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Sample records for wild cotton rats

  1. Field determination of 137Cs assimilation efficiencies in wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Unexplained anomalies have been found between predicted and observed values when a model is used to predict radiocesium uptake by wild cotton rats. An experiment is described in which laboratory-born cotton rats from wild parents were released into rat-proof enclosures on a site contaminated with 137 Cs. The rats fed on fescue growing in the enclosures. Samples of soil, fescue, rat carcasses and GI tracts from these plots were analyzed for 137 Cs. When assimilation efficiencies for radiocesium were calculated from the results of these measurements values lower than those previously assumed to apply to the uptake 134 137 Cs across the mammalian GI tract were obtained. It is suggested that these lower values may be due to the contribution of soil-bound 137 Cs to 137 Cs levels in plants and rat GI tracts since examination of GI tracts indicates that wild cotton rats ingest some soil, and soil-bound Cs cannot be readily extracted by gastric juice. (author)

  2. Immune function and hematology of male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in response to food supplementation and methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R.E.; Leslie, David M.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Masters, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined effects of supplementation of food quantity and quality (=enhanced methionine) on hematologic and immunologic parameters of wild, but enclosed, adult male cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in north-central Oklahoma. Sheet metal enclosures were stocked with a high density of wild-caught cotton rats (160 animals/ha) and randomly assigned a treatment of no supplementation, mixed-ration supplementation or methionine-enhanced supplementation. Aside from small increases in counts of red blood cells and hematocrit levels, most indices of erythrocytic characteristics were not affected by supplementation with the mixed-ration or enhanced methionine. In contrast, platelet counts were highest in mixed-ration and methionine treatments and counts of total white blood cells were highest with methionine supplementation, albeit relative proportions of different leukocytes did not differ among treatments. Immunologically, neither delayed-type hypersensitivity response nor hemolytic-complement activity differed among treatments. Supplementation of food quantity and quality did not broadly affect hematologic parameters and immune function of male cotton rats, but enhanced platelet and leukocyte counts may confer advantages to overall health. Clarification of the role of such effects on population limitation or regulation requires additional research.

  3. Assessment of immunotoxic effects of environmental contamination using a cotton rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.R.; Propst, T.L.; McMurry, S.T.; Lochmiller, R.L.; McBee, K.; Quails, C.W. Jr.; Burks, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    Adult National Institute of Health inbred cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were housed in six terrestrial mesocosms on or near an abandoned oil refinery in central Oklahoma for 56 days. Exposure sites included three mesocosms located on sites judged to be contaminated with a variety of complex mixtures of contaminants and three matched reference mesocosm. In addition, wild cotton rats were collected from contaminated and reference areas near the mesocosm sites. Peripheral leukocyte and erythrocyte variables, secondary lymphoid organ weight and cellularity, proliferative response of splenocytes to mitogens, lymphocyte subpopulations, delayed-type hypersensitivity response, 24 h hypersensitivity, antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, NK cell activity, macrophage metabolic functions, and complement activity were measures as a comprehensive screen of immunocompetence. According to current data analysis, peripheral leukocyte numbers, mitogenic response of splenocytes, antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, delayed-type sensitivity and 24 h hypersensitivity were altered by contaminant exposure

  4. Proteomic profiling of developing cotton fibers from wild and domesticated Gossypium barbadense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Grupp, Kara; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2013-10-01

    Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is widely cultivated because of its long, strong seed trichomes ('fibers') used for premium textiles. These agronomically advanced fibers were derived following domestication and thousands of years of human-mediated crop improvement. To gain an insight into fiber development and evolution, we conducted comparative proteomic and transcriptomic profiling of developing fiber from an elite cultivar and a wild accession. Analyses using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) LC-MS/MS technology identified 1317 proteins in fiber. Of these, 205 were differentially expressed across developmental stages, and 190 showed differential expression between wild and cultivated forms, 14.4% of the proteome sampled. Human selection may have shifted the timing of developmental modules, such that some occur earlier in domesticated than in wild cotton. A novel approach was used to detect possible biased expression of homoeologous copies of proteins. Results indicate a significant partitioning of duplicate gene expression at the protein level, but an approximately equal degree of bias for each of the two constituent genomes of allopolyploid cotton. Our results demonstrate the power of complementary transcriptomic and proteomic approaches for the study of the domestication process. They also provide a rich database for mining for functional analyses of cotton improvement or evolution. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Modelling biological control with wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera-cotton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Hu, Z.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive model was developed to simulate virus epizootics in a stage structured insect population and analyse scenarios for the biological control of cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa armigera, in cotton, using wild-type or genetically modified baculoviruses. In simulations on dosage and

  6. Antibody Contributes to Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    H1N2 swine influenza virus in pigs previously infected with H1N1 and/or H3N2 subtypes. Vaccine 21: 1375–1381. Wei, C.J., J.C. Boyington, P.M...contributes to heterosubtypic protection against influenza A-induced tachypnea in cotton rats" Name of Candidate: r. Timothy M. Straight Doctor of...Heterosubtypic Immunity In the Cotton Rat Model of Influenza " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the

  7. Close pathological correlations between chronic kidney disease and reproductive organ-associated abnormalities in female cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichii, Osamu; Nakamura, Teppei; Irie, Takao; Kouguchi, Hirokazu; Sotozaki, Kozue; Horino, Taro; Sunden, Yuji; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2018-03-01

    Cotton rat ( Sigmodon hispidus) is a useful experimental rodent for the study of human infectious diseases. We previously clarified that cotton rats, particularly females, developed chronic kidney disease characterized by cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis. The present study investigated female-associated factors for chronic kidney disease development in cotton rats. Notably, female cotton rats developed separation of the pelvic symphysis and hypertrophy in the vaginal parts of the cervix with age, which strongly associated with pyometra. The development of pyometra closely associated with the deterioration of renal dysfunction or immunological abnormalities was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine or spleen weight and serum albumin/globulin ratio, respectively. These parameters for renal dysfunction and immunological abnormalities were statistically correlated. These phenotypes found in the female reproductive organs were completely inhibited by ovariectomy. Further, the female cotton rats with pyometra tended to show more severe chronic kidney disease phenotypes and immunological abnormalities than those without pyometra; these changes were inhibited in ovariectomized cotton rats. With regard to renal histopathology, cystic lesions, inflammation, and fibrosis were ameliorated by ovariectomy. Notably, the immunostaining intensity of estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β were weak in the healthy kidneys, but both estrogen receptors were strongly induced in the renal tubules showing cystic changes. In conclusion, the close correlations among female reproductive organ-associated abnormalities, immunological abnormalities, and renal dysfunction characterize the chronic kidney disease features of female cotton rats. Thus, the cotton rat is a unique rodent model to elucidate the pathological crosstalk between chronic kidney disease and sex-related factors. Impact statement The increasing number of elderly individuals in the overall

  8. Comparison of airway measurements during influenza-induced tachypnea in infant and adult cotton rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Gregory A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea is frequently observed as a clinical sign of influenza pneumonia in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital. We previously demonstrated that influenza infection of adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus also results in tachypnea and wanted to establish whether this clinical sign was observed in infected infant cotton rats. We hypothesized that age-dependent differences in lung mechanics result in differences in ventilatory characteristics following influenza infection. Methods Lung tidal volume, dynamic elastance, resistance, and pleural pressure were measured in a resistance and compliance system on mechanically-ventilated anesthestized young (14–28 day old and adult (6–12 week old cotton rats. Animals at the same age were infected with influenza virus, and breathing rates and other respiratory measurements were recorded using a whole body flow plethysmograph. Results Adult cotton rats had significantly greater tidal volume (TV, and lower resistance and elastance than young animals. To evaluate the impact of this increased lung capacity and stiffening on respiratory disease, young and adult animals were infected intra-nasally with influenza A/Wuhan/359/95. Both age groups had increased respiratory rate and enhanced pause (Penh during infection, suggesting lower airway obstruction. However, in spite of significant tachypnea, the infant (unlike the adult cotton rats maintained the same tidal volume, resulting in an increased minute volume. In addition, the parameters that contribute to Penh were different: while relaxation time between breaths and time of expiration was decreased in both age groups, a disproportionate increase in peak inspiratory and expiratory flow contributed to the increase in Penh in infant animals. Conclusion While respiratory rate is increased in both adult and infant influenza-infected cotton rats, the volume of air exchanged per minute (minute volume is

  9. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  10. Attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri 2a strains mucosally deliver DNA vaccines encoding measles virus hemagglutinin, inducing specific immune responses and protection in cotton rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F; Barry, Eileen M; Losonsky, Genevieve; Singh, Mahender; Medina-Moreno, Sandra M; Polo, John M; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Robinson, Harriet; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levine, Myron M

    2003-05-01

    Measles remains a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Residual maternal measles antibodies and immunologic immaturity dampen immunogenicity of the current vaccine in young infants. Because cotton rat respiratory tract is susceptible to measles virus (MV) replication after intranasal (i.n.) challenge, this model can be used to assess the efficacy of MV vaccines. Pursuing a new measles vaccine strategy that might be effective in young infants, we used attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CVD 908-htrA and Shigella flexneri 2a CVD 1208 vaccines to deliver mucosally to cotton rats eukaryotic expression plasmid pGA3-mH and Sindbis virus-based DNA replicon pMSIN-H encoding MV hemagglutinin (H). The initial i.n. dose-response with bacterial vectors alone identified a well-tolerated dosage (1 x 10(9) to 7 x 10(9) CFU) and a volume (20 micro l) that elicited strong antivector immune responses. Animals immunized i.n. on days 0, 28, and 76 with bacterial vectors carrying DNA plasmids encoding MV H or immunized parenterally with these naked DNA vaccine plasmids developed MV plaque reduction neutralizing antibodies and proliferative responses against MV antigens. In a subsequent experiment of identical design, cotton rats were challenged with wild-type MV 1 month after the third dose of vaccine or placebo. MV titers were significantly reduced in lung tissue of animals immunized with MV DNA vaccines delivered either via bacterial live vectors or parenterally. Since attenuated serovar Typhi and S. flexneri can deliver measles DNA vaccines mucosally in cotton rats, inducing measles immune responses (including neutralizing antibodies) and protection, boosting strategies can now be evaluated in animals primed with MV DNA vaccines.

  11. Radiocesium uptake by a population of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) inhabitating the banks of a radioactive liquid waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A mean population of 20 cotton rats inhabited the banks of a small radioactive liquid waste pond (approximately 0.39 ha) in Tennessee during the summer of 1977. Radiocesium concentrations in common shoreline plants (Eleocharis, Juncus, Typha, and Polygonum) ranged from 80pCi/dry g in Juncus to 35,800 pCi/dry g in Eleocharis. The mean (+-S.E.) 137 Cs concentration in cotton rat GI tracts was 2283 (+-591) pCi/dry g (N=14). The mean (+-S.E.) whole-body burden of 137 Cs in 14 rats sampled from June to September was 44467 (+-13,142) pCi. Mean 137 Cs body burdens in cotton rats increased from 32 pCi/g live weight in May to 208 pCi/g live weight in August and declined to 3 pCi/g live weight in December. The mean (+-S.D.) percent distribution of the whole-body contents among pelt, GI tract and carcass was 12(+-3), 28(+-12), and 60(+-9), respectively. The calculated mean (+-S.E.) ingestion rate of 137 Cs, assuming rats recaptured on the pond's banks for longer than 42 days were at equilibrium, was 1792(+-504) pCi/day. The concentration of 137 Cs in shoreline plants, rat GI tracts, and rat bodies indicated that cotton rats, which are herbivores, accumulated their body burdens by foraging along the contamination zone bordering the pond shoreline. A maximum mean estimate of the amount of 137 Cs annually exported by cotton rats from the pond is 8719 nCi or approximately 10 -6 % of the total amount estimated to be present in the pond's sediments. (author)

  12. iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic profiling of anthers from a photosensitive male sterile mutant and wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Song, Meizhen; Meng, Yanyan; Ma, Jianhui; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2015-08-03

    Male sterility is a common phenomenon in flowering plants, and it has been successfully developed in several crops by taking advantage of heterosis. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important economic crop, used mainly for the production of textile fiber. Using a space mutation breeding technique, a novel photosensitive genetic male sterile mutant CCRI9106 was isolated from the wild-type upland cotton cultivar CCRI040029. To use CCRI9106 in cotton hybrid breeding, it is of great importance to study the molecular mechanisms of its male sterility. Here, histological and iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic analyses of anthers were performed to explore male sterility mechanisms of the mutant. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the anthers showed that the development of pollen wall in CCRI9106 was severely defective with a lack of exine formation. At the protein level, 6121 high-confidence proteins were identified and 325 of them showed differential expression patterns between mutant and wild-type anthers. The proteins up- or down-regulated in MT anthers were mainly involved in exine formation, protein degradation, calcium ion binding,etc. These findings provide valuable information on the proteins involved in anther and pollen development, and contribute to elucidate the mechanism of male sterility in upland cotton. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Recent long-distance transgene flow into wild populations conforms to historical patterns of gene flow in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) at its centre of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegier, A; Piñeyro-Nelson, A; Alarcón, J; Gálvez-Mariscal, A; Alvarez-Buylla, E R; Piñero, D

    2011-10-01

    Over 95% of the currently cultivated cotton was domesticated from Gossypium hirsutum, which originated and diversified in Mexico. Demographic and genetic studies of this species at its centre of origin and diversification are lacking, although they are critical for cotton conservation and breeding. We investigated the actual and potential distribution of wild cotton populations, as well as the contribution of historical and recent gene flow in shaping cotton genetic diversity and structure. We evaluated historical gene flow using chloroplast microsatellites and recent gene flow through the assessment of transgene presence in wild cotton populations, exploiting the fact that genetically modified cotton has been planted in the North of Mexico since 1996. Assessment of geographic structure through Bayesian spatial analysis, BAPS and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Production (GARP), suggests that G. hirsutum seems to conform to a metapopulation scheme, with eight distinct metapopulations. Despite evidence for long-distance gene flow, genetic variation among the metapopulations of G. hirsutum is high (He = 0.894 ± 0.01). We identified 46 different haplotypes, 78% of which are unique to a particular metapopulation, in contrast to a single haplotype detected in cotton cultivars. Recent gene flow was also detected (m = 66/270 = 0.24), with four out of eight metapopulations having transgenes. We discuss the implications of the data presented here with respect to the conservation and future breeding of cotton populations and genetic diversity at its centre of crop origin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Oxidative stress in a rat model of cotton smoke inhalation-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoke inhalation injury refers to airway and lung parenchyma injury and general chemical damage caused by inhaling toxic gases and substances. The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress mechanism of cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury in a rat model. Materials and Methods: ...

  15. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Jong Seok [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gyeonggi-do, Gimcheon, Gyeongsangbukdo (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Minkyoung [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kang, Sang-Moo, E-mail: skang24@gsu.edu [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.

  16. Combined virus-like particle and fusion protein-encoding DNA vaccination of cotton rats induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus without causing vaccine-enhanced disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Minkyoung; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-01-01

    A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.

  17. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P. cari...

  18. Enterovirus D-68 Infection, Prophylaxis, and Vaccination in a Novel Permissive Animal Model, the Cotton Rat (Sigmodon hispidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira C Patel

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in detection of Enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68 among patients with severe respiratory infections worldwide. EV-D68 is now recognized as a re-emerging pathogen; however, due to lack of a permissive animal model for EV-D68, a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and immune response against EV-D68 has been hampered. Recently, it was shown that EV-D68 has a strong affinity for α2,6-linked sialic acids (SAs and we have shown previously that α2,6-linked SAs are abundantly present in the respiratory tract of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus. Thus, we hypothesized that cotton rats could be a potential model for EV-D68 infection. Here, we evaluated the ability of two recently isolated EV-D68 strains (VANBT/1 and MO/14/49, along with the historical prototype Fermon strain (ATCC, to infect cotton rats. We found that cotton rats are permissive to EV-D68 infection without virus adaptation. The different strains of EV-D68 showed variable infection profiles and the ability to produce neutralizing antibody (NA upon intranasal infection or intramuscular immunization. Infection with the VANBT/1 resulted in significant induction of pulmonary cytokine gene expression and lung pathology. Intramuscular immunization with live VANBT/1 or MO/14/49 induced strong homologous antibody responses, but a moderate heterologous NA response. We showed that passive prophylactic administration of serum with high content of NA against VANBT/1 resulted in an efficient antiviral therapy. VANBT/1-immunized animals showed complete protection from VANBT/1 challenge, but induced strong pulmonary Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses and enhanced lung pathology, indicating the generation of exacerbated immune response by immunization. In conclusion, our data illustrate that the cotton rat is a powerful animal model that provides an experimental platform to investigate pathogenesis, immune response, anti-viral therapies and vaccines

  19. Diversity of aging of the immune system classified in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) model of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichelaar, Teun; van Erp, Elisabeth A; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Smits, Noortje A M; van Els, Cécile A C M; Pieren, Daan K J; Luytjes, Willem

    2018-05-01

    Susceptibility and declined resistance to human pathogens like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) at old age is well represented in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Despite providing a preferred model of human infectious diseases, little is known about aging of its adaptive immune system. We aimed to define aging-related changes of the immune system of this species. Concomitantly, we asked whether the rate of immunological alterations may be stratified by physiological aberrations encountered during aging. With increasing age, cotton rats showed reduced frequencies of T cells, impaired induction of antibodies to RSV, higher incidence of aberrations of organs and signs of lipemia. Moreover, old animals expressed high biological heterogeneity, but the age-related reduction of T cell frequency was only observed in those specimens that displayed aberrant organs. Thus, cotton rats show age-related alterations of lymphocytes that can be classified by links with health status. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of Human CD4 and chemokine receptors in cotton rat cells confers permissiveness for productive HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broder Christopher C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current small animal models for studying HIV-1 infection are very limited, and this continues to be a major obstacle for studying HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis, as well as for the urgent development and evaluation of effective anti-HIV-1 therapies and vaccines. Previously, it was shown that HIV-1 can infect cotton rats as indicated by development of antibodies against all major proteins of the virus, the detection of viral cDNA in spleen and brain of challenged animals, the transmission of infectious virus, albeit with low efficiency, from animal to animal by blood, and an additional increase in the mortality in the infected groups. Results Using in vitro experiments, we now show that cotton rat cell lines engineered to express human receptor complexes for HIV-1 (hCD4 along with hCXCR4 or hCCR5 support virus entry, viral cDNA integration, and the production of infectious virus. Conclusion These results further suggest that the development of transgenic cotton rats expressing human HIV-1 receptors may prove to be useful small animal model for HIV infection.

  1. Study on electric parameters of wild and cultivated cotton forms being in normal state and irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirov, N.N.; Kamalov, N.; Norbaev, N.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation effect on electric conductivity of tissues in case of alternating current, electrical capacity and cell impedance has been studied. Gamma irradiation of seedlings results in definite changes of electric factors of cells (electric conductivity, electric capacity, impedance). It is shown that especially strong changes have been revealed during gamma irradiation of radiosensitive wild form of cotton plants. The deviation of cell electric factors from the standard depends on the violation of evolutionally composed ion heterogeneity and cell colloid system state, which results in changes in their structure and metabolism in them

  2. Cadmium-induced functional and ultrastructural alterations in roots of two transgenic cotton cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.K.; Sun, Yuqiang; Dawood, M.; Hayat, Y.; Variath, M.T.; Wu Yuxiang; Raziuddin; Mishkat, Ullah; Salahuddin; Najeeb, Ullah; Zhu, Shuijin

    2009-01-01

    The toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) at increasing concentrations was studied with special attention being given to the root morphological and ultrastructural changes in two transgenic cotton cultivars viz. BR001 and GK30 and their wild relative viz. Coker 312. In comparison to their respective controls, low concentration (10 and 100 μM) of Cd greatly stimulated seed germination, while it was inhibited by highest concentration of Cd (1000 μM) in case of two transgenic cultivars. However, in Coker 312 the seed germination percentage progressively decreased over the control at all Cd levels. Various physiological and morphological parameters of the root and whole plant in both transgenic cotton cultivars and their relative wild cotton genotype respond differently towards the Cd toxicity. Bioavailability of Cd was concentration-dependent where seedling root captured more Cd as compared to shoot. BR001 accumulated more Cd followed by GK30, while Coker 312 was less Cd accumulator. The ultrastructural modifications in the root tip cells of both the transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative were also dose-dependent. With the increase in Cd levels, the fine structures of their root cells also invariably changed. Increase in plasmolysis of the plasma membrane, greater number of nucleoli and vacuoles and enlarged vacuoles could be observed in both transgenic cotton cultivars. In comparison to them, Coker 312 showed relatively well developed ultrastructures of the root tips except enlarged vacuoles and greater number of mitochondria. Moreover, the accumulation of Cd in the form of electron dense granules and crystals both in vacuoles and attached to cell walls were visible in both transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative. These results suggest that both transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative cotton genotype responded positively towards Cd stress at seedling stage, the internal Cd-detoxification might be through apoplastic and symplastic binding

  3. Cadmium-induced functional and ultrastructural alterations in roots of two transgenic cotton cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, M.K.; Sun, Yuqiang; Dawood, M. [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Hayat, Y. [Institute of Bioinformatics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Variath, M.T.; Wu Yuxiang [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Raziuddin [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Plant Breeding and Genetics Department, NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Mishkat, Ullah [Zoological Sciences Division, Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Garden Avenue, Shakarparian, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Salahuddin [District Agriculture Extension Offices, Bannu Road, Dera Ismail Khan (NWFP) (Pakistan); Najeeb, Ullah [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Zhu, Shuijin [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)], E-mail: shjzhu@zju.edu.cn

    2009-01-15

    The toxic effect of cadmium (Cd) at increasing concentrations was studied with special attention being given to the root morphological and ultrastructural changes in two transgenic cotton cultivars viz. BR001 and GK30 and their wild relative viz. Coker 312. In comparison to their respective controls, low concentration (10 and 100 {mu}M) of Cd greatly stimulated seed germination, while it was inhibited by highest concentration of Cd (1000 {mu}M) in case of two transgenic cultivars. However, in Coker 312 the seed germination percentage progressively decreased over the control at all Cd levels. Various physiological and morphological parameters of the root and whole plant in both transgenic cotton cultivars and their relative wild cotton genotype respond differently towards the Cd toxicity. Bioavailability of Cd was concentration-dependent where seedling root captured more Cd as compared to shoot. BR001 accumulated more Cd followed by GK30, while Coker 312 was less Cd accumulator. The ultrastructural modifications in the root tip cells of both the transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative were also dose-dependent. With the increase in Cd levels, the fine structures of their root cells also invariably changed. Increase in plasmolysis of the plasma membrane, greater number of nucleoli and vacuoles and enlarged vacuoles could be observed in both transgenic cotton cultivars. In comparison to them, Coker 312 showed relatively well developed ultrastructures of the root tips except enlarged vacuoles and greater number of mitochondria. Moreover, the accumulation of Cd in the form of electron dense granules and crystals both in vacuoles and attached to cell walls were visible in both transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative. These results suggest that both transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative cotton genotype responded positively towards Cd stress at seedling stage, the internal Cd-detoxification might be through apoplastic and symplastic

  4. [Comparative Analysis of Behavior in The Open-field Test in Wild Grey Rats (Rattus norvegicus) and in Grey Rats Subjected to Prolonged Selection for Tame And Aggressive Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhemyakina, R V; Konoshenko, M Yu; Sakharov, D G; Smagin, D A; Markel, A L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is analysis of the open-field behavior in grey rats selected for the tame and aggressive behavior in comparison with the wild grey rats. Significant influences of the rat group factor on the 13 of 19 behavioral features studied in the open-field were found. This effect, in general, depends on existence of great differences between behaviors of the wild rats from the one hand and behaviors of the tame and aggressive rats from the other. The behaviors of the rats from the last two groups are practically identical. Multidimensional analysis confirms the distinct separation in coordinates of the two main components of the wild rat behavior from the behavior of both the tame and selectively bred aggressive rats. The first main component dimension corresponds to the grade of fear, which was significantly enhanced in the wild rats. So, in spite of the equality of behavioral aggressiveness of the wild rats and the rats selected for aggression with the glove test, the behavior of selected aggressive rats in the open-field is analogous to behavior of the rats selected for tameness. Comparison of behavioral features with the hormonal stress responsiveness allowed us to conclude that the aggressive behavior of the wild and se lected for aggression rats based on different motivational and neuroendocrine processes.

  5. Diversity of aging of the immune system classified in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) model of human infectious diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guichelaar, Teun; van Erp, Elisabeth A; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Smits, Noortje A M; van Els, Cécile A C M; Pieren, Daan K J; Luytjes, Willem

    2018-01-01

    Susceptibility and declined resistance to human pathogens like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) at old age is well represented in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Despite providing a preferred model of human infectious diseases, little is known about aging of its adaptive immune system. We aimed

  6. Genome-wide cloning, identification, classification and functional analysis of cotton heat shock transcription factors in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Sun, Na; Deng, Ting; Zhang, Lida; Zuo, Kaijing

    2014-11-06

    Heat shock transcriptional factors (Hsfs) play important roles in the processes of biotic and abiotic stresses as well as in plant development. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, 2n=4x=(AD)2=52) is an important crop for natural fiber production. Due to continuous high temperature and intermittent drought, heat stress is becoming a handicap to improve cotton yield and lint quality. Recently, the related wild diploid species Gossypium raimondii genome (2n=2x=(D5)2=26) has been fully sequenced. In order to analyze the functions of different Hsfs at the genome-wide level, detailed characterization and analysis of the Hsf gene family in G. hirsutum is indispensable. EST assembly and genome-wide analyses were applied to clone and identify heat shock transcription factor (Hsf) genes in Upland cotton (GhHsf). Forty GhHsf genes were cloned, identified and classified into three main classes (A, B and C) according to the characteristics of their domains. Analysis of gene duplications showed that GhHsfs have occurred more frequently than reported in plant genomes such as Arabidopsis and Populus. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that all GhHsf transcripts are expressed in most cotton plant tissues including roots, stems, leaves and developing fibers, and abundantly in developing ovules. Three expression patterns were confirmed in GhHsfs when cotton plants were exposed to high temperature for 1 h. GhHsf39 exhibited the most immediate response to heat shock. Comparative analysis of Hsfs expression differences between the wild-type and fiberless mutant suggested that Hsfs are involved in fiber development. Comparative genome analysis showed that Upland cotton D-subgenome contains 40 Hsf members, and that the whole genome of Upland cotton contains more than 80 Hsf genes due to genome duplication. The expression patterns in different tissues in response to heat shock showed that GhHsfs are important for heat stress as well as fiber development. These results provide an improved

  7. Transmission of Guanarito and Pirital Viruses among Wild Rodents, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Duno, Gloria; Duno, Freddy; Utrera, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Samples from rodents captured on a farm in Venezuela in February 1997 were tested for arenavirus, antibody against Guanarito virus (GTOV), and antibody against Pirital virus (PIRV). Thirty-one (48.4%) of 64 short-tailed cane mice (Zygodontomys brevicauda) were infected with GTOV, 1 Alston’s cotton rat (Sigmodon alstoni) was infected with GTOV, and 36 (64.3%) of 56 other Alston’s cotton rats were infected with PIRV. The results of analyses of field and laboratory data suggested that horizontal transmission is the dominant mode of GTOV transmission in Z. brevicauda mice and that vertical transmission is an important mode of PIRV transmission in S. alstoni rats. The results also suggested that bodily secretions and excretions from most GTOV-infected short-tailed cane mice and most PIRV-infected Alston’s cotton rats may transmit the viruses to humans. PMID:22172205

  8. [Identification of wild rodents as hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricencis in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff-Teixeira, C; de Avila-Pires, F D; Machado, R de C; Camillo-Coura, L; Lenzi, H L

    1990-01-01

    Increasing number of human cases of abdominal angiostrongyliasis has been diagnosed in the south of Brazil. The main definitive host of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in Central America is the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) that does not occur in South America, except in the north of Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Rodents were captured in the endemic area in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) and definitive hosts were identified for the first time in Brazil: Oryzomys nigripes and Oryzomys ratticeps. O. nigripes is a small wild rodent and it appears to be the main definitive host of A. costaricensis in the highlands of RS, Brazil's southernmost State.

  9. Molecular Markers and Cotton Genetic Improvement: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands.

  10. Development and bin mapping of gene-associated interspecific SNPs for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) introgression breeding efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Zheng, Xiuting; Wang, Fei; Hoegenauer, Kevin A; Maeda, Andrea B V; Yang, S Samuel; Stoffel, Kevin; Matvienko, Marta; Clemons, Kimberly; Udall, Joshua A; Van Deynze, Allen; Jones, Don C; Stelly, David M

    2014-10-30

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the largest producer of natural fibers for textile and is an important crop worldwide. Crop production is comprised primarily of G. hirsutum L., an allotetraploid. However, elite cultivars express very small amounts of variation due to the species monophyletic origin, domestication and further bottlenecks due to selection. Conversely, wild cotton species harbor extensive genetic diversity of prospective utility to improve many beneficial agronomic traits, fiber characteristics, and resistance to disease and drought. Introgression of traits from wild species can provide a natural way to incorporate advantageous traits through breeding to generate higher-producing cotton cultivars and more sustainable production systems. Interspecific introgression efforts by conventional methods are very time-consuming and costly, but can be expedited using marker-assisted selection. Using transcriptome sequencing we have developed the first gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for wild cotton species G. tomentosum, G. mustelinum, G. armourianum and G. longicalyx. Markers were also developed for a secondary cultivated species G. barbadense cv. 3-79. A total of 62,832 non-redundant SNP markers were developed from the five wild species which can be utilized for interspecific germplasm introgression into cultivated G. hirsutum and are directly associated with genes. Over 500 of the G. barbadense markers have been validated by whole-genome radiation hybrid mapping. Overall 1,060 SNPs from the five different species have been screened and shown to produce acceptable genotyping assays. This large set of 62,832 SNPs relative to cultivated G. hirsutum will allow for the first high-density mapping of genes from five wild species that affect traits of interest, including beneficial agronomic and fiber characteristics. Upon mapping, the markers can be utilized for marker-assisted introgression of new germplasm into cultivated cotton and in

  11. Efficacy of the Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Glycoprotein D/AS04 Vaccine against Genital HSV-2 and HSV-1 Infection and Disease in the Cotton Rat Sigmodon hispidus Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhvalova, Marina; McKay, Jamall; Mbaye, Aissatou; Sanford-Crane, Hannah; Blanco, Jorge C G; Huber, Ashley; Herold, Betsy C

    2015-10-01

    Subunit vaccines based on the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD-2) have been the major focus of HSV-2 vaccine development for the past 2 decades. Based on the promising data generated in the guinea pig model, a formulation containing truncated gD-2, aluminum salt, and MPL (gD/AS04) advanced to clinical trials. The results of these trials, however, were unexpected, as the vaccine protected against HSV-1 infection but not against HSV-2. To address this discrepancy, we developed a Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-treated cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus model of HSV-2 and HSV-1 genital infection. The severity of HSV-1 genital herpes was less than that of HSV-2 genital herpes in cotton rats, and yet the model allowed for comparative evaluation of gD/AS04 immunogenicity and efficacy. Cotton rats were intramuscularly vaccinated using a prime boost strategy with gD/AS04 (Simplirix vaccine) or control vaccine formulation (hepatitis B vaccine FENDrix) and subsequently challenged intravaginally with HSV-2 or HSV-1. The gD/AS04 vaccine was immunogenic in cotton rats and induced serum IgG directed against gD-2 and serum HSV-2 neutralizing antibodies but failed to efficiently protect against HSV-2 disease or to decrease the HSV-2 viral load. However, gD/AS04 significantly reduced vaginal titers of HSV-1 and better protected animals against HSV-1 compared to HSV-2 genital disease. The latter finding is generally consistent with the clinical outcome of the Herpevac trial of Simplirix. Passive transfer of serum from gD/AS04-immunized cotton rats conferred stronger protection against HSV-1 genital disease. These findings suggest the need for alternative vaccine strategies and the identification of new correlates of protection. In spite of the high health burden of genital herpes, there is still no effective intervention against the disease. The significant gap in knowledge on genital herpes pathogenesis has been further highlighted by the recent failure of GSK

  12. Field inactivation of wild-type and genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus in cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Sun, X.C.; Werf, van der W.; Vlak, J.M.; Hu, Z.H.

    2004-01-01

    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is a serious pest on cotton in China. A specific baculovirus, H. armigera nucleopolyhedroviruses (HaSNPV) is used as a commercial biopesticide to control this pest. To improve the pesticidal properties, HaSNPV has been genetically engineered by both deleting

  13. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Double-stranded RNAs Target HMG-CoA Reductase (HMGR) Gene Inhibits the Growth, Development and Survival of Cotton Bollworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Geng; Cheng, Linlin; Qi, Xuewei; Ge, Zonghe; Niu, Changying; Zhang, Xianlong; Jin, Shuangxia

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as a powerful technique in the research of functional genomics as well as plant pest control. In this report, double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) targeting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene, which catalyze a rate-limiting enzymatic reaction in the mevalonate pathway of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in cotton bollworm, was expressed in cotton plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR and Sothern analysis revealed the integration of HMGR gene into cotton genome. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR confirmed the high transcription level of dsHMGR in transgenic cotton lines. The HMGR expression both in transcription and translation level was significantly downregulated in cotton bollworms (helicoverpa armigera) larvae after feeding on the leaves of HMGR transgenic plants. The transcription level of HMGR gene in larvae reared on transgenic cotton leaves was as much as 80.68% lower than that of wild type. In addition, the relative expression level of vitellogenin (Vg, crucial source of nourishment for offspring embryo development) gene was also reduced by 76.86% when the insect larvae were fed with transgenic leaves. The result of insect bioassays showed that the transgenic plant harboring dsHMGR not only inhibited net weight gain but also delayed the growth of cotton bollworm larvae. Taken together, transgenic cotton plant expressing dsRNAs successfully downregulated HMGR gene and impaired the development and survival of target insect, which provided more option for plant pest control.

  14. Identification of exotic genetic components and DNA methylation pattern analysis of three cotton introgression lines from Gossypium bickii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shou-Pu; Sun, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Chao; Du, Xiong-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alien DNA fragments on plant genome has been studied in many species. However, little is known about the introgression lines of Gossypium. To study the consequences of introgression in Gossypium, we investigated 2000 genomic and 800 epigenetic sites in three typical cotton introgression lines, as well as their cultivar (Gossypium hirsutum) and wild parents (Gossypium bickii), by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP). The results demonstrate that an average of 0.5% of exotic DNA segments from wild cotton is transmitted into the genome of each introgression line, with the addition of other forms of genetic variation. In total, an average of 0.7% of genetic variation sites is identified in introgression lines. Simultaneously, the overall cytosine methylation level in each introgression line is very close to that of the upland cotton parent (an average of 22.6%). Further dividing patterns reveal that both hypomethylation and hypermethylation occurred in introgression lines in comparison with the upland cotton parent. Sequencing of nine methylation polymorphism fragments showed that most (7 of 9) of the methylation alternations occurred in the noncoding sequences. The molecular evidence of introgression from wild cotton into introgression lines in our study is identified by AFLP. Moreover, the causes of petal variation in introgression lines are discussed.

  15. Jump-starting urban rat research: Conspecific pheromones recruit wild rats into a behavioral and pathogen-monitoring assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild rats, Rattus spp, have adapted so well to urbanization that humans may be obligatory to their survival. Consequently, rats foul human food sources, predate threatened fauna and serve as reservoirs for disease, costing the US economy $19 billion in losses year -1. Urban rat ecology however, remains vastly unexplored because these animals are cryptic, crepuscular, difficult to identify, and hazardous to handle. Additionally, the high-rise buildings that block satellite link-ups, underground sewers and subway tunnels, and rebar enforced concrete covered landscape make it difficult—if not impossible— to track urban animals using traditional radio telemetry. Consequently, there are few ecological studies with free-ranging urban rats. Therefore, we set out to monitor the behaviors and health of free-ranging rats in metropolitan New York. Recognizing that wild rats are attracted to live laboratory-reared conspecifics and that they are sensitive to pheromones, we used soiled rat bedding to repeatedly attract animals to a Remote Frequency Identification (RFID- based antenna with camera-trap and load cell (scale for collecting weights. We captured and micro-chipped 13 rats within 50, 30 and 10 m from our antenna and followed their movements. Seven of the 8 animals released within 10 m of the antenna, visited the RFID antenna lure 398 times over 41 standardized days. Males (2.7 visits day-1 visited the antenna at the same frequency as females (2.7 visits day-1; P>0.5, and both sexes spent similar time dwelling at the pheromones (M, 2.9±0.9 sec; F, 2.4.±0.4 sec; P>0.05. The passive integrated transponder (PIT-tag worked free on the lone individual that did not participate. Within our population, female activity peaked between 6am and 7pm, while males visited throughout the day. Our results demonstrate the potential to safely overcome the primary barriers that have impeded urban rat ecological studies. We used pheromone-based lures to attract

  16. Metal and metalloid contamination in roadside soil and wild rats around a Pb-Zn mine in Kabwe, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Hamada, Kyohei [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy [Department of Biomedical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu [Department of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501 (Japan); Ishizuka, Mayumi, E-mail: ishizum@vetmed.hokudai.ac.j [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.

  17. Activity of some nucleases of cotton sorts and species of various radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirov, N.N.; Arslanova, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    The activity of some nucleases under the effect of gamma rays was studied on cotton varieties and species differing in radiosensitivity. It was found that acid nuclease was more active in wild cotton forms as compared to the cultivated varieties, whereas with alkaline DNA-ase it was opposite. At the radiation dose of 30 kR the activity of alkaline DNA-ase activated in 26-chromosome wild cotton G. arboreum ssp. alfusifalium and 52-chromosome S.h.ssp.mexicanum, while the activity of acid DNA-ase somewhat decreased. Under irradiating AN-402 variety (produced from ssp. mexicanum by irradiation) the activity of alkaline DNA-ase increased noticeably when budding, whereas the activity of acid DNA-ase was at the level of control. The activity of the alkaline DNA-ase form normalized in the phase of blooming. In C-70-59 variety (G.arboreum) the activity of both DNA-ases increased after irradiation in the phase of blooming. The activity of acid DNA-ase and RNA-ase drastically activated in guza 183 (G. herbaceum) under gamma irradiation, whereas that of alkaline ones remained unchanged

  18. Distribution and Potential Impact of Feral Cotton on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic Bt cotton with insecticidal properties presents a potential solution to the bollworm infestation in Tanzania. However, concerns associated with transgenic crops viz.; transgene flow to wild and feral relatives, increased potential for resistance evolution, need to be addressed prior to adoption of any transgenic crop.

  19. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Eight COL Superfamily Genes in Group I Related to Photoperiodic Regulation of Flowering Time in Wild and Domesticated Cotton (Gossypium) Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Ding, Jian; Liu, Chunxiao; Cai, Caiping; Zhou, Baoliang; Zhang, Tianzhen; Guo, Wangzhen

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time is an important ecological trait that determines the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Flowering time in cotton is controlled by short-day photoperiods, with strict photoperiod sensitivity. As the CO-FT (CONSTANS-FLOWER LOCUS T) module regulates photoperiodic flowering in several plants, we selected eight CONSTANS genes (COL) in group I to detect their expression patterns in long-day and short-day conditions. Further, we individually cloned and sequenced their homologs from 25 different cotton accessions and one outgroup. Finally, we studied their structures, phylogenetic relationship, and molecular evolution in both coding region and three characteristic domains. All the eight COLs in group I show diurnal expression. In the orthologous and homeologous loci, each gene structure in different cotton species is highly conserved, while length variation has occurred due to insertions/deletions in intron and/or exon regions. Six genes, COL2 to COL5, COL7 and COL8, exhibit higher nucleotide diversity in the D-subgenome than in the A-subgenome. The Ks values of 98.37% in all allotetraploid cotton species examined were higher in the A-D and At-Dt comparison than in the A-At and D-Dt comparisons, and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) of Ks between A vs. D and At vs. Dt also showed positive, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient of at least 0.797. The nucleotide polymorphism in wild species is significantly higher compared to G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, indicating a genetic bottleneck associated with the domesticated cotton species. Three characteristic domains in eight COLs exhibit different evolutionary rates, with the CCT domain highly conserved, while the B-box and Var domain much more variable in allotetraploid species. Taken together, COL1, COL2 and COL8 endured greater selective pressures during the domestication process. The study improves our understanding of the domestication-related genes/traits during cotton

  20. Immune defense of wild-caught Norway rats is characterized by increased levels of basal activity but reduced capability to respond to further immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkov, Ivana; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Subota, Vesna; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2018-03-01

    Studies of wild animals' immunity often use comparison with laboratory-raised individuals. Using such an approach, various data were obtained concerning wild Norway rat's immunity. Lower or higher potential of immune system cells to respond to activation stimuli were shown, because of analysis of disparate parameters and/ or small number of analyzed individuals. Inconsistent differences between laboratory and wild rats were shown too, owing to great response variability in wild rats. We hypothesized that wild rats will express more intense immune activity compared to their laboratory counterparts which live in a less demanding environment. To test this, we analyzed the circulating levels of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), a mediator which has a central role in host immune defense. In addition, we examined the activity of the central immune organ, the spleen, including cell proliferation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17), which are major effectors of cellular adaptive immune response. In order to obtain reasonable insight into the immunity of wild Norway rats, analysis was conducted on a much larger number of individuals compared to other studies. Higher levels of plasma IL-6, higher spleen mass, cellularity and basal IFN-γ production concomitantly with lower basal production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) revealed more intense immune activity in the wild compared to laboratory rats. However, lower responsiveness of their spleen cells' proinflammatory cytokine production to concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation, along with preserved capacity of IL-10 response, might be perceived as an indication of wild rats' reduced capability to cope with incoming environmental stimuli, but also as a means to limit tissue damage. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Gene expression in developing fibres of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was massively altered by domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Ryan A; Haigler, Candace H; Flagel, Lex; Hovav, Ran H; Udall, Joshua A; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2010-11-15

    Understanding the evolutionary genetics of modern crop phenotypes has a dual relevance to evolutionary biology and crop improvement. Modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed following thousands of years of artificial selection from a wild form, G. hirsutum var. yucatanense, which bears a shorter, sparser, layer of single-celled, ovular trichomes ('fibre'). In order to gain an insight into the nature of the developmental genetic transformations that accompanied domestication and crop improvement, we studied the transcriptomes of cotton fibres from wild and domesticated accessions over a developmental time course. Fibre cells were harvested between 2 and 25 days post-anthesis and encompassed the primary and secondary wall synthesis stages. Using amplified messenger RNA and a custom microarray platform designed to interrogate expression for 40,430 genes, we determined global patterns of expression during fibre development. The fibre transcriptome of domesticated cotton is far more dynamic than that of wild cotton, with over twice as many genes being differentially expressed during development (12,626 versus 5273). Remarkably, a total of 9465 genes were diagnosed as differentially expressed between wild and domesticated fibres when summed across five key developmental time points. Human selection during the initial domestication and subsequent crop improvement has resulted in a biased upregulation of components of the transcriptional network that are important for agronomically advanced fibre, especially in the early stages of development. About 15% of the differentially expressed genes in wild versus domesticated cotton fibre have no homology to the genes in databases. We show that artificial selection during crop domestication can radically alter the transcriptional developmental network of even a single-celled structure, affecting nearly a quarter of the genes in the genome. Gene expression during fibre development within accessions and expression

  2. The phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (GhPIS) contributes to longer, stronger, and finer fibers in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qin; Yue, Fang; Liu, Ruochen; Song, Shuiqing; Li, Xianbi; Ding, Bo; Yan, Xingying; Pei, Yan

    2018-05-11

    Cotton fibers are the most important natural raw material used in textile industries world-wide. Fiber length, strength, and fineness are the three major traits which determine the quality and economic value of cotton. It is known that exogenous application of phosphatidylinositols (PtdIns), important structural phospholipids, can promote cotton fiber elongation. Here, we sought to increase the in planta production of PtdIns to improve fiber traits. Transgenic cotton plants were generated in which the expression of a cotton phosphatidylinositol synthase gene (i.e., GhPIS) was controlled by the fiber-specific SCFP promoter element, resulting in the specific up-regulation of GhPIS during cotton fiber development. We demonstrate that PtdIns content was significantly enhanced in transgenic cotton fibers and the elevated level of PtdIns stimulated the expression of genes involved in PtdIns phosphorylation as well as promoting lignin/lignin-like phenolic biosynthesis. Fiber length, strength and fineness were also improved in the transgenic plants as compared to the wild-type cotton, with no loss in overall fiber yield. Our data indicate that fiber-specific up-regulation of PtdIns synthesis is a promising strategy for cotton fiber quality improvement.

  3. Overexpression of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) WRKY gene, GhWRKY34, in Arabidopsis enhances salt-tolerance of the transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Na-Na; Gong, Si-Ying; Lu, Rui; Li, Yang; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-11-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most serious threats in world agriculture, and often influences cotton growth and development, resulting in a significant loss in cotton crop yield. WRKY transcription factors are involved in plant response to high salinity stress, but little is known about the role of WRKY transcription factors in cotton so far. In this study, a member (GhWRKY34) of cotton WRKY family was functionally characterized. This protein containing a WRKY domain and a zinc-finger motif belongs to group III of cotton WRKY family. Subcellular localization assay indicated that GhWRKY34 is localized to the cell nucleus. Overexpression of GhWRKY34 in Arabidopsis enhanced the transgenic plant tolerance to salt stress. Several parameters (such as seed germination, green cotyledons, root length and chlorophyll content) in the GhWRKY34 transgenic lines were significantly higher than those in wild type under NaCl treatment. On the contrary, the GhWRKY34 transgenic plants exhibited a substantially lower ratio of Na(+)/K(+) in leaves and roots dealing with salt stress, compared with wild type. Growth status of the GhWRKY34 transgenic plants was much better than that of wild type under salt stress. Expressions of the stress-related genes were remarkably up-regulated in the transgenic plants under salt stress, compared with those in wild type. Based on the data presented in this study, we hypothesize that GhWRKY34 as a positive transcription regulator may function in plant response to high salinity stress through maintaining the Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis as well as activating the salt stress-related genes in cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective potentials of wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Hong; Zhai, Cheng-Kai

    2012-07-01

    The study evaluates the protective potentials of wild rice against obesity and lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. In addition to the rats of low-fat diet group, others animals were exposed to a high-fat/cholesterol diet condition for 8 weeks. The city diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by urban residents in modern China, which is rich in fat/cholesterol and high in carbohydrates from white rice and processed wheat starch. The chief source of dietary carbohydrates of wild rice diet (WRD) is from Chinese wild rice and other compositions are the same with CD. Rats fed CD showed elevated body and liver organ weights, lipid profiles, free fatty acids (FFA) and leptin comparable with rats fed high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFD) known to induce obesity and hyperlipidaemia in this species. However, rats consuming WRD suppressed the increase of lipid droplets accumulation, FFA, and leptin, and the decrease of lipoprotein lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase. Meanwhile, WRD prevented high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced elevation in protein expression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c, and gene expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. These findings indicate that wild rice as a natural food has the potentials of preventing obesity and liver lipotoxicity induced by a high-fat/cholesterol diet in rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gibberellin overproduction promotes sucrose synthase expression and secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Qin Bai

    Full Text Available Bioactive gibberellins (GAs comprise an important class of natural plant growth regulators and play essential roles in cotton fiber development. To date, the molecular base of GAs' functions in fiber development is largely unclear. To address this question, the endogenous bioactive GA levels in cotton developing fibers were elevated by specifically up-regulating GA 20-oxidase and suppressing GA 2-oxidase via transgenic methods. Higher GA levels in transgenic cotton fibers significantly increased micronaire values, 1000-fiber weight, cell wall thickness and cellulose contents of mature fibers. Quantitative RT-PCR and biochemical analysis revealed that the transcription of sucrose synthase gene GhSusA1 and sucrose synthase activities were significantly enhanced in GA overproducing transgenic fibers, compared to the wild-type cotton. In addition, exogenous application of bioactive GA could promote GhSusA1 expression in cultured fibers, as well as in cotton hypocotyls. Our results suggested that bioactive GAs promoted secondary cell wall deposition in cotton fibers by enhancing sucrose synthase expression.

