WorldWideScience

Sample records for wild common marmosets

  1. An animal model that reflects human disease: the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L

    2012-06-01

    The common marmoset is a new world primate belonging to the Callitrichidae family weighing between 350 and 400 g. The marmoset has been shown to be an outstanding model for studying aging, reproduction, neuroscience, toxicology, and infectious disease. With regard to their susceptibility to infectious agents, they are exquisite NHP models for viral, protozoan and bacterial agents, as well as prions. The marmoset provides the advantages of a small animal model in high containment coupled with the immunological repertoire of a nonhuman primate and susceptibility to wild type, non-adapted viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital gene atlas of neonate common marmoset brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimogori, Tomomi; Abe, Ayumi; Go, Yasuhiro; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Kishi, Noriyuki; Kikuchi, Satomi S; Kita, Yoshiaki; Niimi, Kimie; Nishibe, Hirozumi; Okuno, Misako; Saga, Kanako; Sakurai, Miyano; Sato, Masae; Serizawa, Tsuna; Suzuki, Sachie; Takahashi, Eiki; Tanaka, Mami; Tatsumoto, Shoji; Toki, Mitsuhiro; U, Mami; Wang, Yan; Windak, Karl J; Yamagishi, Haruhiko; Yamashita, Keiko; Yoda, Tomoko; Yoshida, Aya C; Yoshida, Chihiro; Yoshimoto, Takuro; Okano, Hideyuki

    2018-03-01

    Interest in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a primate model animal has grown recently, in part due to the successful demonstration of transgenic marmosets. However, there is some debate as to the suitability of marmosets, compared to more widely used animal models, such as the macaque monkey and mouse. Especially, the usage of marmoset for animal models of human cognition and mental disorders, is still yet to be fully explored. To examine the prospects of the marmoset model for neuroscience research, the Marmoset Gene Atlas (https://gene-atlas.bminds.brain.riken.jp/) provides a whole brain gene expression atlas in the common marmoset. We employ in situ hybridization (ISH) to systematically analyze gene expression in neonate marmoset brains, which allows us to compare expression with other model animals such as mouse. We anticipate that these data will provide sufficient information to develop tools that enable us to reveal marmoset brain structure, function, cellular and molecular organization for primate brain research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Veterinary care and welfare management in common marmosets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Jaco

    2017-01-01

    The BPRC houses a self-sustaining breeding colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) for the purpose of conducting biomedical research. Their immunological, physiological, and genetic proximity to humans make marmosets useful as model for specific human diseases. In order to ensure reliable

  4. Brain-mapping projects using the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Hideyuki; Mitra, Partha

    2015-04-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in brain-mapping projects, including the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative project in the USA, the Human Brain Project (HBP) in Europe, and the Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS) project in Japan. These projects aim to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain. Brain/MINDS is focused on structural and functional mapping of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) brain. This non-human primate has numerous advantages for brain mapping, including a well-developed frontal cortex and a compact brain size, as well as the availability of transgenic technologies. In the present review article, we discuss strategies for structural and functional mapping of the marmoset brain and the relation of the common marmoset to other animals models. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Object permanence in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natacha; Huber, Ludwig

    2004-03-01

    A series of 9 search tasks corresponding to the Piagetian Stages 3-6 of object permanence were administered to 11 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Success rates varied strongly among tasks and marmosets, but the performances of most subjects were above chance level on the majority of tasks of visible and invisible displacements. Although up to 24 trials were administered in the tests, subjects did not improve their performance across trials. Errors were due to preferences for specific locations or boxes, simple search strategies, and attentional deficits. The performances of at least 2 subjects that achieved very high scores up to the successive invisible displacement task suggest that this species is able to represent the existence and the movements of unperceived objects. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  6. Mobbing vocalizations as a coping response in the common marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, N; Rogers, L J

    2006-02-01

    Using a non-invasive method of sampling saliva followed by assay for cortisol levels, we found that common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show a decrease in cortisol levels after seeing a snake-model stimulus that reliably elicits mobbing (tsik) calls. In fact, there was a significant positive correlation between the number of tsik vocalizations made and the magnitude of the decrease in the cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, marmosets with higher levels of cortisol prior to being exposed to the stimulus produce more tsik calls than those with lower levels of cortisol. Subsequent experiments showed that, in response to 15 min of isolation with no visual or auditory contact with conspecifics (a traditional stressor), cortisol levels increased significantly. However, playback of the mobbing calls of a familiar conspecific to individual isolated marmosets not only prevented the rise in cortisol, but also actually caused a decrease in the levels of this hormone. This suggests that the mobbing calls serve to calm the marmoset after experiencing a stressful situation. This finding results in a greater understanding as to the role of physiological responses during communication in this species and could have implications for the welfare of marmosets in captivity.

  7. Helminths of wild hybrid marmosets (Callithrix sp. living in an environment with high human activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Oliveira Tavela

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the helminth fauna in hybrid, non-native marmosets, through analysis of fecal samples. The study involved 51 marmosets (genus Callithrix from five groups living in places with levels of human impact in Viçosa-MG. The marmosets were caught using a multiple-entrance trap and were anaesthetized. Feces were collected, refrigerated and analyzed by means of the sedimentation technique (Hoffmann-Pons-Janner. Eggs and parasites were identified, but not counted. Most of the marmosets (86% were parasitized by at least one genus of helminths. Among the infected marmosets, 37% presented co-infection. The intestinal helminths comprised four different taxa: Primasubulura jacchi, Ancylostomatidae, Prosthenorchis sp. and Dilepididae.P. jacchi and Ancylostomatidae had higher prevalences (> 80% and > 40%, respectively and were found in all marmoset groups. Dilepididae species were found in almost all the groups, but only accounted for around 30% of the marmosets. Prosthenorchis sp. showed a relatively low prevalence (< 10% and was only found in one group. Although two parasites are commonly found in marmosets and other primates (P. jacchi and Prosthenorchis sp., our study is the first record for Ancylostomatidae and Dilepididae. Factors like marmosets' feeding behavior and their contact with humans and other species of nonhuman primates seem to be determinants of infection among marmosets.

  8. Evidence of Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Dystrophic Microglia in the Common Marmoset

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Callejas, Juan D.; Fuchs, Eberhard; Perez-Cruz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have recently gained popularity in biomedical research as models of aging research. Basically, they confer advantages from other non-human primates due to their shorter lifespan with onset of appearance of aging at 8 years. Old marmosets present some markers linked to neurodegeneration in the brain such as amyloid beta (Ab)142 and Ab140. However, there are no studies exploring other cellular markers associated with neurodegenerative disea...

  9. Characterization of plasma thiol redox potential in a common marmoset model of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Roede

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its short lifespan, ease of use and age-related pathologies that mirror those observed in humans, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is poised to become a standard nonhuman primate model of aging. Blood and extracellular fluid possess two major thiol-dependent redox nodes involving cysteine (Cys, cystine (CySS, glutathione (GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG. Alteration in these plasma redox nodes significantly affects cellular physiology, and oxidation of the plasma Cys/CySS redox potential (EhCySS is associated with aging and disease risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine age-related changes in plasma redox metabolites and corresponding redox potentials (Eh to further validate the marmoset as a nonhuman primate model of aging. We measured plasma thiol redox states in marmosets and used existing human data with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS to model the relationships between age and redox metabolites. A classification accuracy of 70.2% and an AUC of 0.703 were achieved using the MARS model built from the marmoset redox data to classify the human samples as young or old. These results show that common marmosets provide a useful model for thiol redox biology of aging.

  10. The behavioral context of visual displays in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Raïssa A; Overduin-de Vries, Anne M; Louwerse, Annet L; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2013-11-01

    Communication is important in social species, and may occur with the use of visual, olfactory or auditory signals. However, visual communication may be hampered in species that are arboreal have elaborate facial coloring and live in small groups. The common marmoset fits these criteria and may have limited visual communication. Nonetheless, some (contradictive) propositions concerning visual displays in the common marmoset have been made, yet quantitative data are lacking. The aim of this study was to assign a behavioral context to different visual displays using pre-post-event-analyses. Focal observations were conducted on 16 captive adult and sub-adult marmosets in three different family groups. Based on behavioral elements with an unambiguous meaning, four different behavioral contexts were distinguished: aggression, fear, affiliation, and play behavior. Visual displays concerned behavior that included facial expressions, body postures, and pilo-erection of the fur. Visual displays related to aggression, fear, and play/affiliation were consistent with the literature. We propose that the visual display "pilo-erection tip of tail" is related to fear. Individuals receiving these fear signals showed a higher rate of affiliative behavior. This study indicates that several visual displays may provide cues or signals of particular social contexts. Since the three displays of fear elicited an affiliative response, they may communicate a request of anxiety reduction or signal an external referent. Concluding, common marmosets, despite being arboreal and living in small groups, use several visual displays to communicate with conspecifics and their facial coloration may not hamper, but actually promote the visibility of visual displays. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Common marmoset embryonic stem cell can differentiate into cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Li Weizhen; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Onizuka, Takeshi; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Ohno, Yohei; Sasaki, Erika; Kimura, Kensuke; Hakuno, Daihiko

    2008-01-01

    Common marmoset monkeys have recently attracted much attention as a primate research model, and are preferred to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys due to their small bodies, easy handling and efficient breeding. We recently reported the establishment of common marmoset embryonic stem cell (CMESC) lines that could differentiate into three germ layers. Here, we report that our CMESC can also differentiate into cardiomyocytes and investigated their characteristics. After induction, FOG-2 was expressed, followed by GATA4 and Tbx20, then Nkx2.5 and Tbx5. Spontaneous beating could be detected at days 12-15. Immunofluorescent staining and ultrastructural analyses revealed that they possessed characteristics typical of functional cardiomyocytes. They showed sinus node-like action potentials, and the beating rate was augmented by isoproterenol stimulation. The BrdU incorporation assay revealed that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes retained a high proliferative potential for up to 24 weeks. We believe that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes will advance preclinical studies in cardiovascular regenerative medicine

  12. Experimental cross-species infection of common marmosets by titi monkey adenovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Yu

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV, as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses.

  13. The common marmoset monkey: avenues for exploring the prenatal, placental, and postnatal mechanisms in developmental programming of pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesche, Laren; Tardif, Suzette D; Ross, Corinna N; deMartelly, Victoria A; Ziegler, Toni; Rutherford, Julienne N

    2018-05-01

    Animal models have been critical in building evidence that the prenatal experience and intrauterine environment are capable of exerting profound and permanent effects on metabolic health through developmental programming of obesity. However, despite physiological and evolutionary similarities, nonhuman primate models are relatively rare. The common marmoset monkey ( Callithrix jacchus) is a New World monkey that has been used as a biomedical model for well more than 50 years and has recently been framed as an appropriate model for exploring early-life impacts on later health and disease. The spontaneous, multifactorial, and early-life development of obesity in the common marmoset make it a valuable research model for advancing our knowledge about the role of the prenatal and placental mechanisms involved in developmental programming of obesity. This paper provides a brief overview of obesity in the common marmoset, followed by a discussion of marmoset reproduction and placental characteristics. We then discuss the occurrence and utility of variable intrauterine environments in developmental programming in marmosets. Evidence of developmental programming of obesity will be given, and finally, we put forward future directions and innovations for including the placenta in developmental programming of obesity in the common marmoset.

  14. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as a primate model for behavioral neuroscience studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Noeline W; Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Debnath, Shubham; Mylavarapu, Ramanamurthy; Geng, Shijia; Sanchez, Justin C; Rothen, Daniel; Prasad, Abhishek

    2017-06-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been proposed as a suitable bridge between rodents and larger primates. They have been used in several types of research including auditory, vocal, visual, pharmacological and genetics studies. However, marmosets have not been used as much for behavioral studies. Here we present data from training 12 adult marmosets for behavioral neuroscience studies. We discuss the husbandry, food preferences, handling, acclimation to laboratory environments and neurosurgical techniques. In this paper, we also present a custom built "scoop" and a monkey chair suitable for training of these animals. The animals were trained for three tasks: 4 target center-out reaching task, reaching tasks that involved controlling robot actions, and touch screen task. All animals learned the center-out reaching task within 1-2 weeks whereas learning reaching tasks controlling robot actions task took several months of behavioral training where the monkeys learned to associate robot actions with food rewards. We propose the marmoset as a novel model for behavioral neuroscience research as an alternate for larger primate models. This is due to the ease of handling, quick reproduction, available neuroanatomy, sensorimotor system similar to larger primates and humans, and a lissencephalic brain that can enable implantation of microelectrode arrays relatively easier at various cortical locations compared to larger primates. All animals were able to learn behavioral tasks well and we present the marmosets as an alternate model for simple behavioral neuroscience tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exchanging grooming, but not tolerance and aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Schino, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the reciprocal exchanges of grooming, tolerance and reduced aggression in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a cooperatively breeding primate whose groups are typically characterized by uniformly high genetic relatedness and high interdependency between group members. Both partner control and partner choice processes played a role in the reciprocal exchanges of grooming. In contrast, we did not find any evidence of reciprocity between grooming and tolerance over a preferred food source or between grooming and reduced aggression. Thus, reciprocity seems to play a variable role in the exchange of cooperative behaviors in marmosets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Compensation in Abnormal Conditions of Infant Care in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Bueno, Orlando F.A.

    1987-01-01

    Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset) young receive care from mothers and fathers during early stages of development. In order to evaluate the compensatory care given by mothers when fathers were not giving their usual care, three families of marmosets, in which the fathers evidenced low levels of care from the time of the birth of the young, and two families in which the level of paternal care giving was normal were studied. In two of the low care families, and one of the normal families, the...

  17. Evidence of Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Dystrophic Microglia in the Common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Callejas, Juan D; Fuchs, Eberhard; Perez-Cruz, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) have recently gained popularity in biomedical research as models of aging research. Basically, they confer advantages from other non-human primates due to their shorter lifespan with onset of appearance of aging at 8 years. Old marmosets present some markers linked to neurodegeneration in the brain such as amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42 and Aβ 1-40 . However, there are no studies exploring other cellular markers associated with neurodegenerative diseases in this non-human primate. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed brains of male adolescent, adult, old, and aged marmosets. We observed accumulation of Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 in the cortex of aged subjects. Tau hyperphosphorylation was already detected in the brain of adolescent animals and increased with aging in a more fibrillary form. Microglia activation was also observed in the aging process, while a dystrophic phenotype accumulates in aged subjects. Interestingly, dystrophic microglia contained hyperphosphorylated tau, but active microglia did not. These results support previous findings regarding microglia dysfunctionality in aging and neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's disease. Further studies should explore the functional consequences of these findings to position this non-human primate as animal model of aging and neurodegeneration.

  18. A combined histological and MRI brain atlas of the common marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John D; Kenkel, William M; Aronoff, Emily C; Bock, Nicholas A; Zametkin, Molly R; Silva, Afonso C

    2009-12-11

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is of growing importance for research in neuroscience and related fields. In the present work, we describe a combined histological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brains of two adult female marmosets. Histological sections were processed from Nissl staining and digitized to produce an atlas in a large format that facilitates visualization of structures with significant detail. Naming of identifiable brain structures was performed utilizing current terminology. The histological sections and a simplified schematic atlas are available online at http://udn.nichd.nih.gov/brainatlas_home.html.

  19. Colonization of collagen scaffolds by adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells of the common marmoset monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernemann, Inga; Mueller, Thomas; Blasczyk, Rainer; Glasmacher, Birgit; Hofmann, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiate in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. → Marmoset MSCs integrate in collagen type I scaffolds and differentiate excellently into adipogenic cells. → Common marmoset monkey is a suitable model for soft tissue engineering in human regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: In regenerative medicine, human cell replacement therapy offers great potential, especially by cell types differentiated from immunologically and ethically unproblematic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In terms of an appropriate carrier material, collagen scaffolds with homogeneous pore size of 65 μm were optimal for cell seeding and cultivating. However, before clinical application and transplantation of MSC-derived cells in scaffolds, the safety and efficiency, but also possible interference in differentiation due to the material must be preclinically tested. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a preferable non-human primate animal model for this aim due to its genetic and physiological similarities to the human. Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs were successfully isolated, cultured and differentiated in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages by defined factors. The differentiation capability could be determined by FACS. Specific marker genes for all three cell types could be detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, MSCs seeded on collagen I scaffolds differentiated in adipogenic lineage showed after 28 days of differentiation high cell viability and homogenous distribution on the material which was validated by calcein AM and EthD staining. As proof of adipogenic cells, the intracellular lipid vesicles in the cells were stained with Oil Red O. The generation of fat vacuoles was visibly extensive distinguishable and furthermore determined on the molecular level by expression of specific marker genes. The results of the study proved both the differential potential of marmoset

  20. Colonization of collagen scaffolds by adipocytes derived from mesenchymal stem cells of the common marmoset monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernemann, Inga, E-mail: bernemann@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Mueller, Thomas; Blasczyk, Rainer [Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Glasmacher, Birgit; Hofmann, Nicola [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiate in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. {yields} Marmoset MSCs integrate in collagen type I scaffolds and differentiate excellently into adipogenic cells. {yields} Common marmoset monkey is a suitable model for soft tissue engineering in human regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: In regenerative medicine, human cell replacement therapy offers great potential, especially by cell types differentiated from immunologically and ethically unproblematic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In terms of an appropriate carrier material, collagen scaffolds with homogeneous pore size of 65 {mu}m were optimal for cell seeding and cultivating. However, before clinical application and transplantation of MSC-derived cells in scaffolds, the safety and efficiency, but also possible interference in differentiation due to the material must be preclinically tested. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) is a preferable non-human primate animal model for this aim due to its genetic and physiological similarities to the human. Marmoset bone marrow-derived MSCs were successfully isolated, cultured and differentiated in suspension into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages by defined factors. The differentiation capability could be determined by FACS. Specific marker genes for all three cell types could be detected by RT-PCR. Furthermore, MSCs seeded on collagen I scaffolds differentiated in adipogenic lineage showed after 28 days of differentiation high cell viability and homogenous distribution on the material which was validated by calcein AM and EthD staining. As proof of adipogenic cells, the intracellular lipid vesicles in the cells were stained with Oil Red O. The generation of fat vacuoles was visibly extensive distinguishable and furthermore determined on the molecular level by expression of specific marker genes. The results of the study proved both the differential

  1. Use of the common marmoset to study Burkholderia mallei infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jelesijevic

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted bacterium that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir. The organism causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by B. mallei typically occurs via the respiratory or percutaneous route, and the most common manifestations are life-threatening pneumonia and bacteremia. Glanders is difficult to diagnose and requires prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There is no vaccine to protect against B. mallei and there is concern regarding its use as a biothreat agent. Thus, experiments were performed to establish a non-human primate model of intranasal infection to study the organism and develop countermeasures. Groups of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus were inoculated intranasally with B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and monitored for clinical signs of illness for up to 13 days. We discovered that 83% of marmosets inoculated with doses of 2.5 X 10(4 to 2.5 X 10(5 bacteria developed acute lethal infection within 3-4 days. Signs of disease were severe and included lethargy, inappetence, conjunctivitis, mucopurulent and hemorrhagic nasal discharges, and increased respiratory effort with abdominal lifts. Burkholderia mallei was cultured from the lungs, spleen and liver of these animals, and pathologic examination of tissues revealed lesions characteristic of glanders. Challenge experiments also revealed that 91% of animals infected with doses ranging from 25 to 2.5 X 10(3 bacteria exhibited mild non-specific signs of illness and were culture negative. One marmoset inoculated with 2.5 X 10(3 organisms developed moderate signs of disease and reached humane end-points 8 days post-infection. The liver and spleen of this animal were colonized with the agent and pathological analysis of tissues showed nasal, splenic and hepatic lesions. Taken together, these data indicate that the marmoset is a suitable model to study respiratory infection by B

  2. Stereo Navi 2.0: software for stereotaxic surgery of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuno, Hironobu; Tanaka, Ikuko; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Nakamura, Yasuhisa

    2009-11-01

    Recently, we reported our web-accessible digital brain atlas of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) at http://marmoset-brain.org:2008. Using digital images obtained during construction of this website, we developed stand-alone software for navigation of electrodes or injection needles for stereotaxic electrophysiological or anatomical experiments in vivo. This software enables us to draw lines on exchangeable section images, measure the length and angle of lines, superimpose a stereotaxic reference grid on the image, and send the image to the system clipboard. The software, Stereo Navi 2.0, is freely available at our brain atlas website.

  3. Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Reed F., E-mail: johnsonreed@mail.nih.gov [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Via, Laura E. [Tuberculosis Research Section, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kumar, Mia R.; Cornish, Joseph P. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Yellayi, Srikanth; Huzella, Louis; Postnikova, Elena; Oberlander, Nicholas; Bartos, Christopher; Ork, Britini L.; Mazur, Steven; Allan, Cindy; Holbrook, Michael R. [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Solomon, Jeffrey [Center for Infectious Disease Imaging, Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Johnson, Joshua C. [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Pickel, James [Transgenic Core Facility, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hensley, Lisa E. [Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Jahrling, Peter B. [Emerging Viral Pathogens Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States); Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to be a threat to human health in the Middle East. Development of countermeasures is ongoing; however, an animal model that faithfully recapitulates human disease has yet to be defined. A recent study indicated that inoculation of common marmosets resulted in inconsistent lethality. Based on these data we sought to compare two isolates of MERS-CoV. We followed disease progression in common marmosets after intratracheal exposure with: MERS-CoV-EMC/2012, MERS-CoV-Jordan-n3/2012, media, or inactivated virus. Our data suggest that common marmosets developed a mild to moderate non-lethal respiratory disease, which was quantifiable by computed tomography (CT), with limited other clinical signs. Based on CT data, clinical data, and virological data, MERS-CoV inoculation of common marmosets results in mild to moderate clinical signs of disease that are likely due to manipulations of the marmoset rather than as a result of robust viral replication. - Highlights: • Common marmosets infected with MERS-EMC and MERS-JOR did not develop lethal disease. • Infected subjects developed transient signs of clinical disease. • CT indicated few differences between the infected and control groups. • Marmosets do not faithfully replicate human MERS pathogenesis.

  4. Intratracheal exposure of common marmosets to MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 or MERS-CoV EMC/2012 isolates does not result in lethal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Reed F.; Via, Laura E.; Kumar, Mia R.; Cornish, Joseph P.; Yellayi, Srikanth; Huzella, Louis; Postnikova, Elena; Oberlander, Nicholas; Bartos, Christopher; Ork, Britini L.; Mazur, Steven; Allan, Cindy; Holbrook, Michael R.; Solomon, Jeffrey; Johnson, Joshua C.; Pickel, James; Hensley, Lisa E.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to be a threat to human health in the Middle East. Development of countermeasures is ongoing; however, an animal model that faithfully recapitulates human disease has yet to be defined. A recent study indicated that inoculation of common marmosets resulted in inconsistent lethality. Based on these data we sought to compare two isolates of MERS-CoV. We followed disease progression in common marmosets after intratracheal exposure with: MERS-CoV-EMC/2012, MERS-CoV-Jordan-n3/2012, media, or inactivated virus. Our data suggest that common marmosets developed a mild to moderate non-lethal respiratory disease, which was quantifiable by computed tomography (CT), with limited other clinical signs. Based on CT data, clinical data, and virological data, MERS-CoV inoculation of common marmosets results in mild to moderate clinical signs of disease that are likely due to manipulations of the marmoset rather than as a result of robust viral replication. - Highlights: • Common marmosets infected with MERS-EMC and MERS-JOR did not develop lethal disease. • Infected subjects developed transient signs of clinical disease. • CT indicated few differences between the infected and control groups. • Marmosets do not faithfully replicate human MERS pathogenesis.

  5. An observational investigation of behavioural contagion in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus: indications for contagious scent-marking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J.M. Massen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioural contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing and scent-marking. We coded these behaviours from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-minute observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday and afternoon to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns / hour and very little stretching behaviour. For all other behaviours, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, that almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviours in marmosets.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and common marmosets in preclinical studies for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-12-23

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Old World Monkeys) and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, New World Monkeys) have been widely, and expectedly, used as non-human primate models in drug development studies. Major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes information is now available that supports these primate species as animal models, and it is established that multiple forms of cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes have generally similar substrate recognition functionality to human P450 enzymes. This research update provides information on genetic polymorphisms of P450 enzymes in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset like human P450 enzymes. Information on rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), another macaque species used in drug metabolism studies, is also included for comparison. Among a variety of cynomolgus monkey P450 variants investigated, typical examples include individual pharmacokinetic data for efavirenz and R-warfarin associated with cynomolgus monkey P450 2C9 (formerly 2C43) and 2C19 (2C75) variants, respectively, and for R-omeprazole and S-warfarin associated with marmoset P450 2C19 variants. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the individual pharmacokinetic and toxicological results in non-human primates as preclinical models and will help to further support understanding of molecular mechanisms of human P450 function. In addition to these polymorphic P450 enzymes, effects of aging on some drug clearances mediated by cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes were found in elder animals or animals pretreated with rifampicin. This review describes genetic and acquired individual differences in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes involved in drug oxidation associated with pharmacological and/or toxicological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Overview of Models, Methods, and Reagents Developed for Translational Autoimmunity Research in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L.A.; Bauer, Jan; Hart, Bert A. ‘t; Kap, Yolanda S.

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established in marmosets has proven their value for exploratory research into (etio) pathogenic mechanisms and for the evaluation of new therapies that cannot be tested in lower species because of t...

  8. Dietary supplementation with hybrid palm oil alters liver function in the common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Flavia; Sales, Rafael Carvalho; Gil-Zamorano, Judit; Medeiros, Priscylla da Costa; Latasa, Maria-Jesús; Lima, Monique Ribeiro; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Martin-Hernández, Roberto; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Iglesias-Gutierrez, Eduardo; Mantilla-Escalante, Diana C; das Graças Tavares do Carmo, Maria; Dávalos, Alberto

    2018-02-09

    Hybrid palm oil, which contains higher levels of oleic acid and lower saturated fatty acids in comparison with African palm oil, has been proposed to be somehow equivalent to extra virgin olive oil. However, the biological effects of its consumption are poorly described. Here we have explored the effects of its overconsumption on lipid metabolism in a non-human primate model, the common marmoset. Dietary supplementation of marmoset with hyperlipidic diet containing hybrid palm oil for 3 months did not modify plasma lipids levels, but increased glucose levels as compared to the supplementation with African palm oil. Liver volume was unexpectedly found to be more increased in marmosets consuming hybrid palm oil than in those consuming African palm oil. Hepatic total lipid content and circulating transaminases were dramatically increased in animals consuming hybrid palm oil, as well as an increased degree of fibrosis. Analysis of liver miRNAs showed a selective modulation of certain miRNAs by hybrid palm oil, some of which were predicted to target genes involved in cell adhesion molecules and peroxisomal pathways. Our data suggest that consumption of hybrid palm oil should be monitored carefully, as its overconsumption compared to that of African palm oil could involve important alterations to hepatic metabolism.

  9. A Method to Train Marmosets in Visual Working Memory Task and Their Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuki; Koba, Reiko; Miwa, Miki; Yamaguchi, Chieko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Takemoto, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Learning and memory processes are similarly organized in humans and monkeys; therefore, monkeys can be ideal models for analyzing human aging processes and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. With the development of novel gene modification methods, common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) have been suggested as an animal model for neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, the common marmoset's lifespan is relatively short, which makes it a practical animal model for aging. Working memory deficits are a prominent symptom of both dementia and aging, but no data are currently available for visual working memory in common marmosets. The delayed matching-to-sample task is a powerful tool for evaluating visual working memory in humans and monkeys; therefore, we developed a novel procedure for training common marmosets in such a task. Using visual discrimination and reversal tasks to direct the marmosets' attention to the physical properties of visual stimuli, we successfully trained 11 out of 13 marmosets in the initial stage of the delayed matching-to-sample task and provided the first available data on visual working memory in common marmosets. We found that the marmosets required many trials to initially learn the task (median: 1316 trials), but once the task was learned, the animals needed fewer trials to learn the task with novel stimuli (476 trials or fewer, with the exception of one marmoset). The marmosets could retain visual information for up to 16 s. Our novel training procedure could enable us to use the common marmoset as a useful non-human primate model for studying visual working memory deficits in neurodegenerative diseases and aging.

  10. Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH)- and Aromatic-L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC)-Immunoreactive Neurons of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) Brain: An Immunohistochemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Motoharu; Yamada, Keiki; Nagatsu, Ikuko; Iwasa, Mineo; Takeuchi, Terumi; Uematsu, Mitsutoshi; Watanabe, Kazuko; Onozuka, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    From the perspective of comparative morphology, the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was investigated using an immunohistochemical method with specific antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). TH-immunoreactive (IR) neurons (but not AADC-IR) neurons were observed in the olfactory tubercle, preoptic suprachiasmatic nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, arcuate nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray matter, medial longitudinal fasciculus, substantia nigra, and nucleus solitaris. In contrast, AADC-IR (but not TH-IR), small, oval and spindle-shaped neurons were sparsely distributed in the following areas: the hypothalamus from the anterior nucleus to the lateral nucleus, the dorsomedial nucleus, the dorsomedial area of the medial mammillary nucleus and the arcuate nucleus; the midbrain, including the stria medullaris and substantia nigra; and the medulla oblongata, including the dorsal area of the nucleus solitaris and the medullary reticular nucleus. The distribution of AADC-IR neurons was not as extensive in the marmoset as it is in rats. However, these neurons were located in the marmoset, but not the rat substantia nigra. Furthermore, AADC-IR neurons that are present in the human striatum were absent in that of the marmoset. The present results indicate that the distribution of non-monoaminergic neurons in the brain of the common marmoset is unique and different from that in humans and rodents. PMID:17653300

  11. Characterization and pathogenesis of aerosolized eastern equine encephalitis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Aimee I; Erwin-Cohen, Rebecca A; Twenhafel, Nancy; Chance, Taylor; Yee, Steven B; Kern, Steven J; Norwood, David; Hartman, Laurie J; Parker, Michael D; Glass, Pamela J; DaSilva, Luis

    2017-02-07

    Licensed antiviral therapeutics and vaccines to protect against eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in humans currently do not exist. Animal models that faithfully recapitulate the clinical characteristics of human EEEV encephalitic disease, including fever, drowsiness, anorexia, and neurological signs such as seizures, are needed to satisfy requirements of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical product licensing under the Animal Rule. In an effort to meet this requirement, we estimated the median lethal dose and described the pathogenesis of aerosolized EEEV in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Five marmosets were exposed to aerosolized EEEV FL93-939 in doses ranging from 2.4 × 10 1 PFU to 7.95 × 10 5 PFU. The median lethal dose was estimated to be 2.05 × 10 2 PFU. Lethality was observed as early as day 4 post-exposure in the highest-dosed marmoset but animals at lower inhaled doses had a protracted disease course where humane study endpoint was not met until as late as day 19 post-exposure. Clinical signs were observed as early as 3 to 4 days post-exposure, including fever, ruffled fur, decreased grooming, and leukocytosis. Clinical signs increased in severity as disease progressed to include decreased body weight, subdued behavior, tremors, and lack of balance. Fever was observed as early as day 2-3 post-exposure in the highest dose groups and hypothermia was observed in several cases as animals became moribund. Infectious virus was found in several key tissues, including brain, liver, kidney, and several lymph nodes. Clinical hematology results included early neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Key pathological changes included meningoencephalitis and retinitis. Immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen was positive in the brain, retina, and lymph nodes. More intense and widespread IHC labeling occurred with increased aerosol dose. We have estimated the medial lethal dose of aerosolized EEEV and

  12. Representation of Glossy Material Surface in Ventral Superior Temporal Sulcal Area of Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Banno, Taku; Abe, Hiroshi; Tani, Toshiki; Suzuki, Wataru; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2017-01-01

    The common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) is one of the smallest species of primates, with high visual recognition abilities that allow them to judge the identity and quality of food and objects in their environment. To address the cortical processing of visual information related to material surface features in marmosets, we presented a set of stimuli that have identical three-dimensional shapes (bone, torus or amorphous) but different material appearances (ceramic, glass, fur, leather, metal, stone, wood, or matte) to anesthetized marmoset, and recorded multiunit activities from an area ventral to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) using multi-shanked, and depth resolved multi-electrode array. Out of 143 visually responsive multiunits recorded from four animals, 29% had significant main effect only of the material, 3% only of the shape and 43% of both the material and the shape. Furthermore, we found neuronal cluster(s), in which most cells: (1) showed a significant main effect in material appearance; (2) the best stimulus was a glossy material (glass or metal); and (3) had reduced response to the pixel-shuffled version of the glossy material images. The location of the gloss-selective area was in agreement with previous macaque studies, showing activation in the ventral bank of STS. Our results suggest that perception of gloss is an important ability preserved across wide range of primate species.

  13. Quality of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) oocytes collected after ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Akifumi; Nobukiyo, Asako; Yoshioka, Miyuki; Hatakeyama, Teruhiko; Sotomaru, Yusuke

    2018-01-15

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is an experimental animal that is considered suitable for the creation of next-generation human disease models. It has recently been used in the reproductive technology field. Oocytes can be effectively collected from female marmosets via ovarian stimulation with injections of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The oocytes, collected about 28 h after the hCG injection, include both premature oocytes and postmature (in vivo matured; IVO) oocytes, and the premature oocytes can be matured by in vitro culture (in vitro matured; IVM). Although IVM and IVO oocytes are equivalent in appearance at the MII stage, it remains unclear whether there are differences in their properties. Therefore, we investigated their in vitro fertilization and developmental capacities and cytoskeletal statuses. Our findings revealed that the IVM and IVO oocytes had similar fertilization rates but that no IVO oocytes could develop to the blastocyst stage. Additionally, IVO oocytes showed abnormal cytoskeletal formation. It is concluded that IVM oocytes maintain normal function, whereas IVO oocytes would be affected by aging and other factors when they remain for a long time in the ovary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social mobbing calls in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): effects of experience and associated cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Elena; Tommasi, Luca; Rogers, Lesley J

    2008-04-01

    We compared the mobbing response to model snakes of two groups of captive-born common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) differing in genetic relatedness, age and past experience. Mobbing vocalisations (tsik calls), other mobbing behaviour and attention to the stimulus were recorded for 2 min. intervals pre-exposure, during exposure to various stimuli and post-exposure. Marmosets in one group were vocally reactive to all stimuli, although more so to one particular stimulus resembling rearing snakes and modified images of it, whereas the marmosets in a younger and genetically unrelated group attended to the stimuli but made very few mobbing calls. The parent stock of the first group had suffered stress in early life and had developed a phobic response to a specific stimulus, which they had transmitted to their offspring. A third group, matching the older group in age range but genetically unrelated, was also found to be unresponsive to the stimulus that elicited the strongest response in the first group. Cortisol levels in samples of hair were assayed and a significant negative correlation was found between the number of tsik calls made during presentation of the stimuli and the cortisol level, showing that mobbing behaviour/behavioural reactivity is associated with low levels of physiological stress.

  15. Touchscreen assays of learning, response inhibition, and motivation in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Brian D; Bergman, Jack; Coyle, Joseph T

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in precision gene editing have led to the emergence of the marmoset as an experimental subject of considerable interest and translational value. A better understanding of behavioral phenotypes of the common marmoset will inform the extent to which forthcoming transgenic mutants are cognitively intact. Therefore, additional information regarding their learning, inhibitory control, and motivational abilities is needed. The present studies used touchscreen-based repeated acquisition and discrimination reversal tasks to examine basic dimensions of learning and response inhibition. Marmosets were trained daily to respond to one of the two simultaneously presented novel stimuli. Subjects learned to discriminate the two stimuli (acquisition) and, subsequently, with the contingencies switched (reversal). In addition, progressive ratio performance was used to measure the effort expended to obtain a highly palatable reinforcer varying in magnitude and, thereby, provide an index of relative motivational value. Results indicate that rates of both acquisition and reversal of novel discriminations increased across successive sessions, but that rate of reversal learning remained slower than acquisition learning, i.e., more trials were needed for mastery. A positive correlation was observed between progressive ratio break point and reinforcement magnitude. These results closely replicate previous findings with squirrel monkeys, thus providing evidence of similarity in learning processes across nonhuman primate species. Moreover, these data provide key information about the normative phenotype of wild-type marmosets using three relevant behavioral endpoints.

