. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed at all STR loci, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.6184 to 0.9187. The combined match probability (CMP) was 3.87 × 10(-21), and the combined power of discrimination (CPD) was 99.999999999999999999613 %. No significant difference of allele frequencies was observed between Nantong and other Han populations at all STR loci, as well as Dai, Mongolian, and Tibetan. Significant differences were only observed between Nantong Han and Uyghur at TH01, as well as Nantong Han and Dong at CSF1PO and FGA. Nantong Han showed significant differences between She, Bouyei, and Miao at multiple STR loci.

  10. Inter-population differences in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation of juvenile wild and hatchery-born Sacramento splittail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhille, Christine E.; Dabruzzi, Theresa F.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mahardja, Brian; Feyrer, Frederick V.; Foin, Theodore C.; Baerwald, Melinda R.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2016-01-01

    The Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus) is a minnow endemic to the highly modified San Francisco Estuary of California, USA and its associated rivers and tributaries. This species is composed of two genetically distinct populations, which, according to field observations and otolith strontium signatures, show largely allopatric distribution patterns as recently hatched juveniles. Juvenile Central Valley splittail are found primarily in the nearly fresh waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers and their tributaries, whereas San Pablo juveniles are found in the typically higher-salinity waters (i.e. up to 10‰) of the Napa and Petaluma Rivers. As the large salinity differences between young-of-year habitats may indicate population-specific differences in salinity tolerance, we hypothesized that juvenile San Pablo and Central Valley splittail populations differ in their response to salinity. In hatchery-born and wild-caught juvenile San Pablo splittail, we found upper salinity tolerances, where mortalities occurred within 336 h of exposure to 16‰ or higher, which was higher than the upper salinity tolerance of 14‰ for wild-caught juvenile Central Valley splittail. This, in conjunction with slower recovery of plasma osmolality, but not ion levels, muscle moisture or gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, in Central Valley relative to San Pablo splittail during osmoregulatory disturbance provides some support for our hypothesis of inter-population variation in salinity tolerance and osmoregulation. The modestly improved salinity tolerance of San Pablo splittail is consistent with its use of higher-salinity habitats. Although confirmation of the putative adaptive difference through further studies is recommended, this may highlight the need for population-specific management considerations.

  11. No Association between Personality and Candidate Gene Polymorphisms in a Wild Bird Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah A Edwards

    Full Text Available Consistency of between-individual differences in behaviour or personality is a phenomenon in populations that can have ecological consequences and evolutionary potential. One way that behaviour can evolve is to have a genetic basis. Identifying the molecular genetic basis of personality could therefore provide insight into how and why such variation is maintained, particularly in natural populations. Previously identified candidate genes for personality in birds include the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4, and serotonin transporter (SERT. Studies of wild bird populations have shown that exploratory and bold behaviours are associated with polymorphisms in both DRD4 and SERT. Here we tested for polymorphisms in DRD4 and SERT in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis population on Cousin Island, Seychelles, and then investigated correlations between personality and polymorphisms in these genes. We found no genetic variation in DRD4, but identified four polymorphisms in SERT that clustered into five haplotypes. There was no correlation between bold or exploratory behaviours and SERT polymorphisms/haplotypes. The null result was not due to lack of power, and indicates that there was no association between these behaviours and variation in the candidate genes tested in this population. These null findings provide important data to facilitate representative future meta-analyses on candidate personality genes.

  12. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  13. Detection of resistance to the organophosphate insecticide in wild populations of medfly Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimouni, Wafa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the wild medfly resistance of the organophosphate insecticide is evaluated by the physiologic mechanism of resistance including the Acethylcholinesterase enzyme. Different representative populations of Ceratitis were collected from different regions of Tunisia. The analysis statistics (ACP) for DL50 and the treatment frequency showed a negative correlation between them. The gene ace was amplified at the level of the exons 4, 5, 6 et 7 by PCR. No mutation of the gene ace was identified with the collected individuals.

  14. Non-invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Arandjelovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An assessment of population size and structure is an important first step in devising conservation and management plans for endangered species. Many threatened animals are elusive, rare and live in habitats that prohibit directly counting individuals. For example, a well-founded estimate of the number of great apes currently living in the wild is lacking. Developing methods to obtain accurate population estimates for these species is a priority for their conservation management. Genotyping non-invasively collected faecal samples is an effective way of evaluating a species' population size without disruption, and can also reveal details concerning population structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We opportunistically collected wild chimpanzee faecal samples for genetic capture-recapture analyses over a four-year period in a 132 km(2 area of Loango National Park, Gabon. Of the 444 samples, 46% yielded sufficient quantities of DNA for genotyping analysis and the consequent identification of 121 individuals. Using genetic capture-recapture, we estimate that 283 chimpanzees (range: 208-316 inhabited the research area between February 2005 and July 2008. Since chimpanzee males are patrilocal and territorial, we genotyped samples from males using variable Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and could infer that seven chimpanzee groups are present in the area. Genetic information, in combination with field data, also suggested the occurrence of repeated cases of intergroup violence and a probable group extinction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The poor amplification success rate resulted in a limited number of recaptures and hence only moderate precision (38%, measured as the entire width of the 95% confidence interval, but this was still similar to the best results obtained using intensive nest count surveys of apes (40% to 63%. Genetic capture-recapture methods applied to apes can provide a considerable amount of novel information on

  15. Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for genetic characterization and population structure analysis of Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q Z; Huang, M; Downie, S R; Chen, Z X

    2016-05-23

    Invasive plants tend to spread aggressively in new habitats and an understanding of their genetic diversity and population structure is useful for their management. In this study, expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed for the invasive plant species Praxelis clematidea (Asteraceae) from 5548 Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae) expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of 133 microsatellite-containing ESTs (2.4%) were identified, of which 56 (42.1%) were hexanucleotide repeat motifs and 50 (37.6%) were trinucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 24 primer pairs designed from these 133 ESTs, 7 (29.2%) resulted in significant polymorphisms. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 9. The relatively high genetic diversity (H = 0.2667, I = 0.4212, and P = 100%) of P. clematidea was related to high gene flow (Nm = 1.4996) among populations. The coefficient of population differentiation (GST = 0.2500) indicated that most genetic variation occurred within populations. A Mantel test suggested that there was significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distribution (r = 0.3192, P = 0.012). These results further support the transferability of EST-SSR markers between closely related genera of the same family.

  16. Analysis of near infrared spectra for age-grading of wild populations of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Krajacich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the age-structure of mosquito populations, especially malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae, is important for assessing the risk of infectious mosquitoes, and how vector control interventions may impact this risk. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS for age-grading has been demonstrated previously on laboratory and semi-field mosquitoes, but to date has not been utilized on wild-caught mosquitoes whose age is externally validated via parity status or parasite infection stage. In this study, we developed regression and classification models using NIRS on datasets of wild An. gambiae (s.l. reared from larvae collected from the field in Burkina Faso, and two laboratory strains. We compared the accuracy of these models for predicting the ages of wild-caught mosquitoes that had been scored for their parity status as well as for positivity for Plasmodium sporozoites. Results Regression models utilizing variable selection increased predictive accuracy over the more common full-spectrum partial least squares (PLS approach for cross-validation of the datasets, validation, and independent test sets. Models produced from datasets that included the greatest range of mosquito samples (i.e. different sampling locations and times had the highest predictive accuracy on independent testing sets, though overall accuracy on these samples was low. For classification, we found that intramodel accuracy ranged between 73.5–97.0% for grouping of mosquitoes into “early” and “late” age classes, with the highest prediction accuracy found in laboratory colonized mosquitoes. However, this accuracy was decreased on test sets, with the highest classification of an independent set of wild-caught larvae reared to set ages being 69.6%. Conclusions Variation in NIRS data, likely from dietary, genetic, and other factors limits the accuracy of this technique with wild-caught mosquitoes. Alternative algorithms may help improve

  17. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  18. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  19. Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  20. Serological Evidence for Influenza A Virus Exposure in Wild Birds in Trinidad & Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Brown Jordan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are known to be important reservoirs for influenza A viruses (IAV and they have been repeatedly implicated as causing avian influenza virus (AIV outbreaks in domestic poultry flocks worldwide. In recent years, wild birds have been implicated in spreading zoonotic H5 influenza viruses to many countries, which has generated high levels of public health concern. Trinidad and Tobago (T&T is positioned along the wintering route of migratory birds from the Americas; every year, many species of wild birds stopover on the islands of T&T, potentially carrying AIVs and exposing local populations of wild and domestic birds, including commercial poultry, to infection. The aim of this study was to trap, sample, and test as many wild bird species as possible to see whether they were actively infected or previously exposed to AIV. A total of 38 wild birds were trapped, sampled, and tested for IAV RNA, antibodies specific for influenza A nucleoprotein (NP and antibodies that were specific for H5 and H7 subtypes. Five of the samples tested antibody positive for IAV, while three of these samples had positive titres (≥16 for the H5 subtype, indicating that they were likely to have been previously infected with an H5 IAV subtype. One of the samples tested positive for IAV (M gene RNA. These results highlight the potential threat that is posed by wild birds to backyard and commercial poultry in T&T and emphasise the importance of maintaining high levels of biosecurity on poultry farms, ensuring that domestic and wild birds are not in direct or indirect contact. The results also underline the need to carry out routine surveillance for AIV in domestic and wild birds in T&T and the wider Caribbean region.

  1. ISSR Analysis on Genetic Diversity of the 34 Populations of Oryza meyeriana Distributing in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-tao WAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of the 34 populations of wild rice Oryza meyeriana Baill. distributed in Yunnan Province, China was analyzed using 13 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. A total of 168 bands were amplified, of which 135 polymorphic bands were discovered and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB was 80.36%. A genetic diversity was revealed as Nei's gene diversity (H = 0.2666 and Shannon information index (I = 0.4028 at population level. The 34 populations were divided into different groups based on administrative regions, latitude and longitudes, river areas, altitudes of their origins, and their indexes such as Na (number of alleles, Ne (effective number of alleles, H, I and PPB were calculated. Richer genetic diversity was found in the wild rice populations distributed in Simao Prefecture than that in Lingcang Prefecture or Xishuangbanna Prefecture whereas the least genetic diversity was in Baoshan Prefecture or Dehong Prefecture. Rich genetic diversity was also discovered in the wild rice populations originated from higher than 710 m altitude around the middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River belonging to the Pacific Ocean drainage system. The 34 populations could be classified into two groups, one group covered the wild rice distributing in Simao Prefecture only while the other group covered ones in Lingcang, Xishuangbanna and Dehong Prefectures. The issue on how to effectively conserve the wild rice germplasm was discussed.

  2. Gastrointestinal helminths of two populations of wild pigeons (Columba livia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Fontanelli Vaz

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study analyzed gastrointestinal helminth communities in 265 wild pigeons (Columba livia living in the municipalities of São Paulo and Tatuí, state of São Paulo, Brazil, over a one-year period. The birds were caught next to grain storage warehouses and were necropsied. A total of 790 parasites comprising one nematode species and one cestode genus were recovered from 110 pigeons, thus yielding an overall prevalence of 41.5%, mean intensity of infection of 7.2 ± 1.6 (range 1-144 and discrepancy index of 0.855. Only 15 pigeons (5.7% presented mixed infection. The helminths isolated from the birds were Ascaridia columbae (Ascaridiidae and Raillietina sp. (Davaineidae. The birds’ weights differed according to sex but this did not influence the intensity of infection. The overall prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ between the sexes, but the prevalence was higher among the birds from Tatuí (47.8%. The gastrointestinal helminth community of C. livia was characterized in the two areas studied and parasite homogeneity was observed over the 12 months analyzed at both locations. These results make contributions to the current literature on health aspects of wild C. livia populations.

  3. Identification of learning mechanisms in a wild meerkat population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Hoppitt

    Full Text Available Vigorous debates as to the evolutionary origins of culture remain unresolved due to an absence of methods for identifying learning mechanisms in natural populations. While laboratory experiments on captive animals have revealed evidence for a number of mechanisms, these may not necessarily reflect the processes typically operating in nature. We developed a novel method that allows social and asocial learning mechanisms to be determined in animal groups from the patterns of interaction with, and solving of, a task. We deployed it to analyse learning in groups of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta presented with a novel foraging apparatus. We identify nine separate learning processes underlying the meerkats' foraging behaviour, in each case precisely quantifying their strength and duration, including local enhancement, emulation, and a hitherto unrecognized form of social learning, which we term 'observational perseverance'. Our analysis suggests a key factor underlying the stability of behavioural traditions is a high ratio of specific to generalized social learning effects. The approach has widespread potential as an ecologically valid tool to investigate learning mechanisms in natural groups of animals, including humans.

  4. Systematic review of management strategies to control chronic wasting disease in wild deer populations in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehlinger, F D; Johnston, A C; Bollinger, T K; Waldner, C L

    2016-08-22

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a contagious, fatal prion disease affecting cervids in a growing number of regions across North America. Projected deer population declines and concern about potential spread of CWD to other species warrant strategies to manage this disease. Control efforts to date have been largely unsuccessful, resulting in continuing spread and increasing prevalence. This systematic review summarizes peer-reviewed published reports describing field-applicable CWD control strategies in wild deer populations in North America using systematic review methods. Ten databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature. Following deduplication, relevance screening, full-text appraisal, subject matter expert review and qualitative data extraction, nine references were included describing four distinct management strategies. Six of the nine studies used predictive modeling to evaluate control strategies. All six demonstrated one or more interventions to be effective but results were dependant on parameters and assumptions used in the model. Three found preferential removal of CWD infected deer to be effective in reducing CWD prevalence; one model evaluated a test and slaughter strategy, the other selective removal of infected deer by predators and the third evaluated increased harvest of the sex with highest prevalence (males). Three models evaluated non-selective harvest of deer. There were only three reports that examined primary data collected as part of observational studies. Two of these studies supported the effectiveness of intensive non-selective culling; the third study did not find a difference between areas that were subjected to culling and those that were not. Seven of the nine studies were conducted in the United States. This review highlights the paucity of evaluated, field-applicable control strategies for CWD in wild deer populations. Knowledge gaps in the complex epidemiology of CWD and the intricacies inherent to prion diseases currently

  5. Identification of the Rare, Four Repeat Allele of IL-4 Intron-3 VNTR Polymorphism in Indian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Henu Kumar; Jha, Aditya Nath; Khodiar, Prafulla Kumar; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Bhaskar, Lakkakula Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines are cell signaling molecules which upon release by cells facilitate the recruitment of immune-modulatory cells towards the sites of inflammation. Genetic variations in cytokine genes are shown to regulate their production and affect the risk of infectious as well as autoimmune diseases. Intron-3 of interleukin-4 gene (IL-4) harbors 70-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) that may alter the expression level of IL-4 gene. To determine the distribution of IL-4 70-bp VNTR polymorphism in seven genetically heterogeneous populations of Chhattisgarh, India and their comparison with the finding of other Indian and world populations. A total of 371 healthy unrelated individuals from 5 caste and 2 tribal populations were included in the present study. The IL-4 70-bp VNTR genotyping was carried out using PCR and electrophoresis. Overall, 3 alleles of IL-4 70-bp VNTR (a2, a3 and a4) were detected. The results demonstrated the variability of the IL-4 70-bp VNTR polymorphism in Chhattisgarh populations. Allele a3 was the most common allele at the 70-bp VNTR locus in all populations followed by a2 allele. This study reports the presence four repeat allele a4 at a low frequency in the majority of the Chhattisgarh populations studied. Further, the frequency of the minor allele (a2) in Chhattisgarh populations showed similarity with the frequencies of European populations but not with the East Asian populations where the a2 allele is a major allele. Our study provides a baseline for future research into the role of the IL-4 locus in diseases linked to inflammation in Indian populations.

  6. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline of breeding success in a tropical wild bird population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Samantha J; Nicoll, Malcolm A C; Jones, Carl G; Tatayah, Vikash; Norris, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Habitat conversion for agriculture is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but our understanding of the demographic processes involved remains poor. We typically investigate the impacts of agriculture in isolation even though populations are likely to experience multiple, concurrent changes in the environment (e.g. land and climate change). Drivers of environmental change may interact to affect demography, but the mechanisms have yet to be explored fully in wild populations. Here, we investigate the mechanisms linking agricultural land use with breeding success using long-term data for the formerly Critically Endangered Mauritius kestrel Falco punctatus, a tropical forest specialist that also occupies agricultural habitats. We specifically focused on the relationship between breeding success, agriculture and the timing of breeding because the latter is sensitive to changes in climatic conditions (spring rainfall) and enables us to explore the interactive effects of different (land and climate) drivers of environmental change. Breeding success, measured as egg survival to fledging, declines seasonally in this population, but we found that the rate of this decline became increasingly rapid as the area of agriculture around a nest site increased. If the relationship between breeding success and agriculture was used in isolation to estimate the demographic impact of agriculture, it would significantly under-estimate breeding success in dry (early) springs and over-estimate breeding success in wet (late) springs. Analysis of prey delivered to nests suggests that the relationship between breeding success and agriculture might be due, in part, to spatial variation in the availability of native, arboreal geckos. Synthesis and applications. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline in breeding success in this population. As springs are becoming wetter in our study area and since the kestrels breed later in wetter springs, the impact of agriculture on breeding success will

  7. Corticosterone stress response shows long-term repeatability and links to personality in free-living Nazca boobies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Jacquelyn K; Anderson, David J

    2014-11-01

    The concept of "coping styles", or consistently different responses to stressors, is of broad interest in behavioral ecology and biomedicine. Two critical predictions of this concept are individual consistency of neurophysiological and behavioral responses (relative to population variability) and a negative relationship between aggression/proactivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Recent studies failed to provide strong support for these predictions, especially outside of strictly controlled conditions, and long-term measures to test the first prediction are rare. Here, we demonstrate individual repeatability across 2-3years of maximum circulating corticosterone concentration [CORT] and area under the [CORT] response curve (AUCI) during a standard capture-restraint test in wild, free-living adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti). We also show that the stress response predicts the personality traits aggression and anxiety in these birds (measured in the wild); however, the strength of these results was weak. Maximum [CORT] and AUCI showed higher repeatability between years than baseline [CORT]. After controlling breeding status, sex, mass, date sampled, and their interactions, baseline [CORT] was most closely related to personality traits, followed by AUCI, and then maximum [CORT]. The direction of these relationships depended on whether the testing context was social or non-social. [CORT] parameters had little to no relationship with cross-context plasticity in personality traits. Our results generally affirm two critical predictions of coping styles, but match the emerging trend that these relationships are weak in the wild, and may depend on testing context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory studies bearing on pigment pattern polymorphisms in wild populations of Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, D J

    1972-01-01

    Data are presented for 2,393 progeny from a number of crosses related to a study in ecological genetics of the Burnsi and Kandiyohi polymorphisms in natural populations of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens. No significant differences in viability were found between wild-type homozygotes (+/+) and Burnsi heterozygotes (B/+) or homozygotes (B/B). Similarly, no difference in viability was found between wild-type (+/+) and Kandiyohi heterozygotes (K/+) and homozygotes (K/K). However, there appears to be slight reduction in viability of the double dominant heterozygote (B/+; K/+) in comparison with (+/+), (B/+), and (K/+) progeny from the same cross.-The Kandiyohi heterozygotes (K/+) appeared to have a more rapid rate of development from fertilization through metamorphosis than wild-type (+/+) or Burnsi (B+/) or Burnsi-Kandiyohi heterozygotes (B+K/+). Since Kandiyohi is associated primarily with the prairie habitat (Merrell 1965), this finding suggests that the adaptive advantage of Kandiyohi lies in the more rapid rate of development of frogs carrying this gene, enabling them to complete metamorphosis before the prairie breeding ponds dry up.-Data are presented from crosses involving dorsal spot number. The results suggest that heredity plays a role in the determination of dorsal spot number but that non-genetic influences are also of considerable importance.-The results of these crosses are discussed with respect to their bearing on the formation of pigment patterns in Rana pipiens. From the available data it is clear that the pigment pattern in Rana pipiens is a complex trait influenced by major gene loci, by modifying genes, and by environmental effects. The relative importance of these factors varies depending on the particular combination of genetic and environmental conditions.

  9. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, Thomas P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  10. Mercury levels in feathers of eagle-owls Bubo bubo in a captive, a reintroduced and a native wild population in SW Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broo, B.; Odsjoe, T.

    1981-01-01

    Mercury levels in feathers are presented for both captive and wild eagle-owls from the period 1963-1976. Levels are compared between wild birds occupying old territories and released birds in newly occupied territories. The wild population in SW Sweden shows decreasing levels in the inland territories, and at present these levels are similar to the natural background level. The coastal owls have significantly higher levels which show no decrease. Low levels prevail in captive eagle-owls, fed on low-contaminted food. Birds in newly occupied territories (mainly released birds) have similar mercury levels as native birds. After being released captive birds therefore seem to accumulate mercury rather quickly. (author)

  11. Pheromone communication in Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae): A comparison of the volatiles and salivary gland extracts of two wild populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncalves, G. B.; Silva, C. E.; Mendonca, A. D. L.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Tomčala, Aleš; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2013), s. 1365-1374 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : salivary glands * volatile compounds * sex attractant * wild population * gas chromatography - mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  12. Length and repeat-sequence variation in 58 STRs and 94 SNPs in two Spanish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Ferran; Anglada, Roger; Bonet, Núria; Rasal, Raquel; van der Gaag, Kristiaan J; Hoogenboom, Jerry; Solé-Morata, Neus; Comas, David; Calafell, Francesc

    2017-09-01

    We have genotyped the 58 STRs (27 autosomal, 24 Y-STRs and 7 X-STRs) and 94 autosomal SNPs in Illumina ForenSeq™ Primer Mix A in 88 Spanish Roma (Gypsy) samples and 143 Catalans. Since this platform is based in massive parallel sequencing, we have used simple R scripts to uncover the sequence variation in the repeat region. Thus, we have found, across 58 STRs, 541 length-based alleles, which, after considering repeat-sequence variation, became 804 different alleles. All loci in both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F ST between both populations was 0.0178 for autosomal SNPs, 0.0146 for autosomal STRs, 0.0101 for X-STRs and 0.1866 for Y-STRs. Combined a priori statistics showed quite large; for instance, pooling all the autosomal loci, the a priori probabilities of discriminating a suspect become 1-(2.3×10 -70 ) and 1-(5.9×10 -73 ), for Roma and Catalans respectively, and the chances of excluding a false father in a trio are 1-(2.6×10 -20 ) and 1-(2.0×10 -21 ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of rapid evolution on population dynamics in the wild: experimental test of eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Reznick, David N; Hare, J Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Rapid evolution challenges the assumption that evolution is too slow to impact short-term ecological dynamics. This insight motivates the study of 'Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics' or how evolution and ecological processes reciprocally interact on short time scales. We tested how rapid evolution impacts concurrent population dynamics using an aphid (Myzus persicae) and an undomesticated host (Hirschfeldia incana) in replicated wild populations. We manipulated evolvability by creating non-evolving (single clone) and potentially evolving (two-clone) aphid populations that contained genetic variation in intrinsic growth rate. We observed significant evolution in two-clone populations whether or not they were exposed to predators and competitors. Evolving populations grew up to 42% faster and attained up to 67% higher density, compared with non-evolving control populations but only in treatments exposed to competitors and predators. Increased density also correlates with relative fitness of competing clones suggesting a full eco-evolutionary dynamic cycle defined as reciprocal interactions between evolution and density. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Genomic resources for wild populations of the house mouse, Mus musculus and its close relative Mus spretus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Bettina; Karakoc, Emre; Neme, Rafik; Teschke, Meike; Pfeifle, Christine; Pezer, Željka; Babiker, Hiba; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Montero, Inka; Scavetta, Rick; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Molins, Marta Puente; Schlegel, Mathias; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Altmüller, Janine; Franitza, Marek; Büntge, Anna; Künzel, Sven; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory. PMID:27622383

  15. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species:the case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyu Li; Quan Dong; Thomas Albright; Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and...

  16. Wild boar movement ecology across scales: Insights from a population expanding into agroecosystems of Southern Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Morelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Over the time, ungulates have seen their populations continuously changing under the e ect of direct, i.e. hunting pressure, and indirect, i.e. land-use changes, human activities. Under control until recently, ungulates have progressively adapted to these modi cations and are now able to cope with human-shaped environments, consequently their number and range have greatly and worryingly increased. More particularly, among ungulates species, the wild boar Sus scrofa raises...

  17. No CAG repeat expansion of polymerase gamma is associated with male infertility in Tamil Nadu, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongothai, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria contains a single deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase, polymerase gamma (POLG) mapped to long arm of chromosome 15 (15q25), responsible for replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA. Exon 1 of the human POLG contains CAG trinucleotide repeat, which codes for polyglutamate. Ten copies of CAG repeat were found to be uniformly high (0.88) in different ethnic groups and considered as the common allele, whereas the mutant alleles (not -10/not -10 CAG repeats) were found to be associated with oligospermia/oligoasthenospermia in male infertility. Recent data suggested the implication of POLG CAG repeat expansion in infertility, but are debated. The aim of our study was to explore whether the not -10/not -10 variant is associated with spermatogenic failure. As few study on Indian population have been conducted so far to support this view, we investigated the distribution of the POLG CAG repeats in 61 infertile men and 60 normozoospermic control Indian men of Tamil Nadu, from the same ethnic background. This analysis interestingly revealed that the homozygous wild type genotype (10/-10) was common in infertile men (77% - 47/61) and in normozoospermic control men (71.7% - 43/60). Our study failed to confirm any influence of the POLG gene polymorphism on the efficiency of the spermatogenesis. PMID:24339545

  18. Short tandem repeat analysis in Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiyada, M

    2000-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs), known as microsatellites, are one of the most informative genetic markers for characterizing biological materials. Because of the relatively small size of STR alleles (generally 100-350 nucleotides), amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is relatively easy, affording a high sensitivity of detection. In addition, STR loci can be amplified simultaneously in a multiplex PCR. Thus, substantial information can be obtained in a single analysis with the benefits of using less template DNA, reducing labor, and reducing the contamination. We investigated 14 STR loci in a Japanese population living in Sendai by three multiplex PCR kits, GenePrint PowerPlex 1.1 and 2.2. Fluorescent STR System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and AmpF/STR Profiler (Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, CT, USA). Genomic DNA was extracted using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) proteinase K or Chelex 100 treatment followed by the phenol/chloroform extraction. PCR was performed according to the manufacturer's protocols. Electrophoresis was carried out on an ABI 377 sequencer and the alleles were determined by GeneScan 2.0.2 software (Perkin-Elmer). In 14 STRs loci, statistical parameters indicated a relatively high rate, and no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected. We apply this STR system to paternity testing and forensic casework, e.g., personal identification in rape cases. This system is an effective tool in the forensic sciences to obtain information on individual identification.

  19. Unraveling the genetic history of the European wild goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, I.; Ersmark, E.; Samaniego, J. A.; Galindo-Pellicena, M. A.; Crégut-Bonnoure, E.; Bolívar, H.; Gómez-Olivencia, A.; Rios-Garaizar, J.; Garate, D.; Dalén, L.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Valdiosera, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    The population history of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex has been closely related to that of humans since the Palaeolithic. Current molecular and paleontological studies differ substantially on the phylogenetic origin of the European wild goats, possibly due the loss of genetic variation through time. We investigated the phylogenetic relationship between the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) including different Iberian wild goat subspecies by applying ancient DNA techniques combined with Next Generation Sequencing technologies. We analysed the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial genome in 33 ancient and modern European wild goats from Spain and France together with publicly available genetic information of modern wild goats. This work uncovers for the first time ancient genetic information of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex, spanning a time range of approximately 40,000 years to the present. Our results suggest genetic continuity between ancient and modern populations and indicate a monophyletic origin of the Alpine ibex and the Iberian wild goat when compared to other Capra species. The monophyly of both species is in agreement with other molecular studies based only on modern populations, therefore supporting one-wave migration of wild goats into Western Europe followed by possible allopatric speciation. We observe three major clades of wild goats in Western Europe: Capra ibex, Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica and the group containing the subspecies Capra pyrenaica hispanica and Capra pyrenaica victoriae. This genetic structure recognizes the distinctiveness of the bucardo (C. p. pyrenaica) from the rest of Iberian wild goats and thus supports the idea that this group is an Evolutionary Significant Unit. The divergence time estimated here indicates an almost contemporaneous split between the three clades around 50,000-90,000 years BP.

  20. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-03

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic composition of captive panda population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiandong; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Da, Yang

    2016-10-03

    A major function of the captive panda population is to preserve the genetic diversity of wild panda populations in their natural habitats. Understanding the genetic composition of the captive panda population in terms of genetic contributions from the wild panda populations provides necessary knowledge for breeding plans to preserve the genetic diversity of the wild panda populations. The genetic contributions from different wild populations to the captive panda population were highly unbalanced, with Qionglai accounting for 52.2 % of the captive panda gene pool, followed by Minshan with 21.5 %, Qinling with 10.6 %, Liangshan with 8.2 %, and Xiaoxiangling with 3.6 %, whereas Daxiangling, which had similar population size as Xiaoxiangling, had no genetic representation in the captive population. The current breeding recommendations may increase the contribution of some small wild populations at the expense of decreasing the contributions of other small wild populations, i.e., increasing the Xiaoxiangling contribution while decreasing the contribution of Liangshan, or sharply increasing the Qinling contribution while decreasing the contributions of Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan, which were two of the three smallest wild populations and were already severely under-represented in the captive population. We developed three habitat-controlled breeding plans that could increase the genetic contributions from the smallest wild populations to 6.7-11.2 % for Xiaoxiangling, 11.5-12.3 % for Liangshan and 12.9-20.0 % for Qinling among the offspring of one breeding season while reducing the risk of hidden inbreeding due to related founders from the same habitat undetectable by pedigree data. The three smallest wild panda populations of Daxiangling, Xiaoxiangling and Liangshan either had no representation or were severely unrepresented in the current captive panda population. By incorporating the breeding goal of increasing the genetic contributions from the smallest wild

  2. Wild apple growth and climate change in southeast Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina P. Panyushkina; Nurjan S. Mukhamadiev; Ann M. Lynch; Nursagim A. Ashikbaev; Alexis H. Arizpe; Christopher D. O' Connor; Danyar Abjanbaev; Gulnaz Z. Mengdbayeva; Abay O. Sagitov

    2017-01-01

    Wild populations of Malus sieversii [Ldb.] M. Roem are valued genetic and watershed resources in Inner Eurasia. These populations are located in a region that has experienced rapid and on-going climatic change over the past several decades. We assess relationships between climate variables and wild apple radial growth with dendroclimatological techniques to understand...

  3. Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boar of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ganna; Molozhanova, Alona; Halka, Ihor; Nychyk, Serhiy

    2017-12-01

    A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.0-30.8) and in at least some of the wild boar from all of the four oblasts. This preliminary survey of IA antibodies in wild boar populations of northern Ukraine indicates a substantial frequency of exposure to IAV throughout the region. Infection of wild boar populations could provide an alternative or additional route for spillover from wild populations to domestic animals and humans.