  6. Selection of bee species for environmental risk assessment of GM cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Soares Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to list potential candidate bee species for environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM cotton and to identify the most suited bee species for this task, according to their abundance and geographical distribution. Field inventories of bee on cotton flowers were performed in the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso, and in Distrito Federal, Brazil. During a 344 hour sampling, 3,470 bees from 74 species were recovered, at eight sites. Apis mellifera dominated the bee assemblages at all sites. Sampling at two sites that received no insecticide application was sufficient to identify the three most common and geographically widespread wild species: Paratrigona lineata, Melissoptila cnecomola, and Trigona spinipes, which could be useful indicators of pollination services in the ERA. Indirect ordination of common wild species revealed that insecticides reduced the number of native bee species and that interannual variation in bee assemblages may be low. Accumulation curves of rare bee species did not saturate, as expected in tropical and megadiverse regions. Species-based approaches are limited to analyze negative impacts of GM cotton on pollinator biological diversity. The accumulation rate of rare bee species, however, may be useful for evaluating possible negative effects of GM cotton on bee diversity.

  7. Genetic regulation of salt stress tolerance revealed by RNA-Seq in cotton diploid wild species, Gossypium davidsonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Guozhong; Du, Lei; Shang, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Chaoze; Yang, Bing; Hu, Yan; Cai, Caiping; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-02-03

    Cotton is an economically important crop throughout the world, and is a pioneer crop in salt stress tolerance research. Investigation of the genetic regulation of salinity tolerance will provide information for salt stress-resistant breeding. Here, we employed next-generation RNA-Seq technology to elucidate the salt-tolerant mechanisms in cotton using the diploid cotton species Gossypium davidsonii which has superior stress tolerance. A total of 4744 and 5337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be involved in salt stress tolerance in roots and leaves, respectively. Gene function annotation elucidated salt overly sensitive (SOS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling pathways. Furthermore, we found that photosynthesis pathways and metabolism play important roles in ion homeostasis and oxidation balance. Moreover, our studies revealed that alternative splicing also contributes to salt-stress responses at the posttranscriptional level, implying its functional role in response to salinity stress. This study not only provides a valuable resource for understanding the genetic control of salt stress in cotton, but also lays a substantial foundation for the genetic improvement of crop resistance to salt stress.

  8. Identifying the Integrated Neural Networks Involved in Capsaicin-Induced Pain Using fMRI in Awake TRPV1 Knockout and Wild-Type Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Richard Yee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we used functional MRI in awake rats to investigate the pain response that accompanies intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hindpaw. To this end, we used BOLD imaging together with a 3D segmented, annotated rat atlas and computational analysis to identify the integrated neural circuits involved in capsaicin-induced pain. The specificity of the pain response to capsaicin was tested in a transgenic model that contains a biallelic deletion of the gene encoding for the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1. Capsaicin is an exogenous ligand for the TRPV1 receptor, and in wild-type rats, activated the putative pain neural circuit. In addition, capsaicin-treated wild-type rats exhibited activation in brain regions comprising the Papez circuit and habenular system, systems that play important roles in the integration of emotional information, and learning and memory of aversive information, respectively. As expected, capsaicin administration to TRPV1-KO rats failed to elicit the robust BOLD activation pattern observed in wild-type controls. However, the intradermal injection of formalin elicited a significant activation of the putative pain pathway as represented by such areas as the anterior cingulate, somatosensory cortex, parabrachial nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. Notably, comparison of neural responses to capsaicin in wild-type versus knock-out rats uncovered evidence that capsaicin may function in an antinociceptive capacity independent of TRPV1 signaling. Our data suggest that neuroimaging of pain in awake, conscious animals has the potential to inform the neurobiological basis of full and integrated perceptions of pain.

  9. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decomposition, end of decomposition, and activation energy of synthesized cotton were higher than original cotton. The activation energy of jute cotton fibers was higher than the original cotton fibers.

  10. Influenza-induced tachypnea is prevented in immune cotton rats, but cannot be treated with an anti-inflammatory steroid or a neuraminidase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichelberger, Maryna C.; Prince, Gregory A.; Ottolini, Martin G.

    2004-01-01

    Influenza viruses are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality during winter months. Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) is a sign of increasing lower respiratory disease during influenza infection and is frequently observed in hospitalized patients. We investigated this clinical sign in influenza virus-infected cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) and the efficacy of antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapy in reducing symptomatic disease. Cotton rats infected intranasally with A/Wuhan/359/95 (H3N2) had increased respiratory rates from 1 to 4 days postinfection that correlated with the dose of virus used to inoculate the animal but not the amount of virus recovered from the lung. In addition, evaluation of sequential lung tissue pathology revealed that extensive epithelial cell destruction of small airways correlated with tachypnea. Increased respiratory rate was not observed in immune animals, supporting results that demonstrated a requirement for exposure to, and infection by, large amounts of live virus for induction of tachypnea. A variety of therapeutic approaches proved ineffective in reducing tachypnea, including anti-inflammatory therapy with systemic triamcinolone acetonide, bronchodilatory therapy with levalbuterol, or antiviral therapy with zanamivir. These results, together with the pathologic observations, suggest that early disruption of the lower respiratory tract epithelium is a major component of the pathophysiology of influenza infection. Therapeutic approaches need to be tailored to clear airway obstruction and restore an intact epithelium

  11. Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Bano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To know the effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, animals and other expected hazards due to the introduction of GM crops into the environment is critical both scientifically and environmentally. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Methods: For this purpose, animals like rat and soil organisms like Earthworm were selected. Rats were selected on the basis of its 95% homology on genomic, cellular and enzymatic level with human while earthworm were preferred on the basis of their direct contact with soil to evaluate the impact of Bt (Cry1AC crop field soil on earthworm, secreted by root exudates of Bt cotton. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (control group as well containing Bt protein (experimental group. Results: Molecular analyses such as immune Dot blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA and PCR, confirmed the absence of Cry1Ac protein in blood and urine samples of rats, which were fed with Bt protein in their diet. Furthermore, histological studies showed that there was no difference in cellular architecture in liver, heart, kidney and intestine of Bt and non-Bt diet fed rats. To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non-Bt field soil. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. Bradford assay, Dipstick assay ELISA demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan.

  12. Importance of bee pollination for cotton production in conventional and organic farms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane C. Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of wild bee and feral honeybee visits for cotton production on conventional and organic farms. Experiments were conducted in Brazil, on a conventional cotton farm in Mato Grosso state in the Amazon biome and on an organic farm in Paraíba state in the Caatinga biome. On the conventional farm, bee assemblage and cotton production were measured near to and far from natural vegetation. Bee richness, fibre fraction, seed number and yield (Kg/ha were higher by 57.14, 1.95, 17.77 and 18.44% respectively in plots near natural vegetation, but bee abundance did not vary with distance to natural vegetation. On the organic farm, because the cropping area is surrounded by natural vegetation, pollination deficit was evaluated using an exclusion experiment where cotton production of flowers bagged to prevent bee visitation (spontaneous self-pollination was compared to production of flowers open to bee visitation (open pollination. Open pollinated flowers had higher average boll weight, fibre weight and seed number. Although cotton is not directly dependent on bee pollination, bees increased cotton production on the organic farm by more than 12% for fibre weight and over 17% for seed number. Our data confirm the importance of maintaining communities of pollinators on cotton farms, especially for organic production.

  13. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Manfré

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype.This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability.Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF to the observed behavioral alterations.In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild

  14. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A; Van der Harst, Johanneke E; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Homberg, Judith R

    2018-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats seemed to show a mild deficit in

  15. BACHD rats expressing full-length mutant huntingtin exhibit differences in social behavior compared to wild-type littermates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Novati, Arianna; Faccini, Ilaria; Rossetti, Andrea C.; Bosch, Kari; Molteni, Raffaella; Riva, Marco A.; Van der Harst, Johanneke E.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Huntington disease (HD) is a devastating inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms without any cure to slow down or stop the progress of the disease. The BACHD rat model for HD carrying the human full-length mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with 97 polyQ repeats has been recently established as a promising model which reproduces several HD-like features. While motor and cognitive functions have been characterized in BACHD rats, little is known about their social phenotype. Objective This study focuses especially on social behavior since evidence for social disturbances exists in human patients. Our objective was to compare social behavior in BACHD and wild-type (WT) rats at different ages, using two different measures of sociability. Methods Animals were tested longitudinally at the age of 2, 4 and 8 months in the social interaction test to examine different parameters of sociability. A separate cohort of 7 month old rats was tested in the three chamber social test to measure both sociability and social novelty. Gene expression analyses in 8 months old animals were performed by real time qRT-PCR to evaluate a potential involvement of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors and the contribution of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to the observed behavioral alterations. Results In the social interaction test, BACHD rats showed age-dependent changes in behaviour when they were-re introduced to their cagemate after a 24 hours-period of individual housing. The time spent on nape attacks increased with aging. Furthermore, a significant higher level of pinning at 2 months of age was shown in the BACHD rats compared to wild-types, followed by a reduction at 4 and 8 months. On the other hand, BACHD rats exhibited a decreased active social behaviour compared to wild-types, reflected by genotype-effects on approaching, following and social nose contact. In the three chamber social test, BACHD rats

  16. High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm on eastern Hawai'i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the USA. Rats (Rattus spp. are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. The main objective of this study was to collect adult A. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluated the prevalence of infection in wild rats. A total of 545 wild rats were sampled from multiple sites in the South Hilo District of east Hawai'i Island. Adult male and female A. cantonensis (3,148 were collected from the hearts and lungs of humanely euthanized Rattus rattus, and R. exulans. Photomicrography and documentation of multiple stages of this parasitic nematode in situ were recorded. A total of 45.5% (197/433 of rats inspected had lung lobe(s (mostly upper right which appeared granular indicating this lobe may serve as a filter for worm passage to the rest of the lung. Across Rattus spp., 72.7% (396/545 were infected with adult worms, but 93.9% (512/545 of the rats were positive for A. cantonensis infection based on presence of live adult worms, encysted adult worms, L3 larvae and/or by PCR analysis of brain tissue. In R. rattus we observed an inverse correlation with increased body mass and infection level of adult worms, and a direct correlation between body mass and encysted adult worms in the lung tissue, indicating that larger (older rats may have developed a means of clearing infections or regulating the worm burden upon reinfection. The exceptionally high prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Rattus spp. in east Hawai'i Island is cause for concern and indicates the potential for human infection with this emerging zoonosis is greater than previously thought.

  17. Glucocorticoid-regulated and constitutive trafficking of proteolytically processed cell surface-associated glycoproteins in wild type and variant rat hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amacher, S.L.; Goodman, L.J.; Bravo, D.A.; Wong, K.Y.; Goldfine, I.D.; Hawley, D.M.; Firestone, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Glucocorticoids regulate the trafficking of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) glycoproteins to the cell surface in the rat hepatoma cell line M1.54, but not in the immunoselected sorting variant CR4. To compare the localization of MMTV glycoproteins to another proteolytically processed glycoprotein, both wild type M1.54 cells and variant CR4 cells were transfected with a human insulin receptor (hIR) expression vector, pRSVhIR. The production of cell surface hIR was monitored in dexamethasone-treated and -untreated wild type M1.54 and variant CR4 cells by indirect immunofluorescence, direct plasma membrane immunoprecipitation, and by [125I] insulin binding. In both wild type and variant rat hepatoma cells, hIR were localized at the cell surface in the presence or in the absence of 1 microM dexamethasone. In contrast, the glucocorticoid-regulated trafficking of cell surface MMTV glycoproteins occurred only in wild type M1.54 cells. We conclude that the hIR, which undergoes posttranslational processing reactions similar to MMTV glycoproteins, does not require glucocorticoids to be transported to the plasma membrane and is representative of a subset of cell surface glycoproteins whose trafficking is constitutive in rat hepatoma cells. Thus, MMTV glycoproteins and hIR provide specific cell surface markers to characterize the glucocorticoid-regulated and constitutive sorting pathways

  18. Overexpression of cotton RAV1 gene in Arabidopsis confers transgenic plants high salinity and drought sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Li, Mo; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Shan; Hu, Rong; Chen, Yun; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-01-01

    RAV (related to ABI3/VP1) protein containing an AP2 domain in the N-terminal region and a B3 domain in the C-terminal region, which belongs to AP2 transcription factor family, is unique in higher plants. In this study, a gene (GhRAV1) encoding a RAV protein of 357 amino acids was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Transient expression analysis of the eGFP:GhRAV1 fusion genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) epidermal cells revealed that GhRAV1 protein was localized in the cell nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of GhRAV1 in cotton is induced by abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Overexpression of GhRAV1 in Arabidopsis resulted in plant sensitive to ABA, NaCl and PEG. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, seed germination and green seedling rates of the GhRAV1 transgenic plants were remarkably lower than those of wild type. In the presence of NaCl, the seed germination and seedling growth of the GhRAV1 transgenic lines were inhibited greater than those of wild type. And chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of the transgenic plants were significantly lower than those of wild type. Under drought stress, the GhRAV1 transgenic plants displayed more severe wilting than wild type. Furthermore, expressions of the stress-related genes were altered in the GhRAV1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants under high salinity and drought stresses. Collectively, our data suggested that GhRAV1 may be involved in response to high salinity and drought stresses through regulating expressions of the stress-related genes during cotton development.

  19. Draft genome of the emerging pathogen, Kocuria marina, isolated from a wild urban rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Keng Loong

    Full Text Available Kocuria marina has recently emerged as a cause for catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with underlying health complications. One K. marina strain was recently isolated from the lung tissues of a wild urban rat (Rattus rattus diardii caught during rodent surveillance. Here, we present the draft genome of the first K. marina animal isolate, K. marina TRE150902.

  20. Involvement of hepatic xenobiotic related genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Alsbo, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    To examine the role of xenobiotic relevant genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) we compared the constitutive liver gene expression and expression upon bromadiolone administration in bromadiolone resistant and anticoagulant susceptible female rats using a LNA...... expressed in resistant than susceptible rats upon bromadiolone exposure. To establish how bromadiolone affected xenobiotic gene expression in the two strains we compared bromadiolone expression profiles to saline profiles of both strains. Bromadiolone mediated significant up-regulation of Cyp2e1 and Cyp3a3...... expression in the resistant rats whereas the rodenticide conferred down-regulation of Cyp2e1, Cyp3a3 and Gpox1 and induction of Cyp2c12 expression in susceptible rats. Cyp2c13 and Cyp3a2 expression were markedly suppressed in both strains upon treatment. This suggests that xenobiotic relevant enzymes play...

  1. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR Genetic Linkage Map of D Genome Diploid Cotton Derived from an Interspecific Cross between Gossypium davidsonii and Gossypium klotzschianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Nyangasi Kirungu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge in tetraploid cotton cultivars is the narrow genetic base and therefore, the bottleneck is how to obtain interspecific hybrids and introduce the germplasm directly from wild cotton to elite cultivars. Construction of genetic maps has provided insight into understanding the genome structure, interrelationships between organisms in relation to evolution, and discovery of genes that carry important agronomic traits in plants. In this study, we generated an interspecific hybrid between two wild diploid cottons, Gossypium davidsonii and Gossypium klotzschianum, and genotyped 188 F2:3 populations in order to develop a genetic map. We screened 12,560 SWU Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR primers and obtained 1000 polymorphic markers which accounted for only 8%. A total of 928 polymorphic primers were successfully scored and only 728 were effectively linked across the 13 chromosomes, but with an asymmetrical distribution. The map length was 1480.23 cM, with an average length of 2.182 cM between adjacent markers. A high percentage of the markers on the map developed, and for the physical map of G. raimondii, exhibited highly significant collinearity, with two types of duplication. High level of segregation distortion was observed. A total of 27 key genes were identified with diverse roles in plant hormone signaling, development, and defense reactions. The achievement of developing the F2:3 population and its genetic map constructions may be a landmark in establishing a new tool for the genetic improvement of cultivars from wild plants in cotton. Our map had an increased recombination length compared to other maps developed from other D genome cotton species.

  2. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  3. Characterization of developmental immature fiber (im) mutant and Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) cotton fibers by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The immature fiber (im) mutant is one type of cotton fiber mutants with unique characteristics of non-fluffy cotton bolls. Compared to its near-isogenic wild type Texas Marker-1 (TM-1), im fiber has thin secondary cell wall and is less mature. In this work, we applied the previously proposed princip...

  4. Impact of Bollgard cotton on Indian cotton production and Income of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Impact of Bollgard cotton on Indian cotton production and Income of cotton farmers. Presentation made in the Seventy Second Annual Meeting Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore at Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Indore 11th November 2006.

  5. Morphological divergence of breeders and helpers in wild Damaraland mole-rat societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew J; Bennett, Nigel C

    2010-11-01

    The specialization of body shape to an individual's role within society represents a pinnacle of social evolution. Although commonplace among social insects, divergence in the body shapes of breeders and helpers has to date been documented in just one social vertebrate, the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber; an extraordinary species in which large colony size and frequent inbreeding may have favored the evolution of such specialization. Here, we present new evidence of morphological divergence between breeders and helpers in the Damaraland mole-rat, Fukomys damarensis; a much less socially extreme species that reflects an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. Using longitudinal data from wild populations, we show that dominant female Damaraland mole-rats, like many social insect queens, have a significantly more elongate body shape than subordinates. This difference arises not from a pre-existing difference in the body shapes of subordinates that do, and those that do not, become dominant, but from a modification to the growth trajectory of subordinates on dominance acquisition. Our findings reveal a wider role for morphological divergence within vertebrate societies and, as Damaraland mole-rats neither live in unusually large groups nor inbreed, suggest that circumstances favoring the evolution of such specializations may be more widespread among vertebrates than previously supposed. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Impact of efficient refuge policies for Bt cotton in India on world cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit; Johnson, Phillip N.; Misra, Sukant K.

    2010-01-01

    India is a major cotton producing country in the world along with the U.S. and China. A change in the supply of and demand for cotton in the Indian market has the potential to have an impact on world cotton trade. This study evaluates the implications of efficient Bt cotton refuge policies in India on world and U.S. cotton markets. It can be hypothesized that increased refuge requirements for Bt cotton varieties in India could decrease the world supply of cotton because of the lower yield pot...

  7. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gustavo R; Silva, Maria C M; Lucena, Wagner A; Nakasu, Erich Y T; Firmino, Alexandre A P; Beneventi, Magda A; Souza, Djair S L; Gomes, José E; de Souza, José D A; Rigden, Daniel J; Ramos, Hudson B; Soccol, Carlos R; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2011-09-09

    The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  8. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes José E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  9. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  10. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  11. Evaluation of the Impact of Genetically Modified Cotton After 20 Years of Cultivation in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G. Rocha-Munive

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than 20 years cotton has been the most widely sown genetically modified (GM crop in Mexico. Its cultivation has fulfilled all requirements and has gone through the different regulatory stages. During the last 20 years, both research-institutions and biotech-companies have generated scientific and technical information regarding GM cotton cultivation in Mexico. In this work, we collected data in order to analyze the environmental and agronomic effects of the use of GM cotton in Mexico. In 1996, the introduction of Bt cotton made it possible to reactivate this crop, which in previous years was greatly reduced due to pest problems, production costs and environmental concerns. Bt cotton is a widely accepted tool for cotton producers and has proven to be efficient for the control of lepidopteran pests. The economic benefits of its use are variable, and depend on factors such as the international cotton-prices and other costs associated with its inputs. So far, the management strategies used to prevent development of insect resistance to GM cotton has been successful, and there are no reports of insect resistance development to Bt cotton in Mexico. In addition, no effects have been observed on non-target organisms. For herbicide tolerant cotton, the prevention of herbicide resistance has also been successful since unlike other countries, the onset of resistance weeds is still slow, apparently due to cultural practices and rotation of different herbicides. Environmental benefits have been achieved with a reduction in chemical insecticide applications and the subsequent decrease in primary pest populations, so that the inclusion of other technologies—e.g., use of non-Bt cotton- can be explored. Nevertheless, control measures need to be implemented during transport of the bolls and fiber to prevent dispersal of volunteer plants and subsequent gene flow to wild relatives distributed outside the GM cotton growing areas. It is still necessary to

  12. Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi and Shigella flexneri 2a Strains Mucosally Deliver DNA Vaccines Encoding Measles Virus Hemagglutinin, Inducing Specific Immune Responses and Protection in Cotton Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Barry, Eileen M.; Losonsky, Genevieve; Singh, Mahender; Medina-Moreno, Sandra M.; Polo, John M.; Ulmer, Jeffrey; Robinson, Harriet; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2003-01-01

    Measles remains a leading cause of child mortality in developing countries. Residual maternal measles antibodies and immunologic immaturity dampen immunogenicity of the current vaccine in young infants. Because cotton rat respiratory tract is susceptible to measles virus (MV) replication after intranasal (i.n.) challenge, this model can be used to assess the efficacy of MV vaccines. Pursuing a new measles vaccine strategy that might be effective in young infants, we used attenuated Salmonella...

  13. An Assessment of the Population of Cotton-Top Tamarins (Saguinus oedipus and Their Habitat in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Savage

    Full Text Available Numerous animals have declining populations due to habitat loss, illegal wildlife trade, and climate change. The cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus is a Critically Endangered primate species, endemic to northwest Colombia, threatened by deforestation and illegal trade. In order to assess the current state of this species, we analyzed changes in the population of cotton-top tamarins and its habitat from 2005 to 2012. We used a tailor-made "lure strip transect" method to survey 43 accessible forest parcels that represent 30% of the species' range. Estimated population size in the surveyed region was approximately 2,050 in 2005 and 1,900 in 2012, with a coefficient of variation of approximately 10%. The estimated population change between surveys was -7% (a decline of approximately 1.3% per year suggesting a relatively stable population. If densities of inaccessible forest parcels are similar to those of surveyed samples, the estimated population of cotton-top tamarins in the wild in 2012 was 6,946 individuals. We also recorded little change in the amount of suitable habitat for cotton-top tamarins between sample periods: in 2005, 18% of surveyed forest was preferred habitat for cotton-top tamarins, while in 2012, 17% percent was preferred. We attribute the relatively stable population of this Critically Endangered species to increased conservation efforts of Proyecto Tití, conservation NGOs, and the Colombian government. Due to continued threats to cotton-top tamarins and their habitat such as agriculture and urban expansion, ongoing conservation efforts are needed to ensure the long-term survival of cotton-top tamarins in Colombia.

  14. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  15. Indian Bt cotton varieties do not affect the performance of cotton aphids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora C Lawo

    Full Text Available Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184 and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt protein and analyzed the sugar composition of aphid honeydew to evaluate its suitability for honeydew-feeders. Plant transformation did not have any influence on aphid performance. However, some variation was observed among the three cotton varieties which might partly be explained by the variation in trichome density. None of the aphid samples contained Bt protein. As a consequence, natural enemies that feed on aphids are not exposed to the Cry protein. A significant difference in the sugar composition of aphid honeydew was detected among cotton varieties as well as between transformed and non-transformed plants. However, it is questionable if this variation is of ecological relevance, especially as honeydew is not the only sugar source parasitoids feed on in cotton fields. Our study allows the conclusion that Bt cotton poses a negligible risk for aphid antagonists and that aphids should remain under natural control in Bt cotton fields.

  16. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  17. The halo effect: suppression of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton by Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available In some previously reported cases, transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have suppressed insect pests not only in fields planted with such crops, but also regionally on host plants that do not produce Bt toxins. Here we used 16 years of field data to determine if Bt cotton caused this "halo effect" against pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella in six provinces of the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We found that Bt cotton significantly decreased the population density of pink bollworm on non-Bt cotton, with net decreases of 91% for eggs and 95% for larvae on non-Bt cotton after 11 years of Bt cotton use. Insecticide sprays targeting pink bollworm and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera decreased by 69%. Previously reported evidence of the early stages of evolution of pink bollworm resistance to Bt cotton in China has raised concerns that if unchecked, such resistance could eventually diminish or eliminate the benefits of Bt cotton. The results reported here suggest that it might be possible to find a percentage of Bt cotton lower than the current level that causes sufficient regional pest suppression and reduces the risk of resistance.

  18. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-01

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  19. Detecting mismatches in the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Hao, HongFei

    2018-05-11

    Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. The results showed that a warming climate advanced the phenology of cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering. However, the phenological rate of change was faster in cotton bollworm larvae than that in cotton flowering, and the larval period was prolonged, resulting in a great increase of the larval population. The abrupt phenological changes in cotton bollworm larvae occurred earlier than that in cotton, and the abrupt phenological changes in cotton flowering occurred earlier than that in larval abundance. However, the timing of abrupt changes in larval abundance all occurred later than that in temperature. Thus, the abrupt changes that occurred in larvae, cotton flowering and climate were asynchronous. The interval days between the cotton flowering date (CFD) and the half-amount larvae date (HLD) expanded by 3.41 and 4.41 days with a 1 °C increase of T mean in May and June, respectively. The asynchrony between cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering will likely broaden as the climate changes. The effective temperature in March and April and the end date of larvae (ED) were the primary factors affecting asynchrony.

  20. Cotton transformation via pollen tube pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Baohong; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    Although many gene transfer methods have been employed for successfully obtaining transgenic cotton, the major constraint in cotton improvement is the limitation of genotype because the majority of transgenic methods require plant regeneration from a single transformed cell which is limited by cotton tissue culture. Comparing with other plant species, it is difficult to induce plant regeneration from cotton; currently, only a limited number of cotton cultivars can be cultured for obtaining regenerated plants. Thus, development of a simple and genotype-independent genetic transformation method is particularly important for cotton community. In this chapter, we present a simple, cost-efficient, and genotype-independent cotton transformation method-pollen tube pathway-mediated transformation. This method uses pollen tube pathway to deliver transgene into cotton embryo sacs and then insert foreign genes into cotton genome. There are three major steps for pollen tube pathway-mediated genetic transformation, which include injection of -foreign genes into pollen tube, integration of foreign genes into plant genome, and selection of transgenic plants.

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of verticillium dahliae with gfr gene to study cotton-pathogen interaction using a novel inoculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.; Bibi, N.; Fan, K.; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soil-born fungal pathogen which causes Verticillium wilt in economically important crops including cotton. We conducted a study to monitor the interaction between the fungus and cotton. V. dahliae was transformed with the gene encoding green fluorescent protein. The gene can be constitutively expressed and fluorescence was clearly visible in both hyphae and spores. Due to heterogeneous gene insertion, the growth rate, colony morphology and pathogenicity of fungus transformants showed differences compared with corresponding wild type. Similarly, quantitative real-time PCR analysis also indicated significant differences in the gene expression among different V. dahliae transformants. To study cotton-pathogen interaction, we devised a novel inoculation method and developed a successful infection by keeping GFP-expressed mycelial plug along with aseptic cotton seedlings. After 6-day inoculation, the LSM microscopic image showed that the fungus rapidly formed a mycelial network on the surface of the stems and colonized into plant tissue, displayed an intercellular infection pattern. The early events during cotton colonization by V. dahliae can be successfully observed in 10 days including the plant growth period. Besides, pathological changes of seedlings like tissue discoloration, wilting, stem dehiscence and necrosis can be clearly observed without the influences of soil and other microbes. This inoculation method provides a rapid, effective and environmental friendly technique for the study of cotton-pathogen interaction and identification of resistant plant cultivars. (author)

  2. Identification of a New Cotton Disease Caused by an Atypical Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrofoglio, Yamila C; Delfosse, Verónica C; Casse, María F; Hopp, Horacio E; Kresic, Iván Bonacic; Distéfano, Ana J

    2017-03-01

    An outbreak of a new disease occurred in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fields in northwest Argentina starting in the 2009-10 growing season and is still spreading steadily. The characteristic symptoms of the disease included slight leaf rolling and a bushy phenotype in the upper part of the plant. In this study, we determined the complete nucleotide sequences of two independent virus genomes isolated from cotton blue disease (CBD)-resistant and -susceptible cotton varieties. This virus genome comprised 5,866 nucleotides with an organization similar to that of the genus Polerovirus and was closely related to cotton leafroll dwarf virus, with protein identity ranging from 88 to 98%. The virus was subsequently transmitted to a CBD-resistant cotton variety using Aphis gossypii and symptoms were successfully reproduced. To study the persistence of the virus, we analyzed symptomatic plants from CBD-resistant varieties from different cotton-growing fields between 2013 and 2015 and showed the presence of the same virus strain. In addition, a constructed full-length infectious cDNA clone from the virus caused disease symptoms in systemic leaves of CBD-resistant cotton plants. Altogether, the new leafroll disease in CBD-resistant cotton plants is caused by an atypical cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

  3. Behaviour of wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera - cotton system: a simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:   Helicoverpa armigera , baculovirus, genetic modification, cotton,transmission

  4. Superoleophobic cotton textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leng, B.; Shao, Z.; With, de G.; Ming, W.

    2009-01-01

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we

  5. 7 CFR 1205.319 - Cotton-producing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing region. 1205.319 Section 1205.319... Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.319 Cotton-producing region. Cotton-producing region means each of the following groups of cotton-producing States: (a) Southeast Region: Alabama...

  6. Examining cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops using natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    This paper is to show the ability of remote sensing image analysis combined with statistical analysis to characterize the environmental risk assessment of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops in two ways: (1) description of rotation period of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops by the observational study or natural experiment; (2) analysis of rotation period calculation of cotton in rotation with rice and cotton in rotation with other crops. Natural experimental results show that this new method is very promising for determining crop rotation period for estimating regional averages of environmental risk. When it is applied to determining crop rotation period, two requested remote sensing images of regional crop are required at least.

  7. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Early warning of cotton bollworm resistance associated with intensive planting of Bt cotton in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haonan Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The predominant strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops requires refuges of non-Bt host plants to promote survival of susceptible pests. To delay pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, farmers in the United States and Australia planted refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. Here we report data from a 2010 survey showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac of the major target pest, cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, in northern China. Laboratory bioassay results show that susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower in 13 field populations from northern China, where Bt cotton has been planted intensively, than in two populations from sites in northwestern China where exposure to Bt cotton has been limited. Susceptibility to Bt toxin Cry2Ab did not differ between northern and northwestern China, demonstrating that resistance to Cry1Ac did not cause cross-resistance to Cry2Ab, and implying that resistance to Cry1Ac in northern China is a specific adaptation caused by exposure to this toxin in Bt cotton. Despite the resistance detected in laboratory bioassays, control failures of Bt cotton have not been reported in China. This early warning may spur proactive countermeasures, including a switch to transgenic cotton producing two or more toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins.

  9. Cadmium-induced ultramorphological and physiological changes in leaves of two transgenic cotton cultivars and their wild relative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.K.; Variath, M.T.; Ali, Shafaqat; Najeeb, U.; Jamil, Muhammad; Hayat, Y.; Dawood, M.; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Zaffar, M.; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Tong, X.H.; Zhu Shuijin

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes cadmium-induced alterations in the leaves as well as at the whole plant level in two transgenic cotton cultivars (BR001 and GK30) and their wild relative (Coker 312) using both ultramorphological and physiological indices. With elevated levels of Cd (i.e. 10, 100, 1000 μM), the mean lengths of root, stem and leaf and leaf width as well as their fresh and dry biomasses linearly decreased over their respective controls. Moreover, root, stem and leaf water absorption capacities progressively stimulated, which were high in leaves followed by roots and stems. BR001 accumulated more cadmium followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Root and shoot cadmium uptakes were significantly and directly correlated with each other as well as with leaf, stem and root water absorption capacities. The ultrastructural modifications in leaf mesophyll cells were triggered with increase in Cd stress regime. They were more obvious in BR001 followed by GK30 and Coker 312. Changes in morphology of chloroplast, increase in number and size of starch grains as well as increase in number of plastoglobuli were the noticed qualitative effects of Cd on photosynthetic organ. Cd in the form of electron dense granules could be seen inside the vacuoles and attached to the cell walls in all these cultivars. From the present experiment, it can be well established that both apoplastic and symplastic bindings are involved in Cd detoxification in these cultivars. Absence of tonoplast invagination reveals that Cd toxic levels did not cause water stress in any cultivars. Additionally, these cultivars possess differential capabilities towards Cd accumulation and its sequestration.

  10. The Impacts of U.S. Cotton Programs on the West and Central African Countries Cotton Export Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Pan, Suwen

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a stochastic simulation approach based on a partial equilibrium structural econometric model of the world fiber market to examine the effects of a removal of U.S. cotton programs on the world market. The effects on world cotton prices and African export earnings were analyzed. The results suggest that on average an elimination of U.S. cotton programs would lead to a marginal increase in the world cotton prices thus resulting in minimal gain for cotton exporting countries in Af...

  11. Locally Grown: Examining Attitudes and Perceptions About Organic Cotton Production and Manufacturing Between Mississippi Cotton Growers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Freeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes and perceptions about organic cotton of Mississippi cotton growers and producers in comparison to fashion-conscious consumers, including advantages/disadvantages of growing and production processes, quality control, consumer preferences, and competitive price structures/profit margins. A sample size of 16 local Mississippi growers and/or producers and 44 undergraduate students at a mid-major Southeastern university were chosen to participate in the study. Instruments were developed based on current research and the definition of organic cotton production defined by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results indicate 75% of growers and producers do not perceive a quality difference between organic and conventionally grown cotton, while 72.7% of the consumers report organically grown cotton is capable of producing a higher quality product compared to conventionally grown cotton. Even with an increase in organic cotton prices (25- 40% higher premium, only 25% of growers and producers would be willing to convert, while a majority (52.3% of consumers would not be willing to spend more than 25% extra for an organically grown cotton product. Consumers indicate the negative effects of conventionally grown cotton, yet many report little knowledge about organic cotton production, while growers/producers immediately dismiss organically grown cotton as a retail marketing strategy.

  12. Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics with enhanced stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bi, E-mail: xubi@dhu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Yinyan; Qu, Shaobo [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cai, Zaisheng, E-mail: zshcai@dhu.edu [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared. • Water and hexadecane contact angels reach to 164.4° and 156.3°, respectively. • Nanoporous organically modified silica alcogel particles were synthesized. • The superamphiphobic cotton fabrics exhibit enhanced stability against abrasion, laundering and acid. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared by alternately depositing organically modified silica alcogel (ormosil) particles onto chitosan precoated cotton fabrics and subsequent 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (PFOTMS) modification. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the ormosil particles display a fluffy, sponge-like nanoporous structure, and the entire cotton fiber surface is covered with highly porous networks. PFOTMS acts as not only a modifier to lower the surface energy of the cotton fabric but also a binder to enhance the coating stability against abrasion and washing. The treated cotton fabrics show highly liquid repellency with the water, cooking oil and hexadecane contact angels reaching to 164.4°, 160.1° and 156.3°, respectively. Meanwhile, the treated cotton fabrics exhibit good abrasion resistance and high laundering durability, which can withstand 10,000 cycles of abrasion and 30 cycles of machine wash without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. The superamphiphobic cotton fabric also shows high acid stability, and can withstand 98% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Moreover, the superamphiphobic coating has almost no influence on the other physical properties of the cotton fabrics including tensile strength, whiteness and air permeability. This durable non-wetting surface may provide a wide range of new applications in the future.

  13. Testing the limits of Rodent Sperm Analysis: azoospermia in an otherwise healthy wild rodent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Lawrence V; Thran, Brandolyn H; Willams, Keith J

    2009-01-01

    By comparing the sperm parameters of small rodents trapped at contaminated terrestrial sites and nearby habitat-matched noncontaminated locations, the patent-pending Rodent Sperm Analysis (RSA) method provides a direct health status appraisal for the maximally chemical-exposed mammalian ecological receptor in the wild. RSA outcomes have consistently allowed for as definitive determinations of receptor health as are possible at the present time, thereby streamlining the ecological risk assessment (ERA) process. Here, we describe the unanticipated discovery, at a contaminated US EPA Superfund National Priorities List site, of a population of Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), with a high percentage of adult males lacking sperm entirely (azoospermia). In light of the RSA method's role in streamlining ERAs and in bringing contaminated Superfund-type site investigations to closure, we consider the consequences of the discovery. The two matters specifically discussed are (1) the computation of a population's average sperm count where azoospermia is present and (2) the merits of the RSA method and its sperm parameter thresholds-for-effect when azoospermia is masked in an otherwise apparently healthy rodent population.

  14. Proteomics profiling of fiber development and domestication in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanjing; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Pathak, Dharminder; Chen, Sixue; Wendel, Jonathan F

    2014-12-01

    Comparative proteomic analyses were performed to detail the evolutionary consequences of strong directional selection for enhanced fiber traits in modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Using two complementary proteomic approaches, 2-DE and iTRAQ LC-MS/MS, fiber proteomes were examined for four representative stages of fiber development. Approximately 1,000 protein features were characterized using each strategy, collectively resulting in the identification and functional categorization of 1,223 proteins. Unequal contributions of homoeologous proteins were detected for over a third of the fiber proteome, but overall expression was balanced with respect to the genome-of-origin in the allopolyploid G. hirsutum. About 30% of the proteins were differentially expressed during fiber development within wild and domesticated cotton. Notably, domestication was accompanied by a doubling of protein developmental dynamics for the period between 10 and 20 days following pollination. Expression levels of 240 iTRAQ proteins and 293 2-DE spots were altered by domestication, collectively representing multiple cellular and metabolic processes, including metabolism, energy, protein synthesis and destination, defense and stress response. Analyses of homoeolog-specific expression indicate that duplicated gene products in cotton fibers can be differently regulated in response to selection. These results demonstrate the power of proteomics for the analysis of crop domestication and phenotypic evolution.

  15. U.S. Cotton Prices and the World Cotton Market: Forecasting and Structural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Isengildina-Massa, Olga; MacDonald, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze structural changes that took place in the cotton industry in recent years and develop a statistical model that reflects the current drivers of U.S. cotton prices. Legislative changes authorized the U.S. Department of Agriculture to resume publishing cotton price forecasts for the first time in 79 years. In addition, systematic problems have become apparent in the forecasting models used by USDA and elsewhere, highlighting the need for an updated review...

  16. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  17. The water footprint of cotton consumption: An assessment of the impact of worldwide consumption of cotton products on the water resources in the cotton producing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this paper is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  18. Separation and recycling of cotton from cotton/PET blends by depolymerization of PET catalyzed by bases and ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, G.H. (Gerrit); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Groeneveld, R.A.J. (Richard); Oelerich, J. (Jens)

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of post consumer cotton textile waste is highly requested, due to the high environmental impact of cotton production. Often cotton is mixed in blends with polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For the generation of high value products from recycled cotton, it essential that PET is

  19. Identification of top-down forces regulating cotton aphid population growth in transgenic Bt cotton in central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    Full Text Available The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover is the main aphid pest in cotton fields in the Yangtze River Valley Cotton-planting Zone (YRZ in central China. Various natural enemies may attack the cotton aphid in Bt cotton fields but no studies have identified potential specific top-down forces that could help manage this pest in the YRZ in China. In order to identify possibilities for managing the cotton aphid, we monitored cotton aphid population dynamics and identified the effect of natural enemies on cotton aphid population growth using various exclusion cages in transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt+CpTI (Cowpea trypsin inhibitor cotton field in 2011. The aphid population growth in the open field (control was significantly lower than those protected or restricted from exposure to natural enemies in the various exclusion cage types tested. The ladybird predator Propylaea japonica Thunberg represented 65% of Coccinellidae predators, and other predators consisted mainly of syrphids (2.1% and spiders (1.5%. The aphid parasitoids Aphidiines represented 76.7% of the total count of the natural enemy guild (mainly Lysiphlebia japonica Ashmead and Binodoxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma. Our results showed that P. japonica can effectively delay the establishment and subsequent population growth of aphids during the cotton growing season. Aphidiines could also reduce aphid density although their impact may be shadowed by the presence of coccinellids in the open field (likely both owing to resource competition and intraguild predation. The implications of these results are discussed in a framework of the compatibility of transgenic crops and top-down forces exerted by natural enemy guild.

  20. The "Cotton Problem"

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2005-01-01

    Cotton is an important cash crop in many developing economies, supporting the livelihoods of millions of poor households. In some countries it contributes as much as 40 percent of merchandise exports and more than 5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The global cotton market, however, has been subject to numerous policy interventions, to the detriment of nonsubsidized producers. This ...

  1. Tensile Properties of Single Jersey and 1×1 Rib Knitted Fabrics Made from 100% Cotton and Cotton/Lycra Yarns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereje Berihun Sitotaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tensile properties such as tensile strength which is measured as breaking force in Newton (N and elongation percent (% at break of single jersey and 1×1 rib (knitted with full needles knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra yarns (5% Lycra yarn content in 95% combed cotton yarn are investigated in this research. The sample fabrics are conditioned for 24 hours at 20±1°C temperature and 65±2% relative humidity before testing. Ten specimens (five for lengthwise and five for widthwise have been taken from each of the two knitted structures, those made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra (at 95/5 percent ratio blend yarns. According to the discussion and as found from the investigations, the tensile properties of single jersey and 1×1 rib knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton and cotton/Lycra yarns are significantly different from each other and both of the knitted fabrics have high elongation percent at break with cotton/Lycra blend yarns as compared to 100% cotton yarn. Knitted fabrics made from cotton/Lycra blended yarn have low breaking force and high elongation percent at break relative to knitted fabrics made from 100% cotton yarns.

  2. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the

  3. Response of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls, under elevated CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The growth, development and consumption of successive three generations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2 (double-ambient vs. ambient) in open-top chambers were examined. Significant decreases in protein, total amino acid, water and nitrogen content and increases in free fatty acid were observed in cotton bolls. Changes in quality of cotton bolls affected the growth, development and food utilization of H. armigera. Significantly longer larval development duration in three successive generations and lower pupal weight of the second and third generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower fecundity was also found in successive three generations of H. armigera fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The consumption per larva occurred significant increase in successive three generations and frass per larva were also significantly increased during the second and third generations under elevated CO2. Significantly lower relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and significant higher relative consumption rate in successive three generations were observed in cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. Significantly lower potential female fecundity, larval numbers and population consumption were found in the second and third generations of cotton bollworm fed on cotton bolls grown under elevated CO2. The integrative effect of higher larval mortality rate and lower adult fecundity resulted in significant decreases in potential population consumption in the latter two generations. The results show that elevated CO2 adversely affects cotton bolls quality, which indicates the potential population dynamics and potential population consumption of cotton bollworm will alleviate the harm to the plants in the future rising CO2 atmosphere.

  4. Evaluation of cotton stalks destroyers

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Aloisio; Borges, Pedro H. de M.

    2013-01-01

    The destruction of the cotton crop residues (cotton stalks) is a mandatory procedure in Brazil for prophylactic issues, but is a subject unexplored by the research and there are few studies that deal with this issue. However, this is not encouraged in recent decades, studies aimed at developing and evaluating equipment for this purpose. The present study had the objective to evaluate six methods for mechanical destruction of cotton crop residues. Each method was defined based on the principle...

  5. Cotton : Market setting, trade policies, and issues

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2004-01-01

    The value of world cotton production in 2000-01 has been estimated at about $20 billion, down from $35 billion in 1996-97 when cotton prices were 50 percent higher. Although cotton's share in world merchandise trade is insignificant (about 0.12 percent), it is very important to a number of developing countries. Cotton accounts for approximately 40 percent of total merchandise export earnin...

  6. Carbon contributions from roots in cotton based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    Most research on the decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Australian cotton farming systems has focussed on the inputs from above-ground crop residues, with contribution from roots being less studied. This paper aims to outline the contribution of cotton roots and roots of other crops to soil carbon stocks in furrow-irrigated Vertisols in several cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-based rotations. Data was collected from cotton-based rotation systems: cotton monoculture, cotton-vetch (Vicia benghalensis) Roth.), cotton-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton-wheat-vetch, cotton-corn, corn-corn, cotton-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and from BollgardTM II (Bt) and non-Bt cotton. Land management systems were permanent beds, with or without standing stubble, and conventional tillage. Root growth in the surface 0.10 m was measured with the core-break method, and that in the 0.10 to 1.0 m depth with a minirhizotron and I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to derive root C added to soil through intra-seasonal root death (Clost), C in roots remaining at the end of season (Croot), and total root C added to soil (Ctotal = Croot + Clost). Ctotal in non-Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.9 t C/ha/year) was higher than in Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.6 t C/ha/year). Overall, Ctotal from cotton roots ranges between 0.5 to 5 t C/ha/year, with Clost contributing 25-70%. Ctotal was greater with vetch than with wheat and was in the order of vetch in cotton-wheat-vetch (5.1 t C/ha/year) > vetch in cotton-vetch (1.9 t C/ha/year) > wheat in cotton-wheat (1.6 t C/ha/year) = wheat in cotton-wheat-vetch (1.7 t C/ha/year). Intra-seasonal root mortality accounted for 12% of total root carbon in vetch and 36% in wheat. Average corn Ctotal with monoculture was 9.3 t/ha and with cotton-corn 5.0 t/ha. Ctotal averaged between both treatments was, thus, of the order of 7.7 t C/ha/year and average Clost 0.04 t/ha/yr. Sorghum roots contributed less carbon with conventional tillage (8.2 t

  7. Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus with intact or mutant transcriptional activator proteins: complexity of cotton leaf curl disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Alok, Anshu; Lalit, Adarsh; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Roy, Joy K; Singh, Sudhir P

    2015-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton on the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, three cotton leaf curl viruses, cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) and cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), and their associated satellites, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA), were detected. CLCuBuV with either intact (CLCuBuV-1) or mutant (CLCuBuV-2) transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) were detected in different plants. Agroinoculation with CLCuBuV-1 or CLCuBuV-2 together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, resulted in typical leaf curling and stunting of tobacco plants. Inoculation with CLCuKoV or an isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-2), together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, induced severe leaf curling, while the other isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-1), which was recombinant in origin, showed mild leaf curling in tobacco. To investigate the effect of intact or mutant TrAP and also the recombination events, CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2, CLCuMV-1 or CLCuMV-2 together with the satellites (CLCuMA and CLCuMB) were transferred to cotton via whitefly-mediated transmission. Cotton plants containing CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2 or CLCuMV-2 together with satellites showed curling and stunting, whereas the plants having CLCuMV-1 and the satellites showed only mild and indistinguishable symptoms. CLCuBuV-1 (intact TrAP) showed severe symptoms in comparison to CLCuBuV-2 (mutant TrAP). The present study reveals that two types of CLCuBuV, one with an intact TrAP and the other with a mutant TrAP, exist in natural infection of cotton in India. Additionally, CLCuMuV-1, which has a recombinant origin, induces mild symptoms in comparison to the other CLCuMV isolates.