  16. An Overview of Models, Methods, and Reagents Developed for Translational Autoimmunity Research in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L. A.; Bauer, Jan; 't Hart, Bert A.; Kap, Yolanda S.

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established

  17. An overview of models, methods, and reagents developed for translational autoimmunity research in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Jagessar (Anwar); M.P.M. Vierboom (Michel); E. Blezer (Erwin); J. Bauer; B.A. 't Hart (Bert); Y.S. Kap (Yolanda)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS

  18. Pathological and parasitological characterization of Prosthenorchis elegans in a free-ranging marmoset Callithrix geofroyi from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayisa R. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Prosthenorchis elegans is an acanthocephalan intestinal parasite reported in neotropical primates. Despite parasitism by P. elegans having already been described in wild marmosets in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, there are no reports of this infection in wild Geoffroy’s marmoset (Callithrix geofroyi. The aim of this study is to report one case of P. elegans parasitism in a free-ranging C. geoffroyi from Brazilian Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo state, and characterize the pathological and parasitological findings of this infection. One Geoffroy’s marmoset necropsied at the Vila Velha University’s Veterinary Pathology Laboratory presented intense chronic transmural ulcerative enteritis associated with twenty cylindrical helminths present in the jejunum and ileum. We can conclude that parasitism by P. elegans occurs in free-ranging groups of Geoffroy’s marmosets. Its infection produced severe intestinal lesions even in free-ranging marmoset and therefore is a threat to this animal’s survival in wildlife and can have some impact on primate conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

  19. Unusual case of metabolic bone disease in a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, J.M.; Sainsbury, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    Metabolic bone disease was diagnosed in an 11-month-old female common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). It was depressed, reluctant to move, and was cachectic and small for its age. Laboratory findings included anaemia, azotaemia and an inverse calcium to phosphorus ratio. The radiological findings showed simultaneous signs of osteomalacia and soft-tissue calcification. There was decreased bone density with lytic areas in the pelvis and femur, and severe bilateral nephrocalcinosis. Postmortem examination revealed marked focal dystrophic calcification of the epi- and myocardium. Calcium and vitamin D3 deficiency (nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism) was the most likely cause of the osteomalacia

  20. Quantification of hair cortisol concentration in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kimberley A; Tukan, Alyson N; Rigodanzo, Anna D; Reusch, Ryan T; Brasky, Kathleen M; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2018-06-04

    Quantifying cortisol concentration in hair is a non-invasive biomarker of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, and thus can provide important information on laboratory animal health. Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and capuchins (Cebus apella) are New World primates increasingly used in biomedical and neuroscience research, yet published hair cortisol concentrations for these species are limited. Review of the existing published hair cortisol values from marmosets reveals highly discrepant values and the use of variable techniques for hair collection, processing, and cortisol extraction. In this investigation we utilized a well-established, standardized protocol to extract and quantify cortisol from marmoset (n = 12) and capuchin (n = 4) hair. Shaved hair samples were collected from the upper thigh during scheduled exams and analyzed via methanol extraction and enzyme immunoassay. In marmosets, hair cortisol concentration ranged from 2,710 to 6,267 pg/mg and averaged 4,070 ± 304 pg/mg. In capuchins, hair cortisol concentration ranged from 621 to 2,089 pg/mg and averaged 1,092 ± 338 pg/mg. Hair cortisol concentration was significantly different between marmosets and capuchins, with marmosets having higher concentrations than capuchins. The incorporation of hair cortisol analysis into research protocols provides a non-invasive measure of HPA axis activity over time, which offers insight into animal health. Utilization of standard protocols across laboratories is essential to obtaining valid measurements and allowing for valuable future cross-species comparisons. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Abundant Occurrence of Basal Radial Glia in the Subventricular Zone of Embryonic Neocortex of a Lissencephalic Primate, the Common Marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelava, Iva; Reillo, Isabel; Murayama, Ayako Y.; Kalinka, Alex T.; Stenzel, Denise; Tomancak, Pavel; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Lebrand, Cécile; Sasaki, Erika; Schwamborn, Jens C.; Okano, Hideyuki; Borrell, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors are a hallmark of the developing neocortex. Recent studies described a novel type of SVZ progenitor that retains a basal process at mitosis, sustains expression of radial glial markers, and is capable of self-renewal. These progenitors, referred to here as basal radial glia (bRG), occur at high relative abundance in the SVZ of gyrencephalic primates (human) and nonprimates (ferret) but not lissencephalic rodents (mouse). Here, we analyzed the occurrence of bRG cells in the embryonic neocortex of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus, a near-lissencephalic primate. bRG cells, expressing Pax6, Sox2 (but not Tbr2), glutamate aspartate transporter, and glial fibrillary acidic protein and retaining a basal process at mitosis, occur at similar relative abundance in the marmoset SVZ as in human and ferret. The proportion of progenitors in M-phase was lower in embryonic marmoset than developing ferret neocortex, raising the possibility of a longer cell cycle. Fitting the gyrification indices of 26 anthropoid species to an evolutionary model suggested that the marmoset evolved from a gyrencephalic ancestor. Our results suggest that a high relative abundance of bRG cells may be necessary, but is not sufficient, for gyrencephaly and that the marmoset's lissencephaly evolved secondarily by changing progenitor parameters other than progenitor type. PMID:22114084

  2. Marmosets: A Neuroscientific Model of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiwald, Winrich A; Leopold, David A; Mitchell, Jude F; Silva, Afonso C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. Much of this excitement has centered on the species’ reproductive biology and compatibility with gene editing techniques, which together have provided a path for transgenic marmosets to contribute to the study of disease as well as basic brain mechanisms. In step with technical advances is the need to establish experimental paradigms that optimally tap into the marmosets’ behavioral and cognitive capacities. While conditioned task performance of a marmoset can compare unfavorably with rhesus monkey performance on conventional testing paradigms, marmosets’ social cognition and communication are more similar to that of humans. For example, marmosets are amongst only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes. In this review, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans. These approaches generally embrace natural behavior and communication, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and communication. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in nearly all neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27100195

  3. Infection of Common Marmosets with GB Virus B Chimeric Virus Encoding the Major Nonstructural Proteins NS2 to NS4A of Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaomei; Li, Tingting; Liu, Bochao; Xu, Yuxia; Sun, Yachun; Wang, Yilin; Wang, Yuanzhan; Shuai, Lifang; Chen, Zixuan; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2016-09-15

    A lack of immunocompetent-small-primate models has been an obstacle for developing hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccines and affordable antiviral drugs. In this study, HCV/GB virus B (GBV-B) chimeric virus carrying the major nonstructural proteins NS2 to NS4A (HCV NS2 to -4A chimera) was produced and used to infect common marmosets, since HCV NS2 to NS4A proteins are critical proteases and major antigens. Seven marmosets were inoculated intrahepatically with HCV NS2 to -4A chimera RNA for primary infection or intravenously injected with chimera-containing serum for passage infection. Three animals used as controls were injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or GBV-B, respectively. Six of seven HCV NS2 to -4A chimera-infected marmosets exhibited consistent viremia and one showed transient viremia during the course of follow-up detection. All six infected animals with persistent circulating viremia presented characteristics typical of viral hepatitis, including viral RNA and proteins in hepatocytes and histopathological changes in liver tissue. Viremia was consistently detected for 5 to 54 weeks of follow-up. FK506 immunosuppression facilitated the establishment of persistent chimera infection in marmosets. An animal with chimera infection spontaneously cleared the virus in blood 7 weeks following the first inoculation, but viral-RNA persistence, low-level viral protein, and mild necroinflammation remained in liver tissue. The specific antibody and T-cell response to HCV NS3 in this viremia-resolved marmoset was boosted by rechallenging, but no viremia was detected during 57 weeks of follow-up. The chimera-infected marmosets described can be used as a suitable small-primate animal model for studying novel antiviral drugs and T-cell-based vaccines against HCV infection. HCV infection causes approximately 70% of chronic hepatitis and is frequently associated with primary liver cancer globally. Chimpanzees have been used as a reliable primate model for HCV infection

  4. Effects of beta-blockers and nicardipine on oxotremorine-induced tremor in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuda, M; Nomoto, M; Iwata, S

    1999-10-01

    Effects of beta-blockers (propranolol, arotinolol and nipradilol) and a Ca2+ channel blocker (nicardipine) on oxotremorine-induced tremor were studied in common marmosets. Generalized tremor was elicited by an intraperitoneal administration of 0.25 mg/kg oxotremorine. Intensity of the tremor was classified into 7 degrees, and it was evaluated every 10 min. The total intensity of oxotremorine-induced tremor for each drug was expressed as "points", which were the sum of tremor intensity scores evaluated every 10 min up to 190 min following the administration of oxotremorine. Beta-blockers significantly suppressed the tremor. On the other hand, the Ca2+ channel blocker exacerbated the tremor.

  5. Individual Differences in Gambling Proneness among Rats and Common Marmosets: An Automated Choice Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Zoratto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest is rising for animal modeling of pathological gambling. Using the operant probabilistic-delivery task (PDT, gambling proneness can be evaluated in laboratory animals. Drawing a comparison with rats, this study evaluated the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus using a PDT. By nose- or hand-poking, subjects learnt to prefer a large (LLL, 5-6 pellets over a small (SS, 1-2 pellets reward and, subsequently, the probability of occurrence of large-reward delivery was decreased progressively to very low levels (from 100% to 17% and 14%. As probability decreased, subjects showed a great versus little shift in preference from LLL to SS reinforcer. Hence, two distinct subpopulations (“non-gambler” versus “gambler” were differentiated within each species. A proof of the model validity comes from marmosets’ reaction to reward-delivery omission. Namely, depending on individual temperament (“gambler” versus “non-gambler”, they showed either persistence (i.e., inadequate pokes towards LLL or restlessness (i.e., inadequate pokes towards SS, respectively. In conclusion, the marmoset could be a suitable model for preclinical gambling studies. Implementation of the PDT to species other than rats may be relevant for determining its external validity/generalizability and improving its face/construct validity.

  6. Object permanence in adult common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): not everything is an "A-not-B" error that seems to be one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a behaviour pattern similar to the "A-not-B" error found in human infants and young apes in a monkey species, the common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). In contrast to the classical explanation, recently it has been suggested that the "A-not-B" error committed by human infants is at least partially due to misinterpretation of the hider's ostensively communicated object hiding actions as potential 'teaching' demonstrations during the A trials. We tested whether this so-called Natural Pedagogy hypothesis would account for the A-not-B error that marmosets commit in a standard object permanence task, but found no support for the hypothesis in this species. Alternatively, we present evidence that lower level mechanisms, such as attention and motivation, play an important role in committing the "A-not-B" error in marmosets. We argue that these simple mechanisms might contribute to the effect of undeveloped object representational skills in other species including young non-human primates that commit the A-not-B error.

  7. Consistent inter-individual differences in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in Boldness-Shyness, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gunhold-de Oliveira, Tina; Tadić, Zoran; Massen, Jorg J M; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The study of animal personality, defined as consistent inter-individual differences in correlated behavioral traits stable throughout time and/or contexts, has recently become one of the fastest growing areas in animal biology, with study species ranging from insects to non-human primates. The latter have, however, only occasionally been tested with standardized experiments. Instead their personality has usually been assessed using questionnaires. Therefore, this study aimed to test 21 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in three family groups, in five different experiments, and their corresponding controls. We found that behavioral differences between our animals were not only consistent over time, but also across different contexts. Moreover, the consistent behaviors formed a construct of four major non-social personality components: Boldness-Shyness in Foraging, Boldness-Shyness in Predation, Stress-Activity, and Exploration-Avoidance. We found no sex or age differences in these components, but our results did reveal differences in Exploration-Avoidance between the three family groups. As social environment can have a large influence on behavior of individuals, our results may suggest group-level similarity in personality (i.e., "group personality") in common marmosets, a species living in highly cohesive social groups. Am. J. Primatol. 78:961-973, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Marmosets as model species in neuroscience and evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith M; Finkenwirth, Christa

    2015-04-01

    Marmosets are increasingly used as model species by both neuroscientists and evolutionary anthropologists, but with a different rationale for doing so. Whereas neuroscientists stress that marmosets share many cognitive traits with humans due to common descent, anthropologists stress those traits shared with marmosets - and callitrichid monkeys in general - due to convergent evolution, as a consequence of the cooperative breeding system that characterizes both humans and callitrichids. Similarities in socio-cognitive abilities due to convergence, rather than homology, raise the question whether these similarities also extend to the proximate regulatory mechanisms, which is particularly relevant for neuroscientific investigations. In this review, we first provide an overview of the convergent adaptations to cooperative breeding at the psychological and cognitive level in primates, which bear important implications for our understanding of human cognitive evolution. In the second part, we zoom in on two of these convergent adaptations, proactive prosociality and social learning, and compare their proximate regulation in marmosets and humans with regard to oxytocin and cognitive top down regulation. Our analysis suggests considerable similarity in these regulatory mechanisms presumably because the convergent traits emerged due to small motivational changes that define how pre-existing cognitive mechanisms are quantitatively combined. This finding reconciles the prima facie contradictory rationale for using marmosets as high priority model species in neuroscience and anthropology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of alternative plant resources by common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in the semi-arid caatinga scrub forests of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amora, Tacyana Duarte; Beltrão-Mendes, Raone; Ferrari, Stephen F

    2013-04-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is amply distributed in the Brazilian Northeast, but little is known of its ecology in the semi-arid Caatinga scrublands. The present study provides the first detailed data on the composition of the diet of C. jacchus in Caatinga ecosystems, derived from observations at four sites in the state of Sergipe. While exudate sources were gouged at all four sites in a manner typical of the species, fruit was the principal component of the diet at the main study site during most months, and a number of unusual items were eaten, including leaves, and the reproductive parts of cacti and bromeliads. These plants are rarely recorded in marmoset diets, but are common in caatinga habitats. Leaves were ingested during 5 of the 8 months monitored at the main study site, reaching 39.74% of the diet in 1 month, and appeared to be an alternative fallback food to plant exudates during periods when fruit was scarce. Three species of cactus provided both flowers and fruits, while the terrestrial bromeliad, Encholirium spectabile, provided nectar (30.81% of the diet in November). Approximately half of the plant species (and three families) identified in this study had not been recorded previously in the diet of Callithrix. Overall, the data suggest that, while the marmosets exploit the same types of plant foods in the Caatinga, the resource base is quite distinct from that of the Atlantic Forest. Other differences, such as relatively small groups and large home ranges, may contribute to divergent ecological patterns, which require more systematic investigation. Am. J. Primatol. 75:333-341, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dynamics of Pathological and Virological Findings During Experimental Calpox Virus Infection of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schmitt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intranasal infection of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus with calpox virus results in fatal disease. Route and dose used for viral inoculation of the test animals mimics the natural transmission of smallpox, thus representing a suitable model to study pathogenesis and to evaluate new vaccines against orthopoxvirus infection. However, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to death are still unclear. Therefore, our study aimed at investigating the kinetics of pathological alterations to clarify the pathogenesis in calpox virus infection. Following intranasal inoculation with two different viral doses, common marmosets were sacrificed on days 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 post inoculation. Collected tissue was screened using histopathology, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and virological assays. Our data suggest that primary replication took place in nasal and bronchial epithelia followed by secondary replication in submandibular lymph nodes and spleen. Parallel to viremia at day 7, virus was detectable in many organs, mainly located in epithelial cells and macrophages, as well as in endothelial cells. Based on the onset of clinical signs, the histological and ultrastructural lesions and the immunohistochemical distribution pattern of the virus, the incubation period was defined to last 11 days, which resembles human smallpox. In conclusion, the data indicate that the calpox model is highly suitable for studying orthopoxvirus-induced disease.

  11. Psycho-Cognitive Intervention for ASD from Cross-Species Behavioral Analyses of Infants, Chicks and Common Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, Mamiko; Karino, Genta; Mimura, Koki; Nakamura, Shun; Yui, Kunio; Kunikata, Tetsuya; Yamanouchi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Educational treatment to support social development of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important topic in developmental psychiatry. However, it remains difficult to objectively quantify the socio-emotional development of ASD children. To address this problem, we developed a novel analytical method that assesses subjects' complex behaviors using multivariate analysis, 'Behavior Output analysis for Quantitative Emotional State Translation' (BOUQUET). Here, we examine the potential for psycho-cognitive ASD therapy based on comparative evaluations of clinical (human) and experimental (animal) models. Our observations of ASD children (vs. their normally developing siblings) and the domestic chick in socio-sensory deprivation models show the importance of unimodal sensory stimulation, particularly important for tactile- and auditory-biased socialization. Identifying psycho-cognitive elements in early neural development, human newborn infants in neonatal intensive care unit as well as a New World monkey, the common marmoset, also prompted us to focus on the development of voluntary movement against gravity. In summary, striking behavioral similarities between children with ASD and domestic chicks' socio-sensory deprivation models support the role of multimodal sensory-motor integration as a prerequisite step for normal development of socio-emotional and psycho-cognitive functions. Data obtained in the common marmoset model also suggest that switching from primitive anti-gravity reflexes to complex voluntary movement may be a critical milestone for psycho-cognitive development. Combining clinical findings with these animal models, and using multivariate integrative analyses may facilitate the development of effective interventions to improve social functions in infants and in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. Viral Vector-Based Dissection of Marmoset GFAP Promoter in Mouse and Marmoset Brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shinohara

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors are small in diameter, diffuse easily in the brain, and represent a highly efficient means by which to transfer a transgene to the brain of a large animal. A major demerit of AAV vectors is their limited accommodation capacity for transgenes. Thus, a compact promoter is useful when delivering large transgenes via AAV vectors. In the present study, we aimed to identify the shortest astrocyte-specific GFAP promoter region that could be used for AAV-vector-mediated transgene expression in the marmoset brain. The 2.0-kb promoter region upstream of the GFAP gene was cloned from the marmoset genome, and short promoters (1.6 kb, 1.4 kb, 0.6 kb, 0.3 kb and 0.2 kb were obtained by progressively deleting the original 2.0-kb promoter from the 5' end. The short promoters were screened in the mouse cerebellum in terms of their strength and astrocyte specificity. We found that the 0.3-kb promoter maintained 40% of the strength of the original 2.0-kb promoter, and approximately 90% of its astrocyte specificity. These properties were superior to those of the 1.4-kb, 0.6-kb (20% promoter strength and 0.2-kb (70% astrocyte specificity promoters. Then, we verified whether the 0.3-kb GFAP promoter retained astrocyte specificity in the marmoset cerebral cortex. Injection of viral vectors carrying the 0.3-kb marmoset GFAP promoter specifically transduced astrocytes in both the cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex of the marmoset. These results suggest that the compact 0.3-kb promoter region serves as an astrocyte-specific promoter in the marmoset brain, which permits us to express a large gene by AAV vectors that have a limited accommodation capacity.

  13. Edaravone is a free radical scavenger that protects against laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice and common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tomomi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Takata, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Shinsuke; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a main characteristic in exudative type of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of edaravone, a free radical scavenger on laser-induced CNV. CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation to the subretinal choroidal area of mice and common marmosets. Edaravone was administered either intraperitoneally twice a day for 2 weeks or intravenously just once after laser photocoagulation. The effects of edaravone on laser-induced CNV were evaluated by fundus fluorescein angiography, CNV area measurements, and the expression of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) modified proteins, a marker of oxidative stress. Furthermore, the effects of edaravone on the production of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell proliferation were evaluated using human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) and human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, respectively. CNV areas in the edaravone-treated group were significantly smaller in mice and common marmosets. The expression of 4-HNE modified proteins was upregulated 3 h after laser photocoagulation, and intravenously administered edaravone decreased it. In in vitro studies, edaravone inhibited H2O2-induced ROS production and VEGF-induced cell proliferation. These findings suggest that edaravone may protect against laser-induced CNV by inhibiting oxidative stress and endothelial cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The distribution of presumptive thoracic paraganglionic tissue in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aortic-pulmonary regions (APR of seven adult marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and the region of the right subclavian artery of a further three marmosets were diffusion-fixed with 10% buffered formol-saline solution. In both regions serial 5-µm sections were cut and stained by the Martius yellow, brilliant crystal scarlet and soluble blue method. Presumptive thoracic paraganglionic (PTP tissue was only observed in the APR. PTP tissue was composed of small groups of cells that varied in size and number. The distribution of the groups of cells was extremely variable, so much so that it would be misleading to attempt to classify their position; they were not circumscribed by a connective tissue capsule, but were always related to the thoracic branches of the left vagus nerve. The cells lay in loose areolar tissue characteristic of this part of the mediastinum and received their blood supply from small adjacent connective tissue arterioles. Unlike the paraganglionic tissue found in the carotid body the cells in the thorax did not appear to have a profuse capillary blood supply. There was, however, a close cellular-neural relationship. The cells, 10-15 µm in diameter, were oval or rounded in appearance and possessed a central nucleus and clear cytoplasm. No evidence was found that these cells possessed a 'companion' cell reminiscent of the arrangement of type 1 and type 2 cells in the carotid body. In conclusion, we found evidence of presumed paraganglionic tissue in the APR of the marmoset which, however, did not show the characteristic histological features of the aortic body chemoreceptors that have been described in some non-primate mammals. A survey of the mediastina of other non-human primates is required to establish whether this finding is atypical for these animals.

  15. Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis in common marmosets : the encephalitogenic T cell epitope pMOG24-36 is presented by a monomorphic MHC class II molecule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, H.P.M.; Uccelli, A.; Kerlero De Rosbo, N.; Bontrop, R.E.; Roccatagliata, L.; Groot, de N.G.; Capello, E.; Laman, J.D.; Nicolay, K.; Mancardi, G.L.; Ben-Nun, A.; Hart, 't L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Immunization of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with a single dose of human myelin in CFA, without administration of Bordetella pertussis, induces a form of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) resembling in its clinical and pathological expression multiple sclerosis in humans. The EAE incidence

  16. Expression pattern of wolframin, the WFS1 (Wolfram syndrome-1 gene) product, in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Noriomi; Hosoya, Makoto; Oishi, Naoki; Okano, Hideyuki; Fujioka, Masato; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-08-03

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of the neuroendocrine system, known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness) syndrome, and considered an endoplasmic reticulum disease. Patients show mutations in WFS1, which encodes the 890 amino acid protein wolframin. Although Wfs1 knockout mice develop diabetes, their hearing level is completely normal. In this study, we examined the expression of wolframin in the cochlea of a nonhuman primate common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) to elucidate the discrepancy in the phenotype between species and the pathophysiology of Wolfram syndrome-associated deafness. The marmoset cochlea showed wolframin immunoreactivity not only in the spiral ligament type I fibrocytes, spiral ganglion neurons, outer hair cells, and supporting cells, but in the stria vascularis basal cells, where wolframin expression was not observed in the previous mouse study. Considering the absence of the deafness phenotype in Wfs1 knockout mice, the expression of wolframin in the basal cells of primates may play an essential role in the maintenance of hearing. Elucidating the function of wolframin protein in the basal cells of primates would be essential for understanding the pathogenesis of hearing loss in patients with Wolfram syndrome, which may lead to the discovery of new therapeutics.

  17. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-01-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  18. Activity-dependent regulation of MHC class I expression in the developing primary visual cortex of the common marmoset monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlumbohm Christina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several recent studies have highlighted the important role of immunity-related molecules in synaptic plasticity processes in the developing and adult mammalian brains. It has been suggested that neuronal MHCI (major histocompatibility complex class I genes play a role in the refinement and pruning of synapses in the developing visual system. As a fast evolutionary rate may generate distinct properties of molecules in different mammalian species, we studied the expression of MHCI molecules in a nonhuman primate, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus. Methods and results Analysis of expression levels of MHCI molecules in the developing visual cortex of the common marmoset monkeys revealed a distinct spatio-temporal pattern. High levels of expression were detected very early in postnatal development, at a stage when synaptogenesis takes place and ocular dominance columns are formed. To determine whether the expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by retinal activity, animals were subjected to monocular enucleation. Levels of MHCI heavy chain subunit transcripts in the visual cortex were found to be elevated in response to monocular enucleation. Furthermore, MHCI heavy chain immunoreactivity revealed a banded pattern in layer IV of the visual cortex in enucleated animals, which was not observed in control animals. This pattern of immunoreactivity indicated that higher expression levels were associated with retinal activity coming from the intact eye. Conclusions These data demonstrate that, in the nonhuman primate brain, expression of MHCI molecules is regulated by neuronal activity. Moreover, this study extends previous findings by suggesting a role for neuronal MHCI molecules during synaptogenesis in the visual cortex.

  19. Active immunization against renin in normotensive marmoset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, J.B.; Guettier, C.; Philippe, M.; Galen, F.X.; Corvol, P.; Menard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Primate renins (human and monkey) are very similar. We used pure human renin to immunize marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and thereby produce a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensinogen reaction. After a control period of 2 months, five male marmosets, on their usual sodium-poor diet, were immunized against pure human renin by three subcutneous injections of 30 μg each, with complete and then incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Three marmosets were injected with adjuvant only and served as controls. Blood sampling and blood pressure measurements were performed weekly. After the third injection, the five marmosets immunized against renin developed a high titer of renin antibodies (50% binding of 125 I-labeled human renin at a dilution of ≥ 1:10,000). The antibodies inhibited the enzymatic activity of both marmoset and human renins. At the same time, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly. Plasma renin enzyme activity was undetectable in the animals. Plasma aldosterone decreased significantly. After 1-4 months with low blood pressure, a normal urinary output, and a normal plasma creatinine, the five marmosets became sick and died within one month. At autopsy an immunological renal disease, characterize by the presence of immunoglobulin and macrophage infiltration colocalized with renin, was found. No immunoglobulin was detectable in extrarenal vessels or in other organs. These experiments demonstrate that, in this primate, a chronic blockade of the renin-angiotensin system can be achieved by active immunization against homologous renin, but this blockade is associated with the development of an autoimmune disease localized in the kidney

  20. Human Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Inhibition of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in the Common Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Bao, Linlin; Chen, Cong; Zou, Tingting; Xue, Ying; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gu, Songzhi; Gao, Xiaopan; Cui, Sheng; Wang, Jianmin; Qin, Chuan; Jin, Qi

    2017-06-15

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection in humans is highly lethal, with a fatality rate of 35%. New prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat human infections are urgently needed. We isolated a fully human neutralizing antibody, MCA1, from a human survivor. The antibody recognizes the receptor-binding domain of MERS-CoV S glycoprotein and interferes with the interaction between viral S and the human cellular receptor human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a human neutralizing monoclonal antibody that completely inhibits MERS-CoV replication in common marmosets. Monotherapy with MCA1 represents a potential alternative treatment for human infections with MERS-CoV worthy of evaluation in clinical settings. © Crown copyright 2017.

  1. Do marmosets care to share? Oxytocin treatment reduces prosocial behavior toward strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Harnisch, April M; Thompson, Breanna E; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-05-01

    Cooperatively-breeding and socially-monogamous primates, like marmosets and humans, exhibit high levels of social tolerance and prosociality toward others. Oxytocin (OXT) generally facilitates prosocial behavior, but there is growing recognition that OXT modulation of prosocial behavior is shaped by the context of social interactions and by other motivational states such as arousal or anxiety. To determine whether prosociality varies based on social context, we evaluated whether marmoset donors (Callithrix penicillata) preferentially rewarded pairmates versus opposite-sex strangers in a prosocial food-sharing task. To examine potential links among OXT, stress systems, and prosociality, we evaluated whether pretrial cortisol levels in marmosets altered the impact of OXT on prosocial responses. Marmosets exhibited spontaneous prosociality toward others, but they did so preferentially toward strangers compared to their pairmates. When donor marmosets were treated with marmoset-specific Pro(8)-OXT, they exhibited reduced prosociality toward strangers compared to marmosets treated with saline or consensus-mammalian Leu(8)-OXT. When pretrial cortisol levels were lower, marmosets exhibited higher prosociality toward strangers. These findings demonstrate that while marmosets show spontaneous prosocial responses toward others, they do so preferentially toward opposite-sex strangers. Cooperative breeding may be associated with the expression of prosociality, but the existence of a pair-bond between marmoset partners appears to be neither necessary nor sufficient for the expression of spontaneous prosocial responses. Furthermore, high prosociality toward strangers is significantly reduced in marmosets treated with Pro(8)-OXT, suggesting that OXT does not universally enhance prosociality, but, rather OXT modulation of prosocial behavior varies depending on social context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inflammatory fibroid polyp in the duodenum of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokouchi, Yusuke; Imaoka, Masako; Sayama, Ayako; Jindo, Toshimasa; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    A 32-month-old male common marmoset had a firm and white-colored mass in the duodenal wall. The cut surface was smooth and grayish white in color. Histologically, the mass consisted of a proliferation of spindle cells with an oval to spindle-shaped nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a loose myxoid or fibrotic background. Most of the lesion displayed no specific growth pattern whereas some of the cells concentrated around the vessels and created an onion-bulb structure. Additionally, marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, mainly eosinophils, was observed throughout the lesion. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were positive for vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, fascin, and cyclin D1, and negative for S-100, factor VIII-related antigen, and c-kit. These histological and immunohistochemical features did not meet any differential diagnoses such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma, smooth muscle tumor, schwannoma, and hemangiosarcoma. Collectively, the authors diagnosed the mass as a lesion that corresponded to an inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) in humans. IFP is defined as a mesenchymal proliferation composed of spindle stromal cells, small blood vessels, and inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, and is currently classified as a nonneoplastic lesion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous IFP in nonhuman primates.

  3. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowski, Katharina; Warthemann, Rita; Lentes, Jana; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Dressel, Ralf; Langenstroth, Daniel; Gromoll, Jörg; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80) and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement therapies in

  4. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Debowski

    Full Text Available Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80 and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement

  5. Pre-evaluated safe human iPSC-derived neural stem cells promote functional recovery after spinal cord injury in common marmoset without tumorigenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiomi Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Murine and human iPSC-NS/PCs (induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells promote functional recovery following transplantation into the injured spinal cord in rodents. However, for clinical applicability, it is critical to obtain proof of the concept regarding the efficacy of grafted human iPSC-NS/PCs (hiPSC-NS/PCs for the repair of spinal cord injury (SCI in a non-human primate model. This study used a pre-evaluated "safe" hiPSC-NS/PC clone and an adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus model of contusive SCI. SCI was induced at the fifth cervical level (C5, followed by transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs at 9 days after injury. Behavioral analyses were performed from the time of the initial injury until 12 weeks after SCI. Grafted hiPSC-NS/PCs survived and differentiated into all three neural lineages. Furthermore, transplantation of hiPSC-NS/PCs enhanced axonal sparing/regrowth and angiogenesis, and prevented the demyelination after SCI compared with that in vehicle control animals. Notably, no tumor formation occurred for at least 12 weeks after transplantation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that mRNA expression levels of human neurotrophic factors were significantly higher in cultured hiPSC-NS/PCs than in human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs. Finally, behavioral tests showed that hiPSC-NS/PCs promoted functional recovery after SCI in the common marmoset. Taken together, these results indicate that pre-evaluated safe hiPSC-NS/PCs are a potential source of cells for the treatment of SCI in the clinic.

  6. Novel marmoset (Callithrix jacchus model of human Herpesvirus 6A and 6B infections: immunologic, virologic and radiologic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Leibovitch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 is a ubiquitous virus with an estimated seroprevalence of 95% in the adult population. HHV-6 is associated with several neurologic disorders, including multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the CNS. Animal models of HHV-6 infection would help clarify its role in human disease but have been slow to develop because rodents lack CD46, the receptor for cellular entry. Therefore, we investigated the effects of HHV-6 infections in a non-human primate, the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus. We inoculated a total of 12 marmosets with HHV-6A and HHV-6B intravenously and HHV-6A intranasally. Animals were monitored for 25 weeks post-inoculation clinically, immunologically and by MRI. Marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms and generated virus-specific antibody responses, while those inoculated intravenously with HHV-6B were asymptomatic and generated comparatively lower antibody responses. Viral DNA was detected at a low frequency in paraffin-embedded CNS tissue of a subset of marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A and HHV-6B intravenously. When different routes of HHV-6A inoculation were compared, intravenous inoculation resulted in virus-specific antibody responses and infrequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery, while intranasal inoculation resulted in negligible virus-specific antibody responses and frequent detection of viral DNA in the periphery. Moreover, marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intravenously exhibited neurologic symptoms, while marmosets inoculated with HHV-6A intranasally were asymptomatic. We demonstrate that a marmoset model of HHV-6 infection can serve to further define the contribution of this ubiquitous virus to human neurologic disorders.

  7. Towards a comprehensive atlas of cortical connections in a primate brain: Mapping tracer injection studies of the common marmoset into a reference digital template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Tolpygo, Alexander; Mitra, Partha P; Wójcik, Daniel K; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2016-08-01

    The marmoset is an emerging animal model for large-scale attempts to understand primate brain connectivity, but achieving this aim requires the development and validation of procedures for normalization and integration of results from many neuroanatomical experiments. Here we describe a computational pipeline for coregistration of retrograde tracing data on connections of cortical areas into a 3D marmoset brain template, generated from Nissl-stained sections. The procedure results in a series of spatial transformations that are applied to the coordinates of labeled neurons in the different cases, bringing them into common stereotaxic space. We applied this procedure to 17 injections, placed in the frontal lobe of nine marmosets as part of earlier studies. Visualizations of cortical patterns of connections revealed by these injections are supplied as Supplementary Materials. Comparison between the results of the automated and human-based processing of these cases reveals that the centers of injection sites can be reconstructed, on average, to within 0.6 mm of coordinates estimated by an experienced neuroanatomist. Moreover, cell counts obtained in different areas by the automated approach are highly correlated (r = 0.83) with those obtained by an expert, who examined in detail histological sections for each individual. The present procedure enables comparison and visualization of large datasets, which in turn opens the way for integration and analysis of results from many animals. Its versatility, including applicability to archival materials, may reduce the number of additional experiments required to produce the first detailed cortical connectome of a primate brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2161-2181, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. When play is a family business: adult play, hierarchy, and possible stress reduction in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norscia, Ivan; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    Easy to recognize but not easy to define, animal play is a baffling behavior because it has no obvious immediate benefits for the performers. However, the absence of immediate advantages, if true, would leave adult play (costly but maintained by evolution, spanning lemurs to Homo sapiens) unexplained. Although a commonly held view maintains that play is limited by stress, an emergent hypothesis states that play can regulate stress in the short term. Here we explored this hypothesis in a captive family group of New World monkeys, Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset). We observed six subjects and gathered data on aggressive, play, and scratching behavior via focal (6 h/individual) and all occurrences sampling (115 h). We found that play levels were highest during pre-feeding, the period of maximum anxiety due to the forthcoming competition over food. Scratching (the most reliable indicator of stress in primates) and play showed opposite trends along hierarchy, with dominants scratching more and playing less than subordinates. Finally, scratching decreased after play, whereas play appeared to be unrelated to previous scratching events, symptoms of a potential stressful state. In conclusion, both play timing and hierarchical distribution indicate that play limits stress, more than vice versa, at least in the short term.