  4. Gene flow and genetic diversity in cultivated and wild cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumacero de Schawe, Claudia; Durka, Walter; Tscharntke, Teja; Hensen, Isabell; Kessler, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The role of pollen flow within and between cultivated and wild tropical crop species is little known. To study the pollen flow of cacao, we estimated the degree of self-pollination and pollen dispersal distances as well as gene flow between wild and cultivated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We studied pollen flow and genetic diversity of cultivated and wild cacao populations by genotyping 143 wild and 86 cultivated mature plants and 374 seedlings raised from 19 wild and 25 cultivated trees at nine microsatellite loci. A principal component analysis distinguished wild and cultivated cacao trees, supporting the notion that Bolivia harbors truly wild cacao populations. Cultivated cacao had a higher level of genetic diversity than wild cacao, presumably reflecting the varied origin of cultivated plants. Both cacao types had high outcrossing rates, but the paternity analysis revealed 7-14% self-pollination in wild and cultivated cacao. Despite the tiny size of the pollinators, pollen was transported distances up to 3 km; wild cacao showed longer distances (mean = 922 m) than cultivated cacao (826 m). Our data revealed that 16-20% of pollination events occurred between cultivated and wild populations. We found evidence of self-pollination in both wild and cultivated cacao. Pollination distances are larger than those typically reported in tropical understory tree species. The relatively high pollen exchange from cultivated to wild cacao compromises genetic identity of wild populations, calling for the protection of extensive natural forest tracts to protect wild cacao in Bolivia.

  5. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  6. Chimerism in wild adult populations of the broadcast spawning coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneour Puill-Stephan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Chimeras are organisms containing tissues or cells of two or more genetically distinct individuals, and are known to exist in at least nine phyla of protists, plants, and animals. Although widespread and common in marine invertebrates, the extent of chimerism in wild populations of reef corals is unknown.The extent of chimerism was explored within two populations of a common coral, Acropora millepora, on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, by using up to 12 polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci. At least 2% and 5% of Magnetic Island and Pelorus Island populations of A. millepora, respectively, were found to be chimeras (3% overall, based on conservative estimates. A slightly less conservative estimate indicated that 5% of colonies in each population were chimeras. These values are likely to be vast underestimates of the true extent of chimerism, as our sampling protocol was restricted to a maximum of eight branches per colony, while most colonies consist of hundreds of branches. Genotypes within chimeric corals showed high relatedness, indicating that genetic similarity is a prerequisite for long-term acceptance of non-self genotypes within coral colonies.While some brooding corals have been shown to form genetic chimeras in their early life history stages under experimental conditions, this study provides the first genetic evidence of the occurrence of coral chimeras in the wild and of chimerism in a broadcast spawning species. We hypothesize that chimerism is more widespread in corals than previously thought, and suggest that this has important implications for their resilience, potentially enhancing their capacity to compete for space and respond to stressors such as pathogen infection.

  7. Genetic variation in total number and locations of GnRH neurons identified using in situ hybridization in a wild-source population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Katherine E; Rivers, Charlotte I; Saha, Margaret S; Heideman, Paul D

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of brain function in the regulation of physiology may depend in part upon the numbers and locations of neurons. Wild populations of rodents contain natural genetic variation in the inhibition of reproduction by winter-like short photoperiod, and it has been hypothesized that this functional variation might be due in part to heritable variation in the numbers or location of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. A naturally variable wild-source population of white-footed mice was used to develop lines artificially selected for or against mature gonads in short, winter-like photoperiods. We compared a selection line that is reproductively inhibited in short photoperiod (Responsive) to a line that is weakly inhibited by short photoperiod (Nonresponsive) for differences in counts of neurons identified using in situ hybridization for GnRH mRNA. There was no effect of photoperiod, but there were 60% more GnRH neurons in total in the Nonresponsive selection line than the Responsive selection line. The lines differed specifically in numbers of GnRH neurons in more anterior regions, whereas numbers of GnRH neurons in posterior areas were not statistically different between lines. We compare these results to those of an earlier study that used immunohistochemical labeling for GnRH neurons. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the selection lines and natural source population contain significant genetic variation in the number and location of GnRH neurons. The variation in GnRH neurons may contribute to functional variation in fertility that occurs in short photoperiods in the laboratory and in the wild source population in winter. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Investigating Resistance of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. ‎Populations to Tribenuron-Methyl Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‎ Mehdi Afshari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribenuron-methyl is commonly used for post emergence control of broad leaf weeds in wheat fields. In order to survey suspicious resistant weeds in wheat fields to this herbicide thirty-eight fields of Kermanshah province were investigated during 2012- 2013. Seeds of suspected resistance of wild mustard were gathered and tested in a randomized complete blocks design experiment with three replications. First, for early detection of herbicide resistance, the suspected population was screened using discriminating dose of tribenuron-methyl. Determining of the resistance degree was conducted by whole plant bioassay tests using dose-response curves. The resistance mechanisms were assayed by molecular methods, especially using the ALS gene cloning by PJET1.2/blunt Vector. For susceptible populations, the concentration required for complete control was 10.4 g ai ha-1 tribenuron-methyl. Also, in screening tests 50% of populations as resistant populations were identified. According to the Beckie and Tardif, it was found that 57.8% of these population did have a very high degree of resistance, 31.5% with high resistance and 10/5% with low resistance degree. GR50 of the resistant weeds was also increased as compared to sensitive weed, which indicates resistance in this province, Thus to control the resistant populations Z15, this amount increased to 1309 g ai ha-1.The results of DNA sequencing showed that mutation by replacing proline amino acid at position Ala122 causes resistance based on target-site mutation.

  9. Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to soil water deficit in seedlings of three populations of wild pear tree (Pyrus boisseriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarafshar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage limits the production of fruit orchards, such as pear, in arid and semi-arid regions. The identification of wild pear germplasm for potential use as rootstock would be valuable for pear cultivation in semi-arid regions. The relative drought tolerance of wild pear germplasm (Pyrus boisseriana from three different populations distributed along an elevational gradient ('semi-arid 1,000', 'semi-wet 1,350' and 'semi-wet 1,600' populations was evaluated in a greenhouse trial. Established container-grown seedlings were exposed to 18 days of simulated drought, or not, followed by a seven day recovery period. Biomass allocation and accumulation, physiological (stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, transpiration, xylem water potential and biochemical parameters (leaf pigments, free proline, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide production were evaluated. Although all populations were able to recover from water shortage, thereby proving to be relatively drought tolerant, some differences between populations were detected for gas exchange parameters, biomass accumulation and proline concentration in favor of the 'semi-arid 1,000' elevation population, which was more drought tolerant. This population showed the most rapid and complete recovery of physiological activity (stomatal conductance and carbon fixation. In addition, all populations showed an increase in carotenoid content in the leaves. Overall, we showed that plants from the 'semi-arid 1,000' elevation had greater tolerance to drought than those from the higher elevations (semi-wet populations. It therefore appears that plants from the 'semi-arid 1,000' elevation represent a promising source of material to be tested as rootstock for commercial scions of pear in field conditions in areas prone to suffer from water deficit.

  10. A Bayesian analysis of gene flow from crops to their wild relatives: cultivated (Lactuca sativa L.) and prickly lettuce (L. serriola L.) and the recent expansion of L. serriola in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Brigitte; D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Hooftman, Danny A P; Den Nijs, Hans C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Van De Wiel, Clemens C M

    2012-06-01

    Interspecific gene flow can lead to the formation of hybrid populations that have a competitive advantage over the parental populations, even for hybrids from a cross between crops and wild relatives. Wild prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola) has recently expanded in Europe and hybridization with the related crop species (cultivated lettuce, L. sativa) has been hypothesized as one of the mechanisms behind this expansion. In a basically selfing species, such as lettuce, assessing hybridization in natural populations may not be straightforward. Therefore, we analysed a uniquely large data set of plants genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers with two programs for Bayesian population genetic analysis, STRUCTURE and NewHybrids. The data set comprised 7738 plants, including a complete genebank collection, which provided a wide coverage of cultivated germplasm and a fair coverage of wild accessions, and a set of wild populations recently sampled across Europe. STRUCTURE analysis inferred the occurrence of hybrids at a level of 7% across Europe. NewHybrids indicated these hybrids to be advanced selfed generations of a hybridization event or of one backcross after such an event, which is according to expectations for a basically selfing species. These advanced selfed generations could not be detected effectively with crop-specific alleles. In the northern part of Europe, where the expansion of L. serriola took place, the fewest putative hybrids were found. Therefore, we conclude that other mechanisms than crop/wild gene flow, such as an increase in disturbed habitats and/or climate warming, are more likely explanations for this expansion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of a wild white-tailed deer population management program for controlling chronic wasting disease in Illinois, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Shelton, Paul; Novakofski, Jan

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated population management programs for controlling chronic wasting disease (CWD) in wild white-tailed deer in Illinois between November 2002 and March 2008. The intervention consisted of measures of deer removal from three deer population control programs: Illinois Department of Natural Resources culling, deer population control permits and nuisance deer removal permits. We included in the analysis a total of 14,650 white-tailed deer CWD test results. These data also included location and demographic data collected from both deer harvested in the interventions as well as deer from hunter harvests and deer vehicle collisions. We quantified intervention pressures as the number of years of intervention, the total number of deer removed and the average number of deer removed per year. We accounted for temporal and spatial variations of intervention by using mixed logistic regression to model the association between intervention pressures and CWD prevalence change. The results showed that deer population management intervention as practiced in Illinois during the study period was negatively associated with CWD prevalence and the strength of association varied depending on age of deer and the measure of intervention pressure. The population management programs showed a more consistent association with reduced CWD prevalence in fawn and yearling white-tailed deer than in adult deer. Our results also suggested that frequent and continuing intervention events with at least moderate intensity of culling were needed to reduce CWD prevalence. A longer study period, however, is needed to make a more definite conclusion about the effectiveness of similar population management programs for controlling CWD in wild white-tailed deer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A family of DNA repeats in Aspergillus nidulans has assimilated degenerated retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.L.; Hermansen, T.D.; Aleksenko, Alexei Y.

    2001-01-01

    In the course of a chromosomal walk towards the centromere of chromosome IV of Aspergillus nidulans, several cross- hybridizing genomic cosmid clones were isolated. Restriction mapping of two such clones revealed that their restriction patterns were similar in a region of at least 15 kb, indicati......) phenomenon, first described in Neurospora crassa, may have operated in A. nidulans. The data indicate that this family of repeats has assimilated mobile elements that subsequently degenerated but then underwent further duplications as a part of the host repeats....... the presence of a large repeat. The nature of the repeat was further investigated by sequencing and Southern analysis. The study revealed a family of long dispersed repeats with a high degree of sequence similarity. The number and location of the repeats vary between wild isolates. Two copies of the repeat...

  13. Genetic analysis of wild and cultivated germplasm of pigeonpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the efficiency of the use of single versus multiple markers, the genetic diversity was quantified among 12 diverse pigeonpea germplasm comprised of eight wild and four cultivated using both random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and how well these two types ...

  14. Conservation genetics of threatened Hippocampus guttulatus in vulnerable habitats in NW Spain: temporal and spatial stability of wild populations with flexible polygamous mating system in captivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena López

    Full Text Available This study was focused on conservation genetics of threatened Hippocampus guttulatus on the Atlantic coast of NW Iberian Peninsula. Information about spatial structure and temporal stability of wild populations was obtained based on microsatellite markers, and used for monitoring a captive breeding program firstly initiated in this zone at the facilities of the Institute of Marine Research (Vigo, Spain. No significant major genetic structure was observed regarding the biogeographical barrier of Cape Finisterre. However, two management units under continuous gene flow are proposed based on the allelic differentiation between South-Atlantic and Cantabrian subpopulations, with small to moderate contemporary effective size based on single-sample methods. Temporal stability was observed in South-Atlantic population samples of H. guttulatus for the six-year period studied, suggesting large enough effective population size to buffer the effects of genetic drift within the time frame of three generations. Genetic analysis of wild breeders and offspring in captivity since 2009 allowed us to monitor the breeding program founded in 2006 in NW Spain for this species. Similar genetic diversity in the renewed and founder broodstock, regarding the wild population of origin, supports suitable renewal and rearing processes to maintain genetic variation in captivity. Genetic parentage proved single-brood monogamy in the wild and in captivity, but flexible short- and long-term mating system under captive conditions, from strict monogamy to polygamy within and/or among breeding seasons. Family analysis showed high reproductive success in captivity under genetic management assisted by molecular relatedness estimates to avoid inbreeding. This study provides genetic information about H. guttulatus in the wild and captivity within an uncovered geographical range for this data deficient species, to be taken into account for management and conservation purposes.

  15. Bigger Is Fitter? Quantitative Genetic Decomposition of Selection Reveals an Adaptive Evolutionary Decline of Body Mass in a Wild Rodent Population.

    OpenAIRE

    Timothée Bonnet; Peter Wandeler; Glauco Camenisch; Erik Postma

    2017-01-01

    In natural populations, quantitative trait dynamics often do not appear to follow evolutionary predictions: Despite abundant examples of natural selection acting on heritable traits, conclusive evidence for contemporary adaptive evolution remains rare for wild vertebrate populations, and phenotypic stasis seems to be the norm. This so-called ‘stasis paradox’ highlights our inability to predict evolutionary change, which is especially concerning within the context of rapid anthropogenic enviro...

  16. Male Violence and Sexual Intimidation in a Wild Primate Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniel, Alice; Cowlishaw, Guy; Huchard, Elise

    2017-07-24

    Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We found support for all three main predictions of the sexual coercion hypothesis [7]: male aggression (1) is greatest against cycling females, (2) is costly and represents the main source of injuries for cycling females, and (3) increases male mating success with their victims in the future. Detailed analysis of chronological sequences between aggression and matings ruled out other coercive mechanisms, such as short-term harassment and punishment, by showing that aggression and matings are temporally decoupled. This decoupling may explain why some forms of sexual violence have been largely overlooked in well-studied animal populations despite their likely impact on the fitness of both sexes. Finally, we found no support for alternative hypotheses such as a female preference for aggressive males [8, 9]. This new, detailed study of the forms and intensity of sexual intimidation in a wild primate suggests that it may be widespread across mammalian societies, with important implications for understanding the evolution of mate choice and sexual conflict in mammals, as well as the origins of human sexual violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anni; Dammhahn, Melanie; Aujard, Fabienne; Eberle, Manfred; Hardy, Isabelle; Kappeler, Peter M; Perret, Martine; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kraus, Cornelia

    2014-09-22

    Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high predation risk in nature, we compared age trajectories of body mass (BM) in wild and captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) using longitudinal data (853 individuals followed through adulthood). We found evidence of non-random mortality in both settings. In captivity, the oldest animals showed senescence in their ability to regain lost BM, whereas no evidence of FS was found in the wild. Overall, captive animals lived longer, but a reversed sex bias in lifespan was observed between wild and captive populations. We suggest that even moderately condition-dependent EM may lead to negligible FS in the wild. While high EM may act to reduce the average lifespan, this evolutionary process may be counteracted by the increased fitness of the long-lived, high-quality individuals. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations for agronomic and grain traits in wild diploid wheat Triticum urartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Yiwen; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    Wild diploid wheat, Triticum urartu (T. urartu) is the progenitor of bread wheat, and understanding its genetic diversity and genome function will provide considerable reference for dissecting genomic information of common wheat. In this study, we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity and population structure of 238 T. urartu accessions collected from different geographic regions. This collection had 19.37 alleles per SSR locus and its polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.76, and the PIC and Nei's gene diversity (GD) of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. UPGMA clustering analysis indicated that the 238 T. urartu accessions could be classified into two subpopulations, of which Cluster I contained accessions from Eastern Mediterranean coast and those from Mesopotamia and Transcaucasia belonged to Cluster II. The wide range of genetic diversity along with the manageable number of accessions makes it one of the best collections for mining valuable genes based on marker-trait association. Significant associations were observed between simple sequence repeats (SSR) or HMW-GSs and six morphological traits: heading date (HD), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), spikelet number per spike (SPLN), tiller angle (TA) and grain length (GL). Our data demonstrated that SSRs and HMW-GSs were useful markers for identification of beneficial genes controlling important traits in T. urartu, and subsequently for their conservation and future utilization, which may be useful for genetic improvement of the cultivated hexaploid wheat.

  19. Sampling wild species to conserve genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling seed from natural populations of crop wild relatives requires choice of the locations to sample from and the amount of seed to sample. While this may seem like a simple choice, in fact careful planning of a collector’s sampling strategy is needed to ensure that a crop wild collection will ...

  20. Proxy measures of fitness suggest coastal fish farms can act as population sources and not ecological traps for wild gadoid fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Dempster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological traps form when artificial structures are added to natural habitats and induce mismatches between habitat preferences and fitness consequences. Their existence in terrestrial systems has been documented, yet little evidence suggests they occur in marine environments. Coastal fish farms are widespread artificial structures in coastal ecosystems and are highly attractive to wild fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate if coastal salmon farms act as ecological traps for wild Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and saithe (Pollachius virens, we compared proxy measures of fitness between farm-associated fish and control fish caught distant from farms in nine locations throughout coastal Norway, the largest coastal fish farming industry in the world. Farms modified wild fish diets in both quality and quantity, thereby providing farm-associated wild fish with a strong trophic subsidy. This translated to greater somatic (saithe: 1.06-1.12 times; cod: 1.06-1.11 times and liver condition indices (saithe: 1.4-1.8 times; cod: 2.0-2.8 times than control fish caught distant from farms. Parasite loads of farm-associated wild fish were modified from control fish, with increased external and decreased internal parasites, however the strong effect of the trophic subsidy overrode any effects of altered loads upon condition. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Proxy measures of fitness provided no evidence that salmon farms function as ecological traps for wild fish. We suggest fish farms may act as population sources for wild fish, provided they are protected from fishing while resident at farms to allow their increased condition to manifest as greater reproductive output.

  1. Testing the limits of Rodent Sperm Analysis: azoospermia in an otherwise healthy wild rodent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Thran, Brandolyn H; Willams, Keith J

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the sperm parameters of small rodents trapped at contaminated terrestrial sites and nearby habitat-matched noncontaminated locations, the patent-pending Rodent Sperm Analysis (RSA) method provides a direct health status appraisal for the maximally chemical-exposed mammalian ecological receptor in the wild. RSA outcomes have consistently allowed for as definitive determinations of receptor health as are possible at the present time, thereby streamlining the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process. Here, we describe the unanticipated discovery, at a contaminated US EPA Superfund National Priorities List site, of a population of Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), with a high percentage of adult males lacking sperm entirely (azoospermia). In light of the RSA method's role in streamlining ERAs and in bringing contaminated Superfund-type site investigations to closure, we consider the consequences of the discovery. The two matters specifically discussed are (1) the computation of a population's average sperm count where azoospermia is present and (2) the merits of the RSA method and its sperm parameter thresholds-for-effect when azoospermia is masked in an otherwise apparently healthy rodent population.

  2. Footprints of directional selection in wild Atlantic salmon populations: evidence for parasite-driven evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueva, Ksenia J; Lumme, Jaakko; Veselov, Alexey E; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of host-parasite co-adaptation have long been of interest in evolutionary biology; however, determining the genetic basis of parasite resistance has been challenging. Current advances in genome technologies provide new opportunities for obtaining a genome-scale view of the action of parasite-driven natural selection in wild populations and thus facilitate the search for specific genomic regions underlying inter-population differences in pathogen response. European populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) exhibit natural variance in susceptibility levels to the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg 1957, ranging from resistance to extreme susceptibility, and are therefore a good model for studying the evolution of virulence and resistance. However, distinguishing the molecular signatures of genetic drift and environment-associated selection in small populations such as land-locked Atlantic salmon populations presents a challenge, specifically in the search for pathogen-driven selection. We used a novel genome-scan analysis approach that enabled us to i) identify signals of selection in salmon populations affected by varying levels of genetic drift and ii) separate potentially selected loci into the categories of pathogen (G. salaris)-driven selection and selection acting upon other environmental characteristics. A total of 4631 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in Atlantic salmon from 12 different northern European populations. We identified three genomic regions potentially affected by parasite-driven selection, as well as three regions presumably affected by salinity-driven directional selection. Functional annotation of candidate SNPs is consistent with the role of the detected genomic regions in immune defence and, implicitly, in osmoregulation. These results provide new insights into the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in Atlantic salmon and will enable future searches for the specific genes involved.

  3. Fitness consequences of social network position in a wild population of forked fungus beetles (Bolitotherus cornutus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Vincent A; Wood, C W; Larsen, W B; Butterfield, R E; Augat, M E; Hougen, H Y; Brodie, E D

    2012-01-01

    Social networks describe the pattern of intraspecific interactions within a population. An individual's position in a social network often is expected to influence its fitness, but only a few studies have examined this relationship in natural populations. We investigated the fitness consequences of network position in a wild beetle population. Copulation success of male beetles positively covaried with strength (a measure of network centrality) and negatively covaried with clustering coefficient (CC) (a measure of cliquishness). Further analysis using mediation path models suggested that the activity level of individuals drove the relationships between strength and fitness almost entirely. In contrast, selection on CC was not explained by individual behaviours. Although our data suggest that social network position can experience strong sexual selection, it is also clear that the relationships between fitness and some network metrics merely reflect variation in individual-level behaviours. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: Towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris , the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative , Malus domestica . With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.

  5. Wild Steelhead and introduced spring Chinook Salmon in the Wind River, Washington: Overlapping populations and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezorek, I.G.; Connolly, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated interactions of introduced juvenile spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with wild juvenile steelhead O. mykiss in the upper Wind River watershed (rkm 24.6 to rkm 43.8), Washington. Our objective was to determine if the presence of introduced spring Chinook salmon influenced populations of wild juvenile steelhead and if other biotic or abiotic factors influenced distribution and populations of these species. We snorkeled to assess distribution and abundance in one to six stream reaches per year during 2001 through 2007. Juvenile steelhead were found in each sampled reach each year, but juvenile Chinook salmon were not. The upstream extent of distribution of juvenile Chinook salmon varied from rkm 29.7 to 42.5. Our analyses suggest that juvenile Chinook salmon distribution was much influenced by flow during the spawning season. Low flow appeared to limit access of escaped adult Chinook salmon to upper stream reaches. Abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was also influenced by base flow during the previous year, with base flow occurring post spawn in late August or early September. There were no relationships between juvenile Chinook salmon abundance and number of Chinook salmon spawners, magnitude of winter flow that might scour redds, or abundance of juvenile steelhead. Abundance of age-0 steelhead was influenced primarily by the number of steelhead spawners the previous year, and abundance of age-1 steelhead was influenced primarily by abundance of age-0 steelhead the previous year. Juvenile steelhead abundance did not show a relationship with base or peak flows, nor with number of escaped Chinook salmon adults during the previous year. We did not detect a negative influence of the relatively low abundance of progeny of escaped Chinook salmon on juvenile steelhead abundance. This low abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon was persistent throughout our study and is likely a result of hatchery management and habitat conditions. Should one or

  6. [Evaluation of Molecular Genetic Diversity of Wild Apple Malus sieversii Populations from Zailiysky Alatau by Microsatellite Markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omasheva, M E; Chekalin, S V; Galiakparov, N N

    2015-07-01

    The territory of Kazakhstan is part of the distribution range of Malus sieversii, which is one of the ancestors of cultivated apple tree varieties. The collected samples of Sievers apple leaves from five populations growing in the Zailiysky Alatau region served as a source not only for the creation of a bank of genomic DNA but also for determination ofthe wild apple genetic polymorphism. The seven microsatellite markers used in this study revealed 86 alleles with different frequencies, as well as the characteristic pools of rare alleles for each of the populations. Molecular genetic analysis showed a high level of genetic diversity (H(o) = 0.704; PIC = 0.752; I = 1.617). Moreover, interpopulation variability accounted only for 7.5% of total variability, confirming the genetic closeness of the populations examined. Based on phylogenetic analysis, it was demonstrated that the Bel'bulak and Almaty Reserve populations were closest to each other, while the most distant were the Ketmen and Great Almaty gorge populations, which suggests the dependence of genetic distance on the geographical.

  7. Identification, genealogical structure and population genetics of S-alleles in Malus sieversii, the wild ancestor of domesticated apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Cai, Z; Liu, W; Ge, S; Tang, L

    2017-09-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) gene that is specifically expressed in pistils encodes the SI-associated ribonuclease (S-RNase), functioning as the female-specificity determinant of a gametophytic SI system. Despite extensive surveys in Malus domestica, the S-alleles have not been fully investigated for Malus sieversii, the primary wild ancestor of the domesticated apple. Here we screened the M. sieversii S-alleles via PCR amplification and sequencing, and identified 14 distinct alleles in this species. By contrast, nearly 40 are present in its close wild relative, Malus sylvestris. We further sequenced 8 nuclear genes to provide a neutral reference, and investigated the evolution of S-alleles via genealogical and population genetic analyses. Both shared ancestral polymorphism and an excess of non-synonymous substitution were detected in the S-RNases of the tribe Maleae in Rosaceae, indicating the action of long-term balancing selection. Approximate Bayesian Computations based on the reference neutral loci revealed a severe bottleneck in four of the six studied M. sieversii populations, suggesting that the low number of S-alleles found in this species is mainly the result of diversity loss due to a drastic population contraction. Such a bottleneck may lead to ambiguous footprints of ongoing balancing selection detected at the S-locus. This study not only elucidates the constituents and number of S-alleles in M. sieversii but also illustrates the potential utility of S-allele number shifts in demographic inference for self-incompatible plant species.

  8. Genomic dissection of variation in clutch size and egg mass in a wild great tit (Parus major) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santure, Anna W; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Robinson, Matthew R; Poissant, Jocelyn; Sheldon, Ben C; Slate, Jon

    2013-08-01

    Clutch size and egg mass are life history traits that have been extensively studied in wild bird populations, as life history theory predicts a negative trade-off between them, either at the phenotypic or at the genetic level. Here, we analyse the genomic architecture of these heritable traits in a wild great tit (Parus major) population, using three marker-based approaches - chromosome partitioning, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The variance explained by each great tit chromosome scales with predicted chromosome size, no location in the genome contains genome-wide significant QTL, and no individual SNPs are associated with a large proportion of phenotypic variation, all of which may suggest that variation in both traits is due to many loci of small effect, located across the genome. There is no evidence that any regions of the genome contribute significantly to both traits, which combined with a small, nonsignificant negative genetic covariance between the traits, suggests the absence of genetic constraints on the independent evolution of these traits. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in life history traits in natural populations is likely to be determined by many loci of small effect spread throughout the genome, which are subject to continued input of variation by mutation and migration, although we cannot exclude the possibility of an additional input of major effect genes influencing either trait. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genetic Structure of Natural Populations of Escherichia coli in Wild Hosts on Different Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Valeria; Rocha, Martha; Valera, Aldo; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    plasmids than did strains isolated from wild mammals. Previous studies have shown that natural populations of E. coli harbor an extensive genetic diversity that is organized in a limited number of clones. However, knowledge of this worldwide bacterium has been limited. Here, we suggest that the strains from a wide range of wild hosts from different regions of the world are organized in an ecotypic structure where adaptation to the host plays an important role in the population structure. PMID:10427022

  10. Mitochondrial DNA control region variability in wild boars from west Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đan Mihajla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of most abundant game species in hunting areas of Balkan region. The large fraction of pre-glacial genetic diversity in wild boar populations from the Balkans was addressed due to high proportion of unique mtDNA haplotypes found in Greece, indicating Balkan as main refugial area for wild boars. The aim of the present study is to characterize mitochondrial DNA control region variability in wild boars from different areas in the West Balkan region, in order to evaluate level of genetic variability, to detect unique haplotypes and to infer possible structuring. The total number of 163 individuals from different sampling localities were included in the study. A fragment of the mtDNA control region was amplified and sequenced by standard procedures. Population genetic analyses were performed using several computer packages: BioEdit, ARLEQUIN 3.5.1.2., Network 4.6.0.0 and MEGA5. Eleven different haplotypes were identified and haplotype diversity was 0.676, nucleotide diversity 0.0026, and the average number of nucleotide differences (k 1.169. The mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated the expansion of the all populations. It is shown that high level of genetic diversity is present in the wild boars from the West Balkan region and we have managed to detect regional unique haplotypes in high frequency. Genetic diversity differences have been found in regional wild boar groups, clustering them in two main clusters, but further speculations on the reasons for the observed clustering are prevented due to restricted informativness of the single locus marker. Obtained knowledge of genetic variation in the wild boar may be relevant for improving knowledge of the phylogeny and phylogeography of the wild boars, but as well as for hunting societies and responsible authorities for the effective control of wild boar populations.

  11. Estimation of in situ mating systems in wild sorghum (Sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The high outcrossing rates of wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia indicate a high potential for crop genes (including transgenes) to spread within the wild pool. Therefore, effective risk management strategies may be needed if the introgression of transgenes or other crop genes from improved cultivars into wild or ...

  12. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. The structure based on model result showed that the cultivars, landraces and ...

  13. A preliminary disease survey in the wild Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Leslie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to conduct a preliminary survey of diseases that might be present in the wild Nile crocodile population in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Blood samples were collected from crocodiles ranging in size from 34.0cmto 463.0cmtotal length. Samples were examined for blood parasites and underwent a haematological analysis. Before release the crocodiles were examined for various clinical abnormalities. Of the 144 crocodiles examined, none were visibly sick or displayed any signs of disease. No antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli were detected. Hepatozoon pettiti was present in 55.3 % of blood smears examined, but there was no significant difference in any of the haematological values between the infected and uninfected crocodiles, and a high prevalence of Hepatozoon infection is not uncommon in other species. Only 7.6 % of the examined crocodiles were infested with leeches. Further research is required for several of the crocodilian diseases, in particular to elucidate the role of wild crocodilians as reservoirs of infection.

  14. Into the urban wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria; Pouliot, Mariéve; McDonald, Morag A.

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many people depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. While urbanisation causes landscape changes, little is known of how this process affects the use of wild plant resources by urban populations. This study contributes to addressing this knowledge gap by exploring...

  15. Genetic Diversity of Pinus nigra Arn. Populations in Southern Spain and Northern Morocco Revealed By Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Ahrazem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eight Pinus nigra Arn. populations from Southern Spain and Northern Morocco were examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers to characterize the genetic variability amongst populations. Pair-wise population genetic distance ranged from 0.031 to 0.283, with a mean of 0.150 between populations. The highest inter-population average distance was between PaCU from Cuenca and YeCA from Cazorla, while the lowest distance was between TaMO from Morocco and MA Sierra Mágina populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and Nei’s genetic diversity analyses revealed higher genetic variation within the same population than among different populations. Genetic differentiation (Gst was 0.233. Cuenca showed the highest Nei’s genetic diversity followed by the Moroccan region, Sierra Mágina, and Cazorla region. However, clustering of populations was not in accordance with their geographical locations. Principal component analysis showed the presence of two major groups—Group 1 contained all populations from Cuenca while Group 2 contained populations from Cazorla, Sierra Mágina and Morocco—while Bayesian analysis revealed the presence of three clusters. The low genetic diversity observed in PaCU and YeCA is probably a consequence of inappropriate management since no estimation of genetic variability was performed before the silvicultural treatments. Data indicates that the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR method is sufficiently informative and powerful to assess genetic variability among populations of P. nigra.