  8. Processing and properties of PCL/cotton linter compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Elieber Barros; Franca, Danyelle Campos; Morais, Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Araujo, Edcleide Maria [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Rosa, Morsyleide de Freitas; Morais, Joao Paulo Saraiva [Embrapa Tropical Agroindustia, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Wellen, Renate Maria Ramos, E-mail: wellen.renate@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiaba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Biodegradable compounds of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/ cotton linter were melting mixed with filling content ranging from 1% to 5% w/w. Cotton linter is an important byproduct of textile industry; in this work it was used in raw state and after acid hydrolysis. According to the results of torque rheometry no decaying of viscosity took place during compounding, evidencing absence of breaking down in molecular weight. The thermal stability increased by 20% as observed in HDT for PCL/cotton nanolinter compounds. Adding cotton linter to PCL did not change its crystalline character as showed by XRD; however an increase in degree of crystallinity was observed by means of DSC. From mechanical tests in tension was observed an increase in ductility of PCL, and from mechanical tests in flexion an increase in elastic modulus upon addition of cotton linter, whereas impact strength presented lower values for PCL/cotton linter and PCL/cotton nanolinter compounds. SEM images showed that PCL presents plastic fracture and cotton linter has an interlacing fibril structure with high L/D ratio, which are in agreement with matrix/fibril morphology observed for PCL/cotton linter compounds. PCL/cotton linter compounds made in this work cost less than neat PCL matrix and presented improved properties making feasible its commercial use. (author)

  9. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on

  10. Engineered disease resistance in cotton using RNA-interference to knock down cotton leaf curl kokhran virus-Burewala and cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton Leaf Curl virus Disease (CLCuD) has caused enormous losses in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) production in Pakistan. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging technique that could knock out CLCuD by targeting different regions of the pathogen genome that are important for replication, transcription...

  11. Monitoring Lead (Pb) Pollution and Identifying Pb Pollution Sources in Japan Using Stable Pb Isotope Analysis with Kidneys of Wild Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Oroszlany, Balazs; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Yohannes, Yared B; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2017-01-10

    Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown ( Rattus norvegicus , n = 43) and black ( R. rattus , n = 98) rats were trapped from various sites in Japan. Mean Pb concentrations in the kidneys of rats from Okinawa (15.58 mg/kg, dry weight), Aichi (10.83), Niigata (10.62), Fukuoka (8.09), Ibaraki (5.06), Kyoto (4.58), Osaka (4.57), Kanagawa (3.42), and Tokyo (3.40) were above the threshold (2.50) for histological kidney changes. Similarly, compared with the previous report, it was regarded that even structural and functional kidney damage as well as neurotoxicity have spread among rats in Japan. Additionally, the possibility of human exposure to a high level of Pb was assumed. In regard to stable Pb isotope analysis, distinctive values of stable Pb isotope ratios (Pb-IRs) were detected in some kidney samples with Pb levels above 5.0 mg/kg. This result indicated that composite factors are involved in Pb pollution. However, the identification of a concrete pollution source has not been accomplished due to limited differences among previously reported values of Pb isotope composition in circulating Pb products. Namely, the current study established the limit of Pb isotope analysis for source identification. Further detailed research about monitoring Pb pollution in Japan and the demonstration of a novel method to identify Pb sources are needed.

  12. Development and validation of SUCROS-Cotton : A potential crop growth simulation model for cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Werf, van der W.; Cao, W.; Li, B.; Pan, X.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A model for the development, growth and potential production of cotton (SUCROS-Cotton) was developed. Particular attention was given to the phenological development of the plant and the plasticity of fruit growth in response to temperature, radiation, daylength, variety traits, and management. The

  13. Diversity of arthropod community in transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Lu, Z Y; Liu, J X; Li, C L; Yang, M S

    2015-12-02

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of plain cotton fields in China. Here, we performed a systematic survey of the diversity and population of arthropod communities in four different combination of poplar-cotton eco-systems, including I) non-transgenic poplar and non-transgenic cotton fields; II) non-transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields [Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton]; III) Bt transgenic poplar (high insect resistant strain Pb29) and non-transgenic cotton; and IV) transgenic poplar and transgenic cotton fields, over a period of 3 years. Based on the statistical methods used to investigate community ecology, the effects of transgenic ecosystems on the whole structure of the arthropod community, on the structure of arthropods in the nutritive layer, and on the similarity of arthropod communities were evaluated. The main results were as follows: the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem has a stronger inhibitory effect on insect pests and has no impact on the structure of the arthropod community, and therefore, maintains the diversity of the arthropod community. The character index of the community indicated that the structure of the arthropod community of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was better than that of the poplar-cotton ecosystem, and that system IV had the best structure. As for the abundance of nutritional classes, the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem was also better than that of the non-transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystem. The cluster analysis and similarity of arthropod communities between the four different transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems illustrated that the structure of the arthropod community excelled in the small sample of the transgenic poplar-cotton ecosystems.

  14. Cotton trends in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Cotton trends in India. A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 Crs. Provides income to 60 million people. Crucial raw material for Rs 83000 Crores textile industry out of which Rs 45754 crores is exports. Approx. 20 Million acres of cotton provides ...

  15. Ergonomic Evaluation of Battery Powered Portable Cotton Picker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A.; Manes, G. S.; Singh, A.; Prakash, A.; Mahal, J. S.

    2012-09-01

    Ergonomic evaluation of battery powered portable manual cotton picker was carried out on two subjects for three cotton varieties and was compared against manual method of picking. It is a hand operated machine and has a pair of chain with small sharp edged teeth and sprockets and is operated by a light weight 12 V battery. Cotton gets entangled with the chain and is collected and guided into the collection bag. Average heart rate, oxygen consumption, workload, energy expenditure was more in case of cotton picking by manual cotton picker as compared to manual picking for both the subjects for all three cotton variety types. Oxygen consumption varied from 0.81 to 0.97 l/min, workload varied from 36.32 to 46.16 W and energy expenditure varied from 16.83 to 20.33 kJ/min for both the subject in case of machine picking for all three cotton varieties. The maximum discomfort experienced by the subjects during picking cotton by manual cotton picker was in right wrist palm, right forearm, upper and lower back, left shoulder and in lower legs and both feet.

  16. Intestinal Parasites and Anthelmintic Treatments in a Laboratory Colony of Wild-caught African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys ansorgei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullin, Cassandra O; Sellers, Matthew S; Rogers, Erin R; Scott, Kathleen E; Lee, Danielle N; Ophir, Alexander G; Jackson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.) are large rodents native to subSaharan Africa. Wild-caught pouched rats identified as Cricetomys ansorgei (n = 49) were imported from Tanzania. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitism by fecal flotation revealed the presence of multiple parasites, including Nippostrongylus spp., Heterakis spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis spp., Raillietina spp., and Eimeria spp. Oral self-administered fenbendazole (150 ppm), topical moxidectin (2 mg/kg), pyrantel pamoate (15 mg/kg), piperazine (100 mg/kg daily), and injectable ivermectin (0.25 mg/kg) were used to determine effective treatment options for the gastrointestinal parasites present in the colony. Pyrantel pamoate in a treat vehicle and piperazine in water bottles were easily administered and significantly reduced the numbers of animals shedding Nippostrongylus spp. and Heterakis spp. during the study. Moxidectin and ivermectin were clinically ineffective at reducing fecal egg shedding. Fenbendazole was most effective at clearing infection with Trichuris spp. Although 10 mg/kg praziquantel was ineffective, a single dose of 30 mg/kg praziquantel significantly reduced the number of African pouched rats that shed cestode embryos. A combination treatment may be necessary to successfully treat all parasites present in any given animal. PMID:28935004

  17. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton... must be either: (1) Baled lint, including baled lint classified by USDA's Agricultural Marketing..., under the provisions of this subpart, has been made available; (2) Imported ELS cotton; (3) Raw...

  18. Energy usage for cotton ginning in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, S.A. [MARA Univ. of Technology, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture; Chen, G.; Baillie, C.; Symes, T. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that evaluated the energy consumption of cotton gins used in Australia. The average electricity use is 52.3 kWh per bale. In practicality, the electricity consumption for different gins is correlated linearly with the bale numbers produced. The cost of electricity is therefore important in cotton ginning operations. The power factor in all the gins monitored in this study was greater than 0.85. The study showed that the use of gas dryers was highly influenced by the cotton moisture and regulated drying temperature. In general, electricity and gas consumption comprised 61 and 39 per cent of total energy use respectively. The study showed that 60.38 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted for ginning each bale of cotton. This paper described a newly developed method for monitoring the energy performance in cotton gins. Detailed monitoring and analysis carried out at 2 gin sites revealed that electricity consumption is not influenced much by changes in trash content in the module, degree of moisture and lint quality. However, the cotton variety influences the energy consumption. Cotton handling constituted nearly 50 per cent of the power used in both gins.

  19. Engineering cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for resistance to cotton leaf curl disease using viral truncated AC1 DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Jamil A; Zafar, Yusuf; Arshad, Muhammad; Mansoor, Shahid; Asad, Shaheen

    2011-04-01

    Several important biological processes are performed by distinct functional domains found on replication-associated protein (Rep) encoded by AC1 of geminiviruses. Two truncated forms of replicase (tAC1) gene, capable of expressing only the N-terminal 669 bp (5'AC1) and C-terminal 783 bp (3'AC1) nucleotides cloned under transcriptional control of the CaMV35S were introduced into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) using LBA4404 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to make use of an interference strategy for impairing cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) infection in transgenic cotton. Compared with nontransformed control, we observed that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing either N-terminal (5'AC1) or C-terminal (3'AC1) sequences confer resistance to CLCuV by inhibiting replication of viral genomic and β satellite DNA components. Molecular analysis by Northern blot hybridization revealed high transgene expression in early and late growth stages associated with inhibition of CLCuV replication. Of the eight T(1) transgenic lines tested, six had delayed and minor symptoms as compared to nontransformed control lines which developed disease symptoms after 2-3 weeks of whitefly-mediated viral delivery. Virus biological assay and growth of T(2) plants proved that transgenic cotton plants overexpressing 5'- and 3'AC1 displayed high resistance level up to 72, 81%, respectively, as compared to non-transformed control plants following inoculation with viruliferous whiteflies giving significantly high cotton seed yield. Progeny analysis of these plants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting and virus biological assay showed stable transgene, integration, inheritance and cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) resistance in two of the eight transgenic lines having single or two transgene insertions. Transgenic cotton expressing partial AC1 gene of CLCuV can be used as virus resistance source in cotton breeding programs aiming to improve virus resistance in cotton crop.

  20. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  1. Influence of Tencel/cotton blends on knitted fabric performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Arafa Badr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The requirements in terms of wearing comfort with sportswear, underwear and outerwear are widely linked to the use of new fibers. Today, Tencel fiber is one of the most important developments in regenerated cellulosic fiber. However, the relation between Tencel fiber properties and fabric characteristics has not been enough studied in the literature especially the influence of fiber materials on mechanical, Ultraviolet Protection Factor (UPF and absorption properties. Therefore, in this study, knitted fabric samples were manufactured with eight different yarns with two fabric types (single jersey and single jersey with Lycra. 30/1-Ne yarns from natural and regenerated cellulosic fibers: 50% Tencel-LF/50% cotton, 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton, 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton, 70% bamboo/30% cotton, 100% bamboo, 100% Modal, 100% Micro-Modal and 100% cotton were employed. Then, all the produced fabrics were subjected to five cycles laundering and then flat dried. The results show that 67% Tencel-LF/33% cotton has more flexural rigidity and withdrawing handle force than 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton fabric, while 67% Tencel-STD/33% cotton has a merit of durability during bursting test. Blending Egyptian cotton fibers with bamboo and Tencel as in 70/30% bamboo/cotton and 50/50% Tencel-LF/cotton improve UPF of the produced fabric.

  2. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  3. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the treatment with fluorinated or silicon compounds)1-4 and by enhancing the surface roughness with a fractal structure5-8. Cotton, a cellulose-based material, that is greatly hydrophilic, is more benefited when made hydrophobic. Modification of cotton...

  4. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  5. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, X.; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X.; Li, Z.

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  6. Cotton for removal of aquatic oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, H.W.; Fedler, C.B.; Heintz, C.E.; Nash, P.T.; Carr, D.L.; Lu, M.

    1992-01-01

    Raw cotton has considerable potential for selective removal of spilled oil and oil products from surface waters, since the natural waxes on the raw cotton make it preferentially oil wet. This potential was recognized in the early seventies at Texas Tech University. More recently other research workers have considered cotton as an adsorbent for spilled oil. The adsorbent market is now dominated by synthetic materials, such as air-blown polypropylene fiber, inorganic clays, and recycled paper and paper products. This paper further examines the potential of cotton in relation to these other adsorbents. Emphasis is placed on the potential for complete biodegradation of oil-soaked cotton adsorbents as a means avoiding the expense for incineration and/or the long-term environmental risk associated with placing the used adsorbents in landfills

  7. The merging of two dynasties--identification of an African cotton leaf curl disease-associated begomovirus with cotton in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nouman Tahir

    Full Text Available Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD is a severe disease of cotton that occurs in Africa and Pakistan/northwestern India. The disease is caused by begomoviruses in association with specific betasatellites that differ between Africa and Asia. During survey of symptomatic cotton in Sindh (southern Pakistan Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGV, the begomovirus associated with CLCuD in Africa, was identified. However, the cognate African betasatellite (Cotton leaf curl Gezira betasatellite was not found. Instead, two Asian betasatellites, the CLCuD-associated Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB and Chilli leaf curl betasatellite (ChLCB were identified. Inoculation of the experimental plant species Nicotiana benthamiana showed that CLCuGV was competent to maintain both CLCuMB and ChLCB. Interestingly, the enations typical of CLCuD were only induced by CLCuGV in the presence of CLCuMB. Also in infections involving both CLCuMB and ChLCB the enations typical of CLCuMB were less evident. This is the first time an African begomovirus has been identified on the Indian sub-continent, highlight the growing threat of begomoviruses and particularly the threat of CLCuD causing viruses to cotton cultivation in the rest of the world.

  8. Microbial contamination of water-soaked cotton gauze and its cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oie, S; Yoshida, H; Kamiya, A

    2001-01-01

    Seven in-use cotton gauze samples and three cotton balls soaked in sterile distilled water in canisters were investigated 7 days after they were prepared in hospital. All samples were contaminated with bacteria including 10(6) to 10(7) colony forming units/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro viability tests using cotton gauze and cotton balls soaked in sterile distilled water revealed rapid proliferation of P. aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Candida albicans. Since the cotton gauze and the cotton balls were soaked in water containing nutrients, such as protein and glucose, these materials may be readily contaminated with bacteria including P. aeruginosa. Thus, when using cotton gauze and cotton balls containing water, microbial contamination should be expected.

  9. Radiation synthesis of silver nanostructures in cotton matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, Dagmara; Sartowska, Bożena

    2012-01-01

    Cotton is one of the most popular natural fibres, composed mainly of cellulose, which finds a wide range of applications in paper, textile and health care products industry. Researchers have focused their interest on the synthesis of cotton nanocomposites, which enhances its mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties by the incorporation of various nanoparticles into the cotton matrix. Silver is one of the most popular antimicrobial agents with a wide spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal activity that results from a complex mechanism of its interactions with the cells of harmful microorganism. In this work, electron beam radiation was applied to synthesise silver nanostructures in cotton fibres. Investigations of the influence of the initial silver salt concentration on the size and distribution of the obtained silver nanostructures were carried out. A detailed characterisation of these nanocomposites with SEM-BSE and EDS methods was performed. TGA and DSC analyses were performed to assess the influence of different size silver nanoparticles and the effect of electron beam irradiation on the thermal properties of cotton fibres. A microbiological investigation to determine the antibacterial activity of Ag-cotton nanocomposites was carried out. - Highlights: ► Ag NPs embedded in cotton matrix were synthesised by electron beam irradiation. ► Concentration of silver salt solution influences on size of silver nanoparticles. ► Silver content as well as irradiation affect thermal properties of cotton fabrics. ► Ag-cotton nanocomposites exhibit antibacterial activity against bacteria and fungi.

  10. (Pleurotus pulmonarius) grown on cotton waste and cassava peel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work evaluated the yield of Pleurotus pulmonarius on different mixtures of cotton waste and cassava peel. P. pulmonarius demonstrated significantly higher colonization rate on cotton waste substrate (100 g cotton waste) 3 weeks after inoculation of spawn than any other substrate mixtures. Cotton waste had the ...

  11. Acoustical evaluation of carbonized and activated cotton nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, N; Chen, J Y; Parikh, D V

    2009-12-01

    An activated carbon fiber nonwoven (ACF) was manufactured from a cotton nonwoven fabric. For the ACF acoustic application, a nonwoven composite of ACF with cotton nonwoven as a base layer was developed. Also produced were the composites of the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of glassfiber nonwoven, and the cotton nonwoven base layer with a layer of cotton fiber nonwoven. Their noise absorption coefficients and sound transmission loss were measured using the Brüel and Kjaer impedance tube instrument. Statistical significance of the differences between the composites was tested using the method of Duncan's grouping. The study concluded that the ACF composite exhibited a greater ability to absorb normal incidence sound waves than the composites with either glassfiber or cotton fiber. The analysis of sound transmission loss revealed that the three composites still obeyed the mass law of transmission loss. The composite with the surface layer of cotton fiber nonwoven possessed a higher fabric density and therefore showed a better sound insulation than the composites with glassfiber and ACF.

  12. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  13. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this section...

  14. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II. In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI, and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats.

  15. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus) by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I; Pitt, William C; Farias, Margaret E; Shiels, Laura; Severino, Michael G; Howe, Kathleen M; Jacquier, Steven H; Shiels, Aaron B; Amano, Karis K; Luiz, Blaine C; Maher, Daisy E; Allison, Maureen L; Holtquist, Zachariah C; Scheibelhut, Neil T

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW) disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II). In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD) group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD) group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI), and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats.

  16. Phytosterol content and the campesterol:sitosterol ratio influence cotton fiber development: role of phytosterols in cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shasha; Wei, Ting; Tan, Kunling; Hu, Mingyu; Li, Fang; Zhai, Yunlan; Ye, Shue; Xiao, Yuehua; Hou, Lei; Pei, Yan; Luo, Ming

    2016-02-01

    Phytosterols play an important role in plant growth and development, including cell division, cell elongation, embryogenesis, cellulose biosynthesis, and cell wall formation. Cotton fiber, which undergoes synchronous cell elongation and a large amount of cellulose synthesis, is an ideal model for the study of plant cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. The role of phytosterols in fiber growth was investigated by treating the fibers with tridemorph, a sterol biosynthetic inhibitor. The inhibition of phytosterol biosynthesis resulted in an apparent suppression of fiber elongation in vitro or in planta. The determination of phytosterol quantity indicated that sitosterol and campesterol were the major phytosterols in cotton fibers; moreover, higher concentrations of these phytosterols were observed during the period of rapid elongation of fibers. Furthermore, the decrease and increase in campesterol:sitosterol ratio was associated with the increase and decease in speed of elongation, respectively, during the elongation stage. The increase in the ratio was associated with the transition from cell elongation to secondary cell wall synthesis. In addition, a number of phytosterol biosynthetic genes were down-regulated in the short fibers of ligon lintless-1 mutant, compared to its near-isogenic wild-type TM-1. These results demonstrated that phytosterols play a crucial role in cotton fiber development, and particularly in fiber elongation.

  17. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  18. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Three transgenic cotton varieties (lines) were chosen for the study of inheritance and segregation of foreign Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) and tfdA genes in cotton. The transformed cotton varieties CCRI 30 and NewCott 33B expressing the Bt cryIA gene, and cotton line TFD expressing the tfdA gene were crossed with ...

  19. Thwarting one of cotton's nemeses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senft, D.

    1991-01-01

    There's not much good to be said for the pink bollworm, cotton's most destructive pest, except that it is being controlled to cut crop damage. Scientists have developed strategies, such as increasing native populations of predatory insects and pest-resistant cotton varieties. Thanks to research, growers today can also use cultural practices such as early plowdown of harvested cotton to break up stalks and bury overwintering pink bollworms. And they can disrupt normal mating by releasing sterile insects and using copies of natural compounds, called pheromones, that the pink bollworm uses to attract mates. Such strategies, together with judicious use of insecticides, put together in various combinations, form what is called an integrated pest management system

  20. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders AGENCY... Assistance Program (EAAP) and clarifying the definition of ``active shipping order.'' DATES: Effective Date... address that matter this rule amends in the payment calculation for semi-processed and reginned motes in 7...

  1. THE ELASTICITY OF EXPORT DEMAND FOR US COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Houston, Jack E.; Adhikari, Murali; Devkota, Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    There exist conflicting views among the researchers about the magnitudes of US cotton export demand elasticity, ranging from the highly inelastic to highly elastic. An Armington model was used to analyze the export demand elasticity of US Cotton. Our analysis confirms an elastic nature of US cotton export demand.

  2. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan... intentions to receive a loan deficiency payment on the identified commodity or (ii) A completed request for a... cotton based on a locked-in adjusted world price, provide identifying numbers for modules or other...

  3. Fourier transform infrared imaging of Cotton trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the identification of trash types comingled with cotton lint. A good understanding of the specific trash types present can lead to the fabrication of new equipment which can identify and sort cotton trash found with cotton fiber. Conventional methods, including the High Vo...

  4. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diqiu LIU; Xianlong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned and analyzed. On the other hand, identification of stress response genes expressed in cotton was performed by other research groups. The major stress factors were studied including the wilt pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxy-sporum f. sp. vasinfectum, bacterial blight, root-knot nematode, drought, and salt stress. What is more, a few genes related to the biosynthesis of gossypol, other sesquiterpene phytoalexins and the major seed oil fatty acids were isolated from cotton. In the present review, we focused on the major advances in cotton gene cloning and expression profiling in the recent years.

  5. 3rd stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  6. 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  7. 1st stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  8. Cover Crop Biomass Harvest Influences Cotton Nitrogen Utilization and Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ducamp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a potential in the southeastern US to harvest winter cover crops from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. fields for biofuels or animal feed use, but this could impact yields and nitrogen (N fertilizer response. An experiment was established to examine rye (Secale cereale L. residue management (RM and N rates on cotton productivity. Three RM treatments (no winter cover crop (NC, residue removed (REM and residue retained (RET and four N rates for cotton were studied. Cotton population, leaf and plant N concentration, cotton biomass and N uptake at first square, and cotton biomass production between first square and cutout were higher for RET, followed by REM and NC. However, leaf N concentration at early bloom and N concentration in the cotton biomass between first square and cutout were higher for NC, followed by REM and RET. Seed cotton yield response to N interacted with year and RM, but yields were greater with RET followed by REM both years. These results indicate that a rye cover crop can be beneficial for cotton, especially during hot and dry years. Long-term studies would be required to completely understand the effect of rye residue harvest on cotton production under conservation tillage.

  9. Employing in vitro directed molecular evolution for the selection of α-amylase variant inhibitors with activity toward cotton boll weevil enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Del Sarto, Rafael Perseghini; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Rigden, Daniel John; Teixeira, Fabíola Rodrigues; Bezerra, Caroline de Andrade; Albuquerque, Erika Valéria Saliba; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-09-20

    Numerous species of insect pests attack cotton plants, out of which the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main insect in Brazil and must be controlled to avert large economic losses. Like other insect pests, A. grandis secretes a high level of α-amylases in the midgut lumen, which are required for digestion of carbohydrates. Thus, α-amylase inhibitors (α-AIs) represent a powerful tool to apply in the control of insect pests. Here, we applied DNA shuffling and phage display techniques and obtained a combinatorial library containing 10⁸ α-AI variant forms. From this library, variants were selected exhibiting in vitro affinity for cotton boll weevil α-amylases. Twenty-six variant sequences were cloned into plant expression vectors and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transformed plant extracts were assayed in vitro to select specific and potent α-amylase inhibitors against boll weevil amylases. While the wild type inhibitors, used to create the shuffled library, did not inhibit the A. grandis α-amylases, three α-AI mutants, named α-AIC3, α-AIA11 and α-AIG4 revealed high inhibitory activities against A. grandis α-amylases in an in vitro assay. In summary, data reported here shown the potential biotechnology of new α-AI variant genes for cotton boll weevil control. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  11. Effects of Different Densities of Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum and Common Lambsquarter (Chenopodium Album on Some Cotton Growth Characteristics in Birjand Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Velayati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weeds are problematic plants in agroecosystems as a competitor for crops. In order to evaluate effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album densities on some crop growth indices, a study was conducted during 2006 in Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Birjand as factorial experiment based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Three densities of cotton (6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 and four weed densities (0, 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 were used to provide different weed interference levels. Indeed, three plots in each replication were intended to cultivation of lambsquarter alone at 6, 9 or 12 Pl.m-2. Results showed that crop growth rate (CGR of cotton was influenced by weed density, and its relative growth rate (RGR and net assimilation rate (NAR indicated a declining trend as weed density increased. Dry matter accumulation of cotton also was affected negatively by weed densities, as interference of lambsquarter at 6, 9 and 12 Pl.m-2 resulted to 35, 42 and 48 percent dry matter reduction, respectively, than weed-free treatment. Increasing of cotton density could partly compensate for negative impact of weed attendance on cotton growth. Thus, it seems higher plant densities can be used as a managing tool against weeds in cotton fields to avoid reduction of yield. Keywords: Cotton, Density, Weed, competition, Growth analysis

  12. 21 CFR 182.70 - Substances migrating from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in dry food packaging. 182.70 Section 182.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... used in dry food packaging. Substances migrating to food from cotton and cotton fabrics used in dry food packaging that are generally recognized as safe for their intended use, within the meaning of...

  13. Relay cropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) improves the profitability of cotton-wheat cropping system in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Aamer; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Riaz; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Delayed sowing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton-based system reduces the productivity and profitability of the cotton-wheat cropping system. In this scenario, relay cropping of wheat in standing cotton might be a viable option to ensure the timely wheat sowing with simultaneous improvement in wheat yields and system profitability. This 2-year study (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) aimed to evaluate the influence of sowing dates and relay cropping combined with different management techniques of cotton sticks on the wheat yield, soil physical properties, and the profitability of the cotton-wheat system. The experiment consisted of five treatments viz. (S1) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, (S2) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator, (S3) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November as relay crop in standing cotton with broadcast method, (S4) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, and (S5) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator. The highest seed cotton yield was observed in the S5 treatment which was statistically similar with the S3 and S4 treatments; seed cotton yield in the S1 and S2 treatments has been the lowest in both years of experimentation. However, the S2 treatment produced substantially higher root length, biological yield, and grain yield of wheat than the other treatments. The lower soil bulk density at 0-10-cm depth was recorded in the S2 treatment which was statistically similar with the S5 treatment during both years of experimentation. The volumetric water contents, net

  14. Weed flora, yield losses and weed control in cotton crop

    OpenAIRE

    Jabran, Khawar

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important fiber crop of world and provides fiber, oil, and animals meals. Weeds interfere with the growth activities of cotton plants and compete with it for resources. All kinds of weeds (grasses, sedges, and broadleaves) have been noted to infest cotton crop. Weeds can cause more than 30% decrease in cotton productivity. Several methods are available for weed control in cotton. Cultural control carries significance for weed control up to a certain extent....

  15. Increasing cotton stand establishment in soils prone to soil crusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many factors can contribute to poor cotton stand establishment, and cotton is notorious for its weak seedling vigor. Soil crusting can be a major factor hindering cotton seedling emergence in many of the cotton production regions of the US and the world. Crusting is mainly an issue in silty soils ...

  16. 7 CFR 28.107 - Original cotton standards and reserve sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original cotton standards and reserve sets. 28.107... Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.107 Original cotton standards and reserve sets. (a) The containers of the original Universal Standards and other official cotton standards of the United...

  17. Cotton Production in Mali: Subsidies or Sustainable Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Current trade rules concerning cotton subsidies are intricately linked with poverty and hunger in Mali. Over half of Mali's economy and over 30 million people depend directly on cotton. It is the main cash crop and the most important source of export revenue. Cotton also plays a key role in development policies and in the fight against poverty by…

  18. Genomic studies for drought tolerance in cotton (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob-ur-Rehman; Ullah, I.; Asir, M.; Zafar, Y.; Malik, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    The cotton germplasm developed in Pakistan has not been screened comprehensively for their response to water stress, which is a pre-requisite in exploring different metabolic pathways, development of genome maps, isolation of genes etc. The objectives of the study were to identify drought tolerant/sensitive cotton genotypes, development of genetic linkage maps, and to identify the most robust DNA markers leading towards marker-assisted selection (MAS). A field trial was conducted to investigate variation in gas exchange parameters and productivity traits in 32 cotton cultivars/promising strains under water stress environment and to ascertain association among these physiological and productivity traits. Photosynthetic rate (P), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) were significantly reduced under water stress. Substantial genotypic variation for gas exchange parameters especially photosynthetic rate were observed with a significant association with productivity traits under water-limited environment elucidating its use as an indirect selection criterion for seed cotton yield. Moreover, the genotypes FH-901 and CIM-1100 were found the most sensitive and tolerant cultivars, respectively. Four hundred eighty random primers were surveyed on different cotton genotypes involved in population development programs. Out of these, 32 polymorphic primers were identified which are being converted into sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs). Similarly, 25 out of 150 microstatellite loci (SSRs) were polymorphic among the cotton genotypes. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting technique is being exploited to search for additional polymorphisms. The study will have impact on cotton breeding programme by reducing span to develop drought tolerant cotton varieties. (author)

  19. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrago Carlos EG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV, a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Results Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. Conclusions This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

  20. Profile of small interfering RNAs from cotton plants infected with the polerovirus Cotton leafroll dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tatiane F; Romanel, Elisson A C; Andrade, Roberto R S; Farinelli, Laurent; Østerås, Magne; Deluen, Cécile; Corrêa, Régis L; Schrago, Carlos E G; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2011-08-24

    In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL) ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. The profile of vsRNAs produced during the infection process has been extensively studied for some groups of viruses. However, nothing is known about the vsRNAs produced during infections of members of the economically important family Luteoviridae, a group of phloem-restricted viruses. Here, we report the characterization of a population of vsRNAs from cotton plants infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), a member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from leaves of CLRDV-infected cotton plants revealed that the vsRNAs were 21- to 24-nucleotides (nt) long and that their sequences matched the viral genome, with higher frequencies of matches in the 3- region. There were equivalent amounts of sense and antisense vsRNAs, and the 22-nt class of small RNAs was predominant. During infection, cotton Dcl transcripts appeared to be up-regulated, while Dcl2 appeared to be down-regulated. This is the first report on the profile of sRNAs in a plant infected with a virus from the family Luteoviridae. Our sequence data strongly suggest that virus-derived double-stranded RNA functions as one of the main precursors of vsRNAs. Judging by the profiled size classes, all cotton DCLs might be working to silence the virus. The possible causes for the unexpectedly high accumulation of 22-nt vsRNAs are discussed. CLRDV is the causal agent of Cotton blue disease, which occurs worldwide. Our results are an important contribution for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in this and related diseases.

  1. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  2. Minimization of operational impacts on spectrophotometer color measurements for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key cotton quality and processing property that is gaining increasing importance is the color of the cotton. Cotton fiber in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd and +b. Rd and +b are specific to cotton fiber and are not typical ...

  3. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing the HaHR3 Gene Conferred Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Improved Cotton Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang; Wang, Zhenzhen; He, Yunxin; Xiong, Yehui; Lv, Shun; Li, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-08-30

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as an efficient technology. RNAi insect-resistant transgenic plants expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is ingested into insects to silence target genes can affect the viability of these pests or even lead to their death. HaHR3 , a molt-regulating transcription factor gene, was previously selected as a target expressed in bacteria and tobacco plants to control Helicoverpa armigera by RNAi technology. In this work, we selected the dsRNA- HaHR3 fragment to silence HaHR3 in cotton bollworm for plant mediated-RNAi research. A total of 19 transgenic cotton lines expressing HaHR3 were successfully cultivated, and seven generated lines were used to perform feeding bioassays. Transgenic cotton plants expressing ds HaHR3 were shown to induce high larval mortality and deformities of pupation and adult eclosion when used to feed the newly hatched larvae, and 3rd and 5th instar larvae of H. armigera . Moreover, HaHR3 transgenic cotton also demonstrated an improved cotton yield when compared with controls.

  4. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zahi El-Zahi Saber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a polyphagous sap sucking insect with a wide geographical and host range causing severe losses in economically important crops. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect attacking cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense var. Giza 86 in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. The insect was noticed on cotton plants for the first time during its growing season of 2014. The mealybug specimens were collected from infested cotton plants and identified as P. solenopsis. In an attempt to control this pest, eight toxic materials viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate, chlorpyrifos, methomyl, deltamethrin and mineral oil (KZ-oil, belonging to different chemical groups, were tested for their influence against P. solenopsis on cotton under field conditions. Methomyl, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and chlorpyrifos showed the highest efficacy against P. solenopsis recording 92.3 to 80.4% reduction of the insect population. Flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate and KZ-oil failed to exhibit sufficient P. solenopsis control.

  5. Genetic diversity in upland cotton for cotton leaf curl virus disease, earliness and fiber quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, F.; Farooq, J.; Mahmood, A.; Hussain, T.

    2014-01-01

    In Pakistan during last two decades the major factor limiting cotton production is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding programme. Significant associations were found between yield contributing trait, boll weight and fiber related trait, staple length. Earliness related traits, like days taken to 1 square and days taken to 1 flower had positive correlation with each other and both these traits also showed their positive association with ginning out turn. The negative significant correlation of CLCuD was obtained with monopodial branches, sympodial branches and plant height. Principal component (PC) analysis showed first five PCs having eigen value >1 explaining 67.8% of the total variation with days to st 1 square and flowering along with plant height and sympodia plant which were being the most important characters in PC1. Cluster analysis classified 101 accessions into five divergent groups. The genotypes in st cluster 1 only showed reasonable values for days to 1 square and flower, sympodia per plant, ginning out turn, staple length and fiber fineness and the genotypes in cluster 5 showed promising values for the traits like cotton leaf curl virus, ginning out turn and fiber fineness. The genotypes in cluster 1 and 5 may be combined to obtain desirable traits related to earliness and better disease tolerance. Scatter plot and tree diagrams demonstrated sufficient diversity among the cotton accessions for various traits and some extent of association between various clusters. It is concluded that diversity among the genotypes could be utilized for the development of CLCuD resistant lines with increased seed

  6. Response of cotton genotypes to boron under-b-adequate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J. A.; Sial, M. A.; Hassan, Z. U.; Rajpar, I.

    2015-01-01

    Balanced boron (B) application is well-known to enhance the cotton production; however, the narrow range between B-deficiency and toxicity levels makes it difficult to manage. Cotton genotypes extensively differ in their response to B requirements. The adequate dose of B for one genotype may be insufficient or even toxic to other genotype. The effects of boron (B) on seed cotton yield and its various yield associated traits were studied on 10 cotton genotypes of Pakistan. The pot studies were undertaken to categorize cotton genotypes using B-deficient (control) and B-adequate (2.0 kg B ha-1) levels arranged in CRD with four repeats. The results indicated that the seed cotton yield, yield attributes and B-uptake of genotypes were comparatively decreased in B-deficient stressed treatment. Genotype NIA-Ufaq exhibited wide range of adaptation and ranked as efficient-responsive, as it produced higher seed cotton yield under both B-regimes. SAU-2 and CIM-506 were highly-efficient and remaining all genotypes were medium-efficient. Genotype Sindh-1 produced low seed cotton yield under B deficient condition and ranked as low-efficient. B-efficient cotton genotypes can be grown in B deficient soils without B application. (author)

  7. Insecticide use and practices among cotton farmers in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop in Uganda. Insecticide application practices among cotton growers in northern Uganda were examined to determine the pests targeted and the compliance of control measures with the standards recommended by the Uganda's Cotton Development Organization ...

  8. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... regulations to allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and... response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS will offer a futures classification option...

  9. MicroRNA expression profiling during upland cotton gland forming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... 2Key Laboratory of Cotton Genetic Improvement, Cotton Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural. Sciences, Ministry of ... terpenoid aldehyde biosynthesis pathway, genetic engineering and molecular breeding of cotton. ... toxic to non-ruminant animals and humans, which means that large ...

  10. Evaluating potassium-use-efficiency of five cotton genotypes of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Z.U.; Kubar, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Potassium (K) deficiency in Pakistani soils has been recently reported as the major limiting factor affecting sustainable cotton production. The present study was conducted to envisage how K nutrition affect the growth, biomass production, yield and K-use-efficiency of five cotton genotypes, NIBGE-3701, NIBGE-1524 (Bt-transgenic), Sadori, Sindh-1 and SAU-2 (non-Bt conventional), commonly grown in Pakistan. All five genotypes were raised at deficient and adequate K levels, i.e. 0 and 60 kg K/sub 2/O ha-1, respectively. The experiment was performed in plastic pots following a completely randomized factorial design with three repeats. Adequate K nutrition significantly increased various plant growth traits and yield of all cotton genotypes under study, viz. number of sympodia (21%), number of leaves (34%), leaf dry biomass (30%), shoot dry biomass (31%), number of bolls (50%) and yield of seed cotton (92%). Substantial variations were observed among cotton genotypes for their K-use-efficiency and K-response-efficiency. Sadori and SAU-2 were screened as most K-use-efficient cotton genotypes, while Sindh-1 and SAU-2 were ranked as the most K-responsive cotton genotypes. Interestingly, Sadori did not respond to K nutrition. Moreover, Bt cotton genotypes accumulated more K as compared to non-Bt genotypes. The cotton genotype SAU-2 was identified as efficient-response genotype for better adaptation for both low- and high-K-input sustainable cotton agriculture systems. (author)

  11. Producing Organic Cotton: A Toolkit - Crop Guide, Projekt guide, Extension tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The CD compiles the following extension tools on organic cotton: Organic Cotton Crop Guide, Organic Cotton Training Manual, Soil Fertility Training Manual, Organic Cotton Project Guide, Record keeping tools, Video "Organic agriculture in the Nimar region", Photos for illustration.

  12. A facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

    2012-11-01

    A facile and novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic cotton fabrics is described in the present work. The superhydrophobic surface has been prepared by utilizing cationic poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) and silica particles together with subsequent modification of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The size distribution of silica particles was measured by Particle Size Analyzer. The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, the superhydrophobic durability of coated cotton textiles has been evaluated by exposure, immersion and washing tests. The results show that the treated cotton fabrics exhibited excellent chemical stability and outstanding non-wettability with the WCA of 155 ± 2°, which offers an opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein expressed in insect cells form protein nanoparticles that induce protective immunity in cotton rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Smith

    Full Text Available Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV is an important viral agent causing severe respiratory tract disease in infants and children as well as in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The lack of a safe and effective RSV vaccine represents a major unmet medical need. RSV fusion (F surface glycoprotein was modified and cloned into a baculovirus vector for efficient expression in Sf9 insect cells. Recombinant RSV F was glycosylated and cleaved into covalently linked F2 and F1 polypeptides that formed homotrimers. RSV F extracted and purified from insect cell membranes assembled into 40 nm protein nanoparticles composed of multiple RSV F oligomers arranged in the form of rosettes. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified RSV F nanoparticles was compared to live and formalin inactivated RSV in cotton rats. Immunized animals induced neutralizing serum antibodies, inhibited virus replication in the lungs, and had no signs of disease enhancement in the respiratory track of challenged animals. RSV F nanoparticles also induced IgG competitive for binding of palivizumab neutralizing monoclonal antibody to RSV F antigenic site II. Antibodies to this epitope are known to protect against RSV when passively administered in high risk infants. Together these data provide a rational for continued development a recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine candidate.

  14. The protective effects of aqueous extracts of wild-growing and fermented Royal Sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al. (higher basidiomycetes), in CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Han, Chunchao; Zhao, Baosheng; Yu, Haitao

    2012-01-01

    Culinary-medicinal Royal Sun mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (AbS), has traditionally been used for the prevention of a range of diseases, including cancer, hepatitis, atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and dermatitis. The hepatoprotective effect of the fermented mushroom of A. brasiliensis (FMAE) and wild-growing A. brasiliensis (WMAE) were studied in this paper. An in vivo study of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced antioxidant activity in 2-month-old rats was conducted by examining the levels of activities of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and the antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (CAT). Rats were divided into four groups, each containing six rats. The first group served as a control group. The second group was the CCl4 group. Group I and group II were treated orally with distilled water for 14 days respectively. Group III and Group IV were treated orally by WMAE and FMAE at oral doses of 50 mg/kg-day, respectively. Both WMAE and FMAE could reduce CCl4-induced toxicity, particularly hepatotoxicity, by suppressing ALT and AST activities, and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity. The studies demonstrate that both the fermented and wild-growing A. brasiliensis could protect the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.

  15. RNA interference of GhPEPC2 enhanced seed oil accumulation and salt tolerance in Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yumei; Cui, Yupeng; Liu, Zhengjie; Hua, Jinping

    2018-06-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) mainly produces oxaloacetic acid for tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Here we reported that GhPEPC2 silencing with PEPC2-RNAi vector could regulate oil and protein accumulation in cottonseeds. In GhPEPC2 transgenic plants, PEPCase activities in immature embryos were significantly reduced, and the oil content in seed kernel was increased 7.3 percentages, whereas total proteins decreased 5.65 percentages. Compared to wild type, agronomical traits of transgenic plant were obviously unaffected. Furthermore, gene expression profile of GhPEPC2 transgenic seeds were investigated using RNA-seq, most lipid synthesis related genes were up-regulated, but amino acid metabolic related genes were down-regulated. In addition, the GhPEPC2 transgenic cotton seedlings were stressed using sodium salts at seedling stage, and the salt tolerance was significantly enhanced. Our observations of GhPEPC2 in cotton would shade light on understanding the regulation of oil content, protein accumulation and salt tolerance enhancement in other plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  17. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. At-line cotton color measurements by portable color spectrophotometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a result of reports of cotton bales that had significant color changes from their initial Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI™) color measurements, a program was implemented to measure cotton fiber color (Rd, +b) at-line in remote locations (warehouse, mill, etc.). The measurement of cotton fiber...

  19. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore prescribed, separate samples, if desired, may be drawn and furnished to the owner of the cotton. ...

  20. DeepCotton: in-field cotton segmentation using deep fully convolutional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Cremers, Armin B.

    2017-09-01

    Automatic ground-based in-field cotton (IFC) segmentation is a challenging task in precision agriculture, which has not been well addressed. Nearly all the existing methods rely on hand-crafted features. Their limited discriminative power results in unsatisfactory performance. To address this, a coarse-to-fine cotton segmentation method termed "DeepCotton" is proposed. It contains two modules, fully convolutional network (FCN) stream and interference region removal stream. First, FCN is employed to predict initially coarse map in an end-to-end manner. The convolutional networks involved in FCN guarantee powerful feature description capability, simultaneously, the regression analysis ability of neural network assures segmentation accuracy. To our knowledge, we are the first to introduce deep learning to IFC segmentation. Second, our proposed "UP" algorithm composed of unary brightness transformation and pairwise region comparison is used for obtaining interference map, which is executed to refine the coarse map. The experiments on constructed IFC dataset demonstrate that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches, either in different common scenarios or single/multiple plants. More remarkable, the "UP" algorithm greatly improves the property of the coarse result, with the average amplifications of 2.6%, 2.4% on accuracy and 8.1%, 5.5% on intersection over union for common scenarios and multiple plants, separately.

  1. Problems and achievements of cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L. weeds control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Weed control in the cultivation of cotton is critical to the yield and quality of production. The influence of economically important weeds was studied. Chemical control is the most effective method of weed control in cotton but much of the information on it relates to primary weed infestation. Problems with primary weed infestation in cotton have been solved to a significant extent. The question of secondary weed infestation with annual and perennial graminaceous weeds during the period of cotton vegetation is also determined largely by the use of antigraminaceous herbicides. The data related to herbicides to effectively control secondary germinated broadleaf weeds in conventional technology for cotton growing are quite scarce, even globally. We are still seeking effective herbicides for control of these weeds in cotton crops. Studies on their influence on the sowing characteristics of cotton seed and the quality of cotton fiber are still insufficient. In the scientific literature there is not enough information on these questions. The combinations of herbicides, as well as their tank mixtures with fertilizers or plant growth regulators are more efficient than autonomous application. Often during their combined application higher synergistic effect on yield is produced. There is information about cotton cultivars resistant to glyphosate. These cultivars are GMO and they are banned within the European Union, including Bulgaria.

  2. Study of mungbean intercropping in cotton planted with different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Khaliq, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bio-economic efficiency of different cotton-based intercropping systems was determined at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, (Pakistan) during 1996-1997 and 1997-98. Cotton cultivar NIAB-78 was planted in 80-cm apart single rows and 120-cm spaced double row strips with the help of a single row hand drill. Intercropping systems were cotton alone and cotton + mungbean. Experiment was laid out in a RCBD with split arrangements in four replications. Planting patterns were kept in main plots and intercropping systems in sub-plots. Inter crop was sown in the space between 80-cm apart single rows as well as 120-cm spaced double row strips. Competition functions like relative crowding coefficient, competitive ratio, aggressivity, land equivalent ratio and area time equivalent ratio were calculated for the assessment of the benefits of the intercropping. Partial budget was prepared for determining net field benefits of the systems under study. Growing of cotton in 120-cm spaced double row strips proved superior to 80-cm spaced single rows. Intercropping decreased the seed cotton production significantly in both years, however, inter crop not only covered this loss but also increased overall productivity. Higher net field benefit (NFB) was obtained from cotton + mungbean than sole cropping of cotton. Farmers with small land holdings, seriously constrained by low crop income can adopt the practice of intercropping of mungbean in cotton. (author)

  3. Fourier-transform imaging of cotton and botanical and field trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical and field cotton trash comingled with cotton lint can greatly reduce the marketability and quality of cotton. Trash can be found comingled with cotton lint during harvesting, ginning, and processing, thus this study is of interest. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (A...