  9. Individual differences in choice (in)flexibility but not impulsivity in the common marmoset: an automated, operant-behavior choice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Walter; Romani, Chiara; Manciocco, Arianna; Vitale, Augusto; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    Individual differences in behavioural flexibility are a significant issue in human psychopathology as well as in its animal models. We aimed to investigate individual variations of operant-choice behaviour in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate, using a new operant panel with two hand-poking holes. Experimental subjects (N=16) were presented with a choice between a Small & Soon (SS) vs a Large & Late (LL) food reward. After extensive training (31 daily sessions with no delay, during which a basal, large-reward preference developed), the delay before release of LL was progressively increased (from 0 to 60 s, during 16 daily sessions; indifferent point at delay=9 s). Subjects were classified as either "flexible" or "non-flexible", respectively, based on a decrease (or not) in the preference for LL with increasing delays. Each subject was also classified as "maximizer" (or "non-maximizer") based on capacity (or not) to maximize the food payoff as delay increased. Upon delays shorter than the indifferent point (9 s), when a preference shift could be interpreted as economically-driven. In general, a profile of few unrewarded hand-pokes in reaction to initial delays (i.e., a low motor impulsivity) and of clear-cut basal LL preference seemed to predict elevated flexibility of choices and better food payoff, which was typical of subjects classified as both "flexible & maximizer". These results provide normative data on the marmosets, which can be used as a model for the investigation of 1) individual differences in behavioural flexibility, as well as 2) biological mechanisms rooted in our evolutionary history. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe T-cell depletion from the PALS leads to altered spleen composition in common marmosets with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, Alex F; van Riel, Debby A J; van Meurs, Marjan; Brok, Herbert P M; Boon, Louis; Hintzen, Rogier Q; Claassen, Eric H J H M; 't Hart, Bert A; Laman, Jon D

    Recent data suggest that the spleen is a crucial component of the immune system in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmoset monkeys. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated changes in the distribution of leukocytes in the spleen associated with clinical

  11. A digital 3D atlas of the marmoset brain based on multi-modal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cirong; Ye, Frank Q; Yen, Cecil Chern-Chyi; Newman, John D; Glen, Daniel; Leopold, David A; Silva, Afonso C

    2018-04-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New-World monkey of growing interest in neuroscience. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool to unveil the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain. To facilitate identification of regions of interest, it is desirable to register MR images to an atlas of the brain. However, currently available atlases of the marmoset brain are mainly based on 2D histological data, which are difficult to apply to 3D imaging techniques. Here, we constructed a 3D digital atlas based on high-resolution ex-vivo MRI images, including magnetization transfer ratio (a T1-like contrast), T2w images, and multi-shell diffusion MRI. Based on the multi-modal MRI images, we manually delineated 54 cortical areas and 16 subcortical regions on one hemisphere of the brain (the core version). The 54 cortical areas were merged into 13 larger cortical regions according to their locations to yield a coarse version of the atlas, and also parcellated into 106 sub-regions using a connectivity-based parcellation method to produce a refined atlas. Finally, we compared the new atlas set with existing histology atlases and demonstrated its applications in connectome studies, and in resting state and stimulus-based fMRI. The atlas set has been integrated into the widely-distributed neuroimaging data analysis software AFNI and SUMA, providing a readily usable multi-modal template space with multi-level anatomical labels (including labels from the Paxinos atlas) that can facilitate various neuroimaging studies of marmosets. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Long-Term Oocyte-Like Cell Development in Cultures Derived from Neonatal Marmoset Monkey Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentolhoda Fereydouni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a preclinical nonhuman primate model to study reproductive and stem cell biology. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary contains numerous primitive premeiotic germ cells (oogonia expressing pluripotent stem cell markers including OCT4A (POU5F1. This is a peculiarity compared to neonatal human and rodent ovaries. Here, we aimed at culturing marmoset oogonia from neonatal ovaries. We established a culture system being stable for more than 20 passages and 5 months. Importantly, comparative transcriptome analysis of the cultured cells with neonatal ovary, embryonic stem cells, and fibroblasts revealed a lack of germ cell and pluripotency genes indicating the complete loss of oogonia upon initiation of the culture. From passage 4 onwards, however, the cultured cells produced large spherical, free-floating cells resembling oocyte-like cells (OLCs. OLCs strongly expressed several germ cell genes and may derive from the ovarian surface epithelium. In summary, our novel primate ovarian cell culture initially lacked detectable germ cells but then produced OLCs over a long period of time. This culture system may allow a deeper analysis of early phases of female primate germ cell development and—after significant refinement—possibly also the production of monkey oocytes.

  13. Comparison of tamarins and marmosets as hosts for GBV-B infections and the effect of immunosuppression on duration of viremia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanford, Robert E.; Chavez, Deborah; Notvall, Lena; Brasky, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    GBV-B virus is a close relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV) that causes hepatitis in tamarins, and thus, is an attractive surrogate model for HCV. In this study, we demonstrate that the host range of GBV-B extends to the common marmoset with an infection profile similar to that observed for tamarins. Marmoset hepatocytes were susceptible to in vitro infection with GBV-B. Virus was efficiently secreted into the medium, and approximately 25% of hepatocytes were positive for NS3 staining. In an attempt to induce persistent infections, tamarins were immunosuppressed with FK506 and inoculated with GBV-B. Although no chronic infections were induced, the duration of viremia was increased in most animals. In one animal, the duration of viremia was extended to 46 weeks, but viral clearance occurred 18 weeks after stopping FK506 therapy. The greater availability of marmosets in comparison to tamarins will greatly facilitate future research efforts with this model

  14. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  15. The transcriptomes of novel marmoset monkey embryonic stem cell lines reflect distinct genomic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debowski, Katharina; Drummer, Charis; Lentes, Jana; Cors, Maren; Dressel, Ralf; Lingner, Thomas; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Fuchs, Sigrid; Sasaki, Erika; Behr, Rüdiger

    2016-07-07

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are useful for the study of embryonic development. However, since research on naturally conceived human embryos is limited, non-human primate (NHP) embryos and NHP ESCs represent an excellent alternative to the corresponding human entities. Though, ESC lines derived from naturally conceived NHP embryos are still very rare. Here, we report the generation and characterization of four novel ESC lines derived from natural preimplantation embryos of the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus). For the first time we document derivation of NHP ESCs derived from morula stages. We show that quantitative chromosome-wise transcriptome analyses precisely reflect trisomies present in both morula-derived ESC lines. We also demonstrate that the female ESC lines exhibit different states of X-inactivation which is impressively reflected by the abundance of the lncRNA X inactive-specific transcript (XIST). The novel marmoset ESC lines will promote basic primate embryo and ESC studies as well as preclinical testing of ESC-based regenerative approaches in NHP.

  16. LPS-induced lung inflammation in marmoset monkeys - an acute model for anti-inflammatory drug testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Seehase

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50. LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs.

  17. Oxytocin facilitates fidelity in well-established marmoset pairs by reducing sociosexual behavior toward opposite-sex strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Jon; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Taylor, Jack H; French, Jeffrey A

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral strategies that facilitate the maintenance of social bonds are critical for the preservation of high-quality social relationships. Central oxytocin (OT) activity modulates the behavioral features of socially monogamous relationships in a number of mammalian species (including marmoset monkeys), and plays a vital role in the behavioral maintenance of long-term social relationships. Two distinct variants of OT have been identified in some New World primates (including marmosets; Lee et al., 2011). The marmoset variant of the oxytocin ligand (Pro(8)-OT) is structurally distinct from the consensus mammalian variant of the oxytocin ligand (Leu(8)-OT), due to a proline substitution at the 8th amino-acid position. The goal of the present study was to determine if treating marmosets with Pro(8)-OT, relative to treatments with Leu(8)-OT, control saline, or an OT antagonist, had modulatory effects on the behavioral maintenance of long-term social relationships in marmosets. Treatment with the Pro(8) variant, but not the Leu(8) variant, of OT facilitated fidelity with a long-term partner by reducing time spent in close proximity with an opposite-sex stranger. However, this facilitative effect of Pro(8)-OT on proximity behavior manifested itself differently in male and female marmosets, such that females preferred to interact socially with their partner rather than a stranger when treated with Pro(8)-OT, while males spent less time in close proximity with both their partner and a stranger when treated with Pro(8)-OT. Furthermore, treatment with Pro(8)-OT, but not Leu(8)-OT, significantly delayed the expression of sexual solicitation behavior toward an opposite-sex stranger in both male and female marmosets, but had no effect on sociosexual behavior directed toward a long-term partner. These results suggest that the OT system is highly involved in reducing fidelity-threatening behaviors in well-established marmoset pairs, and that the effects were only produced by

  18. Social isolation affects partner-directed social behavior and cortisol during pair formation in marmosets, Callithrix geoffroyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam S; Birnie, Andrew K; French, Jeffrey A

    2011-10-24

    Pair-bonded relationships form during periods of close spatial proximity and high sociosexual contact. Like other monogamous species, marmosets form new social pairs after emigration or ejection from their natal group resulting in periods of social isolation. Thus, pair formation often occurs following a period of social instability and a concomitant elevation in stress physiology. Research is needed to assess the effects that prolonged social isolation has on the behavioral and cortisol response to the formation of a new social pair. We examined the sociosexual behavior and cortisol during the first 90-days of cohabitation in male and female Geoffroy's tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi) paired either directly from their natal group (Natal-P) or after a prolonged period of social isolation (ISO-P). Social isolation prior to pairing seemed to influence cortisol levels, social contact, and grooming behavior; however, sexual behavior was not affected. Cortisol levels were transiently elevated in all paired marmosets compared to natal-housed marmosets. However, ISO-P marmosets had higher cortisol levels throughout the observed pairing period compared to Natal-P marmoset. This suggests that the social instability of pair formation may lead to a transient increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity while isolation results in a prolonged HPA axis dysregulation. In addition, female social contact behavior was associated with higher cortisol levels at the onset of pairing; however, this was not observed in males. Thus, isolation-induced social contact with a new social partner may be enhanced by HPA axis activation, or a moderating factor. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Glutamine/glutamate (Glx) concentration in prefrontal cortex predicts reversal learning performance in the marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Moore, Constance M; LaClair, Matthew; Payne, Laurellee; King, Jean A

    2018-07-02

    This study used Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) to identify potential neurometabolitic markers of cognitive performance in male (n = 7) and female (n = 8) middle-aged (∼5 years old) common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Anesthetized marmosets were scanned with a 4.7 T/40 cm horizontal magnet equipped with 450 mT/m magnetic field gradients and a 20 G/cm magnetic field gradient insert, within 3 months of completing the CANTAB serial Reversal Learning task. Neurometabolite concentrations of N-Acetyl Asparate, Myo-Inositol, Choline, Phosphocreatine + creatine, Glutamate and Glutamine were acquired from a 3 mm 3 voxel positioned in the Prefrontal Cortex (PFC). Males acquired the reversals (but not simple discriminations) faster than the females. Higher PFC Glx (glutamate + glutamine) concentration was associated with faster acquisition of the reversals. Interestingly, the correlation between cognitive performance and Glx was significant in males, but not in females. These results suggest that MRS is a useful tool to identify biochemical markers of cognitive performance in the healthy nonhuman primate brain and that biological sex modulates the relationship between neurochemical composition and cognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lassa virus infection in experimentally infected marmosets: liver pathology and immunophenotypic alterations in target tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Brasky, Kathleen; Mansfield, Keith; Johnson, Curtis; Gonzales, Monica; Ticer, Anysha; Lukashevich, Igor; Tardif, Suzette; Patterson, Jean

    2007-06-01

    Lassa virus causes thousands of deaths annually in western Africa and is considered a potential biological weapon. In an attempt to develop a small nonhuman primate model of Lassa fever, common marmosets were subcutaneously inoculated with Lassa virus strain Josiah. This inoculation resulted in a systemic disease with clinical and morphological features mirroring those in fatal human Lassa infection: fever, weight loss, high viremia and viral RNA load in tissues, elevated liver enzymes, and severe morbidity between days 15 and 20. The most prominent histopathology findings included multifocal hepatic necrosis with mild inflammation and hepatocyte proliferation, lymphoid depletion, and interstitial nephritis. Cellular aggregates in regions of hepatocellular necrosis were largely composed of HAM56-positive macrophages, devoid of CD3-positive and CD20-positive cells, and characterized by marked reductions in the intensity of HLA-DP, DQ, DR staining. A marked reduction in the major histocompatibility complex class II expression was also observed in the lymph nodes. Immunophenotypic alterations in spleen included reductions in overall numbers of CD20-positive and CD3-positive cells and the disruption of lymphoid follicular architecture. These findings identify the common marmoset as an appropriate model of human Lassa fever and present the first experimental evidence that replication of Lassa virus in tissues is associated with alterations that would be expected to impair adaptive immunity.

  1. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  2. Susceptibility of Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to Monkeypox Virus: A Low Dose Prospective Model for Monkeypox and Smallpox Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucker, Eric M; Chapman, Jennifer; Huzella, Louis M; Huggins, John W; Shamblin, Joshua; Robinson, Camenzind G; Hensley, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    Although current nonhuman primate models of monkeypox and smallpox diseases provide some insight into disease pathogenesis, they require a high titer inoculum, use an unnatural route of infection, and/or do not accurately represent the entire disease course. This is a concern when developing smallpox and/or monkeypox countermeasures or trying to understand host pathogen relationships. In our studies, we altered half of the test system by using a New World nonhuman primate host, the common marmoset. Based on dose finding studies, we found that marmosets are susceptible to monkeypox virus infection, produce a high viremia, and have pathological features consistent with smallpox and monkeypox in humans. The low dose (48 plaque forming units) required to elicit a uniformly lethal disease and the extended incubation (preclinical signs) are unique features among nonhuman primate models utilizing monkeypox virus. The uniform lethality, hemorrhagic rash, high viremia, decrease in platelets, pathology, and abbreviated acute phase are reflective of early-type hemorrhagic smallpox.

  3. Oxytocin and vasopressin enhance responsiveness to infant stimuli in adult marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jack H; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-09-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) have been implicated in modulating sex-specific responses to offspring in a variety of uniparental and biparental rodent species. Despite the large body of research in rodents, the effects of these hormones in biparental primates are less understood. Marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) belong to a clade of primates with a high incidence of biparental care and also synthesize a structurally distinct variant of OT (proline instead of leucine at the 8th amino acid position; Pro(8)-OT). We examined the roles of the OT and AVP systems in the control of responses to infant stimuli in marmoset monkeys. We administered neuropeptide receptor agonists and antagonists to male and female marmosets, and then exposed them to visual and auditory infant-related and control stimuli. Intranasal Pro(8)-OT decreased latencies to respond to infant stimuli in males, and intranasal AVP decreased latencies to respond to infant stimuli in females. Our study is the first to demonstrate that Pro(8)-OT and AVP alter responsiveness to infant stimuli in a biparental New World monkey. Across species, the effects of OT and AVP on parental behavior appear to vary by species-typical caregiving responsibilities in males and females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dopamine Modulation of Reunion Behavior in Short and Long Term Marmoset Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah B. Carp

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One major neurobiological substrate regulating social processes is dopamine (DA. DA is implicated in social behavior in species as diverse as fish and birds, and has an established role in regulating relationships between mates in socially monogamous rodents. Marmoset monkeys display traits associated with social monogamy including high rates of affiliation, biparental care, distress upon separation, and aggression toward strangers; several of these behavioral patterns change throughout the development of relationships. This temporal change may represent changing demands, as pairs are likely to jointly face new experiences (e.g., parenthood throughout pairing. We investigated the role of DA and pairing length on social behavior during reunion after separation from the mate. Marmosets were removed from their home environment and treated with agonists and antagonists for the D1 and D2 receptor subtypes. They were exposed to a novel environment containing an opposite-sex stranger and their pair mate, and then reunited with their mate in the home enclosure. Marmosets in long term pairs exhibited higher levels of food sharing during reunion than marmosets in short term pairs, with females in long term pairs sharing food more than males; no sex difference was observed in short term pairs. Subjects in short term pairs spent more time grooming their mate than receiving grooming during reunion, while marmosets in long term pairs displayed similar amounts of both initiated and received grooming. DA treatment altered pair-level behavior. When females received either a D2 agonist or antagonist, short term pairs spent less time in proximity, compared to when males received the same treatments. In long term pairs, treatment of females with either a D1 agonist or antagonist resulted in pairs spending less time in social proximity than when males were treated. These findings suggest that the function of the DA system in mate behavior may be similar between

  5. Blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its primary metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Winfried; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Grote, Konstanze; Csanady, Gyoergy A.; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Filser, Johannes G.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the dose-dependent blood burden of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in pregnant and nonpregnant rats and marmosets is presented. Sprague-Dawley rats and marmosets were treated orally with 30 or 500 mg DEHP/kg per day, nonpregnant animals on 7 (rats) and 29 (marmosets) consecutive days, pregnant animals on gestation days 14-19 (rats) and 96-124 (marmosets). In addition, rats received a single dose of 1000 mg DEHP/kg. Blood was collected up to 48 h after dosing. Concentrations of DEHP and MEHP in blood were determined by GC/MS. In rats, normalized areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) of DEHP were two orders of magnitude smaller than the normalized AUCs of the first metabolite MEHP. Metabolism of MEHP was saturable. Repeated DEHP treatment and pregnancy had only little influence on the normalized AUC of MEHP. In marmosets, most of MEHP concentration-time courses oscillated. Normalized AUCs of DEHP were at least one order of magnitude smaller than those of MEHP. In pregnant marmosets, normalized AUCs of MEHP were similar to those in nonpregnant animals with the exception that at 500 mg DEHP/kg per day, the normalized AUCs determined on gestation days 103, 117, and 124 were distinctly smaller. The maximum concentrations of MEHP in blood of marmosets were up to 7.5 times and the normalized AUCs up to 16 times lower than in rats receiving the same daily oral DEHP dose per kilogram of body weight. From this toxicokinetic comparison, DEHP can be expected to be several times less effective in the offspring of marmosets than in that of rats if the blood burden by MEHP in dams can be regarded as a dose surrogate for the MEHP burden in their fetuses

  6. Fatal attack on black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) by a Boa constrictor: a simultaneous assault on two juvenile monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Danilo Simonini; dos Santos, Edmilson; Leal, Silvana Gomes; de Jesus, Andrea Karla; Vargas, Waldemir Paixão; Dutra, Irapuan; Barros, Marilia

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first witnessed attack on a marmoset by a constrictor snake. The incident occurred mid-morning in a gallery forest within an altered landscape of the Cerrado region of central Brazil and refers to a fatal attack by a Boa constrictor on two juvenile black-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) simultaneously. The snake captured both individuals at a height of ~ 4 m while a group of eight marmosets traveled through the subcanopy. The actual strike was not seen. After 2 min, the boa fell to the ground with both marmosets in its coils and proceeded to kill one animal at a time through constriction. Two adult marmosets immediately descended to where the snake held its victims on the ground and attacked it. The snake showed no apparent reaction, and after ~ 1-2 min, the adults rejoined the remaining group members that were mobbing and vocalizing from 5 to 6 m above. The group left the scene ~ 7 min after the onset of the attack and was not seen again. The snake loosened its coils 10 min after its initial strike, left the two carcasses on the ground and stayed behind a nearby tree. Thus, we are not sure if the victims were in fact ingested. This report confirms that marmosets are vulnerable to boid snakes and capable of highly organized and cooperative antipredation behavior. It also suggests that snakes pose a greater threat to callitrichids than previously thought.

  7. Marmosets, Raree shows and Pulcinelle: an Analysis and Edition of a Hitherto-Unpublished Carnival Play by Antonio de Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Plata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an analyisis, annotation and edition of the Mojiganga del mundinovo (‘The raree show, a carnival play’ by Antonio de Zamora. The play was performed in 1698 Madrid by the troupe of Carlos Vallejo, along with the sacramental one-act play El templo vivo de Dios (‘The living temple of God’. The hitherto unpublished text is based on the only two extant manuscripts, located in archives in Madrid. Despite the play’s title, my analysis argues that the novelty in this play is not so much the raree show, a contraption popularized four decades earlier in Golden Age theater, as the marmosets. The death of two marmosets and the ensuing desolation of their owner, Ms. Estupenda, both trigger the play and provide it with a plot. The marmosets, too, point to a changing mentality in late 17th-century society, regarding the possession among ladies of marmosets and other monkeys as pets.

  8. An Epstein–Barr-related herpesvirus from marmoset lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Gyu; Ramer, Jan; Rivailler, Pierre; Quink, Carol; Garber, Richard L.; Beier, David R.; Wang, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the development of human B cell lymphomas and carcinomas. Although related oncogenic herpesviruses were believed to be endemic only in Old World primate species, we now find these viruses to be endemic in New World primates. We have isolated a transforming, EBV-related virus from spontaneous B cell lymphomas of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Sequencing of two-thirds of the genome reveals considerable divergence from the genomes of EBV and Old World primate EBV-related viruses, including differences in genes important for virus-induced cell growth transformation and pathogenesis. DNA related to the C. jacchus herpesvirus is frequently detected in squirrel monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes, indicating that persistent infection with EBV-related viruses is prevalent in both New World primate families. Understanding how these more divergent EBV-related viruses achieve similar biologic outcomes in their natural host is likely to provide important insights into EBV infection, B cell growth transformation, and oncogenesis. PMID:11158621

  9. Mechanisms of social synchrony between circadian activity rhythms in cohabiting marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Zoélia Camila Moura; Melo, Paula Rocha De; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Azevedo, Carolina V M De

    2018-01-26

    In marmosets, social synchrony between circadian profiles of activity is stronger in animals that cohabit in a family. The activity of three breeding pairs was recorded by actiwatches to investigate the mechanisms involved in the synchrony between the circadian activity profiles during cohabitation in marmoset reproductive pairs. The dyads were submitted to LD 12:12 (21 days) and LL: 1) cohabitation (24 days), 2) removal of the cage mate (20 days), 3) reintroduction of the mate into the cage of the 1 st situation (30 days) and 4) removal of the cage mate (7 days). Next, they were rejoined and maintained in LD 12:12 (11 days). In conditions involving cohabitation of pair, the general and maximum correlation indexes between circadian profiles were higher in cage mates compared to animals of the same or different sex with which they maintain only acoustic and olfactive contact. This strong synchrony between rhythms was accompanied by a stable phase relationship at the activity onset and offset, with identical circadian periods between mates. When the pairs were separated, there was a break in stability in the phase relationships between activity profiles with different circadian periods and a greater phase angle difference between rhythms of cage mates. During separation, two females and one male progressively anticipated the activity onset and offset in a phase similar to that in previous conditions, expressing entrainment to the mate. During the first reintroduction, two pairs exhibited signs of masking in rhythm. Although modulation in the rhythm of some animals has been observed through acoustic cues from animals outside the colony, we suggest that cohabitation favors strong synchrony between the circadian activity profiles of marmoset reproductive pairs involving synchronization by entrainment and masking. Further studies in the absence of external social cues are necessary to clarify the role of these mechanisms on social synchronization in marmosets.

  10. Density, proportion, and dendritic coverage of retinal ganglion cells of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed a quantitative analysis of M and P cell mosaics of the common-marmoset retina. Ganglion cells were labeled retrogradely from optic nerve deposits of Biocytin. The labeling was visualized using horseradish peroxidase (HRP histochemistry and 3-3'diaminobenzidine as chromogen. M and P cells were morphologically similar to those found in Old- and New-World primates. Measurements were performed on well-stained cells from 4 retinas of different animals. We analyzed separate mosaics for inner and outer M and P cells at increasing distances from the fovea (2.5-9 mm of eccentricity to estimate cell density, proportion, and dendritic coverage. M cell density decreased towards the retinal periphery in all quadrants. M cell density was higher in the nasal quadrant than in other retinal regions at similar eccentricities, reaching about 740 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity, and representing 8-14% of all ganglion cells. P cell density increased from peripheral to more central regions, reaching about 5540 cells/mm² at 2.5 mm of temporal eccentricity. P cells represented a smaller proportion of all ganglion cells in the nasal quadrant than in other quadrants, and their numbers increased towards central retinal regions. The M cell coverage factor ranged from 5 to 12 and the P cell coverage factor ranged from 1 to 3 in the nasal quadrant and from 5 to 12 in the other quadrants. These results show that central and peripheral retinal regions differ in terms of cell class proportions and dendritic coverage, and their properties do not result from simply scaling down cell density. Therefore, differences in functional properties between central and peripheral vision should take these distinct regional retinal characteristics into account.

  11. Vasopressin and Oxytocin Reduce Food Sharing Behavior in Male, but Not Female Marmosets in Family Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack H. Taylor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT is critical for lactation and maternal care, but OT and the related nonapeptide vasopressin are important for caregiving behaviors in fathers and alloparents as well. This experiment tested the effects of vasopressin and OT on food sharing in marmoset families. We treated caregivers (parents, siblings with intranasal vasopressin, OT, or saline, and then paired them with the youngest marmoset in the family. Caregivers were given preferred food, and then observed for food sharing and aggressive behavior with young marmosets. OT reduced food sharing from male alloparents to youngest siblings, and fathers that received vasopressin refused to share food with their youngest offspring more often than when treated with OT. Vasopressin increased aggressive vocalizations directed toward potential food recipients in all classes of caregivers. These results indicate that vasopressin and OT do not always enhance prosocial behavior: modulation of food sharing depends on both sex and parental status.

  12. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of maternal and paternal care predicts later stress reactivity in the cooperatively-breeding marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Andrew K; Taylor, Jack H; Cavanaugh, Jon; French, Jeffrey A

    2013-12-01

    Variation in the early postnatal social environment can have lasting effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses. Both rats and macaque monkeys subjected to low quality or abusive maternal care during the early postnatal period have more pronounced HPA responses to environmental stressors throughout development and into adulthood compared to animals reared in higher quality early maternal environments. However, little is known about the relative contributions to HPA stress response styles in developing offspring in species in which offspring care is routinely provided by group members other than the mother, such as in cooperatively breeding mammals. Marmoset monkeys exhibit cooperative offspring rearing, with fathers and older siblings providing care in addition to that provided by the mother. We evaluated the effects of early maternal, paternal, and older sibling care on HPA responses to social separation across development in captive white-faced marmoset offspring (Callithrix geoffroyi). We monitored offspring care by mothers, fathers, and older siblings in marmosets for the first 60 days of life. Later in development, each marmoset experienced three standardized social separation/novelty exposure stressors at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. During separation, we collected urine samples and analyzed them via enzyme immunoassay for cortisol levels. Infants that received higher rates of rejections from the entire family group showed higher cortisol responses to social separation. This relationship was found when mothers, fathers, and older siblings, were analyzed separately as well. No differences in cortisol responses were found between offspring that received high and low rates of carrying or high and low rates of licking and grooming by any group member. In the cooperatively breeding marmoset, early social cues from multiple classes of caregivers may influence HPA stress responses throughout the lifespan. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Endocrine and cognitive adaptations to cope with stress in immature male and female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de Sousa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Our studies on brain plasticity combine hormonal and behavioral approaches to investigate stress-coping mechanisms in nonhuman primates. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This is an important experimental model in Psychiatry, since we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from infancy to puberty, with females showing higher levels that extend to adulthood. Immature males and females at 6, 9 and 12 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation, depending on age, but similar in terms of range of variation between sexes. Additional evidence showed that during juvenile to sub-adult transition males buffered the HPA axis during chronic stress. However, animals under both acute and chronic stress performed poorly on spatial cognitive tests and evidence from the literature that they respond better to social tasks indicates that new approaches are necessary to take advantage of this experimental model. These findings increase the potential of also using this experimental model during development, such as in adolescence, and strengthen the importance of sex as a part of experimental protocols that study neuropsychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and mood disorders as well as associated therapeutics.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi: avirulence of the PF strain to Callithrix marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Menezes

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Callithrix jacchus geoffroy marmosets (HumBol. 1812 were injected once subcutaneously with 10.000 parasites/g body weight and followed for a period of six months. The PF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi was used. Follow-up was done through blood cultures, xenodiagnosis, serological tests, and ECG. A small number of normaI animais served as control.

  16. Treatment with CRH-1 antagonist antalarmin reduces behavioral and endocrine responses to social stressors in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Fite, Jeffrey E; Jensen, Heather; Oparowski, Katie; Rukstalis, Michael R; Fix, Holly; Jones, Brenda; Maxwell, Heather; Pacer, Molly; Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay

    2007-08-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has multiple roles in coordinating the behavioral and endocrine responses to a host of environmental challenges, including social stressors. In the present study we evaluated the role of CRH in mediating responses to a moderate social stressor in Wied's black tufted-eared marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii). Male and female marmosets (n=14) were administered antalarmin (a selective CRH-1 receptor antagonist; 50 microg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle in a blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. One hr after treatment, marmosets were separated from long-term pairmates and then housed alone in a novel enclosure for 7 hr. Behavior was recorded during separation and upon reunion with the partner, and urine samples for cortisol assay collected before, during, and after the intervention. Separation from partners elevated urinary cortisol concentrations over baseline for both conditions, but antalarmin treatment reduced the magnitude of the elevation. Antalarmin also lowered rates of behavioral patterns associated with arousal (alarm and "e-e" vocalizations, object manipulate/chew), but had no effect on contact calls, locomotory activity or alertness. Although most patterns of social behavior upon reunion with the partner were not affected by antalarmin, antalarmin-treated marmosets displayed more sexual behavior (mounts and copulations) upon reunion. These data indicate that antagonism of the CRH-1 receptor acts to reduce the magnitude of both endocrine and behavioral responses to a moderate social stressor without causing any overall reduction in alertness or general activity. This supports the hypothesis that CRH, acting through its type 1 receptor, is involved in coordinating the responses to anxiety-producing events. These results further suggest that the marmoset is a useful model for exploration of the role of CRH in mediating the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to psychosocial stressors, particularly in the context of heterosexual

  17. Marmoset induced pluripotent stem cells: Robust neural differentiation following pretreatment with dimethyl sulfoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Qiu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marmoset is an important nonhuman primate model for regenerative medicine. For experimental autologous cell therapy based on induced pluripotent (iPS cells in the marmoset, cells must be able to undergo robust and reliable directed differentiation that will not require customization for each specific iPS cell clone. When marmoset iPS cells were aggregated in a hanging drop format for 3 days, followed by exposure to dual SMAD inhibitors and retinoic acid in monolayer culture for 3 days, we found substantial variability in the response of different iPS cell clones. However, when clones were pretreated with 0.05–2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO for 24 hours, all clones showed a very similar maximal response to the directed differentiation scheme. Peak responses were observed at 0.5% DMSO in two clones and at 1% DMSO in a third clone. When patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis, hierarchical clustering showed very similar responses in all 3 clones when they were pretreated with optimal DMSO concentrations. The change in phenotype following exposure to DMSO and the 6 day hanging drop/monolayer treatment was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Analysis of DNA content in DMSO-exposed cells indicated that it is unlikely that DMSO acts by causing cells to exit from the cell cycle. This approach should be generally valuable in the directed neural differentiation of pluripotent cells for experimental cell therapy.

  18. How many Pygmy Marmoset (Cebuella Gray, 1870) species are there? A taxonomic re-appraisal based on new molecular evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Boubli, JP; da Silva, MNF; Rylands, AB; Nash, SD; Bertuol, F; Nunes, M; Mittermeier, RA; Byrne, H; da Silva, FE; Röhe, F; Sampaio, I; Schneider, H; Farias, IP; Hrbek, T

    2017-01-01

    The pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea, the smallest of the New World monkeys, has one of the largest geographical distributions of the Amazonian primates. Two forms have been recognized: Cebuella pygmaea pygmaea (Spix, 1823), and C. p. niveiventris Lönnberg, 1940. In this study, we investigated if the separation of pygmy marmosets into these two clades can be corroborated by molecular data. We also examine and compare coloration of the pelage in light of the new molecular results. We analyzed ...

  19. A dimensional approach to modeling symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders in the marmoset monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidis, Lydia; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Shiba, Yoshiro; Clarke, F. Hannah; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some patients suffering from the same neuropsychiatric disorder may have no overlapping symptoms whilst others may share symptoms common to other distinct disorders. Therefore, the Research Domain Criteria initiative recognises the need for better characterisation of the individual symptoms on which to focus symptom‐based treatment strategies. Many of the disorders involve dysfunction within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and so the marmoset, due to their highly developed PFC and small size, is an ideal species for studying the neurobiological basis of the behavioural dimensions that underlie these symptoms.Here we focus on a battery of tests that address dysfunction spanning the cognitive (cognitive inflexibility and working memory), negative valence (fear generalisation and negative bias) and positive valence (anhedonia) systems pertinent for understanding disorders such as ADHD, Schizophrenia, Anxiety, Depression and OCD. Parsing the separable prefrontal and striatal circuits and identifying the selective neurochemical modulation (serotonin vs dopamine) that underlie cognitive dysfunction have revealed counterparts in the clinical domain. Aspects of the negative valence system have been explored both at individual‐ (trait anxiety and genetic variation in serotonin transporter) and circuit‐based levels enabling the understanding of generalisation processes, negative biases and differential responsiveness to SSRIs. Within the positive valence system, the combination of cardiovascular and behavioural measures provides a framework for understanding motivational, anticipatory and consummatory aspects of anhedonia and their neurobiological mechanisms. Together, the direct comparison of experimental findings in marmosets with clinical studies is proving an excellent translational model to address the behavioural dimensions and neurobiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  20. Predation on artificial nests by marmosets of the genus Callithrix (Primates, Platyrrhini in a Cerrado fragment in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the causes of decline in bird populations in forest fragments are not well known, nest predation seems to play a major role in these events. A way to estimate the relative importance of predation for the reproduction of native birds is the use of artificial nests. Here, there is a report on the high rates of predation on artificial nests by two marmoset species from the genus Callithrix, C. pennicillata and C. jacchus, as well as their hybrid derivatives, in a Cerrado fragment in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. By means of artificial nests and quail eggs filled with paraffin, it was possible to identify the marmosets as predators through the bite pattern left on the paraffin. The results suggest a possible occurrence of predation on natural nests. Further studies involving the monitoring of natural nests will be able to confirm the role of marmosets in the decline of bird populations in the study area.