  16. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic variation of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhala, T.; Rijn, C.P.E.; Buntjer, J.; Stam, P.; Nevo, E.; Poorter, H.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Wild relatives of crop plants offer an attractive gene pool for cultivar improvement. We evaluated genetic and phenotypic variation for a set of 72 Israeli accessions of wild barley from 21 populations. These populations were grouped further into four ecotypes. In addition, environmental variables

  17. Molecular diversity among wild relatives of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, four wild relatives of pigeonpea were evaluated using 24 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to assess their genetic diversity at molecular level. Each marker, on average, amplified 3.3 alleles with polymorphic information content (PIC) value of 0.53. The dendrogram pattern revealed two distinct ...

  18. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  19. First record of intestinal parasites in a wild population of jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.

  20. Natural variants of AtHKT1 enhance Na+ accumulation in two wild populations of Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rus

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sessile and therefore have developed mechanisms to adapt to their environment, including the soil mineral nutrient composition. Ionomics is a developing functional genomic strategy designed to rapidly identify the genes and gene networks involved in regulating how plants acquire and accumulate these mineral nutrients from the soil. Here, we report on the coupling of high-throughput elemental profiling of shoot tissue from various Arabidopsis accessions with DNA microarray-based bulk segregant analysis and reverse genetics, for the rapid identification of genes from wild populations of Arabidopsis that are involved in regulating how plants acquire and accumulate Na(+ from the soil. Elemental profiling of shoot tissue from 12 different Arabidopsis accessions revealed that two coastal populations of Arabidopsis collected from Tossa del Mar, Spain, and Tsu, Japan (Ts-1 and Tsu-1, respectively, accumulate higher shoot levels of Na(+ than do Col-0 and other accessions. We identify AtHKT1, known to encode a Na(+ transporter, as being the causal locus driving elevated shoot Na(+ in both Ts-1 and Tsu-1. Furthermore, we establish that a deletion in a tandem repeat sequence approximately 5 kb upstream of AtHKT1 is responsible for the reduced root expression of AtHKT1 observed in these accessions. Reciprocal grafting experiments establish that this loss of AtHKT1 expression in roots is responsible for elevated shoot Na(+. Interestingly, and in contrast to the hkt1-1 null mutant, under NaCl stress conditions, this novel AtHKT1 allele not only does not confer NaCl sensitivity but also cosegregates with elevated NaCl tolerance. We also present all our elemental profiling data in a new open access ionomics database, the Purdue Ionomics Information Management System (PiiMS; http://www.purdue.edu/dp/ionomics. Using DNA microarray-based genotyping has allowed us to rapidly identify AtHKT1 as the casual locus driving the natural variation in shoot Na

  1. No detectable fertility benefit from a single additional mating in wild stalk-eyed flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Harley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population.Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline.Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof, and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species.

  2. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  3. Substructure of a Tunisian Berber population as inferred from 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodjet-El-Khil, Houssein; Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Gusmão, Leonor; Alves, Cíntia; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Amorim, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Currently, language and cultural practices are the only criteria to distinguish between Berber autochthonous Tunisian populations. To evaluate these populations' possible genetic structure and differentiation, we have analyzed 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci (CSF1PO, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539, D18S51, D21S11, FGA, TH01, TPOX, VWA, D2S1338, and D19S433) in three southern Tunisian Berber groups: Sened, Matmata, and Chenini-Douiret. The exact test of population differentiation based on allele frequencies at the 15 loci shows significant P values at 7 loci between Chenini-Douiret and both Sened and Matmata, whereas just 5 loci show significant P values between Sened and Matmata. Comparative analyses between the three Berber groups based on genetic distances show that P values for F(ST) distances are significant between the three Berber groups. Population analysis performed using Structure shows a clear differentiation between these Berber groups, with strong genetic isolation of Chenini-Douiret. These results confirm at the autosomal level the high degree of heterogeneity of Tunisian Berber populations that had been previously reported for uniparental markers.

  4. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In addition, fifteen individuals were radio–tagged and released back into the source population as a control. Most individuals settled in less than two months and their seasonal home range, once settled, was similar to that observed in the source population. Mean duration of tracking was not significantly different between the two groups. Moreover, two years after the last translocation, tagged individuals can still be observed, but most hares present are not tagged, which indicates natural reproduction of the released individuals. The translocation of wild individuals thus appears to give encouraging results.

  5. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  6. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zai-quan CHENG; Fu-you YING; Ding-qing LI; Teng-qiong YU; Jian FU; Hui-jun YAN; Qiao-fang ZHONG; Dun-yu ZHANG; Wei-jiao LI; Xing-qi HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide. Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice. Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice. However, many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years. Therefore, the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preserv...

  7. Erythritol and Lufenuron detrimentally alter age structure of Wild Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) populations in blueberry and blackberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on the efficacy of 0.5 M (61,000 ppm) Erythritol (E) in Truvia Baking Blend®, 10 ppm Lufenuron (L), and their combination (LE) to reduce egg and larval densities of wild populations of spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (SWD) infesting fields of rabbiteye blueberries (...

  8. Puberty and dispersal in a wild primate population

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Patrick O.; Gesquiere, Laurence R.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    The onset of reproduction is preceded by a host of organismal adjustments and transformations, involving morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. In highly social mammals, including humans and most nonhuman primates, the timing and nature of maturational processes is affected by the animal’s social milieu as well as its ecology. Here, we review a diverse set of findings on how maturation unfolds in wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of southern Kenya, and we place these findings ...

  9. Repeating and non-repeating fast radio bursts from binary neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Shotaro; Totani, Tomonori; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2018-04-01

    Most fast radio bursts (FRB) do not show evidence of repetition, and such non-repeating FRBs may be produced at the time of a merger of binary neutron stars (BNS), provided that the BNS merger rate is close to the high end of the currently possible range. However, the merger environment is polluted by dynamical ejecta, which may prohibit the radio signal from propagating. We examine this by using a general-relativistic simulation of a BNS merger, and show that the ejecta appears about 1 ms after the rotation speed of the merged star becomes the maximum. Therefore there is a time window in which an FRB signal can reach outside, and the short duration of non-repeating FRBs can be explained by screening after ejecta formation. A fraction of BNS mergers may leave a rapidly rotating and stable neutron star, and such objects may be the origin of repeating FRBs like FRB 121102. We show that a merger remnant would appear as a repeating FRB on a time scale of ˜1-10 yr, and expected properties are consistent with the observations of FRB 121102. We construct an FRB rate evolution model that includes these two populations of repeating and non-repeating FRBs from BNS mergers, and show that the detection rate of repeating FRBs relative to non-repeating ones rapidly increases with improving search sensitivity. This may explain why only the repeating FRB 121102 was discovered by the most sensitive FRB search with Arecibo. Several predictions are made, including the appearance of a repeating FRB 1-10 yr after a BNS merger that is localized by gravitational waves and subsequent electromagnetic radiation.

  10. Testing for a genetic response to sexual selection in a wild Drosophila population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, T P; Thomson, J R; Blows, M W; Schaul, A; Chenoweth, S F

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with the consensus that sexual selection is responsible for the rapid evolution of display traits on macroevolutionary scales, microevolutionary studies suggest sexual selection is a widespread and often strong form of directional selection in nature. However, empirical evidence for the contemporary evolution of sexually selected traits via sexual rather than natural selection remains weak. In this study, we used a novel application of quantitative genetic breeding designs to test for a genetic response to sexual selection on eight chemical display traits from a field population of the fly, Drosophila serrata. Using our quantitative genetic approach, we were able to detect a genetically based difference in means between groups of males descended from fathers who had either successfully sired offspring or were randomly collected from the same wild population for one of these display traits, the diene (Z,Z)-5,9-C27 : 2 . Our experimental results, in combination with previous laboratory studies on this system, suggest that both natural and sexual selection may be influencing the evolutionary trajectories of these traits in nature, limiting the capacity for a contemporary evolutionary response. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  12. Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Luke A.; Peacock, Stephanie J.; McKenzie, Peter; DeDominicis, Sharon; Jones, Simon R. M.; Chandler, Peter; Foreman, Michael G. G.; Revie, Crawford W.; Krkošek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March–June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions. PMID:23577082

  13. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  14. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  15. Genetic diversity and structure analysis in wild and landraces of barley from Jordan by using ISJ markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A. W.; Balogh, M. J.; Baloch, M.; Baloch, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to estimate genetic diversity and genetic structure in cultivated and wild barley populations collected from Jordan which is considered as primary gene pool of barley. In a total, 94 cultivated barley accessions composed of 4 populations and 52 wild barley accessions consisted of 3 populations were used for genetic analysis using 7 Intron Splice Junction (ISJ) markers. The genetic diversity index (He) of cultivated barley ranged between 0.049 and 0.060; whereas that of wild barley populations ranged between 0.084 and 0.146, suggesting that wild resources of barley harbored greater genetic diversity than its domesticated counterpart, reflecting that barley domestication occurred with genetic bottleneck. Analysis of molecular variance showed high genetic variations among rather than within populations, referring that high genetic differentiation of barley populations caused by genetic and geographical separation of the populations in the harsh growing conditions of Fertile Crescent. Principal coordinate, clustering and structure analysis not only separated cultivated and wild barley, but also each single population, showing their genetic basis and original sample site. The obtained Results also revealed that there is lesser genetic communication between cultivated and wild barley under natural environments. The current findings can better be exploited for collection and utilization of plant germplasms. (author)

  16. Estimation of genetic structure of a Mycosphaerella musicola population using inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixouto, Y S; Dórea Bragança, C A; Andrade, W B; Ferreira, C F; Haddad, F; Oliveira, S A S; Darosci Brito, F S; Miller, R N G; Amorim, E P

    2015-07-17

    Among the diseases affecting banana (Musa sp), yellow Sigatoka, caused by the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola Leach, is considered one of the most important in Brazil, causing losses throughout the year. Understanding the genetic structure of pathogen populations will provide insight into the life history of pathogens, including the evolutionary processes occurring in agrosystems. Tools for estimating the possible emergence of pathogen variants with altered pathogenicity, virulence, or aggressiveness, as well as resistance to systemic fungicides, can also be developed from such data. The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity and population genetics of M. musicola in the main banana-producing regions in Brazil. A total of 83 isolates collected from different banana cultivars in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte, and Minas Gerais were evaluated using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. High variability was detected between the isolates, and 85.5% of the haplotypes were singletons in the populations. The highest source of genetic diversity (97.22%) was attributed to variations within populations. Bayesian cluster analysis revealed the presence of 2 probable ancestral groups, however, showed no relationship to population structure in terms of collection site, state of origin, or cultivar. Similarly, we detected noevidence of genetic recombination between individuals within different states, indicating that asexual cycles play a major role in M. musicola reproduction and that long-distance dispersal of the pathogen is the main factor contributing to the lack of population structure in the fungus.

  17. Ionizing radiation and wild birds: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Schultz, V.

    1975-01-01

    Since the first atomic explosion, 16 July 1945 at the Trinity Site in south-central New Mexico, the impact of ionizing radiation on bird populations has been of concern to a few individuals. The proliferation of nuclear power plants has increased public concern as to possible deleterious effects of nuclear power plant operation on resident and migratory bird populations. Literature involving wild birds and ionizing radiation is not readily available, and only a few studies have been anywhere near comprehensive, with most effort directed towards monitoring radionuclide concentration in birds. The objective of the paper is to document the literature on wild birds and ionizing radiation including a brief description of pertinent papers

  18. Space use of African wild dogs in relation to other large carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Darnell

    Full Text Available Interaction among species through competition is a principle process structuring ecological communities, affecting behavior, distribution, and ultimately the population dynamics of species. High competition among large African carnivores, associated with extensive diet overlap, manifests in interactions between subordinate African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus and dominant lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta. Using locations of large carnivores in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa, we found different responses from wild dogs to their two main competitors. Wild dogs avoided lions, particularly during denning, through a combination of spatial and temporal avoidance. However, wild dogs did not exhibit spatial or temporal avoidance of spotted hyenas, likely because wild dog pack sizes were large enough to adequately defend their kills. Understanding that larger carnivores affect the movements and space use of other carnivores is important for managing current small and fragmented carnivore populations, especially as reintroductions and translocations are essential tools used for the survival of endangered species, as with African wild dogs.

  19. Assessing landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs and support for control options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplenor, Carlotta A; Poudyal, Neelam C; Muller, Lisa I; Yoest, Chuck

    2017-10-01

    Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species with destructive habits, particularly rooting and wallowing, which can directly impact agricultural crops, pasture land, and water quality. Considering wild hogs are widely dispersed across the landscape, they are extremely difficult to control. Disagreements can arise among different stakeholders over whether and how their populations should be managed. The purpose of this article was to examine Tennessee, United States landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs, to compare acceptability of control methods, and to evaluate factors significantly influencing public support for regulations to control wild hogs. Logistic regression was employed to analyze data collected from a statewide survey of rural landowners in the fall of 2015. Landowners had overwhelmingly negative attitudes towards wild hogs, and were concerned about their impact on the natural environment and rural economy. Although landowners showed support for controlling wild hogs, levels of acceptability for management options varied. Respondents favored active management and supported education and incentive-based control programs to control wild hogs. Cognitive concepts such as social and personal norms and awareness of consequences, as well as demographic characteristics, significantly predicted landowners' support for state regulations to control wild hogs in Tennessee. Findings increase our understanding of the human dimensions of wild hog management and that of other similarly invasive animals, and may guide resource managers in designing effective and socially acceptable management strategies to control wild hog populations in Tennessee and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cheetahs and wild dogs show contrasting patterns of suppression by lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Alexandra; Caro, Tim; Davies-Mostert, Harriet; Mills, Michael G L; Macdonald, David W; Borner, Markus; Masenga, Emmanuel; Packer, Craig

    2014-11-01

    Top predators can dramatically suppress populations of smaller predators, with cascading effects throughout communities, and this pressure is often unquestioningly accepted as a constraint on mesopredator populations. In this study, we reassess whether African lions suppress populations of cheetahs and African wild dogs and examine possible mechanisms for coexistence between these species. Using long-term records from Serengeti National Park, we tested 30 years of population data for evidence of mesopredator suppression, and we examined six years of concurrent radio-telemetry data for evidence of large-scale spatial displacement. The Serengeti lion population nearly tripled between 1966 and 1998; during this time, wild dogs declined but cheetah numbers remained largely unchanged. Prior to their local extinction, wild dogs primarily occupied low lion density areas and apparently abandoned the long-term study area as the lion population 'saturated' the region. In contrast, cheetahs mostly utilized areas of high lion density, and the stability of the cheetah population indicates that neither high levels of lion-inflicted mortality nor behavioural avoidance inflict sufficient demographic consequences to translate into population-level effects. Population data from fenced reserves in southern Africa revealed a similar contrast between wild dogs and cheetahs in their ability to coexist with lions. These findings demonstrate differential responses of subordinate species within the same guild and challenge a widespread perception that lions undermine cheetah conservation efforts. Paired with several recent studies that document fine-scale lion-avoidance by cheetahs, this study further highlights fine-scale spatial avoidance as a possible mechanism for mitigating mesopredator suppression. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  1. Mechanism of derivation of radioresistance in HeLa cell population after repeated x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Kihei; Koiwai, Soichiro; Morita, Kazuo

    1982-01-01

    The Radioresistant strain (X-8-5) was obtained from HeLa-SC population X-irradiated repeatedly for five times with 800 rad. The mean lethal dose (D 0 ) was 196 rad for X-8-5 cells, while it was 166 rad for control HeLa-SC cells. The fraction of cells containing an unusually long acrocentric chromosome (LA 2) exclusively increased with increasing number of irradiation of HeLa-SC population. A clonal strain with LA 2 marker was isolated from X-8-5 population and named RC-355. Since the RC-355 cells were more resistant (D 0 = 220 rad)than parental X-8-5 cells (D 0 = 196 rad), it was suggested that the cells with LA 2 were responsible for the radioresistance of X-8-5 population. The RC-355 cells were further subjected to the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes and it was observed that 18 types of specific markers (rm 1-17 and LA 2) were included in RC-355 cells in addition to 12 types of markers observed in most of HeLa-SC cells. Since the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes of RC-355 cells showed that RC-355 specific markers were not produced by radiation-induced rearrangements of HeLa-SC chromosomes, because twelve kinds of HeLa-SC markers were presented in RC-355 cells without any change, it was concluded that a small number of cells with LA 2 marker were originally presented in the control population and the relative fraction of them occupied increased after irradiation. (author)

  2. [Polymorphism analysis of 20 autosomal short-tandem repeat loci in southern Chinese Han population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Lu, Hui-Jie; DU, Wei-An; Qiu, Ping-Ming; Liu, Chao

    2016-02-20

    To evaluate the value of PowerPlex ® 21 System (Promega) and study the genetic polymorphism of its 20 short-tandem repeat (STR) loci in southern Chinese Han population. We conducted genotyping experiments using PowerPlex ® 21 System on 20 autosomal STR loci (D3S1358, D1S1656, D6S1043, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D2S1338, CSF1PO, Penta D, TH01, vWA, D21S11, D7S820, D5S818, TPOX, D8S1179, D12S391, D19S433 and FGA) in 2367 unrelated Chinese Han individuals living in South China. The allele frequencies and parameters commonly used in forensic science were statistically analyzed in these individuals and compared with the reported data of other populations. The PowerPlex ® 21 System had a power of discrimination (PD) ranging from 0.7839 to 0.9852 and a power of exclusion (PE) ranging from 0.2974 to 0.8099 for the 20 loci. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was found for all the loci except for D5S818. This southern Chinese Han population had significant differences in the allele frequencies from 8 ethnic groups reported in China, and showed significant differences at 8 to 20 STR foci from 5 foreign populations. The allele frequency at the locus D1S1656 in this southern Chinese Han population differed significantly from those in the 5 foreign populations and from 3 reported Han populations in Beijing, Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province of China. The neighbor-joining phylogenetictree showed clustering of all the Asian populations in one branch, while the northern Italian and Argentina populations clustered in a separate branch. This southern Chinese Han population had the nearest affinity with the Yi ethnic population in Yunnan Province of China. The 20 STR loci are highly polymorphic in this southern Chinese Han population, suggesting the value of this set of STR loci in forensic personal identification, paternity testing and anthropological study.

  3. Genetic variability of concentration of microelements in wild sunflower species and hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate genetic specificity of sunflower nutrition with microelements. Therefore, concentrations of essential (Zn, B, Mn, Cu, Fe and Ni and non-essential (Cr, Al, Cd, As, Pb and Ba micronutrients were analyzed. Five sunflower hybrids the most grown in Serbia and different populations of wild sunflower species originating from North America: Helianthus neglectus Heiser (3, Helianthus agrophyllus T&G (3, Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. (2, Helianthus annuus L. (4 were included in the experiment. Populations of wild sunflower species and hybrids differed significantly with respect to the concentration of analyzed elements. Manganese concentration was significantly higher in hybrids than in wild species. In all genotypes Fe, B and Mn had the highest concentration. Coefficient of variation of microelement concentration depended on genotype and particular element. In wild populations, for essential microelements, it was between 3.7 and 59.5, whereas in hybrids it varied from 10.0 to 48.8. Coefficient of variation of concentration of non-essential microelements in wild populations varied from 7.7 to 73.8, and in hybrids from 15.1 to 48.8. Average coefficient of variation in both wild species and hybrids was the lowest for Mn and Pb. It was the highest for Cr, Ni, and Zn in hybrids and for Cd, Ni, and Cr in wild species. The results suggest that genetic specificity with respect to uptake of microelements in wild species and hybrids is highly expressed. Broad genetic variability of concentrations of microelements in wild species and hybrids indicate that their reactions to deficiency and/or excess of those elements probably are not the same either. This finding may be used in breeding process aimed specifically at improvement of tolerance and capacity to accumulate microelements in sunflower. Phytoremediation technology designed to reduce the amount of microelements in the soil could thus be advanced by utilization of such

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

    2007-05-23

    Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

  5. Addressing wild turkey population declines using structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swift, Bryan L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Siemer, William F.; Decker, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case study from New York, USA, of the use of structured decision making (SDM) to identify fall turkey harvest regulations that best meet stakeholder objectives, in light of recent apparent declines in abundance of wild turkeys in the northeastern United States. We used the SDM framework to incorporate the multiple objectives associated with turkey hunting, stakeholder desires, and region-specific ecological and environmental factors that could influence fall harvest. We identified a set of 4 fall harvest regulations, composed of different season lengths and bag limits, and evaluated their relative achievement of the objectives. We used a stochastic turkey population model, statistical modeling, and expert elicitation to evaluate the consequences of each harvest regulation on each of the objectives. We conducted a statewide mail survey of fall turkey hunters in New York to gather the necessary information to evaluate tradeoffs among multiple objectives associated with hunter satisfaction. The optimal fall harvest regulation was a 2-week season and allowed for the harvest of 1 bird/hunter. This regulation was the most conservative of those evaluated, reflecting the concerns about recent declines in turkey abundance among agency wildlife biologists and the hunting public. Depending on the region of the state, the 2-week, 1-bird regulation was predicted to result in 7–32% more turkeys on the landscape after 5 years. The SDM process provided a transparent framework for setting fall turkey harvest regulations and reduced potential stakeholder conflict by explicitly taking the multiple objectives of different stakeholder groups into account.

  6. A comparison of pectoral fin contact between two different wild dolphin populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, K.M.; Gregg, J.D.; Ribic, C.A.; Kuczaj, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Contact behaviour involving the pectoral fin has been documented in a number of dolphin species, and various explanations about its function have been offered. Pectoral fin contact can take a variety of forms, and involves a number of body parts and movements, likely differing depending upon social or ecological context. For this study, we compare the pectoral fin contact behaviour of two species of wild dolphins: Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) from around Mikura Island, Japan, and Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) from The Bahamas. The two study populations exhibit surprising similarity in the ways in which pectoral fin contacts are used, despite differences in species and environmental conditions at the two sites. Differences in contact rates for calves between the two sites suggest that calf-focused aggression from adult dolphins is more prevalent at Mikura than in The Bahamas. Our results suggest that pectoral fin contact behaviour seems to be driven primarily by social pressures, and may be similar in function to allogrooming described in primates. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Personalities influence spatial responses to environmental fluctuations in wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Ríos, David; Réale, Denis; Freitas, Carla; Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben M

    2018-06-11

    1.Although growing evidence supports the idea that animal personality can explain plasticity in response to changes in the social environment, it remains to be tested whether it can explain spatial responses of individuals in the face of natural environmental fluctuations. This is a major challenge in ecology and evolution as spatial dynamics link individual- and population-level processes. 2.In this study we investigated the potential of individual personalities to predict differences in fish behaviour in the wild. Specifically, our goal was to answer if individual differences in plasticity of space use to sea surface temperature could be explained by differences in personality along the reactive-proactive axis. 3.To address this question we first conducted repeated standard laboratory assays (i.e. open-field test, novel object test and mirror-stimulation test) to assess the personality type of 76 wild-caught Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Next, we released the fish back into the sea and monitored their spatial behaviour over large temporal (16 months) and spatial (a whole fjord) scales, using high-resolution acoustic tracking. 4. We demonstrate that 1) cod personality traits are structured into a proactive-reactive syndrome (proactive fish being more bold, exploratory and aggressive), 2) mean depth use of individuals is mainly driven by sea temperature and 3) personality is a significant predictor of home range changes in the wild, where reactive, but not proactive, individuals reduced their home range as sea temperature increased. 5. These findings expand our understanding of the ecological consequences of animal personality and the mechanisms shaping spatial dynamics of animals in nature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  8. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-01-01

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [es

  9. Puberty and dispersal in a wild primate population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Patrick O; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". The onset of reproduction is preceded by a host of organismal adjustments and transformations, involving morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. In highly social mammals, including humans and most nonhuman primates, the timing and nature of maturational processes are affected by the animal's social milieu as well as its ecology. Here, we review a diverse set of findings on how maturation unfolds in wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of southern Kenya, and we place these findings in the context of other reports of maturational processes in primates and other mammals. First, we describe the series of events and processes that signal maturation in female and male baboons. Sex differences in age at both sexual maturity and first reproduction documented for this species are consistent with expectations of life history theory; males mature later than females and exhibit an adolescent growth spurt that is absent or minimal in females. Second, we summarize what we know about sources of variance in the timing of maturational processes including natal dispersal. In Amboseli, individuals in a food-enhanced group mature earlier than their wild-feeding counterparts, and offspring of high-ranking females mature earlier than offspring of low-ranking females. We also report on how genetic admixture, which occurs in Amboseli between two closely related baboon taxa, affects individual maturation schedules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  11. Hybridization among wild boars, local breeds and commercial breeds - preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    . Hybridization with the domestic pig is known to occur in Europe, however the degree and extent of the phenomenon is not fully understood yet. Introgression is considered to be a treat to biodiversity and could lead to loss of local adaptation or introgression in the wild population of human selected genes....... A better understanding of the hybridization levels at European scale would provide an important tool for the development of management plans aimed at reducing human conflict but also at preserving biodiversity and genetic differentiation. Additionally, this information would provide new perspectives...... gradients in variability levels among the analysed wild and domestic populations. This preliminary results will be further investigated to address the possible presence of hybrid zone(s) in Europe and the possible implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local pig breeds...

  12. Intra-specific genetic diversity in wild olives (Olea europaea ssp cuspidata) in Hormozgan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadi, Z; Samadi-Molayousefi, H; Sheidai, M

    2012-03-19

    Wild olive (O. europaea ssp cuspidata) plants grow in various regions of Iran and are expected to have considerable genetic diversity due to adaptation to the various environmental conditions. We examined the genetic diversity of four populations of wild olive growing in Hormozgan Province located in southern Iran by using 30 RAPDs and 10 ISSR markers. The mean value of polymorphism for RAPD loci was 73.71%, while the value for ISSR loci was 81.74%. The Keshar population had the highest value of intra-population polymorphism for both RAPD and ISSR loci (66.86 and 62.71%, respectively), while the Tudar population had the lowest values (20.35 and 28.81%, respectively). Similarly, the highest and lowest number of effective alleles, Shannon index and Nei's genetic diversity were also found for these two populations. The highest value of H(pop)/H(sp) within population genetic diversity for RAPD and ISSR loci was found for the Keshar population (H(pop) = 0.85 and H(sp) = 0.90). OPA04-750, OPA13-650 and OPA02-350 RAPD bands were specific for Tudar, Bondon and Keshar populations, respectively, while no specific ISSR bands were observed. Analysis of molecular variance as well as the pairwise F(ST) test showed significant differences for RAPD and ISSR markers among the populations. The NJ and UPGMA trees also separated the wild olive populations from each other, indicating their genetic distinctness. UPGMA clustering of the four wild olive populations placed the Tudar population far from the other populations; Keshar and Bokhoon population samples revealed more similarity and were grouped together. We conclude that there is high genetic diversity among O. europaea ssp cuspidata populations located in southern Iran. We also found RAPD and ISSR markers to be useful molecular tools to discriminate and evaluate genetic variations in wild olive trees.

  13. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    Avian influenza (AI) is a disease of major threat to poultry production. Surveillance of AI in wild birds contributes to the control of AI. In Denmark (DK) and Greenland (GL), extensive surveillance of AI viruses in the wild bird population has been conducted. The surveillance aimed at detecting......7 subtypes were detected throughout the period together with several other LPAI subtypes. In GL, HPAI was not detected, but few samples were PCR positive for AI. The occurrence of AI subtypes in the wild bird population correlates with concurrent outbreaks of LPAI in Danish poultry, which may...

  14. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunocontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials I with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of I PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to begin using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a I means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption process.

  15. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiang Han

    Full Text Available Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion, migration patterns (linear expansion, and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic

  16. Aujeszky's Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, François; Rossi, Sophie; Jori, Ferran; Maestrini, Oscar; Richomme, Céline; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian; Jouve, Johan; Pavio, Nicole; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2018-01-01

    Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild-domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80%) and ADV (40%) in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs' exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80%) suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows' release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV, ADV seroprevalence was

  17. Combination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem Repeats for Genotyping a Homogenous Population of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Strains in China

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Tao; Yang, Chongguang; Gagneux, Sebastien; Gicquel, Brigitte; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

    2012-01-01

    The standard 15- and 24-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) genotyping methods have demonstrated adequate discriminatory power and a small homoplasy effect for tracing tuberculosis (TB) transmission and predicting Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages in European and North American countries. However, its validity for the definition of transmission in homogenous M. tuberculosis populations in settings with high TB burdens has been questioned. Here, we genotyped a population-based collect...

  18. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proximate analysis of female population of wild feather back fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... Key words: Body composition, Notopterus notopterus, condition factor, wild fish. INTRODUCTION. Proximate body composition is the analysis of water, fat, protein and ash contents of the fish (Love, 1980). Proximate composition is a good indicator of physiology which is needed for routine analysis of ...

  20. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohdy Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus, parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus. These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g, arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1 the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2 due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3 individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only

  1. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Class A Repeats Are O-Glycosylated in Linker Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Wang, Shengjun; Narimatsu, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    , which in wild-type CHO cells is glycosylated with the typical sialylated core 1 structure. The glycosites in linker regions of LDLR class A repeats are conserved in LDLR from man to Xenopus and found in other homologous receptors. O-Glycosylation is controlled by a large family of polypeptide Gal...

  2. The whole chloroplast genome of wild rice (Oryza australiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Ge, Song

    2016-01-01

    The whole chloroplast genome of wild rice (Oryza australiensis) is characterized in this study. The genome size is 135,224  bp, exhibiting a typical circular structure including a pair of 25,776  bp inverted repeats (IRa,b) separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) of 82,212  bp and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 12,470  bp. The overall GC content of the genome is 38.95%. 110 unique genes were annotated, including 76 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30t RNA genes. Among these, 18 are duplicated in the inverted repeat regions, 13 genes contain one intron, and 2 genes (rps12 and ycf3) have two introns.

  3. Wild Carrot Differentiation in Europe and Selection at DcAOX1 Gene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Nobre

    Full Text Available By definition, the domestication process leads to an overall reduction of crop genetic diversity. This lead to the current search of genomic regions in wild crop relatives (CWR, an important task for modern carrot breeding. Nowadays massive sequencing possibilities can allow for discovery of novel genetic resources in wild populations, but this quest could be aided by the use of a surrogate gene (to first identify and prioritize novel wild populations for increased sequencing effort. Alternative oxidase (AOX gene family seems to be linked to all kinds of abiotic and biotic stress reactions in various organisms and thus have the potential to be used in the identification of CWR hotspots of environment-adapted diversity. High variability of DcAOX1 was found in populations of wild carrot sampled across a West-European environmental gradient. Even though no direct relation was found with the analyzed climatic conditions or with physical distance, population differentiation exists and results mainly from the polymorphisms associated with DcAOX1 exon 1 and intron 1. The relatively high number of amino acid changes and the identification of several unusually variable positions (through a likelihood ratio test, suggests that DcAOX1 gene might be under positive selection. However, if positive selection is considered, it only acts on some specific populations (i.e. is in the form of adaptive differences in different population locations given the observed high genetic diversity. We were able to identify two populations with higher levels of differentiation which are promising as hot spots of specific functional diversity.