  4. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION... Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31 following...

  5. The preparation and antibacterial effects of dopa-cotton/AgNPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong; Shi Xue; Ma Hui; Lv Yihang; Zhang Linping; Mao Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known to have powerful antibacterial activity. In this paper, in situ generation of AgNPs on the surface of dopamine modified cotton fabrics (dopa-cotton/AgNPs) in aqueous solution under room temperature is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to analyze the surface chemical composition and the morphology of the modified cotton fabrics, respectively. The results indicated that the surface of cotton fabrics was successfully coated with polydopamine and AgNPs. The cotton fabrics with AgNPs showed durable antibacterial activity.

  6. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  7. Marketing policies and economic interests in the cotton sector of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report, which is based on field research carried out in 1988, examines the marketing arrangements for raw cotton, cotton lint and cotton seed in Kenya, as well as the relationships and conflicts between the actors involved. The report starts with the history of cotton production and marketing

  8. 76 FR 32067 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... ``Any AUP cotton'' and replacing it with the phrase ``Mature AUP cotton'' to clarify the AUP cotton must be mature in order to calculate a conversion factor between AUP cotton and ELS cotton. List of... dividing Price A by 85 percent of Price B. * * * * * (f) Mature AUP cotton harvested or appraised from...

  9. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana,

    Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation

    Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest

    control

  10. Orientation of cotton growers of multan district about heal hazards and pesticide use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, Q.U.; Hussain, R.; Ali, T.; Ahmad, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cotton growing farmers and cotton pickers are the twin pillars of cotton growing community. Cotton growing farmers (male) are involved in monitoring of quality and quantity of cotton crops by handsome usage of pesticides for better marketing of cotton crops. Whereas, cotton pickers (female) are involved in picking of cotton mainly. To assess their knowledge and source of knowledge about pesticides related health problems, the study was designed and conducted in 20 villages of district Multan selected by multistage random sampling technique. From the selected 20 villages, from the list bearing the villages, mouzas and union councils of district Multan, 220 cotton growers and 150 cotton pickers were selected by simple random sampling technique and interviewed through a reliable and validated interview schedule. The data collected were processed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that 75% of cotton growing farmers were having orientation about side effects of pesticides whereas, almost 8% of cotton growers were having no knowledge about side effects of pesticides. (author)

  11. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  12. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Meisner

    Full Text Available Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  13. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  14. Assessment of Bollgard II cotton pollen mediated transgenes flow to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Bollgard II cotton pollen mediated transgenes flow to conventional cotton in the farming conditions of Burkina ... This has led to experiment on Bt cotton from 2003 to 2007. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  15. Elemental analysis of cotton by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Emily R.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.

  16. CATEGORIZATION OF EXTRANEOUS MATTER IN COTTON USING MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) was developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory to identify and categorize extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneous matter calls assigned ...

  17. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swabs on melatonin enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Lee, Soomin; Nishimura, Takayuki; Katsuura, Tetsuo; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2011-01-10

    Although various acceptable and easy-to-use devices have been used for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common ones. Previous studies reported that cotton swabs yield a lower level of melatonin detection. However, this statistical method is not adequate for detecting an agreement between cotton saliva collection and passive saliva collection, and a test for bias is needed. Furthermore, the effects of cotton swabs have not been examined at lower melatonin level, a level at which melatonin is used for assessment of circadian rhythms, namely dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). In the present study, we estimated the effect of cotton swabs on the results of salivary melatonin assay using the Bland-Altman plot at lower level. Nine healthy males were recruited and each provided four saliva samples on a single day to yield a total of 36 samples. Saliva samples were directly collected in plastic tubes using plastic straws, and subsequently pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection) and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection). The melatonin levels were analyzed in duplicate using commercially available ELISA kits. The mean melatonin concentration in cotton saliva collection samples was significantly lower than that in passive saliva collection samples at higher melatonin level (>6 pg/mL). The Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes relative and proportional biases in the assay results. For lower melatonin level (<6 pg/mL), although the BA plots didn't show proportional and relative biases, there was no significant correlation between passive and cotton saliva collection samples. Our findings indicate an interference effect of cotton swabs on the assay result of salivary melatonin at lower melatonin level. Cotton-based collection devices might, thus, not be suitable for assessment of DLMO.

  18. Chemical analysis of plasma-assisted antimicrobial treatment on cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C W; Lam, Y L; Yuen, C W M; Luximon, A; Lau, K W; Chen, K S

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of plasma treatment as a pretreatment process to assist the application of antimicrobial process on cotton fabric with good functional effect. In this paper, antimicrobial finishing agent, Microfresh Liquid Formulation 9200-200 (MF), and a binder (polyurethane dispersion, Microban Liquid Formulation R10800-0, MB) will be used for treating the cotton fabric for improving the antimicrobial property and pre-treatment of cotton fabric by plasma under atmospheric pressure will be employed to improve loading of chemical agents. The chemical analysis of the treated cotton fabric will be conducted by Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  19. Field Comparison of Fertigation Vs. Surface Irrigation of Cotton Crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2004-01-01

    Based on previous results of the same nature, one nitrogen rate 180 kg N ha -1 was tested under two-irrigation methods, surface irrigation and drip fertigation of cotton (Cultivar Rakka-5) for two consecutive seasons 2000 and 2001. The study aimed to answer various questions regarding the applicability of drip fertigation at farm level and the effect of its employment on yield and growth parameters, compared to surface irrigation. Nitrogen fertilizer was either injected in eight equally split applications for the drip fertigated cotton or divided in four unequally split applications as recommend by Ministry of Agriculture (20% before planting, 40% at thinning, 20% after 60 days from planting and 20% after 75 days after planting). 15 N labeled urea was used to evaluate nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. The experimental design was randomized block design with seven replicates. Results showed that drip fertigation led to water saving exceeding 50% in some cases. Field germination percentage was highly increased under drip- fertigated cotton relative to surface-irrigated cotton. Dry matter and seed cotton yield of surface-irrigated cotton was slightly higher than that of drip-fertigated cotton in the first growing season. The reason for that was due to the hot spill that occurred in the region, which exposed the cotton crop to water stress and consequently pushed the cotton into early flowering. Lint properties were not affected by the introduction of drip-fertigation. Actually some properties were improved relative to the standard properties identified by the cotton Bureau.Nitrogen uptake was slightly increased under drip fertigation whereas nitrogen use efficiencies were not constant along the growing seasons. The reason for that could be lateral leaching and root proliferation into the labeled and unlabeled subplots. Field water use efficiency was highly increased for both growing seasons under drip fertigation practice. The rate of field water use efficiencies

  20. Passive and active protection of cotton textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochove, C. van

    1967-01-01

    In rotproofing of cotton a distinction is made between passive and active protection. In passive protection, the structure of the cotton fibre is modified in such a way that the fibre can longer be attacked. This modification of structure can be effected on different levels: microscopical,

  1. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  2. Satellite-based monitoring of cotton evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalezios, Nicolas; Dercas, Nicholas; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2016-04-01

    Water for agricultural use represents the largest share among all water uses. Vulnerability in agriculture is influenced, among others, by extended periods of water shortage in regions exposed to droughts. Advanced technological approaches and methodologies, including remote sensing, are increasingly incorporated for the assessment of irrigation water requirements. In this paper, remote sensing techniques are integrated for the estimation and monitoring of crop evapotranspiration ETc. The study area is Thessaly central Greece, which is a drought-prone agricultural region. Cotton fields in a small agricultural sub-catchment in Thessaly are used as an experimental site. Daily meteorological data and weekly field data are recorded throughout seven (2004-2010) growing seasons for the computation of reference evapotranspiration ETo, crop coefficient Kc and cotton crop ETc based on conventional data. Satellite data (Landsat TM) for the corresponding period are processed to estimate cotton crop coefficient Kc and cotton crop ETc and delineate its spatiotemporal variability. The methodology is applied for monitoring Kc and ETc during the growing season in the selected sub-catchment. Several error statistics are used showing very good agreement with ground-truth observations.

  3. Integrated nutrients management for 'desi' cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, M.A.; Akram, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khattak, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive cropping with no return of crop residues and other organic inputs result in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient supply in (Desi) cotton-wheat cropping system in Pakistan. For appraisal of problem and finding solution to sustainability, we evaluated six treatments comprised of two fertilizer doses and three management techniques over a period of three years (2003-05) monitoring their effects on seed cotton yield and soil fertility. The techniques included chemical fertilizers, municipal solid waste manure (MSWM) integrated with chemical fertilizers in 1:4 ratios with, and without pesticides. The results revealed that cotton yields. Were enhanced by 19% due to site-specific fertilizer dose over conventional dose. Ignoring weeds control by means of herbicided application resulted in 5% decrease of seed cotton yield in IPNM technique positive effect of MSWM integration was noted on soil test phosphorus and SOM. Site-specific fertilizer application and integrated plant nutrient management by MSWM proved their suitability as the techniques not only improve soil quality in terms of sustained levels of organic matter and phosphorus but also provide a safe way of waste disposal. (author)

  4. A defect in the inflammation-primed macrophage-activation cascade in osteopetrotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Lindsay, D D; Naraparaju, V R; Ireland, R A; Popoff, S N

    1994-05-15

    Macrophages were activated by administration of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) or dodecylglycerol (DDG) to wild-type rats but not in osteopetrotic (op) mutant rats. In vitro treatment of wild-type rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG efficiently activated macrophages whereas treatment of op mutant rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG did not activate macrophages. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade in rats requires participation of B lymphocytes and vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of wild-type rat B lymphocytes can convert DBP to the macrophage-activating factor (MAF), whereas B lymphocytes of the op mutant rats were shown to be deficient in lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase. DBP is conserved among mammalian species. Treatment of human DBP (Gc1 protein) with commercial glycosidases yields an extremely high titrated MAF as assayed on mouse and rat macrophages. Because the enzymatically generated MAF (GcMAF) bypasses the role of lymphocytes in macrophage activation, the op mutant rat macrophages were efficiently activated by administration of a small quantity (100 pg/rat) of GcMAF. Likewise, in vitro treatment of op rat peritoneal cells with as little as 40 pg GcMAF/ml activated macrophages.

  5. Exploring potential and opportunities for pakistan cotton export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, G. S.; Tariq, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is the single largest shareholder to GDP an employment to labour force. It has major share in export but unfortunately unable to meet international standards. This study aims to analyze the pattern of Pakistan cotton export, and to explore sector's export potential and opportunities. This new research endeavor with well-tested analytical tools enabled the trade experts and policy makers to explore the answer of lackness for diversification in export, HS-2- digits aggregated data for cotton sub-sectors have been used with latest data from 2004 to 2013 for the panel 39 countries. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and gravity model approach was employed considering country and time specific fixed effect. The RCA index revealed that cotton sub-sectors have comparative advantage in export and there is gradual gain in the competitiveness with time. The opportunity exists in the markets of low, lower-middle and upper middle income countries and countries those have fair trade (low tariff and non-tariff barriers) for cotton export. Greater export potential lies with malaysia, kenya jordan, thailand, mauritius, netherlands norway, Australia and russian federation for export of cotton, however, export potential for cotton has been exhausted with canada, france, india, iran and saudi arabia. The study provide the policy information that countries of Latin america, eastern europe, central asia and northern africa are virgin for export. Therefore, pakistan should penetrate in these markets for export of cotton and other agricultural products. cognizant to new trade theories, pakistan focus on quality to gain maximum trade volume in the markets of high income countries, Pakistan may develop trade agreement with ASEAN, SAFTA, and EU-27 for export of agricultural products. (author)

  6. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swabs on melatonin enzyme immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuura Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although various acceptable and easy-to-use devices have been used for saliva collection, cotton swabs are among the most common ones. Previous studies reported that cotton swabs yield a lower level of melatonin detection. However, this statistical method is not adequate for detecting an agreement between cotton saliva collection and passive saliva collection, and a test for bias is needed. Furthermore, the effects of cotton swabs have not been examined at lower melatonin level, a level at which melatonin is used for assessment of circadian rhythms, namely dim light melatonin onset (DLMO. In the present study, we estimated the effect of cotton swabs on the results of salivary melatonin assay using the Bland-Altman plot at lower level. Methods Nine healthy males were recruited and each provided four saliva samples on a single day to yield a total of 36 samples. Saliva samples were directly collected in plastic tubes using plastic straws, and subsequently pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection. The melatonin levels were analyzed in duplicate using commercially available ELISA kits. Results The mean melatonin concentration in cotton saliva collection samples was significantly lower than that in passive saliva collection samples at higher melatonin level (>6 pg/mL. The Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes relative and proportional biases in the assay results. For lower melatonin level ( Conclusion Our findings indicate an interference effect of cotton swabs on the assay result of salivary melatonin at lower melatonin level. Cotton-based collection devices might, thus, not be suitable for assessment of DLMO.

  7. Processing and Properties of PCL/Cotton Linter Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra,Elieber Barros; França,Danyelle Campos; Morais,Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Rosa,Morsyleide de Freitas; Morais,João Paulo Saraiva; Araújo,Edcleide Maria; Wellen,Renate Maria Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable compounds of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/ cotton linter were melting mixed with filling content ranging from 1% to 5% w/w. Cotton linter is an important byproduct of textile industry; in this work it was used in raw state and after acid hydrolysis. According to the results of torque rheometry no decaying of viscosity took place during compounding, evidencing absence of breaking down in molecular weight. The thermal stability increased by 20% as observed in HDT for PCL/cotton...

  8. Cycling of fertilizer and cotton crop residue nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, I.J.; Constable, G.A.; MacLeod, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Mineral nitrogen (N), nitrate and ammonium contents were monitored in N-fertilized soils supporting cotton crops to provide information on the nitrification, mineralization and immobilization processes operating in the soil. The relative contributions of fertilizer N, previous cotton crop residue N and indigenous soil N to the mineral N pools and to the current crop's N uptake were calculated. After N fertilizer (urea) application, the soil's mineral N content rose rapidly and subsequently declined at a slower rate. The recovery of 15 N-labelled urea as mineral N declined exponentially with time. Biological immobilization (and possibly denitrification to some extent) were believed to be the major processes reducing post-application soil mineral N content. Progressively less N was mineralized upon incubation of soil sampled through the growing season. Little soil N (either from urea or crop residue) was mineralized at crop maturity. Cycling of N was evident between the soil mineral and organic N pools throughout the cotton growing season. Considerable quantities of fertilizer N were immobilized by the soil micro biomass; immobilized N was remineralized and subsequently taken up by the cotton crop. A large proportion of the crop N was taken up in the latter part of the season when the soil mineral N content was low. It is suggested that much of the N taken up by cotton was derived from microbial sources, rather than crop residues. The application of cotton crop residue (stubble) slightly reduced the mineral N content in the soil by encouraging biological immobilization. 15 N was mineralized very slowly from the labelled crop residue and did not contribute significantly to the supply of N to the current crop. Recovery of labelled fertilizer N and labelled crop residue N by the cotton crop was 28% and 1%, respectively. In comparison, the apparent recovery of fertilizer N was 48%. Indigenous soil N contributed 68% of the N taken up by the cotton crop. 33 refs., 1 tab

  9. Resilient modulus of black cotton soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Mamatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus (MR values of pavement layers are the basic input parameters for the design of pavements with multiple layers in the current mechanistic empirical pavement design guidelines. As the laboratory determination of resilient modulus is costly, time consuming and cumbersome, several empirical models are developed for the prediction of resilient modulus for different regions of the world based on the database of resilient modulus values of local soils. For use of these relationships there is a need to verify the suitability of these models for local conditions. Expansive clay called black cotton soil (BC soil is found in several parts of India and is characterized by low strength and high compressibility. This soil shows swell – shrink behaviour upon wetting and drying and are problematic. The BC soil shows collapse behaviour on soaking and therefore the strength of the soil needs to be improved. Additive stabilization is found to be very effective in stabilizing black cotton soils and generally lime is used to improve the strength and durability of the black cotton soil. In this paper, the results of repeated load tests on black cotton soil samples for the determination of MR under soaked and unsoaked conditions at a relative compaction levels of 100% and 95% of both standard and modified proctor conditions are reported. The results indicate that the black cotton soil fails to meet the density requirement of the subgrade soil and shows collapse behaviour under soaked condition. To overcome this, lime is added as an additive to improve the strength of black cotton soil and repeated load tests were performed as per AASHTO T 307 - 99 for MR determination. The results have shown that the samples are stable under modified proctor condition with MR values ranging from 36 MPa to 388 MPa for a lime content of 2.5% and curing period ranging from 7 to 28 days. Also, it is observed that, the CBR based resilient modulus is not in agreement

  10. Changes in cotton gin energy consumption apportioned by ten functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The public is concerned about air quality and sustainability. Cotton producers, gin owners and plant managers are concerned about rising energy prices. Both have an interest in cotton gin energy consumption trends. Changes in cotton gins’ energy consumption over the past fifty years, a period of ...

  11. farmers' knowledge and perceptions of cotton insect pests and their

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    A survey of 337 cotton farmers in the three northern regions of Ghana was ... five applications were made during the season. ... Keywords: cotton, farmer knowledge and perception, insect pest control, Ghana. .... bordered on tests of farmers' knowledge of cotton insect pests, their damage ..... Agricultural Experiment Station.

  12. Biosafety of Recombinant and Wild Type Nucleopolyhedroviruses as Bioinsecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Hammock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic Autographa californica (Speyer nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV has been genetically modified to increase its speed of kill. The potential adverse effects of a recombinant AcMNPV (AcAaIT as well as wild type AcMNPV and wild type Spodoptera littoralis NPV (SlNPV were studied. Cotton plants were treated with these viruses at concentrations that were adjusted to resemble the recommended field application rate (4 x 1012 PIBs/feddan, feddan = 4,200 m2 and 3rd instar larvae of S. littoralis were allowed to feed on the contaminated plants. SDS-PAGE, ELISA, and DNA analyses were used to confirm that larvae that fed on these plants were virus-infected. Polyhedra that were purified from the infected larvae were subjected to structural protein analysis. A 32 KDa protein was found in polyhedra that were isolated from all of the viruses. Subtle differences were found in the size and abundance of ODV proteins. Antisera against polyhedral proteins isolated from AcAaIT polyhedra were raised in rabbits. The terminal bleeds from rabbits were screened against four coating antigens (i.e., polyhedral proteins from AcAaIT, AcAaIT from field-infected larvae (AcAaIT-field, AcMNPV, and SlNPV using a two-dimensional titration method with the coated antigen format. Competitive inhibition experiments were conducted in parallel to optimize antibody and coating antigen concentrations for ELISA. The IC50 values for each combination ranged from 1.42 to 163 μg/ml. AcAaIT-derived polyhedrin gave the lowest IC50 value, followed by those of SlNPV, AcAaIT-field, and AcMNPV. The optimized ELISA system showed low cross reactivity for AcMNPV (0.87%, AcAaIT-field (1.2%, and SlNPV (4.0%. Genomic DNAs isolated from AcAaIT that were passaged in larvae of S. littoralis that were reared in the laboratory or field did not show any detectable differences. Albino rats (male and female that were treated with AcAaIT, AcMNPV or SlNPV (either orally or by intraperitoneal

  13. Remote sensing techniques for monitoring the Rio Grande Valley cotton stalk destruction program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A.J.; Gerbermann, A.H.; Summy, K.R.; Anderson, G.L. (Department of Agriculture, Weslaco, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Post harvest cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalk destruction is a cultural practice used in the Rio Grande Valley to suppress over wintering populations of boll weevils (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) without using chemicals. Consistent application of this practice could substantially reduce insecticide usage, thereby minimizing environmental hazards and increasing cotton production profits. Satellite imagery registered within a geographic information system was used to monitor the cotton stalk destruction program in the Rio Grande Valley. We found that cotton stalk screening procedures based on standard multispectral classification techniques could not reliably distinguish cotton from sorghum. Greenness screening for cotton plant stalks after the stalk destruction deadline was possible only where ground observations locating cotton fields were available. These findings indicate that a successful cotton stalk destruction monitoring program will require satellite images and earth referenced data bases showing cotton field locations.

  14. Induced mutations for improvement of desi cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waghmare, V.N.; Mohan, Punit; Singh, Phundan; Gururajan, K.N.

    2000-01-01

    Desi cotton varieties of Gossypium arboreum have wide adaptability and are relatively tolerant to biotic (insect pests and diseases) and abiotic (moisture and salt) stresses. Desi varieties have got potential to yield even under adverse and low input situations. Most of them are synchronous in maturity and possess consistent fibre properties. Despite such merits, very little attention has been paid for improvement of desi cotton. The present area under arboreum varieties is 17.0% (15.30 lakh ha.) against 65% (35.75 lakh ha) during 1947-48. Deliberate attempts are required to improve G. arboreum for its economic and quality characters to compete with upland varieties in rainfed cotton ecology

  15. Effects of saliva collection using cotton swab on cortisol enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Kaji, Yumi; Yasukouchi, Akira; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    Cotton swabs are among the most commonly used devices for collecting saliva, but various studies have reported that their use impacts the results of salivary cortisol assays. These studies, however, estimated this impact by comparing the average of the concentration and/or scatter plots. In the present study, we estimated the impact of cotton swabs on the results of salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay (EIA) by Bland-Altman plot. Eight healthy males (aged 20-23 years) provided four saliva samples on different days to yield a total of 32 samples. Saliva samples were collected directly in plastic tubes using plastic straws and then pipetted onto cotton swabs (cotton saliva collection) and into clear sterile tubes (passive saliva collection). There was a lower correlation between cotton and passive saliva collection. Individually, four subjects showed a negative correlation between passive and cotton saliva collection. A Bland-Altman plot indicated that cotton swabs causes a proportional bias on the EIA assay result. Our findings indicate a considerable effect of using cotton swabs for saliva collection, and subject-specific variability in the impact. A Bland-Altman plot further suggests possible reasons for this effect.

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on ground after damage by boll weevil and the efficiency of the equipment used to collect them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of fallen cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen damaged by boll weevil and the efficiency and time interval of the equipment used to collect cotton samples. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on the soil damaged by boll weevil among cotton rows was determined in an experimental design of randomized blocks in a factorial arrangement of 4x3, represented by soil surface tracks located at 1-11cm, 12-22cm, 23-33cm, and 34-44cm away from the planting row of cotton plants 70, 85, and 100 days of age. Efficiency and collection time interval of the cotton samples fallen on the soil infested by boll weevil by plastic rakes that were straight or fan-shaped, big broom, collector instrument model CNPA and aspirator of leaves ‘Trapp’ were determined in randomized block design with five treatments, 10 repetitions for each. Results demonstrated that the collection of cotton samples must be performed with greater attention to soil strips located below the cotton top projection and aspirator ‘Trapp’ of leaves was more appropriate for the operation as it used less time of collection with similar efficiency to other available equipment.

  17. Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanyou; Yu, John Z; Cho, Jaemin; Yu, Jing; Kohel, Russell J; Percy, Richard G

    2010-12-16

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is an important crop plant that is widely grown to produce both natural textile fibers and cottonseed oil. Cotton fibers, the economically more important product of the cotton plant, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that large numbers of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across At and Dt subgenomes of tetraploid AD cottons. In the present study, the organization and evolution of the fiber development genes were investigated through the construction of an integrated genetic and physical map of fiber development genes whose functions have been verified and confirmed. A total of 535 cotton fiber development genes, including 103 fiber transcription factors, 259 fiber development genes, and 173 SSR-contained fiber ESTs, were analyzed at the subgenome level. A total of 499 fiber related contigs were selected and assembled. Together these contigs covered about 151 Mb in physical length, or about 6.7% of the tetraploid cotton genome. Among the 499 contigs, 397 were anchored onto individual chromosomes. Results from our studies on the distribution patterns of the fiber development genes and transcription factors between the At and Dt subgenomes showed that more transcription factors were from Dt subgenome than At, whereas more fiber development genes were from At subgenome than Dt. Combining our mapping results with previous reports that more fiber QTLs were mapped in Dt subgenome than At subgenome, the results suggested a new functional hypothesis for tetraploid cotton. After the merging of the two diploid Gossypium genomes, the At subgenome has provided most of the genes for fiber development, because it continues to function similar to its fiber producing diploid A genome ancestor. On the other hand, the Dt subgenome, with its non-fiber producing D genome ancestor

  18. A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati

    2017-06-01

    It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.

  19. Insect pests management of bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.; Khan, M.H.; Tofique, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to manage insect pests of Bt cotton through the manipulation of different eco-friendly techniques. A perusal of data, based on the overall performance of different treatments reflected that lowest population of jassids (0.29) was observed in bio-control treated Bt cotton followed by bio-control treated conventional cotton (0.41). Mean per leaf population of thrips was found lowest in insecticide treated Bt cotton (0.97) which was statically at par with bi-control treated conventional cotton (0.95), biocontrol treated Bt cotton (1.09) and colour traps treated Bt cotton (1.50). In case of white flies, bio-control treated Bt cotton and bio-control treated conventional cotton again proved effective in maintaining the population at lower levels per leaf (0.33 and 0.35 respectively). No bollworms infestation was recorded in transgenic cotton whereas higher attack of the same was observed in the untreated conventional cotton block. The best results were achieved with the application of bio-control agents in combination with Bt cotton resulting in least infestation by insect pests and maximum seed yield of 3657 kg/ha. The population of Chrysoperla carnea was significantly higher in Bt and conventional cotton treated with bio-control agents as compared to the other treatments. The parasitism percentage of Trichogramma chilonis was observed significantly higher in bio-control treated conventional cotton. The studies manifested that combination of bio-control technology with Bt cotton effectively preserves the local beneficial insect fauna indicating its potential to be used as integrated management system against different insect pests of cotton. (author)

  20. Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui

    2014-02-15

    Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterosis and correlation in interspecific and intraspecific hybrids of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, S; Hussain, S B; Manzoor, H; Quereshi, M K; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Shehzad, A N; Rasul, S; Manzoor, S A

    2016-06-24

    Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids show varying degrees of heterosis for yield and yield components. Yield-component traits have complex genetic relationships with each other. To determine the relationship of yield-component traits and fiber traits with seed cotton yield, six lines (Bt. CIM-599, CIM-573, MNH-786, CIM-554, BH-167, and GIZA-7) and three test lines (MNH-886, V4, and CIM-557) were crossed in a line x tester mating design. Heterosis was observed for seed cotton yield, fiber traits, and for other yield-component traits. Heterosis in interspecific hybrids for seed cotton yield was more prominent than in intraspecific hybrids. The interspecific hybrid Giza-7 x MNH-886 had the highest heterosis (114.77), while among intraspecific hybrids, CIM-554 x CIM-557 had the highest heterosis (61.29) for seed cotton yield. A major trait contributing to seed cotton yield was bolls/plant followed by boll weight. Correlation studies revealed that bolls/plant, boll weight, lint weight/boll, lint index, seed index, lint/seed, staple length, and staple strength were significantly and positively associated with seed cotton yield. Selection based on boll weight, boll number, lint weight/boll, and lint index will be helpful for improving cotton seed yield.

  2. Genetic transformation of cry1EC gene into cotton ( Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton is the chief fibre crop of global importance. It plays a significant role in the national economy. Cotton crop is vulnerable to a number of insect species, especially to the larvae of lepidopteron pests. 60% insecticides sprayed on cotton are meant to control the damage caused by bollworm complex. Transgenic ...

  3. Fiber quality challenges facing the cotton industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton industry is in the midst of an exciting time with increased domestic consumption, but also facing pressure from other crops and the global marketplace. In order to ensure the US cotton crop remains the fiber of choice for the world it is important to keep an eye on the challenges to fibe...

  4. Within canopy distribution of cotton seed N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole cotton seeds can be an important component of dairy rations. Nitrogen content of the seed is an important determinant of the feed value of the seed. Efforts to increase the seed value as feed will be enhanced with knowledge of the range and distribution of seed N within the cotton crop. This s...

  5. Global alteration of microRNAs and transposon-derived small RNAs in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) during Cotton leafroll dwarf polerovirus (CLRDV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanel, Elisson; Silva, Tatiane F; Corrêa, Régis L; Farinelli, Laurent; Hawkins, Jennifer S; Schrago, Carlos E G; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2012-11-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs ranging from 20- to 40-nucleotides (nts) that are present in most eukaryotic organisms. In plants, sRNAs are involved in the regulation of development, the maintenance of genome stability and the antiviral response. Viruses, however, can interfere with and exploit the silencing-based regulatory networks, causing the deregulation of sRNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). To understand the impact of viral infection on the plant sRNA pathway, we deep sequenced the sRNAs in cotton leaves infected with Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV), which is a member of the economically important virus family Luteoviridae. A total of 60 putative conserved cotton miRNAs were identified, including 19 new miRNA families that had not been previously described in cotton. Some of these miRNAs were clearly misregulated during viral infection, and their possible role in symptom development and disease progression is discussed. Furthermore, we found that the 24-nt heterochromatin-associated siRNAs were quantitatively and qualitatively altered in the infected plant, leading to the reactivation of at least one cotton transposable element. This is the first study to explore the global alterations of sRNAs in virus-infected cotton plants. Our results indicate that some CLRDV-induced symptoms may be correlated with the deregulation of miRNA and/or epigenetic networks.

  6. Various rates of k and Na influence growth, seed cotton yield and ionic ratio of two cotton varieties in soil culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, L.; Maqsood, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton is generally grown on alkaline calcareous soils in arid and semi-arid areas of the country. Sodium can interact with other earth cations like K, Ca and Mg. Therefore, a pot study was conducted to investigate the growth, yield and ionic response of two cotton varieties. Four levels of K and Na were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in mg/kg were adjusted as, 105+37.5, 135+30 135+37.5 and 105+30 (control). Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Application of K and Na increased seed cotton yield and boll weight significantly (p<0.01). Both varieties varied non-significantly with respect to K:Na ratio in leaf. The beneficial effects of Na with K application over control on seed cotton yield and boll weight were greater in NIBGE-2 than in MNH-786. Increase in seed cotton yield was attributed to maximum boll weight of both varieties. Significant negative correlation (r= -0.89, - 0.76, n= 4) was found between K:Na ratio and K use efficiency in shoot of NIBGE-2 and MNH-786, respectively. (author)

  7. Fiber sample presentation system for spectrophotometer cotton fiber color measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is used to class U.S. cotton for fiber color, yielding the industry accepted, cotton-specific color parameters Rd and +b. The HVI examines a 9 square inch fiber sample, and it is also used to test large AMS standard cotton “biscuits” or rectangles. Much inte...

  8. IMPROVED SPECTROPHOTOMETER FIBER SAMPLING SYSTEM FOR COTTON FIBER COLOR MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color using the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), and the parameters Rd and +b are used to designate color grades for cotton fiber. However, Rd and +b are cotton-specific color parameters, and the need existed to demonstrate the relationships of Rd and +b to...

  9. Can preening contribute to influenza A virus infection in wild waterbirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Delogu

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the main reservoir hosts perpetuating the genetic pool of all influenza A viruses, including pandemic viruses. High viral loads in feces of infected birds permit a fecal-oral route of transmission. Numerous studies have reported the isolation of avian influenza viruses (AIVs from surface water at aquatic bird habitats. These isolations indicate aquatic environments have an important role in the transmission of AIV among wild aquatic birds. However, the progressive dilution of infectious feces in water could decrease the likelihood of virus/host interactions. To evaluate whether alternate mechanisms facilitate AIV transmission in aquatic bird populations, we investigated whether the preen oil gland secretions by which all aquatic birds make their feathers waterproof could support a natural mechanism that concentrates AIVs from water onto birds' bodies, thus, representing a possible source of infection by preening activity. We consistently detected both viral RNA and infectious AIVs on swabs of preened feathers of 345 wild mallards by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and virus-isolation (VI assays. Additionally, in two laboratory experiments using a quantitative real-time (qR RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated that feather samples (n = 5 and cotton swabs (n = 24 experimentally impregnated with preen oil, when soaked in AIV-contaminated waters, attracted and concentrated AIVs on their surfaces. The data presented herein provide information that expands our understanding of AIV ecology in the wild bird reservoir system.

  10. Understanding the relationship between cotton fiber properties and non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajasundaram, Dhivyaa; Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    cotton fibers, which are of both biological and industrial importance. To this end, we attempted to study cotton fiber characteristics together with glycan arrays using regression based approaches. Taking advantage of the comprehensive microarray polymer profiling technique (CoMPP), 32 cotton lines from...... different cotton species were studied. The glycan array was generated by sequential extraction of cell wall polysaccharides from mature cotton fibers and screening samples against eleven extensively characterized cell wall probes. Also, phenotypic characteristics of cotton fibers such as length, strength...

  11. Modern trends on development of cotton production and processing chain Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdimumin Alikulov

    2010-01-01

    The cotton production complex of Uzbekistan has high rating comparing other export oriented branches. Cotton fiber value in 2008 share made 12% from total export of the country. The paper observes some trends and policy developments in cotton industry development.

  12. Quantification and characterization of cotton crop biomass residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton crop residual biomass remaining in the field after mechanical seed cotton harvest is not typically harvested and utilized off-site thereby generating additional revenue for producers. Recently, interest has increased in utilizing biomass materials as feedstock for the production of fuel and ...

  13. Governing the transnational organic cotton network from Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Vodouhè, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to conceptualize the historical development and the governance structure of the transnational organic cotton network from Benin. We aim to discover how the organic cotton production-consumption network is governed locally and internationally. Existing bodies of literature

  14. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  15. Women cotton pickers perceptions about health hazards due to pesticide use in irrigated punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, M.; Mehmood, I.; Bashir, A.; Hassan, S.

    2015-01-01

    In Pakistan, cotton crop has special importance from the perspective of largest employment generation both for males and females in the production and value chains. Cotton picking is primarily a female specific activity in all cropping zones of Pakistan. Women cotton pickers mostly belong to poor rural society involved in this labour force to feed their families. Cotton pickers in Pakistan face some serious health related problems due to heavy use of pesticides on cotton crop. The present study was designed to investigate the problem faced by women cotton pickers and their role in household decision making. Overall 150 women cotton pickers were interviewed from Bahawalnagar, Sahiwal and Vehari districts of cotton-wheat zone of the Punjab. Summary statistics of women cotton pickers' showed mean average age was 33 years and had 2.4 ears of formal schooling and 10 years of cotton picking experience. The main reasons for cotton picking reported were to reduce family financial burden (30%) followed by better access to food and resource (23%) and better education of children (21%). Majority of the respondents (97.33%) reported that the mode of payments of cotton picking was in cash and the most of the respondents (83.70%) reported that they got wages in time. Only few respondents (8.70%) were aware of health hazards due to pesticides and only 10% women wear protective clothes during cotton picking. Majority of the respondents (76%) wash their clothes after cotton picking whereas almost all the respondents wash their hand after cotton picking. The women cotton pickers faced health problem, tiredness (54.5%), mental disturbance (9.90%) and fatigue (8.00%). More than 58% women reported their involvement in household decision making regarding food and groceries while 30.6% women involved in decision about education of children. It is suggested that the female cotton pickers should be educated about the importance (in terms of disease treatment and long-run health costs

  16. Cotton proteomics for deciphering the mechanism of environment stress response and fiber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Sun, Guoqing; Sun, Zhanmin; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2014-06-13

    Cotton fiber is considered as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop is severely hampered by the occurrence of pathogens, pests, and various environmental factors. Nevertheless, cotton plant has developed sophisticated mechanisms to respond to environment stresses to avoid detrimental effects on its growth and development. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of cotton fiber development and environment stress response is of considerable interest for designing agriculture breeding strategies to ensure sustainable productivity. The application of proteomics technologies to advance our knowledge in cotton fiber development and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance has increased dramatically in the last 5years as evidenced by the large amount of publications in this area. This review summarizes the work which has been reported for cotton proteomics and evaluates the findings in context of the approaches that are widely employed with the aim to generate novel insight useful for cotton improvement. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop grown all over the world and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. Cotton is also an important source of edible oil seed and a nutrient-rich food crop as cottonseed contains high-quality protein and oil. The growth and productivity of cotton crop are often hampered by various biotic stress factors, such as insect pests and pathogens. In addition, cotton plants are frequently subjected to unavoidable environmental factors that cause abiotic stress, such as salt, heat and drought. Proteomic techniques provide one of the best options for understanding the gene function and phenotypic changes during cotton fiber development and stress response. This review first summarizes the work which has been reported for cotton proteomics about cotton fiber development and abiotic/biotic stress tolerance, and also evaluates the findings in context of the approaches

  17. HVI Colorimeter and Color Spectrophotometer Relationships and Their Impacts on Developing "Traceable" Cotton Color Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color measurements of cotton fiber and cotton textile products are important quality parameters. The Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI) is an instrument used globally to classify cotton quality, including cotton color. Cotton color by HVI is based on two cotton-specific color parameters—Rd (diffuse...

  18. Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Coated Cotton Yarn for Electrocardiography Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a type of conductive fabric, specifically single-wall carbon nanotube-coated cotton yarns (SWNT-CYs, for electrocardiography (ECG signal transmission utilizing a “dipping and drying” method. The conductive cotton yarns were prepared by dipping cotton yarns in SWNTs (single-wall carbon nanotubes solutions and then drying them at room temperature—a simple process that shows consistency in successfully coating cotton yarns with conductive carbon nanotubes (CNTs. The influence of fabrication conditions on the conductivity properties of SWNT-CYs was investigated. The results demonstrate that our conductive yarns can transmit weak bio-electrical (i.e., ECG signals without significant attenuation and distortion. Our conductive cotton yarns, which combine the flexibility of conventional fabrics and the good conductivity of SWNTs, are promising materials for wearable electronics and sensor applications in the future.

  19. In vitro microbiologic evaluation of PTFE and cotton as spacer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Avina; Jain, Sumita; Alibhai, Karim J; Wadhwani, Chandur P; Darveau, Richard P; Johnson, James D

    2012-09-01

    To microbiologically evaluate the efficacy of cotton and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape used as spacer materials. Twenty-six extracted human molars were restored using either cotton or PTFE tape as spacers under a standardized provisional restorative material (Cavit). The teeth were incubated for 7 days in a culture of Streptococcus gordonii or in liquid media alone. The spacers were removed and tested for bacterial contamination. The access cavities were also evaluated for bacterial contamination. Nine of 10 teeth with cotton spacers and one of 10 teeth with PTFE spacers were positive for S gordonii growth. The nine teeth in the cotton group also showed contamination of the access cavities. Even under optimal conditions, cotton spacers may cause leakage into the access cavities. Cotton fibers may serve as a route for bacterial contamination of the access cavities and root canal space. In contrast, PTFE tape did not provide an avenue for bacterial contamination.

  20. Correlations and Correlated Responses in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echekwu, CA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeders must be concerned with the total array of economic characters in their efforts to develop a crop variety acceptable to farmers. Their selection endeavours must therefore take into consideration how changes in one trait affect, simultaneously changes in other economic attributes. The importance of correlations and correlated responses is therefore self evident in plant breeding endeavours. In this study F3 progenies from a cross between two cotton lines SAMCOT-9 x Y422 were evaluated for two years and performance data were used to obtain correlations between nine agronomic and fibre quality traits in upland cotton. The results indicated that plant helght was significantly and positively correlated with seed cotton yield, number of sympodial and monopodial branches, seed index, fibre length and micronaire index. Positive and significant correlations were also obtained between : seed cotton yield, tint percent and fibre strength and fibre length. Significant negative correlations were obtained between : plant height and lint percent ; number of monopodial branches, sympodial branches and lint percent ; fibre length, fibre strength and micronaire index. The correlated responses in the other eight traits when selection was practiced for seed cotton yield in the present study shows that it might be more profitable to practice direct selection for seed cotton yield compared to selecting for seed cotton yield through any of the other traits.

  1. The cotton farming pipeline of Malawi and South Africa: Management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Grundling

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: The purpose this paper is to identify and describe the characteristics and influences of the cotton farming pipeline in Malawi and South Africa. Problem investigated: A broad based approach was followed to investigate the cotton farming pipeline to identify the major driving forces of the cotton pipeline in each of the respective countries. Research approach: A qualitative field research approach was followed to compile data on cotton farming in Malawi and South Africa. Data was compiled upstream from input suppliers, downstream from ginners, cotton transport conveyors, cotton marketing managers and agricultural government officials as well as from farmers and agricultural organizations. Findings: In Malawi a family farming model is followed versus an industrial model of production in South Africa. Despite the differences in approach, the farmers in both countries are faced with similar problems. In this regard, an urgent rethinking of the technological conditions of production and the possibilities of technological change is needed. Recommendations: The research proposes that these countries can benefit from establishing institutions like agricultural co-operatives and mechanisms like the development of a free traffic mechanism of seed-cotton. Conclusion: The present research may assist in developing first layer managerial recommendations that could enhance the sustainability and co-existence of cotton farming in the two countries.

  2. Effect of low doses gamma irradiation of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Khalifa, Kh.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments and then large scale application of irradiated cotton seeds (C.V. Aleppo-40) were carried out during three seasons (1986, 1987 and 1988) for field experiment at ACSAD Station in Dier-Ezzor and 1988, 1989 and 1990 for large scale application at Euphrate's Basin, Al-Ghab and Salamia, farmers farms. The above areas were selected as they represent major cotton production areas in Syria. The aims of the experiments were to study the effect of low doses of gamma irradiation 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy on cotton yield and to look for the optimum dose of gamma irradiation to obtain best results. The results show that, there were positive effect (P<0.95) for doses 5-30 Gy in increasing cotton yield. The highest increase was at dose of 10 Gy. which as 19.5% higher than control. For the large scale application using 10 Gy the increase in cotton yield varied from 10-39% compared to control. (author). 11 refs., 6 figs

  3. Effect of cotton leaf-curl virus on the yield-components and fibre properties of cotton genotypes under varying plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Hayat, K.; Ashraf, F.; Sadiq, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cotton leaf-curl virus (CLCu VB. Wala strain) is one of the major biotic constraints of cotton production in Punjab. Development of resistant cotton genotype is the most feasible, economical and effective method to combat this hazardous problem, but so far no resistant genotype has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare yield and yield-components and fiber traits of different genotypes/varieties under different plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer as a management strategy to cope with this viral disease. Field experiment was conducted during 2006-07 to evaluate the effect of genotype, plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on cotton. Five genotypes (MNH-786, MNH-789, MNH- 6070, CIM- 496, and BH-160), three plant-spacings (15, 30 and 45 cm) and three nitrogen fertilizer-levels (6.5, 8.6 and 11 bags Urea / ha) were studied. Results showed that significant differences exist for plant height, no. of bolls/m/sup -2/, seed-cotton yield (kg/ha) due to genotype, interaction of genotype with plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer level. Whereas boll weight, ginning out-turn, staple length and fiber fineness were not affected significantly by the plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer, the effect due to genotype was significant for these traits. CLCuV infestation varied significantly with genotypes, while all other factors, i.e., plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizers, have non-significant effect. As the major objective of cotton cultivation is production of lint for the country and seed- cotton yield for the farmers, it is noted that genotypes grown in narrow plant-spacing (15 cm) and higher nitrogen fertilizer level (11.0 bags of urea/ha) produced maximum seed-cotton yield under higher CLCu V infestation in case of CIM-496, MNH-789 and BH-I60, while the new strain MNH-6070 gave maximum yield under 30cm plant-spacing and 8.6 bags of urea/ha has the 2.3% CLCu V infestation was observed in this variety. From the present study, it is concluded that

  4. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  5. Landscape crop composition effects on cotton yield, Lygus hesperus densities and pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Zaviezo, Tania; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2017-01-01

    Landscape crop composition surrounding agricultural fields is known to affect the density of crop pests, but quantifying these effects, as well as measuring how they translate to changes in yield, is difficult. Using a large dataset consisting of 1498 records of commercial cotton production in California between 1997 and 2008, we explored the relationship between landscape composition and cotton yield, the density of Lygus hesperus (a key cotton pest) at field-level and within-field spatial scales and pesticide use. We found that the crop composition immediately adjacent to a cotton field was associated with substantial differences in cotton yield, L. hesperus density and pesticide use. Furthermore, crops that tended to be associated with increased L. hesperus density also tended to be associated with increased pesticide use and decreased cotton yield. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which landscape composition can affect cotton yield: by increasing the density of pests which in turn damage cotton plants. Our quantification of how surrounding crops affect pest densities, and in turn yield, in cotton fields has significant impacts for cotton farmers, who can use this information to help optimize crop selection and ranch layout. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. 7 CFR 28.8 - Classification of cotton; determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards Act Administrative and General § 28.8 Classification of cotton; determination. For the purposes of the Act, the classification of any cotton shall be determined by the quality of a sample in accordance... employees will determine all fiber property measurements using High Volume Instruments. The classification...

  7. Current status of genetic engineering in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L): an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Vajhala S K; Reddy, Tummala Papi; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Rao, Khareedu Venkateswara

    2014-06-01

    Cotton is considered as the foremost commercially important fiber crop and is deemed as the backbone of the textile industry. The productivity of cotton crop, worldwide, is severely hampered by the occurrence of pests, weeds, pathogens apart from various environmental factors. Several beneficial agronomic traits, viz., early maturity, improved fiber quality, heat tolerance, etc. have been successfully incorporated into cotton varieties employing conventional hybridization and mutation breeding. Crop losses, due to biotic factors, are substantial and may be reduced through certain crop protection strategies. In recent years, pioneering success has been achieved through the adoption of modern biotechnological approaches. Genetically engineered cotton varieties, expressing Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes, proved to be highly successful in controlling the bollworm complex. Various other candidate genes responsible for resistance to insect pests and pathogens, tolerance to major abiotic stress factors such as temperature, drought and salinity, have been introduced into cotton via genetic engineering methods to enhance the agronomic performance of cotton cultivars. Furthermore, genes for improving the seed oil quality and fiber characteristics have been identified and introduced into cotton cultivars. This review provides a brief overview of the various advancements made in cotton through genetic engineering approaches.

  8. The prevalence of byssinosis among cotton workers in the north of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, A V; Schlünssen, V; Agodokpessi, G; Sigsgaards, T; Fayomi, B

    2014-10-01

    Cotton is the main agricultural export product in Benin. Cotton dust is thus present in the air during the handling and processing of cotton. This dust contains a mixture of substances including ground up plant matter, fibres, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, noncotton matter, and other contaminants. While cotton processing is decreasing in industrialized countries, it is increasing in developing countries. Cotton processing, particularly in the early processes of spinning, can cause byssinosis. To determine the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure among cotton mill workers in Benin. In a cross-sectional study, 109 workers exposed to cotton dust and 107 unexposed workers were studied. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) questionnaire was used for data collection on respiratory symptoms. For each worker, crossshift pulmonary function was performed with a dry spirometer. Based on the severity of respiratory symptoms and spirometry byssinosis was defined and classified according to the criteria of Schilling, et al. The mean ± SD age of the exposed and unexposed workers was 46.3 ± 7.8 and 37.0 ± 8.3 years, respectively (pcotton mill workers in Benin is high and needs prompt attention of health care workers and policymakers.