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  2. Sensitivity of neurons in the middle temporal area of marmoset monkeys to random dot motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tristan A; Allitt, Benjamin J; Hagan, Maureen A; Price, Nicholas S C; Rajan, Ramesh; Rosa, Marcello G P; Lui, Leo L

    2017-09-01

    Neurons in the middle temporal area (MT) of the primate cerebral cortex respond to moving visual stimuli. The sensitivity of MT neurons to motion signals can be characterized by using random-dot stimuli, in which the strength of the motion signal is manipulated by adding different levels of noise (elements that move in random directions). In macaques, this has allowed the calculation of "neurometric" thresholds. We characterized the responses of MT neurons in sufentanil/nitrous oxide-anesthetized marmoset monkeys, a species that has attracted considerable recent interest as an animal model for vision research. We found that MT neurons show a wide range of neurometric thresholds and that the responses of the most sensitive neurons could account for the behavioral performance of macaques and humans. We also investigated factors that contributed to the wide range of observed thresholds. The difference in firing rate between responses to motion in the preferred and null directions was the most effective predictor of neurometric threshold, whereas the direction tuning bandwidth had no correlation with the threshold. We also showed that it is possible to obtain reliable estimates of neurometric thresholds using stimuli that were not highly optimized for each neuron, as is often necessary when recording from large populations of neurons with different receptive field concurrently, as was the case in this study. These results demonstrate that marmoset MT shows an essential physiological similarity to macaque MT and suggest that its neurons are capable of representing motion signals that allow for comparable motion-in-noise judgments. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report the activity of neurons in marmoset MT in response to random-dot motion stimuli of varying coherence. The information carried by individual MT neurons was comparable to that of the macaque, and the maximum firing rates were a strong predictor of sensitivity. Our study provides key information regarding the neural

  3. Classificação morfofuncional dos dentes de saguis-de-tufo-branco (Callithrix jacchus, Callitrichidae, saguis-de-tufo-preto (C. penicillata e saguis-de-cara-branca (C. geoffroyi Morphofunctional classification of teeth of marmosets-tufted white (Callithrix jacchus, Callitrichidae, marmosets-tufted black (C. penicillata, and marmosets white-face (C. geoffroyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Machado Bertassoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo para analisar morfologicamente os dentes do saguis-de-tufo-branco (C. jacchus, saguis-de-tufo-preto (C. penicillata e saguis-de-cara-branca (C. geoffroyi, para compara-los entre si e com outras espécies já descritas na literatura. Utilizou-se dentes das três espécies para analises macroscópicas, microscópicas e ultraestrutural e os resultados correlacionados com os obtidos com outras espécies citadas na literatura. Chegou-se a conclusão de que: as três espécies apresentaram uma fórmula dentária idêntica, chegando a um total de 32 dentes, expressa na fórmula 2x: incisivos 2/2; caninos 1/1; pré-molares 3/3 e molares 2/2, estes são classificados como diplodontes, anelodontes, bunodontes, e braquiodontes.A study was conducted to analyze the morphology of the teeth of white-tufted-ear-marmoset (C. jacchus black-tufted-ear-marmoset (C. penicillata and marmosets-white-faced (C. geoffroyi, to compare them among themselves and with other species described in the literature. Teeth of the three species were submitted to macroscopic, microscopic and ultrastructural analyzes. The results were correlated with those of other species. We concluded that: the three species have a similar dental formula, reaching a total of 32 teeth, expressed in the formula 2x: incisors 2/2; canines 1/1, pre-molars 3/3 and molars 2/2, ich are classified as diplodont, anelodont, bunodont and brachyodont.

  4. Low levels of sarin affect the EEG in marmoset monkeys: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.H.P.M. van; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Trap, H.C.; Philippens, I.H.C.; Benschop, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) for the electroencephalogram (EEG) upon long-term, low-level exposure of vehicle-pretreated and pyridostigmine-pretreated marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour. This is the C·t value (t = 5 h) of

  5. Predictive Value of Parkinsonian Primates in Pharmacologic Studies: A Comparison between the Macaque, Marmoset, and Squirrel Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyres, Nicolas; Hamadjida, Adjia; Huot, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned primate is the gold-standard animal model of Parkinson disease (PD) and has been used to assess the effectiveness of experimental drugs on dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and psychosis. Three species have been used in most studies-the macaque, marmoset, and squirrel monkey-the last much less so than the first two species; however, the predictive value of each species at forecasting clinical efficacy, or lack thereof, is poorly documented. Here, we have reviewed all the published literature detailing pharmacologic studies that assessed the effects of experimental drugs on dyskinesia, parkinsonism, and psychosis in each of these species and have calculated their predictive value of success and failure at the clinical level. We found that, for dyskinesia, the macaque has a positive predictive value of 87.5% and a false-positive rate of 38.1%, whereas the marmoset has a positive predictive value of 76.9% and a false-positive rate of 15.6%. For parkinsonism, the macaque has a positive predictive value of 68.2% and a false-positive rate of 44.4%, whereas the marmoset has a positive predictive value of 86.9% and a false-positive rate of 41.7%. No drug that alleviates psychosis in the clinic has shown efficacy at doing so in the macaque, whereas the marmoset has 100% positive predictive value. The small number of studies conducted in the squirrel monkey precluded us from calculating its predictive efficacy. We hope our results will help in the design of pharmacologic experiments and will facilitate the drug discovery and development process in PD. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Intravenous administration of the adeno-associated virus-PHP.B capsid fails to upregulate transduction efficiency in the marmoset brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Konno, Ayumu; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Shinohara, Yoichiro; Nitta, Keisuke; Okada, Yukihiro; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2018-02-05

    Intravenous administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-PHP.B, a capsid variant of AAV9 containing seven amino acid insertions, results in a greater permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) than standard AAV9 in mice, leading to highly efficient and global transduction of the central nervous system (CNS). The present study aimed to examine whether the enhanced BBB penetrance of AAV-PHP.B observed in mice also occurs in non-human primates. Thus, a young adult (age, 1.6 years) and an old adult (age, 7.2 years) marmoset received an intravenous injection of AAV-PHP.B expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the constitutive CBh promoter (a hybrid of cytomegalovirus early enhancer and chicken β-actin promoter). Age-matched control marmosets were treated with standard AAV9-capsid vectors. The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after the viral injection. Based on the results, only limited transduction of neurons (0-2%) and astrocytes (0.1-2.5%) was observed in both AAV-PHP.B- and AAV9-treated marmosets. One noticeable difference between AAV-PHP.B and AAV9 was the marked transduction of the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons. Indeed, the soma and axons in the projection from the spinal cord to the nucleus cuneatus in the medulla oblongata were strongly labeled with EGFP by AAV-PHP.B. Thus, except for the peripheral dorsal root ganglia neurons, the AAV-PHP.B transduction efficiency in the CNS of marmosets was comparable to that of AAV9 vectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapidly evolving marmoset MSMB genes are differently expressed in the male genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceder Yvonne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-microseminoprotein, an abundant component in prostatic fluid, is encoded by the potential tumor suppressor gene MSMB. Some New World monkeys carry several copies of this gene, in contrast to most mammals, including humans, which have one only. Here we have investigated the background for the species difference by analyzing the chromosomal organization and expression of MSMB in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. Methods Genes were identified in the Callithrix jacchus genome database using bioinformatics and transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantified by real time PCR in the presence of SYBR green. Results The common marmoset has five MSMB: one processed pseudogene and four functional genes. The latter encompass homologous genomic regions of 32-35 kb, containing the genes of 12-14 kb and conserved upstream and downstream regions of 14-19 kb and 3-4 kb. One gene, MSMB1, occupies the same position on the chromosome as the single human gene. On the same chromosome, but several Mb away, is another MSMB locus situated with MSMB2, MSMB3 and MSMB4 arranged in tandem. Measurements of transcripts demonstrated that all functional genes are expressed in the male genital tract, generating very high transcript levels in the prostate. The transcript levels in seminal vesicles and testis are two and four orders of magnitude lower. A single gene, MSMB3, accounts for more than 90% of MSMB transcripts in both the prostate and the seminal vesicles, whereas in the testis around half of the transcripts originate from MSMB2. These genes display rapid evolution with a skewed distribution of mutated nucleotides; in MSMB2 they affect nucleotides encoding the N-terminal Greek key domain, whereas in MSMB3 it is the C-terminal MSMB-unique domain that is affected. Conclusion Callitrichide monkeys have four functional MSMB that are all expressed in the male genital tract, but the product from one gene, MSMB3, will predominate in seminal

  8. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  9. Simultaneously Discovering and Localizing Common Objects in Wild Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Yuan, Junsong

    2018-09-01

    Motivated by the recent success of supervised and weakly supervised common object discovery, in this paper, we move forward one step further to tackle common object discovery in a fully unsupervised way. Generally, object co-localization aims at simultaneously localizing objects of the same class across a group of images. Traditional object localization/detection usually trains specific object detectors which require bounding box annotations of object instances, or at least image-level labels to indicate the presence/absence of objects in an image. Given a collection of images without any annotations, our proposed fully unsupervised method is to simultaneously discover images that contain common objects and also localize common objects in corresponding images. Without requiring to know the total number of common objects, we formulate this unsupervised object discovery as a sub-graph mining problem from a weighted graph of object proposals, where nodes correspond to object proposals, and edges represent the similarities between neighbouring proposals. The positive images and common objects are jointly discovered by finding sub-graphs of strongly connected nodes, with each sub-graph capturing one object pattern. The optimization problem can be efficiently solved by our proposed maximal-flow-based algorithm. Instead of assuming that each image contains only one common object, our proposed solution can better address wild images where each image may contain multiple common objects or even no common object. Moreover, our proposed method can be easily tailored to the task of image retrieval in which the nodes correspond to the similarity between query and reference images. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007 and Object Discovery data sets demonstrate that even without any supervision, our approach can discover/localize common objects of various classes in the presence of scale, view point, appearance variation, and partial occlusions. We also conduct broad

  10. Risco de transmissão do vírus da raiva oriundo de sagui (Callithrix jacchus, domiciliado e semidomiciliado, para o homem na região metropolitana de Fortaleza, estado do Ceará Risks of transmitting rabies virus from captive domiciliary common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus to human beings, in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza D'ávila de Freitas Aguiar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Uma variante do vírus da raivafoi identificadaem associação a casos de raiva humanos, no Estado do Ceará, transmitidos por saguis (Callithrix jacchus, primatas frequentemente criados como animais de estimação. Essa variante não apresenta proximidade antigênica ou relação genética com as variantes do vírus encontradas em morcegos e mamíferos terrestres das Américas. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os fatores de risco de transmissão do vírus da raiva oriundo de sagui (C. jacchus, criado como animal de estimação, para o homem na região metropolitana de Fortaleza, Ceará. MÉTODOS: Foi aplicado um questionário estruturado aos criadores de saguis, residentes nos municípios de Aquiraz e Maranguape, Ceará, enfocando o manejo e a interação desses primatas com humanos. Para avaliação da ocorrência de antígenos rábicos, através do teste de imunofluorescência direta (IFD, foram coletadas amostras de saliva dos saguis domiciliados e semidomiciliados. Com base nos resultados obtidos desses espécimes, foram analisadas amostras de sistema nervoso central (SNC. RESULTADOS: Na análise dos questionários, observou-se a proximidade dos criadores de saguis durante o manejo desses animais nos domicílios, bem como, seus conhecimentos limitados sobre a raiva, demonstrando haver risco quanto à transmissão do vírus. De 29 amostras de saliva de saguis reavaliadas, uma (3,4% apresentou reação de IFD positiva. De 11 amostras de SNC, três (27,3% apresentaram positividade. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados laboratoriais estão de acordo com os achados dos questionários, confirmando haver risco da transmissão do vírus da raiva devido à convivência de humanos com saguis (C. jacchus.INTRODUCTION: In the State of Ceará, a new variant of the rabies virus was identified associated with cases of human rabies transmitted by common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, which are frequently kept as pets. This new variant does not present

  11. Oxytocin is associated with infant-care behavior and motivation in cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenwirth, Christa; Martins, Eloisa; Deschner, Tobias; Burkart, Judith M

    2016-04-01

    The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) is positively involved in the regulation of parenting and social bonding in mammals, and may thus also be important for the mediation of alloparental care. In cooperatively breeding marmosets, infants are raised in teamwork by parents and adult and sub-adult non-reproductive helpers (usually older siblings). Despite high intrinsic motivation, which may be mediated by hormonal priming, not all individuals are always equally able to contribute to infant-care due to competition among care-takers. Among the various care-taking behaviors, proactive food sharing may reflect motivational levels best, since it can be performed ad libitum by several individuals even if competition among surplus care-takers constrains access to infants. Our aim was to study the link between urinary OT levels and care-taking behaviors in group-living marmosets, while taking affiliation with other adults and infant age into account. Over eight reproductive cycles, 26 individuals were monitored for urinary baseline OT, care-taking behaviors (baby-licking, -grooming, -carrying, and proactive food sharing), and adult-directed affiliation. Mean OT levels were generally highest in female breeders and OT increased significantly in all individuals after birth. During early infancy, high urinary OT levels were associated with increased infant-licking but low levels of adult-affiliation, and during late infancy, with increased proactive food sharing. Our results show that, in marmoset parents and alloparents, OT is positively involved in the regulation of care-taking, thereby reflecting the changing needs during infant development. This particularly included behaviors that are more likely to reflect intrinsic care motivation, suggesting a positive link between OT and motivational regulation of infant-care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of prenatal dexamethasone treatment on physical growth, pituitary-adrenal hormones, and performance of motor, motivational, and cognitive tasks in juvenile and adolescent common marmoset monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Jonas; Knapman, Alana; Zürcher, Nicole R; Pilloud, Sonia; Maier, Claudia; Diaz-Heijtz, Rochellys; Forssberg, Hans; Dettling, Andrea; Feldon, Joram; Pryce, Christopher R

    2008-12-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone (DEX) are commonly used to prevent respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants, but there is emerging evidence of subsequent neurobehavioral abnormalities (e.g. problems with inattention/hyperactivity). In the present study, we exposed pregnant common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, primates) to daily repeated DEX (5 mg/kg by mouth) during either early (d 42-48) or late (d 90-96) pregnancy (gestation period of 144 days). Relative to control, and with a longitudinal design, we investigated DEX effects in offspring in terms of physical growth, plasma ACTH and cortisol titers, social and maintenance behaviors, skilled motor reaching, motivation for palatable reward, and learning between infancy and adolescence. Early DEX resulted in reduced sociability in infants and increased motivation for palatable reward in adolescents. Late DEX resulted in a mild transient increase in knee-heel length in infants and enhanced reversal learning of stimulus-reward association in adolescents. There was no effect of either early or late DEX on basal plasma ACTH or cortisol titers. Both treatments resulted in impaired skilled motor reaching in juveniles, which attenuated in early DEX but persisted in late DEX across test sessions. The increased palatable-reward motivation and decreased social motivation observed in early DEX subjects provide experimental support for the clinical reports that prenatal glucocorticoid treatment impairs social development and predisposes to metabolic syndrome. These novel primate findings indicate that fetal glucocorticoid overexposure can lead to abnormal development of motor, affective, and cognitive behaviors. Importantly, the outcome is highly dependent upon the timing of glucocorticoid overexposure.

  13. Marmosets treated with oxytocin are more socially attractive to their long-term mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon eCavanaugh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult male-female bonds are partly characterized by initiating and maintaining close proximity with a social partner, as well as engaging in high levels of affiliative and sociosexual behavior. Oxytocin (OXT, a neuromodulatory nonapeptide, plays a critical role in the facilitation of social bonding and prosocial behavior toward a social partner (Feldman, 2012. However, less attention has been given to whether augmentation of OXT levels in an individual alters others’ perceptions and behavior toward an OXT-treated social partner. We examined social dynamics in well-established male-female pairs of marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus in which one member of the pair was administered an intranasal OXT agonist, an OXT antagonist, or saline. OXT treatment did not alter the expression of affiliative toward an untreated partner. However, OXT did significantly influence the expression of proximity and grooming behavior with a treated partner, as a function of OXT treatment and sex. Female interest in initiating and maintaining proximity with a pair-mate was altered by OXT treatment. Untreated female marmosets departed from their saline-treated partner more frequently than they approached them, as indicated by a low proximity index score. However, when males received an intranasal OXT agonist they had a significantly increased proximity index score relative to saline, indicating that their untreated partner approached them more often than they departed from them. Saline-treated females initiated and received equivalent levels of grooming behavior. However, when female marmosets were treated with an OXT agonist their untreated partner groomed them proportionately more often, for a greater total duration, and for more time per bout, than they initiated grooming behavior. These results suggest that intranasal OXT altered male and female marmosets’ stimulus properties in such a way as to increase the amount of grooming behavior that females received from

  14. Gestational cortisol and social play shape development of marmosets' HPA functioning and behavioral responses to stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Taylor, Jack H; Birnie, Andrew K; Huffman, Michelle C; French, Jeffrey A

    2014-09-01

    Both gestational cortisol exposure (GCE) and variability in postnatal environments can shape the later-life behavioral and endocrine outcomes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We examined the influence of GCE and social play on HPA functioning in developing marmosets. Maternal urinary cortisol samples were collected across pregnancy to determine GCE for 28 marmoset offspring (19 litters). We administered a social separation stressor to offspring at 6, 12, and 18 months of age, during which we collected urinary cortisol samples and behavioral observations. Increased GCE was associated with increased basal cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, but the strength of this relationship decreased across age. Increased social play was associated with decreased basal cortisol levels and a marginally greater reduction in cortisol reactivity as offspring aged, regardless of offspring GCE. Thus, GCE is associated with HPA functioning, but socially enriching postnatal environments can alter the effects associated with increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Calibration and validation of a physiologically based model for soman intoxication in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig and pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaizhen; Seng, Kok-Yong

    2012-09-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model has been developed for low, medium and high levels of soman intoxication in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig and pig. The primary objective of this model was to describe the pharmacokinetics of soman after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig, and pig as well as its subsequent pharmacodynamic effects on blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels, relating dosimetry to physiological response. The reactions modelled in each physiologically realistic compartment are: (1) partitioning of C(±)P(±) soman from the blood into the tissue; (2) inhibition of AChE and carboxylesterase (CaE) by soman; (3) elimination of soman by enzymatic hydrolysis; (4) de novo synthesis and degradation of AChE and CaE; and (5) aging of AChE-soman and CaE-soman complexes. The model was first calibrated for the rat, then extrapolated for validation in the marmoset, guinea pig and pig. Adequate fits to experimental data on the time course of soman pharmacokinetics and AChE inhibition were achieved in the mammalian models. In conclusion, the present model adequately predicts the dose-response relationship resulting from soman intoxication and can potentially be applied to predict soman pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in other species, including human. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98.734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, C.P.; Kholkute, S.D.; Pongubala, J.M.; Patil, R.K.; Elger, W.A.; Jayaraman, S.

    1988-01-01

    The antiprogestin ZK 98.734 (11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(3-hydroxy-prop-1(Z)-enyl-4,9(10)-estradien-3-one) was administered i.m. (5 mg/day) for three consecutive days to two groups of common marmosets. In one group (nonpregnant, n = 6), it was injected during the luteal phase, and to the second group (pregnant, n = 7), it was injected during early pregnancy, on Days 24-26 of the mid-cycle estradiol peak. Administration of ZK 98.734 during the luteal phase caused a sharp drop in plasma progesterone levels. The luteal phase was shortened whether the drug was administered during the early or the late luteal phase. Similarly, administration of ZK 98.734 during early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and pregnancy was terminated in all of the animals. The post-treatment cycles in both groups of animals were ovulatory and of normal duration. 3 H-ZK 98.734 showed specific binding to myometrial cytosol fraction. ZK 98.734 also displaced the binding of 3 H-progesterone to progesterone receptors. However, progesterone had higher binding affinity than did ZK 98.734. The antifertility action of ZK 98.734 could be a result either of its luteolytic action or of its blocking the progesterone receptors in the target tissue. This study, therefore, indicates that in the common marmoset ZK 98.734 is a progesterone antagonist with a potential to terminate early pregnancy

  17. Analysis of QTLs for yield-related traits in Yuanjiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Peijiang; Tan, Lubin; Zhu, Zuofeng; Ma, Dan; Fu, Yongcai; Zhan, Xinchun; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing

    2010-02-01

    Using an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) collected from Yuanjiang County, Yunnan Province, China, as the donor and an elite cultivar 93-11, widely used in two-line indica hybrid rice production in China, as the recurrent parent, an advanced backcross populations were developed. Through genotyping of 187 SSR markers and investigation of six yield-related traits of two generations (BC(4)F(2) and BC(4)F(4)), a total of 26 QTLs were detected by employing single point analysis and interval mapping in both generations. Of the 26 QTLs, the alleles of 10 (38.5%) QTLs originating from O. rufipogon had shown a beneficial effect for yield-related traits in the 93-11 genetic background. In addition, five QTLs controlling yield and its components were newly identified, indicating that there are potentially novel alleles in Yuanjiang common wild rice. Three regions underling significant QTLs for several yield-related traits were detected on chromosome 1, 7 and 12. The QTL clusters were founded and corresponding agronomic traits of those QTLs showed highly significant correlation, suggesting the pleiotropism or tight linkage. Fine-mapping and cloning of these yield-related QTLs from wild rice would be helpful to elucidating molecular mechanism of rice domestication and rice breeding in the future. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Imitation as faithful copying of a novel technique in marmoset monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Voelkl

    Full Text Available Imitative learning has received great attention due to its supposed role in the development of culture and the cognitive demands it poses on the individual. Evidence for imitation in non-human primate species, therefore, could shed light on the early origins of proto-cultural traits in the primate order. Imitation has been defined as the learning of an act by seeing it done or, more specifically, as the copying of a novel or otherwise improbable act. But despite a century of research and the detection of mirror neurons the empirical basis for this most advanced form of observational learning is weak. Few, if any, studies have shown that the observer has learned the response topography, i.e., the specific action by which the response is made. In an experimental set-up we confronted marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus with a conspecific model that was previously trained to open a plastic box in a peculiar way. Employing detailed motion analyses we show that the observers precisely copied the movement patterns of the novel action demonstrated by the model. A discriminant analysis classified 13 out of 14 observer movements (92.86% as model movements and only one as non-observer movement. This evidence of imitation in non-human primates questions the dominant opinion that imitation is a human-specific ability. Furthermore, the high matching degree suggests that marmosets possess the neuronal mechanism to code the actions of others and to map them onto their own motor repertoire, rather than priming existing motor-templates.

  19. MARMOSET: The Path from LHC Data to the New Standard Model via On-Shell Effective Theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; Thaler, Jesse; Wang, Lian-Tao; Mrenna, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    We describe a coherent strategy and set of tools for reconstructing the fundamental theory of the TeV scale from LHC data. We show that On-Shell Effective Theories (OSETs) effectively characterize hadron collider data in terms of masses, production cross sections, and decay modes of candidate new particles. An OSET description of the data strongly constrains the underlying new physics, and sharply motivates the construction of its Lagrangian. Simulating OSETs allows efficient analysis of new-physics signals, especially when they arise from complicated production and decay topologies. To this end, we present MARMOSET, a Monte Carlo tool for simulating the OSET version of essentially any new-physics model. MARMOSET enables rapid testing of theoretical hypotheses suggested by both data and model-building intuition, which together chart a path to the underlying theory. We illustrate this process by working through a number of data challenges, where the most important features of TeV-scale physics are reconstructed with as little as 5 fb -1 of simulated LHC signals

  20. MARMOSET: The Path from LHC Data to the New Standard Model via On-Shell Effective Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept.; Thaler, Jesse; /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley; Wang, Lian-Tao; /Princeton U.; Knuteson, Bruce; /MIT, LNS; Mrenna, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    We describe a coherent strategy and set of tools for reconstructing the fundamental theory of the TeV scale from LHC data. We show that On-Shell Effective Theories (OSETs) effectively characterize hadron collider data in terms of masses, production cross sections, and decay modes of candidate new particles. An OSET description of the data strongly constrains the underlying new physics, and sharply motivates the construction of its Lagrangian. Simulating OSETs allows efficient analysis of new-physics signals, especially when they arise from complicated production and decay topologies. To this end, we present MARMOSET, a Monte Carlo tool for simulating the OSET version of essentially any new-physics model. MARMOSET enables rapid testing of theoretical hypotheses suggested by both data and model-building intuition, which together chart a path to the underlying theory. We illustrate this process by working through a number of data challenges, where the most important features of TeV-scale physics are reconstructed with as little as 5 fb{sup -1} of simulated LHC signals.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of riluzole in early phase Parkinson's disease on clinically relevant parameters in the marmoset MPTP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, P.S.; Jongsma, M.J.; Berg, R.M. van den; Vanwersch, R.A.P.; Smit, A.B.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates neuroprotection in a marmoset MPTP (1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) model representing early Parkinson's disease (PD). The anti-glutamatergic compound riluzole is used as a model compound for neuroprotection. The compound is one of the few protective compounds used

  2. Experimental Respiratory Infection of Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) With Ebola Virus Kikwit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Sophie J; Nelson, Michelle; Eastaugh, Lin; Nunez, Alejandro; Salguero, Francisco J; Lever, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a highly infectious and lethal hemorrhagic fever in primates with high fatality rates during outbreaks and EBOV may be exploited as a potential biothreat pathogen. There is therefore a need to develop and license appropriate medical countermeasures against this virus. To determine whether the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) would be an appropriate model to assess vaccines or therapies against EBOV disease (EVD), initial susceptibility, lethality and pathogenesis studies were performed. Low doses of EBOV-Kikwit, between 4 and 27 times the 50% tissue culture infectious dose, were sufficient to cause a lethal, reproducible infection. Animals became febrile between days 5 and 6, maintaining a high fever before succumbing to EVD between 6 and 8 days after challenge. Typical signs of EVD were observed. Pathogenesis studies revealed that virus was isolated from the lungs of animals beginning on day 3 after challenge and from the liver, spleen and blood beginning on day 5. The most striking features were observed in animals that succumbed to infection, including high viral titers in all organs, increased levels of liver function enzymes and blood clotting times, decreased levels of platelets, multifocal moderate to severe hepatitis, and perivascular edema. © Crown copyright 2015.

  3. A small nonhuman primate model for filovirus-induced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Ro, Youngtae; Hoosien, Kareema; Ticer, Anysha; Brasky, Kathy; de la Garza, Melissa; Mansfield, Keith; Patterson, Jean L

    2011-11-25

    Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus are members of the filovirus family and induce a fatal hemorrhagic disease in humans and nonhuman primates with 90% case fatality. To develop a small nonhuman primate model for filovirus disease, common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were intramuscularly inoculated with wild type Marburgvirus Musoke or Ebolavirus Zaire. The infection resulted in a systemic fatal disease with clinical and morphological features closely resembling human infection. Animals experienced weight loss, fever, high virus titers in tissue, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia, high liver transaminases and phosphatases and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Evidence of a severe disseminated viral infection characterized principally by multifocal to coalescing hepatic necrosis was seen in EBOV animals. MARV-infected animals displayed only moderate fibrin deposition in the spleen. Lymphoid necrosis and lymphocytic depletion observed in spleen. These findings provide support for the use of the common marmoset as a small nonhuman primate model for filovirus induced hemorrhagic fever. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative morphology of the diaphragm of white tufted-ear marmoset and the white-fronted marmoset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Borges Lessa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The marmosets of the Callithrix genus have a great importance in the research field, not only for its occurrence in the ecosystems of South America and Central America, but also because of its small size and easy management. This study aimed to characterize the ultrastructure of the diaphragm of four adult animals of the C. jacchus species and four animals of the C. geoffroyi species that died from natural causes. Diaphragms were collected, dissected, and fixed in 10% formaldehyde and analyzed through scanning electron microscopy. It was observed the presence of an external membrane of connective tissue, with cylindrical muscle fibers arranged in rows perpendicular to the longitudinal axis and grouped into fascicles. In C. jacchus it was observed a discontinuous and linear fibers’ architecture, resulting in a score of 7 and 8 fascicles for male and female, respectively. In C. geoffroyi the fiber had a continuous shape, but also linear, yielding a total of 9 and 6 fascicles for male and female, respectively. The architecture of muscle fibers and the count of fascicles of the coastal face of the diaphragm suggest differences between the species C. geoffroyi and C. jacchus and between males and females, intra- and interspecies.

  5. Trialling nutrient recommendations for slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) based on wild feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabana, F; Dierenfeld, E; Wirdateti, W; Donati, G; Nekaris, K A I

    2018-02-01

    Slow loris (Nycticebus spp.) captive diets have been based on routine and anecdotes rather than scientific fact. The growing body of evidence contradicts the high fruit diet supported by such anecdotes. Non-human primate nutrient requirements are grouped into new (based on the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus) or old world (based on rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta) primates. Slow lorises are known to suffer from many health ailments in captivity such as dental disease, obesity, wasting and kidney issues all of which have been linked to diet. This study aimed to estimate nutrient intake from free-ranging slow lorises and to determine whether this intake can be used as nutrient recommendations. We collected data of nutrient intake, food passage rate and digestibility of captive slow lorises on three diet treatments 1: current captive type diet which is mostly fruits, 2: wild-type diet made only of food items from their natural diet, 3: new diet made to reflect wild slow loris nutrient intake. In order to validate our nutrient recommendations, diets 2 and 3 would have to be significantly different to Diet 1 in terms of nutrients, but not different from each other. Captive diets were significantly higher in soluble carbohydrates and lower in minerals and fibre fractions than both diets 2 and 3. Diets 2 and 3 led to a significantly increased food passage time and to more effective fibre and calcium digestion compared to Diet 1. We also observed obese individuals lost weight and underweight individuals gained weight. Our nutrient recommendations have been validated by our trials, and new or old world monkey nutrient recommendations are not consistent with our results. Diets should be high in protein and fibre and low in soluble carbohydrates and fats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Dental remains of cebid platyrrhines from the earliest late Miocene of Western Amazonia, Peru: Macroevolutionary implications on the extant capuchin and marmoset lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Undoubted fossil Cebidae have so far been primarily documented from the late middle Miocene of Colombia, the late Miocene of Brazilian Amazonia, the early Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia, and very recently from the earliest Miocene of Panama. The evolutionary history of cebids is far from being well-documented, with notably a complete blank in the record of callitrichine stem lineages until and after the late middle Miocene (Laventan SALMA). Further documenting their evolutionary history is therefore of primary importance. Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have allowed for the discovery of an early late Miocene (ca. 11 Ma; Mayoan SALMA) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-43; Pebas Formation). In this study, we analyze the primate material, which consists of five isolated teeth documenting two distinct Cebidae: Cebus sp., a medium-sized capuchin (Cebinae), and Cebuella sp., a tiny marmoset (Callitrichinae). Although limited, this new fossil material of platyrrhines contributes to documenting the post-Laventan evolutionary history of cebids, and besides testifies to the earliest occurrences of the modern Cebuella and Cebus/Sapajus lineages in the Neotropics. Regarding the evolutionary history of callitrichine marmosets, the discovery of an 11 Ma-old fossil representative of the modern Cebuella pushes back by at least 6 Ma the age of the Mico/Cebuella divergence currently proposed by molecular biologists (i.e., ca. 4.5 Ma). This also extends back to > 11 Ma BP the divergence between Callithrix and the common ancestor (CA) of Mico/Cebuella, as well as the divergence between the CA of marmosets and Callimico (Goeldi's callitrichine). This discovery from Peruvian Amazonia implies a deep evolutionary root of the Cebuella lineage in the northwestern part of South America (the modern western Amazon basin), slightly before the recession of the Pebas mega-wetland system (PMWS), ca. 10.5 Ma, and well-before the subsequent

  7. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langenberg, Jan P

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up to DAMDl7-94-V-4OO9, the inhalation toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard are studied in more detail in the hairless guinea pig as well as in a species more relevant for man, i.e., the marmoset...

  8. Severity of Bovine Tuberculosis Is Associated with Co-Infection with Common Pathogens in Wild Boar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco, David; Serrano, Emmanuel; Fernández-Llario, Pedro; Cuesta, Jesús M.; Gonçalves, Pilar; García-Jiménez, Waldo L.; Martínez, Remigio; Cerrato, Rosario; Velarde, Roser; Gómez, Luis; Segalés, Joaquím; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa), a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes), or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs), was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures under

  9. Severity of bovine tuberculosis is associated with co-infection with common pathogens in wild boar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Risco

    Full Text Available Co-infections with parasites or viruses drive tuberculosis dynamics in humans, but little is known about their effects in other non-human hosts. This work aims to investigate the relationship between Mycobacterium bovis infection and other pathogens in wild boar (Sus scrofa, a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in Mediterranean ecosystems. For this purpose, it has been assessed whether contacts with common concomitant pathogens are associated with the development of severe bTB lesions in 165 wild boar from mid-western Spain. The presence of bTB lesions affecting only one anatomic location (cervical lymph nodes, or more severe patterns affecting more than one location (mainly cervical lymph nodes and lungs, was assessed in infected animals. In addition, the existence of contacts with other pathogens such as porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2, Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV, swine influenza virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Metastrongylus spp, was evaluated by means of serological, microbiological and parasitological techniques. The existence of contacts with a structured community of pathogens in wild boar infected by M. bovis was statistically investigated by null models. Association between this community of pathogens and bTB severity was examined using a Partial Least Squares regression approach. Results showed that adult wild boar infected by M. bovis had contacted with some specific, non-random pathogen combinations. Contact with PCV2, ADV and infection by Metastrongylus spp, was positively correlated to tuberculosis severity. Therefore, measures against these concomitant pathogens such as vaccination or deworming, might be useful in tuberculosis control programmes in the wild boar. However, given the unexpected consequences of altering any community of organisms, further research should evaluate the impact of such measures

  10. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar Kosmos Turesson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing and symbolic (referential signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet. We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols. To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  11. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  12. Set-up of a System to Reliably Measure the Startle Response in Marmoset Monkeys; Application in Animal Models of Anxiety and Psychosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meichers, B.P

    1998-01-01

    .... In addition, the startle response is increased during periods of anxiety. In this study, a system is described by which the acoustic startle response in marmoset monkeys may be recorded in a reliable way...

  13. The effects of captive versus wild rearing environments on long bone articular surfaces in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi L. Lewton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical environments of captive and wild animals frequently differ in substrate types and compliance. As a result, there is an assumption that differences in rearing environments between captive and wild individuals produce differences in skeletal morphology. Here, this hypothesis is tested using a sample of 42 captive and wild common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Articular surface areas of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia were calculated from linear breadth measurements, adjusted for size differences using Mosimann shape variables, and compared across sex and environmental groups using two-way ANOVA. Results indicate that the articular surfaces of the wrist and knee differ between captive and wild chimpanzees; captive individuals have significantly larger distal ulna and tibial plateau articular surfaces. In both captive and wild chimpanzees, males have significantly larger femoral condyles and distal radius surfaces than females. Finally, there is an interaction effect between sex and rearing in the articular surfaces of the femoral condyles and distal radius in which captive males have significantly larger surface areas than all other sex-rearing groups. These data suggest that long bone articular surfaces may be sensitive to differences experienced by captive and wild individuals, such as differences in diet, body mass, positional behaviors, and presumed loading environments. Importantly, these results only find differences due to rearing environment in some long bone articular surfaces. Thus, future work on skeletal morphology could cautiously incorporate data from captive individuals, but should first investigate potential intraspecific differences between captive and wild individuals.

  14. The different clinical effects of anti-BLyS, anti-APRIL and anti-CD20 antibodies point at a critical pathogenic role of γ-herpesvirus infected B cells in the marmoset EAE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Jagessar, S; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heijmans, Nicole; Bauer, Jan; Laman, Jon D; Oh, Luke; Migone, Thi; Verschoor, Ernst J; 't Hart, Bert A

    2013-06-01

    The robust and rapid clinical effect of depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) in multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrates a critical pathogenic contribution of B cells. The clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb has been replicated in a relevant preclinical MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus). By contrast, treatment with mAbs against two essential cytokines in B cell activation growth and survival, i.e. BlyS/BAFF and APRIL, was only partially effective. All three mAbs induced depletion of CD20+ B cells from the circulation, albeit with different kinetics and based on distinct mechanisms of action. In the current study we analyzed whether the different clinical effect of anti-CD20 mAb or the anti-BLyS and anti-APRIL mAbs is due to different depletion of B cells infected with the EBV of marmosets, CalHV3. Employing a novel PCR-based assay, half of the colony of group-housed marmosets was tested positive for CalHV3 DNA in secondary lymphoid organs. The same prevalence was observed in placebo-treated monkeys. In marmosets treated with anti-CD20 mAb the load of CalHV3 DNA in lymphoid organs was substantially reduced, while this was not observed in the monkeys treated with anti-BLyS or anti-APRIL mAbs. To examine the pathogenic role of virus-transformed B cells, we infused EBV-transformed B lymphoblastic cell (BLC) lines presenting the immunodominant MOG34-56 peptide. We observed in the recipients of MOG34-56 pulsed BLC, but not in their fraternal siblings infused with non-pulsed BLC, activation of anti-MOG34-56 T cells and meningeal inflammation. Collectively, the data show that among CD20+ B cells, the herpesvirus-transformed subset has a particularly important pathogenic role in the marmoset EAE model.