  4. Results of the 2000 census of wild reindeer on the Taimyr Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Kolpashchikov

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a census of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus on the Taimyr Peninsula during 21-25 July 2000. This was the eighteenth aerial population census of wild reindeer on the Taimyr since counts began in 1959. Prior to the census, we conducted reconnaissance flights to identify areas of reindeer concentration. After the reindeer became aggregated, we estimated group size both visually and by photographing the larger groups. Unusually hot and dry weather (temperatures of 25-30 °C and a high density of mosquitoes during the census likely forced the reindeer to group into unusually large concentrations. In late July most of the reindeer in the Taimyr population were distributed in two groupings that contained at least 450 000 animals, and one area that contained about 110 000. Smaller groups found during the census and the estimated 43 000 resident wild reindeer that were not counted during the census brought the total minimum population estimate to about 1 040 000. The maximum number of wild reindeer present could have been as high as about 1 100 000.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-08-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST , and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense , both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense . We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens ( Alternaria solani , Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp .) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense , resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  7. Taimyr Reindeer and Environmental Change: Monitoring Wild Reindeer Migration in Changing Natural and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Taimyr Reindeer Herd (TRH) is both the largest and the longest monitored wild reindeer herd in Eurasia. An important part of Arctic ecosystems and Indigenous livelihood, wild reindeer have been continuously monitored for almost 50 years. During this time, herds have exhibited large changes in size and these changes have been recorded in almost all herds across the animal's range. An increasing number of wild reindeer in the Soviet times was followed by a significant population loss in the last decade. In addition, recent monitoring revealed substantial shifts in the distribution of wild populations. The decline in wild reindeer is likely related to natural cycles and changes in the Arctic environment caused by climate variability and anthropogenic activity. This study investigates patterns and possible drives of reindeer population dynamics in space and time. We identify key climatic factors, possible relationships with biomass dynamics, as well as with hunting practices and other human impacts.

  8. Role of population and behavioural ecology in the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Yamamura, K.

    2005-01-01

    The principles of population and behavioural ecology in relation to the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for eradication of a pest are explained. These include: (1) a logistic population model for estimation of the population fluctuation of target animals and the number of sterile males to be released for successful eradication, (2) mark-recapture estimations of density and mortality rate of the target population, especially for remote areas, where repeated releases and recaptures are difficult, (3) models of dispersal to assess dispersal distance of target animals, and (4) equations for estimating the decrease of sexual competitiveness of mass-reared strains under field conditions. The method to estimate dispersal distance curves when attraction areas of traps are overlapping, and changes in mate-choice of wild females resulting from inadvertent selection when the SIT is applied, are explained. The necessity of field estimation of sexual competitiveness of released sterile males is also emphasized. (author)

  9. Nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in wild populations of Allium ampeloprasum, a valuable underutilized vegetable

    OpenAIRE

    García-Herrera, P.; Morales, Patricia; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Sánchez-Mata, María Cortes; Cámara Hurtado, Montaña; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Pardo de Santayana, Manuel; Molina, María; Tardío, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Wild Allium species with a long tradition of use, such as Allium ampeloprasum L. could provide interesting bioactive compounds to current diet. The nutrient and bioactive compound content of this wild vegetable has been scarcely known. Therefore, the aim of this work is to provide a detailed chemical quantification of nutrients, hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of the edible parts of wild leek, as well as data about plant production and availability ...

  10. Effect of hunting awareness on wild game meat purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Marescotti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although wild game meat constitutes a sustainable and healthy alternative to conventional meat and hunting contributes to the control of game populations, international studies on consumer attitudes towards this type of meat are still limited and no previous research has been focused on the Italian population. For the development of successful marketing strategies and/or public policy intervention, the knowledge of consumers’ purchase behavior is a key factor. Among all the determinants that can influence the behavior of consumers of hunted wild game meat (i.e. animal welfare, sustainability, ecological food choice, product safety, nutritional quality, the consumers’ awareness of hunting activity and their perceptions of wild game meat assume a crucial role. Accordingly, in this paper an online survey on a sample of 741 Italian meat consumers has been conducted to investigate the relationship between consumers’ purchase behavior and their awareness of hunted game meat and hunting practices (chi-square test, F-test. Statistically significant differences were found among segments of consumers with different levels of wild game meat consumption frequency. The analysis shows that, as expected, the highest consumption level of wild game meat relates to the highest level of general awareness of wild game meat and hunting practices. Our findings are in line with previous literature, that links positive behaviors of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting to familiarity and experience with hunting and hunters. Nonetheless, the present study provides a deeper understanding of the Italian consumers’ attitudes and perceptions of wild game meat and could suggests policy guidelines for the development of future targeted marketing strategies.

  11. Movements of wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stephen B.; Goatcher, Buddy L.; Sapkota, Sijan

    2015-01-01

    The prolific breeding capability, behavioral adaptation, and adverse environmental impacts of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have increased efforts towards managing their populations and understanding their movements. Currently, little is known about wild pig populations and movements in Louisiana and Mississippi. From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated spatial and temporal movements of wild pigs in both marsh and nonmarsh physiographic regions. Twenty-one Global Positioning System satellite telemetry tracking collars were installed on adult wild pigs captured with trained dogs and released. Coordinates of their locations were recorded hourly. We collected 16,674 hourly data points including date, time, air temperature, and position during a 3-year study. Solar and lunar attributes, such as sun and moon phases and azimuth angles, were not related significantly to the movements among wild pigs. Movements were significantly correlated negatively with air temperature. Differences in movements between seasons and years were observed. On average, movements of boars were significantly greater than those of sows. Average home range, determined by using a minimum convex polygon as a proxy, was 911 hectares for boars, whereas average home range for sows was 116 hectares. Wild pigs in marsh habitat traveled lesser distances relative to those from more arid, nonmarsh habitats. Overall, results of this study indicate that wild pigs in Louisiana and Mississippi have small home ranges. These small home ranges suggest that natural movements have not been a major factor in the recent broad-scale range expansion observed in this species in the United States.

  12. Cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfillan, Geoffrey; Vitale, Jessica; McNutt, John Weldon; McComb, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Individual recognition is considered to have been fundamental in the evolution of complex social systems and is thought to be a widespread ability throughout the animal kingdom. Although robust evidence for individual recognition remains limited, recent experimental paradigms that examine cross-modal processing have demonstrated individual recognition in a range of captive non-human animals. It is now highly relevant to test whether cross-modal individual recognition exists within wild populations and thus examine how it is employed during natural social interactions. We address this question by testing audio-visual cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions (Panthera leo) using an expectancy-violation paradigm. When presented with a scenario where the playback of a loud-call (roaring) broadcast from behind a visual block is incongruent with the conspecific previously seen there, subjects responded more strongly than during the congruent scenario where the call and individual matched. These findings suggest that lions are capable of audio-visual cross-modal individual recognition and provide a useful method for studying this ability in wild populations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Environmental Surveillance System To Track Wild Poliovirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Shetty, Sushmitha J.; Siddiqui, Zaeem A.

    2003-01-01

    Eradication of poliomyelitis from large metropolis cities in India has been difficult due to high population density and the presence of large urban slums. Three paralytic poliomyelitis cases were reported in Mumbai, India, in 1999 and 2000 in spite of high immunization coverage and good-quality supplementary immunization activities. We therefore established a systematic environmental surveillance study by weekly screening of sewage samples from three high-risk slum areas to detect the silent transmission of wild poliovirus. In 2001, from among the 137 sewage samples tested, wild poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 35 and wild poliovirus type 3 was isolated from 1. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance indicated one case of paralytic poliomyelitis from the city. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP1 sequences revealed that the isolates from environmental samples belonged to four lineages of wild polioviruses recently isolated from poliomyelitis cases in Uttar Pradesh and not to those previously isolated from AFP cases in Mumbai. Wild poliovirus thus introduced caused one case of paralytic poliomyelitis. The virus was detected in environmental samples 3 months before. It was found that wild polioviruses introduced several times during the year circulated in Mumbai for a limited period before being eliminated. Environmental surveillance was found to be sensitive for the detection of wild poliovirus silent transmission. Nucleotide sequence analysis helped identify wild poliovirus reservoir areas. PMID:12732567

  14. Evaluation of genetic diversity in wild populations of Peganum harmala L., a medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranya EL-Bakatoushi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L. is a perennial herbaceous plant and can be a future drug due to its wide medicinal purposes. Despite its economic importance, the molecular genetics of P. harmal have not yet been studied in detail. Genetic diversity of 12 P. harmala genotypes were investigated by using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR, PCR-RFLP of rDNA-ITS, PCR-SSCP of rDNA-ITS and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers. The level of polymorphism revealed by ITS-SSCP is the lowest, followed by ITS-RFLP then ISSR and the highest polymorphism level was reported for SSR marker. The AMOVA analysis implied that most of the variation occurred within the Populations. A value of inbreeding coefficient Fis estimated by the three co-dominant markers was nearly equal and offer an indication of the partial out-crossing reproductive system of P. harmala. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCOA plot revealed a clear pattern of clustering based on the locations of collected plants which coincide with the isolation by distance. The study revealed that ITS-SSCP and ISSR markers respectively were more informative than the other used markers in the assessment of genetic diversity of P. harmala. The results reflect the great diversity of P. harmala and data obtained from this study can be used for future collecting missions. Keywords: Peganum harmala, Genetic diversity, ISSR, rDNA-ITS, SSR

  15. Limiting factors in caribou population ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou and wild reindeer populations fluctuate over time. On this fact there is general agreement. Factors responsible for population limitation and subsequent declines have been examined within the framework of animal population theory. There is, however, little agreement when factors limiting specific populations are generalized to Rangifer populations over broad geographic regions. Comparative examinations of wild Rangifer populations worldwide discloses that factors that have regulated those populations are highly variable between populations, apparently as a reflection of the differences in environmental variables unique to each population. Examples exist of populations where major regulating factors have been climatic extremes, predation, hunting mortality, food limitation, insects, parasites, disease, interspecific competition, and human developmental impacts or combinations of these factors. This diversity of limiting factors affecting caribou and wild reindeer populations is a reflection of the ecologial complexity of the species, a concept that has often been ignored in past efforts to reach management decisions by extrapolation from the limited localized knowledge available on the species.

  16. CWRML: representing crop wild relative conservation and use data in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan D; Kell, Shelagh P; Iriondo, Jose M; Ford-Lloyd, Brian V; Maxted, Nigel

    2008-02-25

    Crop wild relatives are wild species that are closely related to crops. They are valuable as potential gene donors for crop improvement and may help to ensure food security for the future. However, they are becoming increasingly threatened in the wild and are inadequately conserved, both in situ and ex situ. Information about the conservation status and utilisation potential of crop wild relatives is diverse and dispersed, and no single agreed standard exists for representing such information; yet, this information is vital to ensure these species are effectively conserved and utilised. The European Community-funded project, European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, determined the minimum information requirements for the conservation and utilisation of crop wild relatives and created the Crop Wild Relative Information System, incorporating an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema to aid data sharing and exchange. Crop Wild Relative Markup Language (CWRML) was developed to represent the data necessary for crop wild relative conservation and ensure that they can be effectively utilised for crop improvement. The schema partitions data into taxon-, site-, and population-specific elements, to allow for integration with other more general conservation biology schemata which may emerge as accepted standards in the future. These elements are composed of sub-elements, which are structured in order to facilitate the use of the schema in a variety of crop wild relative conservation and use contexts. Pre-existing standards for data representation in conservation biology were reviewed and incorporated into the schema as restrictions on element data contents, where appropriate. CWRML provides a flexible data communication format for representing in situ and ex situ conservation status of individual taxa as well as their utilisation potential. The development of the schema highlights a number of instances where additional standards-development may

  17. The Missing Response to Selection in the Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Benoit; Blanchet, Simon; Charmantier, Anne; Danchin, Etienne; Facon, Benoit; Marrot, Pascal; Roux, Fabrice; Scotti, Ivan; Teplitsky, Céline; Thomson, Caroline E; Winney, Isabel

    2018-05-01

    Although there are many examples of contemporary directional selection, evidence for responses to selection that match predictions are often missing in quantitative genetic studies of wild populations. This is despite the presence of genetic variation and selection pressures - theoretical prerequisites for the response to selection. This conundrum can be explained by statistical issues with accurate parameter estimation, and by biological mechanisms that interfere with the response to selection. These biological mechanisms can accelerate or constrain this response. These mechanisms are generally studied independently but might act simultaneously. We therefore integrated these mechanisms to explore their potential combined effect. This has implications for explaining the apparent evolutionary stasis of wild populations and the conservation of wildlife. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS’ CATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; O’Brien1, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas’ cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas’ cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas’ cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas’ cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its’ native host. PMID:19926144

  19. Fostering repeat donations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ofori, S; Asenso-Mensah, K; Boateng, P; Sarkodie, F; Allain, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Most African countries are challenged in recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors by cost and other complexities and in establishing and implementing national blood policies. The availability of replacement donors who are a cheaper source of blood has not enhanced repeat voluntary donor initiatives. An overview of activities for recruiting and retaining voluntary blood donors was carried out. Donor records from mobile sessions were reviewed from 2002 to 2008. A total of 71,701 blood donations; 45,515 (63.5%) being voluntary donations with 11,680 (25%) repeat donations were collected during the study period. Donations from schools and colleges contributed a steady 60% of total voluntary whilst radio station blood drives increased contribution from 10 to 27%. Though Muslim population is less than 20%, blood collection was above the 30-donation cost-effectiveness threshold with a repeat donation trend reaching 60%. In contrast Christian worshippers provided donations. Repeat donation trends amongst school donors and radio blood drives were 20% and 70% respectively. Repeat donations rates have been variable amongst different blood donor groups in Kumasi, Ghana. The impact of community leaders in propagating altruism cannot be overemphasized. Programs aiming at motivating replacement donors to be repeat donors should be developed and assessed. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of papillae in wild, cultivated and hybrid sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the characteristics of papillae of living, boiled and dried specimens of three wild populations, cultivated and hybrid Apostichopus japonicus in the laboratory. Visual observation showed that the appearance of the papillae was obviously different among the populations. For the first time, we established a ...

  1. AFLP genetic polymorphism in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) populations in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turpeinen, T.; Vanhala, T.; Nevo, E.; Nissila, E.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity produced by the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was studied in 94 genotypes of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell., originating from ten ecologically and geographically different locations in Israel. Eight primer pairs produced 204 discernible

  2. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongru; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Crawford, Jacob E.; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon, are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genome...

  3. Differential Regulation of Strand-Specific Transcripts from Arabidopsis Centromeric Satellite Repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Centromeres interact with the spindle apparatus to enable chromosome disjunction and typically contain thousands of tandemly arranged satellite repeats interspersed with retrotransposons. While their role has been obscure, centromeric repeats are epigenetically modified and centromere specification has a strong epigenetic component. In the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, long heterochromatic repeats are transcribed and contribute to centromere function via RNA interference (RNAi. In the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as in mammalian cells, centromeric satellite repeats are short (180 base pairs, are found in thousands of tandem copies, and are methylated. We have found transcripts from both strands of canonical, bulk Arabidopsis repeats. At least one subfamily of 180-base pair repeats is transcribed from only one strand and regulated by RNAi and histone modification. A second subfamily of repeats is also silenced, but silencing is lost on both strands in mutants in the CpG DNA methyltransferase MET1, the histone deacetylase HDA6/SIL1, or the chromatin remodeling ATPase DDM1. This regulation is due to transcription from Athila2 retrotransposons, which integrate in both orientations relative to the repeats, and differs between strains of Arabidopsis. Silencing lost in met1 or hda6 is reestablished in backcrosses to wild-type, but silencing lost in RNAi mutants and ddm1 is not. Twenty-four-nucleotide small interfering RNAs from centromeric repeats are retained in met1 and hda6, but not in ddm1, and may have a role in this epigenetic inheritance. Histone H3 lysine-9 dimethylation is associated with both classes of repeats. We propose roles for transcribed repeats in the epigenetic inheritance and evolution of centromeres.

  4. Dominance and population structure of freshwater crabs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To understand how this would affect wild populations we also investigated the population structure (sex ratio, size distribution, density and population growth) of a wild population. Using Landau's index of linearity (h) we found three captive groups of P. perlatus to show moderate linearity, i.e. h = 0.9; 0.81 and 0.83.

  5. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat loci in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Key words: short tandem repeat, repeat motif, genetic polymorphism, Han population, forensic genetics. INTRODUCTION. Short tandem repeat (STR) is widely .... Data analysis. The exact test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was conducted with. Arlequin version 3.5 software (Computational and Molecular.

  6. Blood meal sources of wild and domestic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Bolivia: connectivity between cycles of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Rosio; Bosseno, Marie-France; Depickère, Stéphanie; Waleckx, Etienne; Salas, Renata; Aliaga, Claudia; Barnabé, Christian; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2016-04-18

    Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. Its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is mainly transmitted through the contaminated faeces of blood-sucking insects called triatomines. Triatoma infestans is the main vector in various countries in South America and recently, several foci of wild populations of this species have been described in Bolivia and other countries. These wild populations are suspected of affecting the success of insecticide control campaigns being carried out in South America. To assess the risk that these T. infestans populations pose to human health, it is helpful to determine blood meal sources. In the present work, blood meals were identified in various Bolivian wild T. infestans populations and in three specific areas, in both wild and intra-peridomestic populations to assess the links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. PCR-HDA and sequencing of Cytb gene were used to identify these blood meal sources. Fourteen vertebrate species were identified as wild blood meal sources. Of those, the most prevalent species were two Andean endemic rodents, Octodontomys gliroides (36%) and Galea musteloides (30%), while humans were the third most prevalent source (18.7%). Of 163 blood meals from peridomestic areas, more than half were chickens, and the others were generally domestic animals or humans. Interestingly, blood from wild animals was identified in triatomines captured in the peridomestic and domestic environment, and blood from domestic animals was found in triatomines captured in the wild, revealing links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. The current study suggests that wild T. infestans attack humans in the wild, but is also able to bite humans in domestic settings before going back to its natural environment. These results support the risk to human health posed by wild populations of T. infestans.

  7. Bigger Is Fitter? Quantitative Genetic Decomposition of Selection Reveals an Adaptive Evolutionary Decline of Body Mass in a Wild Rodent Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée Bonnet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In natural populations, quantitative trait dynamics often do not appear to follow evolutionary predictions. Despite abundant examples of natural selection acting on heritable traits, conclusive evidence for contemporary adaptive evolution remains rare for wild vertebrate populations, and phenotypic stasis seems to be the norm. This so-called "stasis paradox" highlights our inability to predict evolutionary change, which is especially concerning within the context of rapid anthropogenic environmental change. While the causes underlying the stasis paradox are hotly debated, comprehensive attempts aiming at a resolution are lacking. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic framework to individual-based long-term data for a wild rodent population and show that despite a positive association between body mass and fitness, there has been a genetic change towards lower body mass. The latter represents an adaptive response to viability selection favouring juveniles growing up to become relatively small adults, i.e., with a low potential adult mass, which presumably complete their development earlier. This selection is particularly strong towards the end of the snow-free season, and it has intensified in recent years, coinciding which a change in snowfall patterns. Importantly, neither the negative evolutionary change, nor the selective pressures that drive it, are apparent on the phenotypic level, where they are masked by phenotypic plasticity and a non causal (i.e., non genetic positive association between body mass and fitness, respectively. Estimating selection at the genetic level enabled us to uncover adaptive evolution in action and to identify the corresponding phenotypic selective pressure. We thereby demonstrate that natural populations can show a rapid and adaptive evolutionary response to a novel selective pressure, and that explicitly (quantitative genetic models are able to provide us with an understanding of the causes and consequences of

  8. Bigger Is Fitter? Quantitative Genetic Decomposition of Selection Reveals an Adaptive Evolutionary Decline of Body Mass in a Wild Rodent Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, Peter; Camenisch, Glauco

    2017-01-01

    In natural populations, quantitative trait dynamics often do not appear to follow evolutionary predictions. Despite abundant examples of natural selection acting on heritable traits, conclusive evidence for contemporary adaptive evolution remains rare for wild vertebrate populations, and phenotypic stasis seems to be the norm. This so-called “stasis paradox” highlights our inability to predict evolutionary change, which is especially concerning within the context of rapid anthropogenic environmental change. While the causes underlying the stasis paradox are hotly debated, comprehensive attempts aiming at a resolution are lacking. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic framework to individual-based long-term data for a wild rodent population and show that despite a positive association between body mass and fitness, there has been a genetic change towards lower body mass. The latter represents an adaptive response to viability selection favouring juveniles growing up to become relatively small adults, i.e., with a low potential adult mass, which presumably complete their development earlier. This selection is particularly strong towards the end of the snow-free season, and it has intensified in recent years, coinciding which a change in snowfall patterns. Importantly, neither the negative evolutionary change, nor the selective pressures that drive it, are apparent on the phenotypic level, where they are masked by phenotypic plasticity and a non causal (i.e., non genetic) positive association between body mass and fitness, respectively. Estimating selection at the genetic level enabled us to uncover adaptive evolution in action and to identify the corresponding phenotypic selective pressure. We thereby demonstrate that natural populations can show a rapid and adaptive evolutionary response to a novel selective pressure, and that explicitly (quantitative) genetic models are able to provide us with an understanding of the causes and consequences of selection that is

  9. Prevalence of Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria in Wild Birds from Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobey, Britni; Kucknoor, Ashwini; Armacost, Jim

    2017-09-01

    Infectious diseases can be a major threat to wildlife populations, especially in human-modified habitats, but infection rates in populations of wild animals are often poorly studied. Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria are all pathogens known to infect birds, but their infection rates in wild bird populations are not well documented. This study documents infection rates of the three pathogens in wild bird populations inhabiting a suburban to rural gradient in Southeast Texas. Various species of wild birds were sampled at five sites in Southeastern Texas representing rural (Birds were captured in mist nets and samples were taken from the oral cavity, crop, and vent to detect the presence of pathogens. Samples were screened for Trichomonas by examining wet mounts under a light microscope, whereas samples were screened for Salmonella and Listeria by examining colonies grown on agar plates. Pathogens detected during the initial screening were further confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Infection rates for Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria were 9%, 17%, and 5%, respectively. The distributions of infection rates across habitats (i.e., rural, exurban, rural) did not differ significantly from the expected null distributions for any of the three pathogens; however, the data suggested some interesting patterns that should be confirmed with a larger dataset. Infection rates for Trichomonas and Salmonella were highest at the suburban sites, whereas the infection rate for Listeria was highest at the rural site. Feeder birds were more likely to be infected by all three pathogens than non-feeder birds. Small sample sizes prevent definitive conclusions regarding variation in infection rates along the suburban to rural gradient, but the results suggest that pathogens followed the predicted patterns. For many of the bird species sampled, this study presents the first report of infection rates by these three pathogens in wild populations.

  10. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peregrine Lee Wolff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection was detected in 2009-10 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N=32 in the bighorns and 100% (N=3 in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, indicated a prevalence of 72% (N=45, 45% (N=51, and 51% (N=342 respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N=96 sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species.

  11. Core features of repeated suicidal behaviour: a long-term follow-up after suicide attempts in a low-suicide-incidence population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, August G; Mortensen, Gudrun

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to study repeated suicidal behaviour in a low-incidence population to elucidate robust risk factors. METHODS: A cohort of first-ever suicide attempters from 1960 to 1982 on the Faroe Islands was followed up for a minimum of 20 years. The cohort was initiall...... and the level of determination behind the suicide attempt emerge as targets for prevention. Alcohol intoxication at the initial episode seems to be a strong long-term as well as short-term risk factor.......BACKGROUND: The aim of this article was to study repeated suicidal behaviour in a low-incidence population to elucidate robust risk factors. METHODS: A cohort of first-ever suicide attempters from 1960 to 1982 on the Faroe Islands was followed up for a minimum of 20 years. The cohort was initially...... characterized in psychiatric and social terms. RESULTS: The incidence of suicidal behaviour for the cohort years (age 15 years and older) was 37.9 per 100,000 per year (95% confidence interval 31.5-45.1). It was associated, as expected, with gender, age, residence, marital status, occupation, diagnosis...

  12. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS IN A WILD FAR EASTERN LEOPARD ( PANTHERA PARDUS ORIENTALIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulikhan, Nadezhda S; Gilbert, Martin; Blidchenko, Ekaterina Yu; Naidenko, Sergei V; Ivanchuk, Galina V; Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Yu; Alshinetskiy, Mikhail V; Shevtsova, Elena I; Goodrich, John M; Lewis, John C M; Goncharuk, Mikhail S; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Rozhnov, Vyatcheslav V; Shedko, Sergey V; McAloose, Denise; Miquelle, Dale G

    2018-01-01

    The critically endangered population of Far Eastern leopards ( Panthera pardus orientalis) may number as few as 60 individuals and is at risk from stochastic processes such as infectious disease. During May 2015, a case of canine distemper virus (CDV) was diagnosed in a wild leopard exhibiting severe neurologic disease in the Russian territory of Primorskii Krai. Amplified sequences of the CDV hemagglutinin gene and phosphoprotein gene aligned within the Arctic-like clade of CDV, which includes viruses from elsewhere in Russia, China, Europe, and North America. Histologic examination of cerebral tissue revealed perivascular lymphoid cuffing and demyelination of the white matter consistent with CDV infection. Neutralizing antibodies against CDV were detected in archived serum from two wild Far Eastern leopards sampled during 1993-94, confirming previous exposure in the population. This leopard population is likely too small to maintain circulation of CDV, suggesting that infections arise from spillover from more-abundant domestic or wild carnivore reservoirs. Increasing the population size and establishment of additional populations of leopards would be important steps toward securing the future of this subspecies and reducing the risk posed by future outbreaks of CDV or other infectious diseases.

  13. Repeatless and Repeat-Based Centromeres in Potato: Implications for Centromere Evolution[C][W

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gong, Z.; Wu, Y.; Koblížková, Andrea; Torres, G.A.; Wang, K.; Iovene, M.; Neumann, Pavel; Zhang, W.; Novák, Petr; Buell, C.R.; Macas, Jiří; Jiang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 9 (2012), s. 3559-3574 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : repetitive sequences * plant satellite repeats * Arabidopsis thaliana * rice centromere * wild potatoes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.251, year: 2012

  14. Multilocus Patterns of Nucleotide Diversity, Population Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium in Boechera stricta, a Wild Relative of Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bao-Hua; Windsor, Aaron J.; Schmid, Karl J.; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastian; Schranz, M. Eric; Heidel, Andrew J.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Information about polymorphism, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) is crucial for association studies of complex trait variation. However, most genomewide studies have focused on model systems, with very few analyses of undisturbed natural populations. Here, we sequenced 86 mapped nuclear loci for a sample of 46 genotypes of Boechera stricta and two individuals of B. holboellii, both wild relatives of Arabidopsis. Isolation by distance was significant across the species range of B. stricta, and three geographic groups were identified by structure analysis, principal coordinates analysis, and distance-based phylogeny analyses. The allele frequency spectrum indicated a genomewide deviation from an equilibrium neutral model, with silent nucleotide diversity averaging 0.004. LD decayed rapidly, declining to background levels in ∼10 kb or less. For tightly linked SNPs separated by <1 kb, LD was dependent on the reference population. LD was lower in the specieswide sample than within populations, suggesting that low levels of LD found in inbreeding species such as B. stricta, Arabidopsis thaliana, and barley may result from broad geographic sampling that spans heterogeneous genetic groups. Finally, analyses also showed that inbreeding B. stricta and A. thaliana have ∼45% higher recombination per kilobase than outcrossing A. lyrata. PMID:19104077

  15. Distribution of Wild and Cultivated Grapes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H UZUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of main gene centers in the world for grapes. It is believed that cultivated grapes have their origins in Turkey and the surrounding countries. Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris is the only wild grape species in this region. That is why Turkey has a very large amount of wild grapevine populations and grape cultivars which offer to grapevine breeders a valuable gene pool. Wild grapevines have significant characters for inducing the resistence to biotic and abiotic stress factors, such as resistance to lime, drought, pests and diseases. Turkey has over 1.600 local grape cultivars, among which the majority of them are conserved at the national grape collection vineyard in Tekirda?. They are mostly used as table grapes, dried grapes or for local consumptions. Wild grapes are distributed all over the country territory, mainly in the river basins and forests. Wild grape collection vineyards were established at some universities in Turkey. These grapevines will be screened for the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors.

  16. Evaluation of tetranucleotide repeat locus D7S809 (wg1g9) in the Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, K; Huang, X L; Nozawa, H; Yamamoto, T; Uchihi, R; Katsumata, Y; Armour, J A

    1996-08-15

    The tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) locus (D7S809) has been evaluated in the Japanese population. In order to detect the alleles, PCR was carried out using primers, one of which was end labelled with 32P, and PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Using this method, accurate genotypes could be determined from as little as 0.5 ng of genomic DNA. Thirteen different alleles were identified on 256 chromosomes tested. All alleles differed in size by one (4 bp) repeat unit, and no "interalleles' were found. The estimated heterozygosity and the polymorphism information content (PIC) were 0.86 and 0.83, respectively. We observed 42 of the 91 possible different genotypes. The power of discrimination (PD) was 0.96, and no significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found. We retyped all apparently homozygous samples using an alternative pair of flanking primers in order to confirm homozygosity. We also demonstrated a typing result involving sexual assault. D7S809 appears to be a very useful STR locus for forensic practice in Japanese.

  17. Natural hybridization between a clonally propagated crop, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and a wild relative in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duputié, Anne; David, Patrice; Debain, Chantal; McKey, Doyle

    2007-07-01

    Because domestication rarely leads to speciation, domesticated populations often hybridize with wild relatives when they occur in close proximity. Little work has focused on this question in clonally propagated crops. If selection on the capacity for sexual reproduction has been relaxed, these crops would not be expected to hybridize with their wild relatives as frequently as seed-propagated crops. Cassava is one of the most important clonally propagated plants in tropical agriculture. Gene flow between cassava and wild relatives has often been postulated, but never demonstrated in nature. We studied a population of a wild Manihot sp. in French Guiana, which was recently in contact with domesticated cassava, and characterized phenotypes (10 morphological traits) and genotypes (six microsatellite loci) of individuals in a transect parallel to the direction of hypothesized gene flow. Wild and domesticated populations were strongly differentiated at microsatellite loci. We identified many hybrids forming a continuum between these two populations, and phenotypic variation was strongly correlated with the degree of hybridization as determined by molecular markers. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium and of the diversity of hybrid pedigrees showed that hybridization has gone on for at least three generations and that no strong barrier prevents admixture of the populations. Hybrids were more heterozygous than either wild or domesticated individuals, and phenotypic comparisons suggested heterosis in vegetative traits. Our results also suggest that this situation is not uncommon, at least in French Guiana, and demonstrate the need for integrated management of wild and domesticated populations even in clonally propagated crops.