  9. Structure and properties of cotton fabrics treated with functionalized dialdehyde chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuemei; Tao, Ran; Zhou, Tianchi; Wang, Chunxia; Xie, Kongliang

    2014-03-15

    In this research, modified cotton fabrics were prepared by pad-dry-cure technique from the aldehyde chitosan solution containing 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and 1,2-ethanediamine (EDA) respectively. The structural characterization of the modified cotton fabrics was performed by attenuated total reflection ATR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG) analysis and physical mechanical properties were measured. The adsorption kinetics of modified cotton fabrics were also investigated by using the pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic model. The dyeing rate constant k1, k2 and half adsorption time t1/2 were calculated, respectively. The results show that the mechanical properties of different modified cotton fabrics were improved, and the surface color depth values (K/S), UV index UPF and anti-wrinkle properties were better than those of untreated cotton. Dyeing kinetics data at different temperatures indicate that Direct Pink 12B up-take on the modified cotton fabrics fitted to pseudo second-order kinetic model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D

    2000-12-01

    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P rye or wheat cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  11. Genome-wide functional analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum in response to drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most important crops for its natural textile fibers in the world. However, it often suffered from drought stress during its growth and development, resulting in a drastic reduction in cotton productivity. Therefore, study on molecular mechanism of cotton drought-tolerance is very important for increasing cotton production. To investigate molecular mechanism of cotton drought-resistance, we employed RNA-Seq technology to identify differentially expressed genes in the leaves of two different cultivars (drought-resistant cultivar J-13 and drought-sensitive cultivar Lu-6 of cotton. The results indicated that there are about 13.38% to 18.75% of all the unigenes differentially expressed in drought-resistant sample and drought-sensitive control, and the number of differentially expressed genes was increased along with prolonged drought treatment. DEG (differentially expression gene analysis showed that the normal biophysical profiles of cotton (cultivar J-13 were affected by drought stress, and some cellular metabolic processes (including photosynthesis were inhibited in cotton under drought conditions. Furthermore, the experimental data revealed that there were significant differences in expression levels of the genes related to abscisic acid signaling, ethylene signaling and jasmonic acid signaling pathways between drought-resistant cultivar J-13 and drought-sensitive cultivar Lu-6, implying that these signaling pathways may participate in cotton response and tolerance to drought stress.

  12. Pilot scale cotton gin trash energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, S.L. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    1993-12-31

    During the summer of 1992 a 520,000 kcal/h (2,064,400 Btu/hr) biomass combustor was installed at a cotton gin in southwestern Oklahoma. The gin has a capacity of approximately 35 bales per hour. Each bale of cotton ginned weighs about 227 kg (500 lb) and produces about 68 kg (150 lb) of trash. Therefore, this gin produces about 52,360 kg (115,500 lb) of trash per day during a typical ginning season. Approximately 2 million kg (4 million lb) of gin trash are produced at this site each year. Cotton must first be dried to about 3-5% moisture content before the ginning process is begun. To accomplish this at this gin, two six million Btu/hour direct fired gas heaters are used to heat air for drying the cotton. The biomass combustor was installed to operate in parallel with one of the heaters to supply heated air for the drying process. A pneumatic conveying system was installed to intercept a portion of the gin trash and divert it to the burner. The burner was operated during the 1992 ginning season, which lasted from September through November, with few problems.

  13. Influence of cover crops on insect pests and predators in conservation tillage cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Glynn; Schomberg, Harry; Phatak, Sharad; Mullinix, Benjamin; Lachnicht, Sharon; Timper, Patricia; Olson, Dawn

    2004-08-01

    In fall 2000, an on-farm sustainable agricultural research project was established for cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in Tift County, Georgia. The objective of our 2-yr research project was to determine the impact of several cover crops on pest and predator insects in cotton. The five cover crop treatments included 1) cereal rye, Secale cereale L., a standard grass cover crop; 2) crimson clover, Trifolium incarnatum L., a standard legume cover crop; 3) a legume mixture of balansa clover, Trifolium michelianum Savi; crimson clover; and hairy vetch, Vicia villosa Roth; 4) a legume mixture + rye combination; and 5) no cover crop in conventionally tilled fields. Three main groups or species of pests were collected in cover crops and cotton: 1) the heliothines Heliothis virescens (F.) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie); 2) the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois); and 3) stink bugs. The main stink bugs collected were the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.); the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say); and the green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, were collected only on cotton. For both years of the study, the heliothines were the only pests that exceeded their economic threshold in cotton, and the number of times this threshold was exceeded in cotton was higher in control cotton than in crimson clover and rye cotton. Heliothine predators and aphidophagous lady beetles occurred in cover crops and cotton during both years of the experiment. Geocoris punctipes (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), and red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren were relatively the most abundant heliothine predators observed. Lady beetles included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville; the sevenspotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.; spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer); and the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas). Density of G. punctipes was

  14. Gone with transgenic cotton cropping in the USA. A perception of the presentations and interactions at the Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans (Louisiana, USA, 4-7/01/2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fok, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Beltwide Cotton Conferences provided a new vision of the consequences of about 15 years of widespread and uncoordinated cropping of transgenic cotton in the United States. Insect-resistant and/or herbicide-tolerant cotton varieties modified parasite complexes, namely those of insects and weeds damaging cotton crops. The Conferences have revealed that the adaptation solutions so far proposed make illusory the expectations at the launch of transgenic cotton, in terms of effective pest control, cost reduction, and antagonism between chemical and biotech methods. The USA case points out that the technical and economic sustainability of transgenic varieties must lie in a systemic and coordinated approach.

  15. Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zue Teh; Zhou Rui Min

    1984-01-01

    Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters has been studied by using X-ray diffraction, an infrared spectrometer and a viscosimeter. Average molecular weight and crystallinity of short-cotton linters and the change of reducing sugar in γ-radiation degradation were examined. It was found that cellulosic saccharification in hydrolysis was enhanced with preirradiation of linter. This probably resulted from the radiation induced change of cellulosic structure. Sensitizers to promote radiation degradation effect were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride has been found to be effective. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 1427.16 - Movement and protection of warehouse-stored cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement and protection of warehouse-stored cotton. 1427.16 Section 1427.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY... Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.16 Movement and protection of warehouse-stored cotton. (a...

  17. Current university and USDA lab cotton contamination research

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. cotton is considered to have some of the lowest levels of contamination in the world. However, that reputation is in jeopardy as complaints of contamination from domestic and foreign mills are on the rise. Cotton contamination can be classified under four major categorizes: fabrics and strings ...

  18. cotton fabric 51

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    1Department of Chemistry, Federal College of Education, Kano – Nigeria. 2Department of ... its versatility were examined taken into consideration, the molecular structure. ... hemicelluloses, pectin, coloring matter and ash ... temperature for a fixed period of time. These processes rendered the cotton 99% cellulose in nature.

  19. Experimental evidence and ecological perspectives for the adaptation of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 (Digenea: Schistosomatidae to a wild host, the water-rat, Nectomys squamipes Brants, 1827 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the semi aquatic habits and the overlap of the geographical distribution of the water-rat, Nectomys spp., with schistosomiasis endemic areas, these wild rodents are very likely to acquire Schistosoma mansoni infection in their daily activities. The role of the water-rat in the S. mansoni cycle would be substantiated if one could prove that these rodents acquire the parasite during their own activity time, a completely independent time schedule of human activities. To pursue this goal, we performed two field experiments in the municipality of Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a schistosomiasis endemic area where N. squamipes is found naturally infected. One experiment was devised as a series of observations of activity time of the water-rat. The other experiment was a test of the occurrence of late transmission of S. mansoni to the water-rat. The daily activity pattern showed that the water-rat is active chiefly just after sunset. At both diurnal and late exposition essays the water-rat sentinels got infected by S. mansoni. These findings clarify ecological and behavioral components necessary to the adaptation of S. mansoni to the water-rat as a non human definitive host and the existence of a transmission cycle involving this animals as a reservoir.

  20. Inheritance and segregation of exogenous genes in transgenic cotton

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Key Laboratory of Cotton Genetic Improvement of the Ministry of Agriculture, Cotton Research Institute, Chinese. Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang Henan 455 112, People's Republic of China. 2Institute ..... Athens, Greece. Xie D. X. ...

  1. The complete genome sequence of a virus associated with cotton blue disease, cotton leafroll dwarf virus, confirms that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distéfano, Ana J; Bonacic Kresic, Ivan; Hopp, H Esteban

    2010-11-01

    Cotton blue disease is the most important virus disease of cotton in the southern part of America. The complete nucleotide sequence of the ssRNA genome of the cotton blue disease-associated virus was determined for the first time. It comprised 5,866 nucleotides, and the deduced genomic organization resembled that of members of the genus Polerovirus. Sequence homology comparison and phylogenetic analysis confirm that this virus (previous proposed name cotton leafroll dwarf virus) is a member of a new species within the genus Polerovirus.

  2. Conductive Cotton Textile from Safely Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jellur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconductive cotton textile has been prepared by a simple dipping-drying coating technique using safely functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs. Owing to the surface functional groups, the f-MWCNTs become strongly attached with the cotton fibers forming network armors on their surfaces. As a result, the textile exhibits enhanced electrical properties with improved thermal conductivity and therefore is demonstrated as a flexible electrothermal heating element. The fabricated f-MWCNTs/cotton textile can be heated uniformly from room temperature to ca. 100°C within few minutes depending on the applied voltage. The textile shows good thermal stability and repeatability during a long-term heating test.

  3. The Optimal Tax on Antebellum U.S. Cotton Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas A. Irwin

    2001-01-01

    The United States produced about 80 percent of the world's cotton in the decades prior to the Civil War. How much monopoly power did the United States possess in the world cotton market and what would have been the effect of an optimal export tax? This paper estimates the elasticity of foreign demand for U.S. cotton exports and uses the elasticity in a simple partial equilibrium model to calculate the optimal export tax and its effect on prices, trade, and welfare. The results indicate that t...

  4. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboreum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available To date, no miRNAs have been identified in the important diploid cotton species although there are several reports on miRNAs in upland cotton. In this study, we identified 73 miRNAs, belonging to 49 families, from Asiatic cotton using a well-developed comparative genome-based homologue search. Several of the predicted miRNAs were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR. The length of miRNAs varied from 18 to 22 nt with an average of 20 nt. The length of miRNA precursors also varied from 46 to 684 nt with an average of 138 ±120 nt. For a majority of Asiatic cotton miRNAs, there is only one member per family; however, multiple members were identified for miRNA 156, 414, 837, 838, 1044, 1533, 2902, 2868, 5021 and 5142 families. Nucleotides A and U were dominant, accounted for 62.95%, in the Asiatic cotton pre-miRNAs. The Asiatic cotton pre-miRNAs had high negative minimal folding free energy (MFE and adjusted MFE (AMFE and high MFE index (MFEI. Many miRNAs identified in Asiatic cotton suggest that miRNAs also play a similar regulatory mechanism in diploid cotton.

  5. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics using crosslinking polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Chen, Zhenxing; Sun, Yongli; Yang, Huawei; Zhang, Hongjie; Dou, Haozhen; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-05-01

    With the aim of removing and recycling oil and organic solvent from water, a facile and low-cost crosslinking polymerization method was first applied on surface modification of cotton fabrics for water/oil separation. Micro-nano hierarchical rough structure was constructed by triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) that formed a polymeric layer on the surface of the fabric and anchored Al2O3 nanoparticles firmly between the fabric surface and the polymer layer. Superhydrophobic property was further obtained through self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups on the rough surface. The as-prepared cotton fabric exhibited superoleophilicity in atmosphere and superhydrophobicity both in atmosphere and under oil with the water contact angle of 153° and 152° respectively. Water/oil separation test showed that the as-prepared cotton fabric can handle with various oil-water mixtures with a high separation efficiency over 99%. More importantly, the separation efficiency remained above 98% over 20 cycles of reusing without losing its superhydrophobicity which demonstrated excellent reusability in oil/water separation process. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton fabric possessed good contamination resistance ability and self-cleaning property. Simulation washing process test showed the superhydrophobic cotton fabric maintained high value of water contact angle above 150° after 100 times washing, indicating great stability and durability. In summary, this work provides a brand-new way to surface modification of cotton fabric and makes it a promising candidate material for oil/water separation.

  6. Inventories of Asian textile producers, US cotton exports, and the exchange rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmaz Nazif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper develops a model with US cotton exports depending on the stock-to-use ratio, trade weighted exchange rates, and the relative cotton prices. The role of inventories in cotton consumption is examined in five textile producing cotton importers, China, Indonesia, Thailand, South Korea, and Taiwan. Cotton inventory dynamics is diverse among Asian textile producers. Relative prices have negative effect in all markets as expected. Exchange rate elasticities show that effects should be examined for each separate market. Changes in rates of depreciation also have stronger effects than exchange rate. Results reveal that these countries are not all that homogenous.

  7. Polyploidization altered gene functions in cotton (Gossypium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fibers are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. It has been known for a long time that a large set of genes determine the development of cotton fiber, and more recently it has been determined that these genes are distributed across the At and ...

  8. Dynamic and Stochastic Structures of U.S. Cotton Exports and Mill Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Fadiga, Mohamadou L.

    2006-01-01

    This study employs a structural time-series method to model and estimate U.S. cotton exports and mill use. The results show that the stochastic process governing cotton export fluctuations is transitory, while the process pertaining to mill use has transitory, seasonal, and secular origins. The estimated structural relationships after accounting for the unobserved components indicate U.S. cotton exports respond directly to higher international price relative to domestic price of cotton, while...

  9. Textile industry can be less pollutant: introducing naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solimar Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Studies in agribusiness and textile industry, both involved with the production of manufacturing fashion present insufficient development for new products that could represent water savings and reduction of chemical effluents, making this production chain a sustainable business. This paper introduces the colored and organic cotton as an alternative to foster colored cotton producing farmers and improving the concept of sustainability in the textile sector. Results show that the increase in the production of colored and organic cotton, may result in reduction of water use, and consequent reduction in the disposal of effluents in nature. As the colored and organic cotton is produced by small farmers, governmental agencies need to participate in the effort of improving its production and distribution, providing the needed infrastructure to meet the increasing market. This would slowly encourage the reduction of white cotton consumption in exchange for this naturally colored product. The water used, and consequent polluted discharge in the use of colored cotton in the textile industry might be reduced by 70%, assuming a reduction of environmental impact of 5% per year would represent expressive numbers in the next ten years. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE

  10. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Sonchus oleraceus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Fabiana C; Bitencourt, Andressa D; Cabral, Layla D M; Franqui, Lidiane S; Soncini, Roseli; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2010-02-17

    Sonchus oleraceus L. has been used to relieve headaches, general pain, hepatitis, infections, inflammation and rheumatism in Brazilian folk medicine. Nevertheless, scientific information regarding this species is scarce; there are no reports related to its possible anti-inflammatory effects. This study was aimed at evaluating the scientific basis for the traditional use of Sonchus oleraceus using in vivo inflammatory models. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis and febrile response induced by lipopolysaccharide tests, as well as fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Sonchus oleraceus hydroethanolic extract (SoHE) in rats. The SoHE at test doses of 100-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reduced paw edema induced by carragenan, inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and reduced LPS-induced febrile response, and in the model of chronic inflammation using the cotton pellet-induced fibrovascular tissue growth in rats, the SoHE significantly inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue. The extract administered at 300 mg/kg p.o. had a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than indomethacin (10mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1mg/kg). The hydroethanolic extract of Sonchus oleraceus markedly demonstrated anti-inflammatory action in rats, which supports previous claims of its traditional use. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, Nguyen To; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  12. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoai, Nguyen To, E-mail: hoaito@pvu.edu.vn; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  13. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE: THE COTTON PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    2000-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations could have important implications for Southern Agriculture. This paper explores some of the issues surrounding the WTO negotiations for cotton. Specifically, this paper examines the impacts of the phase-out of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) on the location of textile production and cotton trade flows. Generally, it is believed that the WTO negotiations will have little direct impact on cotton, but will have indirect impacts through textile po...

  14. King Cotton's Lasting Legacy of Poverty and Southern Region Contemporary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.; Peevely, Gary

    2010-01-01

    One hundred fifty years ago, cotton was considered as the king of all United States' agricultural exports. Cotton's dollar value far exceeded that of any other mid-19th-century United States trade item, much more than tobacco, fish, forest products, raw materials for manufacturing, or manufactured items. Indeed, in the mid-19th century, cotton was…

  15. Effect Of Bird Manure On Cotton Plants Grown On Soils Sampled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton plant had a better development and growth when bird manure was only applied to soil or combined with mineral fertilizer and when cotton was grown on a soil where the previous crops were cereals (maize or sorghum). Planting cotton on a soil where the previous crop grown was maize or sorghum had no significant ...

  16. Saussurea involucrata SiDhn2 gene confers tolerance to drought stress in upland cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.; Zhu, J.; Mu, J.; Zhu, J.; Liang, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    Severe water shortage has long been acknowledged as one major limiting factor for global cotton production, and cultivation of cotton varieties with strong drought resistance is of important economic and social significances. In this study, the Xinjiang upland cotton variety Xinluzao 42 was transformed with the SiDhn2 gene by optimized agrobacterium transformation system. The integration of SiDhn2 gene into cotton genome was confirmed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization, and the drought resistance of transgenic and corresponding receptor cotton plants and their physiological indexes under drought stress were detailedly analyzed. Multiple physiological and biochemical indexes including soluble sugar content, free proline content, chlorophyll content, relative water content, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration in transgenic cotton expressing SiDhn2 gene under drought stress were significantly higher than those of receptor cotton. More importantly, the transgenic cotton plants exhibited remarkably decreased boll abscission rate and highly increased seed yield, indicating the significant role of SiDhn2 gene in cotton drought resistance and its great application potential in agricultural production. (author)

  17. POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF TEXTILE TRADE MANAGEMENT AND THE U.S. COTTON INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Shui, Shangnan; Wohlgenant, Michael K.; Beghin, John C.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates the effects on the U.S. cotton industry of textile trade liberalization using a multi-market equilibrium displacement model. The simulation results suggest that textile trade liberalization would induce small changes in the total demand for U.S. cotton but would affect considerable y U.S. cotton demand structure, making U. S, cotton growers more dependent on world markets. The welfare analyses reveal that textile trade liberalization would result in a small welfare los...

  18. Effects of nematicides on cotton root mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R E; Carling, D E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L; Hightower, P

    2004-02-01

    Baseline information on the diversity and population densities of fungi collected from soil debris and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots was determined. Samples were collected from Tifton, GA, and Starkville, MS containing cotton field soil treated with the nematicides 1,3-dichloroproprene (fumigant) and aldicarb (granules). A total of 10,550 and 13,450 fungal isolates were collected from these two study sites, respectively. Of this total, 34 genera of plant pathogenic or saprophytic species were identified. Pathogenic root fungi included Fusarium spp. (40% of all isolations), Macrophomina, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium. Fusarium and Rhizoctonia were the most common fungal species identified and included F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides and F. solani, the three Fusarium species pathogenic on cotton plants. Population densities of Fusarium were not significantly different among locations or tissue types sampled. Macrophomina was isolated at greater numbers near the end of the growing seasons. Anastomosis groups of R. solani isolated from roots and soil debris included AG-3, -4, -7, 2-2, and -13 and anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia included CAG-2, -3, and -5. Occurrences and frequency of isolations among sampling dates were not consistent. Fluctuations in the frequency of isolation of Rhizoctonia did not correspond with changes in frequency of isolation of the biological control fungus, Trichoderma. When individual or pooled frequencies of the mycobiota were compared to nematicide treatments, no specific trends occurred between treatments, application methods or rates. Results from this study show that use of 1,3-D and aldicarb in cotton fields does not significantly impact plant pathogenic fungi or saprophytic fungal populations. Thus cotton producers need not adjust seedling disease control measures when these two nematicides are used.

  19. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 27 [AMS-CN-13-0043] RIN 0581-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known as ``registration'' by the U.S...

  20. 78 FR 9330 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Cotton Spot Markets AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... bona fide cotton spot markets in order to assure consistency with the revised Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market definitions will allow for published spot quotes to consider...

  1. Asymmetric Evolution and Expansion of the NAC Transcription Factor in Polyploidized Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy in Gossypium hirsutum conferred different properties from its diploid ancestors under the regulation of transcription factors. The NAC transcription factor is a plant-specific family that can be related to plant growth and development. So far, little is known about the NAC family in cotton. This study identified 495 NAC genes in three cotton species and investigated the evolution and expansion of different genome-derived NAC genes in cotton. We revealed 15 distinct NAC subfamilies in cotton. Different subfamilies had different gene proportions, expansion rate, gene loss rate, and orthologous exchange rate. Paleohexaploidization (35% and cotton-specific decaploidy (32% might have primarily led to the expansion of the NAC family in cotton. Half of duplication events in G. hirsutum were inherited from its diploid ancestor, and others might have occurred after interspecific hybridization. In addition, NAC genes in the At and Dt subgenomes displayed asymmetric molecular evolution, as evidenced by their different gene loss rates, orthologous exchange, evolutionary rates, and expression levels. The dominant duplication event was different during the cotton evolutionary history. Different genome-derived NACs might have interacted with each other, which ultimately resulted in morphogenetic evolution. This study delineated the expansion and evolutionary history of the NAC family in cotton and illustrated the different fates of NAC genes during polyploidization.

  2. Conductive Cotton Fabrics for Motion Sensing and Heating Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyun Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conductive cotton fabric was prepared by coating single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs on a knitted cotton fabric surface through a “dip-and-dry” method. The combination of CNTs and cotton fabric was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The CNTs coating improved the mechanical properties of the fabric and imparted conductivity to the fabric. The electromechanical performance of the CNT-cotton fabric (CCF was evaluated. Strain sensors made from the CCF exhibited a large workable strain range (0~100%, fast response and great stability. Furthermore, CCF-based strain sensors was used to monitor the real-time human motions, such as standing, walking, running, squatting and bending of finger and elbow. The CCF also exhibited strong electric heating effect. The flexible strain sensors and electric heaters made from CCF have potential applications in wearable electronic devices and cold weather conditions.

  3. Methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis of Verticillium wilt-stressed cotton (Gossypium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Zhang, M; Chen, H D; Cai, X X; Xu, M L; Lei, K Y; Niu, J H; Deng, L; Liu, J; Ge, Z J; Yu, S X; Wang, B H

    2016-10-06

    In this study, a methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis system was used to analyze DNA methylation level in three cotton accessions. Two disease-sensitive near-isogenic lines, PD94042 and IL41, and one disease-resistant Gossypium mustelinum accession were exposed to Verticillium wilt, to investigate molecular disease resistance mechanisms in cotton. We observed multiple different DNA methylation types across the three accessions following Verticillium wilt exposure. These included hypomethylation, hypermethylation, and other patterns. In general, the global DNA methylation level was significantly increased in the disease-resistant accession G. mustelinum following disease exposure. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the disease-sensitive accession PD94042, and a significant decrease was observed in IL41. Our results suggest that disease-resistant cotton might employ a mechanism to increase methylation level in response to disease stress. The differing methylation patterns, together with the increase in global DNA methylation level, might play important roles in tolerance to Verticillium wilt in cotton. Through cloning and analysis of differently methylated DNA sequences, we were also able to identify several genes that may contribute to disease resistance in cotton. Our results revealed the effect of DNA methylation on cotton disease resistance, and also identified genes that played important roles, which may shed light on the future cotton disease-resistant molecular breeding.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Discovery Function of Cotton Future Price among Different Regions——A Case Study of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through comparative analysis, We research the relationship between cotton future price and cotton spot price in different regions, in order to formulate corresponding strategies in different regions under the new situation. We use ADF unit root test, E-G two-step cointegration test, Granger causality test, and other research methods in Eviews 5.0 statistical software, to empirically study the relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in Xinjiang, the relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in China. The results show that there is a long-term relationship between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in Xinjiang, between the cotton future price and cotton spot price in China; the cotton future price plays unidirectional role in guiding cotton spot price in Xinjiang and cotton spot price in China. The discovery function of cotton future price plays much greater role in the cotton market of China than in the cotton market of Xinjiang.

  5. Effect of Gamma Irradiation Doses on Some Chemical Characteristics of Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Cotton Seeds c.v. Giza 85 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy to improve some chemical characteristics of cotton seed oil i.e. saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, gossypol and βsitosterol that were bound oil. The presented study showed that, the saturated fatty acids; lauric, palmitic and stearic increased when the cotton seeds were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5 up to 1.5 kGy, On the other hand, arachidic acid content decreased in all the irradiated treatments compared with untreated cotton seed. The unsaturated fatty acid oleic was increased in irradiated cotton seed samples compared with untreated one, while linoleic, the major unsaturated fatty acid decreased in irradiated cotton seed oil than untreated seeds. Gossypol and βsitosterol, bound oil, in irradiated cotton seeds increased gradually with gamma irradiated doses compared with untreated control samples

  6. Harmonized biosafety regulations are key to trust building in regional agbiotech partnerships: the case of the Bt cotton project in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton public-private partnership (PPP project in East Africa was designed to gather baseline data on the effect of Bt cotton on biodiversity and the possibility of gene flow to wild cotton varieties. The results of the project are intended to be useful for Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania when applying for biosafety approvals. Using the backdrop of the different biosafety regulations in the three countries, we investigate the role of trust in the Bt cotton partnership in East Africa. Methods Data were collected by reviewing relevant project documents and peer-reviewed articles on Bt cotton in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda; conducting face-to-face interviews with key informants of the project; and conducting direct observations of the project. Data were analyzed based on recurring and emergent themes to create a comprehensive narrative on how trust is understood and built among the partners and with the community. Results We identified three factors that posed challenges to building trust in the Bt cotton project in East Africa: different regulatory regimes among the three countries; structural and management differences among the three partner institutions; and poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector. The structural and management differences were said to be addressed through joint planning, harmonization of research protocols, and management practices, while poor public awareness of GM crops and negative perceptions of the private sector were said to be addressed through open communication, sharing of resources, direct stakeholder engagement and awareness creation. The regulatory differences remained outside the scope of the project. Conclusions To improve the effectiveness of agbiotech PPPs, there is first a need for a regulatory regime that is acceptable to both the public and private sector partners. Second, early and continuous joint planning; sharing of

  7. An Assessment of Current Policy Initiatives in Zambia's Cotton Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Zulu, Ballard; Tschirley, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses three of these policy initiatives: input credit provision for smallholder producers of selected cash crops including cotton, the proposed creation of a Cotton Board, and the emergence in 2003 of District Council levies as a point of conflict between local governments and cotton companies. The purpose of the paper is to provide guidance to public and private decision makers regarding key modifications which may need to be made to these policies to ensure continued healthy d...

  8. Developing Cotton IPM by Conserving Parasitoids and Predators of The Main Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On early development of intensive cotton program, insect pests were considered as an important aspect in cotton cultivation, so that it needed to be scheduled sprays. The frequency of sprays was 7 times used 12L of chemical insecticides per hectare per season. Development of cotton IPM was emphasized on non-chemical control methods through optimally utilize natural enemies of the cotton main pests (Amrasca biguttulla (IshidaHelicoverpa armigera (Hübner. Conservation of parasitoids and predators by providing the environment that support their population development is an act of supporting the natural enemies as an effective biotic mortality factor of the insect pests. The conservation could be done by improving the plant matter and cultivation techniques that include the use of resistant variety to leafhopper, intercropping cotton with secondary food plants, mulch utilization, using action threshold that considered the presence of natural enemies, and application of botanical insecticides, if needed. Conservation of parasitoids and predators in cotton IPM could control the insect pests without any insecticide spray in obtaining the production of cotton seed. As such, the use of IPM method would increase farmers’ income.

  9. Cotton phenotyping with lidar from a track-mounted platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew N.; Gore, Michael A.; Thompson, Alison

    2016-05-01

    High-Throughput Phenotyping (HTP) is a discipline for rapidly identifying plant architectural and physiological responses to environmental factors such as heat and water stress. Experiments conducted since 2010 at Maricopa, Arizona with a three-fold sensor group, including thermal infrared radiometers, active visible/near infrared reflectance sensors, and acoustic plant height sensors, have shown the validity of HTP with a tractor-based system. However, results from these experiments also show that accuracy of plant phenotyping is limited by the system's inability to discriminate plant components and their local environmental conditions. This limitation may be overcome with plant imaging and laser scanning which can help map details in plant architecture and sunlit/shaded leaves. To test the capability for mapping cotton plants with a laser system, a track-mounted platform was deployed in 2015 over a full canopy and defoliated cotton crop consisting of a scanning LIDAR driven by Arduinocontrolled stepper motors. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at 0.1 m/s while collecting LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). These tests showed that an autonomous LIDAR platform can reduce HTP logistical problems and provide the capability to accurately map cotton plants and cotton bolls. A prototype track-mounted platform was developed to test the use of LIDAR scanning for High- Throughput Phenotyping (HTP). The platform was deployed in 2015 at Maricopa, Arizona over a senescent cotton crop. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at cotton bolls.

  10. POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION AND SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR COTTON CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VITOR MARQUES VIDAL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton has great socio-economic importance due to its use in textile industry, edible oil and biodiesel production and animal feed. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify the best potassium rate and soil management for cotton crops and select among cultivars, the one that better develops in the climatic conditions of the Cerrado biome in the State of Goiás, Brazil. Thus, the effect of five potassium rates (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg ha-1 of K2O and two soil management systems (no-till and conventional tillage on the growth, development and reproduction of four cotton cultivars (BRS-371, BRS-372, BRS-286 and BRS-201 was evaluated. The data on cotton growth and development were subjected to analysis of variance; the data on potassium rates were subjected to regression analysis; and the data on cultivars and soil management to mean test. The correlation between the vegetative and reproductive variables was also assessed. The conventional tillage system provides the best results for the herbaceous cotton, regardless of the others factors evaluated. The cultivar BRS-286 has the best results in the conditions evaluated. The cultivar BRS-371 under no-till system present the highest number of fruiting branches at a potassium rate of 105.5% and highest number of floral buds at a potassium rate of 96.16%. The specific leaf area was positively correlated with the number of bolls per plant at 120 days after emergence of the herbaceous cotton.

  11. Cotton Trade Liberalizations and Domestic Agricultural Policy Reforms: A Partial Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the effects of trade liberalizing reforms in the world cotton market using a partial equilibrium model. The simulation results indicated that a removal of domestic subsidies and border tariffs for cotton would increase the amount of world cotton trade by an average of 4% in the next five years and world cotton prices by an average of 12% over the same time horizon. The findings indicated that under the liberalization policy, the United States would lose part of its export ...

  12. Systems for harvesting and handling cotton plant residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In the warmer regions of the United States, cotton plant residue must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insect pests such as the pink bollworm. Most of the field operations used to bury the residue are high energy consumers and tend to degrade soil structure, thereby increasing the potential for erosion. The residue is of little value as a soil amendment and consequently is considered a negative value biomass. A commercial system to harvest cotton plant residue would be of both economic and environmental benefit to cotton producers. Research has been underway at the University of Arizona since the spring of 1991 to develop a commercially viable system for harvesting cotton plant residue. Equipment durability, degree of densification, energy required, cleanliness of the harvested material, and ease of product handling and transport are some of the performance variables which have been measured. Two systems have proven superior. In both, the plants are pulled from the ground using an implement developed specifically for the purpose. In one system, the stalks are baled using a large round baler, while in the other the stalks are chopped with a forage harvester, and then made into packages using a cotton module maker. Field capacities, energy requirements, package density and durability, and ease of handling with commercially available equipment have been measured for both systems. Selection of an optimum system for a specific operation depends upon end use of the product, and upon equipment availability.

  13. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for the subsequent generation of a cDNA library. Seventeen sequences were obtained, of which 14 were already described in the NCBI database (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, such as those encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs and arabinogalactans (AGP. However, other cDNAs such as the B05 clone, which displays homology with the glycosyltransferases, have still not been described for this crop. Nevertheless, results showed that several clones obtained in this study are associated with cell wall proteins, wall-modifying enzymes and lipid transfer proteins directly involved in fiber development.

  14. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Cotton Epicuticular Wax in Defense Against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Muzaffar, Adnan; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-12-01

    Gossypium arboreumis resistant to Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate Cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite ( CLCuBuV and CLCuMB ). However, the G. arboreum wax deficient mutant (GaWM3) is susceptible to CLCuV . Therefore, epicuticular wax was characterized both quantitatively and qualitatively for its role as physical barrier against whitefly mediated viral transmission and co-related with the titer of each viral component (DNA-A, alphasatellite and betasatellite) in plants. The hypothesis was the CLCuV titer in cotton is dependent on the amount of wax laid down on plant surface and the wax composition. Analysis of the presence of viral genes, namely alphasatellite, betasatellite and DNA-A, via real-time PCR in cotton species indicated that these genes are detectable in G. hirsutum , G. harknessii and GaWM3, whereas no particle was detected in G. arboreum . Quantitative wax analysis revealed that G. arboreum contained 183 μg.cm -2 as compared to GaWM3 with only 95 μg.cm -2 . G. hirsutum and G. harknessii had 130 μg.cm -2 and 146 μg.cm -2 , respectively. The GCMS results depicted that Lanceol, cis was 45% in G. harknessii . Heptadecanoic acid was dominant in G. arboreum with 25.6%. GaWM3 had 18% 1,2,-Benenedicarboxylic acid. G. hirsutum contained 25% diisooctyl ester. The whitefly feeding assay with Nile Blue dye showed no color in whiteflies gut fed on G. arboreum . In contrast, color was observed in the rest of whiteflies. From results, it was concluded that reduced quantity as well as absence of (1) 3-trifluoroacetoxytetradecane, (2) 2-piperidinone,n-|4-bromo-n-butyl|, (3) 4-heptafluorobutyroxypentadecane, (4) Silane, trichlorodocosyl-, (5) 6- Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (6) Heptadecanoicacid,16-methyl-,methyl ester in wax could make plants susceptible to CLCuV , infested by whiteflies.

  15. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of gene flow from GM cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) varieties in El Espinal (Tolima, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rache Cardenal, Leidy Yanira; Mora Oberlaender, Julian; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM) cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia), however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise Remolinos Inc. located in El Espinal (Tolima) were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seed mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80.4 %) and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %), besides pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton.

  17. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild birds and rodents in close proximity to farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Skov, Marianne; Madsen, Jesper J.

    2004-01-01

    Wild animals living close to cattle and pig farms (four each) were examined for verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC; also known as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli). The prevalence of VTEC among the 260 samples from wild animals was generally low. However, VTEC isolates from a starling...... (Sturnus vulgaris) and a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) were identical to cattle isolates from the corresponding farms with respect to serotype, virulence profile, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type. This study shows that wild birds and rodents may become infected from farm animals or vice versa...

  18. Non-cellulosic polysaccharides from cotton fibre are differently impacted by textile processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runavot, Jean-Luc; Guo, Xiaoyuan; Willats, William George Tycho

    2014-01-01

    -cellulosic cotton fibre polysaccharides during different steps of cotton textile processing using GC-MS, HPLC and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling to obtain monosaccharide and polysaccharide amounts and linkage compositions. Additionally, in situ detection was used to obtain information on polysaccharide......Cotton fibre is mainly composed of cellulose, although non-cellulosic polysaccharides play key roles during fibre development and are still present in the harvested fibre. This study aimed at determining the fate of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during cotton textile processing. We analyzed non...... localization and accessibility. We show that pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharide levels decrease during cotton textile processing and that some processing steps have more impact than others. Pectins and arabinose-containing polysaccharides are strongly impacted by the chemical treatments, with most being...

  19. Enhancing Dark Shade Pigment Dyeing of Cotton Fabric Using Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on dark shade pigment dyeing of cotton fabric. Experimental results reveal that plasma-treated cotton fabric can attain better color yield, levelness, and crocking fastness in dark shade pigment dyeing, compared with normal cotton fabric (not plasma treated. SEM analysis indicates that cracks and grooves were formed on the cotton fiber surface where the pigment and the binder can get deposited and improve the color yield, levelness, and crocking fastness. It was also noticed that pigment was aggregated when deposited on the fiber surface which could affect the final color properties.

  20. Simple and fast orotracheal intubation procedure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Giovanni; Damiani, Francesco; Cassata, Giovanni; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Sinagra, Emanuele; Damiani, Provvidenza; Bruno, Antonino; Cicero, Luca; Cupido, Francesco; Carini, Francesco; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2016-05-06

    Endotracheal intubation in the rat is difficult because of the extremely small size of anatomical structures (oral cavity, epiglottis and vocal cords), small inlet for an endotracheal tube and the lack of proper technical instruments. In this study we used seventy rats weighting 400-500 g. The equipment needed for the intubation was an operating table, a longish of cotton, a cotton tip, orotracheal tube, neonatal laryngoscope blades, KTR4 small animal ventilator and isoflurane for inhalation anaesthesia. Premedication was carried out by medetomidine hydrochloride 1 mg/mL; then, thanks to a closed glass chamber, a mixture of oxygen and isoflurane was administered. By means of a neonatal laryngoscope the orotracheal tube was advanced into the oral cavity until the wire guide was visualized trough the vocal cords; then it was passed through them. The tube was introduced directly into the larynx over the wire guide; successively, the guide was removed and the tube placed into the trachea. Breathing was confirmed using a glove, cut at the end of a finger, simulating a small balloon. We achieved a fast and simple orotracheal intubation in all animals employed. We believe that our procedure is easier and faster than those previously reported in scientific literature.

  1. Leaf tissue assay for lepidopteran pests of Bt cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory measurements of susceptibility to Bt toxins can be a poor indicator of the ability of an insect to survive on transgenic crops. We investigated the potential of using cotton leaf tissue for evaluating heliothine susceptibilities to two dual-gene Bt cottons. A preliminary study was conduct...

  2. Fourier transform infrared macro-imaging of botanical cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The marketability of cotton fiber is directly tied to the trash comingled with it. Trash can contaminate cotton during harvesting, ginning, and processing. Thus, the removal of trash is important from field to fabric. An ideal prerequisite to removing trash from lint is identifying what trash types...

  3. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER...

  4. EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT, BARLEY AND CORN BRAN TREATED WITH GAMMA RAYS IMPROVING BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS OXIDIZED OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SOLIMAN, S.M.; HAMZA, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of adding 3 different dietary fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran) to normal balanced diet after exposure to gamma radiation at dose of 20 kGy before adding cotton seed oils and boiled oil. The experimental diet was fed for 4 weeks. This study was designed to throw more light on certain biochemical and histological changes in liver of male albino rats. Rats were classified into 8 groups; control group fed on diet fibers free, group 2 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fibers (wheat, barley and corn bran), group 3 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers, group 4 fed on diet supplemented with 15% boiled oil, group 5 fed on diet supplemented with 15% fiber and 15% boiled oil, group 6 fed on diet supplemented with fibers and cotton seed oil 15%, group 7 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and boiled oil 15% and group 8 fed on diet supplemented with irradiated fibers and cotton seed oil 15%. Experimental investigations were carried out after 4 weeks. The results obtained revealed that extended administration of fibers and cotton seed oil has significantly minimized the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood and significantly ameliorated the glutathion content. Superoxide dismutas and catalase enzymes were assayed in blood, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were detected. In addition, modulations of cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed through all the experiments. In rats fed on boiled oil, the data showed histological changes in liver such as tissue degeneration, lymphocyte infiltration, hepatic cell necrosis and dilation of portal spaces and blood vessels.

  5. Optimization of acid-activated bentonites on bleaching of cotton oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacin, O.; Sayan, E.; Kirali, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Bentonites are commonly used adsorbent on bleaching cotton oil to produce edible oil products. Bleaching capacities of neutralized cotton oil were investigated with acid-activated Arguvan and Kursunlu bentonites. Two models for acid activation of the bentonites were developed by using a full factorial experimental design and central composite design. The parameters used to develop these models were contact time, solid to liquid ratio, acid concentration and moisture of bentonite. By using a constrained optimization program, the maximum bleaching capacities of neutralized cotton oil were determined as 99.99% and 48.5% for Arguvan and Kursunlu, respectively. Optimum results showed that Turkish bentonites (especially Arguvan bentonite) have high bleaching ability and they can be used efficiently to bleach neutralized cotton oil by considering the favorable volume weight, capacity of oil adsorbed and filtration rate. (author)

  6. Lime-Stabilized Black Cotton Soil and Brick Powder Mixture as Subbase Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srikanth Reddy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Various researchers, for the past few decades, had tried to stabilize black cotton soil using lime for improving its shrinkage and swelling characteristics. But these days, the cost of lime has increased resulting in increase in need for alternative and cost effective waste materials such as fly ash and rice husk ash. Brick powder, one among the alternative materials, is a fine powdered waste that contains higher proportions of silica and is found near brick kilns in rural areas. The objective of the study is to investigate the use of lime-stabilized black cotton soil and brick powder mixture as subbase material in flexible pavements. Black cotton soil procured from the local area, tested for suitability as subbase material, turned out to be unsuitable as it resulted in very less CBR value. Even lime stabilization of black cotton soil under study has not showed up the required CBR value specified for the subbase material of flexible pavement by MORTH. Hence the lime-stabilized black cotton soil is proportioned with brick powder to obtain optimum mixture that yields a better CBR value. The mixture of 20% brick powder and 80% lime-stabilized black cotton soil under study resulted in increase in the CBR value by about 135% in comparison with lime-stabilized black cotton soil. Thus it is promising to use the mixture of brick powder and lime-stabilized black cotton soil as subbase material in flexible pavements.

  7. Utilization of cotton waste for regenerated cellulose fibres: Influence of degree of polymerization on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Rasike; Byrne, Nolene

    2017-10-15

    Cotton accounts for 30% of total fibre production worldwide with over 50% of cotton being used for apparel. In the process from cotton bud to finished textile product many steps are required, and significant cotton waste is generated. Typically only 30% of pre consumer cotton is recycled. Here we use cotton waste lint to produce regenerated cellulose fibres (RCF). We find the RCF from waste cotton lint had increased mechanical properties compared to RCF produced from wood pulp. We show that this is likely linked to the higher degree of polymerization (DP) of waste cotton lint. An ionic liquid is used to dissolve the cotton lint and the rheology of the spinning is measured. The properties of the RCF are characterized and compared to wood pulp RCF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of the cotton market in Pakistan and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Tassawar Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is the world’s 4th largest producer of cotton. Cultivation along the Indus River extends across nearly 3 million hectares and serves as the backbone of the economy. Despite this importance, information on the cotton sector in Pakistan, in particular with regard to cotton oils, is scanty and not available from a single source. This review seeks to remedy that gap. Though cultivated mainly for fiber, its kernel seed oil is also used as an edible vegetable oil and accounts for a large share of the local oil industry; per capita consumption of edible oils is nearly 14 kg, which is much higher than consumption in countries at similar levels of economic development. Pakistan fulfills 17.7% of its demand for edible oils through cottonseed oil. Total demand for this purpose in 2029–30 is estimated at 5.36 million tons of which local production will be 1.98 million tons. Genetically modified (Bt cotton was introduced in Pakistan in 2010 to control three deleterious lepidopterous insects; it now accounts for more than 85% of the cotton cultivated. There is good scope for organic cotton production in Pakistan, especially in non-traditional cotton growing areas where there is less insect pressure. High temperature and water scarcity associated with climate change are a major concern, since current cultivation takes place in areas that already experience extremely high temperatures.

  9. Intercropping With Fruit Trees Increases Population Abundance and Alters Species Composition of Spider Mites on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiqiang; Pan, Hongsheng; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Bing; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Yanhui

    2018-05-05

    With the recent increase in planting of fruit trees in southern Xinjiang, the intercropping of fruit trees and cotton has been widely adopted. From 2014 to 2016, a large-scale study was conducted in Aksu, an important agricultural area in southern Xinjiang, to compare the abundance and species composition of spider mites in cotton fields under jujube-cotton, apple-cotton, and cotton monocrop systems. The abundance of spider mites in cotton fields under both intercropping systems was generally higher than in the cotton monocrop. The species composition of spider mites also differed greatly between cotton intercropped with apple or jujube compared to the cotton monocrop. The relative proportion of Tetranychus truncates Ehara (Acari: Tetranychidae) in the species complex generally increased while that of another spider mite, Tetranychus dunhuangensis Wang (Acari: Tetranychidae), decreased under fruit tree-cotton systems. More attention should be paid to the monitoring and management of spider mites, especially T. truncates in this important region of China.

  10. Developmental and hormonal regulation of fiber quality in two natural-colored cotton cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiang; HU Da-peng; LI Yuan; CHEN Yuan; Eltayib H.M.A.Abidallha; DONG Zhao-di; CHEN De-hua; ZHANG Lei

    2017-01-01

    Cotton cultivars with brown (Xiangcaimian 2),green (Wanmian 39) and white (Sumian 9) fiber were investigated to study fiber developmental characteristics of natural-colored cotton and the effect of hormones on fiber quality at different stages after anthesis.Fiber lengths of both natural-colored cottons were lower than the white-fibered control,with brown-flbered cotton longer than green.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natural-colored cotton were also lower than the control.The shorter fiber of the green cultivar was due to slower growth during 10 to 30 days post-anthesis (DPA).Likewise,the lower fiber strength,micronaire and maturation of natured-colored cotton were also due to slower growth during this pivotal stage.Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content at 10 DPA,and abscisic acid (ABA) content at 30 to 40 DPA were lower in the fibers of the natural-colored than that of the white-flbered cotton.After applying 20 mg L-1 gibberellic acid (GA3),the IAA content at 20 DPA in the brown and green-fibered cottons increased by 51.07 and 64.33%,fiber ABA content increased by 38.96 and 24.40%,and fiber length increased by 8.13 and 13.96%,respectively.Fiber strength,micronaire and maturation were also enhanced at boll opening stage.Those results suggest that the level of endogenous hormones affect fiber quality.Application of external hormones can increase hormone content in natural-colored cotton fiber,improving its quality.

  11. Crop residue inventory estimates for Texas High Plains cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in the use of cotton crop by-products for the production of bio-fuels and value-added products is increasing. Research documenting the availability of cotton crop by-products after machine harvest is needed. The objectives of this work were to document the total biomass production for moder...