  15. Salmonella Yoruba infection in white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Knöbl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe a fatal salmonellosis case in a non-human female primate (Callithrix jacchus, found in the illegal pet trade in Brazil. The marmoset was sent to the quarantine section of the Guarulhos City Zoo and died in the sequence of an episode of profuse diarrhea. Necropsy findings included mucous enteritis, and liver enlargement and necrosis. Feces and liver fragments were collected for bacteriological tests, which indicated the presence of Salmonella sp.; it was subsequently characterized as pertaining to the Yoruba serotype. The susceptibility profile demonstrated resistance to tetracycline only. The strain was positive for genes that encoded the virulence factors investigated (invA, sefC, pefA and spvC. The results indicated the risk of introduction of Salmonella pathogenic serotypes in primates in captivity.

  16. Genome wide re-sequencing of newly developed Rice Lines from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) for the identification of NBS-LRR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Ghouri, Fozia; Yu, Hang; Li, Xiang; Yu, Shuhong; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Liu, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is an important germplasm for rice breeding, which contains many resistance genes. Re-sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore the abundant useful genes at whole genome level. Here, we identified the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) encoding genes by re-sequencing of two wild rice lines (i.e. Huaye 1 and Huaye 2) that were developed from common wild rice. We obtained 128 to 147 million reads with approximately 32.5-fold coverage depth, and uniquely covered more than 89.6% (> = 1 fold) of reference genomes. Two wild rice lines showed high SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) variation rate in 12 chromosomes against the reference genomes of Nipponbare (japonica cultivar) and 93-11 (indica cultivar). InDels (insertion/deletion polymorphisms) count-length distribution exhibited normal distribution in the two lines, and most of the InDels were ranged from -5 to 5 bp. With reference to the Nipponbare genome sequence, we detected a total of 1,209,308 SNPs, 161,117 InDels and 4,192 SVs (structural variations) in Huaye 1, and 1,387,959 SNPs, 180,226 InDels and 5,305 SVs in Huaye 2. A total of 44.9% and 46.9% genes exhibited sequence variations in two wild rice lines compared to the Nipponbare and 93-11 reference genomes, respectively. Analysis of NBS-LRR mutant candidate genes showed that they were mainly distributed on chromosome 11, and NBS domain was more conserved than LRR domain in both wild rice lines. NBS genes depicted higher levels of genetic diversity in Huaye 1 than that found in Huaye 2. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction analysis showed that NBS genes mostly interacted with the cytochrome C protein (Os05g0420600, Os01g0885000 and BGIOSGA038922), while some NBS genes interacted with heat shock protein, DNA-binding activity, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and a coiled coil region. We explored abundant NBS-LRR encoding genes in two common wild rice lines through genome wide re

  17. Oral treatment with the NADPH oxidase antagonist apocynin mitigates clinical and pathological features of parkinsonism in the MPTP marmoset model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Wubben, Jacqueline A; Finsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    models, the conditions for metabolic activation of apocynin and inhibition of microglia NADPH oxidase are in place. Marmoset monkeys received oral apocynin (100 mg/kg; p.o.) (n = 5) or Gum Arabica (controls; n = 5) three times daily until the end of the study, starting 1 week before PD induction...

  18. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Common Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and Discovery of Drought-Response Genes in Root Tissue Based on Transcriptomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xin-Jie; Long, Yan; Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Jing-Wen; Wang, Yan-Yan; Li, Wei-Min; Peng, Yu-Fa; Yuan, Qian-Hua; Pei, Xin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The perennial O. rufipogon (common wild rice), which is considered to be the ancestor of Asian cultivated rice species, contains many useful genetic resources, including drought resistance genes. However, few studies have identified the drought resistance and tissue-specific genes in common wild rice. In this study, transcriptome sequencing libraries were constructed, including drought-treated roots (DR) and control leaves (CL) and roots (CR). Using Illumina sequencing technology, we generated 16.75 million bases of high-quality sequence data for common wild rice and conducted de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 119,332 unigenes with an average length of 715 bp. A total of 88,813 distinct sequences (74.42% of unigenes) significantly matched known genes in the NCBI NT database. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis showed that 3617 genes were up-regulated and 4171 genes were down-regulated in the CR library compared with the CL library. Among the DEGs, 535 genes were expressed in roots but not in shoots. A similar comparison between the DR and CR libraries showed that 1393 genes were up-regulated and 315 genes were down-regulated in the DR library compared with the CR library. Finally, 37 genes that were specifically expressed in roots were screened after comparing the DEGs identified in the above-described analyses. This study provides a transcriptome sequence resource for common wild rice plants and establishes a digital gene expression profile of wild rice plants under drought conditions using the assembled transcriptome data as a reference. Several tissue-specific and drought-stress-related candidate genes were identified, representing a fully characterized transcriptome and providing a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies in plants.

  19. [Post-traumatic reconnection of the cervical spinal cord with skeletal striated muscles. Study in adult rats and marmosets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, J C; Affane-Boulaid, F; Baillet-Derbin, C; Davarpanah, Y; Destombes, J; Duchossoy, Y; Emery, E; Kassar-Duchossoy, L; Mira, J C; Moissonnier, P; Pécot-Dechavassine, M; Reviron, T; Rhrich-Haddout, F; Tadié, M; Ye, J H

    1997-01-01

    In an attempt at repairing the injured spinal cord of adult mammals (rat, dog and marmoset) and its damaged muscular connections, we are currently using: 1) peripheral nerve autografts (PNG), containing Schwann cells, to trigger and direct axonal regrowth from host and/or transplanted motoneurons towards denervated muscular targets; 2) foetal spinal cord transplants to replace lost neurons. In adult rats and marmosets, a PNG bridge was used to joint the injured cervical spinal cord to a denervated skeletal muscle (longissimus atlantis [rat] or biceps brachii [rat and marmoset]). The spinal lesion was obtained by the implantation procedure of the PNG. After a post-operative delay ranging from 2 to 22 months, the animals were checked electrophysiologically for functional muscular reconnection and processed for a morphological study including retrograde axonal tracing (HRP, Fast Blue, True Blue), histochemistry (AChE, ATPase), immunocytochemistry (ChAT) and EM. It was thus demonstrated that host motoneurons of the cervical enlargement could extend axons all the way through the PNG bridge as: a) in anaesthetized animals, contraction of the reconnected muscle could be obtained by electrical stimulation of the grafted nerve; b) the retrograde axonal tracing studies indicated that a great number of host cervical neurons extended axons into the PNG bridge up to the muscle; c) many of them were assumed to be motoneurons (double labelling with True Blue and an antibody against ChAT); and even alpha-motoneurons (type C axosomatic synapses in HRP labelled neurons seen in EM in the rat); d) numerous ectopic endplates were seen around the intramuscular tip of the PNG. In larger (cavitation) spinal lesions (rat), foetal motoneurons contained in E14 spinal cord transplants could similarly grow axons through PNG bridges up to the reconnected muscle. Taking all these data into account, it can be concluded that neural transplants are interesting tools for evaluating both the

  20. Custom fit 3D-printed brain holders for comparison of histology with MRI in marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Joseph R; Sati, Pascal; Leibovitch, Emily; Jacobson, Steven; Silva, Afonso C; Reich, Daniel S

    2016-01-15

    MRI has the advantage of sampling large areas of tissue and locating areas of interest in 3D space in both living and ex vivo systems, whereas histology has the ability to examine thin slices of ex vivo tissue with high detail and specificity. Although both are valuable tools, it is currently difficult to make high-precision comparisons between MRI and histology due to large differences inherent to the techniques. A method combining the advantages would be an asset to understanding the pathological correlates of MRI. 3D-printed brain holders were used to maintain marmoset brains in the same orientation during acquisition of ex vivo MRI and pathologic cutting of the tissue. The results of maintaining this same orientation show that sub-millimeter, discrete neuropathological features in marmoset brain consistently share size, shape, and location between histology and ex vivo MRI, which facilitates comparison with serial imaging acquired in vivo. Existing methods use computational approaches sensitive to data input in order to warp histologic images to match large-scale features on MRI, but the new method requires no warping of images, due to a preregistration accomplished in the technique, and is insensitive to data formatting and artifacts in both MRI and histology. The simple method of using 3D-printed brain holders to match brain orientation during pathologic sectioning and MRI acquisition enables rapid and precise comparison of small features seen on MRI to their underlying histology. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Intertextuality and Intermediality in Oscar Wilde's Salome : How Oscar Wilde Become a Postmodernist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Kornelis; Bennett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper approaches Wilde's play from three separate directions: intertextual, visual and musical. Comparing ideas and techniques in the play to the positions of postmodern thinkers, this chapter argues that Wilde sought to incorporate literary and philosophical elements more common to the late

  2. Low-level exposure of guinea pigs and marmosets to sarin vapour in air: Lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for miosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, H.P.M. van; Trap, H.C.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Oostdijk, J.P.; Benschop, H.P.; Langenberg, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to indicate, for low-level exposure of conscious guinea pigs and marmoset monkeys to sarin vapour in air, the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of sarin for miosis. This is the concentration × time (C·t) value (t = 5 h) of exposure at which miosis

  3. Characterization of an Integrated Active Glu-1Ay Allele in Common Wheat from Wild Emmer and Its Potential Role in Flour Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glu-1Ay, one of six genes encoding a high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS, is frequently silenced in hexaploid common wheat. Here, an active allele of Glu-1Ay was integrated from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides accession D97 into the common wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Chuannong 16 via the repeated self-fertilization of the pentaploid interspecific hybrid, culminating in the selection of a line TaAy7-40 shown to express the wild emmer Glu-1Ay allele. The open reading frame of this allele was a 1830 bp long sequence, demonstrated by its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli to encode a 608-residue polypeptide. Its nucleotide sequence was 99.2% identical to that of the sequence within the wild emmer parent. The TaAy7-40 introgression line containing the active Glu-1Ay allele showed higher protein content, higher sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS sedimentation value, higher content of wet gluten in the flour, higher grain weight, and bigger grain size than Chuannong 16. The end-use quality parameters of the TaAy7-40 were superior to those of the medium gluten common wheat cultivars Mianmai 37 and Neimai 9. Thus, the active Glu-1Ay allele might be of potential value in breeding programs designed to improve wheat flour quality.

  4. Identification of heterotic loci associated with yield-related traits in Chinese common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaojin; Wu, Shuang; Tian, Feng; Xin, Xiaoyun; Zha, Xiaojun; Dong, Xianxin; Fu, Yongcai; Wang, Xiangkun; Yang, Jinshui; Sun, Chuanqing

    2011-07-01

    Many rice breeding programs have currently reached yield plateaus as a result of limited genetic variability in parental strains. Dongxiang common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is the progenitor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and serves as an important gene pool for the genetic improvement of rice cultivars. In this study, heterotic loci (HLs) associated with six yield-related traits were identified in wild and cultivated rice and investigated using a set of 265 introgression lines (ILs) of O. rufipogon Griff. in the background of the Indica high-yielding cultivar Guichao 2 (O. sativa L.). Forty-two HLs were detected by a single point analysis of mid-parent heterosis values from test cross F(1) offspring, and 30 (71.5%) of these HLs showed significantly positive effects, consistent with the superiority shown by the F(1) test cross population in the six yield-related traits under study. Genetic mapping of hsp11, a locus responsible for the number of spikelets per panicle, confirmed the utility of these HLs. The results indicate that favorable HLs capable of improving agronomic traits are available. The identification of HLs between wild rice and cultivated rice could lead to a new strategy for the application of heterosis in rice breeding. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Custom Fit 3D-Printed Brain Holders for Comparison of Histology with MRI in Marmosets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Joseph R.; Sati, Pascal; Leibovitch, Emily; Jacobson, Steven; Silva, Afonso C.; Reich, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background MRI has the advantage of sampling large areas of tissue and locating areas of interest in 3D space in both living and ex vivo systems, whereas histology has the ability to examine thin slices of ex vivo tissue with high detail and specificity. Although both are valuable tools, it is currently difficult to make high-precision comparisons between MRI and histology due to large differences inherent to the techniques. A method combining the advantages would be an asset to understanding the pathological correlates of MRI. New Method 3D-printed brain holders were used to maintain marmoset brains in the same orientation during acquisition of ex vivo MRI and pathologic cutting of the tissue. Results The results of maintaining this same orientation show that sub-millimeter, discrete neuropathological features in marmoset brain consistently share size, shape, and location between histology and ex vivo MRI, which facilitates comparison with serial imaging acquired in vivo. Comparison with Existing Methods Existing methods use computational approaches sensitive to data input in order to warp histologic images to match large-scale features on MRI, but the new method requires no warping of images, due to a preregistration accomplished in the technique, and is insensitive to data formatting and artifacts in both MRI and histology. Conclusions The simple method of using 3D-printed brain holders to match brain orientation during pathologic sectioning and MRI acquisition enables rapid and precise comparison of small features seen on MRI to their underlying histology. PMID:26365332

  6. Cortical control of object-specific grasp relies on adjustments of both activity and effective connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tia, Banty; Takemi, Mitsuaki; Kosugi, Akito

    2017-01-01

    The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans. Here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite striking differences in manual dexterity. Two common marmosets were trained to grasp-and-pull three objects eliciting d...

  7. Genotyping by Sequencing and Genome–Environment Associations in Wild Common Bean Predict Widespread Divergent Adaptation to Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J. Cortés

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought will reduce global crop production by >10% in 2050 substantially worsening global malnutrition. Breeding for resistance to drought will require accessing crop genetic diversity found in the wild accessions from the driest high stress ecosystems. Genome–environment associations (GEA in crop wild relatives reveal natural adaptation, and therefore can be used to identify adaptive variation. We explored this approach in the food crop Phaseolus vulgaris L., characterizing 86 geo-referenced wild accessions using genotyping by sequencing (GBS to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. The wild beans represented Mesoamerica, Guatemala, Colombia, Ecuador/Northern Peru and Andean groupings. We found high polymorphism with a total of 22,845 SNPs across the 86 accessions that confirmed genetic relationships for the groups. As a second objective, we quantified allelic associations with a bioclimatic-based drought index using 10 different statistical models that accounted for population structure. Based on the optimum model, 115 SNPs in 90 regions, widespread in all 11 common bean chromosomes, were associated with the bioclimatic-based drought index. A gene coding for an ankyrin repeat-containing protein and a phototropic-responsive NPH3 gene were identified as potential candidates. Genomic windows of 1 Mb containing associated SNPs had more positive Tajima’s D scores than windows without associated markers. This indicates that adaptation to drought, as estimated by bioclimatic variables, has been under natural divergent selection, suggesting that drought tolerance may be favorable under dry conditions but harmful in humid conditions. Our work exemplifies that genomic signatures of adaptation are useful for germplasm characterization, potentially enhancing future marker-assisted selection and crop improvement.

  8. A Comparative Study of the Common Protozoan Parasites of Clarias gariepinus from the Wild and Cultured Environments in Benue State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeji, S.; Solomon, S. G.; Idoga, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    A total of one hundred and twenty Clarias gariepinus comprising 30 dead and 30 live fishes were examined for protozoan parasites infestation, sixty each from the wild and a pond (cultured environment) over a period of six months. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common protozoan parasites found in C. gariepinus from the wild (River Benue) and cultured (pond) environments. These protozoan parasites constitute 37.08% of the total parasites encountered for fishes in the pond and 42.51% of fishes in the wild. Among the body parts of the sampled fishes from the pond, the gills had the highest parasite load (38.86%). Also, the gills had the highest parasite load (40.54%) among the body parts of the fishes sampled from the wild. Fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the pond constituted 36.70% of the total fish sampled. On the other hand, fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the wild constituted 31.65% of the total fish sampled. Female fishes had more protozoan parasites than the male fishes. Bigger fishes of total length (25–48 cm) had more parasite load than the smaller ones (19–24 cm). Also, fishes between 150–750 g had more parasite load than the smaller ones of less than 150 g. Protozoan parasite load of fish from the cultured environment (pond) did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from those from River Benue (wild). PMID:22028952

  9. A Comparative Study of the Common Protozoan Parasites of Clarias gariepinus from the Wild and Cultured Environments in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Omeji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred and twenty Clarias gariepinus comprising 30 dead and 30 live fishes were examined for protozoan parasites infestation, sixty each from the wild and a pond (cultured environment over a period of six months. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common protozoan parasites found in C. gariepinus from the wild (River Benue and cultured (pond environments. These protozoan parasites constitute 37.08% of the total parasites encountered for fishes in the pond and 42.51% of fishes in the wild. Among the body parts of the sampled fishes from the pond, the gills had the highest parasite load (38.86%. Also, the gills had the highest parasite load (40.54% among the body parts of the fishes sampled from the wild. Fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the pond constituted 36.70% of the total fish sampled. On the other hand, fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the wild constituted 31.65% of the total fish sampled. Female fishes had more protozoan parasites than the male fishes. Bigger fishes of total length (25–48 cm had more parasite load than the smaller ones (19–24 cm. Also, fishes between 150–750 g had more parasite load than the smaller ones of less than 150 g. Protozoan parasite load of fish from the cultured environment (pond did not differ significantly (P<0.05 from those from River Benue (wild.

  10. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The Importance of Wild Canids in the Epidemiology of Rabies in Northeast Brazil: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R de A; Duarte, N F H; Rolim, B N; Soares Júnior, F A; Franco, I C F; Ferrer, L L; Almeida, C P; Duarte, B H; de Araújo, D B; Rocha, M F G; Brilhante, R S N; Favoretto, S R; Sidrim, J J C

    2016-09-01

    Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health. From January 2003 to December 2013, a total of 11 931 animal samples were examined for rabies. Positivity were detected in 438 samples (3.67%), of which 229 (52.28%) were domestic animals, 105 (23.97%) wild canids and 104 (23.74%) other wild animals (bats, marmosets and raccoons). Approximately 33% of wild canids surveyed (n = 317) were positive for rabies. During the studied period, a total of 1923 attacks on humans by wild canids were registered. Males (n = 1405) were more affected than females (n = 520; 72.98% versus 27.01%), and the median age of all cases was 36.5 years. Injuries to individuals up to 19 years old corresponded to approximately 30% (n = 565) of all cases. Most of the victims lived in rural areas (72.46%; n = 1395), and the majority showed bites (81.13%; n = 1677) or scratches (12.23%; n = 253). Injuries were considered profound (52.1%; n = 1003), superficial (40.91; n = 788) or multiple with severe laceration (6.98%; n = 134). Only 1300 (67.53%) victims were enrolled for the complete rabies post-exposure prophylaxis scheme. Data from the present study confirm that wild canids are important hosts of rabies virus in northeastern Brazil and jeopardize rabies control in this area. Local authorities should focus their efforts in education of health professionals. In addition, strategies should be formulated to preserve wildlife. © 2016 Blackwell

  12. Pandemic Swine-Origin H1N1 Influenza Virus Replicates to Higher Levels and Induces More Fever and Acute Inflammatory Cytokines in Cynomolgus versus Rhesus Monkeys and Can Replicate in Common Marmosets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Mooij

    Full Text Available The close immunological and physiological resemblance with humans makes non-human primates a valuable model for studying influenza virus pathogenesis and immunity and vaccine efficacy against infection. Although both cynomolgus and rhesus macaques are frequently used in influenza virus research, a direct comparison of susceptibility to infection and disease has not yet been performed. In the current study a head-to-head comparison was made between these species, by using a recently described swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain, A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009. In comparison to rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques developed significantly higher levels of virus replication in the upper airways and in the lungs, involving both peak level and duration of virus production, as well as higher increases in body temperature. In contrast, clinical symptoms, including respiratory distress, were more easily observed in rhesus macaques. Expression of sialyl-α-2,6-Gal saccharides, the main receptor for human influenza A viruses, was 50 to 73 times more abundant in trachea and bronchus of cynomolgus macaques relative to rhesus macaques. The study also shows that common marmosets, a New World non-human primate species, are susceptible to infection with pandemic H1N1. The study results favor the cynomolgus macaque as model for pandemic H1N1 influenza virus research because of the more uniform and high levels of virus replication, as well as temperature increases, which may be due to a more abundant expression of the main human influenza virus receptor in the trachea and bronchi.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Common Midwife Toad Virus-Like Ranavirus Associated with Mass Mortalities in Wild Amphibians in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Saucedo, Bernardo; Rijks, Jolianne; Kik, Marja; Haenen, Olga L. M.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M. Helene; Wilkie, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    A ranavirus associated with mass mortalities in wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and other amphibians in the Netherlands since 2010 was isolated, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The virus has a genome of 107,772 bp and shows 96.5% sequence identity with the common midwife toad virus from Spain. PMID:25540340

  14. Wild Marshmallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  15. Flibanserin-Stimulated Partner Grooming Reflects Brain Metabolism Changes in Female Marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Alexander K; Aubert, Yves; Allers, Kelly A; Sommer, Bernd; Abbott, David H

    2015-12-01

    Female sexual interest and arousal disorder is personally distressing for women. To better understand the mechanism of the candidate therapeutic, flibanserin, we determined its effects on an index of brain glucose metabolism. We hypothesized that chronic treatment with flibanserin would alter metabolism in brain regions associated with serotonergic function and female sexual behavior. In a crossover design, eight adult female common marmosets (Calithrix jacchus) received daily flibanserin or vehicle. After 7-12 weeks of treatment, the glucose metabolism radiotracer [(18) F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was administered to each female immediately prior to 30 minutes of interaction with her male pairmate, after which females were anesthetized and imaged by positron emission tomography. Whole-brain normalized images were analyzed with anatomically defined regions of interest. Whole-brain voxelwise mapping was used to explore treatment effects. Correlations were examined between alterations in metabolism and pairmate social grooming. Changes in metabolism associated with flibanserin were determined for dorsal raphe, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), medial preoptic area of hypothalamus (mPOA), ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus, and field cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus. In response to chronic flibanserin, metabolism in mPOA declined, and this reduction correlated with increases in pairmate grooming. A cluster of voxels in frontal cortico-limbic regions exhibited reduced metabolism in response to flibanserin and overlapped with a voxel cluster in which reductions in metabolism correlated with increases in pairmate grooming. Finally, reductions in mPOA metabolism correlated with increases in metabolism in a cluster of voxels in somatosensory cortex. Taken together, these results suggest that flibanserin-induced reductions in female mPOA neural activity increase intimate affiliative behavior with male pairmates. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Long-term polarization of microglia upon alpha-synuclein overexpression in nonhuman primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Pernille; Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa Maria; Kirik, Denis

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that persistent ﰇ-sy- nuclein overexpression in ventral midbrain of marmoset leads to a distinctive neurodegenerative process and motor defects. The neurodegeneration was confined to caudate putamen dopaminergic fibers in animals overexpressing wild-type (wt) ﰇ-synuclein....

  17. Reversal learning in gonadectomized marmosets with and without hormone replacement: are males more sensitive to punishment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaClair, Matthew; Lacreuse, Agnès

    2016-05-01

    This study examined sex differences in executive function in middle-aged gonadectomized marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) with or without hormonal replacement. We tested ten castrated male (mean age 5.5 years) marmosets treated with testosterone cypionate (T, n = 5) or vehicle (n = 5) on Reversal Learning, which contributes to cognitive flexibility, and the Delayed Response task, measuring working memory. Their performance was compared to that of 11 ovariectomized females (mean age = 3.7 years) treated with Silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2, n = 6) or empty capsules (n = 5), previously tested on the same tasks (Lacreuse et al. in J Neuroendocrinol 26:296-309, 2014. doi: 10.1111/jne.12147). Behavioral observations were conducted daily. Females exhibited more locomotor behaviors than males. Males and females did not differ in the number of trials taken to reach criterion on the reversals, but males had significantly longer response latencies, regardless of hormone replacement. They also had a greater number of refusals than females. Additionally, both control and T-treated males, but not females, had slower responses on incorrect trials, suggesting that males were making errors due to distraction, lack of motivation or uncertainty. Furthermore, although both males and females had slower responding following an incorrect compared to a correct trial, the sex difference in response latencies was disproportionally large following an incorrect trial. No sex difference was found in the Delayed Response task. Overall, slower response latencies in males than females during Reversal Learning, especially during and following an incorrect trial, may reflect greater sensitivity to punishment (omission of reward) and greater performance monitoring in males, compared to females. Because these differences occurred in gonadectomized animals and regardless of hormone replacement, they may be organized early in life.

  18. Honey Bee Viruses in Wild Bees: Viral Prevalence, Loads, and Experimental Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G.; Hendrix, Stephen D.; Scavo, Nicole A.; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Harris, Mary A.; Wheelock, M. Joseph; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Toth, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of inter-species pathogen transmission from managed to wild bees has sparked concern that emerging diseases could be causing or exacerbating wild bee declines. While some pathogens, like RNA viruses, have been found in pollen and wild bees, the threat these viruses pose to wild bees is largely unknown. Here, we tested 169 bees, representing 4 families and 8 genera, for five common honey bee (Apis mellifera) viruses, finding that more than 80% of wild bees harbored at least one virus. We also quantified virus titers in these bees, providing, for the first time, an assessment of viral load in a broad spectrum of wild bees. Although virus detection was very common, virus levels in the wild bees were minimal—similar to or lower than foraging honey bees and substantially lower than honey bees collected from hives. Furthermore, when we experimentally inoculated adults of two different bee species (Megachile rotundata and Colletes inaequalis) with a mixture of common viruses that is lethal to honey bees, we saw no effect on short term survival. Overall, we found that honey bee RNA viruses can be commonly detected at low levels in many wild bee species, but we found no evidence that these pathogens cause elevated short-term mortality effects. However, more work on these viruses is greatly needed to assess effects on additional bee species and life stages. PMID:27832169

  19. Honey Bee Viruses in Wild Bees: Viral Prevalence, Loads, and Experimental Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G; Hendrix, Stephen D; Scavo, Nicole A; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Harris, Mary A; Wheelock, M Joseph; O'Neal, Matthew E; Toth, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of inter-species pathogen transmission from managed to wild bees has sparked concern that emerging diseases could be causing or exacerbating wild bee declines. While some pathogens, like RNA viruses, have been found in pollen and wild bees, the threat these viruses pose to wild bees is largely unknown. Here, we tested 169 bees, representing 4 families and 8 genera, for five common honey bee (Apis mellifera) viruses, finding that more than 80% of wild bees harbored at least one virus. We also quantified virus titers in these bees, providing, for the first time, an assessment of viral load in a broad spectrum of wild bees. Although virus detection was very common, virus levels in the wild bees were minimal-similar to or lower than foraging honey bees and substantially lower than honey bees collected from hives. Furthermore, when we experimentally inoculated adults of two different bee species (Megachile rotundata and Colletes inaequalis) with a mixture of common viruses that is lethal to honey bees, we saw no effect on short term survival. Overall, we found that honey bee RNA viruses can be commonly detected at low levels in many wild bee species, but we found no evidence that these pathogens cause elevated short-term mortality effects. However, more work on these viruses is greatly needed to assess effects on additional bee species and life stages.

  20. A B Cell-Driven Autoimmune Pathway Leading to Pathological Hallmarks of Progressive Multiple Sclerosis in the Marmoset Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert A. ’t Hart

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The absence of pathological hallmarks of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS in commonly used rodent models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE hinders the development of adequate treatments for progressive disease. Work reviewed here shows that such hallmarks are present in the EAE model in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus. The minimal requirement for induction of progressive MS pathology is immunization with a synthetic peptide representing residues 34–56 from human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG formulated with a mineral oil [incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA]. Pathological aspects include demyelination of cortical gray matter with microglia activation, oxidative stress, and redistribution of iron. When the peptide is formulated in complete Freund’s adjuvant, which contains mycobacteria that relay strong activation signals to myeloid cells, oxidative damage pathways are strongly boosted leading to more intensive pathology. The proven absence of immune potentiating danger signals in the MOG34–56/IFA formulation implies that a narrow population of antigen-experienced T cells present in the monkey’s immune repertoire is activated. This novel pathway involves the interplay of lymphocryptovirus-infected B cells with MHC class Ib/Caja-E restricted CD8+ CD56+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

  1. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  2. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  3. Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient derivation of multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells from non-human primate embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Shimada

    Full Text Available The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is a small New World primate that has been used as a non-human primate model for various biomedical studies. We previously demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs derived from mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs promote functional locomotor recovery of mouse spinal cord injury models. However, for the clinical application of such a therapeutic approach, we need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pluripotent stem cell-derived NS/PCs not only by xenotransplantation, but also allotransplantation using non-human primate models to assess immunological rejection and tumorigenicity. In the present study, we established a culture method to efficiently derive NS/PCs as neurospheres from common marmoset ESCs. Marmoset ESC-derived neurospheres could be passaged repeatedly and showed sequential generation of neurons and astrocytes, similar to that of mouse ESC-derived NS/PCs, and gave rise to functional neurons as indicated by calcium imaging. Although marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs could not differentiate into oligodendrocytes under default culture conditions, these cells could abundantly generate oligodendrocytes by incorporating additional signals that recapitulate in vivo neural development. Moreover, principal component analysis of microarray data demonstrated that marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs acquired similar gene expression profiles to those of fetal brain-derived NS/PCs by repeated passaging. Therefore, marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs may be useful not only for accurate evaluation by allotransplantation of NS/PCs into non-human primate models, but are also applicable to analysis of iPSCs established from transgenic disease model marmosets.

  5. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  6. Ranid Herpesvirus 3 and Proliferative Dermatitis in Free-Ranging Wild Common Frogs (Rana Temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Schmidt, B R; Lohmann, P; Otten, P; Akdesir, E; Gaschen, V; Aguilar-Bultet, L; Wahli, T; Sattler, U; Stoffel, M H

    2017-07-01

    Amphibian pathogens are of current interest as contributors to the global decline of amphibians. However, compared with chytrid fungi and ranaviruses, herpesviruses have received relatively little attention. Two ranid herpesviruses have been described: namely, Ranid herpesvirus 1 (RHV1) and Ranid herpesvirus 2 (RHV2). This article describes the discovery and partial characterization of a novel virus tentatively named Ranid herpesvirus 3 (RHV3), a candidate member of the genus Batrachovirus in the family Alloherpesviridae. RHV3 infection in wild common frogs (Rana temporaria) was associated with severe multifocal epidermal hyperplasia, dermal edema, a minor inflammatory response, and variable mucous gland degeneration. Intranuclear inclusions were numerous in the affected epidermis together with unique extracellular aggregates of herpesvirus-like particles. The RHV3-associated skin disease has features similar to those of a condition recognized in European frogs for the last 20 years and whose cause has remained elusive. The genome of RHV3 shares most of the features of the Alloherpesviruses. The characterization of this presumptive pathogen may be of value for amphibian conservation and for a better understanding of the biology of Alloherpesviruses.

  7. Infant feeding with soy formula milk: effects on puberty progression, reproductive function and testicular cell numbers in marmoset monkeys in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Karen A L; Walker, Marion; Morris, Keith; Greig, Irene; Mason, J Ian; Sharpe, Richard M

    2006-04-01

    This marmoset study addresses concerns about feeding human male infants with soy formula milk (SFM). From age 4 to 5 days, seven male co-twin sets were fed standard formula milk (SMA) or SFM for 5-6 weeks; blood samples were subsequently collected at 10-week intervals. Testes from co-twins killed at 120-138 weeks were fixed for cell counts. SFM- and SMA-fed twins showed normal weight gain; puberty started and progressed normally, based on blood testosterone measurements. Body weight, organ weights (prostate, seminal vesicles, pituitary, thymus and spleen) and penis length were comparable in co-twins. All SMA- and 6/7 SFM-fed males were fertile. Unexpectedly, testis weight (P = 0.041), Sertoli (P = 0.025) and Leydig cell (P = 0.026) numbers per testis were consistently increased in SFM-fed co-twins; the increase in Leydig cell numbers was most marked in males with consistently low-normal testosterone levels. Seminiferous epithelium volume per tubule showed a less consistent, non-significant increase in SFM-fed males; raised germ cell numbers per testis, probably due to increased Sertoli cells, conceivably resulted in larger testes. Average lumen size, although greater in SFM-fed group, was inconsistent between co-twins and the difference was not significant. Infant feeding with SFM has no gross adverse reproductive effects in male marmosets, though it alters testis size and cell composition, and there is consistent, if indirect, evidence for possible 'compensated Leydig cell failure'. Similar and perhaps larger changes likely occur in adult men who were fed SFM as infants.

  8. Morphology and stucture of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill..common pear (Pyrus cofnmunis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb Lindl. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Pelc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The outer and inner structure of wild apple (Malus silvestris Mill., common pear (Pyrus communis L. and Chaenomeles japonica (Thunb. Lindl. seeds was investigated. It was found that the outer structure exhibits good diagnostic features expressed in the first place in the relief of the seed coat and further in the arrangement and appearance of the site of attachment of the free end of the funiculus and the shape of the seeds. In ripe seeds there is, under the thick seed coat, an endosperm layer completely surrounding the embryo which has large cotyledons and a thick rootlet.

  9. Medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island (Balikesir – Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bulut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal and wild food plants have always played an important role in people’s lives especially in rural areas. Similar situation can be said for islands due to the reason of them being isolated from mainland. This paper reports an ethnobotanical investigations performed in 2009 and 2014 to determine medicinal and wild food plants of Marmara Island. A total of 30 individuals were interviewed (19 men, 11 women. Totally, 22 plants are recorded as used as traditional folk medicine for the region, and nine of these are also used as a source of wild food. Furthermore, 18 taxa are wild sources of nutrition for the area. The plants most commonly used in the region as medicinal remedies were Salvia fruticosa, Hypericum perforatum, Ficus carica, and Mentha spicata. Plants are mostly used for the treatment of abdominal pain, the common cold, and haemorrhoids. The species most commonly used for food are: Salvia fruticosa, Arbutus unedo, Rhus coriaria, and Rubus sanctus. This ethnobotanical study conducted in this island will enable the traditional use of wild plants both as food sources and herbal remedies to be passed on to future generations.

  10. Formation of infectious dengue virus-antibody immune complex in vivo in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) after passive transfer of anti-dengue virus monoclonal antibodies and infection with dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Meng Ling; Ami, Yasushi; Shirai, Kenji; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Suzaki, Yuriko; Saito, Yuka; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Saijo, Masayuki; Suzuki, Ryuji; Kurane, Ichiro; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2015-02-01

    Infection with a dengue virus (DENV) serotype induces cross-reactive, weakly neutralizing antibodies to different dengue serotypes. It has been postulated that cross-reactive antibodies form a virus-antibody immune complex and enhance DENV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells. We determined whether infectious DENV-antibody immune complex is formed in vivo in marmosets after passive transfer of DENV-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) and DENV inoculation and whether infectious DENV-antibody immune complex is detectable using FcγR-expressing cells. Marmosets showed that DENV-antibody immune complex was exclusively infectious to FcγR-expressing cells on days 2, 4, and 7 after passive transfer of each of the mAbs (mAb 4G2 and mAb 6B6C) and DENV inoculation. Although DENV-antibody immune complex was detected, contribution of the passively transferred antibody to overall viremia levels was limited in this study. The results indicate that DENV cross-reactive antibodies form DENV-antibody immune complex in vivo, which is infectious to FcγR-bearing cells but not FcγR-negative cells. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Translocation and radio-telemetry monitoring of pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea (Spix, 1823, in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAR. Dias

    Full Text Available Two groups of pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea were rescued along the left bank of the Madeira River during the formation of Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Dam reservoir in the state of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Reintroduction of both groups occurred in areas of open Tropical rainforest located within the project´s Permanent Preservation Area. A post-release monitoring was conducted for three months using radio-telemetry. Individuals of each group remained together and settled in stable home ranges near their respective release sites. The mortality rate of translocated animals was about 7%. This seems to be the first report documenting the complete group translocation of C. pygmaea and the first to successfully employ radio-telemetry techniques in monitoring this species. This study demonstrated the feasibility of translocation and the use of radio-telemetry in monitoring C. pygmaea.