  18. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Genotyping by Sequencing and Genome–Environment Associations in Wild Common Bean Predict Widespread Divergent Adaptation to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J. Cortés

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought will reduce global crop production by >10% in 2050 substantially worsening global malnutrition. Breeding for resistance to drought will require accessing crop genetic diversity found in the wild accessions from the driest high stress ecosystems. Genome–environment associations (GEA in crop wild relatives reveal natural adaptation, and therefore can be used to identify adaptive variation. We explored this approach in the food crop Phaseolus vulgaris L., characterizing 86 geo-referenced wild accessions using genotyping by sequencing (GBS to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The wild beans represented Mesoamerica, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador/Northern Peru and Andean groupings. We found high polymorphism with a total of 22,845 SNPs across the 86 accessions that confirmed genetic relationships for the groups. As a second objective, we quantified allelic associations with a bioclimatic-based drought index using 10 different statistical models that accounted for population structure. Based on the optimum model, 115 SNPs in 90 regions, widespread in all 11 common bean chromosomes, were associated with the bioclimatic-based drought index. A gene coding for an ankyrin repeat-containing protein and a phototropic-responsive NPH3 gene were identified as potential candidates. Genomic windows of 1 Mb containing associated SNPs had more positive Tajima’s D scores than windows without associated markers. This indicates that adaptation to drought, as estimated by bioclimatic variables, has been under natural divergent selection, suggesting that drought tolerance may be favorable under dry conditions but harmful in humid conditions. Our work exemplifies that genomic signatures of adaptation are useful for germplasm characterization, potentially enhancing future marker-assisted selection and crop improvement.

  20. Summer Flowering Cover Crops Support Wild Bees in Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Houston; Wong, Jessica S; Thorp, Robbin W; Miles, Albie F; Daane, Kent M; Altieri, Miguel A

    2018-02-08

    Agricultural expansion and intensification negatively affect pollinator populations and has led to reductions in pollination services across multiple cropping systems. As a result, growers and researchers have utilized the restoration of local and landscape habitat diversity to support pollinators, and wild bees in particular. Although a majority of studies to date have focussed on effects in pollinator-dependent crops such as almond, tomato, sunflower, and watermelon, supporting wild bees in self-pollinated crops, such as grapes, can contribute to broader conservation goals as well as provide other indirect benefits to growers. This study evaluates the influence of summer flowering cover crops and landscape diversity on the abundance and diversity of vineyard bee populations. We showed that diversity and abundance of wild bees were increased on the flowering cover crop, but were unaffected by changes in landscape diversity. These findings indicate that summer flowering cover crops can be used to support wild bees and this could be a useful strategy for grape growers interested in pollinator conservation as part of a broader farmscape sustainability agenda. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct ...

  2. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Stam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp. and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved.

  3. The wild tomato species Solanum chilense shows variation in pathogen resistance between geographically distinct populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Wild tomatoes are a valuable source of disease resistance germplasm for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeders. Many species are known to possess a certain degree of resistance against certain pathogens; however, evolution of resistance traits is yet poorly understood. For some species, like Solanum chilense, both differences in habitat and within species genetic diversity are very large. Here we aim to investigate the occurrence of spatially heterogeneous coevolutionary pressures between populations of S. chilense. We investigate the phenotypic differences in disease resistance within S. chilense against three common tomato pathogens (Alternaria solani, Phytophthora infestans and a Fusarium sp.) and confirm high degrees of variability in resistance properties between selected populations. Using generalised linear mixed models, we show that disease resistance does not follow the known demographic patterns of the species. Models with up to five available climatic and geographic variables are required to best describe resistance differences, confirming the complexity of factors involved in local resistance variation. We confirm that within S. chilense, resistance properties against various pathogens show a mosaic pattern and do not follow environmental patterns, indicating the strength of local pathogen pressures. Our study can form the basis for further investigations of the genetic traits involved. PMID:28133579

  4. Genetic variation in Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Kemunting) populations from Malaysia as revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, T S; Abdullah, T L; Abdullah, N A P; Sinniah, U R

    2015-12-14

    Kemunting (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) from the Myrtaceae family, is native to Malaysia. It is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various illnesses and possesses significant antibacterial properties. In addition, it has great potential as ornamental in landscape design. Genetic variability studies are important for the rational management and conservation of genetic material. In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 18 R. tomentosa populations collected from ten states of Peninsular Malaysia. The 11 primers selected generated 173 bands that ranged in size from 1.6 kb to 130 bp, which corresponded to an average of 15.73 bands per primer. Of these bands, 97.69% (169 in total) were polymorphic. High genetic diversity was documented at the species level (H(T) = 0.2705; I = 0.3973; PPB = 97.69%) but there was a low diversity at population level (H(S) = 0.0073; I = 0 .1085; PPB = 20.14%). The high level of genetic differentiation revealed by G(ST) (73%) and analysis of molecular variance (63%), together with the limited gene flow among population (N(m) = 0.1851), suggests that the populations examined are isolated. Results from an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis clearly grouped the populations into two geographic groups. This clear grouping can also be demonstrated by the significant Mantel test (r = 0.581, P = 0.001). We recommend that all the R. tomentosa populations be preserved in conservation program.

  5. Do wild great tits avoid exposure to light at night?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, M.; Ouyang, Jenny; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Visser, M.E.; Spoelstra, K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their

  6. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  7. Health assessment of wild lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) populations in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes, Brazil (1996-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in South America and is listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species. Health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. Health information from 65 wild tapirs from two Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest (AF) and Pantanal (PA), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). The study included physic, hematologic and biochemical evaluations, microbiologic cultures, urinalysis, and serologic analyses for antibodies against 13 infectious agents (viral and bacterial). The AF and PA tapirs were significantly different for several hematologic and biochemical parameters. Ten bacteria taxa were identified in the AF and 26 in the PA. Antibodies against five viruses were detected: Bluetongue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. A high prevalence of exposure to Leptospira interrogans (10 serovars: Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, and Pyrogenes) was detected in both the AF and PA sites. A greater diversity of serovars and higher antibody titers were found in the PA. Statistically significant differences between sites were found for L. interrogans, equine encephalitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. Based on physical evaluations, both AF and PA populations were healthy. The differences in the overall health profile of the AF and PA tapir populations appear to be associated with environmental factors and infectious diseases ecology. The extensive datasets on hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, and microbiology results from this paper can be used as reference values for wild tapirs.

  8. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION VARIABILITY IN THE Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw WILD POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Maribel Condori Peñaloza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw is a vine widely distributed throughout the South-American rainforest. Many studies investigating the chemical composition of cat's claw have focused on the pentacyclic (POA and tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA, quinovic acid glycosides (QAG, and polyphenols (PPH. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain how environmental factors affect chemical groups. The aim of this work was to better understand the influence of environmental factors (geographic origin, altitude, and season on cat's claw chemical composition. Stem bark, branches and leaf samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The data obtained were explored by multivariate analysis (HCA and PCA. Higher amounts of oxindole alkaloids and PPH were found in leaves, followed by stem bark and branches. No clear relationship was verified among geographic origin or altitude and chemical composition, which remained unchanged regardless of season (dry or rainy. However, three oxindole alkaloid chemotypes were clearly recognized: chemotype I (POA with cis D/E ring junction; chemotype II (POA with trans D/E ring junction; and chemotype III (TOA. Thus, environmental factors appear to have only a minor influence on the chemical heterogeneity of the cat's claw wild population. Nevertheless, the occurrence of different chemotypes based on alkaloid profiles seems to be clear.

  9. Fragile X founder effect and distribution of CGG repeats among the mentally retarded population of Andalusia, South Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda de Diego

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. We investigated the prevalence of the Fragile X syndrome in the population with mental retardation of unknown etiology in Andalusia, South Spain. We analyzed 322 unrelated patients (280 males and 42 females, and found a fragile X syndrome frequency of 6.5%. Among the non-fragile X chromosomes, the 29 CGG repeat was the most common allele. At the linked microsatellite DXS548 locus, we found a new allele which we called "allele 10" (17 CA. Similar to other south European populations, allele 2 (25 CA at the DXS548 locus and the fragile X allele were in linkage disequilibrium supporting the idea of a common founder chromosome predisposing to the CGG expansion.

  10. Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    healthy live birds in waterfowl reservoirs and along migratory flyways, birds living in proximity to domestic poultry, and hunted game birds. Dead birds were sampled by oropharyngeal swabbing. Healthy live wild birds were captured with nets, traps, or by hand and were sampled by swabbing...... America via Greenland and vice versa. In Denmark, the screenings for AI showed LPAI viruses to be naturally occurring in the wild bird population, particularly in waterfowl. The occurrence of AI viruses in the wild bird population may pose a risk for AI infections in Danish poultry....

  11. Estimation of the number of wild pigs found in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    Based on a compilation of three estimation approaches, the total nationwide population of wild pigs in the United States numbers approximately 6.3 million animals, with that total estimate ranging from 4.4 up to 11.3 million animals. The majority of these numbers (99 percent), which were encompassed by ten states (i.e., Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Texas), were based on defined estimation methodologies (e.g., density estimates correlated to the total potential suitable wild pig habitat statewide, statewide harvest percentages, statewide agency surveys regarding wild pig distribution and numbers). In contrast to the pre-1990 estimates, none of these more recent efforts, collectively encompassing 99 percent of the total, were based solely on anecdotal information or speculation. To that end, one can defensibly state that the wild pigs found in the United States number in the millions of animals, with the nationwide population estimated to arguably vary from about four million up to about eleven million individuals.

  12. Do wild great tits avoid exposure to light at night?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, De Maaike; Ouyang, Jenny Q.; Grunsven, van Roy H.A.; Visser, Marcel E.; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their

  13. Aujeszky’s Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, François; Rossi, Sophie; Jori, Ferran; Maestrini, Oscar; Richomme, Céline; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian; Jouve, Johan; Pavio, Nicole; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2018-01-01

    Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild–domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80%) and ADV (40%) in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs’ exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80%) suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows’ release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV, ADV

  14. Aujeszky’s Disease and Hepatitis E Viruses Transmission between Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in Corsica: Evaluating the Importance of Wild/Domestic Interactions and the Efficacy of Management Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Charrier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV and Aujeszky’s disease virus (ADV are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild–domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry. Second, we performed an analysis at a more restricted geographical scale, to assess the matching of ADV or HEV prevalence between sympatric wild boar and outdoor pig farms most exposed to interactions with wildlife. Logistic models were adjusted to the observed data. A high seroprevalence of HEV (>80% and ADV (40% in pigs, with no significant difference according to the region, confirms that both pathogens are enzootic in Corsica. Vaccination against ADV had a strong protective effect, even when performed voluntarily by farmers. Farm biosafety had an additional effect on pigs’ exposure, suggesting that contact between wild boars and pigs were involved in disease transmission. A strong correlation in HEV seroprevalence was observed between pigs and wild boars that were in close contact, and significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in pigs when they had little contact with wild boars due to spatial segregation. These results suggest a regular HEV circulation between sympatric wild boar and domestic pigs. The high HEV seroprevalence observed in domestic pigs (>80% suggests a spillover of the virus from domestic to wild populations through environmental contamination, but this hypothesis has to be confirmed. Conversely, even though avoiding sows’ release on pasture during estrus showed some protecting effect in the free ranging pig farms regarding ADV

  15. Genetic diversity associated with conservation of endangered Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild progenitor species (Oryza rufipogon) of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa) is located in Dongxiang county, China where it is considered the northernmost range worldwide. Nine ex situ and three in situ populations of the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) and four groups of modern cultivars were geno...

  16. Mapping the glaucousness suppressor Iw1 from wild emmer wheat “PI 481521”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongchang; Xu; Cuiling; Yuan; Jirui; Wang; Daolin; Fu; Jiajie; Wu

    2015-01-01

    Many species of Triticeae display a glaucous phenotype. In wheat, glaucousness/waxiness on spikes, leaves and shoots is controlled by wax production genes(W loci) and epistatic inhibitors(Iw loci). In this study, a suppressor of glaucousness from wild emmer wheat(Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) accession "PI 481521" was investigated in a pair of durum(T. turgidum ssp. durum cv. "Langdon", LDN)—wild emmer wheat chromosome substitution lines, LDN and "LDNDIC521-2B". Genetic analysis revealed that the non-glaucous phenotype of LDNDIC521-2Bwas controlled by the dominant glaucous suppressor Iw1 on the short arm of chromosome 2B. In total, 371 2B-specific marker differences were identified between LDN and LDNDIC521-2B. The location of the Iw1 gene was mapped using an F2 population that stemmed from LDN and LDNDIC521-2B, generating a partial linkage map that included 19 simple sequence repeats(SSR) and ten gene-based markers. On the current map, the Iw1 gene was located within the Xgwm614–BE498111 interval, and cosegregated with BQ788707,CD893659, CD927782, CD938589, and Xbarc35. Mapping of Iw1 in LDNDIC521-2B, a publically accessible and widely distributed line, will provide valuable information for marker-assisted selection of the agronomically important trait of glaucousness.

  17. Population Fluctuations of Insect Predators Species Found on Almond and WildAlmond Tree Adjacent to Pistachio Orchard in Şanlıurfa

    OpenAIRE

    YANIK, Ertan

    2013-01-01

    Almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) and wild almond (Amygdalus orientalis) trees are the most abundant species adjacent to pistachio orchards of Sanliurfa province. This study focused on trees that located in the vicinity of the pistachio orchards, to determine whether these alternative habitats are a source of pistachio psilla’s (Agonoscena pistaciae Burck. and Laut.) insect predators species. For this purpose surveys were conducted to population fluctuations of insect predatory species of pist...

  18. Unraveling the evolutionary scenario of the hobo element in populations of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans in South America using the TPE repeats as markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani T. Ragagnin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transposable elements (TEs are nucleotide sequences found in most studied genomes. These elements are highly diversified and have a large variation in nucleotide structure and mechanisms of transposition. hobo is a member of class II, belonging to hAT superfamily, described inDrosophila melanogaster, and it presents in its Open Reading Frame, a repetitive region encoding the amino acids threonine-proline-glutamic acid (TPE, which shows variability in the number of repeats in some regions of the world. Due to this variability some evolutionary scenarios of the hobo element are discussed, such as the scenario of the invasion of hobo element in populations ofD. melanogaster. In the present study, we investigated 22 DNA sequences of D. melanogaster and seven sequences ofD. simulans, both from South America, to check the number of repetitions of TPE, in order to clarify the evolutionary scenario of thehobo element in these populations. Our results showed a monomorphism in populations of both species in South America, with only three TPE repeats. Hence, we discuss and propose an evolutionary scenario of the invasion of the hobo element in populations of D. melanogaster and D. simulans.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed low genetic diversity in the endangered Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Devendra; Atkulwar, Ashwin; Farah, Sameera; Baig, Mumtaz

    2017-09-01

    The Indian wild ass Equus hemionus khur, belonging to ass-like equid branch, inhabits the dry and arid desert of the Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. The E. h. khur is the sole survivor of Asiatic wild ass species/subspecies in South Asia. To provide first ever insights into the genetic diversity, phylogeny, and demography of the endangered Indian wild ass, we sampled 52 free-ranging individuals from the Little Rann of Kutch by using a non-invasive methodology. The sequencing of 230 bp in cytochrome b (Cyt b) and displacement loop (D-loop) region revealed that current ∼4000 extant population of Indian wild ass harbours low genetic diversity. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that E. h. khur, E. h. onager, and E. h. kulan belong to a single strict monophyletic clade. Therefore, we suggest the delimitation of the five E. hemionus subspecies in vogue to a single species E. hemionus. The application of molecular clock confirmed that the Asiatic wild ass had undergone diversification 0.65 Million years ago. Demographic measurements assessed using a Bayesian skyline plot demonstrated decline in the maternal effective population size of the Indian wild ass during different periods; these periods coincided with the origin and rise of the Indus civilization in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent during the Neolithic. In conclusion, maintaining high genetic diversity in the existing isolated population of 4000 Indian wild asses inhabiting the wild ass sanctuary is important compared with subspecies preservation alone.

  20. Population genetics and new insight into range of CAG repeats of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 in the Han Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Rui Gan

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, also called Machado-Joseph disease (MJD, is one of the most common SCAs worldwide and caused by a CAG repeat expansion located in ATXN3 gene. Based on the CAG repeat numbers, alleles of ATXN3 can be divided into normal alleles (ANs, intermediate alleles (AIs and expanded alleles (AEs. It was controversial whether the frequency of large normal alleles (large ANs is related to the prevalence of SCA3 or not. And there were huge chaos in the comprehension of the specific numbers of the range of CAG repeats which is fundamental for genetic analysis of SCA3. To illustrate these issues, we made a novel CAG repeat ladder to detect CAG repeats of ATXN3 in 1003 unrelated Chinese normal individuals and studied haplotypes defined by three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs closed to ATXN3. We found that the number of CAG repeats ranged from 13 to 49, among them, 14 was the most common number. Positive skew, the highest frequency of large ANs and 4 AIs which had never been reported before were found. Also, AEs and large ANs shared the same haplotypes defined by the SNPs. Based on these data and other related studies, we presumed that de novo mutations of ATXN3 emerging from large ANs are at least one survival mechanisms of mutational ATXN3 and we can redefine the range of CAG repeats as: ANs≤44, 45 ≤AIs ≤49 and AEs≥50.

  1. Genetic diversity in wild populations of Paulownia fortune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Y; Ru, G X; Zhang, J; Lu, Y Y

    2014-11-01

    The genetic diversities of 16 Paulownia fortunei populations involving 143 individuals collected from 6 provinces in China were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A total of 9 primer pairs with 1169 polymorphic loci were screened out, and each pair possessed 132 bands on average. The percentage of polymorphic bands (98.57%), the effective number of alleles (1.2138-1.2726), Nei's genetic diversity (0.1566-0.1887), and Shannon's information index (0.2692-0.3117) indicated a plentiful genetic diversity and different among Paulownia fortunei populations. The genetic differentiation coefficient between populations was 0.2386, while the gene flow was 1.0954, and the low gene exchange promoted genetic differentiation. Analysis of variance indicated that genetic variation mainly occurred within populations (81.62% of total variation) rather than among populations (18.38%). The 16 populations were divided by unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) into 4 groups with obvious regionalism, in which the populations with close geographical locations (latitude) were clustered together.

  2. Contact with domestic dogs increases pathogen exposure in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie Woodroffe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus. Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic "reservoir" hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches--including no intervention--which are most appropriate for each pathogen.

  3. Contact with Domestic Dogs Increases Pathogen Exposure in Endangered African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Prager, Katherine C.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic) “reservoir” hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. Conclusions/Significance These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches – including no intervention – which are most appropriate for each pathogen. PMID:22238695

  4. Impact of managed honey bee viruses on wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehel, Anja; Brown, Mark Jf; Paxton, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Several viruses found in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) have recently been detected in other bee species, raising the possibility of spill-over from managed to wild bee species. Alternatively, these viruses may be shared generalists across flower-visiting insects. Here we explore the former hypothesis, pointing out weaknesses in the current evidence, particularly in relation to deformed wing virus (DWV), and highlighting research areas that may help test it. Data so far suggest that DWV spills over from managed to wild bee species and has the potential to cause population decline. That DWV and other viruses of A. mellifera are found in other bee species needs to be considered for the sustainable management of bee populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Wild bees enhance honey bees’ pollination of hybrid sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S.; Kremen, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Pollinators are required for producing 15–30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages. PMID:16940358

  6. Wild bees enhance honey bees' pollination of hybrid sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S; Kremen, Claire

    2006-09-12

    Pollinators are required for producing 15-30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages.

  7. Evidence for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae in a wild boar (Sus scrofa population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival swabs from 44 free-living wild boars culled during a demographic control programme applied in a Regional Park located in the Northern Italy were examined by 16S rRNA encoding gene nested PCR. In total, 22 (50% wild boars were PCR positive. Sequencing of the amplicons identified Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia pecorum in 12 and 5 samples, respectively. For one sample found PCR positive, the nucleotide sequence could not be determined. Four conjunctival samples showed ≥ 92% sequence similarities to 16S rRNA sequences from Chlamydia-like organisms, as did large intestine, uterus, and vaginal swabs from the same four animals. Amoeba DNA was found in one Chlamydia-like organism positive conjunctival swab. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of members of the Parachlamydiaceae family in wild boars, confirming a large animal host range for Chlamydia-like organisms.

  8. Characterization of the largest relic Eurasian wild grapevine reservoir in Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-García, R.; Cantos, M.; Lara, M.; López, M.A.; Gallardo, A.; Ocete, C.A.; Pérez, A.; Bánáti, B.; García, J.L.; Ocete, R.

    2016-11-01

    Wild grapevine is becoming a threatened species in the Iberian Peninsula due to human impacts. The aim of this work was to carry out a holistic study for six years of the largest wild grapevine population found up to date in SW Iberian Peninsula. This population has 115 vines. Ampelographic and soil characteristics have been studied. Evaluation of its environment has also been studied by describing the main parasitic species and natural enemies of pests. The ability of this plant material for its micropropagation and storage in slow-growth conditions has been tested. Microvinification resulted in a wine with good acidity and medium color intensity, two interesting characteristics under a warm climatology. Finally, the identification of private alleles in this wild population, absent in other locations from the Northern and Southern Iberian territories, is a very valuable feature and confirms the importance of establishing conservation programs. The population here studied is genetically unique and potentially useful for commercial rootstocks and cultivars breeding that would improve viticulture and enology. (Author)

  9. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Populations of Wild Animals in Comparison with Animals Bred in Game Enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubankova, Monika; Kralik, Petr; Lamka, Jiri; Zakovcik, Vladimir; Dolanský, Marek; Vasickova, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic.

  10. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Two strategies have been proposed to avoid negative genetic effects of artificially propagated individuals on wild populations: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10–20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations. PMID:23144657

  11. Development of known-fate survival monitoring techniques for juvenile wild pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Keiter; John C. Kilgo; Mark A. Vukovich; Fred L. Cunningham; James C. Beasley

    2017-01-01

    Context. Wild pigs are an invasive species linked to numerous negative impacts on natural and anthropogenic ecosystems in many regions of the world. Robust estimates of juvenile wild pig survival are needed to improve population dynamics models to facilitate management of this economically and ecologically...

  12. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Wild Mushrooms in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Chinatu Charity Ndimele; Prince Emeka Ndimele; Kanayo Stephen Chukwuka

    2017-01-01

    Background. Many companies in Nigeria generate industrial effluents, including heavy metals. These metals can be accumulated by biota such as mushrooms, which are then eaten by the populace. Objectives. The present study investigates the metal content of wild mushrooms in order to educate the local population on the safety of their consumption. Methods. Seven different species of wild mushrooms (Cortinarius melliolens, Chlorophyllum brunneum, Pleurotus florida, Volvariella speciosa, Can...

  13. Rhizospheric microbial communities associated with wild and cultivated frankincense producing Boswellia sacra tree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Khan

    Full Text Available Boswellia sacra, a frankincense producing endemic tree, has been well known for its cultural, religious and economic values. However, the tree has been least explored for the associated microsymbiota in the rhizosphere. The current study elucidates the fungal and bacterial communities of the rhizospheric regions of the wild and cultivated B. sacra tree populations through next generation sequencing. The sequence analysis showed the existence of 1006±8.9 and 60.6±3.1 operational taxonomic unit (OTUs for bacterial and fungal communities respectively. In fungal communities, five major phyla were found with significantly higher abundance of Ascomycota (60.3% in wild population and Basidiomycota (52% in cultivated tree rhizospheres. Among bacterial communities, 31 major phyla were found, with significant distribution of Actinobacteria in wild tree rhizospheres, whereas Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were highly abundant in cultivated trees. The diversity and abundance of microbiome varied significantly depending upon soil characteristics of the three different populations. In addition, significantly higher glucosidases, cellulases and indole-3-acetic acid were found in cultivated tree's rhizospheres as compared to wild tree populations. for these plants to survive the harsh arid-land environmental conditions. The current study is a first comprehensive work and advances our knowledge about the core fungal and bacterial microbial microbiome associated with this economically important tree.

  14. Do hormone-modulating chemicals impact on reproduction and development of wild amphibians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-11-01

    Globally, amphibians are undergoing a precipitous decline. At the last estimate in 2004, 32% of the approximately 6000 species were threatened with extinction and 43% were experiencing significant declines. These declines have been linked with a wide range of environmental pressures from habitat loss to climate change, disease and pollution. This review evaluates the evidence that endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) - pollutants that affect hormone systems - are impacting on wild amphibians and contributing to population declines. The review is limited to anurans (frogs and toads) as data for effects of EDCs on wild urodeles (salamanders, newts) or caecilians (limbless amphibians) are extremely limited. Evidence from laboratory studies has shown that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to alter hormone systems and affect reproductive development and function in anurans, but for the most part only at concentrations exceeding those normally found in natural environments. Exceptions can be found for exposures to the herbicide atrazine and polychlorinated biphenyls in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and perchlorate in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). These contaminants induce feminising effects on the male gonads (including 'intersex' - oocytes within testes) at concentrations measured in some aquatic environments. The most extensive data for effects of an EDC in wild amphibian populations are for feminising effects of atrazine on male gonad development in regions across the USA. Even where strong evidence has been provided for feminising effects of EDCs, however, the possible impact of these effects on fertility and breeding outcome has not been established, making inference for effects on populations difficult. Laboratory studies have shown that various chemicals, including perchlorate, polychlorinated biphenyls and bromodiphenylethers, also act as endocrine disrupters through interfering with thyroid-dependent processes that are fundamental for

  15. Adaptive introductions: How multiple experiments and comparisons to wild populations provide insights into requirements for long-term introduction success of an endangered shrub

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric S.Menges; Stacy A.Smith; Carl W.Weekley

    2016-01-01

    Recovery of an imperiled plant species may require augmentation of existing populations or creation of new ones.Hundreds of such projects have been conducted over the last few decades,but there is a bias in the literature favoring successes over failures.In this paper,we evaluate a series of introductions that experimentally manipulated microhabitat and fire in an adaptive introduction framework.Between 2002 and 2012,we (and our collaborators) carried out ten introductions and augmentations of Florida ziziphus Pseudoziziphus (Condalia,Ziziphus) celata,a clonal shrub limited to very small populations and narrowly endemic to pyrogenic central Florida sandhills.Six of the introductions were designed as experiments to test hypotheses about how demographic performance was affected by microhabitat,fire,and propagule type.Introduced transplants had high survival (<90% annually),inconsistent growth,and little transition to reproduction,while introduced seeds had low germination and survival.Transplants were more efficient than seeds as translocation propagules.Shaded (vs.open) sites supported generally higher transplant and seedling survival and seed germination percentages,but growth responses varied among experiments.Supplemental irrigation increased transplant survival and seed germination,but otherwise seedling and plant survival and growth were not significantly affected.Contrary to expectations based on wild populations,introduced propagules have not been more successful in unshaded sites,suggesting that Florida ziziphus has broader microhabitat preferences than hypothesized.Compared to wild plants,introduced plants had similar survival and responses to fire,slower growth,and more delayed flowering.Introduced plants had no clonal spread.While no introduced population has demonstrated a capacity for long-term viability,one augmented population has flowered and produced viable fruits.Given that Florida ziziphus genets are long-lived,low levels of sexual

  16. Adaptive introductions: How multiple experiments and comparisons to wild populations provide insights into requirements for long-term introduction success of an endangered shrub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Menges

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of an imperiled plant species may require augmentation of existing populations or creation of new ones. Hundreds of such projects have been conducted over the last few decades, but there is a bias in the literature favoring successes over failures. In this paper, we evaluate a series of introductions that experimentally manipulated microhabitat and fire in an adaptive introduction framework. Between 2002 and 2012, we (and our collaborators carried out ten introductions and augmentations of Florida ziziphus Pseudoziziphus (Condalia, Ziziphus celata, a clonal shrub limited to very small populations and narrowly endemic to pyrogenic central Florida sandhills. Six of the introductions were designed as experiments to test hypotheses about how demographic performance was affected by microhabitat, fire, and propagule type. Introduced transplants had high survival (<90% annually, inconsistent growth, and little transition to reproduction, while introduced seeds had low germination and survival. Transplants were more efficient than seeds as translocation propagules. Shaded (vs. open sites supported generally higher transplant and seedling survival and seed germination percentages, but growth responses varied among experiments. Supplemental irrigation increased transplant survival and seed germination, but otherwise seedling and plant survival and growth were not significantly affected. Contrary to expectations based on wild populations, introduced propagules have not been more successful in unshaded sites, suggesting that Florida ziziphus has broader microhabitat preferences than hypothesized. Compared to wild plants, introduced plants had similar survival and responses to fire, slower growth, and more delayed flowering. Introduced plants had no clonal spread. While no introduced population has demonstrated a capacity for long-term viability, one augmented population has flowered and produced viable fruits. Given that Florida ziziphus genets are

  17. An economic analysis of alternative fertility control and associated management techniques for three BLM wild horse herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary cost projections were computed for several alternative strategies that could be used by BLM to manage three wild horse populations. The alternatives included existing gather and selective removal methods, combined with potential contraceptive applications of varying duration and other potentially useful management techniques. Costs were projected for a 20-year economic life using the Jenkins wild horse population model and cost estimates from BLM that reflect state-by-state per horse removal, adoption, long-term holding, and contraceptive application expenses. Important findings include: Application of currently available 2-year contraceptives appears capable of reducing variable operating costs for wild horse populations by about 21% on average.

  18. Bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wild boar on the Mediterranean island, Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richomme, Céline; Boschiroli, María Laura; Hars, Jean; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The zoonotic agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, can be transmitted between domestic and wild animals, threatening wildlife populations and control programs for bTB in cattle. In Corsica, a French Mediterranean island where domestic and wild species have close interactions, bTB cases have been reported in cattle, pigs, and wild boar. Moreover, genotypes of M. bovis found in wild and domestic animals from the same area were identical. These data strongly suggest that wild and domestic animals are associated in an epidemiologic bTB-transmission cycle. More investigations are needed, not only to understand the role played by each species in order to implement appropriate control measures, but also to assess the risk of transmission to humans.

  19. Blood profiles for a wild population of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the southern Bahamas: size-specific and sex-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, A B; Bjorndal, K A

    1992-07-01

    Blood biochemical profiles and packed cell volumes were determined for 100 juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas, from a wild population in the southern Bahamas. There was a significant correlation of body size to 13 of the 26 blood parameters measured. Only plasma uric acid and cholesterol were significantly different between male and female turtles. The relationship between total plasma proteins and plasma refractive index was significant. The equation for converting refractive index (Y) to total plasma proteins (X) is Y = 1.34 + 0.00217(X).

  20. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of farmed and wild Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) populations from three major basins by mitochondrial DNA COI and Cyt b gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qingqing; Wu, Xugan; Liu, Qing; Cheng, Yongxu

    2017-11-20

    The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is one of the important native crab species in East Asian region, which has been widely cultured throughout China, particularly in river basins of Yangtze, Huanghe and Liaohe. This study was designed to evaluate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of cultured and wild E. sinensis populations from the three river basins based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b). The results showed that there were 62 variable sites and 30 parsimony informative sites in the 647 bp of sequenced mtDNA COI from 335 samples. Similarly, a 637 bp segment of Cyt b provided 59 variable sites and 26 parsimony informative sites. AMOVA showed that the levels of genetic differentiation were low among six populations. Although the haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of Huanghe wild population had slightly higher than the other populations, there were no significant differences. There was no significant differentiation between the genetic and geographic distance of the six populations, and haplotype network diagram indicated that there may exist genetic hybrids of E. sinensis from different river basins. The results of clustering and neutrality tests revealed that the distance of geographical locations were not completely related to their genetic distance values for the six populations. In conclusion, these results have great significance for the evaluation and exploitation of germplasm resources of E. sinensis.