  12. Research on detecting heterogeneous fibre from cotton based on linear CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-bin; Cao, Bing; Zhang, Xin-peng; Shi, Wei

    2009-07-01

    The heterogeneous fibre in cotton make a great impact on production of cotton textile, it will have a bad effect on the quality of product, thereby affect economic benefits and market competitive ability of corporation. So the detecting and eliminating of heterogeneous fibre is particular important to improve machining technics of cotton, advance the quality of cotton textile and reduce production cost. There are favorable market value and future development for this technology. An optical detecting system obtains the widespread application. In this system, we use a linear CCD camera to scan the running cotton, then the video signals are put into computer and processed according to the difference of grayscale, if there is heterogeneous fibre in cotton, the computer will send an order to drive the gas nozzle to eliminate the heterogeneous fibre. In the paper, we adopt monochrome LED array as the new detecting light source, it's lamp flicker, stability of luminous intensity, lumens depreciation and useful life are all superior to fluorescence light. We analyse the reflection spectrum of cotton and various heterogeneous fibre first, then select appropriate frequency of the light source, we finally adopt violet LED array as the new detecting light source. The whole hardware structure and software design are introduced in this paper.

  13. CCI and CI Join Hands:A Better Supply Chain with More Innovations on Cotton Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tom; Xue

    2010-01-01

    Cotton Council International("CCI")and Cotton Incorporated("CI") joined forces again,from October 19-22,2010 at Intertextile Shanghai,to promote natural fiber-U.S.cotton.As global textile strategic partners,both organizations were bringing together alliances through the cotton

  14. [Ecological regionalization of national cotton fiber quality in China using GGE biplot analysis method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nai Yin; Jin, Shi Qiao; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The distinctive regional characteristics of cotton fiber quality in the major cotton-producing areas in China enhance the textile use efficiency of raw cotton yarn by improving fiber quality through ecological regionalization. The "environment vs. trait" GGE biplot analysis method was adopted to explore the interaction between conventional cotton sub-regions and cotton fiber quality traits based on the datasets collected from the national cotton regional trials from 2011 to 2015. The results showed that the major cotton-producing area in China were divided into four fiber quality ecological regions, namely, the "high fiber quality ecological region", the "low micronaire ecological region", the "high fiber strength and micronaire ecological region", and the "moderate fiber quality ecological region". The high fiber quality ecological region was characterized by harmonious development of cotton fiber length, strength, micronaire value and the highest spinning consistency index, and located in the conventional cotton regions in the upper and lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley. The low micronaire value ecological region composed of the northern and south Xinjiang cotton regions was characterized by low micronaire value, relatively lower fiber strength, and relatively high spinning consistency index performance. The high fiber strength and micronaire value ecological region covered the middle reaches of Yangtze River Valley, Nanxiang Basin and Huaibei Plain, and was prominently characterized by high strength and micronaire value, and moderate performance of other traits. The moderate fiber quality ecological region included North China Plain and Loess Plateau cotton growing regions in the Yellow River Valley, and was characterized by moderate or lower performances of all fiber quality traits. This study effectively applied "environment vs. trait" GGE biplot to regionalize cotton fiber quality, which provided a helpful reference for the regiona-lized cotton growing

  15. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  16. Transgenic cotton plants expressing Cry1Ia12 toxin confer resistance to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda and cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sampaio Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized with PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold. Also, a significant reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60% was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda and the Coleopteran (A. grandis insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  17. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests.

  18. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  19. A one bath chemo-enzymatic process for preparation of absorbent cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Raja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the raw material for preparation of absorbent cotton. Raw cotton has to be subjected to scouring and bleaching processes for making it absorbent by removing the naturally present wax, protein and minerals in the fibre. The scouring is done at 115 °C using alkali followed by bleaching at boiling condition using alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. The effluent coming out of such processes contains high COD and BOD values. Due to the stringent environmental regulation and great awareness among the public about environment, worldwide attempts have been made to develop green and sustainable chemical processing of materials. Based on the above, in the present study efforts have been made to develop an eco-friendly one bath preparatory process for the production of absorbent cotton using chemo-enzymatic formulation. The result indicated that absorbent cotton produced using the developed process fulfilled the required performance properties as per pharmacopoeia in comparable with the conventional process made one.

  20. Performance of mashbean intercropped in cotton planted in different planting patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Ahmad, S.; Khaliq, A.

    2004-01-01

    Performance of mashbean as intercrop in cotton was studied at the Agronomic Research Area University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan) during the years 1996-1997 and 1997-98. cotton variety NIAB 78 was planted in 80-cm apart single rows and 120-cm spaced double row strips. Experiment was laid out in a RCBD with four replications. Net plot size was 7 m x 4.8 m. Mashbean was sown as intercrop in the space between 80-cm apart single rows as well as 120-cm spaced double row strips. Mashbean was also sown as a sole crop (P/sub 3/). The inter crops produce substantially smaller yields when grown in association with cotton in either planting pattern compared to the sole crop yields. However, additional produce obtained from intercrop compensated the losses in cotton production. Intercropping of mashbean, in 120-cm apart double row strips of cotton proved to be feasible as well as convenient for farm operations. (author)

  1. 77 FR 51867 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Advertising, Agricultural research, Cotton, Marketing agreements, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements... supplemental assessments collected for use by the Cotton Research and Promotion Program. An amendment is..., Chief, Research and Promotion Staff, Cotton and Tobacco Programs, AMS, USDA, 100 Riverside Parkway...

  2. 75 FR 70850 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Extra Long Staple Cotton Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... dividing Price A by 85 percent of Price B. * * * * * (f) Any AUP cotton harvested or appraised from acreage... dividing the price per pound for AUP cotton by the price per pound for ELS cotton. The prices used for AUP...

  3. Visible-light self-cleaning cotton by metalloporphyrin-sensitized photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Shabana [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill 3842 (Australia); Daoud, Walid A., E-mail: wdaoud@cityu.edu.hk [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Langford, Steven J. [School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    Thin films of meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin with different metal centres (MTCPP, M = Fe, Co and Zn) in combination with anatase TiO{sub 2} have been formed on cotton fabric. Their self-cleaning properties have been evaluated by conducting the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation. All MTCPP/TiO{sub 2}-coated cotton fabrics showed superior self-cleaning performance as compared to the bare TiO{sub 2}-coated cotton. Among the three metal porphyrins, FeTCPP showed the highest photocatalytic activity with complete degradation of methylene blue in 180 min. The fabrics were characterized by FESEM, XRD, UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  4. Regulation of auxin on secondary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis in developing cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers are unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules. Mature fibers exhibit thickened secondary walls composed of nearly pure cellulose. Cotton fiber development is divided into four overlapping phases, 1) initiation sta...

  5. Cotton Transportation and Logistics: A Dynamic System

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John R.; Park, John L.; Fuller, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews the evolution of U.S. cotton transportation and logistics patterns over the last three decades. There have been many forces of change over this time period, with the largest change being a shift from primarily domestic market destinations to the international market. We describe the pre-1999 system and flow patterns when domestic consumption of U.S. cotton was dominant. We contrast this with current flow patterns as measured by available secondary export data and a sample of...

  6. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurindah Nurindah; Dwi Adi Sunarto

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula) and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera). The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM) techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012...

  7. Expression of genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism in cotton stems and roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L is an important crop worldwide that provides fiber for the textile industry. Cotton is a perennial plant that stores starch in stems and roots to provide carbohydrates for growth in subsequent seasons. Domesticated cotton makes these reserves available to developing seeds which impacts seed yield. The goals of these analyses were to identify genes and physiological pathways that establish cotton stems and roots as physiological sinks and investigate the role these pathways play in cotton development during seed set. Results Analysis of field-grown cotton plants indicated that starch levels peaked about the time of first anthesis and then declined similar to reports in greenhouse-grown cotton plants. Starch accumulated along the length of the stem and the shape and size of the starch grains from stems were easily distinguished from transient starch. Microarray analyses compared gene expression in tissues containing low levels of starch with tissues rapidly accumulating starch. Statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated increased expression among genes associated with starch synthesis, starch degradation, hexose metabolism, raffinose synthesis and trehalose synthesis. The anticipated changes in these sugars were largely confirmed by measuring soluble sugars in selected tissues. Conclusion In domesticated cotton starch stored prior to flowering was available to support seed production. Starch accumulation observed in young field-grown plants was not observed in greenhouse grown plants. A suite of genes associated with starch biosynthesis was identified. The pathway for starch utilization after flowering was associated with an increase in expression of a glucan water dikinase gene as has been implicated in utilization of transient starch. Changes in raffinose levels and levels of expression of genes controlling trehalose and raffinose biosynthesis were also observed in vegetative

  8. The Prevalence of Byssinosis among Cotton Workers in the North of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Hinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cotton is the main agricultural export product in Benin. Cotton dust is thus present in the air during the handling and processing of cotton. This dust contains a mixture of substances including ground up plant matter, fibres, bacteria, fungi, soil, pesticides, noncotton matter, and other contaminants. While cotton processing is decreasing in industrialized countries, it is increasing in developing countries. Cotton processing, particularly in the early processes of spinning, can cause byssinosis. Objective: To determine the respiratory effects of cotton dust exposure among cotton mill workers in Benin. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 109 workers exposed to cotton dust and 107 unexposed workers were studied. The International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH questionnaire was used for data collection on respiratory symptoms. For each worker, crossshift pulmonary function was performed with a dry spirometer. Based on the severity of respiratory symptoms and spirometry byssinosis was defined and classified according to the criteria of Schilling, et al. Results: The mean±SD age of the exposed and unexposed workers was 46.3±7.8 and 37.0±8.3 years, respectively (p<0.001. The mean FEV1 predicted value for the exposed and unexposed workers was 76.3% and 77.3%, respectively. The prevalence of grade 3 byssinosis was 21.1% (95% CI: 13.4–28.9 in exposed workers and 8.4% (95% CI: 3.1–13.7 in unexposed workers (p=0.006. On Mondays, the exposed workers had more respiratory symptoms than unexposed workers; for grade 3 byssinosis, the prevalence was 13.8% in exposed and 4.7% in unexposed workers (p=0.011. Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis among cotton mill workers in Benin is high and needs prompt attention of health care workers and policymakers.

  9. Ginning U.S. cotton for domestic and export markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. cotton crop is produced by a highly mechanized production system that seeks to minimize manual labor while maximizing fiber quality. It is estimated that a bale of U.S. cotton is produced using approximately three man hours of labor while foreign producers may utilize several hundred man h...

  10. TEST OF COTTON LINES WITH DROUGHT TOLERANT INTERCROPPED WITH MAIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadarwati F.T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of cotton cultivation is mostly located in the sub-optimal land due to competition with the field crop. The cotton cultivation in Indonesia is always done through intercropping with pulses. This research aims to test the suitability of cotton lines with drought-tolerant intercropped with maize. The research is conducted in February to August 2016 at Asembagus Experimental Garden, Situbondo. Planting materials used in this research are 6 lines and 2 varieties of drought-tolerant cotton consist of strain 03001/9, 03008/24, 03008/25, 03017/13, 06062/3, 06063/3, kanesia 10 and kanesia 14. The research prepared by the draft randomized group with three replications. The observation parameter consists of plant height, canopy width, number of generative branches, number of fruits, fruits weight, the yield of seed cotton, and corn dry results. The research result shows that the strain 03017/13 and 03008/24 have the highest consecutive acceptance of IDR 17,860,681 and IDR 17,520,879, the increase in revenue compared to monoculture is IDR 6,278,473 and IDR 5,668,191, seed cotton production amounted to 2470.01 kg/ha and 2329.72 kg/ha, maize production amounted to 2001.54 kg/ha and 2112.74 kg/ha, LER 1.68 and 1.60, number of harvested fruit of 12.66 and 11.76 fruits/plant, fruit weight of 4.05 and 4.17 g/fruit.

  11. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment for Grey Cotton Knitted Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-wai Kan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 100% grey cotton knitted fabric contains impurities and yellowness and needs to be prepared for processing to make it suitable for coloration and finishing. Therefore, conventionally 100% grey cotton knitted fabric undergoes a process of scouring and bleaching, which involves the use of large amounts of water and chemicals, in order to remove impurities and yellowness. Due to increased environmental awareness, pursuing a reduction of water and chemicals is a current trend in textile processing. In this study, we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasma as a dry process to treat 100% grey cotton knitted fabric (single jersey and interlock before processing. Experimental results reveal that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively remove impurities from 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics and significantly improve its water absorption property. On the other hand, if 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics are pretreated with plasma and then undergo a normal scouring process, the treatment time is reduced. In addition, the surface morphological and chemical changes in plasma-treated fabrics were studied and compared with the conventionally treated fabrics using scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The decrease in carbon content, as shown in XPS, reveal the removal of surface impurities. The oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios of the plasma treated knitted fabrics reveal enhanced hydrophilicity.

  12. Stink Bug Feeding Induces Fluorescence in Developing Cotton Bolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Michael D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae comprise a critically important insect pest complex affecting 12 major crops worldwide including cotton. In the US, stink bug damage to developing cotton bolls causes boll abscission, lint staining, reduced fiber quality, and reduced yields with estimated losses ranging from 10 to 60 million dollars annually. Unfortunately, scouting for stink bug damage in the field is laborious and excessively time consuming. To improve scouting accuracy and efficiency, we investigated fluorescence changes in cotton boll tissues as a result of stink bug feeding. Results Fluorescent imaging under long-wave ultraviolet light showed that stink bug-damaged lint, the inner carpal wall, and the outside of the boll emitted strong blue-green fluorescence in a circular region near the puncture wound, whereas undamaged tissue emissions occurred at different wavelengths; the much weaker emission of undamaged tissue was dominated by chlorophyll fluorescence. We further characterized the optimum emission and excitation spectra to distinguish between stink bug damaged bolls from undamaged bolls. Conclusions The observed characteristic fluorescence peaks associated with stink bug damage give rise to a fluorescence-based method to rapidly distinguish between undamaged and stink bug damaged cotton bolls. Based on the fluorescent fingerprint, we envision a fluorescence reflectance imaging or a fluorescence ratiometric device to assist pest management professionals with rapidly determining the extent of stink bug damage in a cotton field.

  13. Natural Dyeing and UV Protection of Raw and Bleached/Mercerised Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuk Nina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dyeing with natural dyes extracted from curcuma, green tea, avocado seed, pomegranate peel and horse chestnut bark was studied to evaluate the dyeability and ultraviolet (UV blocking properties of raw and bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics. 20 g/l of powdered plant material was extracted in distilled water and used as a dyeing bath. No mordants were used to obtain ecologically friendly finishing. The colour of samples was measured on a refl ectance spectrophotometer, while UV-blocking properties were analysed with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that dyeing increased UV protection factor (UPF to all samples, however much higher UPF values were measured for the dyed raw cotton samples. The highest UPF values were obtained on both cotton fabrics dyed with pomegranate peel and green tea extracts, giving them excellent protective properties (UPF 50+. The lowest UPF values were obtained by dyeing cotton with avocado seed extract and curcumin. Dyeing with selected dyes is not stable to washing, so the UV-blocking properties worsen after repetitive washing. However, raw cotton samples retain their very good Uvblocking properties, while bleached/mercerised cotton fabrics do not provide even satisfactory UV-blocking properties. No correlation between CIE L*a*b*, K/S and UPF values were found.

  14. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  15. 49 CFR 176.903 - Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal... § 176.903 Stowage of cotton or vegetable fibers with coal. Cotton or vegetable fibers being transported on a vessel may not be stowed in the same hold with coal. They may be stowed in adjacent holds if the...

  16. Cotton regeneration in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. F. Sakhanokho and K. Rajasekaran Over the years, plant breeders have improved cotton via conventional breeding methods, but these methods are time-consuming. To complement classical breeding and, at times, reduce the time necessary for new cultivar development, breeders have turned to in vitro ...

  17. Molecular systematics of the cotton root rot pathogen, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, S.M.; Hansen, K.; Romanish, M.; Thorn, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cotton root rot is an important soilborne disease of cotton and numerous dicot plants in the south-western United States and Mexico. The causal organism, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (= Phymatotrichum omnivorum), is known only as an asexual, holoanamorphic (mitosporic) fungus, and produces conidia

  18. Dynamic Relation Mechanism between Cotton Future Price and Stock Price of Related Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Dynamic relation mechanism between ZCE cotton futures price and related listed company stock price has been studied based on the metastock historical data in January 1st,2007 to September 1st,2010,Johansen co-integration analysis,Vector error correction model,Granger causality test and variance decomposition method.The results indicated that:long-term equilibrium relationship existed between ZCE cotton futures price and Xinsai share stock price while which changed in the same tendency and speed in the long-term.Cotton futures price is the main reason for the changing of Xinsai share stock price.The lead-lag relationship in changing course had been confirmed that existed between ZCE cotton futures price and the Xinsai share stock price.Meanwhile,the forward pass mechanism of price changing information had been found only from the ZCE cotton futures market to the stock market while showing asymmetry.Conclusions of the study can be used for cotton and related corporate to hedge business risks by the cotton price changes.

  19. Visible-Light-Driven, Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Photo-Catalyst for Self-Cleaning Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaq Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report here the photo-catalytic properties of dye-sensitized TiO2-coated cotton fabrics. In this study, visible-light-driven, self-cleaning cotton fabrics were developed by coating the cotton fabrics with dye-sensitized TiO2. TiO2 nano-sol was prepared via the sol-gel method and the cotton fabric was coated with this nano-sol by the dip-pad–dry-cure method. In order to enhance the photo-catalytic properties of this TiO2-coated cotton fabric under visible light irradiation, the TiO2-coated cotton fabric was dyed with a phthalocyanine-based reactive dye, C.I. Reactive Blue 25 (RB-25, as a dye sensitizer for TiO2. The photo-catalytic self-cleaning efficiency of the resulting dye/TiO2-coated cotton fabrics was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB and color co-ordinate measurements. Dye/TiO2-coated cotton fabrics show very good photo-catalytic properties under visible light.

  20. [Effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI cotton on rhizosphere bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lianhua; Meng, Ying; Wang, Jing

    2014-03-04

    The effect of transgenic cotton on the rhizosphere bacteria can be important to the risk assessment for the genetically modified crops. We studied the rhizosphere microbial community with cultivating genetically modified cotton. The effects of transgenic Bt + CpTI Cotton (SGK321) and its receptor cotton (SY321) on rhizosphere total bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria population size were studied by using droplet digital PCR. We collected rhizosphere soil before cotton planting and along with the cotton growth stage (squaring stage, flowering stage, belling stage and boll opening stage). There was no significant change on the total bacterial population between the transgenic cotton and the receptor cotton along with the growth stage. However, the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in both type of cottons showed significant difference between different growth stages, and the variation tendency was different. In squaring stage, the numbers of AOB in rhizosphere of SY321 and SGK321 increased 4 and 2 times, respectively. In flowering stage, AOB number in rhizosphere of SY321 significantly decreased to be 5.96 x 10(5) copies/g dry soil, however, that of SGK321 increased to be 1.25 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil. In belling stage, AOB number of SY321 greatly increased to be 1.49 x 10(6) copies/g dry soil, but no significant change was observed for AOB number of SGK321. In boll opening stage, both AOB number of SY321 and SGK321 clearly decreased and they were significantly different from each other. Compared to the non-genetically modified cotton, the change in abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was slightly smooth in the transgenic cotton. Not only the cotton growth stage but also the cotton type caused this difference. The transgenic cotton can slow down the speed of ammonia transformation through impacting the number of AOB, which is advantageous for plant growth.

  1. A rat pancreatic ribonuclease fused to a late cotton pollen promoter severely reduces pollen viability in tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Bernd-Souza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an animal RNase fused to the late cotton pollen-specific promoter G9 in a plant system were investigated. Expression of the chimeric genes G9-uidA and G9-RNase in tobacco plants showed that the 1.2-kb promoter fragment of the G9 gene was sufficient to maintain tissue and temporal specificity in a heterologous system. GUS (beta-glucuronidase expression was detected only in pollen from anther stage 6 through anthesis, with maximal GUS activity in pollen from stage 10 anthers. Investigating the effects of the rat RNase on pollen viability at stage 10, we found that pollen viability was reduced from 79 to 8% and from 89 to 40%, in pollen germination and fluoresceine diacetate assays, respectively, in one G9-RNase transgenic line, suggesting a lethal effect of the RNase gene. This indicates that the rat RNase produces deleterious effects in this plant system and may be useful for engineering male sterility.Foram investigados os efeitos da expressão de uma ribonuclease de origem animal em um sistema vegetal, ligando-se esta ao promotor do gene pólen-específico G9 de algodão. Examinou-se a expressão dos genes quiméricos G9-uidA e G9-RNase em plantas de tabaco e determinou-se que o fragmento de 1.2 kb do promotor do gene G9 foi suficiente para manter a especificidade temporal e espacial da expressão, em sistema heterólogo. A expressão do gene GUS foi detectada somente em pólen, do estágio 6 do desenvolvimento da antera até a antese, com atividade máxima em pólen de anteras no estágio 10. Estudos neste estágio com linhagens transgênicas contendo G9-RNase mostraram que um clone transgênico apresentava reduções na viabilidade do pólen de 79 para 8% e de 89 para 40% nos testes de germinação e coloração com diacetato de fluoresceína, respectivamente, sugerindo letalidade na expressão do gene de RNase. Estes resultados indicam que a RNase animal apresenta um efeito deletério em planta e oferece possibilidade de uso

  2. Role of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in resistance to cotton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Disease percentage on six cotton varieties with respect to time for cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) was evaluated. In August 2007, the maximum disease was observed in CIM-506, CYTO-89 and BH-118. (susceptible), whereas CIM-443 was resistant with lower disease percentage. It was found that the leaf.

  3. Drought coping strategies in cotton: increased crop per drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Abid; Sun, Heng; Yang, Xiyan; Zhang, Xianlong

    2017-03-01

    The growth and yield of many crops, including cotton, are affected by water deficit. Cotton has evolved drought specific as well as general morpho-physiological, biochemical and molecular responses to drought stress, which are discussed in this review. The key physiological responses against drought stress in cotton, including stomata closing, root development, cellular adaptations, photosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, have been identified by researchers. Drought stress induces the expression of stress-related transcription factors and genes, such as ROS scavenging, ABA or mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signalling genes, which activate various drought-related pathways to induce tolerance in the plant. It is crucial to elucidate and induce drought-tolerant traits via quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, transgenic approaches and exogenous application of substances. The current review article highlights the natural as well as engineered drought tolerance strategies in cotton. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cotton Study: Albumin Binding and its Effect on Elastase Activity in the Chronic Non-Healing Wound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, N.; Goheen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton, as it is used in wound dressings is composed of nearly pure cellulose. During the wound-healing process, cotton is exposed to various blood components including water, salts, cells, and blood proteins. Albumin is the most prominent protein in blood. Elastase is an enzyme secreted by white blood cells and takes an active role in tissue reconstruction. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase is often over-expressed such that this enzyme digests tissue and growth factors, and interferes with the normal healing process. Our goal is to design a cotton wound dressing that will sequester elastase or assist in reducing elastase activity in the presence of other blood proteins such as albumin. The ability of cotton and various cotton derivatives to sequester elastase and albumin has been studied by examining the adsorption of these two proteins separately. We undertook the present work to confirm the binding of albumin to cotton and to quantify the activity of elastase in the presence of various derivatives of cotton. We previously observed a slight increase in elastase activity when exposed to cotton. We also observed a continuous accumulation of albumin on cotton using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. In the present study, we used an open-column-absorption technique coupled with a colorimetric protein assay to confirm losses of albumin to cotton. We have also confirmed increased elastase activity after exposure to cotton. The results are discussed in relation to the porosity of cotton and the use of cotton for treating chronic non-healing wounds.

  5. Dielectric losses in tissues under ionizing radiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, N.; Narizov, N.N.; Norbaev, N.

    1977-01-01

    Dielectric losses of tissues caused by ionizing radiation were studied. The experiments were carried out on seven-day-old seedlings of two wild cotton species (G. barbadense ssp. darvini, G. hirsutum ssp. mexicanum) and of cultivated cotton sorts Tashkent-1, C-6030, AN-401. The study showed that the irradiation of the seedlings with CO 60 gamma-rays (radiation doses 0.3, 3, 20, 35 kr, the dose rate 90 rs/s) changed the tangent of the angle of losses. It was found out that the maximum tangent of the angle of dielectric losses tg sigma of cultivated forms lies within the range of 5-10 kHz frequencies, this value changing under the effect of radiation to a greater extent in wild-growing ssp. mexicanum cotton plants than in commercial varieties (Tashkent 1). In commercial cotton varieties, in distinction to wild forms, the radiation is shifting tg sigma to low frequencies. The electric capacity is much lower in wild forms (ssp. mexicanum) than in cultivated cotton seedlings. Thus the capacity of cells and the maximum of the tg sigma absorption in cultivated and wild cotton seedlings are significantly different which is probably connected with their different radiosensitivity to the ionizing radiation

  6. Effect of nitrates on embryo induction efficiency in cotton (Gossypium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fred

    cotton species (Zhang, 1994b). Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration systems have been established from cotton tissue, protoplasts and ovules (Zhang and Li,. 1992; Feng and Zhang, 1994; Zhang, 1995). Regeneration procedures have been used to obtain genetically modified plants after Agrobacterium- ...

  7. Productivity and resource use in cotton and wheat relay intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Grain yield; lint yield; phenological delay; light use; nitrogen use; resource use efficiency; modelling; profitability; water productivity. From the early 1980s onwards, farmers in the Yellow River cotton producing region intercropped cotton and winter wheat; currently on more than 60% of

  8. Utilization of bio-waste cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... three-layer particleboard containing different cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) stalks and underutilized paulownia (paulownia fortunie) wood particle ratios (30, 50 and 70%) using urea formaldehyde resin. Addition of cotton stalk and paulownia wood in particleboard improved mechanical properties of resulting composites ...

  9. An Integrated DEMATEL-VIKOR Method-Based Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Prasad, Kanika

    2018-01-01

    Selection of the most appropriate cotton fibre type for yarn manufacturing is often treated as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem as the optimal selection decision needs to be taken in presence of several conflicting fibre properties. In this paper, two popular MCDM methods in the form of decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and VIse Kriterijumska Optimizacija kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are integrated to aid the cotton fibre selection decision. DEMATEL method addresses the interrelationships between various physical properties of cotton fibres while segregating them into cause and effect groups, whereas, VIKOR method helps in ranking all the considered 17 cotton fibres from the best to the worst. The derived ranking of cotton fibre alternatives closely matches with that obtained by the past researchers. This model can assist the spinning industry personnel in the blending process while making accurate fibre selection decision when cotton fibre properties are numerous and interrelated.

  10. Genome wide identification of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)-encoded microRNA targets against Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweta; Akhter, Yusuf; Khan, Jawaid Ahmad

    2018-01-05

    Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBV, genus Begomovirus) causes devastating cotton leaf curl disease. Among various known virus controlling strategies, RNAi-mediated one has shown potential to protect host crop plants. Micro(mi) RNAs, are the endogenous small RNAs and play a key role in plant development and stress resistance. In the present study we have identified cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)-encoded miRNAs targeting the CLCuBV. Based on threshold free energy and maximum complementarity scores of host miRNA-viral mRNA target pairs, a number of potential miRNAs were annotated. Among them, ghr-miR168 was selected as the most potent candidate, capable of targeting several vital genes namely C1, C3, C4, V1 and V2 of CLCuBV genome. In addition, ghr-miR395a and ghr-miR395d were observed to target the overlapping transcripts of C1 and C4 genes. We have verified the efficacy of these miRNA targets against CLCuBV following suppression of RNAi-mediated virus control through translational inhibition or cleavage of viral mRNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic and DNA methylation changes in cotton (Gossypium genotypes and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Osabe

    Full Text Available In plants, epigenetic regulation is important in normal development and in modulating some agronomic traits. The potential contribution of DNA methylation mediated gene regulation to phenotypic diversity and development in cotton was investigated between cotton genotypes and various tissues. DNA methylation diversity, genetic diversity, and changes in methylation context were investigated using methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP assays including a methylation insensitive enzyme (BsiSI, and the total DNA methylation level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. DNA methylation diversity was greater than the genetic diversity in the selected cotton genotypes and significantly different levels of DNA methylation were identified between tissues, including fibre. The higher DNA methylation diversity (CHG methylation being more diverse than CG methylation in cotton genotypes suggest epigenetic regulation may be important for cotton, and the change in DNA methylation between fibre and other tissues hints that some genes may be epigenetically regulated for fibre development. The novel approach using BsiSI allowed direct comparison between genetic and epigenetic diversity, and also measured CC methylation level that cannot be detected by conventional MSAP.

  12. Genetic and DNA methylation changes in cotton (Gossypium) genotypes and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osabe, Kenji; Clement, Jenny D; Bedon, Frank; Pettolino, Filomena A; Ziolkowski, Lisa; Llewellyn, Danny J; Finnegan, E Jean; Wilson, Iain W

    2014-01-01

    In plants, epigenetic regulation is important in normal development and in modulating some agronomic traits. The potential contribution of DNA methylation mediated gene regulation to phenotypic diversity and development in cotton was investigated between cotton genotypes and various tissues. DNA methylation diversity, genetic diversity, and changes in methylation context were investigated using methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) assays including a methylation insensitive enzyme (BsiSI), and the total DNA methylation level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DNA methylation diversity was greater than the genetic diversity in the selected cotton genotypes and significantly different levels of DNA methylation were identified between tissues, including fibre. The higher DNA methylation diversity (CHG methylation being more diverse than CG methylation) in cotton genotypes suggest epigenetic regulation may be important for cotton, and the change in DNA methylation between fibre and other tissues hints that some genes may be epigenetically regulated for fibre development. The novel approach using BsiSI allowed direct comparison between genetic and epigenetic diversity, and also measured CC methylation level that cannot be detected by conventional MSAP.

  13. Evaluation of cotton stalk hydrolysate for xylitol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcı, Burcu; Akpinar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Ufuk; Yilmaz, Levent

    2016-07-03

    Cotton stalk is a widely distributed and abundant lignocellulosic waste found in Turkey. Because of its rich xylose content, it can be a promising source for the production of xylitol. Xylitol can be produced by chemical or biotechnological methods. Because the biotechnological method is a simple process with great substrate specificity and low energy requirements, it is more of an economic alternative for the xylitol production. This study aimed to use cotton stalk for the production of xylitol with Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022. For this purpose, the combined effects of different oxygen concentration, inoculum level and substrate concentration were investigated to obtain high xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate. Candida tropicalis Kuen 1022 afforded different concentrations of xylitol depending on xylose concentration, inoculum level, and oxygen concentration. The optimum xylose, yeast concentration, and airflow rate for cotton stalk hydrolysate were found as 10.41 g L(-1), 0.99 g L(-1), and 1.02 vvm, respectively, and under these conditions, xylitol yield and volumetric xylitol production rate were obtained as 36% and 0.06 g L(-1) hr(-1), respectively. The results of this study show that cotton stalk can serve as a potential renewable source for the production of xylitol.

  14. Asymmetric evolution and domestication in allotetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy plays a major role in genome evolution, which corresponds to environmental changes over millions of years. The mechanisms of genome evolution, particularly during the process of domestication, are of broad interest in the fields of plant science and crop breeding. Upland cotton is derived from the hybridization and polyploidization of its ancient A and D diploid ancestors. As a result, cotton is a model for polyploid genome evolution and crop domestication. To explore the genomic mysteries of allopolyploid cotton, we investigated asymmetric evolution and domestication in the A and D subgenomes. Interestingly, more structural rearrangements have been characterized in the A subgenome than in the D subgenome. Correspondingly, more transposable elements, a greater number of lost and disrupted genes, and faster evolution have been identified in the A subgenome. In contrast, the centromeric retroelement (RT-domain related sequence of tetraploid cotton derived from the D subgenome progenitor was found to have invaded the A subgenome centromeres after allotetrapolyploid formation. Although there is no genome-wide expression bias between the subgenomes, as with expression-level alterations, gene expression bias of homoeologous gene pairs is widespread and varies from tissue to tissue. Further, there are more positively selected genes for fiber yield and quality in the A subgenome and more for stress tolerance in the D subgenome, indicating asymmetric domestication. This review highlights the asymmetric subgenomic evolution and domestication of allotetraploid cotton, providing valuable genomic resources for cotton research and enhancing our understanding of the basis of many other allopolyploids.

  15. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; La Mantia, Fabio; Hu, Liangbing; Deshazer, Heather Dawn; Cui, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. 76 FR 80278 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... challenge to the provisions of this rule. Regulatory Flexibility Act Pursuant to requirements set forth in... currently part of the official USDA cotton classification. Accurate assignment of leaf grade is of economic... cost factor associated with its removal. Furthermore, since small leaf particles cannot always be...

  18. The effect of dendrimer on cotton dyeability with direct dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakzar Bafrooei F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment of cotton fabric with poly(propylene imine dendrimer enhanced its colour strength using C.I. Direct Red 81 and C.I. Direct Blue 78. Application of this dendrimer and the direct dye simultaneously on cotton fabric by the exhaust and the continuous dyeing method were studied; slight improvements in the dyeing results were obtained. Pretreatment of the cotton fabric with dendrimer in an emulsion form using the pad-dry method followed by continuous dyeing markedly increased the colour strength. In addition, level dyeing was obtained, and no negative effects on the fastness properties of the dyes used were observed.

  19. Performance enhancement of a solar still using cotton regenerative medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Gopal Sakthivel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of a single slope solar still using cotton cloth regenerative medium. The performance was evaluated under the metrological conditions of Chennai city in India during the summer months of 2016. Two single-slope solar stills are fabricated with an effective area of 0.5 m2 with various thicknesses (2, 4, 6, and 8 mm of cotton cloth were used for the performance comparison. The results showed, the solar still with 6 mm thick cotton assisted regenerative solar still has about 28% improved productivity when compared to conventional solar still.

  20. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  1. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  2. Amplicon based RNA interference targeting V2 gene of cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus-Burewala strain can provide resistance in transgenic cotton plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An RNAi based gene construct designated “C2” was used to target the V2 region of the cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) genome which is responsible for virus movement. The construct was transformed into two elite cotton varieties MNH-786 and VH-289. A shoot apex method of plant transformation using Agr...

  3. Laboratory microwave measurement of the moisture content in seed cotton and ginned cotton fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The timely and accurate measurement of cotton fiber moisture content is important, but the measurement is often performed by laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying methods. Microwave technology for measuring fiber moisture content directly (not for drying only) offers potential advantages...

  4. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  5. Differential expression of genes regulated in response to drought stress in diploid cotton (Gossypium arboreum) (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Majeed, A.; Maqbool, A.; Hussain, S.S.; Ali, T.; Riazuddin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Negative effects on the Water status of plants is one of the most common and deleterious stresses experienced by wild and cultivated plants throughout the World. Our project is designed to identify, clone and characterize gene sequences regulated in response to Water stress (e.g., drought). We used the differential-display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DD-RT- PCA) methodology to accomplish our Objectives. Structural and functional characterization of environmental stress-induced genes has contributed to a better understanding of how plants respond and adapt to different abiotic stresses. Differential display was used to compare overall difference in gene expression between draught stressed and unstressed (control) plants of diploid Cotton (Gossypium arboreum). DDRT-PCR product from stressed and unstressed samples resolved side by side on 6% PAGE to compare qualitative and quantitative difference in mRNA expression. A total of 81 primer combinations were tested. DDRT -PCR enabled us to identify differentially expressed transcripts between water stressed and non-stressed cotton seedlings. PAGE revealed a total of 347 DNA transcripts in stressed samples (New Transcripts) while 110 down regulated and 209 up regulated DNA transcripts were also recorded. Similarly. 22 DNA transcripts were identified based on the comparative study of PAGE and Agarose gel electrophoresis. These sequences showed various degree homology With draught tolerant genes in the gene bank. (author)

  6. Molecular characterization of a virus from the family Luteoviridae associated with cotton blue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R L; Silva, T F; Simões-Araújo, J L; Barroso, P A V; Vidal, M S; Vaslin, M F S

    2005-07-01

    Cotton blue disease is an aphid-transmitted cotton disease described in Brazil in 1962 as Vein Mosaic "var. Ribeirão Bonito". At present it causes economically important losses in cotton crops if control measures are not implemented. The observed symptoms and mode of transmission have prompted researchers to speculate that cotton blue disease could be attributed to a member of the family Luteoviridae, but there was no molecular evidence supporting this hypothesis. We have amplified part of the genome of a virus associated with this disease using degenerate primers for members of the family Luteoviridae. Sequence analysis of the entire capsid and a partial RdRp revealed a virus probably belonging to the genus Polerovirus. Based on our results we propose that cotton blue disease is associated with a virus with the putative name Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV).

  7. Thermal properties and water repellency of cotton fabric prepared through sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics were treated by one-step sol-gel method. The pure silica hydrosol and phosphorus-doped hydrosol were prepared with the addition of a hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to decrease the surface energy of cotton fabric. The thermal properties and water repellency of treated cotton fabric were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, micro combustion, limiting oxygen index, and contact angle measurement. The results showed that cotton fabric treated by phosphorus-doped silica hydrosol had excellent flame retardance, and the water repellence was apparently improved with the addition of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane.

  8. STUDY OF GENE FLOW FROM GM COTTON (Gossypium hirsutum VARIETIES IN “EL ESPINAL” (TOLIMA, COLOMBIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro Giraldo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, 4088 hectares of genetically modified (GM cotton were planted in Tolima (Colombia, however there is some uncertainty about containment measures needed to prevent the flow of pollen and seed from regulated GM fields into adjacent fields. In this study, the gene flow from GM cotton varieties to conventional or feral cotton plants via seed and pollen was evaluated. ImmunostripTM, PCR and ELISA assays were used to detect gene flow. Fifty six refuges, 27 fields with conventional cotton and four feral individuals of the enterprise “Remolinos Inc.” located in El Espinal (Tolima were analyzed in the first half of 2010. The results indicated seeds mediated gene flow in 45 refuges (80,4 % and 26 fields with conventional cotton (96 %, besides a pollen mediated gene flow in one field with conventional cotton and nine refuges. All fields cultivated with conventional cotton showed gene flow from GM cotton. Two refuges and two feral individuals did not reveal gene flow from GM cotton.

  9. Correlation of Lipopolysaccharide Endotoxin Level in Cotton Dust with the Increase of TNFα Level and the Decline of Lung Function in Cotton Spinning Factory Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilatus Sukma Ika Noviarmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS endotoxin contained in cotton dust may cause airway inflammation and decline of lung function when inhaled, which eventually leads to respiratory symptoms. The objective of this research is to analyze the correlation of the exposure of LPS endotoxin in cotton dust with the increase of TNFα level and the decline of lung function after one day’s work. This study applies analytical observation method and prospective cohort approach. Main participants of this study were the workers of a cotton spinning factory located in Tulangan District, Sidoarjo Regency, East Java Province. Sixteen samples from cotton factory were taken as study group, and twenty three samples from village administrators were taken as control group. Data collection involves several techniques: spirometry, laboratory test, and interview. Results showed that concentration of personal dust has a significant relationship with the decline of FVC, %FVC, FEV1, and %FEV1, with Pearson correlation test showing p0.05. The research concludes that the level of LPS endotoxin was strongly related to the increase of blood serum TNFα and the decline of lung function. Development of more effective preventive measures such as stronger enforcement of worker’s health maintenance regulations and use of personal protective equipment is needed to ensure the best protection of cotton workers’ health.

  10. Chemical-Free Cotton Defoliation by; Mechanical, Flame and Laser Girdling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew G. Pelletier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel new way to achieve chemical-free defoliation of cotton is discussed. The research found that by severing the phloem tissue on the main stalk, via a girdling operation, the operation stimulated the cotton plant to alter its growth into an early senescence pathway that resulted in the plant shedding its leaves and opening up all its bolls, leaving the plant in the perfect state for machine harvesting. Even with follow-up rains, zero regrowth occurred in the treated plants, unlike the untreated control plots where significant regrowth did occur. This report compares the results of greenhouse and field trials where the girdling operation was performed by hand, flame, mechanical and via a CO2 laser to achieve phloem tissue severance. Design parameters for a prototype laser girdling system are also provided. Results suggest that for deficit irrigated cotton, girdling can provide an alternative means to defoliate cotton.

  11. Analysis Of The Reactivity Of Radpro Solution With Cotton Rags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusich, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Rags containing RadPro(reg s ign) solution will be generated during the decontamination of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Under normal conditions, the rags will be neutralized with sodium carbonate prior to placing in the drums. The concern with RadPro solutions and cotton rags is that some of the RadPro solutions contain nitric acid. Under the right conditions, nitric acid and cotton rags exothermically react. The concern is, will RadPro solutions react with cotton rags exothermically? The potential for a runaway reaction for any of the RadPro solutions used was studied in Section 5.2 of PNNL-15410, Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes. This report shows the thermal behavior of cotton rags having been saturated in one of the various neutralized and non-neutralized RadPro solutions. The thermal analysis was performed using thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC).

  12. 77 FR 20503 - Revision of Cotton Classification Procedures for Determining Cotton Leaf Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... measurements for other quality factors are performed by precise HVI measurements, manual determinations for.... Accurate assignment of leaf grade is of economic importance to all participants along the cotton supply... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities. Fees paid by users of the service are...

  13. Sequencing of a Cultivated Diploid Cotton Genome-Gossypium arboreum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILKINS; Thea; A

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing the genomes of crop species and model systems contributes significantly to our understanding of the organization,structure and function of plant genomes.In a `white paper' published in 2007,the cotton community set forth a strategic plan for sequencing the AD genome of cultivated upland cotton that initially targets less complex diploid genomes.This strategy banks on the high degree

  14. Cotton, Prof. Frank Albert

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1985 Honorary. Cotton, Prof. Frank Albert. Date of birth: 9 April 1930. Date of death: 20 February 2007. Last known address: Department of Chemistry, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, U.S.A..

  15. Active optical sensor assessment of spider mite damage on greenhouse beans and cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel E; Latheef, Mohamed A

    2018-02-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern USA and causes yield reduction and deprivation in fiber fitness. Cotton and pinto beans grown in the greenhouse were infested with spider mites at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, respectively. Spider mite damage on cotton and bean canopies expressed as normalized difference vegetation index indicative of changes in plant health was measured for 27 consecutive days. Plant health decreased incrementally for cotton until day 21 when complete destruction occurred. Thereafter, regrowth reversed decline in plant health. On spider mite treated beans, plant vigor plateaued until day 11 when plant health declined incrementally. Results indicate that pinto beans were better suited as a host plant than cotton for rearing T. urticae in the laboratory.

  16. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  17. Investigation of antibacterial activity of cotton fabric incorporating nano silver colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Vo Ke Thanh; Nguyen Thi Phuong Phong

    2009-01-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles were prepared by polyol process with microwave heating and incorporated on cotton fabric surfaces. The antibacterial performance of the antibacterial cotton fabric was tested for different concentration of nano-sized silver colloid, contact time germs, and washing times. It was found that antibacterial activity increased with the increasing concentration of nano-sized silver colloid. The antibacterial fabric with 758 mg/kg of silver nanoparticles on surface cotton was highly effective in killing test bacteria and had excellent water resisting property.

  18. Preliminary assessments of portable color spectrophotometer measurements of cotton color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton in the U.S. is classified for color with the Uster® High Volume Instrument (HVI), using the parameters Rd (diffuse reflectance) and +b (yellowness). It has been reported that some cotton bales, especially those transported overseas, appear to have changed significantly in color from their in...

  19. Statistical behavior of the tensile property of heated cotton fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temperature dependence of the tensile property of single cotton fiber was studied in the range of 160-300°C using Favimat test, and its statistical behavior was interpreted in terms of structural changes. The tenacity of control cotton fiber was well described by the single Weibull distribution,...

  20. Enzymatic saccharification of high pressure assist-alkali pretreated cotton stalk and structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shuang-kui; Su, Xia; Yang, Weihua; Wang, Yanqin; Kuang, Meng; Ma, Lei; Fang, Dan; Zhou, Dayun

    2016-04-20

    Cotton stalk is a potential biomass for bioethanol production, while the conversion of direct saccharification or biotransformation of cotton stalk is extremely low due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulose. To enhance the enzymatic conversion of cotton stalks, the enzymatic saccharification parameters of high pressure assist-alkali pretreatment (HPAP) cotton stalk were optimized in the present study. Results indicated that a maximum reducing sugar yield of 54.7g/100g dry biomass cellulose was achieved at a substrate concentration of 2%, 100rpm agitation, 0.6g/g enzyme loading, 40°C hydrolysis temperature, 50h saccharification time, and pH 5.0. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to identify structural changes in native, pretreated biomass and hydrolyzed residues. Structural analysis revealed large part of amorphous cellulose and partial crystalline cellulose in the HPAP cotton stalk were hydrolyzed during enzymatic treatment. HPAP cotton stalk can be used as a potential feed stock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainability in the supply chain of organic cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Retamiro, Wiliam; Silva, José Luis Gomes da; Vieira, Edson Trajano

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to diagnose the application of sustainability concepts in the economic, spatial,ecological, social, cultural and politics in the productive chain of cotton. Explains about the cotton industry is free from all pesticides and their use in the textile production chain, increasing the value of the input, as well as products derived from this. Analyzed by the method of case studywith a qualitative approach in a bibliographic and documentary through to the collection of data,their...

  2. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m(-1) of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m(-1) of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m(-1) of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m(-1) of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m(-2). Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha(-1) tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m(-1) of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management.