  12. Relationship between body temperature, weight, and hematological parameters of black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lucas Cardoso; Barros, Marilia

    2016-06-01

    Basal thermal values of captive adult black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) in a thermoneutral environment were measured via different methods, along with body weight and hematological parameters. Body temperatures were recorded with rectal (RC), subcutaneous (SC) microchip transponder and infrared (left and right) tympanic membrane (TM) thermometries. Thermal values were correlated with body mass and some hematological data. Similar RC and SC temperatures were observed, these being significantly higher than the left and right TM values. SC temperature was positively correlated and in close agreement with RC measurements. Although body temperatures were not influenced by gender, capture time, or body weight, they were correlated with hematological parameters. Thus, body temperatures in this species seem to reflect some of the characteristics of the assessments' location, with SC microchip transponders being a less invasive method to assess body temperature in these small-bodied non-human primates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identification of heat-sensitive QTL derived from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dongyang; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Chen, Liyun; Sun, Chuanqing

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the responses of rice plants to heat-stress is a challenging, yet crucial, endeavor. A set of introgression lines was previously developed using an advanced backcrossing strategy that involved the elite indica cultivar Teqing as the recipient and an accession of common wild rice (Oryza rufipongon Griff.) as the donor. In this study, we evaluated the responses of 90 of these previously developed introgression lines to heat stress. Five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to heat response were detected. The phenotypic variances explained by these QTLs ranged from 6.83% to 14.63%, and O. rufipogon-derived alleles at one locus reduced sensitivity to heat. A heat-sensitive introgression line, YIL106, was identified and characterized. Genotypic analysis demonstrated that YIL106 contained four introgressed segments derived from O. rufipongon and two QTLs (qHTS1-1 and qHTS3) related to heat response. Physiological tests, including measurements of chlorophyll content, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, and soluble sugar content, were consistent with the heat sensitivity observed in YIL106. Ultrastructural analysis of YIL106 mesophyll cells showed that they were severely damaged following heat stress. This suggests that modification of the cell membrane system is a primary response to heat stress in plants. Identification and characterization of the heat-sensitive line YIL106 may facilitate the isolation of genes associated with the response of rice plants to heat stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meeting report: Spontaneous lesions and diseases in wild, captive-bred, and zoo-housed nonhuman primates and in nonhuman primate species used in drug safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasseville, V G; Mansfield, K G; Mankowski, J L; Tremblay, C; Terio, K A; Mätz-Rensing, K; Gruber-Dujardin, E; Delaney, M A; Schmidt, L D; Liu, D; Markovits, J E; Owston, M; Harbison, C; Shanmukhappa, S; Miller, A D; Kaliyaperumal, S; Assaf, B T; Kattenhorn, L; Macri, S Cummings; Simmons, H A; Baldessari, A; Sharma, P; Courtney, C; Bradley, A; Cline, J M; Reindel, J F; Hutto, D L; Montali, R J; Lowenstine, L J

    2012-11-01

    The combination of loss of habitat, human population encroachment, and increased demand of select nonhuman primates for biomedical research has significantly affected populations. There remains a need for knowledge and expertise in understanding background findings as related to the age, source, strain, and disease status of nonhuman primates. In particular, for safety/biomedical studies, a broader understanding and documentation of lesions would help clarify background from drug-related findings. A workshop and a minisymposium on spontaneous lesions and diseases in nonhuman primates were sponsored by the concurrent Annual Meetings of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology held December 3-4, 2011, in Nashville, Tennessee. The first session had presentations from Drs Lowenstine and Montali, pathologists with extensive experience in wild and zoo populations of nonhuman primates, which was followed by presentations of 20 unique case reports of rare or newly observed spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates (see online files for access to digital whole-slide images corresponding to each case report at http://www.scanscope.com/ACVP%20Slide%20Seminars/2011/Primate%20Pathology/view.apml). The minisymposium was composed of 5 nonhuman-primate researchers (Drs Bradley, Cline, Sasseville, Miller, Hutto) who concentrated on background and spontaneous lesions in nonhuman primates used in drug safety studies. Cynomolgus and rhesus macaques were emphasized, with some material presented on common marmosets. Congenital, acquired, inflammatory, and neoplastic changes were highlighed with a focus on clinical, macroscopic, and histopathologic findings that could confound the interpretation of drug safety studies.

  15. Evidence of hemispheric specialization in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata using tympanic membrane thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tomaz

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have employed tympanic thermometry to assess lateralization of cognitive and emotional functions in primates. However, no studies using this technique have investigated the possibility of hemispheric specialization in New World monkeys. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate tympanic membrane (TM temperature asymmetries and their possible correlation with stress responses in marmosets (Callithrix penicillata. Infrared TM thermometry was completed bilaterally in 24 animals (14 males and 10 females during a stressful situation of capture and restraint. There were no significant differences between gender. A significant negative correlation was observed between TM temperature of the right ear and the number of captures (r = -0.633; P<0.001. Subjects with a more frequent previous history of captures (5 to 9 captures; N = 11 showed lower TM temperature when compared to those with fewer previous captures (1 to 4 captures; N = 13. No differences were observed for the left TM temperature. These results suggest that under intense emotional challenge (capture and restraint there is a stronger activation of the neural structures situated in the right brain hemisphere. Taken together, the data reveal for the first time evidence of hemispheric specialization in emotional physiological processing in a New World monkey.

  16. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  17. LHD1, an allele of DTH8/Ghd8, controls late heading date in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaodong; Ding, Younian; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Zhu, Zuofeng; Sun, Xianyou; Sun, Xuewen; Gu, Ping; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Chuanqing

    2012-10-01

    Flowering at suitable time is very important for plants to adapt to complicated environments and produce their seeds successfully for reproduction. In rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) photoperiod regulation is one of the important factors for controlling heading date. Common wild rice, the ancestor of cultivated rice, exhibits a late heading date and a more sensitive photoperiodic response than cultivated rice. Here, through map-based cloning, we identified a major quantitative trait loci (QTL) LHD1 (Late Heading Date 1), an allele of DTH8/Ghd8, which controls the late heading date of wild rice and encodes a putative HAP3/NF-YB/CBF-A subunit of the CCAAT-box-binding transcription factor. Sequence analysis revealed that several variants in the coding region of LHD1 were correlated with a late heading date, and a further complementary study successfully rescued the phenotype. These results suggest that a functional site for LHD1 could be among those variants present in the coding region. We also found that LHD1 could down-regulate the expression of several floral transition activators such as Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under long-day conditions, but not under short-day conditions. This indicates that LHD1 may delay flowering by repressing the expression of Ehd1, Hd3a and RFT1 under long-day conditions. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczaj, Łukasz; Zovkokončić, Marijana; Miličević, Tihomir; Dolina, Katija; Pandža, Marija

    2013-01-03

    Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. All vendors (68) in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20-30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded.Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs), as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants.

  19. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of

  20. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  1. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII . Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus,caracals (Caracal caracal, African wild cats (Felis lybica, black-footed cats (Felis nigripes, a serval (Leptailurus serval, lions(Panthera leo, and leopards (Panthera pardus were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province,South Africa.

  2. Microplastic Contamination of Wild and Captive Flathead Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis T. O. Cheung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 flathead grey mullets were examined for microplastic ingestion. Thirty wild mullets were captured from the eastern coast of Hong Kong and 30 captive mullets were obtained from fish farms. Microplastic ingestion was detected in 60% of the wild mullets, with an average of 4.3 plastic items per mullet, while only 16.7% of captive mullets were found to have ingested microplastics, with an average of 0.2 items per mullet. The results suggested that wild mullets have a higher risk of microplastic ingestion than their captive counterparts. The most common plastic items were fibres that were green in colour and small in size (<2 mm. Polypropylene was the most common polymer (42%, followed by polyethylene (25%. In addition, the abundance of microplastics was positively correlated with larger body size among the mullets.

  3. Wild vegetable mixes sold in the markets of Dalmatia (southern Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczaj Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dalmatia is an interesting place to study the use of wild greens as it lies at the intersection of influence of Slavs, who do not usually use many species of wild greens, and Mediterranean culinary culture, where the use of multiple wild greens is common. The aim of the study was to document the mixtures of wild green vegetables which are sold in all the vegetable markets of Dalmatia. Methods All vendors (68 in all 11 major markets of the Dalmatian coast were interviewed. The piles of wild vegetables they sold were searched and herbarium specimens taken from them. Results The mean number of species in the mix was 5.7. The most commonly sold wild plants are: Sonchus oleraceus L., Allium ampeloprasum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Urospermum picroides F.W.Schmidt, Papaver rhoeas L., Daucus carota L., Taraxacum sp., Picris echioides L., Silene latifolia Poir. and Crepis spp. Also the cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L. and a few cultivated Brassicaceae varieties are frequent components. Wild vegetables from the mix are usually boiled for 20–30 minutes and dressed with olive oil and salt. Altogether at least 37 wild taxa and 13 cultivated taxa were recorded. Apart from the mixes, Asparagus acutifolius L. and Tamus communis L. shoots are sold in separate bunches (they are usually eaten with eggs, as well as some Asteraceae species, the latter are eaten raw or briefly boiled. Conclusions The rich tradition of eating many wild greens may result both from strong Venetian and Greek influences and the necessity of using all food resources available in the barren, infertile land in the past. Although the number of wild-collected green vegetables is impressive we hypothesize that it may have decreased over the years, and that further in-depth local ethnobotanical studies are needed in Dalmatia to record the disappearing knowledge of edible plants.

  4. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  5. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor ligands WIN 55,212-2 and AM 251 alter anxiety-like behaviors of marmoset monkeys in an open-field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagni, Priscila; Barros, Marilia

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1r) are an important modulatory site for emotional behavior. However, little is known on the effects of CB1r ligands on emotionality aspects of primates, even with their highly similar behavioral response and receptor density/distribution as humans. Thus, we analyzed the effects of the CB1r agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1mg/kg) and the antagonist AM 251 (AM; 2mg/kg), systemically administered prior to a single brief (15 min) exposure to a novel open-field (OF) environment, on the behavior of individually tested adult black tufted-ear marmosets. Both WIN- and AM-treated subjects, compared to vehicle controls, had significantly lower rates of long (contact) calls and exploration, while higher levels of vigilance-related behaviors (scan/glance); these are indicators of anxiolysis in this setup. Changes in locomotion were not detected. However, in the vehicle and AM-groups, sojourn in the peripheral zone of the OF was significantly higher than in its central region. WIN-treated marmosets spent an equivalent amount of time in both zones. Therefore, activation or blockade CB1r function prior to a short and individual exposure to an unfamiliar environment exerted a significant and complex influence on different behavioral indicators of anxiety in these monkeys (i.e., a partially overlapping anxiolytic-like profile). AM 251, however, has no anxiolytic effect when the time spent in the center of the OF is considered. This is a major difference when compared to the WIN-treated group. Data were compared to the response profile reported in other pre-clinical (rodent) and clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wild bees enhance honey bees’ pollination of hybrid sunflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S.; Kremen, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Pollinators are required for producing 15–30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages. PMID:16940358

  7. Wild bees enhance honey bees' pollination of hybrid sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Sarah S; Kremen, Claire

    2006-09-12

    Pollinators are required for producing 15-30% of the human food supply, and farmers rely on managed honey bees throughout the world to provide these services. Yet honey bees are not always the most efficient pollinators of all crops and are declining in various parts of the world. Crop pollination shortages are becoming increasingly common. We found that behavioral interactions between wild and honey bees increase the pollination efficiency of honey bees on hybrid sunflower up to 5-fold, effectively doubling honey bee pollination services on the average field. These indirect contributions caused by interspecific interactions between wild and honey bees were more than five times more important than the contributions wild bees make to sunflower pollination directly. Both proximity to natural habitat and crop planting practices were significantly correlated with pollination services provided directly and indirectly by wild bees. Our results suggest that conserving wild habitat at the landscape scale and altering selected farm management techniques could increase hybrid sunflower production. These findings also demonstrate the economic importance of interspecific interactions for ecosystem services and suggest that protecting wild bee populations can help buffer the human food supply from honey bee shortages.

  8. EVALUATION OF BONE MINERALIZATION BY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN WILD AND CAPTIVE EUROPEAN COMMON SPADEFOOTS (PELOBATES FUSCUS), IN RELATION TO EXPOSURE TO ULTRAVIOLET B RADIATION AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijll Langhout, Martine; Struijk, Richard P J H; Könning, Tessa; van Zuilen, Dick; Horvath, Katalin; van Bolhuis, Hester; Maarschalkerweerd, Roelof; Verstappen, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Captive rearing programs have been initiated to save the European common spadefoot (Pelobates fuscus), a toad species in the family of Pelobatidae, from extinction in The Netherlands. Evaluating whether this species needs ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation and/or dietary supplementation for healthy bone development is crucial for its captive management and related conservation efforts. The bone mineralization in the femurs and the thickest part of the parietal bone of the skulls of European common spadefoots (n = 51) was measured in Hounsfield units (HUs) by computed tomography. One group, containing adults (n = 8) and juveniles (n = 13), was reared at ARTIS Amsterdam Royal Zoo without UVB exposure. During their terrestrial lifetime, these specimens received a vitamin-mineral supplement. Another group, containing adults (n = 8) and juveniles (n = 10), was reared and kept in an outdoor breeding facility in Münster, Germany, with permanent access to natural UVB light, without vitamin-mineral supplementation. The HUs in the ARTIS and Münster specimens were compared with those in wild specimens (n = 12). No significant difference was found between the HUs in the femurs of both ARTIS and Münster adults and wild adults (P = 0.537; P = 0.181). The HUs in the skulls of both captive-adult groups were significantly higher than in the skulls of wild specimens (P = 0.020; P = 0.005). The HUs in the femurs of the adult ARTIS animals were significantly higher than the HUs in the femurs of the adult Münster animals (P = 0.007). The absence of UVB radiation did not seem to have a negative effect on the bone development in the terrestrial stage. This suggests that this nocturnal, subterrestrial amphibian was able to extract sufficient vitamin D 3 from its diet and did not rely heavily on photobiosynthesis through UVB exposure.

  9. Wild Maid, Wild Soul, A Wild Wild Weed: Niki de Saint Phalle’s Fierce Femininities, c. 1960-66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Jones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-described as “wild maid,” “wild soul,” “a wild wild weed,” Niki de Saint Phalle narrated herself as artistic subject in a concerted way that stands out in the history of art: as both creatively driven and emotionally renegade and excessive, as both definitively woman and definitively artist. In this essay I take this special case of self-narration, and the particular power of St. Phalle’s work, as an opportunity to explore the relationship between.(auto-biography and artistic practice. The case of St. Phalle, a radical sculptor, performance artist, writer, and filmmaker, allows us to understand the exaggerated way in which women artists were until very recently forced to adopt “fierce femininities” to make a place for themselves as artists. In this way, I suggest that St. Phalle represents a key inspirational force opening the door for second wave feminism and the feminist art movement.

  10. Traditionally used wild edible greens in the Aegean Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Dogan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has the largest coastal area in the Mediterranean, possesses an extraordinarily rich flora, and a great traditional knowledge. This diversity of plants naturally affects the traditional use of plants and is reflected in the rich Turkish cuisine. Consequently, the Mediterranean Diet (whose typical components are wild greens constitutes one of the important elements of Turkish cuisine. For this reason, the aim of this study was to determine the consumption of wild edible green plants for the Aegean Region of Turkey and to establish the similarities to or differences from consumption in other regions and other cuisine in the Mediterranean Basin. This study compiles and evaluates the ethnobotanical data currently available. There were 111 taxa that were identified as wild edible greens in the study area belonging to 26 different families. Asteraceae (21 taxa were the most commonly consumed as food. It was followed by Boraginaceae with 19 taxa, Apiaceae with 15 taxa and Lamiaceae with 7 taxa, respectively. Rumex and Erodium were the most represented genera with 4 species. Tamus communis and Asparagus acutifolius, Mediterranean elements and distributed in all of the Mediterranean Basin, are among the most widely consumed wild plants in the area. Wild edible plants are consumed in a variety of ways. The most common type of consumption (79 taxa was in salads. The fact that the majority of the plants used in the area are consumed in salads shows the close relationship between the local diet and the concept of the Mediterranean Diet. As a result, very promisingly, there is a renewed or increasing interest in consuming wild food plants as part of this diet.

  11. In vitro regeneration of wild chervil (Anthriscus sylvestris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrawati, Oktavia; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver; Finer, J.

    Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. (Apiaceae) is a common wild plant that accumulates the lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin. Deoxypodophyllotoxin can be hydroxylated at the C-7 position in recombinant organisms yielding podophyllotoxin, which is used as a semi-synthetic precursor for the anticancer drugs,

  12. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted.

  13. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Kang, Min-Su; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; An, Byung-Ki; Youn, So-Youn; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Jang, Il; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter species cause human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. They commonly inhabit intestines of avian species including wild birds. They might play a role in the spread of infections to humans and other bird species. The prevalence of Campylobacter species in 2164 faecal samples of wild birds (representing 71 species and 28 families) captured across the Korean peninsula was evaluated in this study. The overall prevalence was 15.3% (332/2164). Bird species belonging to the family Charadriidae had the highest isolation rate (30.0%), followed by those belonging to the families Ardeidae (26.4%), Turdidae (21.9%), and Anatidae (15.3%). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed significantly according to migratory habit. Stopover birds were the most commonly infected (19.0%), followed by winter migratory (16.7%) and summer migratory birds (12.3%). However, indigenous birds showed very low prevalence (2.7%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for 213 isolates. Results showed that Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 169) exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid (5.3%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and tetracycline (1.8%), while Campylobacter lari (n = 1) displayed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. However, all Campylobacter coli isolates (n = 20) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This is the first report on the prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds that seasonally or indigenously inhabit the Korean peninsula. Our results indicate that the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in wild birds is moderate. Therefore, birds might serve as significant reservoirs for Campylobacter pathogens.

  14. Age structure changes and extraordinary lifespan in wild medfly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Müller, Hans-Georg; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wachter, Kenneth; Yu, Wei; Liedo, Pablo

    2008-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that major changes in age structure occur in wild populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) and that a substantial fraction of individuals survive to middle age and beyond (> 3-4 weeks). We thus brought reference life tables and deconvolution models to bear on medfly mortality data gathered from a 3-year study of field-captured individuals that were monitored in the laboratory. The average time-to-death of captured females differed between sampling dates by 23.9, 22.7, and 37.0 days in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 field seasons, respectively. These shifts in average times-to-death provided evidence of changes in population age structure. Estimates indicated that middle-aged medflies (> 30 days) were common in the population. A surprise in the study was the extraordinary longevity observed in field-captured medflies. For example, 19 captured females but no reference females survived in the laboratory for 140 days or more, and 6 captured but no reference males survived in the laboratory for 170 days or more. This paper advances the study of aging in the wild by introducing a new method for estimating age structure in insect populations, demonstrating that major changes in age structure occur in field populations of insects, showing that middle-aged individuals are common in the wild, and revealing the extraordinary lifespans of wild-caught individuals due to their early life experience in the field.

  15. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  16. Wireless multi-channel single unit recording in freely moving and vocalizing primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sabyasachi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2012-01-15

    The ability to record well-isolated action potentials from individual neurons in naturally behaving animals is crucial for understanding neural mechanisms underlying natural behaviors. Traditional neurophysiology techniques, however, require the animal to be restrained which often restricts natural behavior. An example is the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a highly vocal New World primate species, used in our laboratory to study the neural correlates of vocal production and sensory feedback. When restrained by traditional neurophysiological techniques marmoset vocal behavior is severely inhibited. Tethered recording systems, while proven effective in rodents pose limitations in arboreal animals such as the marmoset that typically roam in a three-dimensional environment. To overcome these obstacles, we have developed a wireless neural recording technique that is capable of collecting single-unit data from chronically implanted multi-electrodes in freely moving marmosets. A lightweight, low power and low noise wireless transmitter (headstage) is attached to a multi-electrode array placed in the premotor cortex of the marmoset. The wireless headstage is capable of transmitting 15 channels of neural data with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) comparable to a tethered system. To minimize radio-frequency (RF) and electro-magnetic interference (EMI), the experiments were conducted within a custom designed RF/EMI and acoustically shielded chamber. The individual electrodes of the multi-electrode array were periodically advanced to densely sample the cortical layers. We recorded single-unit data over a period of several months from the frontal cortex of two marmosets. These recordings demonstrate the feasibility of using our wireless recording method to study single neuron activity in freely roaming primates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915) and semi-structured interviews (n=78) to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported co...

  19. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. in northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Djebali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and life cycle of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. and a survey of the pathogens of this plant are reported for the northern regions of Tunisia. Wild radish is a common weed of cereal crops and legumes. It germinates in early autumn (October, develops a rosette stage in November to December after which stem growth, fl owering and pod production occur through to May, with pod maturity completed in June. Fungus isolation from the foliar tissues exhibiting disease symptoms showed that wild radish was infected with the fungi Albugo candida, Alternaria spp. including A. brassicicola, and A. raphani, Erysiphe cruciferarum, Stemphylium herbarum, Peronospora parasitica and Phoma lingam. Ascochyta spp., Cercospora armoraciae, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Colletotrichum higginsianum are here reported from wild radish for the first time. Inoculation tests of pathogens on wild radish plants showed that the most injurious fungi were Alternaria raphani and Phoma lingam. The remaining pathogens were weakly to moderately aggressive on this weed. To access the pathogenic effect of fungi spontaneously infecting natural populations of wild radish, the weed was grown in a field experiment with and without the broad-spectrum systemic fungicide Carbendazim. Results showed a statistically significant two-fold decrease in the number and weight of seed pods in the non-treated plants, indicating that the reproductive potential of wild radish was naturally reduced by fungal infection. Foliar pathogenic fungi have a potential in the integrated weed management of wild radish, this role merits further investigations.

  20. Evidence for common ancestry among viruses isolated from wild birds in Beringia and highly pathogenic intercontinental reassortant H5N1 and H5N2 influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Bahl, Justin; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November–December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses from East Asia to North America by migratory birds via Alaska and (2) ancestral origins of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 reassortant viruses in Beringia. Although we did not detect highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in our sample collection from western Alaska, we did identify viruses that contained gene segments sharing recent common ancestry with intercontinental reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Results of phylogenetic analyses and estimates for times of most recent common ancestry support migratory birds sampled in Beringia as maintaining viral diversity closely related to novel highly pathogenic influenza A virus genotypes detected in North America. Although our results do not elucidate the route by which highly pathogenic influenza A viruses were introduced into North America, genetic evidence is consistent with the hypothesized trans-Beringian route of introduction via migratory birds.

  1. Validation of qPCR Methods for the Detection of Mycobacterium in New World Animal Reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Housman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic pathogens that cause leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, MTBC continue to impact modern human populations. Therefore, methods able to survey mycobacterial infection in potential animal hosts are necessary for proper evaluation of human exposure threats. Here we tested for mycobacterial-specific single- and multi-copy loci using qPCR. In a trial study in which armadillos were artificially infected with M. leprae, these techniques were specific and sensitive to pathogen detection, while more traditional ELISAs were only specific. These assays were then employed in a case study to detect M. leprae as well as MTBC in wild marmosets. All marmosets were negative for M. leprae DNA, but 14 were positive for the mycobacterial rpoB gene assay. Targeted capture and sequencing of rpoB and other MTBC genes validated the presence of mycobacterial DNA in these samples and revealed that qPCR is useful for identifying mycobacterial-infected animal hosts.

  2. Microplastic Contamination of Wild and Captive Flathead Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Ching Yee

    2018-01-01

    A total of 60 flathead grey mullets were examined for microplastic ingestion. Thirty wild mullets were captured from the eastern coast of Hong Kong and 30 captive mullets were obtained from fish farms. Microplastic ingestion was detected in 60% of the wild mullets, with an average of 4.3 plastic items per mullet, while only 16.7% of captive mullets were found to have ingested microplastics, with an average of 0.2 items per mullet. The results suggested that wild mullets have a higher risk of microplastic ingestion than their captive counterparts. The most common plastic items were fibres that were green in colour and small in size (microplastics was positively correlated with larger body size among the mullets. PMID:29587444

  3. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Shairp

    Full Text Available Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions.

  4. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions. PMID:26752642

  5. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions.

  6. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczaj, Łukasz; Szymański, Wojciech M

    2007-04-15

    This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora) has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack), 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea) and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves). The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary use of wild plants became impoverished very early, compared to

  7. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  8. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28–45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0–69.1% common alleles and 45.6–48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8–77.0% common alleles and 51.7–60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection. PMID:27494031

  9. An evolutionarily conserved sexual signature in the primate brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Reinius

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of a potential biological sexual signature in the human brain is a heavily disputed subject. In order to provide further insight into this issue, we used an evolutionary approach to identify genes with sex differences in brain expression level among primates. We reasoned that expression patterns important to uphold key male and female characteristics may be conserved during evolution. We selected cortex for our studies because this specific brain region is responsible for many higher behavioral functions. We compared gene expression profiles in the occipital cortex of male and female humans (Homo sapiens, a great ape and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, an old world monkey, two catarrhine species that show abundant morphological sexual dimorphism, as well as in common marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus, a new world monkey which are relatively sexually monomorphic. We identified hundreds of genes with sex-biased expression patterns in humans and macaques, while fewer than ten were differentially expressed between the sexes in marmosets. In primates, a general rule is that many of the morphological and behavioral sexual dimorphisms seen in polygamous species, such as macaques, are typically less pronounced in monogamous species such as the marmosets. Our observations suggest that this correlation may also be reflected in the extent of sex-biased gene expression in the brain. We identified 85 genes with common sex-biased expression, in both human and macaque and 2 genes, X inactivation-specific transcript (XIST and Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1, that were consistently sex-biased in the female direction in human, macaque, and marmoset. These observations imply a conserved signature of sexual gene expression dimorphism in cortex of primates. Further, we found that the coding region of female-biased genes is more evolutionarily constrained compared to the coding region of both male-biased and non sex-biased brain

  10. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  11. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  12. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundlöf, Maj; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Fries, Ingemar; Hederström, Veronica; Herbertsson, Lina; Jonsson, Ove; Klatt, Björn K; Pedersen, Thorsten R; Yourstone, Johanna; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees. The moratorium has been criticized for being based on weak evidence, particularly because effects have mostly been measured on bees that have been artificially fed neonicotinoids. Thus, the key question is how neonicotinoids influence bees, and wild bees in particular, in real-world agricultural landscapes. Here we show that a commonly used insecticide seed coating in a flowering crop can have serious consequences for wild bees. In a study with replicated and matched landscapes, we found that seed coating with Elado, an insecticide containing a combination of the neonicotinoid clothianidin and the non-systemic pyrethroid β-cyfluthrin, applied to oilseed rape seeds, reduced wild bee density, solitary bee nesting, and bumblebee colony growth and reproduction under field conditions. Hence, such insecticidal use can pose a substantial risk to wild bees in agricultural landscapes, and the contribution of pesticides to the global decline of wild bees may have been underestimated. The lack of a significant response in honeybee colonies suggests that reported pesticide effects on honeybees cannot always be extrapolated to wild bees.

  13. Dietary values of wild and semi-wild edible plants in Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, traditional processing methods lower most of the anti-nutritionals and their respective risks. New food composition tables that integrate indigenous knowledge and nutritional content of the semi-wild and wild edibles are recommended. Wild edibles can be considered to improve livelihood security and reduce ...

  14. Yersinia spp. in Wild Rodents and Shrews in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, Suvi; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Korkeala, Hannu; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid. The role of wild small mammals as a reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is still obscure. In this study, the presence of Yersinia spp. was examined from 1840 wild small mammals, including voles, mice, and shrews, trapped in Finland during a 7-year period. We isolated seven Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica was the most common species, isolated from 8% of the animals; while most of these isolates represented nonpathogenic biotype 1A, human pathogenic bioserotype 2/O:9 was also isolated from a field vole. Y. pseudotuberculosis of bioserotype 1/O:2 was isolated from two shrews. The ail gene, which is typically only found in the isolates of biotypes 1B and 2-5 associated with yersiniosis, was frequently (23%) detected in the nonpathogenic isolates of biotype 1A and sporadically (6%) in Yersinia kristensenii isolates. Our results suggest that wild small mammals, especially voles, may serve as carriers for ail-positive Y. enterocolitica 1A and Y. kristensenii. We also demonstrate that voles and shrews sporadically excrete pYV-positive Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:2, respectively, in their feces and, thus, can serve as a contamination source for vegetables by contaminating the soil.

  15. Using Wild Olives in Breeding Programs: Implications on Oil Quality Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo León

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A wide genetic diversity has been reported for wild olives, which could be particularly interesting for the introgression of some agronomic traits and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in breeding programs. However, the introgression of some beneficial wild traits may be paralleled by negative effects on some other important agronomic and quality traits. From the quality point of view, virgin olive oil (VOO from olive cultivars is highly appreciated for its fatty acid composition (high monounsaturated oleic acid content and the presence of several minor components. However, the composition of VOO from wild origin and its comparison with VOO from olive cultivars has been scarcely studied. In this work, the variability for fruit characters (fruit weight and oil content, OC, fatty acid composition, and minor quality components (squalene, sterols and tocopherols content and composition was studied in a set of plant materials involving three different origins: wild genotypes (n = 32, cultivars (n = 62 and genotypes belonging to cultivar × wild progenies (n = 62. As expected, values for fruit size and OC in wild olives were lower than those obtained in cultivated materials, with intermediate values for cultivar × wild progenies. Wild olives showed a remarkably higher C16:0 percentage and tocopherol content in comparison to the cultivars. Contrarily, lower C18:1 percentage, squalene and sterol content were found in the wild genotypes, while no clear differences were found among the different plant materials regarding composition of the tocopherol and phytosterol fractions. Some common highly significant correlations among components of the same chemical family were found in all groups of plant materials. However, some other correlations were specific for one of the groups. The results of the study suggested that the use of wild germplasm in olive breeding programs will not have a negative impact on fatty acid composition, tocopherol content

  16. Wild dogma II: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Allen (2011 and Allen et al. (2011 recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6: 737–740, 2011].

  17. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  18. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  19. Comportamentos interespecíficos entre Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Primates, Callitrichidae e algumas aves de Mata Atlântica, Pernambuco, Brasil Interspecific behaviour between Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Callitrichidae, Primates and some birds of the Atlantic forest, Pernanbuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As observações ocorreram no período de dois anos, monitorando grupos marcados de sagüis durante oito horas por dia. Foram registrados seis tipos de eventos: predação de sagüis; predação de aves, disputa de área de forrageio e recurso alimentar; compartilhamento de área de forrageio e recurso alimentar; perseguição branda e utilização de ninho de ave como local de pernoite dos sagüis. Os eventos agrupados obtiveram diferenças significativas entre as estações do ano e os estratos ocupados.The observations cover a period of two years, monitoring groups of marked common marmosets in eight hour/day periods. Six types of events were recorded: marmoset predation; bird predation; foraging competition; food sharing; use of avian nest for nocturnal marmoset rest and mutual pursuit. All pooled events showed highly significant differences between season and vegetation strata.

  20. The peculiarity of dynamic of helminth community of wild ungulate animals in the condition of Poles'e reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsova, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    It was analysed the dynamic of helminth community of wild animals in the condition of Poles'e reserve and it was shown that radiation contamination had great influence at the settled community of parasite worms resulting in disappearance or sharp diminution of species quantity that were common for wild ungulate animals and domestics cattle. It was concluded that stabilisation of helminth community of wild ungulate animals had not yet achieved

  1. A Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) from a global cohort identifies common variants in FSHB and SMAD3 driving spontaneous human dizygotic twinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aagaard, K.; Mbarek, H.; Steinberg, S.; Nyholt, D.R.; Gordon, S.D.; Miller, M.B.; McRae, A.F.; Hottenga, J.J.; Day, F.R.; Hinds, D.A.; Willemsen, G.; Geus, E.J.C. de; Davies, G.E.; Martin, H.C.; Lambalk, C.B.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Jansen, R.; McAloney, K.; Vink, J.M.; Kaprio, J.; Plomin, R.; Spector, T.D.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although dizygotic (DZ) twins occur once every 70 live births and has long been suspected to be familial, the genetic loci driving human twinning have not yet been identified. Based on our recent success in identifying "twin genes" in the marmoset primate (which exclusively gestates twins

  2. Wild reindeer of Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Safronov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Three major herds of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., totaling over 200,000 animals, occur in the tundra and taiga of northern Yakutia. These herds have been expanding since the late 1950s and now occupy most of their historic range. In addition, several thousand wild reindeer occupy the New Siberian Islands and adjacent coastal mainland tundra, and there are about 60,000 largely sedentary forest reindeer in mountainous areas of the southern two-thirds of the province. Wild reindeer are commercially hunted throughout the mainland, and the production of wild meat is an important part of the economy of the province and of individual reindeer enterprises which produce both wild and domestic meat.

  3. Guidelines for evaluation and treatment of lead poisoning of wild raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Jesse A.; Redig, Patrick; Miller, Tricia A.; Lanzone, Michael J.; Katzner, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a threat to birds, particularly scavenging birds of prey. With the availability of portable lead-testing kits, an increasing number of field researchers are testing wild-caught birds, in situ, for lead poisoning. We describe guidelines for evaluation of lead toxicity in wild raptors by outlining field testing of blood-lead concentrations, presenting criteria for removing a lead-poisoned bird from the wild for treatment, and suggesting strategies for effective treatment of lead intoxicated raptors. Field testing of birds is most commonly accomplished via portable electrochemical analysis of blood; visual observation of condition alone may provide insufficient evidence upon which to make a decision about lead poisoning. Our intended audience is not only the avian research community, but also rehabilitation facilities that may receive apparently uninjured birds. Best practices suggest that birds whose blood-lead levels are 60 μg/dL are potentially lethally poisoned and best served if removed from the wild for appropriate treatment at a licensed rehabilitation facility and later released. We present guidelines for decision-making when treating lead poisoning of wild raptors. Future work based on experimental studies will clarify the role of lead poisoning for specific species and be important to refine these guidelines to improve effectiveness.

  4. Translocation and radiotelemetry monitoring of black-tailed marmosets, Callithrix (Mico melanura(É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, in a wildlife rescue operation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AAB. Marques

    Full Text Available Five black-tailed marmoset Callithrix (Mico melanura (Primates - Callitrichidae individuals were monitored by radiotelemetry as part of a project on translocated wildlife affected by flooding the Manso River reservoir in the state of Mato Grosso, western Brazil (14° 52' S and 55° 48' W. The animals were monitored for eight months from October 2000 through August 2001. Only one death was recorded among the translocated animals. Two pairs established their home ranges in the new area, after some exploratory behavior. The new home range sizes varied from 0.72 to 4.27 km². The home ranges of male and female overlapped in the case of both pairs by 0.59 to 2.30 km². Trips were always made in pairs and not individually. The results indicate the feasibility of a successful translocation program for this species, as long as the animals are translocated to a similar habitat nearby.