  1. Diagnostic methodology is critical for accurately determining the prevalence of Ichthyophonus infections in wild fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; Dolan, Heather; Hershberger, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Several different techniques have been employed to detect and identify Ichthyophonus spp. in infected fish hosts; these include macroscopic observation, microscopic examination of tissue squashes, histological evaluation, in vitro culture, and molecular techniques. Examination of the peer-reviewed literature revealed that when more than 1 diagnostic method is used, they often result in significantly different results; for example, when in vitro culture was used to identify infected trout in an experimentally exposed population, 98.7% of infected trout were detected, but when standard histology was used to confirm known infected tissues from wild salmon, it detected ~50% of low-intensity infections and ~85% of high-intensity infections. Other studies on different species reported similar differences. When we examined a possible mechanism to explain the disparity between different diagnostic techniques, we observed non-random distribution of the parasite in 3-dimensionally visualized tissue sections from infected hosts, thus providing a possible explanation for the different sensitivities of commonly used diagnostic techniques. Based on experimental evidence and a review of the peer-reviewed literature, we have concluded that in vitro culture is currently the most accurate diagnostic technique for determining infection prevalence of Ichthyophonus , particularly when the exposure history of the population is not known.

  2. Genetic variation of wild and hatchery populations of the catla Indian major carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822: Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae revealed by RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Zakiur Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is a key component for improving a stock through selective breeding programs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to assess genetic variation in three wild population of the catla carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822 in the Halda, Jamuna and Padma rivers and one hatchery population in Bangladesh. Five decamer random primers were used to amplify RAPD markers from 30 fish from each population. Thirty of the 55 scorable bands were polymorphic, indicating some degree of genetic variation in all the populations. The proportion of polymorphic loci and gene diversity values reflected a relatively higher level of genetic variation in the Halda population. Sixteen of the 30 polymorphic loci showed a significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 departure from homogeneity and the F ST values in the different populations indicated some degree of genetic differentiation in the population pairs. Estimated genetic distances between populations were directly correlated with geographical distances. The unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA dendrogram showed two clusters, the Halda population forming one cluster and the other populations the second cluster. Genetic variation of C. catla is a useful trait for developing a good management strategy for maintaining genetic quality of the species.

  3. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N; Lappin, Michael R; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mathew; Logan, Kenneth A; Sweanor, Linda L; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Mcbride, Roy; Cunningham, Mark C; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened > 1000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure; providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban land use predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest interspecific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intraspecific

  4. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N.; Lappin, Michael R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mathew W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M.; McBride, Roy; Cunnigham, Mark C.; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse S.; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened >1,000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure-providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban landuse predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest inter-specific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey. Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intra

  5. Evolutionary fate of memory-one strategies in repeated prisoner's dilemma game in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-Sheng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Guan, Jian-Yue

    2017-07-01

    We study evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game involving a one-step memory mechanism of the individuals whenever making strategy updating. In particular, during the process of strategy updating, each individual keeps in mind all the outcome of the action pairs adopted by himself and each of his neighbors in the last interaction, and according to which the individuals decide what actions they will take in the next round. Computer simulation results imply that win-stay-lose-shift like strategy win out of the memory-one strategy set in the stationary state. This result is robust in a large range of the payoff parameter, and does not depend on the initial state of the system. Furthermore, theoretical analysis with mean field and quasi-static approximation predict the same result. Thus, our studies suggest that win-stay-lose-shift like strategy is a stable dominant strategy in repeated prisoner's dilemma game in homogeneous structured populations.

  6. Use of femur bone density to segregate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu Hui; Huang, Xiao Ming; Xia, Rui; Xu, Yan Chun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2011-04-15

    Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products. To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on femur bone density. We measured femur bone density (D(f)) as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. D(f) of wild frogs revealed a slightly increasing linear trend with increasing age (R(2)=0.214 in males and R(2)=0.111 in females, p=0.000). Wild males and wild females of age classes from 2 to ≥ 5 years had similar D(f) values. In contrast, 2-year-old farmed frogs showed significantly higher D(f) values (p=0.000) among males (mean D(f)=0.623 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=32) than females (mean D(f)=0.558 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=27). For both sexes, D(f) of wild frogs was significantly higher than that of farmed frogs (p=0.000). Among males, 87.5% (28 of 32 individuals) of farmed frogs were correctly identified as farmed frogs and 86.3% (69 of 80 individuals) of wild frogs were correctly identified as wild frogs. These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  8. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR Genetic Linkage Map of D Genome Diploid Cotton Derived from an Interspecific Cross between Gossypium davidsonii and Gossypium klotzschianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Nyangasi Kirungu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in tetraploid cotton cultivars is the narrow genetic base and therefore, the bottleneck is how to obtain interspecific hybrids and introduce the germplasm directly from wild cotton to elite cultivars. Construction of genetic maps has provided insight into understanding the genome structure, interrelationships between organisms in relation to evolution, and discovery of genes that carry important agronomic traits in plants. In this study, we generated an interspecific hybrid between two wild diploid cottons, Gossypium davidsonii and Gossypium klotzschianum, and genotyped 188 F2:3 populations in order to develop a genetic map. We screened 12,560 SWU Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR primers and obtained 1000 polymorphic markers which accounted for only 8%. A total of 928 polymorphic primers were successfully scored and only 728 were effectively linked across the 13 chromosomes, but with an asymmetrical distribution. The map length was 1480.23 cM, with an average length of 2.182 cM between adjacent markers. A high percentage of the markers on the map developed, and for the physical map of G. raimondii, exhibited highly significant collinearity, with two types of duplication. High level of segregation distortion was observed. A total of 27 key genes were identified with diverse roles in plant hormone signaling, development, and defense reactions. The achievement of developing the F2:3 population and its genetic map constructions may be a landmark in establishing a new tool for the genetic improvement of cultivars from wild plants in cotton. Our map had an increased recombination length compared to other maps developed from other D genome cotton species.

  9. How Random Is Social Behaviour? Disentangling Social Complexity through the Study of a Wild House Mouse Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perony, Nicolas; Tessone, Claudio J.; König, Barbara; Schweitzer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Out of all the complex phenomena displayed in the behaviour of animal groups, many are thought to be emergent properties of rather simple decisions at the individual level. Some of these phenomena may also be explained by random processes only. Here we investigate to what extent the interaction dynamics of a population of wild house mice (Mus domesticus) in their natural environment can be explained by a simple stochastic model. We first introduce the notion of perceptual landscape, a novel tool used here to describe the utilisation of space by the mouse colony based on the sampling of individuals in discrete locations. We then implement the behavioural assumptions of the perceptual landscape in a multi-agent simulation to verify their accuracy in the reproduction of observed social patterns. We find that many high-level features – with the exception of territoriality – of our behavioural dataset can be accounted for at the population level through the use of this simplified representation. Our findings underline the potential importance of random factors in the apparent complexity of the mice's social structure. These results resonate in the general context of adaptive behaviour versus elementary environmental interactions. PMID:23209394

  10. Black-bellied whistling duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) brain cholinesterase characterization and diagnosis of anticholinesterase pesticide exposure in wild populations from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Jaime Rendón-von; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Guilhermino, Lucia

    2005-02-01

    Rice is the main crop in the subbasin of the fluvial lagoon system of Palizada River (FLSPR) in the state of Campeche, Mexico. The pesticides used to control pests of this crop mainly are carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate. Black-bellied whistling duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) is an ecologically and economically important species in the area. This duck is consumed by local inhabitants throughout the year, despite its potential exposure to pesticides. Due to its feeding habits, abundance, and nutritional value, D. autumnalis is a good indicator of environmental contamination and a potential route of human exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. In this study, the brain cholinesterase (ChE) in the frontal cerebral cortex of autochthonous ducks was characterized. In addition, the potential of the three locally used pesticides and mixtures to inhibit ChE activity was investigated and the exposure of the wild duck population during intensive pesticide applications in rice fields was evaluated. We found that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) seems to be the predominant ChE form in the biological fraction analyzed. Carbofuran was the most potent ChE inhibitor of D. autumnalis brain ChE activity from the three pesticides analyzed. Cholinesterase inhibition after exposure to pesticide mixtures predominantly was due to carbofuran. A decrease (p 30%) was apparent in wild ducks compared to reference ducks, with recovery of ChE inhibition in wild ducks occurring months later when no pesticides were applied in the field. Dendrocygna autumnalis brain ChE is a suitable parameter for inclusion in biomonitoring programs for both environmental protection and human safety.

  11. Recent long-distance transgene flow into wild populations conforms to historical patterns of gene flow in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) at its centre of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegier, A; Piñeyro-Nelson, A; Alarcón, J; Gálvez-Mariscal, A; Alvarez-Buylla, E R; Piñero, D

    2011-10-01

    Over 95% of the currently cultivated cotton was domesticated from Gossypium hirsutum, which originated and diversified in Mexico. Demographic and genetic studies of this species at its centre of origin and diversification are lacking, although they are critical for cotton conservation and breeding. We investigated the actual and potential distribution of wild cotton populations, as well as the contribution of historical and recent gene flow in shaping cotton genetic diversity and structure. We evaluated historical gene flow using chloroplast microsatellites and recent gene flow through the assessment of transgene presence in wild cotton populations, exploiting the fact that genetically modified cotton has been planted in the North of Mexico since 1996. Assessment of geographic structure through Bayesian spatial analysis, BAPS and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Production (GARP), suggests that G. hirsutum seems to conform to a metapopulation scheme, with eight distinct metapopulations. Despite evidence for long-distance gene flow, genetic variation among the metapopulations of G. hirsutum is high (He = 0.894 ± 0.01). We identified 46 different haplotypes, 78% of which are unique to a particular metapopulation, in contrast to a single haplotype detected in cotton cultivars. Recent gene flow was also detected (m = 66/270 = 0.24), with four out of eight metapopulations having transgenes. We discuss the implications of the data presented here with respect to the conservation and future breeding of cotton populations and genetic diversity at its centre of crop origin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Genealogy, morphology and fitness of spontaneous hybrids between wild and cultivated chicory (Cichorium intybus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Philipp, M.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Crop species are known to hybridize spontaneously with wild relatives, but few studies have characterized the performance of hybrids at various genealogies, life stages and environments. A group of cultivar-like individuals and potential hybrids were observed in a roadside population of wild chic...

  13. Selection on crop-derived traits and QTL in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crop-wild hybrids under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owart, Birkin R; Corbi, Jonathan; Burke, John M; Dechaine, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Locally relevant conditions, such as water stress in irrigated agricultural regions, should be considered when assessing the risk of crop allele introgression into wild populations following hybridization. Although research in cultivars has suggested that domestication traits may reduce fecundity under water stress as compared to wild-like phenotypes, this has not been investigated in crop-wild hybrids. In this study, we examine phenotypic selection acting on, as well as the genetic architecture of vegetative, reproductive, and physiological characteristics in an experimental population of sunflower crop-wild hybrids grown under wild-like low water conditions. Crop-derived petiole length and head diameter were favored in low and control water environments. The direction of selection differed between environments for leaf size and leaf pressure potential. Interestingly, the additive effect of the crop-derived allele was in the direction favored by selection for approximately half the QTL detected in the low water environment. Selection favoring crop-derived traits and alleles in the low water environment suggests that a subset of these alleles would be likely to spread into wild populations under water stress. Furthermore, differences in selection between environments support the view that risk assessments should be conducted under multiple locally relevant conditions.

  14. Floral Trait Variations Among Wild Tobacco Populations Influence the Foraging Behavior of Hawkmoth Pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Haverkamp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most pollinators visit flowers in the search of nectar rewards. However, as the floral nectar can often not be directly detected by pollinators, many flower visitors use secondary metabolites such as odor- or taste-proxies to anticipate nectar quantity and quality. Plants might exploit these sensory inferences of the pollinator to increase their pollination rates without increasing their caloric investment into their floral rewards. Here we investigated the effects of natural variation in certain primary and secondary floral metabolites in three populations of the wild tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, on the pollination behavior of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. Although offering the same caloric value per flower, the plants of these populations differ in the compositions and concentrations of sugars within the nectar. Moreover, the flowers of these plants emitted highly contrasting levels of attractive floral volatiles (benzyl acetone, but did not differ in the amounts of defensive nectar metabolites (nicotine. In wind tunnel assays with M. sexta moths, plants from those populations that released the largest amount of benzyl acetone as well as those that had a higher ratio of nectar sucrose were more frequently visited and re-visited by the hawkmoth. High emissions of benzyl acetone additionally correlated with a higher time investment of the moths into individual flowers on each visit, leading to the largest foraging success of the moths on those flowers that were most strongly scented. We propose that it is the variation of flower metabolites and their detection by the pollinator rather than the actual caloric value of the nectar, which determines pollinator visitations to a certain flower population. Hence, plants could potentially create a specialist pollinator community by altering their floral signals, either by producing volatiles that pollinators prefer or by providing nectar sugars that pollinators are most sensitive to, while at the same

  15. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    2018-03-01

    The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of the OFM in children with foot deformity. Intra-tester repeatability was assessed for 45 children (15 typically developing, 15 hemiplegic, 15 clubfoot). Inter-tester repeatability was assessed in the clubfoot population. The mean absolute differences between testers (clubfoot) and sessions (clubfoot and hemiplegic) were calculated for each of 15 clinically relevant, kinematic variables and compared to typically developing children. Children with clubfoot showed a mean difference between visits of 2.9° and a mean difference between raters of 3.6° Mean absolute differences were within one degree for the intra and inter-rater reliability in 12/15 variables. Hindfoot rotation, forefoot/tibia abduction and forefoot supination were the most variable between testers. Overall the clubfoot data were less variable than the typically developing population. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated slightly higher differences between sessions (mean 4.1°), with the most reliable data in the sagittal plane, and largest differences in the transverse plane. The OFM was designed to measure different types of foot deformity. The results of this study show that it provides repeatable results in children with foot deformity. To be distinguished from measurement artifact, changes in foot kinematics as a result of intervention or natural progression over time must be greater than the repeatability reported here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Alu repeats as markers for forensic DNA analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kass, D.H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 inch and 3 inch unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allow the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of the Alu repeat. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences probably inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem humans (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project. HS Alu family member insertions differ from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) in that polymorphisms due to Alu insertions arise as a result of a unique event which has occurred only one time in the human population and spread through the population from that point. Therefore, individuals that share HS Alu repeats inherited these elements from a common ancestor. Most VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times in parallel within a population.

  17. Wild Maid, Wild Soul, A Wild Wild Weed: Niki de Saint Phalle’s Fierce Femininities, c. 1960-66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Jones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-described as “wild maid,” “wild soul,” “a wild wild weed,” Niki de Saint Phalle narrated herself as artistic subject in a concerted way that stands out in the history of art: as both creatively driven and emotionally renegade and excessive, as both definitively woman and definitively artist. In this essay I take this special case of self-narration, and the particular power of St. Phalle’s work, as an opportunity to explore the relationship between.(auto-biography and artistic practice. The case of St. Phalle, a radical sculptor, performance artist, writer, and filmmaker, allows us to understand the exaggerated way in which women artists were until very recently forced to adopt “fierce femininities” to make a place for themselves as artists. In this way, I suggest that St. Phalle represents a key inspirational force opening the door for second wave feminism and the feminist art movement.

  18. Comparative community-level associations of helminth infections and microparasite shedding in wild long-tailed macaques in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Justin J S; Lane-Degraaf, Kelly E; Fuentes, Agustin; Hollocher, Hope

    2015-03-01

    Helminthes have the capacity to modulate host immunity, leading to positive interactions with coinfecting microparasites. This phenomenon has been primarily studied during coinfections with a narrow range of geo-helminthes and intracellular microparasites in human populations or under laboratory conditions. Far less is known regarding differences in coinfection dynamics between helminth types, the range of microparasites that might be affected or the overall community-level effects of helminth infections on microparasites in wild systems. Here, we analysed the presence/absence and abundance patterns of enteric parasites in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) on the island of Bali, Indonesia, to assess whether naturally occurring helminth infections were associated with increased shedding of the most common intracellular (Cryptosporidium spp., Isospora spp.) and extracellular (Entamoeba spp., Giardia spp.) microparasites. We also comparatively assessed the statistical correlations of different helminth taxa with microparasite shedding to determine if there were consistent relationships between the specific helminth taxa and microparasites. Helminth infections were associated with increased shedding of both intracellular and extracellular microparasites. Platyhelminthes repeatedly displayed strong positive correlations with several microparasites; while nematodes did not. Our results indicate that helminthes can influence microparasite community shedding dynamics under wild conditions, but that trends may be driven by a narrow range of helminthes.

  19. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    Introduction The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in

  20. Taming the late Quaternary phylogeography of the Eurasiatic wild ass through ancient and modern DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, E Andrew; Champlot, Sophie; Peters, Joris; Arbuckle, Benjamin S; Guimaraes, Silvia; Pruvost, Mélanie; Bar-David, Shirli; Davis, Simon J M; Gautier, Mathieu; Kaczensky, Petra; Kuehn, Ralph; Mashkour, Marjan; Morales-Muñiz, Arturo; Pucher, Erich; Tournepiche, Jean-François; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Germonpré, Mietje; Gündem, Can Y; Hemami, Mahmoud-Reza; Moullé, Pierre-Elie; Ötzan, Aliye; Uerpmann, Margarete; Walzer, Chris; Grange, Thierry; Geigl, Eva-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Taxonomic over-splitting of extinct or endangered taxa, due to an incomplete knowledge of both skeletal morphological variability and the geographical ranges of past populations, continues to confuse the link between isolated extant populations and their ancestors. This is particularly problematic with the genus Equus. To more reliably determine the evolution and phylogeographic history of the endangered Asiatic wild ass, we studied the genetic diversity and inter-relationships of both extinct and extant populations over the last 100,000 years, including samples throughout its previous range from Western Europe to Southwest and East Asia. Using 229 bp of the mitochondrial hypervariable region, an approach which allowed the inclusion of information from extremely poorly preserved ancient samples, we classify all non-African wild asses into eleven clades that show a clear phylogeographic structure revealing their phylogenetic history. This study places the extinct European wild ass, E. hydruntinus, the phylogeny of which has been debated since the end of the 19th century, into its phylogenetic context within the Asiatic wild asses and reveals recent mitochondrial introgression between populations currently regarded as separate species. The phylogeographic organization of clades resulting from these efforts can be used not only to improve future taxonomic determination of a poorly characterized group of equids, but also to identify historic ranges, interbreeding events between various populations, and the impact of ancient climatic changes. In addition, appropriately placing extant relict populations into a broader phylogeographic and genetic context can better inform ongoing conservation strategies for this highly-endangered species.

  1. Tuberculosis in Southern Brazilian wild boars (Sus scrofa): First epidemiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, A L G; Loiko, M R; Bueno, T S; Moreira, J G; Coppola, M; Dalla Costa, E R; Schmid, K B; Rodrigues, R O; Cibulski, S P; Bertagnolli, A C; Mayer, F Q

    2018-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonosis caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis that affects domestic and wild animals. In Brazil, there are no epidemiological studies on tuberculosis in wild animal populations and their possible role in the disease maintenance in cattle herds; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of tuberculosis in wild boars in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Tissue samples of animals hunted under government consent were submitted to histopathology and M. bovis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as screening tests; the positive samples were subsequently submitted to bacterial isolation, the gold standard diagnosis. Eighty animals were evaluated, of which 27.9% and 31.3% showed histopathological changes and M. bovis genome presence, respectively. Moreover, 23.8% of the animals had at least one organ with isolates classified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Three hunting points were risk factors for positive results on screening tests. This study shows the occurrence of tuberculosis in a wild boars' population, and raise the possibility of these animals to play a role as disease reservoirs in southern Brazil. These results may help to improve the Brazilian tuberculosis control programme, as well as elucidate the circulation of mycobacteria in this country. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. MNS16A tandem repeats minisatellite of human telomerase gene: a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Philipp; Baierl, Andreas; Feik, Elisabeth; Führlinger, Gerhard; Leeb, Gernot; Mach, Karl; Holzmann, Klaus; Micksche, Michael; Gsur, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Telomerase reactivation and expression of human telomerase gene [human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)] are hallmarks of unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells. A polymorphic tandem repeats minisatellite of hTERT gene, termed MNS16A was reported to influence hTERT expression. To assess the role of MNS16A as potential biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC), we investigated for the first time the association of MNS16A genotypes with risk of colorectal polyps and CRC. In the ongoing colorectal cancer study of Austria (CORSA), 3842 Caucasian participants were recruited within a large screening project in the province Burgenland including 90 CRC cases, 308 high-risk polyps, 1022 low-risk polyps and 1822 polyp free controls verified by colonoscopy. MNS16A genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA. Associations of MNS16A genotypes with CRC risk were estimated by logistic regression analysis computing odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified five different variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) of MNS16A including VNTR-364, a newly discovered rare variant. VNTR-274 allele was associated with a 2.7-fold significantly increased risk of CRC compared with the VNTR-302 wild-type (OR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.11-6.50; P = 0.028). In our CORSA study, the medium length VNTR-274 was identified as risk factor for CRC. Although, this population-based study herewith reports the largest cohort size concerning MNS16A thus far, further large-scale studies in diverse populations are warranted to confirm hTERT MNS16A genotype as potential biomarker for assessment of CRC risk.

  3. Schizosaccharomyces pombe MutSα and MutLα Maintain Stability of Tetra-Nucleotide Repeats and Msh3 of Hepta-Nucleotide Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Villahermosa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Defective mismatch repair (MMR in humans is associated with colon cancer and instability of microsatellites, that is, DNA sequences with one or several nucleotides repeated. Key factors of eukaryotic MMR are the heterodimers MutSα (Msh2-Msh6, which recognizes base-base mismatches and unpaired nucleotides in DNA, and MutLα (Mlh1-Pms1, which facilitates downstream steps. In addition, MutSβ (Msh2-Msh3 recognizes DNA loops of various sizes, although our previous data and the data presented here suggest that Msh3 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe does not play a role in MMR. To test microsatellite stability in S. pombe and hence DNA loop repair, we have inserted tetra-, penta-, and hepta-nucleotide repeats in the ade6 gene and determined their Ade+ reversion rates and spectra in wild type and various mutants. Our data indicate that loops with four unpaired nucleotides in the nascent and the template strand are the upper limit of MutSα- and MutLα-mediated MMR in S. pombe. Stability of hepta-nucleotide repeats requires Msh3 and Exo1 in MMR-independent processes as well as the DNA repair proteins Rad50, Rad51, and Rad2FEN1. Most strikingly, mutation rates in the double mutants msh3 exo1 and msh3 rad51 were decreased when compared to respective single mutants, indicating that Msh3 prevents error prone processes carried out by Exo1 and Rad51. We conclude that Msh3 has no obvious function in MMR in S. pombe, but contributes to DNA repeat stability in MMR-independent processes.

  4. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted.

  5. Modeling the status, trends, and impacts of wild bee abundance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Insu; Lonsdorf, Eric V; Williams, Neal M; Brittain, Claire; Isaacs, Rufus; Gibbs, Jason; Ricketts, Taylor H

    2016-01-05

    Wild bees are highly valuable pollinators. Along with managed honey bees, they provide a critical ecosystem service by ensuring stable pollination to agriculture and wild plant communities. Increasing concern about the welfare of both wild and managed pollinators, however, has prompted recent calls for national evaluation and action. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we assess the status and trends of wild bees and their potential impacts on pollination services across the coterminous United States. We use a spatial habitat model, national land-cover data, and carefully quantified expert knowledge to estimate wild bee abundance and associated uncertainty. Between 2008 and 2013, modeled bee abundance declined across 23% of US land area. This decline was generally associated with conversion of natural habitats to row crops. We identify 139 counties where low bee abundances correspond to large areas of pollinator-dependent crops. These areas of mismatch between supply (wild bee abundance) and demand (cultivated area) for pollination comprise 39% of the pollinator-dependent crop area in the United States. Further, we find that the crops most highly dependent on pollinators tend to experience more severe mismatches between declining supply and increasing demand. These trends, should they continue, may increase costs for US farmers and may even destabilize crop production over time. National assessments such as this can help focus both scientific and political efforts to understand and sustain wild bees. As new information becomes available, repeated assessments can update findings, revise priorities, and track progress toward sustainable management of our nation's pollinators.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  7. Parasites of wild animals as a potential source of hazard to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Koziatek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The decline in wild animal habitats and the uncontrolled growth of their population make these animals come closer to human settlements. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic infections in wild animals in the selected area, and to specify the hazards they create for humans. In more than 66% of the analysed faecal samples from wild boar, hares, roe deer, deer and fallow deer various developmental forms of parasites were found. These included parasites dangerous for humans: Toxocara canis, Capillaria hepatica, Capillaria bovis, Trichuris suis, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosus, Eimeria spp., and Trichostongylus spp. It is necessary to monitor parasitic diseases in wild animals as they can lead to the spread of parasites creating a hazard to humans, pets and livestock.

  8. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Ayala

    Full Text Available Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23, followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13. Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47 and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7. The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28 and Hitchner B1 (n = 19. Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife.

  9. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272

  10. Heritability and social brood effects on personality in juvenile and adult life-history stages in a wild passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winney, I S; Schroeder, J; Nakagawa, S; Hsu, Y-H; Simons, M J P; Sánchez-Tójar, A; Mannarelli, M-E; Burke, T

    2018-01-01

    How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness. We did not detect maternal effects on any traits, but we did detect a social brood effect on nestling activity. Boldness, exploration and nestling activity in this population did not form a behavioural syndrome, suggesting that selection could act independently on these behavioural traits in this species, although we found no consistent support for phenotypic selection on these traits. Our work shows that repeatable behaviours can vary in their heritability and that social context influences personality traits. Future efforts could separate whether personality traits differ in heritability because they have served specific functional roles in the evolution of the phenotype or because our concept of personality and the stability of behaviour needs to be revised. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Wild sheep and deer in Hawai'i: a threat to fragile ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    The unique native flora of the Hawaiian Islands, which evolved in the absence of ungulates (grazing animals), is highly vulnerable to damage by trampling and browsing. Wild ungulates introduced into Hawai'i in the past 150 years, including mouflon, axis deer, and mule deer, have severely harmed the native flora. Control measures used against feral animals do not work as well against these wild animals. Trophy hunting tends to alter sex ratios and increase population growth. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are studying these wild ungulates in order to develop more effective control measures that help protect Hawai'i's endemic flora.

  12. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491-511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process.

  13. Does the parasite-mediated selection drive the MHC class IIB diversity in wild populations of European chub (Squalius cephalus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifertová, Mária; Jarkovský, Jiří; Šimková, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The genes of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) provide an excellent opportunity to study host-parasite relationships because they are expected to evolve in response to parasites and variation in parasite communities. In this study, we investigated the potential role of parasite-mediated selection acting on MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in European chub (Squalius cephalus) natural populations. We found significant differences between populations in metazoan parasites, neutral and adaptive genetic diversities. The analyses based on pairwise data revealed that populations with dissimilar MHC allelic profiles were geographically distant populations with significantly different diversity in microsatellites and a dissimilar composition of parasite communities. The results from the generalized estimating equations method (GEE) on the level of individuals revealed that metazoan parasite load in European chub was influenced by the diversity of DAB alleles as well as by the diversity of neutral genetic markers and host traits reflecting condition and immunocompetence. The multivariate co-inertia analysis showed specific associations between DAB alleles and parasite species. DAB1-like alleles were more involved in associations with ectoparasites, while DAB3-like alleles were positively associated with endoparasites which could suggest potential differences between DAB genes caused by different selection pressure. Our study revealed that parasite-mediated selection is not the only variable affecting MHC diversity in European chub; however, we strongly support the role of neutral processes as the main driver of DAB diversity across populations. In addition, our study contributes to the understanding of the evolution of MHC genes in wild living fish.

  14. How do HIV and AIDS impact the use of natural resources by poor rural populations? The case of wild animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Shackleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of heightened financial and food insecurity, populations adversely affected by HIV and/or AIDS may be more likely to utilise wild natural resources to supplement their diet and livelihoods. Should this effect be pronounced, HIV and AIDS may pose a serious environmental threat. We explored the hypothesis that the presence of factors in the household, such as chronic illness in and recent mortality of individuals in a high HIV-risk age group, as well as the fostering of orphans, are associated with increased utilisation of wild animal products (WAPs at the household level. We randomly surveyed 519 households from four sites in rural South Africa, recording household socio-economic status, the utilisation of wild animal products and health and demographic factors attributed to HIV or AIDS. Binary logistic regressions were used to test if households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction were more likely to have a higher incidence and frequency of WAP utilisation relative to non-afflicted households, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic variables. We found that, although households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS were generally poorer and had higher dependency ratios, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that WAP harvesting was associated with either poverty, or markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction. Our findings suggest that generalisations about a possible interaction between HIV and/or AIDS and the environment may not uniformly apply to all categories of natural resources or to all user groups.

  15. Population structure of Cynara cardunculus complex and the origin of the conspecific crops artichoke and cardoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Angela; De Paola, Domenico; Bagnoli, Francesca; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2013-09-01

    Globe artichoke and leafy cardoon, two crops within the same species Cynara cardunculus, are traditionally cultivated in the Mediterranean region and play a significant role in the agricultural economy of this area. The two cultigens have different reproductive systems: artichoke is generally vegetatively propagated, while leafy cardoon is seed propagated. The domestication events underlying the origin of both artichoke and cultivated cardoon from their wild relative and the area of occurrence are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate population structure in wild cardoon, globe artichoke and leafy cardoon material and infer domestication events. Thirty-five microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers, distributed in the C. cardunculus genome, and a large geographical and numerical sampling in southern Europe and North Africa were used to assess population structure and diversity. The results suggest the presence of two distinct domestication events for artichoke and leafy cardoon, and also suggest a new possible scenario, with western wild cardoon having originated from cultivated cardoon escaped from cultivation. Evidence was found for a demographic bottleneck in the past history of globe artichoke. The results shed new light on the relationships between the three taxa of C. cardunculus and highlight relevant aspects on the evolution of domestication of two crops with a different reproductive system within the same species. It is proposed that the probable centre of origin of artichoke is located in southern Italy, probably Sicily.