  3. Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Qing; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Ruan, Ju-Xin; Hu, Wen-Li; Mao, Yin-Bo; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2013-12-01

    Cotton plants accumulate gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes, which function as phytoalexins against pathogens and feeding deterrents to herbivorous insects. However, to date little is known about the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes in this crop. Herein is reported that 5 monoterpenes and 11 sesquiterpenes from extracts of a glanded cotton cultivar, Gossypium hirsutum cv. CCRI12, were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). By EST data mining combined with Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE), full-length cDNAs of three terpene synthases (TPSs), GhTPS1, GhTPS2 and GhTPS3 were isolated. By in vitro assays of the recombinant proteins, it was found that GhTPS1 and GhTPS2 are sesquiterpene synthases: the former converted farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) into β-caryophyllene and α-humulene in a ratio of 2:1, whereas the latter produced several sesquiterpenes with guaia-1(10),11-diene as the major product. By contrast, GhTPS3 is a monoterpene synthase, which produced α-pinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene and trace amounts of other monoterpenes from geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP). The TPS activities were also supported by Virus Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) in the cotton plant. GhTPS1 and GhTPS3 were highly expressed in the cotton plant overall, whereas GhTPS2 was expressed only in leaves. When stimulated by mechanical wounding, Verticillium dahliae (Vde) elicitor or methyl jasmonate (MeJA), production of terpenes and expression of the corresponding synthase genes were induced. These data demonstrate that the three genes account for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenes of cotton, at least of this Upland cotton. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The multi-year effects of repeatedly growing cotton with moderate resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerait, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita causes more damage to cotton in the US than any other pathogen. The objective of this study was to document the cumulative effect of moderate resistance on M. incognita population density, root galling, and yield suppression in the southern United States on a moderately resistant cotton genotype grown continuously for three years. Cotton genotypes were Phytogen PH98-3196 (77% suppression of M. incognita), Acala NemX (85% suppression of M. incognita), and Delta and Pine Land DP458 B/R (susceptible standard, 0% suppression). Cotton was grown in fumigated and non-fumigated plots to measure yield loss. Each genotype and nematicide combination was planted in the same place for three years at two sites to document cumulative effects. In 2006, following three years of the different genotypes, all plots at one site were planted with susceptible cotton to document residual effects of planting resistant genotypes. Root galling and nematode population densities in the soil were significantly lower, and percentage yield suppression was numerically lower, when moderately resistant cotton was grown compared to the susceptible standard in both fields in all three years. Differences between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes are established quickly (after only one season) and then either maintained at similar levels or slightly increased in subsequent years depending on initial nematode levels. However, when susceptible cotton was grown following three years of the moderately resistant genotypes, the nematode suppression provided by moderate resistance was undetectable by the end of the first season. Moderately resistant cotton genotypes are more beneficial than previously reported and should be pursued for nematode management. Rotation of moderately resistant and susceptible cotton could be used along with nematicides to manage root-knot nematodes in a continuous cotton cropping system and reduce selection pressure on the nematodes. PMID:22661787

  5. Hydrophobic cotton textile surfaces using an amphiphilic graphene oxide (GO) coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissera, Nadeeka D.; Wijesena, Ruchira N.; Perera, J. Rangana; Nalin de Silva, K.M.; Amaratunge, Gehan A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different GO dispersions were prepared by sonicating different amounts of GO in water. Degree of exfoliation of these GO sheets in water was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). • AFM results obtained showed higher the GO concentration on water more the size of GO sheets and lesser the degree of exfoliation. • GO with different amounts was deposited on cotton fabric using simple dyeing method. • High GO loading on cotton increase the surface area coverage of the textile fibers with GO sheets. This led to less edge to mid area ratio of grafted GO sheets. • As contribution of mid area of GO increase on fiber surface cotton fabric becomes more hydrophobic. • Amphiphilic property of GO sheets was used to lower the surface energy of the cotton fibers leading to hydrophobic property. - Abstract: We report for the first time hydrophobic properties on cotton fabric successfully achieved by grafting graphene oxide on the fabric surface, using a dyeing method. Graphite oxide synthesized by oxidizing natural flake graphite employing improved Hummer's method showed an inter layer spacing of ∼1 nm from XRD. Synthesized graphite oxide was exfoliated in water using ultrasound energy to obtain graphene oxide (GO). AFM data obtained for the graphene oxide dispersed in an aqueous medium revealed a non-uniform size distribution. FTIR characterization of the synthesized GO sheets showed both hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups present on the nano sheets giving them an amphiphilic property. GO flakes of different sizes were successfully grafted on to a cotton fabric surface using a dip dry method. Loading different amounts of graphene oxide on the cotton fiber surface allowed the fabric to demonstrate different degrees of hydrophobicity. The highest observed water contact angle was at 143° with the highest loading of graphene oxide. The fabric surfaces grafted with GO also exhibits adhesive type hydrophobicity

  6. Measuring efficiency of cotton cultivation in Pakistan: a restricted production frontier study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watto, Muhammad Arif; Mugera, Amin

    2014-11-01

    Massive groundwater pumping for irrigation has started lowering water tables rapidly in different regions of Pakistan. Declining water tables have thus prompted research efforts to improve agricultural productivity and efficiency to make efficient use of scarce water resources. This study employs a restricted stochastic production frontier to estimate the level of, and factors affecting, technical efficiency of groundwater-irrigated cotton farms in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The mean technical efficiency estimates indicate substantial technical inefficiencies among cotton growers. On average, tube-well owners and water buyers can potentially increase cotton production by 19% and 28%, respectively, without increasing the existing input level. The most influential factors affecting technical efficiency positively are the use of improved quality seed, consultation with extension field staff and farmers' perceptions concerning the availability of groundwater resources for irrigation in the future. This study proposes that adopting improved seed for new cotton varieties and providing better extension services regarding cotton production technology would help to achieve higher efficiency in cotton farming. Within the context of falling water tables, educating farmers about the actual crop water requirements and guiding them about groundwater resource availability may also help to achieve higher efficiencies. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Non-bleaching heather method for improved whiteness of greige cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In accordance with the color space theory known as additive light mixing, the presence of dispersed blue-dyed fiber reduced the overall yellowness of a blended greige fiber and they were perceived as “whiter”. Various intimate blends of blue-dyed cotton fiber in greige cotton fiber were analyzed for...

  8. Genetic analysis of some agronomic traits (gossypium hamster L.) in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulqarnain, M.; Khan, I.A.; Shakeel, T.; JAfri, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Four varieties of cotton were crossed in a complete diallel fashion to evaluate the mode of inheritance of different agronomic traits. Height of main stem, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and yield of seed cotton per plant appeared to be controlled by additive with partial dominance type of gene action. While number of seeds per boll was controlled by over dominance type of gene action. Variety MNH-93 possessed dominant genes for height of main stem, number of bolls per plant number of seeds per boll and yield of seed cotton per plant. AMSI-38 carried dominant genes for boll weight and recessive for number of bolls per plant, number of seeds per boll and boll weight. Height of main stem and yield of seed cotton were controlled by recessive genes in Variety AMSI-38. (author)

  9. Mechanical Characterization of Cotton Fiber/Polyester Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Hussain Rajper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of composite from natural fiber for lower structural application is growing for long-term sustainable perspective. Cotton fiber composite material has the added advantages of high specific strength, corrosion resistance, low cost and low weight compared to glass fiber on the expense of internal components of IC engines. The primary aim of the research study is to examine the effect of the cotton fiber on mechanical properties of lower structural applications when added with the polyester resin. In this paper composite material sample has been prepared by hand Lay-Up process. A mould is locally developed in the laboratory for test sample preparation. Initially samples of polyester resin with appropriate ratio of the hardener were developed and tested. At the second stage yarns of cotton fiber were mixed with the polyester resin and sample specimens were developed and tested. Relative effect of the cotton as reinforcing agent was examined and observed that developed composite specimen possess significant improvement in mechanical properties such as tensile strength was improved as 19.78 % and modulus of elasticity was increased up to 24.81%. Through this research it was also observed that developed composite material was of ductile nature and its density decreases up to 2.6%. Results from this study were compared with relevant available advanced composite materials and found improved mechanical properties of developed composite material

  10. Determination of ABA-binding proteins contents in subcellular fractions isolated from cotton seedlings using radioimmunoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursunkhodjayeva, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge of plants' hormone receptor sites is essential to understanding of the principles of phytohormone action in cells and tissues. The hormone abscisic acid (ABA) takes part in many important physiological processes of plants, including water balance and resistance to salt stress. The detection of salt tolerance in the early stages of ontogenesis is desirable for effective cultivation of cotton. Usually such characteristics are determined visually after genetic analysis of hybrids over several generations. This classic method of genetics requires a long time to grow several generations of cotton plants. In this connection we study ABA-binding protein contents in subcellular fractions isolated from seedlings of several kinds of cotton with different tolerance to salt stress. The contents of ABA-binding protein in nuclei and chloroplasts fractions isolated from cotton seedlings were determined using radioimmunoanalysis. The subcellular fractions were prepared by ultracentrifugation in 0,25 - 2,2 M sucrose gradient. ABA-binding protein was isolated from cotton seedlings by affinity chromatography. The antibodies against ABA-binding protein of cotton were developed in rabbits according standard protocols. Than the antibodies were labelled by radioisotope J 125 according Greenwood et al. It was shown, that the nuclei and chloroplasts fractions isolated from cotton with high tolerance to salt stress contain ABA-binding protein up to 1,5-1,8 times more, than the same fractions from cotton with low tolerance to salt stress. So, the ABA-binding protein contents in cotton seedlings may be considered as a marker for screening of cotton kinds, which may potentially have high tolerance to salt stress

  11. Composting of cotton wastes; Compostaje de residuos de algodon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobao, M.M.; Tejada, M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J.L.

    1997-12-31

    In this article a study on the composting process of residuals of cotton gin is presented crushed and not crushed, previous. The analysis of correlation gotten for each one of the treatments reveals that although common correlations between the parameters studied for both treatment exist, they are presented a great number of correlations between this parameters for the treatment of cotton crushed residuals. (Author) 11 refs.

  12. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janga, Madhusudhana R; Campbell, LeAnne M; Rathore, Keerti S

    2017-07-01

    The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas)9 protein system has emerged as a simple and efficient tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to be functional in several crop species, yet there are no reports on the application of this or any other genome editing technologies in the cotton plant. Cotton is an important crop that is grown mainly for its fiber, but its seed also serves as a useful source of edible oil and feed protein. Most of the commercially-grown cotton is tetraploid, thus making it much more difficult to target both sets of homeologous alleles. Therefore, in order to understand the efficacy of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target a gene within the genome of cotton, we made use of a transgenic cotton line previously generated in our laboratory that had a single copy of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene integrated into its genome. We demonstrate, for the first time, the use of this powerful new tool in targeted knockout of a gene residing in the cotton genome. By following the loss of GFP fluorescence, we were able to observe the cells that had undergone targeted mutations as a result of CRISPR/Cas9 activity. In addition, we provide examples of the different types of indels obtained by Cas9-mediated cleavage of the GFP gene, guided by three independent sgRNAs. The results provide useful information that will help us target important native genes in the cotton plant in future.

  13. Finding the moral fiber: Why reform is urgently needed for a fair cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, K.; Kripke, G.; Alpert, E.

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record US subsidies have led to depressed world cotton prices, which in turn have cost countries in Africa millions of dollars in lost export earnings. Oxfam estimates that sub-Saharan African countries lost $305 million due to US subsidies in crop year 2001. Because cotton is an important livelihood for millions of poor people, Oxfam believes action is urgently needed to reform the distortions in cotton trade that undermine the value of cotton to developing countries. The ce...

  14. Vegetative growth response of cotton plants due to growth regulator supply via seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vitor Ferrari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global cotton industry is distinguished by its numerous industrial uses of the plume as well as by high production costs. Excessive vegetative growth can interfere negatively with productivity, and thus, applying growth regulators is essential for the development of the cotton culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the development and yield of the cotton cultivar FMT 701 with the application of mepiquat chloride to seeds and leaves. The experimental design used a randomized block design with four replications, arranged in bands.The treatments consisted of mepiquat chloride rates (MC (0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 g a.i. kg-1 of seeds applied directly to the cotton seeds and MC management by foliar spray using a 250 mL ha-1 rates that was administered under the following conditions: divided into four applications (35, 45, 55 and 65 days after emergence; as a single application at 70 days; and without the application of the product. The mepiquat chloride applied to cotton seeds controls the initial plant height and stem diameter, while foliar application reduces the height of the plants. After application to seed, foliar spraying MC promotes increase mass of 20 bolls, however no direct influence amount bolls per plant and yield of cotton seed. Higher cotton seed yield was obtained with a rate of 3.4 g a.i. MC kg-1 seeds.

  15. Low-level hydrogen peroxide generation by unbleached cotton nonwovens: implications for wound healing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greige cotton is an intact plant fiber. The cuticle and primary cell wall near the outer surface of the cotton fiber contains pectin, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and trace metals, which are associated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation during cotton fiber development. The compon...

  16. Effects of the mutation of selected genes of cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus on infectivity, symptoms and the maintenance of cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Z.; Sattar, M.N.; Kvarnheden, A.; Mansoor, S.; Briddon, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) is a cotton-infecting monopartite begomovirus (family Geminiviridae). The effects of mutation of the coat protein (CP), V2, C2 and C4 genes of CLCuKoV on infectivity and symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana were investigated. Each mutation introduced a premature

  17. Cotton/Wool Printing with Natural Dyes Nano-Particles

    OpenAIRE

    , D Maamoun; , H Osman; , SH Nassar

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, cotton/wool 50/50 blended fabric is printed via three natural dyes nanoparticles namely: turmeric, madder and rhubarb. Dye powder of the three plants was milled for 30 days after which it was exposed to ultrasound for 6 hours. Cotton/wool substrate is mordanted prior to printing process using two mordants separately: tartaric acid and potassium aluminium sulphate (alum). All parameters that are found to inşuence colour intensity as well as fastness levels of the prints ar...

  18. Efficacy of some synthetic insecticides for control of cotton bollworms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Betsulfan at 3.2 l ha-1 recorded the highest and lowest yields, respectively. For effective control of cotton bollworms for maximum yield in the ecology, Thionex applied at 2.8 l ha-1 is recommended. Keywords: Control, cotton bollworms, efficacy, Ghana, synthetic insecticides. African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 20, No.

  19. Transcript mapping of Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate betasatellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Fazal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (family Geminiviridae, genus Begomovirus are major limiting factors for the production of numerous dicotyledonous crops throughout the warmer regions of the world. In the Old World a small number of begomoviruses have genomes consisting of two components whereas the majority have single-component genomes. Most of the monopartite begomoviruses associate with satellite DNA molecules, the most important of which are the betasatellites. Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD is one of the major problems for cotton production on the Indian sub-continent. Across Pakistan, CLCuD is currently associated with a single begomovirus (Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus [CLCuBuV] and the cotton-specific betasatellite Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB, both of which have recombinant origins. Surprisingly, CLCuBuV lacks C2, one of the genes present in all previously characterized begomoviruses. Virus-specific transcripts have only been mapped for few begomoviruses, including one monopartite begomovirus that does not associate with betasatellites. Similarly, the transcripts of only two betasatellites have been mapped so far. The study described has investigated whether the recombination/mutation events involved in the evolution of CLCuBuV and its associated CLCuMuB have affected their transcription strategies. Results The major transcripts of CLCuBuV and its associated betasatellite (CLCuMuB from infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants have been determined. Two complementary-sense transcripts of ~1.7 and ~0.7 kb were identified for CLCuBuV. The ~1.7 kb transcript appears similar in position and size to that of several begomoviruses and likely directs the translation of C1 and C4 proteins. Both complementary-sense transcripts can potentially direct the translation of C2 and C3 proteins. A single virion-sense transcript of ~1 kb, suitable for translation of the V1 and V2 genes was identified. A predominant

  20. A comparison of hemorrhage control and hydrogen peroxide generation in commercial and cotton-based wound dressing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonwoven UltraCleanTM Cotton (highly cleaned and hydroentangled, greige cotton) retains the native wax and pectin content (~2%) of the cotton fiber traditionally removed from scoured and bleached cotton gauze, yet potentially affording wound healing properties. In vitro thromboelastography, hydrog...

  1. Effects of the irradiation in seeds of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Ana Leticia; Arthur, Paula Bergamin; Arthur, Valter; Franco, Camilo Flamorion de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    The experiment aimed to verify if seeds of cotton of variety FiberMax FM 993, irradiated with the doses of 0 (test); 25; 50; 75; 100 Gy can induce the production increase in cotton culture. For all treatments with irradiation, was used a source of cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. After the irradiation, the seeds were planted in the experimental field of the Department of Plant Production ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba-SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and 60 g of seed were used for each repetition, the rows were 5m and the spacing of 0.90m, using randomized blocks and rows of edging. After planting the final height and productivity were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in the Tukey test at 5% level of probability. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the dose of 50Gy was the one that induced a greater production of cotton. (author)

  2. Effects of the irradiation in seeds of cotton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ana Leticia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula Bergamin; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Franco, Camilo Flamorion de Oliveira [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The experiment aimed to verify if seeds of cotton of variety FiberMax FM 993, irradiated with the doses of 0 (test); 25; 50; 75; 100 Gy can induce the production increase in cotton culture. For all treatments with irradiation, was used a source of cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. After the irradiation, the seeds were planted in the experimental field of the Department of Plant Production ESALQ-USP, Piracicaba-SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications and 60 g of seed were used for each repetition, the rows were 5m and the spacing of 0.90m, using randomized blocks and rows of edging. After planting the final height and productivity were evaluated. The obtained data were statistically analyzed in the Tukey test at 5% level of probability. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the dose of 50Gy was the one that induced a greater production of cotton. (author)

  3. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA

    OpenAIRE

    H.A., Reddy, K. and Pettigrew, W.T.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation on the soil fertility levels are limited. An irrigated soybean: cotton rotation experiment was conducted from 2012 through 2015 near Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA. The crop rotation sequences were included continuous cotton (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), cotton-soybean-cotton-soybean (CSCS), cotton-soybean-soybean-cotton (CSSC), soybean-cotton-cotton-soybean (SCCS), soybean-cotton-soybean-cotton (SCSC)....

  4. ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATE LINKED SUBSIDIES FOR NON-PRICE EXPORT PROMOTION: THE CASE OF COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Adhikari, Murali; Houston, Jack E.; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    2002-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement framework was developed to evaluate the effect of exchange rate linked subsidies for non-price export promotion for US cotton. Study results show that an increase in promotion expenditure increased the dollar value and producer welfare of cotton growers. The gross gain to the domestic cotton producers from the exchange-rate linked subsidy scheme was positive. These evidences support exchange rate linked subsidies for US cotton export promotion.

  5. Export taxes and sectoral economic growth: evidence from cotton and yarn markets in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren; Ethridge, Don

    1999-01-01

    Pakistan used an export tax on raw cotton from 1988-1995 in order to suppress the internal price of cotton to benefit the domestic yarn industry. An analysis was conducted to estimate the impact of this policy on both the cotton and yarn sectors. These effects were simulated using the results of a structural econometric model of these sectors of Pakistan's economy. Results indicated that the export tax had a negative impact on the growth rate in the cotton sector, while having little or no im...

  6. Cotton gin trash in the western United States: Resource inventory and energy conversion characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.G.; Quinn, M.W.; Whittier, J.P. [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States); Cohen, T.M.; Lansford, R.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Craig, J.D. [Cratech Inc., Tahoka, TX (United States); Swanson, D.S.; Morgan, G. [Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The disposal of wastes associated with the processing of cotton is posing increasing problems for cotton gin operators in the western United States. Traditional disposal methods, such as open-air incineration and landfilling are no longer adequate due to increasing environmental concerns. This paper evaluates the technical, economic and environmental feasibility for cotton gin trash to serve as an energy resource. Cotton gin trash has been quantified, by county, in the five cotton-growing states of the western United States. The energy conversion technology that appears to offer the most promise is gasification. An economic evaluation model has been developed that will allow gin operators to analyze their own situation to determine the profitability of converting gin trash to energy.

  7. Characterizing the sorption of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to cotton and polyester fabrics under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Amandeep [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Rauert, Cassandra [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Simpson, Myrna J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada); Harrad, Stuart [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Diamond, Miriam L., E-mail: miriam.diamond@utoronto.ca [Department of Earth Sciences, 22 Russell Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military trail, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-09-01

    Cotton and polyester, physically and chemically different fabrics, were characterized for sorption of gas-phase polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images and BET specific surface area (BET-SSA) analysis showed cotton's high microsurface area; NMR analysis showed richness of hexose- and aromatic-carbon in cotton and polyester, respectively. Cotton and polyester sorbed similar concentrations of gas-phase PBDEs in chamber studies, when normalized to planar surface area. However, polyester concentrations were 20–50 times greater than cotton when normalized to BET-SSA, greater than the 10 times difference in BET-SSA. The difference in sorption between cotton and polyester is hypothesized to be due to ‘dilution’ due to cotton's large BET-SSA and/or greater affinity of PBDEs for aromatic-rich polyester. Similar fabric-air area normalized distribution coefficients (K'{sub D}, 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m) for cotton and polyester support air-side controlled uptake under non-equilibrium conditions. K'{sub D} values imply that 1 m{sup 2} of cotton or polyester fabrics would sorb gas-phase PBDEs present in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume at room temperature over one week, assuming similar air flow conditions. Sorption of PBDEs to fabrics has implications for their fate indoors and human exposure. - Highlights: • Sorption of gas-phase PBDEs by cotton and polyester fabrics • Similar sorption to cotton and polyester per unit planar surface area • Greater sorption by polyester/BET-SSA; cotton's dilution or polyester’s affinity • 1 m{sup 2} fabric sorbs PBDEs in 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} of equivalent air volume • Clothing likely a large indoor sink of PBDEs and influence human exposure.

  8. Nitrogen economy in relay intercropping systems of wheat and cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.Z.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Werf, van der W.

    2008-01-01

    Relay intercropping of wheat and cotton is practiced on a large scale in China. Winter wheat is thereby grown as a food crop from November to June and cotton as a cash crop from April to October. The crops overlap in time, growing as an intercrop, from April till June. High levels of nitrogen are

  9. Cotton gin electrical energy use trends and 2009 audit results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton gin energy costs have risen more than other operating costs. Energy audits were conducted in twenty US cotton gins representing a range of capacities in six states. The average participating saw gin used 39.5 kWh to process a bale. The average roller gin used 62.6 kWh. Gins have become la...

  10. A New Synthetic Allotetraploid (A1A1G2G2) between Gossypium herbaceum and G. australe: Bridging for Simultaneously Transferring Favorable Genes from These Two Diploid Species into Upland Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yingying; Chen, Jinjin; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2015-01-01

    Gossypium herbaceum, a cultivated diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, A1A1), has favorable traits such as excellent drought tolerance and resistance to sucking insects and leaf curl virus. G. australe, a wild diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, G2G2), possesses numerous economically valuable characteristics such as delayed pigment gland morphogenesis (which is conducive to the production of seeds with very low levels of gossypol as a potential food source for humans and animals) and resistance to insects, wilt diseases and abiotic stress. Creating synthetic allotetraploid cotton from these two species would lay the foundation for simultaneously transferring favorable genes into cultivated tetraploid cotton. Here, we crossed G. herbaceum (as the maternal parent) with G. australe to produce an F1 interspecific hybrid and doubled its chromosome complement with colchicine, successfully generating a synthetic tetraploid. The obtained tetraploid was confirmed by morphology, cytology and molecular markers and then self-pollinated. The S1 seedlings derived from this tetraploid gradually became flavescent after emergence of the fifth true leaf, but they were rescued by grafting and produced S2 seeds. The rescued S1 plants were partially fertile due to the existence of univalents at Metaphase I of meiosis, leading to the formation of unbalanced, nonviable gametes lacking complete sets of chromosomes. The S2 plants grew well and no flavescence was observed, implying that interspecific incompatibility, to some extent, had been alleviated in the S2 generation. The synthetic allotetraploid will be quite useful for polyploidy evolutionary studies and as a bridge for transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into Upland cotton through hybridization. PMID:25879660

  11. Influence of bleach activators on the fabric made from cotton (gossypium hamster l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, H.M.; Iftikhar, M.; Shahbaz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Raw cotton contains various type of trash and most of the impurities are removed during the spinning process but still the cotton fabric coming from the weaving or knitting process always contains some impurities. Some time cotton fabric gets the oil, stains and coloured materials which affect the quality of dyed fabric. Bleaching is a process that eliminates unwanted coloured matters from the fibres, yarn and fabrics. A bleaching agent is a material that lightens or whitens a substrate through chemical action. Hydrogen peroxide is by far the most commonly used oxidative bleaching agent for cotton and its blends, accounting for more than 90 percent of all the bleaching agents. The use of activators to enhance the bleaching performance of hydrogen peroxide for cellulosic materials has gained popularity now a day. In this context the main objectives of this paper are to study the influence of different bleaching activators on cotton fabric and to give implications for textile extension.The results indicate that the activators with different concentrations, along with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2) have significant influence on the bleaching performance of cotton fabric. (author)

  12. The Empirical Analysis of the Dynamic Prices Relationship between Cotton Spot Market and Futures Market in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the causal relationship between the cotton spot,and the tendency and impact of prices of futures markets in Xinjiang by using ADF test,co-integration analysis,Granger causality test and other econometric methods in order to discuss the interacted relationship between futures market prices of cotton and spot market prices since the futures of cotton in Xinjiang go public.The results of empirical analysis show that the spot market prices of cotton and the futures market prices in Xinjiang fluctuate prominently in the short run and tend to counterpoise in the long run;the futures market of cotton plays the role of leading the spot market prices of cotton in Xinjiang,while the spot market prices of cotton in Xinjiang impacts little on the futures market prices.The corresponding countermeasures are put forward.The government should continuously perfect the construction of the futures market of cotton in Xinjiang,so as to exert the function of price discovery and the function of hedging,and promote the development of cotton industry in Xinjiang.

  13. DETERMINATION THE EFFECT OF DEFOLIATION TIMING ON COTTON YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karademir Emine

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out for determining the effect of different application times at 40, 50, 60 and 70 % boll opening and untreated plot of the defoliant on cotton yield, earliness and technological properties in Southeast Anatolia Region conditions in Turkey. Maras 92 cotton variety was used as plant material in the experiment field of the Southeast Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute during 2000-2001. Defoliant was including thidiazuron + diuron chemical substance. The result of this study showed that ginning percentage, 100 seed weight, seed germination percentage, fiber fineness, fiber length, fiber strength, reflectance, elongation and seed cotton yield were not affected by the treatment; plant height and first picking percentage in 2001, fiber uniformity in 2000 were 5 % significantly affected. This study showed that application of defoliant didn’t affect significantly yield and technological properties of cotton and after 40 % boll opening the defoliant can be used.

  14. Using digital images to measure and discriminate small particles in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert A.; Godbey, Luther C.

    1991-02-01

    Inages from conventional video systems are being digitized in coraputers for the analysis of small trash particles in cotton. The method has been developed to automate particle counting and area measurements for bales of cotton prepared for market. Because the video output is linearly proportional to the amount of light reflected the best spectral band for optimum particle discrimination should be centered at the wavelength of maximum difference between particles and their surroundings. However due to the spectral distribution of the illumination energy and the detector sensitivity peak image performance bands were altered. Reflectance from seven mechanically cleaned cotton lint samples and trash removed were examined for spectral contrast in the wavelength range of camera sensitivity. Pixel intensity histograms from the video systent are reported for simulated trashmeter area reference samples (painted dots on panels) and for cotton containing trash to demonstrate the particle discrimination mechanism. 2.

  15. APPLICATION OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON COTTON PLANT GROWTH (Gossypium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahruni Thamrin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The condition of cotton planting in South Sulawesi is always constrained in the fulfillment of water. All plant growth stages are not optimal to increase production, so it is necessary to introduce good water management technology, such as through water supply with drip irrigation system. This study aims to analyze the strategy of irrigation management in cotton plants using drip irrigation system. Model of application by designing drip irrigation system and cotton planting on land prepared as demonstration plot. Observations were made in the germination phase and the vegetative phase of the early plants. Based on the result of drip irrigation design, the emitter droplet rate (EDR was 34.266 mm/hour with an operational time of 4.08 min/day. From the observation of cotton growth, it is known that germination time lasted from 6 to 13 days after planting, the average plant height reached 119.66 cm, with the number of leaves averaging 141.93 pieces and the number of bolls averaging 57.16 boll.

  16. Spatial encoding in spinal sensorimotor circuits differs in different wild type mice strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schouenborg Jens

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in the rat have shown that the spatial organisation of the receptive fields of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR system are functionally adapted through experience dependent mechanisms, termed somatosensory imprinting, during postnatal development. Here we wanted to clarify 1 if mice exhibit a similar spatial encoding of sensory input to NWR as previously found in the rat and 2 if mice strains with a poor learning capacity in various behavioural tests, associated with deficient long term potention, also exhibit poor adaptation of NWR. The organisation of the NWR system in two adult wild type mouse strains with normal long term potentiation (LTP in hippocampus and two adult wild type mouse strains exhibiting deficiencies in corresponding LTP were used and compared to previous results in the rat. Receptive fields of reflexes in single hindlimb muscles were mapped with CO2 laser heat pulses. Results While the spatial organisation of the nociceptive receptive fields in mice with normal LTP were very similar to those in rats, the LTP impaired strains exhibited receptive fields of NWRs with aberrant sensitivity distributions. However, no difference was found in NWR thresholds or onset C-fibre latencies suggesting that the mechanisms determining general reflex sensitivity and somatosensory imprinting are different. Conclusion Our results thus confirm that sensory encoding in mice and rat NWR is similar, provided that mice strains with a good learning capability are studied and raise the possibility that LTP like mechanisms are involved in somatosensory imprinting.

  17. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  18. Energy and greenhouse gas emissions of Australian cotton : from field to fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabbaz, B.G.; Chen, G.; Baillie, C. [Southern Queensland Univ., Toowoomba, QLD (Australia). Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which a life cycle assessment (LCA) of cotton production in Australia was conducted to evaluate energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tillage to export shipping. The study showed that on-farm indirect cotton-farming is the most energy consuming component, consuming nearly 32.36 GJ/ha of energy. On-farm indirect cotton-farming is the most GHG emitting component, emitting about 1.64 tonne of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/ha. Energy use and the emissions by off-farm direct cotton-farming were calculated as 5.09 GJ/ha and 0.14 tonne CO{sub 2}/ha respectively. Energy consumed by off-farm indirect farming was found to be 0.036 GJ/ha or 0.002 tonne CO{sub 2}/ha. The total energy usage and greenhouse gas emissions in the Australian cotton farming system were estimated to be 46.43 GJ/ha and 2.42 tonnes CO{sub 2}/ha for on-farm, and 5.13 GJ/ha and 0.145 tonne CO{sub 2}/ha for the off-farm sections. In total, after including emissions caused by nitrogen based fertilizers, 51.57 GJ/ha of energy is used and 2.86 tonnes CO{sub 2}/ha is emitted by a typical Australian cotton farming system from tillage to export shipping.

  19. Selectivity and stability of vegetation-applied herbicides in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Barakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. An experiment was carried out during 2013 – 2015 in the experimental field of the Field Crops Institute, Chirpan, with two cotton cultivars − Helius and Darmi (Gossypium hirsutum L.. Herbicides: Goal 2 E, oxyfluorfen (80 ml/da; Linuron 45 SC, linuron (200 ml/da; Wing-P, pendimethalin + dimethenamid (400 ml/da; Merlin 750 WG, isoxaflutol (5 g/da; Bazagran 480 SL, bentazone (150 ml/da were investigated. They were treated separately or combined with growth regulator Amalgerol (500 ml/da or foliar fertilizer Lactofol O (500 ml/da in the budding stage of the cotton. It was established that selectivity is the lowest in the two cotton cultivars with herbicides Linuron 45 CK and Merlin 750 WG. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the selectivity and stability of some herbicides and their tank mixtures on the cotton by influence of different meteorological conditions. It has been found that the highest phytotoxicity on cotton is given the vegetation-applied herbicides Merlin and Linuron. Foliar fertilizer Laktofol O reduces phytotoxicity of herbicides Goal, Wing, Merlin and Bazagran in two cotton cultivars. Herbicides Wing and Bazagran have excellent selectivity for the two cotton cultivars – Helius and Darmi. The highest yield was obtained by vegetation treatment with herbicide Bazagran, followed by herbicides Wing and Goal. Tank mixtures of Goal, Bazagran and Wing with Laktofol, followed by those with Amalgerol are technologically the most valuable. They combine high yield with high stability over the years. Аlone application of herbicides Linuron and Merlin and their tank mixtures with Amalgerol and Laktofol have low estimate.

  20. Networking, social capital and gender roles in the cotton system in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Maboudou Alidou, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton production in Benin, West Africa, is intertwined with colonialism, which contributed to the trans­formation of the crop’s production system from traditional to modern. Through­out the years, the importance of the crop for the stakeholders varied. The last decades have witnessed a growing interest in cotton of farmers, businessmen, and the State. From having a marginal status during the seventies and the first half of the eighties, cotton grew in importance during the nineties, both in ...

  1. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Expert System for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Prasad, Kanika

    2018-06-01

    The textile industries have seen resurgence in customers' demand for quality products during the preceding few years. This product range is extremely varied, with hand-spun and hand-woven products at one end of the spectrum, while products manufactured from the capital intensive sophisticated machineries at the other end. Since, cotton fibres are predominantly employed as the raw material for manufacturing these products, their proper selection is crucial for sustainable development of the textile/spinning industries. However, availability of numerous cotton fibre alternatives with various physical properties makes this selection process unwieldy and time consuming. Thus, there is need for a structured approach that can incorporate customers' demand into the selection process. This paper demonstrates the application of a structured and logical procedure of selecting the best cotton fibre type to fulfill a set of specified end product requirements through design and development of a quality function deployment (QFD)-based expert system. The QFD technique is employed here to provide due importance to the customers' spoken and unspoken needs, and subsequently calculate the priority weights of the considered cotton fibre properties. Two real time illustrative examples are presented to explicate the applicability and potentiality of the developed expert system to resolve cotton fibre selection problems.

  2. A Quality Function Deployment-Based Expert System for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Prasad, Kanika

    2018-01-01

    The textile industries have seen resurgence in customers' demand for quality products during the preceding few years. This product range is extremely varied, with hand-spun and hand-woven products at one end of the spectrum, while products manufactured from the capital intensive sophisticated machineries at the other end. Since, cotton fibres are predominantly employed as the raw material for manufacturing these products, their proper selection is crucial for sustainable development of the textile/spinning industries. However, availability of numerous cotton fibre alternatives with various physical properties makes this selection process unwieldy and time consuming. Thus, there is need for a structured approach that can incorporate customers' demand into the selection process. This paper demonstrates the application of a structured and logical procedure of selecting the best cotton fibre type to fulfill a set of specified end product requirements through design and development of a quality function deployment (QFD)-based expert system. The QFD technique is employed here to provide due importance to the customers' spoken and unspoken needs, and subsequently calculate the priority weights of the considered cotton fibre properties. Two real time illustrative examples are presented to explicate the applicability and potentiality of the developed expert system to resolve cotton fibre selection problems.

  3. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  4. Use of induced mutations for cotton breeding in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A large number of studies have been reported in recent years on the use of induced mutations in the improvement of food crops and ornamentals. Similar investigations on fibre crops like cotton have, however, been relatively few. The fact that most of the economically useful characters in cotton are under polygenic control appears to be the main limiting factor. Inspite of this there are reports of radiation induced useful mutations used as commercial varieties. As early as 1950 a X-ray induced mutant variety of G. hirsutum cotton Indore-2 was released for commercial cultivation in Madhya Pradesh and covered more than one lac hectares. More recently an early maturing mutant variety MCU-7 was released for cultivation in summer rice fallows of Tamil Nadu and covers nearly 10,000 acres. Other promising mutant strains found suitable b.v large scale trials and recommended for cultivation under specific conditions are Okra leaf mutant, photoinsensitive mutant of MCU-5 (named Rasmi) and Jassid tolerant early maturing mutant 4-1 (Pusa Ageti). In addition improved varieties like Badnaawar-1, Khandwa-2 and M64 have been evolved by utilizing mutant lines in cross breeding. The scope of induced mutation method as a breeding technique for cotton improvement in India is very wide. (author)

  5. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Ali [Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33500 Mersin (Turkey); Guerue, Metin [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Gazi University, 06570 Maltepe, Ankara (Turkey); Altiparmak, Duran [Technical Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Aydin, Kadir [Engineering and Architectural Faculty, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana (Turkey)

    2008-04-15

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  6. Using of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Ali; Guerue, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran; Aydin, Kadir

    2008-01-01

    In this study, usability of cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends as an alternative fuel for diesel engines were studied. Biodiesel was produced by reacting cotton oil soapstock with methyl alcohol at determined optimum condition. The cotton oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performances and smoke value were measured at full load condition. Torque and power output of the engine with cotton oil soapstock biodiesel-diesel fuel blends decreased by 5.8% and 6.2%, respectively. Specific fuel consumption of engine with cotton oil soapstock-diesel fuel blends increased up to 10.5%. At maximum torque speeds, smoke level of engine with blend fuels decreased up to 46.6%, depending on the amount of biodiesel. These results were compared with diesel fuel values. (author)

  7. Diversity, Mutation and Recombination Analysis of Cotton Leaf Curl Geminiviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Saleem

    Full Text Available The spread of cotton leaf curl disease in China, India and Pakistan is a recent phenomenon. Analysis of available sequence data determined that there is a substantial diversity of cotton-infecting geminiviruses in Pakistan. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that recombination between two major groups of viruses, cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV and cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV, led to the emergence of several new viruses. Recombination detection programs and phylogenetic analyses showed that CLCuMuV and CLCuKoV are highly recombinant viruses. Indeed, CLCuKoV appeared to be a major donor virus for the coat protein (CP gene, while CLCuMuV donated the Rep gene in the majority of recombination events. Using recombination free nucleotide datasets the substitution rates for CP and Rep genes were determined. We inferred similar nucleotide substitution rates for the CLCuMuV-Rep gene (4.96X10-4 and CLCuKoV-CP gene (2.706X10-4, whereas relatively higher substitution rates were observed for CLCuMuV-CP and CLCuKoV-Rep genes. The combination of sequences with equal and relatively low substitution rates, seemed to result in the emergence of viral isolates that caused epidemics in Pakistan and India. Our findings also suggest that CLCuMuV is spreading at an alarming rate, which can potentially be a threat to cotton production in the Indian subcontinent.

  8. BENDING BEHAVIOUR OF MAGNETIC COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Iuliana G.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic yarns are composite yarns, i.e. they combine elements of various natures and properties, with proven potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding. In this paper, different mixtures of hard and soft magnetic powder were chosen to cover materials made of cotton yarn. The physical properties and bending behavior of the produced composite yarns were investigated in order to evaluate the yarns for further textile processing.The cotton yarn used as base material was covered with hard (barium hexaferrite BaFe12O19 and soft (Black Toner magnetic particles. An in-house developed laboratory equipment has been used to cover the twist cotton yarns with seven mixtures having different amounts of magnetic powder (30% – 50%. The bending behavior of the coated yarns was evaluated based on the average width of cracks which appeared on the yarn surface after repeated flexural tests. The obtained results revealed that usage of a polyurethane adhesive in the coating solution prevents crack formation on the surface of hard magnetic yarns after flexural tests. At the same time, the higher the mass percentage of hard magnetic powder in the mixture, the higher was the cracks’ width. The soft magnetic yarns are more flexible and a smaller crack width is observed on their surface. Both the coating solution composition and the powder diameter are expected to influence the bending behavior of coated yarns.

  9. USDA and university researchers work to prevent U.S. cotton contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. cotton is considered to have some of the lowest levels of contamination in the world. However, that reputation is in jeopardy as complaints of contamination from domestic and foreign mills are on the rise. Cotton contamination is classified by the International Textile Manufacturers Federation ...

  10. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  11. Pest diagnosis and pesticide use by cotton growers of multan area and their and their occupational health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, Q.U.; Fareedi, I.A.; Iftkhar, N.

    2008-01-01

    Economy of Pakistan is based on exports of cotton and cotton products, and cotton-growing farmers are the vertebrae of Economical backbone of the country. Cotton growing farmers (male) involved in monitoring of quality and quantity of cotton crops by handsome usage of pesticides for better yield and marketing. To assess their knowledge for diagnosing the pests, attacking their crops and their orientation about the pesticide chemicals and their usage, study in hand was designed and conducted in 20 villages of district Multan selected by multistage random sampling technique. The selected 20 villages, from the list bearing the villages, mouzas and union councils of district Multan. 220 cotton growers were selected by simple random sampling technique and interviewed through a reliable and validated interview schedule. The data collected were processed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that almost 71% of cotton growing farmers were in a position to diagnose the pests, damaging their cotton crops whereas; almost 29% of respondents had no pest diagnosis concept. The data showed that 75% of cotton growing farmers were having orientation about side effects of pesticide chemicals, whereas almost 94% of respondents were involved in pesticide using practices. (author)

  12. Thermoresponsive PNIPAAm-modified cotton fabric surfaces that switch between superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Cheng; Wang Qihua; Wang Tingmei

    2012-01-01

    Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted onto the cotton fabric by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Introducing 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTS) onto the surface, the density of PNIPAAm chains can be adjusted because of the competitive reactions of (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APS) and PFDTS. With the appropriate ratio of APS and PFDTS, the cotton fabric can be switched from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by controlling temperature. The prepared cotton fabric may find application in functional textiles, soft and folding superhydrophobic materials.

  13. Yield components and quality of intercropped cotton in response to mepiquat chloride and plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Lili; Zhang, Lizhen; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der Wopke; Liu, Shaodong; Zhang, Siping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Zhaohu

    2015-01-01

    Cotton yield is greatly improved by moderately increasing plant density and modifying the cotton plants to have a compact structure, which is also required by the increasing demand for mechanized harvest. However, in cotton strip intercropped with wheat, only limited knowledge on yield response

  14. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  15. Reproductive history of cane rat: a review of the reproduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates in a review the reproduction and reproductive performance of cane rat. Breeding time in cane rat depends on which part of Africa the Animal is found and the weather. In the wild, cane rat lives in groups of males and females during the breeding season. The wet season of the year is the usual breeding ...

  16. Antiinflammatory activity of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Se Ra; Kim, Jong Choon; Bae, Chun Sik; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae Ran; Jang, Jong Sik; Kim, Sung Ho

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluated a new herbal preparation, HemoHIM, for its antiinflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced edema, the formation of granulation tissues by cotton pellet and experimental colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The HemoHIM was prepared by adding its ethanol-insoluble polysaccharide fraction to the total water extract of Angelica Radix, Cnidii Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. The preparation (4 mg of solids/mL of drinking water, p.o., 50-100 mg/kg of body weight, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma in rats. In addition, HemoHIM also reduced the degree of TNBS-induced colitis and improved the gross and histological changes such as thickening, dilatation, ulceration, and infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and multiple erosive lesions. These results demonstrate that the HemoHIM has a potent antiinflammatory effect. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Motor Function and Dopamine Release Measurements in Transgenic Huntington’s Disease Model Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Andrea N.; Osterhaus, Gregory L.; Lauderdale, Kelli; Mahoney, Luke; Fowler, Stephen C.; von Hörsten, Stephan; Riess, Olaf; Johnson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits in motor and cognitive function. Here, we have quantitatively characterized motor deficiencies and dopamine release dynamics in transgenic HD model rats. Behavioral analyses were conducted using a newly-developed force-sensing runway and a previously-developed force-plate actometer. Gait disturbances were readily observed in transgenic HD rats at 12 to 15 months of age. Additionally, dopamine system challenge by ip injection of amphetamine also revealed that these rats were resistant to the expression of focused stereotypy compared to wild-type controls. Moreover, dopamine release, evoked by the application of single and multiple electrical stimulus pulses applied at different frequencies, and measured using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes, was diminished in transgenic HD rats compared to age-matched wild-type control rats. Collectively, these results underscore the potential contribution of dopamine release alterations to the expression of motor impairments in transgenic HD rats. PMID:22418060

  18. Comparison of Mucosal, Subcutaneous and Intraperitoneal Routes of Rat Leptospira Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilber, Anne-Laure; Belli, Patrick; Grezel, Delphine; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli; Djelouadji, Zoheira

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide that is caused by a spirochete. The main reservoirs of Leptospira, which presents an asymptomatic infection, are wild rodents, including the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Experimental studies of the mechanisms of its renal colonization in rats have previously used an intraperitoneal inoculation route. However, knowledge of rat-rat transmission requires the use of a natural route of inoculation, such as a mucosal or subcutaneous route. We investigated for the first time the effects of subcutaneous and mucosal inoculation routes compared to the reference intraperitoneal route during Leptospira infection in adult rats. Infection characteristics were studied using Leptospira renal isolation, serology, and molecular and histological analyses. Leptospira infection was asymptomatic using each inoculation route, and caused similar antibody production regardless of renal colonization. The observed renal colonization rates were 8 out of 8 rats, 5 out of 8 rats and 1 out of 8 rats for the intraperitoneal, mucosal and subcutaneous inoculation routes, respectively. Thus, among the natural infection routes studied, mucosal inoculation was more efficient for renal colonization associated with urinary excretion than the subcutaneous route and induced a slower-progressing infection than the intraperitoneal route. These results can facilitate understanding of the infection modalities in rats, unlike the epidemiological studies conducted in wild rats. Future studies of other natural inoculation routes in rat models will increase our knowledge of rat-rat disease transmission and allow the investigation of infection kinetics. PMID:27031867

  19. Overflow system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  20. Unloading system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  1. Advancement in conductive cotton fabrics through in situ polymerization of polypyrrole-nanocellulose composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeish, A; Farag, S; Sharaf, S; Shaheen, Th I

    2016-10-20

    Current research was undertaking with a view to innovate a new approach for development of conductive - coated textile materials through coating cotton fabrics with nanocellulose/polypyrrole composites. The study was designed in order to have a clear understanding of the role of nanocellulose as well as modified composite thereof under investigation. It is anticipated that incorporation of nanocellulose in the pyrrole/cotton fabrics/FeCl3/H2O system would form an integral part of the composites with mechanical, electrical or both properties. Three different nanocellulosic substrates are involved in the oxidation polymerization reaction of polypyrrole (Ppy) in presence of cotton fabrics. Polymerization was subsequently carried out by admixing at various ratios of FeCl3 and pyrrole viz. Ppy1, Ppy2 and pp3. The conductive, mechanical and thermal properties of cotton fabrics coated independently with different nanocellulose/polypyrrole were investigated. FTIR, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDX were also used for further characterization. Results signify that, the conductivity of cotton fabrics increases exponentially with increasing the dose of pyrrole and oxidant irrespective of nanocellulose substrate used. While, the mechanical properties of cotton fabrics are not significantly affected by the oxidant treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening Pakistani cotton for drought tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, M.H.; Markhand, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    The drought is one of the biggest abiotic stresses for crop production in arid and semi-arid agriculture. Thus it is a challenge for plant scientists to screen and develop the drought tolerant cotton lines. In this study, 31 cotton genotypes/cultivars were evaluated under two irrigation regimes i. e., seven irrigations (Control) and two irrigations (Stress), using split plot design with four replications. The crop growth, yield and some physiological parameters were studied. There were high inter-varietal differences for all the parameters under control as well as drought stress. Although all the varieties for all parameters were significantly affected by drought but however, CRIS-9, MARVI, CRIS-134, CRIS-126, CRIS-337, CRIS-355 and CRIS-377 maintained highest performance for all the parameters studied under high drought conditions. (author)

  3. Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Moshammer, Hanns Michael; Kundi, Michael

    2015-04-02

    In the cotton industry of Pakistan, 15 million people are employed and exposed to cotton dust, toxic chemicals, noise and physical hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms, and to measure cotton dust and endotoxin levels in different textile factories of Faisalabad, Pakistan. A cross-sectional investigation was performed in a representative sample of 47 cotton factories in the Faisalabad region in Punjab, Pakistan. Respiratory symptoms of 800 workers were documented by questionnaire. Occupational safety in the factories was assessed by a trained expert following a checklist, and dust and endotoxin levels in different work areas were measured. Prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough) was generally high and highest in the weaving section of the cotton industry (20-40% depending on symptoms). This section also displayed the poorest occupational safety ratings and the highest levels of inhalable cotton dust (mean±SD 4.6±2.5 vs 0.95±0.65 mg/m(3) in compact units). In contrast, endotoxin levels were highest in the spinning section (median 1521 EU/m(3)), where high humidity is maintained. There are still poor working conditions in the cotton industry in Pakistan where workers are exposed to different occupational hazards. More health symptoms were reported from small weaving factories (power looms). There is a dire need for improvements in occupational health and safety in this industrial sector with particular focus on power looms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Nutrient Uptake by High-Yielding Cotton Crop in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Vilela Vieira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Determining nutrient uptake and accumulation rates by cotton crops is important to define management strategies, especially for transgenic varieties, which are cultivated using high-technology approaches that require substantial investment to maximize yield. Currently in Brazil, the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso are responsible for 84.4 % of the total cotton growing area. In the present study, two trials were conducted in 2013, one that involved planting FM 940 GLT, FM 980 GLT, and FM 913 GLT varieties in the state of Bahia and the other which involved FM 940 GLT and FM 980 GLT varieties in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim of the two trials was to represent the two regions that currently encompass the largest areas of cotton cultivation. Tissue samples, consisting of leaves, stems, and reproductive components, were collected eleven times during the crop cycle for determination of nutrient content and shoot dry matter. After weighing, plant tissue samples were dried and ground to determine nutrient contents. Because there were no overall differences in nutrient contents and biomass accumulation of the varieties during the crop cycle, we undertook joint analysis of the data from all varieties at each site. Favorable climatic conditions in Bahia promoted plant biomass production that was twice as much as plants grown in Mato Grosso, with cotton yields of 6.2 and 3.8 t ha−1 of lint and seed, respectively. The maximum nutrient accumulation occurred between 137-150 days after emergence (DAE for N; 143-148 for P; 172-185 for K; 100 for Ca; 144-149 for Mg; and 153-158 for S. Maximum uptake ranged from 218-362 kg ha−1 N; 26-53 kg ha−1 P; 233-506 kg ha−1 K; 91-202 kg ha−1 Ca; 28-44 kg ha−1 Mg; and 19-61 kg ha−1 S. On average, the sites revealed nutrient export of 14, 2, 23, 3, 2, and 2 kg t−1 of lint and seed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, with little variation among sites. Extraction of nutrients per area by cotton

  5. Intraspecific Variability of Rotylenchulus reniformis from Cotton-growing Regions in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo, Paula; Robbins, Robert T.; Stewart, James McD.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2005-01-01

    Reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a major pest of cotton in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to examine the variation of reniform nematode populations from cotton-growing locations in the United States where it is prevalent. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis were used to determine the variability of morphology in males and immature females. Reproduction indices of populations were measured on selected soybean and cotton ge...