  5. Wild vascular plants gathered for consumption in the Polish countryside: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański Wojciech M

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the end of the 18th century to the present day, within the present borders of Poland. Methods 42 ethnographic and botanical sources documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analyzed. Results The use of 112 species (3.7% of the flora has been recorded. Only half of them have been used since the 1960s. Three species: Cirsium rivulare, Euphorbia peplus and Scirpus sylvaticus have never before been reported as edible by ethnobotanical literature. The list of wild edible plants which are still commonly gathered includes only two green vegetables (Rumex acetosa leaves for soups and Oxalis acetosella as children's snack, 15 folk species of fruits and seeds (Crataegus spp., Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Fragaria vesca, Malus domestica, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Rosa canina, Rubus idaeus, Rubus sect. Rubus, Sambucus nigra, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. oxycoccos, V. uliginosum, V. vitis-idaea and four taxa used for seasoning or as preservatives (Armoracia rusticana root and leaves, Carum carvi seeds, Juniperus communis pseudo-fruits and Quercus spp. leaves. The use of other species is either forgotten or very rare. In the past, several species were used for food in times of scarcity, most commonly Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica, U. urens, Elymus repens, Oxalis acetosella and Cirsium spp., but now the use of wild plants is mainly restricted to raw consumption or making juices, jams, wines and other preserves. The history of the gradual disappearance of the original barszcz, Heracleum sphondylium soup, from Polish cuisine has been researched in detail and two, previously unpublished, instances of its use in the 20th century have been found in the Carpathians. An increase in the culinary use of some wild plants due to media publications can be observed. Conclusion Poland can be characterized as a country where the traditions of culinary

  6. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L Doty

    Full Text Available The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  7. Introduction of wild MAP species into the field culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušková, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Althea officinalis L., Dracocephalum moldavica L., Gentiana lutea L., Rhodiola rosea L., and Valeriana officinalis L. are the species of wild medicinal plants which are not very commonly grown in field culture. The methods and practical experiences of their multiplication and growing in a field nursery in Olomouc (the Czech Republic are explained and shown in the manuscript.

  8. Visitation by wild and managed bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) to eastern U.S. native plants for use in conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Fiedler, Anna K; Landis, Douglas; Isaacs, Rufus

    2008-06-01

    Addition of floral resources to agricultural field margins has been shown to increase abundance of beneficial insects in crop fields, but most plants recommended for this use are non-native annuals. Native perennial plants with different bloom periods can provide floral resources for bees throughout the growing season for use in pollinator conservation projects. To identify the most suitable plants for this use, we examined the relative attractiveness to wild and managed bees of 43 eastern U.S. native perennial plants, grown in a common garden setting. Floral characteristics were evaluated for their ability to predict bee abundance and taxa richness. Of the wild bees collected, the most common species (62%) was Bombus impatiens Cresson. Five other wild bee species were present between 3 and 6% of the total: Lasioglossum admirandum (Sandhouse), Hylaeus affinis (Smith), Agapostemon virescens (F.), Halictus ligatus Say, and Ceratina calcarata/dupla Robertson/Say. The remaining wild bee species were present at wild bees; 9 were highly attractive, and 20 were moderately attractive. Honey bees visited 24 of the 43 plant species at least once. Floral area was the only measured factor accounting for variation in abundance and richness of wild bees but did not explain variation in honey bee abundance. Results of this study can be used to guide selection of flowering plants to provide season-long forage for conservation of wild bees.

  9. Ranavirus-associated mass mortality in wild amphibians, the Netherlands, 2010: a first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, Marja; Martel, An; Sluijs, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der; Pasmans, Frank; Wohlsein, Peter; Gröne, Andrea; Rijks, Jolianne M

    2011-11-01

    In 2010, a mass die-off of over 1000 wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and at least 10 common newts (Lissotriton vulgaris) occurred in a pond in The Netherlands. Haemorrhagic disease with hepatomegaly and splenomegaly was evident. Microscopically, multiple organs presented cells with multifocal intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, in which ranavirus-like particles were demonstrated ultrastructurally. All specimens examined tested positive for ranavirus by PCR. The sequence obtained showed a 100% identity with the one deposited for common midwife toad virus (CMTV). This is the first report of ranavirus-associated mortality in wild amphibian populations in The Netherlands. It is also the first time CMTV or a CMTV-like virus has been reported in these two species in the adult stage and outside of Spain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Common Marmosets: A Potential Translational Animal Model of Juvenile Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Leite Galvão-Coelho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a psychiatric disorder with high prevalence in the general population, with increasing expression in adolescence, about 14% in young people. Frequently, it presents as a chronic condition, showing no remission even after several pharmacological treatments and persisting in adult life. Therefore, distinct protocols and animal models have been developed to increase the understanding of this disease or search for new therapies. To this end, this study investigated the effects of chronic social isolation and the potential antidepressant action of nortriptyline in juvenile Callithrix jacchus males and females by monitoring fecal cortisol, body weight, and behavioral parameters and searching for biomarkers and a protocol for inducing depression. The purpose was to validate this species and protocol as a translational model of juvenile depression, addressing all domain criteria of validation: etiologic, face, functional, predictive, inter-relational, evolutionary, and population. In both sexes and both protocols (IDS and DPT, we observed a significant reduction in cortisol levels in the last phase of social isolation, concomitant with increases in autogrooming, stereotyped and anxiety behaviors, and the presence of anhedonia. The alterations induced by chronic social isolation are characteristic of the depressive state in non-human primates and/or in humans, and were reversed in large part by treatment with an antidepressant drug (nortriptyline. Therefore, these results indicate C. jacchus as a potential translational model of juvenile depression by addressing all criteria of validation.

  11. Helminth burden and ecological factors associated with alterations in wild host gastrointestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newbold, Lindsay K.; Burthe, Sarah J.; Oliver, Anna E.

    2017-01-01

    Infection by gastrointestinal helminths of humans, livestock and wild animals is common, but the impact of such endoparasites on wild hosts and their gut microbiota represents an important overlooked component of population dynamics. Wild host gut microbiota and endoparasites occupy the same...... to quantify helminth infection in situ. Microbiota from the significantly distinct proventriculus (site of infection), cloacal and faecal gastrointestinal tract microbiomes were characterised using 16S rRNA gene-targeted high-throughput sequencing. We found increasingly strong associations between helminth...... infection and microbiota composition progressing away from the site of infection, observing a pronounced dysbiosis in microbiota when samples were partitioned into high- and low-burden groups. We posit this dysbiosis is predominately explained by helminths inducing an anti-inflammatory environment...

  12. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  13. An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Rotunno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s of sporadic ALS, which accounts for approximately 90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and sporadic ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein to be one such factor that is common to both sporadic and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a toxic conformation that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem sporadic ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to sporadic ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and sporadic ALS.

  14. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild commodities. 780.114 Section 780.114 Labor Regulations...

  15. Farmer–African wild dog (Lycaon pictus relations in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli-Laurente Fraser-Celin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are the most endangered large carnivores in southern Africa. Direct and indirect persecution by farmers causes significant conservation challenges. Farmer– wild dog conflict in Botswana commonly occurs as a result of cattle and stocked game depredation by wild dogs, affecting farmer livelihood and causing economic and emotional distress. Although wild dogs predate livestock at lower levels than other carnivores, they continue to be killed both indiscriminately and in retaliation for incidents of depredation. Investigating farmer–wild dog conflict is a necessary step towards establishing appropriate conflict mitigation strategies. Eighty livestock and game farmers were interviewed in order to examine farmers’ value of, perceptions of and experiences with wild dogs as well as their insights on wild dog impacts and conservation in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana. Interviews were semi-structured and used open-ended questions to capture complexities surrounding farmer–wild dog relations. This research contributes baseline data on wild dogs in understudied tribal land and commercial livestock and game farms in eastern Kalahari. It confirms the presence of wild dogs, livestock and stocked game depredation by wild dogs and negative perspectives amongst farmers towards wild dogs and their conservation. Mean losses were 0.85 livestock per subsistence farmer, 1.25 livestock per commercial livestock farmer, while game farmers lost 95.88 game animals per farmer during January 2012 through June 2013. Proportionally, more subsistence farmers than commercial livestock farmers and game farmers held negative perspectives of wild dogs (χ ² = 9.63, df = 2, p < 0.05. Farmer type, education level, socioeconomic status and land tenure, as well as positive wild dog characteristics should be considered when planning and operationalising conflict mitigation strategies. As such, conservation approaches should focus on

  16. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... small black wild type to the large white, brown, red and spotted types (Cobley and ..... Accession. North Omo. (A). Hadiya. (B). Metekel. (Dan gure. )(C. ) Shinile (D) .... Origin, domestication and evolution of the common bean ...

  17. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  18. Method of evaluation of wild common tench, Tinca tinca (L., female suitability for artificial reproduction during the spawning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of females for artificial reproduction of common tench based on an analysis of the size and percentage share of oocytes sampled in vivo. The females were collected from natural waters (lakes during the spawning season, After catching, the selected fish were transported to the hatchery, where the fish were kept under controlled conditions and oocytes were collected from all females. It was found that sampled oocytes were different in size and developmental stages. Oocytes were classified into 3 groups: small, medium and large. The diameter intervals for each group were 0.18-0.22 mm, 0.48-0.57 mm and 0.95-1.01 mm, respectively. Analysis of the percentage of the largest oocytes showed that their numbers decreased in time from over 40% on Day 1 to slightly over 10% on Day 10. A positive correlation was found between the percentage of the largest oocytes in the cathetered egg sample and the weight of the stripped eggs during artificial reproduction. The percentage of the largest oocytes (diameter 0.95-1.01 mm might be used as an indicator of the possibility of reproducing wild tench. No statistical differences were observed in latency time and embryo survival of females showing different quantities of the largest oocytes.

  19. Using tri-axial accelerometers to identify wild polar bear behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Rode, Karyn D.; Cutting, A.; Owen, M.A.; Jensen, S.; Ware, J.V.; Robbins, C.T.; Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Obbard, M.E.; Middel, K.R.; Thiemann, G.W.; Williams, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Tri-axial accelerometers have been used to remotely identify the behaviors of a wide range of taxa. Assigning behaviors to accelerometer data often involves the use of captive animals or surrogate species, as their accelerometer signatures are generally assumed to be similar to those of their wild counterparts. However, this has rarely been tested. Validated accelerometer data are needed for polar bears Ursus maritimus to understand how habitat conditions may influence behavior and energy demands. We used accelerometer and water conductivity data to remotely distinguish 10 polar bear behaviors. We calibrated accelerometer and conductivity data collected from collars with behaviors observed from video-recorded captive polar bears and brown bears U. arctos, and with video from camera collars deployed on free-ranging polar bears on sea ice and on land. We used random forest models to predict behaviors and found strong ability to discriminate the most common wild polar bear behaviors using a combination of accelerometer and conductivity sensor data from captive or wild polar bears. In contrast, models using data from captive brown bears failed to reliably distinguish most active behaviors in wild polar bears. Our ability to discriminate behavior was greatest when species- and habitat-specific data from wild individuals were used to train models. Data from captive individuals may be suitable for calibrating accelerometers, but may provide reduced ability to discriminate some behaviors. The accelerometer calibrations developed here provide a method to quantify polar bear behaviors to evaluate the impacts of declines in Arctic sea ice.

  20. Assessing rates and patterns of hybridization between wild boar and domestic pig in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Iacolina, Laura; Apollonio, Marco

    genetic marker systems and the potentiality of newly developed markers across a range of European wild boar populations. Maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA alleles are by large shared between wild and domestic stocks, and the most reliable indicator of introgression is commonly considered the presence....... However, despite the availability of multiple molecular markers, with different inheritance systems and undergoing different selective pressures, the analysis on the extent and impact of introgressive hybridization in Europe remains challenging. Here we show the outcome of the application of different...

  1. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  2. Seroprevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild and captive born Sykes' monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsyula Moses G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk. We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay and analyzed the data by origin, subspecies, age and sex. Results The SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay detected more serum samples as positive than either of the cross-reactive ELISA assays. Using this assay, we found that seroprevalence is higher than previously reported, but extremely variable in wild populations (from 0.0 to 90.9%. Females were infected more often than males in both wild and captive populations. Seropositive infants were common. However, no seropositive juveniles were identified. Conclusion We have developed a specific and sensitive Western blot assay for anti-SIVsyk antibody detection. Sykes' monkeys are commonly infected with SIVsyk, but with extremely variable prevalence in the wild. Higher infection prevalence in females suggests predominantly sexual transmission. High infection prevalence in infants, but none in juveniles, suggests maternal antibodies, but little or no vertical transmission.

  3. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  4. Environmental Assessment for Wild Horse Gathering Inside and Outside Wild Horse Herd Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed you will find the Environmental Assessment (EA) which describes the impacts of gathering wild horses in the Rock Springs Field Office area. Gathering wild horses would take place in the Great Divide Basin, White Mountain, Little Colorado, and Salt Wells Creek Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (HMA) and in an area known as the North Baxter/Jack Morrow area (outside the HMAs).

  5. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sachser Norbert; Pickel Thorsten; Lewejohann Lars; Kaiser Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less i...

  6. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever in small non-human primates✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashevich, Igor S.; Carrion, Ricardo; Salvato, Maria S.; Mansfield, Keith; Brasky, Kathleen; Zapata, Juan; Cairo, Cristiana; Goicochea, Marco; Hoosien, Gia E.; Ticer, Anysha; Bryant, Joseph; Davis, Harry; Hammamieh, Rasha; Mayda, Maria; Jett, Marti; Patterson, Jean

    2008-01-01

    A single injection of ML29 reassortant vaccine for Lassa fever induces low, transient viremia, and low or moderate levels of ML29 replication in tissues of common marmosets depending on the dose of the vaccination. The vaccination elicits specific immune responses and completely protects marmosets against fatal disease by induction of sterilizing cell-mediated immunity. DNA array analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors exposed to ML29 revealed that gene expression patterns in ML29-exposed PBMC and control, media-exposed PBMC, clustered together confirming safety profile of the ML29 in non-human primates. The ML29 reassortant is a promising vaccine candidate for Lassa fever. PMID:18692539

  7. Resource base influences genome-wide DNA methylation levels in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Amanda J.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.; Tung, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Variation in resource availability commonly exerts strong effects on fitness-related traits in wild animals. However, we know little about the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, or about their persistence over time. To address these questions, we profiled genome-wide whole blood DNA methylation levels in two sets of wild baboons: (i) ‘wild-feeding’ baboons that foraged naturally in a savanna environment and (ii) ‘Lodge’ baboons that had ready access to spatially concentrated human food scraps, resulting in high feeding efficiency and low daily travel distances. We identified 1,014 sites (0.20% of sites tested) that were differentially methylated between wild-feeding and Lodge baboons, providing the first evidence that resource availability shapes the epigenome in a wild mammal. Differentially methylated sites tended to occur in contiguous stretches (i.e., in differentially methylated regions or DMRs), in promoters and enhancers, and near metabolism-related genes, supporting their functional importance in gene regulation. In agreement, reporter assay experiments confirmed that methylation at the largest identified DMR, located in the promoter of a key glycolysis-related gene, was sufficient to causally drive changes in gene expression. Intriguingly, all dispersing males carried a consistent epigenetic signature of their membership in a wild-feeding group, regardless of whether males dispersed into or out of this group as adults. Together, our findings support a role for DNA methylation in mediating ecological effects on phenotypic traits in the wild, and emphasize the dynamic environmental sensitivity of DNA methylation levels across the life course. PMID:26508127

  8. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  9. Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals (Mammalia, Carnivora of Ukraine. Trematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol E. N.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises information on 11 species of trematodes parasitic in 9 species of wild carnivorans of Ukraine. The largest number of trematode species (9 was found in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Alaria alata (Diplostomidae appeared to be the most common trematode parasite in the studied group; it was found in 4 host species from 9 administrative regions and Crimea.

  10. Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: Towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris , the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative , Malus domestica . With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.

  11. Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammadi, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83% in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27% in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos, así como tocoferoles, fenoles totales y pigmentos de aceites de almendras y pistachos silvestres prensados en frío. Triglicéridos (TAG, tocoferoles y pigmentos se analizaron mediante HPLC, los ácidos grasos y esteroles mediante cromatografía de gases, y los fenoles totales espectrofotométricamente. Los principales ácidos grasos de ambas especies fueron los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico. Las especies de TAG predominantes son SLL + OLP (21,83% en el pistacho silvestre y OOO (47,27% en almendras silvestre. Feofitina a es un pigmento importante en los aceites de pistacho silvestre. No se detectó pigmentos en los aceites de almendras silvestres. Los fenoles totales fueron 57,6 mg kg-1 y 45,3 mg kg-1 en los aceites de pistacho silvestre y de almendra silvestre respectivamente.

  12. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  13. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  14. Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  15. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  16. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  17. Interspecies Variation in the Susceptibility of a Wild-Derived Colony of Mice to Pinworms (Aspiculuris tetraptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ryan C; Murray, Jill K; Campbell, Polly; Nagamori, Yoko; Molnar, Adam; Jackson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Pinworms are common parasites in wild and laboratory rodents. Despite their relative nonpathogenicity in immunocompetent models, pinworm infections add an unwanted variable and may confound some types of research. For this reason, health monitoring programs and biosecurity measures aim to minimize the spread of pinworm infections into colonies free from the organisms. Wild-derived and laboratory strains of mice have shown varied susceptibility to infection with Aspiculuris tetraptera, the most commonly found murine pinworm. In particular, susceptibility is increased in wild-derived mice, young animals, and males. Routine surveillance at our institution revealed pinworm infection (A. tetraptera only) within a colony of multiple, wild-derived species of Mus, although only specific species showed positive results during initial sampling. To assess whether species-associated differences in susceptibility were present, we analyzed fecal egg counts of A. tetraptera in every cage of the colony. Our results revealed significant differences in susceptibility between various species and subspecies of Mus. Egg counts were significantly higher in Mus spicilegus than Mus m. domesticus (WSB/EiJ) and Mus macedonicus. Mus spretus had higher egg counts than M. m. domesticus (WSB/EiJ), M. m. musculus (PWK/PhJ), and M. macedonicus. Egg counts did not differ in regard to age, sex, or number of mice per cage. As wild-derived mouse models continue to compliment research largely based on laboratory strains, it will be important to understand host-parasite interactions and their effects on research, particularly studies evaluating immune responses, behavior, growth, and other physiologic parameters.

  18. Murine K2P5.1 Deficiency Has No Impact on Autoimmune Neuroinflammation due to Compensatory K2P3.1- and KV1.3-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bittner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes express potassium channels that regulate physiological cell functions, such as activation, proliferation and migration. Expression levels of K2P5.1 (TASK2; KCNK5 channels belonging to the family of two-pore domain potassium channels have previously been correlated to the activity of autoreactive T lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In humans, K2P5.1 channels are upregulated upon T cell stimulation and influence T cell effector functions. However, a further clinical translation of targeting K2P5.1 is currently hampered by a lack of highly selective inhibitors, making it necessary to evaluate the impact of KCNK5 in established preclinical animal disease models. We here demonstrate that K2P5.1 knockout (K2P5.1−/− mice display no significant alterations concerning T cell cytokine production, proliferation rates, surface marker molecules or signaling pathways. In an experimental model of autoimmune neuroinflammation, K2P5.1−/− mice show a comparable disease course to wild-type animals and no major changes in the peripheral immune system or CNS compartment. A compensatory upregulation of the potassium channels K2P3.1 and KV1.3 seems to counterbalance the deletion of K2P5.1. As an alternative model mimicking autoimmune neuroinflammation, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset has been proposed, especially for testing the efficacy of new potential drugs. Initial experiments show that K2P5.1 is functionally expressed on marmoset T lymphocytes, opening up the possibility for assessing future K2P5.1-targeting drugs.

  19. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Shang-jin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV. A pair of primers (P1 and P4 specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV, canine parvovirus (CPV, canine coronavirus (CCV, rabies virus (RV, or canine adenovirus (CAV. The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.

  20. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1 and P4) specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV), rabies virus (RV), or canine adenovirus (CAV). The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. PMID:20433759

  1. Evaluation of Cytology for Diagnosing Avian Pox in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydock, Kira; Brown, Holly; Nemeth, Nicole; Poulson, Rebecca; Casalena, Mary Jo; Johnson, Joshua B; Brown, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Avian pox virus is a common cause of proliferative skin disease in wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo); however, other etiologies may produce grossly indistinguishable lesions. Common methods for diagnosing avian pox include histopathology, virus isolation, and PCR. While these methods are sufficient in most cases, each has their limitations. Cytology is a cost-effective and rapid approach that may be useful when traditional diagnostics are not feasible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of cytology relative to histopathology and PCR for avian pox diagnosis in wild turkeys. Fifty wild turkeys were submitted for necropsy due to nodular skin lesions on unfeathered skin of the head. Of these, five had similar skin lesions on the unfeathered legs and 26 had plaques on the mucosa of the oropharynx or esophagus. Representative skin, oropharyngeal, and esophageal lesions from all birds were examined with cytology and histopathology. Skin lesions on the head of each bird were also tested for avian pox virus via PCR. Histopathology and PCR were equally sensitive in diagnosing avian pox from skin lesions on the head. There were no significant differences between cytologic and histopathologic diagnosis of avian pox from skin lesions on the head (sensitivity = 97.4%, specificity = 100.0%), legs (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 100.0%), or from lesions in the oropharynx and esophagus (sensitivity of 62.5%). Similarly, there were no significant differences between PCR and cytology for diagnosis of pox viral skin lesions of the head. Relative to PCR detection of avian pox virus, cytology had a sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 90.0%. These results suggest that cytology is a useful tool for diagnosis of avian pox in wild turkeys.

  2. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Josephine G; Morgan, Eric R

    2014-12-01

    Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host-parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog) and 76% (for mouflon) of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse) and 77% (for llamas/alpacas) of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide evidence to answer this

  4. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine G. Walker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host–parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog and 76% (for mouflon of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse and 77% (for llamas/alpacas of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide

  5. Does pathogen spillover from commercially reared bumble bees threaten wild pollinators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Otterstatter

    Full Text Available The conservation of insect pollinators is drawing attention because of reported declines in bee species and the 'ecosystem services' they provide. This issue has been brought to a head by recent devastating losses of honey bees throughout North America (so called, 'Colony Collapse Disorder'; yet, we still have little understanding of the cause(s of bee declines. Wild bumble bees (Bombus spp. have also suffered serious declines and circumstantial evidence suggests that pathogen 'spillover' from commercially reared bumble bees, which are used extensively to pollinate greenhouse crops, is a possible cause. We constructed a spatially explicit model of pathogen spillover in bumble bees and, using laboratory experiments and the literature, estimated parameter values for the spillover of Crithidia bombi, a destructive pathogen commonly found in commercial Bombus. We also monitored wild bumble bee populations near greenhouses for evidence of pathogen spillover, and compared the fit of our model to patterns of C. bombi infection observed in the field. Our model predicts that, during the first three months of spillover, transmission from commercial hives would infect up to 20% of wild bumble bees within 2 km of the greenhouse. However, a travelling wave of disease is predicted to form suddenly, infecting up to 35-100% of wild Bombus, and spread away from the greenhouse at a rate of 2 km/wk. In the field, although we did not observe a large epizootic wave of infection, the prevalences of C. bombi near greenhouses were consistent with our model. Indeed, we found that spillover has allowed C. bombi to invade several wild bumble bee species near greenhouses. Given the available evidence, it is likely that pathogen spillover from commercial bees is contributing to the ongoing decline of wild Bombus in North America. Improved management of domestic bees, for example by reducing their parasite loads and their overlap with wild congeners, could diminish or even

  6. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  7. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  8. EvoWild: a demosimulator about wild life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Palacio Gayoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last years we can see how AI (Artificial Intelligence is reappearing because of technological improvements. These improvements make possible the management of large groups of information with acceptable reply times.On the other hand, cost reductions in technology make possible that an investigation field like AI becomes to an inversion field closer to scale economies, that’s why it’ll be economically profitable to invert in this type of applications.One of the fastest consequences is the AI implantation in a big amount of devices of our environment, cell telephones, palms and of course, in the video game industry.This is the reason that took us to develop EvoWild, a simulation about wild life that has video game format and tools but at the same time implements AI algorithms like genetic algorithms and reasoning based in cases.

  9. Newcastle disease B1 vaccine strain in wild rock pigeons in Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    From June to October of 2012, samples were collected from wild Rock Pigeons (Columba livia) in urban neighborhoods of Atlanta, Georgia to ascertain the prevalence of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype-1 (PPMV-1). PPMV-1 strains are a subset of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) commonly isolated fro...

  10. Pathological Roles of Wild-Type Cu, Zn-Superoxide Dismutase in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Furukawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dominant mutations in a Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 gene cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. While it remains controversial how SOD1 mutations lead to onset and progression of the disease, many in vitro and in vivo studies have supported a gain-of-toxicity mechanism where pathogenic mutations contribute to destabilizing a native structure of SOD1 and thus facilitate misfolding and aggregation. Indeed, abnormal accumulation of SOD1-positive inclusions in spinal motor neurons is a pathological hallmark in SOD1-related familial ALS. Furthermore, similarities in clinical phenotypes and neuropathology of ALS cases with and without mutations in sod1 gene have implied a disease mechanism involving SOD1 common to all ALS cases. Although pathogenic roles of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS remain controversial, recent developments of novel SOD1 antibodies have made it possible to characterize wild-type SOD1 under pathological conditions of ALS. Here, I have briefly reviewed recent progress on biochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS cases and discussed possible involvement of wild-type SOD1 in a pathomechanism of ALS.

  11. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

  12. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  13. Artificial reproduction of wild and cultured barbel (Barbus barbus, Cyprinidae) under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targońska, Katarzyna; Kucharczyk, Dariusz; Zarski, Daniel; Cejko, Beata Irena; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Kupren, Krzysztof; Król, Radosław; Dryl, Katarzyna; Kowalski, Radosław Kajetan; Glogowski, Jan

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of controlled reproduction of cultured and wild common barbel, Barbus barbus (L.). Preparations containing different GnRH analogues and dopamine receptor antagonists (Ovopel, Ovaprim) as well as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (in the case of cultured fish) were applied and their influence on ovulation, spermiation and quality of gametes obtained was determined. No differences in the qualitative or quantitative parameters of semen were found between fish stimulated with different hormonal preparations and those not receiving hormonal stimulation. The high suitability of Ovaprim for ovulation induction in (cultured and wild) barbel was confirmed. The highest synchronisation of ovulation was obtained after the application of Ovopel (18 ± 3 h), but the best results of controlled reproduction (expressed as the percentage of ovulations and survival of embryos) were obtained by applying Ovaprim (83.2 ± 4.1). A significantly higher percentage of ovulation was obtained in cultured fish (80-90%) than in wild fish (< 25%).

  14. Male and female breeding strategies in a cooperative primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maria Emilia; Araujo, Arrilton; Arruda, Maria de Fatima; Lima, Ana Karinne Moreira; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Hattori, Wallisen Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    Marmosets are cooperative breeders organized as extended family groups, but breeding is generally restricted to a single pair. Breeding competition is fierce in female marmosets; males, on the other hand, show low levels of intragroup aggression. We investigated male and female breeding strategies and the resulting reproductive output in 9 wild groups. Reproductive output, tenure of breeding animals, identification of the breeding system, breeding position replacements, migration and infanticide were recorded; also, we recorded grooming and aggression. Replacement of the breeding male or female was observed on nine occasions. On four occasions, the son of the breeding male inherited the breeding post, but we never observed inheritance of a breeding post by a daughter. Mostly, females attained a breeding post by immigrating to a group that had a breeding vacancy. Our results showed that Callithrix jacchus males and females use different strategies to attain a breeding position and maintain it for as long as possible. These strategies prolong the tenure of the breeding position, which is the best way to produce a large number of offspring. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  16. Nonhuman primates prefer slow tempos but dislike music overall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D

    2007-09-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21] to test cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets, two new-World primates, for their spontaneous responses to stimuli that varied systematically with respect to tempo. Across several experiments, we found that both tamarins and marmosets preferred slow tempos to fast. It is possible that the observed preferences were due to arousal, and that this effect is homologous to the human response to tempo. In other respects, however, these two monkey species showed striking differences compared to humans. Specifically, when presented with a choice between slow tempo musical stimuli, including lullabies, and silence, tamarins and marmosets preferred silence whereas humans, when similarly tested, preferred music. Thus despite the possibility of homologous mechanisms for tempo perception in human and nonhuman primates, there appear to be motivational ties to music that are uniquely human.

  17. Wild food plants used in the villages of the Lake Vrana Nature Park (northern Dalmatia, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Croatia is a country of diverse plant use traditions, which are still insufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to document local traditions of using wild food plants around Lake Vrana (northern Dalmatia, Zadar region.  We interviewed 43 inhabitants of six traditional villages north of Lake Vrana. On average 12 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 55 food plants and 3 fungi taxa. Wild vegetables were most widely collected, particularly by older women who gathered the plants mainly when herding their flocks of sheep. Wild fruits and mushrooms were rarely collected. The former used to be an important supplementary food for children, or for everyone during times of food shortage, and the latter were relatively rare due to the dry climate and shortage of woods. The most commonly collected plants are wild vegetables: Cichorium intybus, Foeniculum vulgare, Sonchus oleraceus, Asparagus acutifolius, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex pulcher, Daucus carota, Allium ampeloprasum and Silene latifolia.

  18. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  19. A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): effects of diazepam, chlorpromazine, pentobarbital and d-amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, G D; Duffy, E A; Miles, S S

    1985-01-01

    A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset is described. Animals are motivated by apple, a preferred food, under a state of minimal food deprivation. The apparatus used was designed to test animals within their home cages and not restrained in any way, thus avoiding possible confounding factors associated with restraint stress. Stable baseline levels of performance were reached by all animals in a median of 24 sessions. Performance was shown to be differentially sensitive to the effects of four psychoactive drugs. Moderate doses of diazepam, chlorpromazine and pentobarbital disrupted visuo-motor coordination in a dose-related manner. The possibility that disruption of performance observed at higher doses may have resulted from non-specific actions of these drugs such as decreases in feeding motivation were not supported by results from ancillary experiments. Changes in performance characteristic of high dose effects were similar in nature to changes observed when the degree of task difficulty was increased. Doses of d-amphetamine up to and including those reported to produce signs of stereotypy failed to influence performance. The potential of the conveyor belt task for measuring visuo-motor coordination in both primate and rodent species is discussed.

  20. Gene therapy in nonhuman primate models of human autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t'Hart, B. A.; Vervoordeldonk, M.; Heeney, J. L.; Tak, P. P.

    2003-01-01

    Before autoimmune diseases in humans can be treated with gene therapy, the safety and efficacy of the used vectors must be tested in valid experimental models. Monkeys, such as the rhesus macaque or the common marmoset, provide such models. This publication reviews the state of the art in monkey

  1. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris and feral cats (Felis catus, and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, feral pigs (Sus scrofa, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, goats (Capra hircus and a European hare (Lepus europaeus, from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37, 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55 and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164 were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia. Keywords: Tongue worm, Australia, Linguatulidae, Pentastomida

  2. Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min,Ahn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to verify anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of Korean wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China. Methods : For the measurement of anti-oxidation, SOD-like activity was evaluated using xanthine oxidase reduction method under in vitro environment. Subcutaneous and abdominal cancer were induced using CT-26 human colon cancer cells for the measurement of growth inhibition of cancer cells and differences in survival rate. Results : 1. Measurement of anti-oxidant activity of ginseng, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng samples showed concentration dependent anti-oxidant activity in HX/XOD system. Anti-oxidant activity showed drastic increase at 1mg/ml in all samples. 2. For the evaluation of growth inhibition of cancer cells after hypodermic implantation of CT-26 cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng and natural wild ginseng groups showed significant inhibition of tumor growth from the 12th day compared to the control group. Similar inhibitory effects were also shown on the 15th and 18th days. But there was no significant difference between the experiment groups. 3. For the observation of increase in survival rate of the natural wild ginseng group, CT-26 cancer cells were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice.

  3. A novel highly reproducible and lethal nonhuman primate model for orthopox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Kramski

    Full Text Available The intentional re-introduction of Variola virus (VARV, the agent of smallpox, into the human population is of great concern due its bio-terroristic potential. Moreover, zoonotic infections with Cowpox (CPXV and Monkeypox virus (MPXV cause severe diseases in humans. Smallpox vaccines presently available can have severe adverse effects that are no longer acceptable. The efficacy and safety of new vaccines and antiviral drugs for use in humans can only be demonstrated in animal models. The existing nonhuman primate models, using VARV and MPXV, need very high viral doses that have to be applied intravenously or intratracheally to induce a lethal infection in macaques. To overcome these drawbacks, the infectivity and pathogenicity of a particular CPXV was evaluated in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus.A CPXV named calpox virus was isolated from a lethal orthopox virus (OPV outbreak in New World monkeys. We demonstrated that marmosets infected with calpox virus, not only via the intravenous but also the intranasal route, reproducibly develop symptoms resembling smallpox in humans. Infected animals died within 1-3 days after onset of symptoms, even when very low infectious viral doses of 5x10(2 pfu were applied intranasally. Infectious virus was demonstrated in blood, saliva and all organs analyzed.We present the first characterization of a new OPV infection model inducing a disease in common marmosets comparable to smallpox in humans. Intranasal virus inoculation mimicking the natural route of smallpox infection led to reproducible infection. In vivo titration resulted in an MID(50 (minimal monkey infectious dose 50% of 8.3x10(2 pfu of calpox virus which is approximately 10,000-fold lower than MPXV and VARV doses applied in the macaque models. Therefore, the calpox virus/marmoset model is a suitable nonhuman primate model for the validation of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Furthermore, this model can help study mechanisms of OPV pathogenesis.

  4. Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P. A.; Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.

    2017-01-01

    Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre...... barrier to gene flow in the wild. Cyprinid fishes commonly produce fertile, viable hybrid offspring and therefore make excellent study organisms to investigate ecological costs to hybrids. We electronically tagged two freshwater cyprinid fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus and bream Abramis brama...... to directly test for a predation cost to hybrids in the wild. Hybrid individuals were found significantly more susceptible to cormorant predation than individuals from either parental species. Such ecological selection against hybrids contributes to species integrity, and can enhance species diversification....

  5. Wild boar mapping using population-density statistics: From polygons to high resolution raster maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Claudia; Khomenko, Sergei; Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The wild boar is an important crop raider as well as a reservoir and agent of spread of swine diseases. Due to increasing densities and expanding ranges worldwide, the related economic losses in livestock and agricultural sectors are significant and on the rise. Its management and control would strongly benefit from accurate and detailed spatial information on species distribution and abundance, which are often available only for small areas. Data are commonly available at aggregated administrative units with little or no information about the distribution of the species within the unit. In this paper, a four-step geostatistical downscaling approach is presented and used to disaggregate wild boar population density statistics from administrative units of different shape and size (polygons) to 5 km resolution raster maps by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. 1) First a stratification method was used to define homogeneous bioclimatic regions for the analysis; 2) Under a geostatistical framework, the wild boar densities at administrative units, i.e. subnational areas, were decomposed into trend and residual components for each bioclimatic region. Quantitative relationships between wild boar data and environmental variables were estimated through multiple regression and used to derive trend components at 5 km spatial resolution. Next, the residual components (i.e., the differences between the trend components and the original wild boar data at administrative units) were downscaled at 5 km resolution using area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components obtained at 5 km resolution were finally added to generate fine scale wild boar estimates for each bioclimatic region. 3) These maps were then mosaicked to produce a final output map of predicted wild boar densities across most of Eurasia. 4) Model accuracy was assessed at each different step using input as well as independent data. We discuss advantages and limits of the method and its

  6. Wild animals used as food medicine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Oliveira, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro; Rosa, Ierecê Lucena

    2013-01-01

    The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.