  16. Population structure of Cynara cardunculus complex and the origin of the conspecific crops artichoke and cardoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Angela; De Paola, Domenico; Bagnoli, Francesca; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Sonnante, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Globe artichoke and leafy cardoon, two crops within the same species Cynara cardunculus, are traditionally cultivated in the Mediterranean region and play a significant role in the agricultural economy of this area. The two cultigens have different reproductive systems: artichoke is generally vegetatively propagated, while leafy cardoon is seed propagated. The domestication events underlying the origin of both artichoke and cultivated cardoon from their wild relative and the area of occurrence are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate population structure in wild cardoon, globe artichoke and leafy cardoon material and infer domestication events. Methods Thirty-five microsatellite (simple sequence repeat) markers, distributed in the C. cardunculus genome, and a large geographical and numerical sampling in southern Europe and North Africa were used to assess population structure and diversity. Key Results The results suggest the presence of two distinct domestication events for artichoke and leafy cardoon, and also suggest a new possible scenario, with western wild cardoon having originated from cultivated cardoon escaped from cultivation. Evidence was found for a demographic bottleneck in the past history of globe artichoke. Conclusions The results shed new light on the relationships between the three taxa of C. cardunculus and highlight relevant aspects on the evolution of domestication of two crops with a different reproductive system within the same species. It is proposed that the probable centre of origin of artichoke is located in southern Italy, probably Sicily. PMID:23877076

  17. Experimental evolution of an RNA virus in wild birds: evidence for host-dependent impacts on population structure and competitive fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Grubaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within hosts, RNA viruses form populations that are genetically and phenotypically complex. Heterogeneity in RNA virus genomes arises due to error-prone replication and is reduced by stochastic and selective mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Defining how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations is critical because it can inform treatment paradigms and enhance control efforts. We allowed West Nile virus (WNV to replicate in wild-caught American crows, house sparrows and American robins to assess how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations in ecologically relevant hosts that differ in susceptibility to virus-induced mortality. After five sequential passages in each bird species, we examined the phenotype and population diversity of WNV through fitness competition assays and next generation sequencing. We demonstrate that fitness gains occur in a species-specific manner, with the greatest replicative fitness gains in robin-passaged WNV and the least in WNV passaged in crows. Sequencing data revealed that intrahost WNV populations were strongly influenced by purifying selection and the overall complexity of the viral populations was similar among passaged hosts. However, the selective pressures that control WNV populations seem to be bird species-dependent. Specifically, crow-passaged WNV populations contained the most unique mutations (~1.7× more than sparrows, ~3.4× more than robins and defective genomes (~1.4× greater than sparrows, ~2.7× greater than robins, but the lowest average mutation frequency (about equal to sparrows, ~2.6× lower than robins. Therefore, our data suggest that WNV replication in the most disease-susceptible bird species is positively associated with virus mutational tolerance, likely via complementation, and negatively associated with the strength of selection. These differences in genetic composition most likely have distinct phenotypic consequences for the virus populations. Taken together

  18. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different ...

  19. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gassó

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS. The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE; hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalasa (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated

  20. Salinity-related variation in gene expression in wild populations of the black-chinned tilapia from various West African coastal marine, estuarine and freshwater habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Mbaye; McKenzie, David J.; Bonhomme, François; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This study measured the relative expression of the genes coding for Na +, K +-ATPase 1α(NAKA), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), cytochrome c oxidase-1 (COX), and NADH dehydrogenase (NDH), in gills of six wild populations of a West African tilapia species, acclimatised to a range of seasonal (rainy or dry) salinities in coastal, estuarine and freshwater sites. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated that these genes, involved in active ion transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and intra-cellular ATP transport, are relatively over-expressed in gill tissues of this species acclimated to high salinity. Positive correlations between relative expression and ambient salinity were found for all genes in the wild populations (Spearman rank correlation, p < 0.05), although for some genes these were only significant in either the rainy season or dry season. Most significantly, however, relative expression was positively correlated amongst the four genes, indicating that they are functionally interrelated in adaptation of Sarotherodon melanotheron to salinity variations in its natural environment. In the rainy season, when salinity was unstable and ranged between zero and 37 psu across the sites, overall mean expression of the genes was higher than in the dry season, which may have reflected more variable particularly sudden fluctuations in salinity and poorer overall water quality. In the dry season, when the salinity is more stable but ranged between zero and 100 psu across the sites, NAKA, NDH and VDAC expression revealed U-shaped relationships with lowest relative expression at salinities approaching seawater, between 25 and 45 psu. Although it is not simple to establish direct relationship between gene expression levels and energy requirement for osmoregulation, these results may indicate that costs of adaptation to salinity are lowest in seawater, the natural environment of this species. While S. melanotheron can colonise environments with extremely

  1. Germline mutation rates at tandem repeat loci in DNA-repair deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Ruth C.; Miccoli, Laurent; Buul, Paul P.W. van; Burr, Karen L.-A.; Duyn-Goedhart, Annemarie van; Angulo, Jaime F.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2004-01-01

    Mutation rates at two expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci were studied in the germline of non-exposed and irradiated severe combined immunodeficient (scid) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1 -/- ) deficient male mice. Non-exposed scid and PARP -/- male mice showed considerably elevated ESTR mutation rates, far higher than those in wild-type isogenic mice and other inbred strains. The irradiated scid and PARP-1 -/- male mice did not show any detectable increases in their mutation rate, whereas significant ESTR mutation induction was observed in the irradiated wild-type isogenic males. ESTR mutation spectra in the scid and PARP-1 -/- strains did not differ from those in the isogenic wild-type strains. Considering these data and the results of previous studies, we propose that a delay in repair of DNA damage in scid and PARP-1 -/- mice could result in replication fork pausing which, in turn, may affect ESTR mutation rate in the non-irradiated males. The lack of mutation induction in irradiated scid and PARP-1 -/- can be explained by the high cell killing effects of irradiation on the germline of deficient mice

  2. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Dutton

    Full Text Available Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.

  3. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Adam J; Hepburn, Cameron; Macdonald, David W

    2011-01-01

    Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.

  4. PopAffiliator: online calculator for individual affiliation to a major population group based on 17 autosomal short tandem repeat genotype profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Alshamali, Farida; Andreassen, Rune; Ballard, Ruth; Chantratita, Wasun; Cho, Nam Soo; Coudray, Clotilde; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Espinoza, Marta; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Hadi, Sibte; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Marian, Catalin; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Mertens, Gerhard; Parson, Walther; Perone, Carlos; Prieto, Lourdes; Takeshita, Haruo; Rangel Villalobos, Héctor; Zeng, Zhaoshu; Zhivotovsky, Lev; Camacho, Rui; Fonseca, Nuno A

    2011-09-01

    Because of their sensitivity and high level of discrimination, short tandem repeat (STR) maker systems are currently the method of choice in routine forensic casework and data banking, usually in multiplexes up to 15-17 loci. Constraints related to sample amount and quality, frequently encountered in forensic casework, will not allow to change this picture in the near future, notwithstanding the technological developments. In this study, we present a free online calculator named PopAffiliator ( http://cracs.fc.up.pt/popaffiliator ) for individual population affiliation in the three main population groups, Eurasian, East Asian and sub-Saharan African, based on genotype profiles for the common set of STRs used in forensics. This calculator performs affiliation based on a model constructed using machine learning techniques. The model was constructed using a data set of approximately fifteen thousand individuals collected for this work. The accuracy of individual population affiliation is approximately 86%, showing that the common set of STRs routinely used in forensics provide a considerable amount of information for population assignment, in addition to being excellent for individual identification.

  5. Neutral polymorphisms in putative housekeeping genes and tandem repeats unravels the population genetics and evolutionary history of Plasmodium vivax in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra K Prajapati

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history and age of Plasmodium vivax has been inferred as both recent and ancient by several studies, mainly using mitochondrial genome diversity. Here we address the age of P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent using selectively neutral housekeeping genes and tandem repeat loci. Analysis of ten housekeeping genes revealed a substantial number of SNPs (n = 75 from 100 P. vivax isolates collected from five geographical regions of India. Neutrality tests showed a majority of the housekeeping genes were selectively neutral, confirming the suitability of housekeeping genes for inferring the evolutionary history of P. vivax. In addition, a genetic differentiation test using housekeeping gene polymorphism data showed a lack of geographical structuring between the five regions of India. The coalescence analysis of the time to the most recent common ancestor estimate yielded an ancient TMRCA (232,228 to 303,030 years and long-term population history (79,235 to 104,008 of extant P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent. Analysis of 18 tandem repeat loci polymorphisms showed substantial allelic diversity and heterozygosity per locus, and analysis of potential bottlenecks revealed the signature of a stable P. vivax population, further corroborating our ancient age estimates. For the first time we report a comparable evolutionary history of P. vivax inferred by nuclear genetic markers (putative housekeeping genes to that inferred from mitochondrial genome diversity.

  6. Neutral polymorphisms in putative housekeeping genes and tandem repeats unravels the population genetics and evolutionary history of Plasmodium vivax in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Surendra K; Joshi, Hema; Carlton, Jane M; Rizvi, M Alam

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history and age of Plasmodium vivax has been inferred as both recent and ancient by several studies, mainly using mitochondrial genome diversity. Here we address the age of P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent using selectively neutral housekeeping genes and tandem repeat loci. Analysis of ten housekeeping genes revealed a substantial number of SNPs (n = 75) from 100 P. vivax isolates collected from five geographical regions of India. Neutrality tests showed a majority of the housekeeping genes were selectively neutral, confirming the suitability of housekeeping genes for inferring the evolutionary history of P. vivax. In addition, a genetic differentiation test using housekeeping gene polymorphism data showed a lack of geographical structuring between the five regions of India. The coalescence analysis of the time to the most recent common ancestor estimate yielded an ancient TMRCA (232,228 to 303,030 years) and long-term population history (79,235 to 104,008) of extant P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent. Analysis of 18 tandem repeat loci polymorphisms showed substantial allelic diversity and heterozygosity per locus, and analysis of potential bottlenecks revealed the signature of a stable P. vivax population, further corroborating our ancient age estimates. For the first time we report a comparable evolutionary history of P. vivax inferred by nuclear genetic markers (putative housekeeping genes) to that inferred from mitochondrial genome diversity.

  7. Disease dynamics and potential mitigation among restored and wild staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Kathryn E.; Cameron, Caitlin M.; Williams, Dana E.; Peters, Esther C.

    2014-01-01

    The threatened status (both ecologically and legally) of Caribbean staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis, has prompted rapidly expanding efforts in culture and restocking, although tissue loss diseases continue to affect populations. In this study, disease surveillance and histopathological characterization were used to compare disease dynamics and conditions in both restored and extant wild populations. Disease had devastating effects on both wild and restored populations, but dynamics were highly variable and appeared to be site-specific with no significant differences in disease prevalence between wild versus restored sites. A subset of 20 haphazardly selected colonies at each site observed over a four-month period revealed widely varying disease incidence, although not between restored and wild sites, and a case fatality rate of 8%. A tropical storm was the only discernable environmental trigger associated with a consistent spike in incidence across all sites. Lastly, two field mitigation techniques, (1) excision of apparently healthy branch tips from a diseased colony, and (2) placement of a band of epoxy fully enclosing the diseased margin, gave equivocal results with no significant benefit detected for either treatment compared to controls. Tissue condition of associated samples was fair to very poor; unsuccessful mitigation treatment samples had severe degeneration of mesenterial filament cnidoglandular bands. Polyp mucocytes in all samples were infected with suspect rickettsia-like organisms; however, no bacterial aggregates were found. No histological differences were found between disease lesions with gross signs fitting literature descriptions of white-band disease (WBD) and rapid tissue loss (RTL). Overall, our results do not support differing disease quality, quantity, dynamics, nor health management strategies between restored and wild colonies of A. cervicornis in the Florida Keys. PMID:25210660

  8. Repeatable aversion across threat types is linked with life-history traits but is dependent on how aversion is measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Reichert, Michael S; Crane, Jodie M S; O'Shea, William; Quinn, John L

    2018-02-01

    Personality research suggests that individual differences in risk aversion may be explained by links with life-history variation. However, few empirical studies examine whether repeatable differences in risk avoidance behaviour covary with life-history traits among individuals in natural populations, or how these links vary depending on the context and the way risk aversion is measured. We measured two different risk avoidance behaviours (latency to enter the nest and inspection time) in wild great tits ( Parus major ) in two different contexts-response to a novel object and to a predator cue placed at the nest-box during incubation---and related these behaviours to female reproductive success and condition. Females responded equally strongly to both stimuli, and although both behaviours were repeatable, they did not correlate. Latency to enter was negatively related to body condition and the number of offspring fledged. By contrast, inspection time was directly explained by whether incubating females had been flushed from the nest before the trial began. Thus, our inferences on the relationship between risk aversion and fitness depend on how risk aversion was measured. Our results highlight the limitations of drawing conclusions about the relevance of single measures of a personality trait such as risk aversion.

  9. Antimicrobial-resistant faecal Escherichia coli in wild mammals in central Europe: multiresistant Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Literak, I.; Dolejska, Monika; Radimersky, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To determine the presence of antibiotic-resistant faecal Escherichia coli in populations of wild mammals in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Methods and Results: Rectal swabs or faeces collected during 2006-2008 from wild mammals were spread on MacConkey agar and MacConkey agar containing 2...... mg l-1 of cefotaxime. From plates with positive growth, one isolate was recovered and identified as E. coli. Susceptibility to 12 antibiotics was tested using the disk diffusion method. Resistance genes, class 1 and 2 integrons and gene cassettes were detected in resistant isolates by polymerase...... of resistant isolates was 6%. Class 1 and 2 integrons with various gene cassettes were recorded in resistant isolates. From wild boars, five (2%, n(rectal smears) = 293) multiresistant isolates producing ESBL were recovered: one isolate with bla(CTX-M-1) + bla(TEM-1), three with bla(CTX-M-1) and one with bla...

  10. GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter is associated with cardiovascular mortality risk in an arsenic-exposed population in northeastern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Meei-Maan; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Lee, Te-Chang; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease and mortality in humans. A functional GT-repeat polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene promoter is inversely correlated with the development of coronary artery disease and restenosis after clinical angioplasty. The relationship of HO-1 genotype with arsenic-associated cardiovascular disease has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the HO-1 GT-repeat polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality in an arsenic-exposed population. A total of 504 study participants were followed up for a median of 10.7 years for occurrence of cardiovascular deaths (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease). Cardiovascular risk factors and DNA samples for determination of HO-1 GT repeats were obtained at recruitment. GT repeats variants were grouped into the S (< 27 repeats) or L allele (≥ 27 repeats). Relative mortality risk was estimated using Cox regression analysis, adjusted for competing risk of cancer and other causes. For the L/L, L/S, and S/S genotype groups, the crude mortalities for cardiovascular disease were 8.42, 3.10, and 2.85 cases/1000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors and competing risk of cancer and other causes, carriers with class S allele (L/S or S/S genotypes) had a significantly reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-carriers (L/L genotype) [OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.16-0.90]. In contrast, no significant association was observed between HO-1 genotype and cancer mortality or mortality from other causes. Shorter (GT)n repeats in the HO-1 gene promoter may confer protective effects against cardiovascular mortality related to arsenic exposure.

  11. Assessing the potential spread and maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in wild ungulates: general principles and application to a specific scenario in Thrace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhollander, S; Belsham, G J; Lange, M; Willgert, K; Alexandrov, T; Chondrokouki, E; Depner, K; Khomenko, S; Özyörük, F; Salman, M; Thulke, H H; Bøtner, A

    2016-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), due to infection with serotype O virus, occurred in wild boar and within eleven outbreaks in domestic livestock in the south-east of Bulgaria, Thrace region, in 2011. Hence, the issue of the potential for the spread and maintenance of FMD virus (FMDV) infection in a population of wild ungulates became important. This assessment focused on the spread and maintenance of FMDV infection within a hypothetical wild boar and deer population in an environment, which is characterized by a climate transitional between Mediterranean and continental and variable wildlife population densities. The assessment was based on three aspects: (i) a systematic review of the literature focusing on experimental infection studies to identify the parameters describing the duration of FMDV infection in deer and wild boar, as well as observational studies assessing the occurrence of FMDV infection in wild deer and wild boar populations, (ii) prevalence survey data of wild boar and deer in Bulgaria and Turkey and (iii) an epidemiological model, simulating the host-to-host spread of FMDV infections. It is concluded, based on all three aspects, that the wildlife population in Thrace, and so wildlife populations in similar ecological settings, are probably not able to maintain FMD in the long term in the absence of FMDV infection in the domestic host population. However, limited spread of FMDV infection in time and space in the wildlife populations can occur. If there is a continued cross-over of FMDV between domestic and wildlife populations or a higher population density, virus circulation may be prolonged. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Variability of chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and its wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregene, M A; Vargas, J; Ikea, J; Angel, F; Tohme, J; Asiedu, R A; Akoroda, M O; Roca, W M

    1994-11-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cp) and nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation was investigated in 45 accessions of cultivated and wild Manihot species. Ten independent mutations, 8 point mutations and 2 length mutations were identified, using eight restriction enzymes and 12 heterologous cpDNA probes from mungbean. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis defined nine distinct chloroplast types, three of which were found among the cultivated accessions and six among the wild species. Cladistic analysis of the cpDNA data using parsimony yielded a hypothetical phylogeny of lineages among the cpDNAs of cassava and its wild relatives that is congruent with morphological evolutionary differentiation in the genus. The results of our survey of cpDNA, together with rDNA restriction site change at the intergenic spacer region and rDNA repeat unit length variation (using rDNA cloned fragments from taro as probe), suggest that cassava might have arisen from the domestication of wild tuberous accessions of some Manihot species, followed by intensive selection. M. esculenta subspp flabellifolia is probably a wild progenitor. Introgressive hybridization with wild forms and pressures to adapt to the widely varying climates and topography in which cassava is found might have enhanced the crop's present day variability.

  13. Phylloquinone content from wild green vegetables may contribute substantially to dietary intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Spagner, Camilla; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Nordic eatable wild plants are now sold in local stores and available to everyone. Wild vegetables may contain large amounts of vitamin K1. Due to the concomitant therapeutic use of anticoagulants among the populations, it is important to gain knowledge about the content...... phylloquinone content of 400-600 μg vitamin K1/100 g fresh weight. The average daily intake when consuming the average Danish diet is low (64 ±20 μg/d or 72±23 μg/10 MJ/d), however, inclusion of wild vegetables as in the New Nordic Diet increases the vitamin K1 intake to 233±51 μg/d or 260±50 μg/10 MJ/d...... of vitamin K1 in these products, as well as their contribution to the diet. The objective of this study was to measure the vitamin K1 content in four wild eatable plants and to estimate how much these wild vegetables contribute to the daily dietary vitamin K1 intake. Results: The wild vegetables had a high...

  14. Fungal Endophytes of Wild Barley and their Effects on Diuraphis noxia Population Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester; C.M. Davitt

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the expression of Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance in four plant introduction (PI) lines of wild barley (Hordeum) infected with different species or strains of endophytic fungi (tribe Balansieae, family Clavicipitaceae, Neotyphodium gen. nov. [formerly...

  15. Microbiological quality of raw and processed wild and cultured edible snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Neofitou, Christos; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2014-03-15

    An increasing interest in snail farming in Greece and other European countries has been observed. Despite the fact that edible snails have been involved with problems of Salmonella spp. contamination, there are to our knowledge only limited studies regarding microbiological safety and hygiene of such products. Enumeration of microbial populations and presence/absence of Salmonella spp. in snail meat and intestines of wild Cornu aspersum, Helix lucorum and cultured Cornu aspersum snails from indoor/outdoor type farms was conducted. Furthermore, snail-processing steps were simulated in the laboratory and the population reduction in snail meat was determined. Microbial populations were higher in intestines than snail meat in almost all cases. Escherichia coli/coliforms and Enterococcus spp. populations were lower in the intestines and snail meat of cultured C. aspersum. Salmonella spp. were detected in the intestines and snail meat of wild snails only. The high levels of bacterial populations were considerably reduced after the appropriate processing. The lower populations of E. coli/coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and especially the absence of Salmonella spp. in cultured snails show that the controlled conditions decrease the possibility of pathogen presence and contribute to food safety and public health. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Ribeiro, Bruno R; Hayward, Matt Warrington; Paglia, Adriano; Passamani, Marcelo; Loyola, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unravelling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modelling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs. pooled (native plus invaded) species records. By disentangling the drivers of change on the exotic wild boar population's niches, we found strong evidence for niche conservatism during biological invasion. Ecological niche models calibrated with both native and pooled range records predicted convergent areas. Also, observed niche shifts are mostly explained by niche unfilling, i.e. there are unoccupied areas in the exotic range where climate is analogous to the native range. Niche unfilling is expected as result of recent colonization and ongoing dispersal, and was potentially stronger for the Neotropics, where a recent wave of introductions for pig-farming and game-hunting has led to high wild boar population growth rates. The invasive potential of wild boar in the Neotropics is probably higher than in other regions, which has profound management implications if we are to prevent their invasion into species-rich areas, such as Amazonia, coupled with expansion of African swine fever and possibly great economic losses. Although the originally Eurasian-wide distribution suggests a pre-adaptation to a wide array of climates, the wild boar world-wide invasion does not exhibit evidence of niche evolution. The invasive potential of the wild boar therefore probably lies on the reproductive, dietary and

  17. Social and spatial effects on genetic variation between foraging flocks in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radersma, Reinder; Garroway, Colin J; Santure, Anna W; de Cauwer, Isabelle; Farine, Damien R; Slate, Jon; Sheldon, Ben C

    2017-10-01

    Social interactions are rarely random. In some instances, animals exhibit homophily or heterophily, the tendency to interact with similar or dissimilar conspecifics, respectively. Genetic homophily and heterophily influence the evolutionary dynamics of populations, because they potentially affect sexual and social selection. Here, we investigate the link between social interactions and allele frequencies in foraging flocks of great tits (Parus major) over three consecutive years. We constructed co-occurrence networks which explicitly described the splitting and merging of 85,602 flocks through time (fission-fusion dynamics), at 60 feeding sites. Of the 1,711 birds in those flocks, we genotyped 962 individuals at 4,701 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). By combining genomewide genotyping with repeated field observations of the same individuals, we were able to investigate links between social structure and allele frequencies at a much finer scale than was previously possible. We explicitly accounted for potential spatial effects underlying genetic structure at the population level. We modelled social structure and spatial configuration of great tit fission-fusion dynamics with eigenvector maps. Variance partitioning revealed that allele frequencies were strongly affected by group fidelity (explaining 27%-45% of variance) as individuals tended to maintain associations with the same conspecifics. These conspecifics were genetically more dissimilar than expected, shown by genomewide heterophily for pure social (i.e., space-independent) grouping preferences. Genomewide homophily was linked to spatial configuration, indicating spatial segregation of genotypes. We did not find evidence for homophily or heterophily for putative socially relevant candidate genes or any other SNP markers. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing social and spatial processes in determining population structure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The impact of repeated marathon running on cardiovascular function in the aging population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstedt Erin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have correlated elevations in cardiac biomarkers of injury post marathon with transient and reversible right ventricular (RV systolic dysfunction as assessed by both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Whether or not permanent myocardial injury occurs due to repeated marathon running in the aging population remains controversial. Objectives To assess the extent and severity of cardiac dysfunction after the completion of full marathon running in individuals greater than 50 years of age using cardiac biomarkers, TTE, cardiac computed tomography (CCT, and CMR. Methods A total of 25 healthy volunteers (21 males, 55 ± 4 years old from the 2010 and 2011 Manitoba Full Marathons (26.2 miles were included in the study. Cardiac biomarkers and TTE were performed one week prior to the marathon, immediately after completing the race and at one-week follow-up. CMR was performed at baseline and within 24 hours of completion of the marathon, followed by CCT within 3 months of the marathon. Results All participants demonstrated an elevated cTnT post marathon. Right atrial and ventricular volumes increased, while RV systolic function decreased significantly immediately post marathon, returning to baseline values one week later. Of the entire study population, only two individuals demonstrated late gadolinium enhancement of the subendocardium in the anterior wall of the left ventricle, with evidence of stenosis of the left anterior descending artery on CCT. Conclusions Marathon running in individuals over the age of 50 is associated with a transient, yet reversible increase in cardiac biomarkers and RV systolic dysfunction. The presence of myocardial fibrosis in older marathon athletes is infrequent, but when present, may be due to underlying occult coronary artery disease.

  19. Can captive populations function as sources of genetic variation for reintroductions into the wild? A case study of the Arabian oryx from the Phoenix Zoo and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alexander; Wells, Stuart A.; West, Gary; Al-Smadi, Ma’en; Redondo, Sergio A.; Sexton, Sydnee R.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) historically ranged across the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries until its extirpation in 1972. In 1963–1964 a captive breeding program for this species was started at the Phoenix Zoo (PHX); it ultimately consisted of 11 animals that became known as the ‘World Herd’. In 1978–1979 a wild population was established at the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Jordan, with eight descendants from the World Herd and three individuals from Qatar. We described the mtDNA and nuclear genetic diversity and structure of PHX and SWR. We also determined the long-term demographic and genetic viability of these populations under different reciprocal translocation scenarios. PHX displayed a greater number of mtDNA haplotypes (n = 4) than SWR (n = 2). Additionally, PHX and SWR presented nuclear genetic diversities of N¯AN¯A = 2.88 vs. 2.75, H¯OH¯O = 0.469 vs. 0.387, and H¯EH¯E = 0.501 vs. 0.421, respectively. Although these populations showed no signs of inbreeding (F¯ISF¯IS ≈ 0), they were highly differentiated (G′′STGST′′ = 0.580; P populations can function as sources of genetic variation for reintroduction programs, we recommend promoting mutual and continuous gene flow with wild populations to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

  20. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915) and semi-structured interviews (n=78) to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported co...

  1. Population genetic diversity and structure analysis of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) revealed by ssr markers in the Tien-Shan mountains of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, X.; Ni, B.; Zheng, P.; Li, M.

    2018-01-01

    The simple sequence repeat markers were used to investigate the population genetic diversity and structure of 212 germplasm samples from 14 apricot (Prunus armeniaca) populations in the western of Tien-Shan Mountains, Sinkiang, China. The relatively high expected heterozygosity and Shannon's diversity index indicated the apricot populations maintained a high level of genetic diversity (He = 0.6109, I = 1.2208), with the population in Tuergen ditch of Xinyuan County having the highest genetic diversity index. A high level of intra-population genetic differentiation (91.51%) and a lower level of inter-population genetic differentiation were occurred, as well as a moderate but steady inter-population gene flow (Nm = 2.3735). The self-incompatible pattern, wide distribution, and long-distance pollen transmission via insects and gale are the main factors underlying the genetic variation structure. The UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic structure analysis showed that apricot germplasm could be divided into two or four groups, which was basically consistent with the geographic distribution pattern. The inter-population genetic distance and geographic distance showed a significant correlation (r = 0.2658, p<0.05). (author)

  2. Assessing the impact of removal scenarios on population viability of a threatened, long-lived avian scavenger

    OpenAIRE

    Margalida, Antoni; Colomer, M? ?ngels; Oro, Daniel; Arlettaz, Rapha?l; Don?zar, Jos? A.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of eggs or chicks from wild populations to create captive populations, reinforce free-ranging populations or reintroduce species into the wild is a restoration tool that requires an assessment of potential detrimental effects upon the donor population. This is an absolute prerequisite when wild donor populations are scarce and small. Here, we forecast the population trend of the largest European population of the bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) over the next 30 years under dif...

  3. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. in northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Djebali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and life cycle of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. and a survey of the pathogens of this plant are reported for the northern regions of Tunisia. Wild radish is a common weed of cereal crops and legumes. It germinates in early autumn (October, develops a rosette stage in November to December after which stem growth, fl owering and pod production occur through to May, with pod maturity completed in June. Fungus isolation from the foliar tissues exhibiting disease symptoms showed that wild radish was infected with the fungi Albugo candida, Alternaria spp. including A. brassicicola, and A. raphani, Erysiphe cruciferarum, Stemphylium herbarum, Peronospora parasitica and Phoma lingam. Ascochyta spp., Cercospora armoraciae, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Colletotrichum higginsianum are here reported from wild radish for the first time. Inoculation tests of pathogens on wild radish plants showed that the most injurious fungi were Alternaria raphani and Phoma lingam. The remaining pathogens were weakly to moderately aggressive on this weed. To access the pathogenic effect of fungi spontaneously infecting natural populations of wild radish, the weed was grown in a field experiment with and without the broad-spectrum systemic fungicide Carbendazim. Results showed a statistically significant two-fold decrease in the number and weight of seed pods in the non-treated plants, indicating that the reproductive potential of wild radish was naturally reduced by fungal infection. Foliar pathogenic fungi have a potential in the integrated weed management of wild radish, this role merits further investigations.

  4. Exploration of wild relatives of tomato for enhanced stress tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junming Li,

    2010-01-01

    Among the different abiotic and biotic stresses, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans and high salt concentrations are world-wide the most destructive. Several wild relatives of tomato were identified as source for tolerance to these stresses. Three introgression line (IL) populations derived

  5. An inverted repeat motif stabilizes binding of E2F and enhances transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wade, M; Blake, M C; Jambou, R C

    1995-01-01

    consensus E2F site, significantly decrease the binding stability of all of the forms of E2F tested. The rate of association of E2F-1/DP-1 heterodimers with the inverted repeat wild type site was not significantly different from those with the two single site mutated probes. Furthermore, the mutations...

  6. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491–511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process. (paper)

  7. Screening of Active Lyssavirus Infection in Wild Bat Populations by Viral RNA Detection on Oropharyngeal Swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Juan E.; Avellón, Ana; Juste, Javier; Vera, Manuel; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Brain analysis cannot be used for the investigation of active lyssavirus infection in healthy bats because most bat species are protected by conservation directives. Consequently, serology remains the only tool for performing virological studies on natural bat populations; however, the presence of antibodies merely reflects past exposure to the virus and is not a valid marker of active infection. This work describes a new nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technique specifically designed for the detection of the European bat virus 1 on oropharyngeal swabs obtained from bats but also able to amplify RNA from the remaining rabies-related lyssaviruses in brain samples. The technique was successfully used for surveillance of a serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) colony involved in a case of human exposure, in which 15 out of 71 oropharyngeal swabs were positive. Lyssavirus infection was detected on 13 oropharyngeal swabs but in only 5 brains out of the 34 animals from which simultaneous brain and oropharyngeal samples had been taken. The lyssavirus involved could be rapidly identified by automatic sequencing of the RT-PCR products obtained from 14 brains and three bat oropharyngeal swabs. In conclusion, RT-PCR using oropharyngeal swabs will permit screening of wild bat populations for active lyssavirus infection, for research or epidemiological purposes, in line not only with conservation policies but also in a more efficient manner than classical detection techniques used on the brain. PMID:11574590

  8. Patterns of seasonality and group membership characterize the gut microbiota in a longitudinal study of wild Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrea; Fichtel, Claudia; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Koch, Flávia; Amato, Katherine R; Clayton, Jonathan B; Knights, Dan; Kappeler, Peter M

    2017-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota plays a major role in host development, metabolism, and health. To date, few longitudinal studies have investigated the causes and consequences of microbiota variation in wildlife, although such studies provide a comparative context for interpreting the adaptive significance of findings from studies on humans or captive animals. Here, we investigate the impact of seasonality, diet, group membership, sex, age, and reproductive state on gut microbiota composition in a wild population of group-living, frugi-folivorous primates, Verreaux's sifakas ( Propithecus verreauxi ). We repeatedly sampled 32 individually recognizable animals from eight adjacent groups over the course of two different climatic seasons. We used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to determine the microbiota composition of 187 fecal samples. We demonstrate a clear pattern of seasonal variation in the intestinal microbiota, especially affecting the Firmicutes-Bacteroidetes ratio, which may be driven by seasonal differences in diet. The relative abundances of certain polysaccharide-fermenting taxa, for example, Lachnospiraceae, were correlated with fruit and fiber consumption. Additionally, group membership influenced microbiota composition independent of season, but further studies are needed to determine whether this pattern is driven by group divergences in diet, social contacts, or genetic factors. In accordance with findings in other wild mammals and primates with seasonally fluctuating food availability, we demonstrate seasonal variation in the microbiota of wild Verreaux's sifakas, which may be driven by food availability. This study adds to mounting evidence that variation in the intestinal microbiota may play an important role in the ability of primates to cope with seasonal variation in food availability.