  6. The natural refuge policy for Bt cotton (Gossypium L. in Pakistan – a situation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sajjad Ali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bt cotton (event Cry1Ac was formally commercialized in Pakistan in 2010. However, there has been an increasing trend of planting unauthorized Bt cotton germplasm in farmers' fields since 2003 with a high rate of adoption in the core cotton areas especially in the province Punjab. The transgenic cotton technology has provided the growers with substantial economic benefits and has reduced their dependence on pesticides for pest control, especially against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner. However, keeping in view the capacity of this insect to develop resistance against novel chemical formulations, it is easily speculated that Bt toxin, too, is no exception. Refuge crop policy for mono transgenic crop events has helped in delaying the rate of resistance evolution in the target pests. Thus, in Pakistan, where planting of structured refuge crops along Bt cotton fields is not mandatory, the effectiveness and durability of Bt cotton technology may decrease due to a number of factors which are discussed in this review.

  7. Variation in water-use efficiency and its relation to carbon isotope ratio in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saranga, Y.; Flash, I.; Yakir, D.

    1998-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is often exposed to drought, which adversely affects both yield and quality. Improved water-use efficiency (WUE = total dry matter produced or yield harvested / water used) is expected to reduce these adverse effects. Genetic variability in WUE and its association with photosynthetic rate and carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) in cotton are reported in this paper. WUE of six cotton cultivars--G. hirsutum L., G. barbadense L., and an interspecific F1 hybrid (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense, ISH), was examined under two irrigation regimes in two field trials. The greatest WUE was obtained by two G. hirsutum cultivars (2.55 g dry matter or 1.12 g seed-cotton L-1 H2O) the ISH obtained similar or somewhat lower values, and that G. barbadense cultivars and one G. hirsutum cultivar exhibited the lowest values (2.1 g dry matter or 0.8 to 0.85 g seed-cotton L-1 H2O). These results indicate that different cotton cultivars may have evolved different environmental adaptations that affect their WUE. Photosynthetic rate was correlated with WUE in only a few cases emphasizing the limitation of this parameter as a basis for estimating crop WUE. Under both trials WUE was positively correlated with carbon isotope ratio, indicating the potential of this technique as a selection criterion for improving cotton WUE

  8. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly.

  9. Cotton: A Massively Underutilized and Often Overlooked Protein and Biomass Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every year the cotton crop on the planet produces about 11 million metric tons of protein. Unfortunately, the cotton plant has also evolved a chemical defense mechanism, a toxin (gossypol) that resides in tiny but visible pigment glands. Having a phenotypic marker for the toxin is unique and has all...

  10. EFFECTS OF AN EXPORT SUBSIDY ON THE U.S. COTTON INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Patricia A.; Wohlgenant, Michael K.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an export subsidy for cotton are analyzed using a linear elasticity model. The study explicitly addresses the interaction of current domestic policies with the proposed export subsidy. An export subsidy may be a successful method of reducing the government costs of the cotton program.

  11. Preliminary Examinations for the Identification of U.S. Domestic and International Cotton Fibers by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanel Fortier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick, reliable method to classify U.S. from foreign cottons so that the appropriate tariffs can be levied for non-American cottons. In addition, there is some interest in avoiding cotton identity theft. Thus, an accurate and precise instrumental method would be of interest to correctly identify the country of origin of cotton. This study provides an analytical method to identify domestic and foreign cotton fibers using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA. Samples from American cottons were evaluated along with a representative amount of international samples. The results provide a proof of concept that indicates that PCA analysis can be used to separate the respective domestic and foreign cotton groups.

  12. Artificial neural nets application in the cotton yarn industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Clóvis Antoneli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness in the yarn production sector has led companies to search for solutions to attain quality yarn at a low cost. Today, the difference between them, and thus the sector, is in the raw material, meaning processed cotton and its characteristics. There are many types of cotton with different characteristics due to its production region, harvest, storage and transportation. Yarn industries work with cotton mixtures, which makes it difficult to determine the quality of the yarn produced from the characteristics of the processed fibers. This study uses data from a conventional spinning, from a raw material made of 100% cotton, and presents a solution with artificial neural nets that determine the thread quality information, using the fibers’ characteristics values and settings of some process adjustments. In this solution a neural net of the type MultiLayer Perceptron with 11 entry neurons (8 characteristics of the fiber and 3 process adjustments, 7 output neurons (yarn quality and two types of training, Back propagation and Conjugate gradient descent. The selection and organization of the production data of the yarn industry of the cocamar® indústria de fios company are described, to apply the artificial neural nets developed. In the application of neural nets to determine yarn quality, one concludes that, although the ideal precision of absolute values is lacking, the presented solution represents an excellent tool to define yarn quality variations when modifying the raw material composition. The developed system enables a simulation to define the raw material percentage mixture to be processed in the plant using the information from the stocked cotton packs, thus obtaining a mixture that maintains the stability of the entire productive process.

  13. Cotton genotypes selection through artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, E G Silva; Cardoso, D B O; Reis, M C; Nascimento, A F O; Bortolin, D I; Martins, M R; Sousa, L B

    2017-09-27

    Breeding programs currently use statistical analysis to assist in the identification of superior genotypes at various stages of a cultivar's development. Differently from these analyses, the computational intelligence approach has been little explored in genetic improvement of cotton. Thus, this study was carried out with the objective of presenting the use of artificial neural networks as auxiliary tools in the improvement of the cotton to improve fiber quality. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, this research was carried out using the evaluation data of 40 genotypes. In order to classify the genotypes for fiber quality, the artificial neural networks were trained with replicate data of 20 genotypes of cotton evaluated in the harvests of 2013/14 and 2014/15, regarding fiber length, uniformity of length, fiber strength, micronaire index, elongation, short fiber index, maturity index, reflectance degree, and fiber quality index. This quality index was estimated by means of a weighted average on the determined score (1 to 5) of each characteristic of the HVI evaluated, according to its industry standards. The artificial neural networks presented a high capacity of correct classification of the 20 selected genotypes based on the fiber quality index, so that when using fiber length associated with the short fiber index, fiber maturation, and micronaire index, the artificial neural networks presented better results than using only fiber length and previous associations. It was also observed that to submit data of means of new genotypes to the neural networks trained with data of repetition, provides better results of classification of the genotypes. When observing the results obtained in the present study, it was verified that the artificial neural networks present great potential to be used in the different stages of a genetic improvement program of the cotton, aiming at the improvement of the fiber quality of the future cultivars.

  14. Carbohydrate production and transport in cotton cultivars grown under boron deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Bogiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An adequate supply of boron (B is required for the optimal growth and development of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. plants, but the low phloem mobility of B limits the possibilities of correcting B deficiency. There are indications that different cotton cultivars could have different responses to B deficiency. The differences in responses of cotton cultivars to B regarding photoassimilate production and transport were studied in a greenhouse experiment with nutrient solution. Treatments consisted of three cotton cultivars (FMT 701, DP 604BG and FMX 993 and five concentrations of B (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 µmol L−1. Sampling began at the phenological stage B1 (first square and continued for four weeks. The leaf area and the number of reproductive branches and structures decreased due to B deficiency. A higher level of abortion of reproductive structures was observed under B deficiency. Boron deficiency increased the internal CO2 concentration but decreased the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. Despite the decrease in photosynthesis, nonstructural carbohydrates accumulated in the leaves due to decreased export to bolls in B-deficient plants. The response to B deficiency is similar among cotton cultivars, which shows that the variability for this trait is low even for cultivars with different genetic backgrounds.

  15. Screening of cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) genotypes for heat tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, S.; Khan, M.A.; Sial, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cotton yield is highly affected due to biotic (diseases and pests) and abiotic (heat, dought and salinity) Stresses. Among them, high temperature is the main environmental constraint which adversely reduces cotton yield and quality. High temperature above 36 degree C affects plant growth and development especially during reproductive phase. Present studies were carried out to assess the tolerance of fifty-eight newly evolved cotton genotypes to heat stresses, based on agronomic and physiological characteristics. The genotypes were screened in field conditions under two temperature regimes. The studies were conducted at experimental farm of Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, Tando Jam, Pakistan. The results showed that March sown crop experienced high temperature (i.e. > 44 degree C in May and June), which significantly affected crop growth and productivity. The genotypes were identified as heat-tolerant on the basis of relative cell injury percentage (RCI %), heat susceptibility index (HSI) values, boll retention and seed cotton yield (kg/ha). RCI level in cotton genotypes ranged from 39.0 to 86.0%. Out of 58, seventeen genotypes (viz.NIA-80, NIA-81, NIA-83, NIA-84, NIA-M-30, NIA-M31, NIA-HM-48, NIA-HM-327, NIA-H-32, NIA-HM-2-1, NIA-Bt1, NIA-Bt2, NIA-Perkh, CRIS-342, CRIS-134, NIAB-111 and check variety Sadori indicated high level of heat tolerance at both (heat-stressed and non-stressed) temperature regimes; as shown the lowest relative injury level and relatively heat resistant index (HSI<1) values. Such genotypes could be used as heattolerant genotypes under heat-stressed environments. (author)

  16. Genomics-enabled analysis of the emergent disease cotton bacterial blight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Z Phillips

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton bacterial blight (CBB, an important disease of (Gossypium hirsutum in the early 20th century, had been controlled by resistant germplasm for over half a century. Recently, CBB re-emerged as an agronomic problem in the United States. Here, we report analysis of cotton variety planting statistics that indicate a steady increase in the percentage of susceptible cotton varieties grown each year since 2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains from the current outbreak cluster with race 18 Xanthomonas citri pv. malvacearum (Xcm strains. Illumina based draft genomes were generated for thirteen Xcm isolates and analyzed along with 4 previously published Xcm genomes. These genomes encode 24 conserved and nine variable type three effectors. Strains in the race 18 clade contain 3 to 5 more effectors than other Xcm strains. SMRT sequencing of two geographically and temporally diverse strains of Xcm yielded circular chromosomes and accompanying plasmids. These genomes encode eight and thirteen distinct transcription activator-like effector genes. RNA-sequencing revealed 52 genes induced within two cotton cultivars by both tested Xcm strains. This gene list includes a homeologous pair of genes, with homology to the known susceptibility gene, MLO. In contrast, the two strains of Xcm induce different clade III SWEET sugar transporters. Subsequent genome wide analysis revealed patterns in the overall expression of homeologous gene pairs in cotton after inoculation by Xcm. These data reveal important insights into the Xcm-G. hirsutum disease complex and strategies for future development of resistant cultivars.

  17. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera. The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012. Four packages of IPM evaluated were cotton varieties, i.e. Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13, and seed treatment with synthetic insecticide (imidacloprid before sowing or spraying molasses (10 ml L-1 water as food for natural enemies. The cotton plants were intercropped with groundnut and sprayed with neem seed extract (NSE at the action threshold level for pest control. These packages were compared among themselves and also with the methods usually used by farmers, i.e. planting cotton variety Kanesia 8 intercropped with groundnut and pest control using synthetic chemical insecticides. Twenty five plants were sampled randomly per plot and measured for their growth, leafhopper and  bollworm populations, as well as cotton seed yield per plot. Observations were made weekly, starting at 30 days after planting (DAP until 120 DAP. The results showed that the use of Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13 intercropped with groundnut and spraying molasses to conserve natural enemies was the best  pest management practice and superior to farmers’ practices. Conserving natural enemies is not only profitable (saving production cost of IDR1,150,000 to IDR1,500,000 ha-1 season-1, but also safe for the environment (no need to spray chemical insecticides.

  18. Performance of fertigation technique for phosphorus application in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aslam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Low native soil phosphorus availability coupled with poor utilization of added phosphorus is one of the major constraints limiting the productivity of the crops. With a view of addressing this issue, field studies were conducted to compare the relative efficacy of broadcast and fertigation techniques for phosphorus application during 2005-2006 using cotton as a test crop. Two methods of phosphorus application i.e. broadcast and fertigation were evaluated using five levels of P2O5 (0, 30, 45, 60 and 75 kg P2O5 ha -1. Fertigation showed an edge over broadcast method at all levels of phosphorus application. The highest seed cotton yield was recorded with 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. Fertilizer phosphorus applied at the rate of 60 kg ha-1 through fertigation produced 3.4 tons ha-1 of seed cotton yield, which was statistically identical to 3.3 tons recorded with 75 kg ha-1 of broadcast phosphorus. Agronomic performance of phosphorus was influenced considerably by either method of fertilizer application. The seed cotton yield per kg of fertigation phosphorus was 48% higher than the corresponding broadcast application. The results of these studies showed that fertigation was the most efficient method of phosphorus application compared with the conventional broadcast application of fertilizers.

  19. Flavonoid biosynthesis controls fiber color in naturally colored cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The existence of only natural brown and green cotton fibers (BCF and GCF, respectively, as well as poor fiber quality, limits the use of naturally colored cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. A better understanding of fiber pigment regulation is needed to surmount these obstacles. In this work, transcriptome analysis and quantitative reverse transcription PCR revealed that 13 and 9 phenylpropanoid (metabolic pathway genes were enriched during pigment synthesis, while the differential expression of phenylpropanoid (metabolic and flavonoid metabolic pathway genes occurred among BCF, GCF, and white cotton fibers (WCF. Silencing the chalcone flavanone isomerase gene in a BCF line resulted in three fiber phenotypes among offspring of the RNAi lines: BCF, almost WCF, and GCF. The lines with almost WCF suppressed chalcone flavanone isomerase, while the lines with GCF highly expressed the glucosyl transferase (3GT gene. Overexpression of the Gh3GT or Arabidopsis thaliana 3GT gene in BCF lines resulted in GCF. Additionally, the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid metabolites of BCF and GCF were significantly higher than those of WCF as assessed by a metabolomics analysis. Thus, the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway controls both brown and green pigmentation processes. Like natural colored fibers, the transgenic colored fibers were weaker and shorter than WCF. This study shows the potential of flavonoid pathway modifications to alter cotton fibers’ color and quality.

  20. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Breeding for resistance to diseases in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    This document reports the results of a 20-day mission to Thailand within the framework of the project ''Improving food and agricultural production with nuclear and related technology''. The expert discussed the status of cotton breeding, production practices and problems with personnel of the Department of Agriculture in Bangkok, and travelled to cotton-producing regions of the central and northern areas of the country to discuss current research, pest problems and social factors affecting cotton production

  1. The Doha Round Declaration on Cotton: A Catalyst for Poverty Reduction in Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Lorea Barron; Devadoss, Stephen; Stodick, Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Cotton plays a strategic role in the development policies and poverty reduction programs of a number of African countries. Several African countries have introduced reforms in the cotton sector to improve its quality and competitiveness. The impact of these reforms has to date been virtually nullified by the fact that certain WTO Members continue to apply support measures and subsidies that distort global market prices. These are the arguments behind the Cotton Initiative raised in 2003 in th...

  2. Using Winter Annual Cover Crops in a Virginia No-till Cotton Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, James B. II

    1997-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a low residue crop, that may not provide sufficient surface residue to reduce erosion and protect the soil. A winter annual cover crop could alleviate erosion between cotton crops. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate selected winter annual cover crops for biomass production, ground cover, and N assimilation. The cover crop treatments were monitored under no-till and conventional tillage systems for the effects on soil moisture, cotton yield and qu...

  3. Genome Editing in Cotton with the CRISPR/Cas9 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing is an important tool for gene functional studies as well as crop improvement. The recent development of the CRISPR/Cas9 system using single guide RNA molecules (sgRNAs to direct precise double strand breaks in the genome has the potential to revolutionize agriculture. Unfortunately, not all sgRNAs are equally efficient and it is difficult to predict their efficiency by bioinformatics. In crops such as cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., with labor-intensive and lengthy transformation procedures, it is essential to minimize the risk of using an ineffective sgRNA that could result in the production of transgenic plants without the desired CRISPR-induced mutations. In this study, we have developed a fast and efficient method to validate the functionality of sgRNAs in cotton using a transient expression system. We have used this method to validate target sites for three different genes GhPDS, GhCLA1, and GhEF1 and analyzed the nature of the CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations. In our experiments, the most frequent type of mutations observed in cotton cotyledons were deletions (∼64%. We prove that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can effectively produce mutations in homeologous cotton genes, an important requisite in this allotetraploid crop. We also show that multiple gene targeting can be achieved in cotton with the simultaneous expression of several sgRNAs and have generated mutations in GhPDS and GhEF1 at two target sites. Additionally, we have used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to produce targeted gene fragment deletions in the GhPDS locus. Finally, we obtained transgenic cotton plants containing CRISPR/Cas9-induced gene editing mutations in the GhCLA1 gene. The mutation efficiency was very high, with 80.6% of the transgenic lines containing mutations in the GhCLA1 target site resulting in an intense albino phenotype due to interference with chloroplast biogenesis.

  4. Determination of geographic provenance of cotton fibres using multi-isotope profiles and multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeid, N. Nic; Meier-Augenstein, W.; Kemp, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of cotton fibres can be particularly challenging within a forensic science context where discrimination of one fibre from another is of importance. Normally cotton fibre analysis examines the morphological structure of the recovered material and compares this with that of a known fibre from a particular source of interest. However, the conventional microscopic and chemical analysis of fibres and any associated dyes is generally unsuccessful because of the similar morphology of the fibres. Analysis of the dyes which may have been applied to the cotton fibre can also be undertaken though this can be difficult and unproductive in terms of discriminating one fibre from another. In the study presented here we have explored the potential for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to be utilised as an additional tool for cotton fibre analysis in an attempt to reveal further discriminatory information. This work has concentrated on un-dyed cotton fibres of known origin in order to expose the potential of the analytical technique. We report the results of a pilot study aimed at testing the hypothesis that multi-element stable isotope analysis of cotton fibres in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis of the resulting isotopic abundance data using well established chemometric techniques permits sample provenancing based on the determination of where the cotton was grown and as such will facilitate sample discrimination. To date there is no recorded literature of this type of application of IRMS to cotton samples, which may be of forensic science relevance.

  5. Effects of nitrogen fertilization in cotton crop on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Ricardo; Degrande, Paulo E.; Fernandes, Marcos G.; Nogueira, Rodrigo F.

    2007-01-01

    The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glove, is one of the pests of cotton crop and its relation with the host seem to depend on the amount of nitrogen available to the plant. The biology of A. gossypii using different cotton nitrogen fertility regimes was studied under greenhouse conditions, in Dourados, MS. A completely randomized design with nine replications in a factorial scheme (2x4x2)+1 was used. Two nitrogen sources (sulphate of ammonium and urea), four doses of nitrogen (50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1), two different times of nitrogen application and one additional treatment without nitrogen were taken as factors. The nymphal phases, the pre-reproductive, reproductive and pos-reproductive periods, longevity, the life cycle and fecundity of the cotton aphid were evaluated. The doses of nitrogen influenced the cotton aphid biology in both sources and times of application, favoring its development and fecundity. (author)

  6. THE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE PORT OF SALVADOR IMPROVEMENTS ON THE BRAZILIAN COTTON INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatial price equilibrium model of the international cotton sector was used to analyze the impacts of the Port of Salvador improvements on the Brazilian cotton industry and world cotton trade. The port of Salvador is undergoing relevant improvements in its facilities and physical structure. As a result of these improvements, the port of Salvador is expected to become more competitive and attract ocean shipping companies which are willing to export products directly to Asian importing markets. Scenarios with different reduction in export cost for the port of Salvador were examined. For all scenarios, the new direct ocean shipping lines were found to be important for the cotton exporters in Brazil, especially for the producers in the state of Bahia. In addition, results suggested that the state of Bahia would have the potential of becoming the largest cotton exporting state in Brazil.

  7. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton textiles for water-oil separation based on drop-coating route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu; Wang, Shuliang; Li, Jian

    2013-08-14

    In the present study, we are so excited to report a simple drop-coating method for fabricating the superhydrophobic cotton textiles which can remove the water in oil (or the oil in water). It is confirmed that the superhydrophobic composite thin film containing modified-ZnO nanoparticles and polystyren (PS) has been successfully fabricated on the cotton textiles surface by a single-step procedure, and the superhydrophobic cotton textiles displays an excellent property in water-oil separation which is rarely put forward and studied. The static water contact angle on the superhydrophobic cotton sample surface arranges from 153° to 155°, and stays almost the same after exposure to ambient air or immersion in the corrosive liquids and oil, indicating the considerable range of potential applications for the superhydrophobic cotton textiles fabricated by this simple method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp. from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS. The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5% rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 - 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10 containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33-4.82, and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04-26.85 and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10-27.58 compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions.

  9. Thermogravimetric Studies of Deposited Potash Impregnated for Flame-Retardancy into a Cotton Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOSTASHARI, S.M.; NIA, Y.K.; BAIE, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of potash as a nondurable finish on the flammability of 100% cotton fabric (plain 180 g/m2) was investigated. The bone-dried weighed fabrics were dipped into suitable concentrations of potash, with a volume of 100 mL at 20-2 ℃. The impregnation was followed by means of squeeze rolls and drying at 110 C. The samples were then reweighed with analytical precision. After conditioning overnight by using our "vertical flame tester" the optimum add-on values to impart flame-retardancy to cotton fabric was determined and expressed by 0.80 g of potash per 100 g fabric to be an efficient addition. Thermogravimetric analysis of pure cotton, treated cotton with potash at its optimum efficiency for donation of flame-retardancy into cotton fabric was fulfilled and the thermograms were compared and commented. The effectiveness of this hydroxide was attributed to the heat dissipation by the remaining consumed material during the combustion. The results obtained are in favor of "Dust or Wall Effect Theory".

  10. The life cycle assessment of cellulose pulp from waste cotton via the SaXcell™ process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelerich, Jens; Bijleveld, Marijn; Bouwhuis, Gerrit H.; Brinks, Ger J.

    2017-10-01

    Recycling of cotton waste into high value products is a longstanding goal in textile research. The SaXcellTM process provides a chemical recycling route towards virgin fibres. In this study a Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to measure the impact of the chemical recycling of cotton waste on the environment. Pure cotton waste and cotton containing 10 % of polyester are elaborated. The results show that chemical recycling via the SaXcellTM process can have a lower impact on climate change and other impact category than comparable pulping technologies.

  11. The EU market for apparel exports, China's cotton imports, and the end of the ATC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Babula, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    in the EU market; (3) the interrelationship between China's apparel exports and its demand for imported cotton is found to be statistically significant. However, increased apparel exports from China induce proportionally larger increases in its cotton imports. In particular, the end of the ATC is shown...... has seemingly prompted China to relax its restrictions on cotton imports. Using monthly trade data, this study employs a vector autoregression model to investigate the interlinkages between China's and its competitors’ apparel exports to the EU and between China's apparel exports and its cotton...

  12. Boll sampling protocols and their impact on measurements of cotton fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within plant fiber variability has long contributed to product inconsistency in the cotton industry. Fiber quality uniformity is a primary plant breeding objective related to cotton commodity economic value. The physiological impact of source and sink relationships renders stress on the upper bran...

  13. Widespread distribution and a new recombinant species of Brazilian virus associated with cotton blue disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton blue disease (CBD, an important global cotton crop pathology responsible for major economic losses, is prevalent in the major cotton-producing states of Brazil. Typical CBD symptoms include stunting due to internodal shortening, leaf rolling, intense green foliage, and yellowing veins. Atypical CBD symptoms, including reddish and withered leaves, were also observed in Brazilian cotton fields in 2007. Recently, a Polerovirus named Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV was shown to be associated with CBD. Results To understand the distribution and genetic diversity of CLRDV in Brazil, we analyzed 23 CBD-symptomatic plants from susceptible cotton varieties originating from five of the six most important cotton-growing states, from 2004–2007. Here, we report on CLRDV diversity in plants with typical or atypical CBD symptoms by comparing viral coat protein, RNA polymerase (RdRp, and intergenic region genomic sequences. Conclusion The virus had a widespread distribution with a low genetic diversity; however, three divergent isolates were associated with atypical CBD symptoms. These divergent isolates had a CLRDV-related coat protein but a distinct RdRp sequence, and probably arose from recombination events. Based on the taxonomic rules for the family Luteoviridae, we propose that these three isolates represent isolates of a new species in the genus Polerovirus.

  14. Widespread distribution and a new recombinant species of Brazilian virus associated with cotton blue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T F; Corrêa, R L; Castilho, Y; Silvie, P; Bélot, J-L; Vaslin, M F S

    2008-10-20

    Cotton blue disease (CBD), an important global cotton crop pathology responsible for major economic losses, is prevalent in the major cotton-producing states of Brazil. Typical CBD symptoms include stunting due to internodal shortening, leaf rolling, intense green foliage, and yellowing veins. Atypical CBD symptoms, including reddish and withered leaves, were also observed in Brazilian cotton fields in 2007. Recently, a Polerovirus named Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) was shown to be associated with CBD. To understand the distribution and genetic diversity of CLRDV in Brazil, we analyzed 23 CBD-symptomatic plants from susceptible cotton varieties originating from five of the six most important cotton-growing states, from 2004-2007. Here, we report on CLRDV diversity in plants with typical or atypical CBD symptoms by comparing viral coat protein, RNA polymerase (RdRp), and intergenic region genomic sequences. The virus had a widespread distribution with a low genetic diversity; however, three divergent isolates were associated with atypical CBD symptoms. These divergent isolates had a CLRDV-related coat protein but a distinct RdRp sequence, and probably arose from recombination events. Based on the taxonomic rules for the family Luteoviridae, we propose that these three isolates represent isolates of a new species in the genus Polerovirus.

  15. Productivity, Efficiency, and Competitiveness of Small-Scale Organic Cotton Production in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mgeni, Dotto; Henningsen, Arne

    cannot be adjusted in the short run. However, land, labor, and organic fertilizer can neither be traded on a perfect market nor are their quantities completely fixed for cotton production, but these input quantities can be adjusted by adjusting their use for other activities of the household. Hence......Cotton is known as the “white gold” of Africa since it is the only export crop in which the continent’s share in the world market has increased over the past decades. Total cotton production as well as productivity grew particularly in Western and Central Africa. In contrast, cotton production grew...... and output, as well as socio-economic and agronomic factors, but also on the shadow prices of all sparsely traded inputs, i.e. land, labor, and organic fertilizer. Hence, we can not only analyze productivity, technical efficiency, and scale efficiency, but also allocative efficiency, profitability...

  16. Employment Opportunities and Training Needs in Agribusiness. Competencies for Cotton Production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, John W.; And Others

    The competencies necessary for entry and advancement in cotton production were determined by surveying people in the cotton production industry from nine of the ten leading cotton producing states. A preliminary listing of competencies was developed from a review of the literature and from a survey of specialized personnel in soil and crop…

  17. The improvement of cotton plant in mutation breeding dry climate areas at NTB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti

    2015-01-01

    The opportunity of cotton plant to become a major crop in Indonesia is widely opened due to its extensive adaptability, productivity, efficiency of nutrient intake, and relatively resistant against pests and plant diseases. Generally, cotton plant is an important industrial crop in textile manufacture. Cotton plant has been known and planted for a long time ago by the local farmer, especially at Java, NTB and NTT. Plant mutation breeding have the mutant lines genetic for plant. The mutant lines of cotton plant, which originally come from embryogenic tissue culture (embryo axis, NIAB-999), were irradiated with dose of 20 Gy. Gamma Chamber 4000-A with source of 60 Cobalt was used for the irradiation treatment. The experiments were done at Citayam by designed by randomized Block design with five replications. Both of mutant lines were planted in the plot with size of 8 × 7 m 2 and 10 × 100 cm of spacing. Kanesia 15 variety was used as a control. The parameters observed were the days of maturity, plant height, number of generative branches, number of fruit/plant, weight of 100 cotton boll per plot. As the results, CN 2A has the biggest productivity, shown by the weight of the cotton fiber per plot, which is 447.510 kg compared to Kanesia 15 and NIAB 999 is control national and control mother. (author)

  18. Molecular diagnosis of populational variants of Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Norman; Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Obregón, Oscar; De Leon, Rosita; Foster, Nelson; Reuter, Chris; Boratynski, Theodore; Vacek, Don

    2013-02-01

    The utility of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA sequence used for DNA barcoding and a Sequence Characterized Amplified Region for diagnosing boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, variants was evaluated. Maximum likelihood analysis of COI DNA sequences from 154 weevils collected from the United States and Mexico supports previous evidence for limited gene flow between weevil populations on wild cotton and commercial cotton in northern Mexico and southern United States. The wild cotton populations represent a variant of the species called the thurberia weevil, which is not regarded as a significant pest. The 31 boll weevil COI haplotypes observed in the study form two distinct haplogroups (A and B) that are supported by five fixed nucleotide differences and a phylogenetic analysis. Although wild and commercial cotton populations are closely associated with specific haplogroups, there is not a fixed difference between the thurberia weevil variant and other populations. The Sequence Characterized Amplified Region marker generated a larger number of inconclusive results than the COI gene but also supported evidence of shared genotypes between wild and commercial cotton weevil populations. These methods provide additional markers that can assist in the identification of pest weevil populations but not definitively diagnose samples.

  19. Infrared Imaging of Cotton Fiber Bundles Using a Focal Plane Array Detector and a Single Reflectance Accessory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Santiago Cintrón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared imaging is gaining attention as a technique used in the examination of cotton fibers. This type of imaging combines spectral analysis with spatial resolution to create visual images that examine sample composition and distribution. Herein, we report on the use of an infrared instrument equipped with a reflection accessory and an array detector system for the examination of cotton fiber bundles. Cotton vibrational spectra and chemical images were acquired by grouping pixels in the detector array. This technique reduced spectral noise and was employed to visualize cell wall development in cotton fibers bundles. Fourier transform infrared spectra reveal band changes in the C–O bending region that matched previous studies. Imaging studies were quick, relied on small amounts of sample and provided a distribution of the cotton fiber cell wall composition. Thus, imaging of cotton bundles with an infrared detector array has potential for use in cotton fiber examinations.

  20. Nitrogen nutrition in cotton and control strategies for greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Tan, Daniel Kean Yuen; Munsif, Fazal; Afridi, Muhammad Zahir; Shah, Farooq; Wei, Fan; Fahad, Shah; Zhou, Ruiyang

    2017-10-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirustum L.) is grown globally as a major source of natural fiber. Nitrogen (N) management is cumbersome in cotton production systems; it has more impacts on yield, maturity, and lint quality of a cotton crop than other primary plant nutrient. Application and production of N fertilizers consume large amounts of energy, and excess application can cause environmental concerns, i.e., nitrate in ground water, and the production of nitrous oxide a highly potent greenhouse gas (GHG) to the atmosphere, which is a global concern. Therefore, improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of cotton plant is critical in this context. Slow-release fertilizers (e.g., polymer-coated urea) have the potential to increase cotton yield and reduce environmental pollution due to more efficient use of nutrients. Limited literature is available on the mitigation of GHG emissions for cotton production. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of N fertilization, in cotton growth and GHG emission management strategies, and will assess, justify, and organize the researchable priorities. Nitrate and ammonium nitrogen are essential nutrients for successful crop production. Ammonia (NH 3 ) is a central intermediate in plant N metabolism. NH 3 is assimilated in cotton by the mediation of glutamine synthetase, glutamine (z-) oxoglutarate amino-transferase enzyme systems in two steps: the first step requires adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to add NH 3 to glutamate to form glutamine (Gln), and the second step transfers the NH 3 from glutamine (Gln) to α-ketoglutarate to form two glutamates. Once NH 3 has been incorporated into glutamate, it can be transferred to other carbon skeletons by various transaminases to form additional amino acids. The glutamate and glutamine formed can rapidly be used for the synthesis of low-molecular-weight organic N compounds (LMWONCs) such as amides, amino acids, ureides, amines, and peptides that are further synthesized into high-molecular-weight organic

  1. Root Development of Transplanted Cotton and Simulation of Soil Water Movement under Different Irrigation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat and cotton are the main crops grown on the North China Plain (NCP. Cotton is often transplanted after the winter wheat harvest to solve the competition for cultivated land between winter wheat and cotton, and to ensure that both crops can be harvested on the NCP. However, the root system of transplanted cotton is distorted due to the restrictions of the seedling aperture disk before transplanting. Therefore, the investigation of the deformed root distribution and water uptake in transplanted cotton is essential for simulating soil water movement under different irrigation methods. Thus, a field experiment and a simulation study were conducted during 2013–2015 to explore the deformed roots of transplanted cotton and soil water movement using border irrigation (BI and surface drip irrigation (SDI. The results showed that SDI was conducive to root growth in the shallow root zone (0–30 cm, and that BI was conducive to root growth in the deeper root zone (below 30 cm. SDI is well suited for producing the optimal soil water distribution pattern for the deformed root system of transplanted cotton, and the root system was more developed under SDI than under BI. Comparisons between experimental data and model simulations showed that the HYDRUS-2D model described the soil water content (SWC under different irrigation methods well, with root mean square errors (RMSEs of 0.023 and 0.029 cm3 cm−3 and model efficiencies (EFs of 0.68 and 0.59 for BI and SDI, respectively. Our findings will be very useful for designing an optimal irrigation plan for BI and SDI in transplanted cotton fields, and for promoting the wider use of this planting pattern for cotton transplantation.

  2. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and multi-combination of bioinoculants on regenerated seedlings of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindi, P.K.; Sultana, T.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and multi-combination of bioinoculants on regenerated seedlings of cotton Cotton, referred as 'The white gold' is an important commercial crop in India and stands third in the world by means of area of cultivation. Cotton plant regeneration from callus by somatic embryogenesis and its efficiency has been improved significantly in recent times. Our primary investigation was on regenerative studies and multiple shoot induction system focusing mainly on meristematic tissues like seedling cotyledonary nodal explants in RAH-9750 cotton cultivar. An attempt has been made to improve the rate of surveillance and growth of regenerated cotton seedlings by bio-inoculant (mainly AMF) treatment under greenhouse conditions. Out of a total seven pure cultures of AMF fungi, R1-R2 have shown maximum mycorrhizal colonization with RAH-9750 (R) and was identified as Glomus mosseae. This variety was also tested with three different bioinoculants i.e., Rhizobium sp. RHPU-7, Azospirillum sp. PPK-27, Bacillus sp. PU-1, apart from AMF R1-R2 in different combinations. The cotton seedlings have shown the best results in single, dual, triple and multiple combinations i.e R+R1-R2, R+R1-R2+Rhizobium, R+R1-R2+Rhizobium+Azospirillum and R+R1-R2+Rhizobium+Azospirillum+Bacillus respectively. The growth of cotton plants (RAH-9750) generated from meristematic tissue culture was found to be increasing significantly when compared with the normal seeds. Similar results were noticed when the same experiment was subjected to the different soil types of Mahabubnagar district. The investigation clearly infers that better yield of cotton RAH-9750 (R) could be achieved by treating the regenerated cotton seedlings with bioinoculants in different combination in various soil types of Mahabubnagar district. (author)

  3. Study on Bleaching Technology of Cotton Fabric with Sodium Percarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhi; Wang Yanling; Wang Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Bleach cotton fabric with sodium percarbonate solution. Analyse of the effect of the concentration of sodium percarbonate solution, bleaching time, bleaching temperature and the light radiation on the bleaching effect of fabric.The result shows that increasing concentrations of percarbonate,increasing the bleaching time , raising the bleaching temperature and the UV irradiation may whiten the cotton fabric.The most suitable conditions for the bleaching process is concentration of sodium perca...

  4. Structural coloration of chitosan-cationized cotton fabric using photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Gonul; Zille, Andrea; Seventekin, N.; Souto, A. Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In this work, poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) P(St-MMA-AA) composite nanospheres were deposited onto chitosan-cationized woven cotton fabrics followed by a second layer of chitosan. The deposited photonic crystals (PCs) on the fabrics were evaluated for coating efficiency and resistance, chemical analysis and color variation by optical and SEM microscopy, ATR-FTIR, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and washing fastness. Chitosan deposition on cotton fab...

  5. The crosstalk between Target of Rapamycin (TOR) and Jasmonic Acid (JA) signaling existing in Arabidopsis and cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun; Zhao, Ge; Zhang, Xueyan; Li, Linxuan; Xiong, Fangjie; Zhuo, Fengping; Zhang, Chaojun; Yang, Zuoren; Datla, Raju; Ren, Maozhi; Li, Fuguang

    2017-04-04

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) acts as an important regulator of cell growth, development and stress responses in most examined diploid eukaryotes. However, little is known about TOR in tetraploid species such as cotton. Here, we show that TORC1-S6K-RPS6, the major signaling components, are conserved and further expanded in cotton genome. Though the cotton seedlings are insensitive to rapamycin, AZD8055, the second-generation inhibitor of TOR, can significantly suppress the growth in cotton. Global transcriptome analysis revealed that genes associated with jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and transduction were significantly altered in AZD8055 treated cotton seedlings, suggesting the potential crosstalk between TOR and JA signaling. Pharmacological and genetic approaches have been employed to get further insights into the molecular mechanism of the crosstalk between TOR and JA. Combination of AZD8055 with methyl jasmonate can synergistically inhibit cotton growth, and additionally JA levels were significantly increased when cotton seedlings were subjected to AZD8055. JA biosynthetic and signaling mutants including jar1, coi1-2 and myc2-2 displayed TOR inhibitor-resistant phenotypes, whereas COI1 overexpression transgenic lines and jaz10 exhibited sensitivity to AZD8055. Consistently, cotton JAZ can partially rescue TOR-suppressed phenotypes in Arabidopsis. These evidences revealed that the crosstalk between TOR and JA pathway operates in cotton and Arabidopsis.

  6. Electrical Properties of Conductive Cotton Yarn Coated with Eosin Y Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunju; Arul, Narayanasamy Sabari; Han, Jeong In

    2016-06-01

    This study reports the fabrication and investigation of the electrical properties of two types of conductive cotton yarns coated with eosin Y or eosin B functionalized reduced graphene (RGO) and bare graphene oxide (GO) using dip-coating method. The surface morphology of the conductive cotton yarn coated with reduced graphene oxide was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Due to the strong electrostatic attractive forces, the negatively charged surface such as the eosin Y functionalized reduced graphene oxide or bare GO can be easily coated to the positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) treated cotton yarn. The maximum current for the conductive cotton yarn coated with eosin Y functionalized RGO and bare GO with 20 cycles repetition of (5D + R) process was found to be 793.8 μA and 3482.8 μA. Our results showed that the electrical conductivity of bare GO coated conductive cotton yarn increased by approximately four orders of magnitude with the increase in the dipping cycle of (5D+R) process.

  7. Use of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy in non-destructive and rapid assessment of developmental cotton fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The knowledge of chemical and compositional components in cotton fibers is of value to cotton breeders and growers for cotton enhancement and to textile processors for quality control. In this work, we applied the previously proposed simple algorithms to analyze the attenuated total reflection Fouri...

  8. Phosphorus application to cotton enhances growth, yield, and quality characteristics on a sandy loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ranjha, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the second most limiting nutrient in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production after nitrogen. Under wheat-cotton cropping system of Pakistan most of the farmers apply P fertilizer only to wheat crop. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer P on the growth, yield and fibre quality of cotton on a sandy loam calcareous soil at farmer's field in cotton growing area of district Khanewal, Punjab. Five levels of P (0, 17, 26, 34 and 43 kg P ha /sup -1/) along with 120 kg N and 53 kg K ha/sup -1/ were applied. The response of cotton growth parameters was greater than quality components to P addition in calcareous soil. There was significant increase in the growth and yield parameters with each additional rate of P. The response of number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield was to the tune of 88.23, 16.82 and 42%, respectively at P application rate of 34 kg ha/sup -1/. Cotton quality components (lint %age, fiber length and fiber strength) improved from 2 to 5% where 43 kg P ha/sup -1/ was added. The lint and seed P concentration was little affected by P application as compared to stem and leaves showing its essentiality for cell division and development of meristematic tissue. Phosphorus use, thus not only valuable for wheat crop but also its application to cotton crop is of vital importance in improving both lint yield and quality. (author)

  9. Genetic study of various agronomic traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, F.; Khan, I.A.; Ahmed, S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of already existing genetic variability in the breeding material, as well as, the creation of new variability along with the genetic understanding of various agronomic traits is of crucial importance, in order to develop potential sources of cotton. For this purpose, 5 X 6 complete diallel cross experiment was conducted during 2003-04, involving 5 strains i.e. VH-55, MNH-516, ACALA-SJ-4, A-8100 and CRIS-420, to evaluate gene-action, general and specific combining ability for number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, plant height, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and yield of seed cotton. Additive type of gene action, with partial dominance for all the traits studied, was observed. Most dominant genes for boll weight, yield of seed-cotton, and number of sympodial branches were observed in CRIS-420, while maximum dominant genes for number of monopodial branches, plant height were observed in ACALA-SJ-4. Variety VH-55 carried maximum dominant genes for number of bolls per plant. Recessive genes for the number of sympodial branches, number of monopodial branches, plant height, number of bolls per plant and yield of seed-cotton, were exhibited by MNH-516. The variety ACAU-SJ-4 showed harmonius combination for bolls per plant and yield of seed-cotton, whereas CRIS- 420 was found a good general combiner for plant height and number of sympodial branches. (author)

  10. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emam, Hossam E.; Bechtold, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Introducing metal salt based UV-blocking properties into cotton fabric. • A quite simple technique used to produce wash resistant UV-absorbers using different Cu-, Zn- and Ti-salts. • Good UPF was obtained after treatment with Cu and Ti salts, and ranged between 11.6 and 14. • The efficiency of the deposited metal oxides is compared on molar basis. - Abstract: Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1–46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  11. An investigation and an accessment of organic cotton production and processing in developing countries (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frida; Andersen, Lasse Kragh; Looms, Majken

    1999-01-01

    as important is that the locals participate on all levels of the project, so they feel responsible for the project and are able to run it themselves when the donor withdraws from the project after some time.Our conclusion is that implementing organic cotton production and organic cotton processing in Zimbabwe...... and Mozambique is a difficult but not impossible task, but a challenging way of improving the environmental impacts of todays conventional cotton production. Completing the manufacturing of cotton in the developing countries will enhance the economy of the country and thus the living standards of the population....

  12. Simulative Global Warming Negatively Affects Cotton Fiber Length through Shortening Fiber Rapid Elongation Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanjiao; Yang, Jiashuo; Hu, Wei; Zahoor, Rizwan; Chen, Binglin; Zhao, Wenqing; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2017-08-23

    Global warming could possibly increase the air temperature by 1.8-4.0 °C in the coming decade. Cotton fiber is an essential raw material for the textile industry. Fiber length, which was found negatively related to the excessively high temperature, determines yarn quality to a great extent. To investigate the effects of global warming on cotton fiber length and its mechaism, cottons grown in artificially elevated temperature (34.6/30.5 °C, T day /T night ) and ambient temperature (31.6/27.3 °C) regions have been investigated. Becaused of the high sensitivities of enzymes V-ATPase, PEPC, and genes GhXTH1 and GhXTH2 during fiber elongation when responding to high temperature stress, the fiber rapid elongation duration (FRED) has been shortened, which led to a significant suppression on final fiber length. Through comprehensive analysis, T night had a great influence on fiber elongation, which means T n could be deemed as an ideal index for forecasting the degree of high temperature stress would happen to cotton fiber property in future. Therefore, we speculate the global warming would bring unfavorable effects on cotton fiber length, which needs to take actions in advance for minimizing the loss in cotton production.

  13. Study of Physical Properties of Nano-Silica Coated Cotton Textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sidra Saleemi; Farooq Ahmed; Samandar Malik

    2015-01-01

    This research was aimed to investigate the effect of silica sol-gel coating on air permeability, stiffness and tensile properties of dyed cotton fabric. Various concentrations of silica nanoparticles were applied on dyed cotton substrate using two different cross-linkers through sol-gel method. The homogenous sol-gel coating dispersions were prepared by using an ultrasonicator. Coated samples were tested for mechanical and comfort properties such as tensile strength, stiffness, crease recover...

  14. Mote cleaner system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  15. Combined mote system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  16. Mote trash system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  17. Cyclone robber system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  18. Master trash system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  19. Battery condenser system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study ...

  20. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...