  9. A comparison of genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium between 15 polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in two populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, M.; Goldman, D.; Long, J.C. [Lab. of Neurogenetics, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Linkage disequilibrium has recently been used to map the diastrophic dysplasia gene in a Finnish sample. One advantage of this method is that the large pedigrees required by some other methods are unnecessary. Another advantage is that linkage disequilibrium mapping capitalizes on the cumulative history of recombination events, rather than those occurring within the sampled individuals. A potential limitation of linkage disequilibrium mapping is that linkage equilibrium is likely to prevail in all but the most isolated populations, e.g., those which have recently experienced founder effects or severe population bottlenecks. In order to test the method`s generality, we examined patterns of linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci within a known genetic map. Two populations were analyzed. The first population, Navajo Indians (N=45), is an isolate that experienced a severe bottleneck in the 1860`s. The second population, Maryland Caucasians (N=45), is cosmopolitan. We expected the Navajo sample to display more linkage disequilibrium than the Caucasian sample, and possibly that the Navajo disequilibrium pattern would reflect the genetic map. Linkage disequilibrium coefficients were estimated between pairs of alleles at different loci using maximum likelihood. The genetic isolate structure of Navajo Indians is confirmed by the DNA typings. Heterozygosity is lower than in the Caucasians, and fewer different alleles are observed. However, a relationship between genetic map distance and linkage disequilibrium could be discerned in neither the Navajo nor the Maryland samples. Slightly more linkage disequilibrium was observed in the Navajos, but both data sets were characterized by very low disequilibrium levels. We tentatively conclude that linkage disequilibrium mapping with dinucleotide repeats will only be useful with close linkage between markers and diseases, even in very isolated populations.

  10. TGC repeat expansion in the TCF4 gene increases the risk of Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy in Australian cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Kuot

    Full Text Available Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD is a progressive, vision impairing disease. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and a trinucleotide repeat polymorphism, thymine-guanine-cytosine (TGC, in the TCF4 gene have been associated with the risk of FECD in some populations. We previously reported association of SNPs in TCF4 with FECD risk in the Australian population. The aim of this study was to determine whether TGC repeat polymorphism in TCF4 is associated with FECD in the Australian population. In 189 unrelated Australian cases with advanced late-onset FECD and 183 matched controls, the TGC repeat polymorphism located in intron 3 of TCF4 was genotyped using a short tandem repeat (STR assay. The repeat length was verified by direct sequencing in selected homozygous carriers. We found significant association between the expanded TGC repeat (≥ 40 repeats in TCF4 and advanced FECD (P = 2.58 × 10-22; OR = 15.66 (95% CI: 7.79-31.49. Genotypic analysis showed that 51% of cases (97 compared to 5% of controls (9 were heterozygous or homozygous for the expanded repeat allele. Furthermore, the repeat expansion showed stronger association than the most significantly associated SNP, rs613872, in TCF4, with the disease in the Australian cohort. This and haplotype analysis of both the polymorphisms suggest that considering both the polymorphisms together rather than either of the two alone would better predict susceptibility to FECD in the Australian population. This is the first study to report association of the TGC trinucleotide repeat expansion in TCF4 with advanced FECD in the Australian population.

  11. Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonal; Nawaz, Kashif; Parween, Sabiha; Roy, Riti; Sahu, Kamlesh; Kumar Pole, Anil; Khandal, Hitaishi; Srivastava, Rishi; Kumar Parida, Swarup; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2017-02-01

    Cicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  12. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-11-24

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Parasitism of wild Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) by the air-sac mite Sternostoma tracheacolum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidemann, S C; McOrist, S; Woinarski, J C; Freeland, W J

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two percent of 26 wild caught Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) were infected with Sternostoma tracheacolum, a parasitic rhinonyssid mite. The intensity of infection was higher in adult finches than juveniles, and higher in juvenile females than juvenile males. Histopathological investigation of wild Gouldian Finches revealed bronchopneumonia and air sacculitis associated with mite infection. Although this mite may not have contributed to the decline of Gouldian finch populations in the wild during the past 20 yr, it may be suppressing the return of the finch to its former status.

  15. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  16. A repeating fast radio burst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L G; Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-03-10

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  17. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P. cari...

  18. Emerging fungal pathogen Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in wild European snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklinos, Lydia H. V.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Wright, Owen; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Petrovan, Silviu; Durrant, Chris; Linton, Chris; Baláž, Vojtech; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2017-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of conservation concern in eastern North America. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of SFD, has been isolated from over 30 species of wild snakes from six families in North America. Whilst O. ophiodiicola has been isolated from captive snakes outside North America, the pathogen has not been reported from wild snakes elsewhere. We screened 33 carcasses and 303 moulted skins from wild snakes collected from 2010–2016 in Great Britain and the Czech Republic for the presence of macroscopic skin lesions and O. ophiodiicola. The fungus was detected using real-time PCR in 26 (8.6%) specimens across the period of collection. Follow up culture and histopathologic analyses confirmed that both O. ophiodiicola and SFD occur in wild European snakes. Although skin lesions were mild in most cases, in some snakes they were severe and were considered likely to have contributed to mortality. Culture characterisations demonstrated that European isolates grew more slowly than those from the United States, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that isolates from European wild snakes reside in a clade distinct from the North American isolates examined. These genetic and phenotypic differences indicate that the European isolates represent novel strains of O. ophiodiicola. Further work is required to understand the individual and population level impact of this pathogen in Europe.

  19. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  20. The wild type as concept and in experimental practice: A history of its role in classical genetics and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tarquin

    2017-06-01

    Wild types in genetics are specialised strains of laboratory experimental organism which principally serve as standards against which variation is measured. As selectively inbred lineages highly isolated from ancestral wild populations, there appears to be little wild or typical about them. I will nonetheless argue that they have historically been successfully used as stand-ins for nature, allowing knowledge produced in the laboratory to be extrapolated to the natural world. In this paper, I will explore the 19th century origins of the wild type concept, the theoretical and experimental innovations which allowed concepts and organisms to move from wild nature to laboratory domestication c. 1900 (resulting in the production of standardised lab strains), and the conflict among early geneticists between interactionist and atomist accounts of wild type, which would eventually lead to the conceptual disintegration of wild types and the triumph of genocentrism and population genetics. I conclude by discussing how the strategy of using wild type strains to represent nature in the lab has nonetheless survived the downfall of the wild type concept and continues to provide, significant limitations acknowledged, an epistemically productive means of investigating heredity and evolutionary variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Jori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV. In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%–31.6% of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%–56.7% of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%–91.9% of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation.

  2. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E; Stallknecht, David E

    2018-05-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in wild birds inhabiting North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Berhane, Yohannes; Swayne, David E.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2018-01-01

    Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild birds in North America, (3) HP IAVs may cross the wild bird-poultry interface in North America, (4) The probability of encountering and detecting a specific virus may be low, and (5) Population immunity of wild birds may influence HP IAV outbreaks in North America. We review empirical support derived from research and surveillance efforts for each lesson learned and, furthermore, identify implications for future surveillance efforts, biosecurity, and population health. We conclude our review by identifying five additional areas in which we think future mechanistic research relative to IAVs in wild birds in North America are likely to lead to other important lessons learned in the years ahead.

  4. Reverse spillover of avian viral vaccine strains from domesticated poultry to wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaim, M A; El Naggar, R F; Helal, A M; Hussein, H A; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-06-16

    Transmission of viruses from the commercial poultry to wild birds is an emerging paradigm of livestock-wildlife interface. Here, we report the identification and isolation of vaccine strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV1) and avian coronaviruses (ACoV) from different wild bird species across eight Egyptian governorates between January 2014 and December 2015. Surveillance of avian respiratory viruses in free-ranging wild birds (n=297) identified three species that harboured or excreted APMV1 and ACoVs. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of recovered viruses revealed a close association with the most widely utilized vaccine strains in the country. These results highlight the potential spillover of vaccine-viruses probably due to extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines in the commercial poultry, and close interaction between domesticated and wild bird populations. Further exploring the full spectrum of vaccine-derived viral vaccine strains in wild birds might help to assess the emergence of future wild-birds origin viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence of Edwardsiella tarda in wild European eels Anguilla anguilla from Mediterranean Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Elena; Herraiz, Sonia; Esteve, Consuelo

    2006-11-21

    Pure cultures of Edwarsiella tarda were isolated from body ulcers and internal organs of wild European eels caught in a Mediterranean freshwater coastal lagoon (Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain) over a 1 yr period. Overall, the E. tarda isolation rate from wild eels was 9%, but this increased to 22.8% in diseased individuals. All 22 E. tarda isolates belonged to the 'wild-type' biogroup of the species and were virulent for eels (lethal dose that kills 50% of exposed individuals [LD50 dose]: 10(4.85) to 10(6.83) CFU ind.(-1)), and therefore represented the aetiological agent of the haemorrhagic disease observed in wild European eels. The E. tarda isolates and E. tarda CECT 894T type strain were biochemically and serologically related and resistant to macrolides, antifolates, and glycopeptides, but only the isolates from wild eels were resistant to clindamicyn. This study is the first description of edwardsiellosis in a wild European eel population, and alerts us to the presence of E. tarda in natural wetland environments in Mediterranean Europe.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Iranian wild Pleurotus eryngii species-complex strains revealed by URP-PCR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behnamian, Mahdi; Mohammadi, Seyed A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Goltapeh, Ebrahim M.; Hendrickx, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, a set of 68 P. eryngii wild strains collected from nine locations in northwest and west of Iran along with six commercial strains were studied using universal rice primers (URP). The wild strains were isolated from Ferula ovina, F. haussknechtii, Cachrys ferulacea, Kellusia

  7. A General Model for Repeated Audit Controls Using Monotone Subsampling

    OpenAIRE

    Raats, V.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.; Moors, J.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In categorical repeated audit controls, fallible auditors classify sample elements in order to estimate the population fraction of elements in certain categories.To take possible misclassifications into account, subsequent checks are performed with a decreasing number of observations.In this paper a model is presented for a general repeated audit control system, where k subsequent auditors classify elements into r categories.Two different sub-sampling procedures will be discussed, named 'stra...

  8. A novel triple repeat mutant tau transgenic model that mimics aspects of pick's disease and fronto-temporal tauopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rockenstein

    Full Text Available Tauopathies are a group of disorders leading to cognitive and behavioral impairment in the aging population. While four-repeat (4R Tau is more abundant in corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer's disease, three-repeat (3R Tau is the most abundant splice, in Pick's disease. A number of transgenic models expressing wild-type and mutant forms of the 4R Tau have been developed. However, few models of three-repeat Tau are available. A transgenic mouse model expressing three-repeat Tau was developed bearing the mutations associated with familial forms of Pick's disease (L266V and G272V mutations. Two lines expressing high (Line 13 and low (Line 2 levels of the three-repeat mutant Tau were analyzed. By Western blot, using antibodies specific to three-repeat Tau, Line 13 expressed 5-times more Tau than Line 2. The Tau expressed by these mice was most abundant in the frontal-temporal cortex and limbic system and was phosphorylated at residues detected by the PHF-1, AT8, CP9 and CP13 antibodies. The higher-expressing mice displayed hyperactivity, memory deficits in the water maze and alterations in the round beam. The behavioral deficits started at 6-8 months of age and were associated with a progressive increase in the accumulation of 3R Tau. By immunocytochemistry, mice from Line 13 displayed extensive accumulation of 3R Tau in neuronal cells bodies in the pyramidal neurons of the neocortex, CA1-3 regions, and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Aggregates in the granular cells had a globus appearance and mimic Pick's-like inclusions. There were abundant dystrophic neurites, astrogliosis and synapto-dendritic damage in the neocortex and hippocampus of the higher expresser line. The hippocampal lesions were moderately argyrophilic and Thioflavin-S negative. By electron microscopy, discrete straight filament aggregates were detected in some neurons in the hippocampus. This model holds promise for better understanding the

  9. Lama guanicoe remains from the Chaco ecoregion (Córdoba, Argentina): An osteological approach to the characterization of a relict wild population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago; Barri, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Guanacos (Lama guanicoe) are large ungulates that have been valued by human populations in South America since the Late Pleistocene. Even though they were very abundant until the end of the 19th century (before the high deforestation rate of the last decades), guanacos have nearly disappeared in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, with relicts and isolated populations surviving in some areas, such as the shrubland area near the saline depressions of Córdoba province, Argentina. In this report, we present the first data from a locally endangered guanaco wild population, through the study of skeletal remains recovered in La Providencia ranch. Our results showed that most of the elements belonged to adults aged between 36 and 96 months; sex evaluation showed similar numbers of males and females. Statistical analysis of the body size of modern samples from Córdoba demonstrated that guanacos from the Chaco had large dimensions and presented lower size variability than the modern and archaeological specimens in our database. Moreover, they exhibited dimensions similar to those of modern guanacos from Patagonia and San Juan, and to archaeological specimens from Ongamira and Cerro Colorado, although further genetic studies are needed to corroborate a possible phylogenetic relationship. Finally, we used archaeozoological techniques to provide a first characterization of a relict guanaco population from the Chaco ecoregion, demonstrating its value to the study of modern skeletal remains and species conservation biology.

  10. Doses from natural radioactivity in wild mushrooms and berries to the Nordic population. Interim report from the NKS-B BERMUDA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, T.; Brunfeldt, M.; Rasilainen, T.; Skipperud, L.; Valle, L.; Popic, J.M.; Roos, P.; Sundell-Bergman, S.; Rosen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) are the major contributors to the total effective dose of ionizing radiation of the population. Especially hazardous are the decay products of U: 210 Pb, 210 Po and 226 Ra in soils, water and plants. The most important exposure route to 210 Pb and 210 Po is through wild gathered food. Some studies show that 210 Po and also some other NORs accumulate from uranium-rich grounds in mushrooms. In berries the levels are usually lower. In Finland, Sweden and Norway there are sites enriched in NORs. In these areas e.g. the 210 Po levels in certain edible mushroom species may be as high as a few hundred Bq/kg, leading to effective doses of several mSv/year among certain consumer groups. The intake of wild forest products varies greatly among the population, but the public should be informed of the exposure risk and ways to minimize it. In this study, NORs and stable metals are analysed in forest soils and in common edible mushrooms and berries. Transfer factors are calculated and dose estimates from consumption of these products made. Based on the measurement data, it is estimated if highly exposed groups exist, and ways of communication with these groups will be discussed. The practical work started during summer-autumn 2012, when soils, berries and mushrooms were sampled at several sites in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, and pre-treatments carried out in the local laboratories. All sampling and pre-treatment methods were agreed by all partners and ISO standards were used when applicable, to make all stages of the work harmonized between partners. For the analytical work, samples will be sent to partners with suitable analytical facilities. The analyses will be done during the year 2013 and the results reported in the final report and in scientific publications. (Author)

  11. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  12. The structuring process of the macroparasite community of an experimental population of cichlasoma urophthalmus through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martinez; Kennedy; Aguirre-Macedo

    1998-09-01

    The structuring process of the macroparasite community of caged Cichlasoma urophthalmus was studied over time using sentinel fish. Three thousand uninfected cichlids were stocked in floating cages introduced into a quarry in which a wild population of the same species was present. Caged and wild cichlids were sampled monthly over 6 and 7 months, respectively. Seventeen macroparasite species were found in the wild C. urophthalmus population, ten of which were detected in the caged population after 6 months. Early infections were by those species that were more frequent and abundant in the wild population, while helminths with a low prevalence and abundance in the wild appeared later in the caged fish population. The results suggested that the structuring process of the macroparasite community of caged C. urophthalmus followed a predictable pattern, in which those species that were most frequent and abundant in the wild were the first to establish in sentinel fish.

  13. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  14. Evaluation and monitoring of wild/natural steelhead trout production: project progress report, 1996; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leth, Brian D.; Holubetz, Terry; Nemeth, Doug

    2000-01-01

    This project was initiated to provide additional, and more definitive, information regarding wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations in Idaho. Important streams for wild steelhead production were identified and selected for monitoring. Monitoring activities employed among streams varied, but generally included: aerial redd counts, placement of adult weirs, enumeration of juveniles through mask and snorkel counts, and emigrant trapping. This report details activities during the 1996 field season

  15. The Relationship Between Morphological Symmetry and Immune Response in Wild-Caught Adult Bush-Crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Berggren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite interest in the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry (FA, immune response and ecological factors in insects, little data are available from wild populations. In this study we measured FA and immune response in 370 wild-caught male bush-crickets, Metrioptera roeseli, from 20 experimentally introduced populations in southern-central Sweden. Individuals with more-symmetric wings had a higher immune response as measured by the cellular encapsulation of a surgically-implanted nylon monofilament. However, we found no relationship between measures of FA in other organs (i.e. tibia and maxillary palp and immune response, suggesting that this pattern may reflect differing selection pressures.

  16. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  17. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  18. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  19. SNP data in the detection of hybridization levels between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Bakan, Jana; Cubric-Curik, Vlatka

    , a better understanding of hybridization patterns in Europe might have important implications for conservation and management of both wild populations and local breeds, as well as for the contingency of infectious diseases. Here we present the results for the analysis of 235 wild boars (WB; from 22 areas......, additionally, highlights the presence of several individuals, of both ancestries, with intermediate positions. This result was confirmed by Admixture analysis that detected the presence of hybrid individuals in both WB and local domestic pig breeds. The introgression level varies considerably among populations...

  20. Dietary values of wild and semi-wild edible plants in Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, traditional processing methods lower most of the anti-nutritionals and their respective risks. New food composition tables that integrate indigenous knowledge and nutritional content of the semi-wild and wild edibles are recommended. Wild edibles can be considered to improve livelihood security and reduce ...

  1. Genetic diversity of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum in China based on AFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hongjin; Liu, Xiangquan; Zhang, Xijia; Jiang, Haibin; Wang, Jiying; Zhang, Limin

    2013-03-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) markers were developed to assess the genetic variation of populations and clones of Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomatidae). One hundred and seventy-nine loci from 56 individuals of two hatchery populations and two wild populations were genotyped with five primer combinations. The polymorphic ratio, Shannon's diversity index and average heterozygosity were 70.3%, 0.346 and 0.228 for the white hatchery population, 74.3%, 0.313, and 0.201 for the red hatchery population, 79.3%, 0.349, and 0.224 for the Jiangsu wild population, and 74.9%, 0.328 and 0.210 for the Penglai wild population, respectively. Thus, all populations had a relatively high level of genetic diversity. A specific band was identified that could separate the white from the red hatchery population. There was 84.85% genetic differentiation within populations. Individual cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) suggested that hatchery populations and wild populations could be divided. For the hatchery populations, the white and red populations clustered separately; however, for the wild populations, Penglai and Jiangsu populations clustered together. The genetic diversity at the clone level was also determined. Our data suggest that there are relatively high genetic diversities within populations but low genetic differentiation between populations, which may be related to the long-term use of germplasm resources from Jiangsu Province for artificial seeding and releasing. These findings will benefit the artificial seeding and conservation of the germplasm resources.

  2. Assessment of mammal reproduction for hunting sustainability through community-based sampling of species in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; El Bizri, Hani; Bodmer, Richard E; Bowler, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase. (r max ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, so these assessments often rely on classic reproductive rates calculated mostly from studies of captive animals conducted 30 years ago. The result is a flaw in almost 50% of studies, which hampers management decision making. We conducted a 15-year study in the Amazon in which we used reproductive data from the genitalia of 950 hunted female mammals. Genitalia were collected by local hunters. We examined tissue from these samples to estimate birthrates for wild populations of the 10 most hunted mammals. We compared our estimates with classic measures and considered the utility of the use of r max in sustainability assessments. For woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii) and tapir (Tapirus terrestris), wild birthrates were similar to those from captive populations, whereas birthrates for other ungulates and lowland-paca (Cuniculus paca) were significantly lower than previous estimates. Conversely, for capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus), agoutis (Dasyprocta sp.), and coatis (Nasua nasua), our calculated reproductive rates greatly exceeded often-used values. Researchers could keep applying classic measures compatible with our estimates, but for other species previous estimates of r max may not be appropriate. We suggest that data from local studies be used to set hunting quotas. Our maximum rates of population growth in the wild correlated with body weight, which suggests that our method is consistent and reliable. Integration of this method into community-based wildlife management and the training of local hunters to record pregnancies in hunted animals could efficiently generate useful information of life

  3. Evaluating the status of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus through tourist-based photographic surveys in the Kruger National Park [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnewick, Kelly; Ferreira, Sam M; Grange, Sophie; Watermeyer, Jessica; Maputla, Nakedi; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T

    2014-01-01

    The Kruger National Park is a stronghold for African wild dog Lycaon pictus and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in South Africa. Tourist photographic surveys have been used to evaluate the minimum number of wild dogs and cheetahs alive over the last two decades. Photographic-based capture-recapture techniques for open populations were used on data collected during a survey done in 2008/9. Models were run for the park as a whole and per region (northern, central, southern). A total of 412 (329-495; SE 41.95) cheetahs and 151 (144-157; SE 3.21) wild dogs occur in the Kruger National Park. Cheetah capture probabilities were affected by time (number of entries) and sex, whereas wild dog capture probabilities were affected by the region of the park. When plotting the number of new individuals identified against the number of entries received, the addition of new wild dogs to the survey reached an asymptote at 210 entries, but cheetahs did not reach an asymptote. The cheetah population of Kruger appears to be acceptable, while the wild dog population size and density are of concern. The effectiveness of tourist-based surveys for estimating population sizes through capture-recapture analyses is shown.

  4. Evaluating the Status of and African Wild Dogs Lycaon pictus and Cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus through Tourist-based Photographic Surveys in the Kruger National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnewick, Kelly; Ferreira, Sam M.; Grange, Sophie; Watermeyer, Jessica; Maputla, Nakedi; Davies-Mostert, Harriet T.

    2014-01-01

    The Kruger National Park is a stronghold for African wild dog Lycaon pictus and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in South Africa. Tourist photographic surveys have been used to evaluate the minimum number of wild dogs and cheetahs alive over the last two decades. Photographic-based capture-recapture techniques for open populations were used on data collected during a survey done in 2008/9. Models were run for the park as a whole and per region (northern, central, southern). A total of 412 (329–495; SE 41.95) cheetahs and 151 (144–157; SE 3.21) wild dogs occur in the Kruger National Park. Cheetah capture probabilities were affected by time (number of entries) and sex, whereas wild dog capture probabilities were affected by the region of the park. When plotting the number of new individuals identified against the number of entries received, the addition of new wild dogs to the survey reached an asymptote at 210 entries, but cheetahs did not reach an asymptote. The cheetah population of Kruger appears to be acceptable, while the wild dog population size and density are of concern. The effectiveness of tourist-based surveys for estimating population sizes through capture-recapture analyses is shown. PMID:24465998

  5. Evaluating the status of African wild dogs Lycaon pictus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus through tourist-based photographic surveys in the Kruger National Park [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Marnewick

    Full Text Available The Kruger National Park is a stronghold for African wild dog Lycaon pictus and cheetah Acinonyx jubatus conservation in South Africa. Tourist photographic surveys have been used to evaluate the minimum number of wild dogs and cheetahs alive over the last two decades. Photographic-based capture-recapture techniques for open populations were used on data collected during a survey done in 2008/9. Models were run for the park as a whole and per region (northern, central, southern. A total of 412 (329-495; SE 41.95 cheetahs and 151 (144-157; SE 3.21 wild dogs occur in the Kruger National Park. Cheetah capture probabilities were affected by time (number of entries and sex, whereas wild dog capture probabilities were affected by the region of the park. When plotting the number of new individuals identified against the number of entries received, the addition of new wild dogs to the survey reached an asymptote at 210 entries, but cheetahs did not reach an asymptote. The cheetah population of Kruger appears to be acceptable, while the wild dog population size and density are of concern. The effectiveness of tourist-based surveys for estimating population sizes through capture-recapture analyses is shown.

  6. Molecular genetic diversity and genetic structure of Vietnamese indigenous pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, L. D.; Do, Duy Ngoc; Nam, L. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study characterized genetic diversity and genetic structure of five indigenous pig populations (Ha Lang, Muong Te, Mong Cai, Lung and Lung Pu), two wild pig populations (Vietnamese and Thai wild pigs) and an exotic pig breed (Yorkshire) using FAO/ISAG recommended 16 microsatellite markers...

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of Prunus mira (Koehne from the Tibet plateau in China and recommended conservation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenquan Bao

    Full Text Available Prunus mira Koehne, an important economic fruit crop with high breeding and medicinal values, and an ancestral species of many cultivated peach species, has recently been declared an endangered species. However, basic information about genetic diversity, population structure, and morphological variation is still limited for this species. In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics. The results of molecular analyses based on simple sequence repeat (SSR markers indicated moderate genetic diversity and inbreeding (A = 3.8, Ae = 2.5, He = 0.52, Ho = 0.44, I = 0.95, FIS = 0.17 within P. mira populations. STRUCTURE, GENELAND, and phylogenetic analyses assigned the 21 populations to three genetic clusters that were moderately correlated with geographic altitudes, and this may have resulted from significantly different climatic and environmental factors at different altitudinal ranges. Significant isolation-by-distance was detected across the entire distribution of P. mira populations, but geographic altitude might have more significant effects on genetic structure than geographic distance in partial small-scale areas. Furthermore, clear genetic structure, high genetic differentiation, and restricted gene flow were detected between pairwise populations from different geographic groups, indicating that geographic barriers and genetic drift have significant effects on P. mira populations. Analyses of molecular variance based on the SSR markers indicated high variation (83.7% and 81.7%, whereas morphological analyses revealed low variation (1.30%-36.17% within the populations. Large and heavy fruits were better adapted than light fruits and nutlets to poor climate and environmental conditions at high altitudes. Based on the results of molecular and morphological analyses, we classified the area into three conservation units

  8. Estimating the long-term effects of stocking domesticated trout into wild brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations : an approach using microsatellite DNA analysis of historical and contemporary samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller

    2002-01-01

    . The study was based on analysis of two historical samples (194556), represented by old scale collections, and seven contemporary samples (1986-2000). In one population historical and contemporary samples were remarkably genetically similar despite more than a decade of intense stocking. Estimation...... of admixture proportions showed a small genetic contribution from domesticated trout (approximately 6%), and individual admixture analysis demonstrated a majority of nonadmixed individuals. The expected genetic contribution by domesticated trout was 64%, assessed from the number of stocked trout and assuming...... in samples from a broodstock thought to represent the indigenous population and in a sample of wild spawners. Survival of domesticated trout and admixture with indigenous fish in the broodstock and subsequent stocking into the river, combined with a low population size of native trout relative to the number...

  9. Discovery and introgression of the wild sunflower-derived novel downy mildew resistance gene Pl 19 in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z W; Ma, G J; Zhao, J; Markell, S G; Qi, L L

    2017-01-01

    A new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 19 , was identified from wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414, introduced to confection sunflower, and genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Wild Helianthus annuus accession PI 435414 exhibited resistance to downy mildew, which is one of the most destructive diseases to sunflower production globally. Evaluation of the 140 BC 1 F 2:3 families derived from the cross of CMS CONFSCLB1 and PI 435414 against Plasmopara halstedii race 734 revealed that a single dominant gene controls downy mildew resistance in the population. Bulked segregant analysis conducted in the BC 1 F 2 population with 860 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers indicated that the resistance derived from wild H. annuus was associated with SSR markers located on linkage group (LG) 4 of the sunflower genome. To map and tag this resistance locus, designated Pl 19 , 140 BC 1 F 2 individuals were used to construct a linkage map of the gene region. Two SSR markers, ORS963 and HT298, were linked to Pl 19 within a distance of 4.7 cM. After screening 27 additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers previously mapped to this region, two flanking SNP markers, NSA_003564 and NSA_006089, were identified as surrounding the Pl 19 gene at a distance of 0.6 cM from each side. Genetic analysis indicated that Pl 19 is different from Pl 17 , which had previously been mapped to LG4, but is closely linked to Pl 17 . This new gene is highly effective against the most predominant and virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in North America and is the first downy mildew resistance gene that has been transferred to confection sunflower. The selected resistant germplasm derived from homozygous BC 2 F 3 progeny provides a novel gene for use in confection sunflower breeding programs.

  10. C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions in Chinese sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ji; Tang, Lu; Benyamin, Beben; Shah, Sonia; Hemani, Gib; Liu, Rong; Ye, Shan; Liu, Xiaolu; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Huagang; Cremin, Katie; Leo, Paul; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M; Xu, Huji; Brown, Matthew A; Bartlett, Perry F; Mangelsdorf, Marie; Fan, Dongsheng

    2015-09-01

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) in the C9orf72 gene has been identified as the most common mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among Caucasian populations. We sought to comprehensively evaluate genetic and epigenetic variants of C9orf72 and the contribution of the HRE in Chinese ALS cases. We performed fragment-length and repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction to determine GGGGCC copy number and expansion within the C9orf72 gene in 1092 sporadic ALS (sALS) and 1062 controls from China. We performed haplotype analysis of 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within and surrounding C9orf72. The C9orf72 HRE was found in 3 sALS patients (0.3%) but not in control subjects (p = 0.25). For 2 of the cases with the HRE, genotypes of 8 single-nucleotide polymorphisms flanking the HRE were inconsistent with the haplotype reported to be strongly associated with ALS in Caucasian populations. For these 2 individuals, we found hypermethylation of the CpG island upstream of the repeat, an observation not detected in other sALS patients (p HRE were highly associated with repeat lengths >8 repeats implying that both haplotypes may confer instability of repeat length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Homeolog loss and expression changes in natural populations of the recently and repeatedly formed allotetraploid Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although polyploidy has long been recognized as a major force in the evolution of plants, most of what we know about the genetic consequences of polyploidy comes from the study of crops and model systems. Furthermore, although many polyploid species have formed repeatedly, patterns of genome evolution and gene expression are largely unknown for natural polyploid populations of independent origin. We therefore examined patterns of loss and expression in duplicate gene pairs (homeologs in multiple individuals from seven natural populations of independent origin of Tragopogon mirus (Asteraceae, an allopolyploid that formed repeatedly within the last 80 years from the diploids T. dubius and T. porrifolius. Results Using cDNA-AFLPs, we found differential band