  7. Wild Animals Used as Food Medicine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.

  8. Evidence for social learning in wild lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel L; Custance, Deborah M; Kendal, Jeremy R; Vale, Gillian; Stoinski, Tara S; Rakotomalala, Nirina Lalaina; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2010-08-01

    Interest in social learning has been fueled by claims of culture in wild animals. These remain controversial because alternative explanations to social learning, such as asocial learning or ecological differences, remain difficult to refute. Compared with laboratory-based research, the study of social learning in natural contexts is in its infancy. Here, for the first time, we apply two new statistical methods, option-bias analysis and network-based diffusion analysis, to data from the wild, complemented by standard inferential statistics. Contrary to common thought regarding the cognitive abilities of prosimian primates, our evidence is consistent with social learning within subgroups in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), supporting the theory of directed social learning (Coussi-Korbel & Fragaszy, 1995). We also caution that, as the toolbox for capturing social learning in natural contexts grows, care is required in ensuring that the methods employed are appropriate-in particular, regarding social dynamics among study subjects. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  9. Wild food plants of Remote Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will C. McClatchey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural societies partly depend upon wild foods. Relationships between an agricultural society and its wild foods can be explored by examining how the society responds through colonization of new lands that have not been previously inhabited. The oldest clear example of this phenomenon took place about 5000 years ago in the tropical Western Pacific at the “boundary” interface between Near and Remote Oceania. An inventory of wild and domesticated food plants used by people living along “the remote side of ” that interface has been prepared from the literature. This was then assessed for the roles of plants at the time of original colonization of Remote Oceania. The majority of species are wild foods, and most of these are used as leafy vegetables and fruits. The wild food plants mostly serve as supplements to domesticated species, although there are a few that can be used as substitutes for traditional staples.

  10. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  11. Phylogeography of the wild and cultivated stimulant plant qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) in areas of historical cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R; Simmons, Mark P; Richards, Christopher M; Reeves, Patrick A; Reilley, Ann; Curto, Manuel A; Meimberg, Harald; Ngugi, Grace; Demissew, Sebsebe; Al Khulaidi, Abdul Wali; Al-Thobhani, Mansoor; Simpson, Sheron; Varisco, Daniel M

    2017-04-01

    Qat ( Catha edulis , Celastraceae) is a woody plant species cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids. Qat is important to the economy and culture in large regions of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Yemen. Despite the importance of this species, the wild origins and dispersal of cultivars have only been described in often contradictory historical documents. We examined the wild origins, human-mediated dispersal, and genetic divergence of cultivated qat compared to wild qat. We sampled 17 SSR markers and 1561 wild and cultivated individuals across the historical areas of qat cultivation. On the basis of genetic structure inferred using Bayesian and nonparametric methods, two centers of origin in Kenya and one in Ethiopia were found for cultivated qat. The centers of origin in Ethiopia and northeast of Mt. Kenya are the primary sources of cultivated qat genotypes. Qat cultivated in Yemen is derived from Ethiopian genotypes rather than Yemeni wild populations. Cultivated qat with a wild Kenyan origin has not spread to Ethiopia or Yemen, whereas a small minority of qat cultivated in Kenya originated in Ethiopia. Hybrid genotypes with both Ethiopian and Kenyan parentage are present in northern Kenya. Ethiopian cultivars have diverged from their wild relatives, whereas Kenyan qat has diverged less. This pattern of divergence could be caused by the extinction of the wild-source qat populations in Ethiopia due to deforestation, undersampling, and/or artificial selection for agronomically important traits. © 2017 Tembrock et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  12. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  13. Reduced reproductive success of hatchery coho salmon in the wild: insights into most likely mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Véronique; Moyer, Gregory R; Jackson, Laura S; Blouin, Michael S; Banks, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Supplementation of wild salmonids with captive-bred fish is a common practice for both commercial and conservation purposes. However, evidence for lower fitness of captive-reared fish relative to wild fish has accumulated in recent years, diminishing the apparent effectiveness of supplementation as a management tool. To date, the mechanism(s) responsible for these fitness declines remain unknown. In this study, we showed with molecular parentage analysis that hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) had lower reproductive success than wild fish once they reproduced in the wild. This effect was more pronounced in males than in same-aged females. Hatchery spawned fish that were released as unfed fry (age 0), as well as hatchery fish raised for one year in the hatchery (released as smolts, age 1), both experienced lower lifetime reproductive success (RS) than wild fish. However, the subset of hatchery males that returned as 2-year olds (jacks) did not exhibit the same fitness decrease as males that returned as 3-year olds. Thus, we report three lines of evidence pointing to the absence of sexual selection in the hatchery as a contributing mechanism for fitness declines of hatchery fish in the wild: (i) hatchery fish released as unfed fry that survived to adulthood still had low RS relative to wild fish, (ii) age-3 male hatchery fish consistently showed a lower relative RS than female hatchery fish (suggesting a role for sexual selection), and (iii) age-2 jacks, which use a sneaker mating strategy, did not show the same declines as 3-year olds, which compete differently for females (again, implicating sexual selection). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B. Chernyavskii

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  15. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  16. Explaining the resurgent popularity of the wild: motivations for wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunko, Christoph; Grasser, Susanne; Vogl, Christian R

    2015-06-30

    Wild plant gathering becomes again a popular and fashionable activity in Europe after gathering practices have been increasingly abandoned over the last decades. Recent ethnobotanical research documented a diversity of gathering practices from people of diverse socio-economic and cultural backgrounds who gather in urban and rural areas. Few efforts were though made to study the motivations for gathering wild plants and to understand the resurgent popularity of wild plant gathering. This paper addresses the following research questions: (1) which motivations activate wild plant gatherers? (2) which motivation-types of gatherers exist in the Grosses Walsertal? (3) how do the motivations for gathering relate to the socio-demographic background of gatherers? Field research was conducted in the Grosses Walsertal, Austria in the years 2008 and 2009 in two field research periods. Thirty-six local farmers were first interviewed with semi-structured interviews. The motivations identified in these interviews were then included in a structured questionnaire, which was used to interview 353 residents of the valley. Pupils of local schools participated in the data collection as interviewers. Principal Component Analysis was used to categorize the motivations and to identify motivation-types of wild plant gatherers. Generalized Linear Models were calculated to identify relations between motivations and the socio-demographic background of gatherers. The respondents listed 13 different motivations for gathering wild plants and four motivations for not gathering. These 17 motivations were grouped in five motivation-types of wild plant gatherers, which are in decreasing importance: product quality, fun, tradition, not-gathering, income. Women, older respondents and homegardeners gather wild plants more often for fun; older respondents gather more often for maintaining traditions; non-homegardeners more frequently mention motivations for not gathering. The resurgent popularity of

  17. DNA vaccines encoding proteins from wild-type and attenuated canine distemper virus protect equally well against wild-type virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Kristensen, Birte; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Lund, Morten; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2012-10-01

    Immunity induced by DNA vaccines containing the hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes of wild-type and attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) was investigated in mink (Mustela vison), a highly susceptible natural host of CDV. All DNA-immunized mink seroconverted, and significant levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies were present on the day of challenge with wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccines also primed the cell-mediated memory responses, as indicated by an early increase in the number of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing lymphocytes after challenge. Importantly, the wild-type and attenuated CDV DNA vaccines had a long-term protective effect against wild-type CDV challenge. The vaccine-induced immunity induced by the H and N genes from wild-type CDV and those from attenuated CDV was comparable. Because these two DNA vaccines were shown to protect equally well against wild-type virus challenge, it is suggested that the genetic/antigenic heterogeneity between vaccine strains and contemporary wild-type strains are unlikely to cause vaccine failure.

  18. The effect of pyrazine odor on avoidance learning and memory in wild robins Erithacus rubecula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C. SIDDALL, Nicola M. MARPLES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic insects advertise their defended state to potential predators using warning displays. Frequently these displays use cues through more than one sensory modality, and combine color, smell and sound to produce a multimodal warning display. Signalling through more than one sensory pathway may enhance the rate of avoidance learning, and the memorability of the learned avoidance. A common insect warning odor, pyrazine, has previously been shown to increase the rate of learned avoidance of unpalatable yellow prey by domestic chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus, and the odor also improved memory of this learned avoidance. However, to date no research has examined this response to pyrazine odor using wild birds under natural conditions. This study used wild robins (Erithacus rubecula to investigate whether wild birds avoided yellow baits that smelled of pyrazine more strongly than those presented with no odor. The results provide some evidence that pyrazine odor does increase the level of protection an aposematic insect gains from a wild avian predator, but that the effect of pyrazine on learned avoidance was much weaker than was found with domestic chicks [Current Zoology 57 (2: 208–214, 2011].

  19. Comparison of the Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2 Coma Grains to Other Astromaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Zolensky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We propose that Kuiper Belt samples (in this case comet coma grains from the Jupiter family comet Wild 2) are recognizably different from the bulk of materials in outer belt asteroids, because of their different formation positions and times in the early solar system. We believe this despite similarities found between some Wild 2 grains and components of carbonaceous chondrites (i.e. some CAI and chondrules). Kuiper Belt samples must preserve measurable mineralogical and compositional evidence of formation at unique positions and times in the early solar nebula, and these formational differences must have imparted recognizable special characteristics. We hypothesize that these characteristics include: (1) Unique major element compositional ranges of common astromaterial minerals, especially olivine and pyroxene; (2) Unique minor element compositions of major silicate phases, especially olivine and low-Ca pyroxene; (3) Degree and effects of radiation processing -- including amorphous rims, metal coatings, and Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides (GEMS); (4) Presence of abundant presolar silicate grains as recognized by anomalous oxygen in silicates; (5) Oxidation state of the mineral assemblage. We are working our way through all available Wild 2 samples, selecting 1-2 non-consecutive viable TEM grids from each possible extracted Wild 2 grain. We especially prefer TEM grids from grains for which complete mineralogical details have not been published (which is to say the majority of the extracted grains). We are performing a basic mineralogic survey by E-beam techniques, to establish the essential features of the extracted Wild 2 grains. We are making a particular effort to carefully and accurately measure minor elements of olivine and pyroxene, as these minerals are widespread in astromaterials, and comparisons of their compositions will serve to place the Wild 2 silicates in contact with asteroids, meteorites and chondritic interplanetary dust particles

  20. Serum chemistry reference values for the common genet (Genetta genetta): variations associated with Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Chirife, Andrea D; Altet, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The role of wildlife in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis in under debate, and determining whether infection with Leishmania infantum causes illness in wild carnivores is important to determine its potential role as a reservoir. To provide for the first time serum biochemistry reference values for the common genet (Genetta genetta), and to determine variations associated with L. infantum infection. Twenty-five serum biochemistry parameters were determined in 22 wild-caught genets. Blood samples were analyzed for L. infantum DNA by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two female genets were positive for L. infantum DNA but did not show any external clinical sign upon physical examination. Among other variations in the biochemistry values of these genets, one presented a higher concentration of gamma-globulins and cholesterol, whereas the other genet presented increased creatinine, bilirubin, and chloride levels when compared to uninfected females. Sex-related differences in some parameters were also reported. Infection with L. infantum may sometimes be accompanied by abnormal serum biochemistry in wild carnivores. Clinical disease may occur in L. infantum-infected wild carnivores. This has implications in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis. In addition, the data provided here would also be useful as reference values for researchers or rehabilitators working with the common genet.

  1. Efficacy of parasitological diagnosis methods in wild animals kept in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Aline Feola; Barnabe, Anderson Sena; Federsoni, Igor Popovic; Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Marco, Rogerio Milton De; Garcia, Isabel Priscilla

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Parasitic diseases are common in wild animals kept in captivity, and the research of these parasites is a tool used in wildlife management actions. Once the method most used in the practice of veterinary laboratories is the direct examination, it was considered appropriate to report the parasitism in captivity wildlife comparing this technique with modified methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer (HPJ) and Willis. Fresh feces were surveyed in eleven precincts with specimens of the class ...

  2. Diseases and parasites of laboratory reared and wild population of banded pearl spot Etroplus suratensis (Cichlidae) in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rattan, P.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Banded Pearl spot Etroplus suratensis, the inhabitant of coastal backwaters and lagoons is one among the few finfish species identified for brackishwater farming. Common diseases and parasites from the wild population of Goa and from the laboratory...

  3. The spread of a novel behavior in wild chimpanzees: New insights into the ape cultural mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    For years, the animal culture debate has been dominated by the puzzling absence of direct evidence for social transmission of behavioral innovations in the flagship species of animal culture, the common chimpanzee. Although social learning of novel behaviors has been documented in captivity, critics argue that these findings lack ecological validity and therefore may not be relevant for understanding the evolution of culture. For the wild, it is possible that group-specific behavioral differences emerge because group members respond individually to unspecified environmental differences, rather than learning from each other. In a recent paper, we used social network analyses in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) to provide direct evidence for social transmission of a behavioral innovation, moss-sponging, to extract water from a tree hole. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings and how our new methodological approach could help future studies of social learning and culture in wild apes.

  4. Study of the microbial ecology of wild and aquacultured Tunisian fresh fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulares, Mouna; Mejri, Lobna; Hassouna, Mnasser

    2011-10-01

    Eighty samples of fresh fish were collected in Tunisia and analyzed for microbial load. Quality and hygienic safety of the meat and intestines of wild and aquacultured fresh fish were determined. The mesophilic aerobic plate count and populations of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and other psychrotrophic bacteria ranged from 5.67 to 7.29, 4.51 to 6, and 5.07 to 6.21 log CFU/g, respectively. For all microbiological determinations, bacterial counts were lower in meat than in the intestines of fresh fish. For all samples lower microbial populations were found in most of the wild fish than in the aquacultured fish. No isolates of the pathogenic genera Salmonella and Listeria were detected in any sample. Among the 160 strains of biopreservative psychrotrophic LAB and the 150 strains of spoilage psychrotrophic gram-negative bacteria identified by biochemical and molecular methods, Lactobacillus (six species) and Pseudomonas (six species) predominated. Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Carnobacterium (C. piscicola and C. divergens), Aeromonas, and Photobacterium were the most common genera, and Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Aeromonas hydrophila were the most common species. These findings indicate that the microbiological quality of fresh fish in Tunisia can be preserved by controlling pathogenic and psychrotrophic bacteria.

  5. Identification of microRNAs in Response to Drought in Common Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Shoots and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Wen; Long, Yan; Xue, Man-de; Xiao, Xing-Guo; Pei, Xin-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the most important factor that limits rice production in drought-prone environments. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) contains abundant drought-resistant genes, which provide an opportunity to explore these excellent resources as contributors to improve rice resistance, productivity, and quality. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries, called CL and CR from PEG6000-free samples and DL and DR from PEG6000-treated samples, where 'R' indicates the root tissue and 'L' indicates the shoot tissue. A total of 200 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed under the drought-treated conditions (16% PEG6000 for 24 h), and the changes in the miRNA expression profile of the shoot were distinct from those of the root. At the miRNA level, 77 known miRNAs, which belong to 23 families, including 40 up-regulated and 37 down-regulated in the shoot, and 85 known miRNAs in 46 families, including 65 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated in the root, were identified as differentially expressed. In addition, we predicted 26 new miRNA candidates from the shoot and 43 from the root that were differentially expressed during the drought stress. The quantitative real-time PCR analysis results were consistent with high-throughput sequencing data. Moreover, 88 miRNAs that were differentially-expressed were predicted to match with 197 targets for drought-stress. Our results suggest that the miRNAs of O. rufipogon are responsive to drought stress. The differentially expressed miRNAs that are tissue-specific under drought conditions could play different roles in the regulation of the auxin pathway, the flowering pathway, the drought pathway, and lateral root formation. Thus, the present study provides an account of tissue-specific miRNAs that are involved in the drought adaption of O. rufipogon.

  6. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nacira; Liu, Ailin; Kan, Leo; Li, Man-Wah; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea) to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes. PMID:28165413

  7. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacira Muñoz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes.

  8. Epidemiology of canine distemper virus in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kang, Min; Jang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Hae-Beom; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2012-09-01

    Raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are widespread and common in South Korea. In 2011, we obtained serum samples from 102 wild raccoon dogs to survey their exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV). Forty-five of the 102 animals (44.1%) were seropositive. Field cases of canine distemper in wild raccoon dogs from 2010 to 2011 were investigated. Fourteen cases of CDV infection were identified by a commercially available CDV antigen detection kit. These cases were used for virus isolation and molecular analysis. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated that all viruses isolated belonged to the Asia-2 genotype. H protein residues which are related to the receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analyzed. A glutamic acid (E) residue is present at 530 in all isolates. At 549, a histidine (H) residue was found in five isolates and tyrosine (Y) residue was found in 6 isolates. Our study demonstrated that CDV infection was widespread in wild raccoon dogs in South Korea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. WildSense: Monitoring Interactions among Wild Deer in Harsh Outdoor Environments Using a Delay-Tolerant WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologists and ecologists often monitor the spread of disease among deer in the wild by using tracking systems that record their movement patterns, locations, and interaction behavior. The existing commercial systems for monitoring wild deer utilize collars with GPS sensors, deployed on captured and rereleased deer. The GPS sensors record location data every few hours, enabling researchers to approximate the interaction behavior of tracked deer with their GPS locations. However, the coarse granularity of periodically recorded GPS location data provides only limited precision for determining deer interaction behavior. We have designed a novel system to monitor wild deer interaction behavior more precisely in harsh wilderness environments. Our system combines the functionalities of both GPS and RF-radio sensors with low-cost and minimal-resource motes. We designed and built our system to be able to operate robustly for a period of up to several months for continual tracking and monitoring of the locations and interaction behaviors of wild deer in harsh environments. We successfully deployed six deer collars on six wild deer that were captured and rereleased in the Soapstone Prairie Natural Area of northern Colorado over a one-month period. In this paper, we describe how we designed and built this system and evaluate its successful operation in a wilderness area.

  10. A comparison of fatty acid composition and quality aspects of eggs and larvae from cultured and wild broodstock of common sole ( Solea solea L . )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Suhr, Karin

    2008-01-01

    compared with respect to fatty acid (FA) composition, egg size, fertilization rate and hatching rate. Based on a multivariate analysis of the FA profiles, it was possible to discriminate between culture and wild inheritance. Eggs from cultured broodstock had high levels of C20:1(n-9), C18:2(n-6) and C18......:3(n-3), whereas eggs from wild fish had high levels of C16:1(n-7), C20:4(n-6) and C20:5(n-3). Differences in FA profiles were most likely related to dietary differences. Fertilization and hatching rates were generally low and lowest in eggs from cultured broodstock, but not related to FA composition...

  11. Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes. PMID:22754378

  12. Introgression between cultivars and wild populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Chou, Chang-Hung; Chiang, Yu-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes.

  13. [Applications of DNA identification technology in protection of wild animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ping-Ya; Pei, Li; Ge, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xue-Ying; Xu, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    With the development of biotechnology, forensic DNA identification technology in protection of wild animals has been used more and more widely. This review introduces the global status of wildlife crime and the relevant protection to wildlife, outlines the practical applications of forensic DNA identification technology with regard to species identification, determination of geographic origin, individual identification and paternity identification. It focus on the techniques commonly used in DNA typing and their merits and demerits, as well as the problems and prospects of forensic DNA technology for wildlife conservation.

  14. Potential Implications of Climate Change on Aegilops Species Distribution: Sympatry of These Crop Wild Relatives with the Major European Crop Triticum aestivum and Conservation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Marie-France; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives.

  15. Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Marit L; Roche, Leslie M; Young, Truman P

    2013-10-01

    Indirect interactions driven by livestock and wild herbivores are increasingly recognized as important aspects of community dynamics in savannas and rangelands. Large ungulate herbivores can both directly and indirectly impact the reproductive structures of plants, which in turn can affect the pollinators of those plants. We examined how wild herbivores and cattle each indirectly affect the abundance of a common pollinator butterfly taxon, Colotis spp., at a set of long-term, large herbivore exclosure plots in a semiarid savanna in central Kenya. We also examined effects of herbivore exclusion on the main food plant of Colotis spp., which was also the most common flowering species in our plots: the shrub Cadaba farinosa. The study was conducted in four types of experimental plots: cattle-only, wildlife-only, cattle and wildlife (all large herbivores), and no large herbivores. Across all plots, Colotis spp. abundances were positively correlated with both Cadaba flower numbers (adult food resources) and total Cadaba canopy area (larval food resources). Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that floral resources drove the abundance of Colotis butterflies. Excluding browsing wildlife increased the abundances of both Cadaba flowers and Colotis butterflies. However, flower numbers and Colotis spp. abundances were greater in plots with cattle herbivory than in plots that excluded all large herbivores. Our results suggest that wild browsing herbivores can suppress pollinator species whereas well-managed cattle use may benefit important pollinators and the plants that depend on them. This study documents a novel set of ecological interactions that demonstrate how both conservation and livelihood goals can be met in a working landscape with abundant wildlife and livestock.

  16. Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Wild Birds: Results from an Infection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Jonas; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Olsen, Björn; Hasselquist, Dennis; Griekspoor, Petra; Jansson, Lena; Teneberg, Susann; Svensson, Lovisa; Ellström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most parts of the world. The bacterium has a broad host range and has been isolated from many animals and environments. To investigate shedding patterns and putative effects on an avian host, we developed a colonization model in which a wild bird species, the European Robin Erithacus rubecula, was inoculated orally with C. jejuni from either a human patient or from another wild bird species, the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. These two isolates were genetically distinct from each other and provoked very different host responses. The Song Thrush isolate colonized all challenged birds and colonization lasted 6.8 days on average. Birds infected with this isolate also showed a transient but significant decrease in body mass. The human isolate did not colonize the birds and could be detected only in the feces of the birds shortly after inoculation. European Robins infected with the wild bird isolate generated a specific antibody response to C. jejuni membrane proteins from the avian isolate, which also was cross-reactive to membrane proteins of the human isolate. In contrast, European Robins infected with the human isolate did not mount a significant response to bacterial membrane proteins from either of the two isolates. The difference in colonization ability could indicate host adaptations. PMID:20140204

  17. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915 and semi-structured interviews (n=78 to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported consumed-predominantly by successful, high-income, high-status males of all ages and educational levels-and is used as a medium to communicate prestige and obtain social leverage. As Vietnam′s economy grows and its population ages, demand for wildmeat and medicinal products is likely to rise. Given the difficulties of acting on personal rather than collective interests and the symbolic role of wildmeat in an extremely status-conscious society, reducing demand is challenging. Influencing consumer behaviour over the long term requires social marketing expertise and has to be informed by an in-depth understanding, achieved using appropriate methods, of the social drivers of consumer demand for wild animal products. In the meantime, strengthened enforcement is needed to prevent the demand being met from consumers prepared to pay the rising costs of finding the last individuals of a species.

  18. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schunko Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups, mushrooms (used in diverse ways and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products or as a jam. Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and

  19. Organic farmers use of wild food plants and fungi in a hilly area in Styria (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Changing lifestyles have recently caused a severe reduction of the gathering of wild food plants. Knowledge about wild food plants and the local environment becomes lost when plants are no longer gathered. In Central Europe popular scientific publications have tried to counter this trend. However, detailed and systematic scientific investigations in distinct regions are needed to understand and preserve wild food uses. This study aims to contribute to these investigations. Methods Research was conducted in the hill country east of Graz, Styria, in Austria. Fifteen farmers, most using organic methods, were interviewed in two distinct field research periods between July and November 2008. Data gathering was realized through freelisting and subsequent semi-structured interviews. The culinary use value (CUV) was developed to quantify the culinary importance of plant species. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on gathering and use variables to identify culture-specific logical entities of plants. The study presented was conducted within the framework of the master's thesis about wild plant gathering of the first author. Solely data on gathered wild food species is presented here. Results Thirty-nine wild food plant and mushroom species were identified as being gathered, whereas 11 species were mentioned by at least 40 percent of the respondents. Fruits and mushrooms are listed frequently, while wild leafy vegetables are gathered rarely. Wild foods are mainly eaten boiled, fried or raw. Three main clusters of wild gathered food species were identified: leaves (used in salads and soups), mushrooms (used in diverse ways) and fruits (eaten raw, with milk (products) or as a jam). Conclusions Knowledge about gathering and use of some wild food species is common among farmers in the hill country east of Graz. However, most uses are known by few farmers only. The CUV facilitates the evaluation of the culinary importance of species and makes comparisons

  20. Commentary: Wild psychometrics: Evidence for ‘general’ cognitive performance in wild New Zealand robins, Petroica longipes

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    2017-01-01

    A commentary on\\ud Wild psychometrics: Evidence for ‘general’ cognitive performance in wild New Zealand robins, Petroica longipes\\ud \\ud by Shaw, R. C., Boogert, N. J., Clayton, N. S., and Burns, K. C. (2015). Anim. Behav. 109, 101–111. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.08.001

  1. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  2. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  3. Baseline data on wild flora of crop field boundaries in the agro-ecosystem of pothwar plateau, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hussain, I.; Anwar, M.; Ashraf, N.; Mirza, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    Wild flora along crop field boundaries in farmlands not only increases habitat heterogeneity but also serves multiple beneficial functions. We collected baseline data on wild flora bordering the crop fields of Pothwar plateau. Overall we selected four study sites including two sites of wheat-maize/millet and two of wheat-groundnut cropping system. We recorded 51 species of plants including 12 species of trees, 14 species of shrubs and 25 species of grasses/herbs. Two tree species namely Acacia modesta and Zizyphus mauritiana and two shrub species namely Calotropis procera and Ziziphus nummularia were common indicating their widespread presence in the area. Among herbs/grasses Abutilon indicum, Amaranthus spp., Cyperus rotundus and Erogrostis poroles were common at sites with wheat-maize/millet cropping pattern while Chenopodium album, Datura stramonium and Tribulus terrestris were common at sites with wheat-groundnut cropping system. The tree and shrub densities did not differ significantly among the study sites. Wheat-groundnut cropping system had higher populations/diversity/species of shrubs as compared to wheat-maize/millet cropping system. Density of grasses/herbs significantly differed across the study sites but there was no association of herb/grass density with cropping practice. (author)

  4. Biodiversity effects in the wild are common and as strong as key drivers of productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J Emmett; Godwin, Casey M; Cardinale, Bradley J

    2017-09-14

    More than 500 controlled experiments have collectively suggested that biodiversity loss reduces ecosystem productivity and stability. Yet the importance of biodiversity in sustaining the world's ecosystems remains controversial, largely because of the lack of validation in nature, where strong abiotic forcing and complex interactions are assumed to swamp biodiversity effects. Here we test this assumption by analysing 133 estimates reported in 67 field studies that statistically separated the effects of biodiversity on biomass production from those of abiotic forcing. Contrary to the prevailing opinion of the previous two decades that biodiversity would have rare or weak effects in nature, we show that biomass production increases with species richness in a wide range of wild taxa and ecosystems. In fact, after controlling for environmental covariates, increases in biomass with biodiversity are stronger in nature than has previously been documented in experiments and comparable to or stronger than the effects of other well-known drivers of productivity, including climate and nutrient availability. These results are consistent with the collective experimental evidence that species richness increases community biomass production, and suggest that the role of biodiversity in maintaining productive ecosystems should figure prominently in global change science and policy.

  5. Environmental Surveillance System To Track Wild Poliovirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Shetty, Sushmitha J.; Siddiqui, Zaeem A.

    2003-01-01

    Eradication of poliomyelitis from large metropolis cities in India has been difficult due to high population density and the presence of large urban slums. Three paralytic poliomyelitis cases were reported in Mumbai, India, in 1999 and 2000 in spite of high immunization coverage and good-quality supplementary immunization activities. We therefore established a systematic environmental surveillance study by weekly screening of sewage samples from three high-risk slum areas to detect the silent transmission of wild poliovirus. In 2001, from among the 137 sewage samples tested, wild poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 35 and wild poliovirus type 3 was isolated from 1. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance indicated one case of paralytic poliomyelitis from the city. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP1 sequences revealed that the isolates from environmental samples belonged to four lineages of wild polioviruses recently isolated from poliomyelitis cases in Uttar Pradesh and not to those previously isolated from AFP cases in Mumbai. Wild poliovirus thus introduced caused one case of paralytic poliomyelitis. The virus was detected in environmental samples 3 months before. It was found that wild polioviruses introduced several times during the year circulated in Mumbai for a limited period before being eliminated. Environmental surveillance was found to be sensitive for the detection of wild poliovirus silent transmission. Nucleotide sequence analysis helped identify wild poliovirus reservoir areas. PMID:12732567

  6. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  7. Wild steelhead studies. 1993 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubetz, T.B.

    1995-11-01

    Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs

  8. Wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration distributions in bacteria of animal origin in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia L Pantozzi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of indicator bacteria isolated from domestic animal feces. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by agar dilution. Interpretative criteria on the basis of wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF or ECV were used according to the 'European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing' (EUCAST data. Results from 237 isolates of Escherichia coli showed reduced susceptibility for ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, the antimicrobials commonly used in intensive breeding of pigs and hens. Regarding all the species of the genus Enterococcus spp., there are only ECOFF or ECV for vancomycin. Of the 173 Enterococcus spp. isolated, only one showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and was classified as 'non-wild-type' (NWT population. This is the first report in Argentina showing data of epidemiological cutoff values in animal bacteria.

  9. Wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidane, Berhane; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Asfaw, Zemede; Sosef, M.S.M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2015-01-01

    We studied wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical methods, including individual and focus group (n = 18) discussions, field observations, and individual interviews (n = 144), were used in

  10. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  11. Wild mountains, wild rivers: Keeping the sacred origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Moon Stumpff

    2007-01-01

    For many indigenous peoples in North America, wild mountains and rivers and other natural formations exist as physical beings formed as part of a whole by forces that interconnect people with them. This perspective frames a discussion around an idea that expresses time and space as wrapped up in the mountain. If time is within the being of place and space within the...

  12. Identification and functional analysis of flowering related microRNAs in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongxiang; Li, Fuli; Yang, Songnan; Dong, Yibo; Yuan, Qianhua; Wang, Feng; Li, Weimin; Jiang, Ying; Jia, Shirong; Pei, Xinwu

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is a class of non-coding RNAs involved in post- transcriptional control of gene expression, via degradation and/or translational inhibition. Six-hundred sixty-one rice miRNAs are known that are important in plant development. However, flowering-related miRNAs have not been characterized in Oryza rufipogon Griff. It was approved by supervision department of Guangdong wild rice protection. We analyzed flowering-related miRNAs in O. rufipogon using high-throughput sequencing (deep sequencing) to understand the changes that occurred during rice domestication, and to elucidate their functions in flowering. Three O. rufipogon sRNA libraries, two vegetative stage (CWR-V1 and CWR-V2) and one flowering stage (CWR-F2) were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing. A total of 20,156,098, 21,531,511 and 20,995,942 high quality sRNA reads were obtained from CWR-V1, CWR-V2 and CWR-F2, respectively, of which 3,448,185, 4,265,048 and 2,833,527 reads matched known miRNAs. We identified 512 known rice miRNAs in 214 miRNA families and predicted 290 new miRNAs. Targeted functional annotation, GO and KEGG pathway analyses predicted that 187 miRNAs regulate expression of flowering-related genes. Differential expression analysis of flowering-related miRNAs showed that: expression of 95 miRNAs varied significantly between the libraries, 66 are flowering-related miRNAs, such as oru-miR97, oru-miR117, oru-miR135, oru-miR137, et al. 17 are early-flowering -related miRNAs, including osa-miR160f, osa-miR164d, osa-miR167d, osa-miR169a, osa-miR172b, oru-miR4, et al., induced during the floral transition. Real-time PCR revealed the same expression patterns as deep sequencing. miRNAs targets were confirmed for cleavage by 5'-RACE in vivo, and were negatively regulated by miRNAs. This is the first investigation of flowering miRNAs in wild rice. The result indicates that variation in miRNAs occurred during rice domestication and lays a foundation for further study of phase change

  13. Identification and functional analysis of flowering related microRNAs in common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongxiang Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs is a class of non-coding RNAs involved in post- transcriptional control of gene expression, via degradation and/or translational inhibition. Six-hundred sixty-one rice miRNAs are known that are important in plant development. However, flowering-related miRNAs have not been characterized in Oryza rufipogon Griff. It was approved by supervision department of Guangdong wild rice protection. We analyzed flowering-related miRNAs in O. rufipogon using high-throughput sequencing (deep sequencing to understand the changes that occurred during rice domestication, and to elucidate their functions in flowering. RESULTS: Three O. rufipogon sRNA libraries, two vegetative stage (CWR-V1 and CWR-V2 and one flowering stage (CWR-F2 were sequenced using Illumina deep sequencing. A total of 20,156,098, 21,531,511 and 20,995,942 high quality sRNA reads were obtained from CWR-V1, CWR-V2 and CWR-F2, respectively, of which 3,448,185, 4,265,048 and 2,833,527 reads matched known miRNAs. We identified 512 known rice miRNAs in 214 miRNA families and predicted 290 new miRNAs. Targeted functional annotation, GO and KEGG pathway analyses predicted that 187 miRNAs regulate expression of flowering-related genes. Differential expression analysis of flowering-related miRNAs showed that: expression of 95 miRNAs varied significantly between the libraries, 66 are flowering-related miRNAs, such as oru-miR97, oru-miR117, oru-miR135, oru-miR137, et al. 17 are early-flowering -related miRNAs, including osa-miR160f, osa-miR164d, osa-miR167d, osa-miR169a, osa-miR172b, oru-miR4, et al., induced during the floral transition. Real-time PCR revealed the same expression patterns as deep sequencing. miRNAs targets were confirmed for cleavage by 5'-RACE in vivo, and were negatively regulated by miRNAs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first investigation of flowering miRNAs in wild rice. The result indicates that variation in miRNAs occurred during rice domestication and

  14. Lentinula edodes based GIS mapping, biometabolites and antiinflamatory activity of wild edible mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2016-03-01

    The biodiversity rich state of Meghalaya, India located in the realms of mega-biodiversity hotspots, is home to numerous species of wild edible macrofungi that are used extensively by the mycophillic ethnic population, as a part of their traditional cuisine and medicine systems. However, habitat loss, due to deforestation and climate change, is destroying the natural population of these mushrooms, depleting their availability to the local communities. In the present investigation, a GIS guided habitat search, using Lentinula edodes as a representative species, was used in mapping the habitats of wild edible macrofungi of the study region. Sampling of around 4 000 specimens per distinct morphological type available in the traditional markets and “sacred grove” forests indicated presence of ten common genera, belonging to nine different families of wild edible mushrooms. Nutritional profiling of the representative species Lentinula edodes was carried out by evaluation of its moisture, total fat, crude protein and carbohydrates contents by standard methods. Similarly, bioactive components determination was performed by estimation of total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopenes. Bioactivity of the mushrooms extracts was studied using the DPPH radical scavenging and Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization assays. The present investigation successfully attempted to explore remote sensing technologies and GIS (Geographic Information System) based system to predict the natural habitats of wild edible mushrooms of Meghalaya, India which we believe will lead to the generation of a mushroom specific non-wood forest resource mapping system in the near future. Results of nutritional profiling and biological activity studies on the representative species of wild edible mushrooms from the studied region revealed that it is a rich source of essential nutrients and antioxidants.

  15. Questionnaire-Based Assessment of Wild Boar/Domestic Pig Interactions and Implications for Disease Risk Management in Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Jori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boars and domestic pigs belong to the same species (Sus scrofa. When sympatric populations of wild boars, feral pigs, and domestic pigs share the same environment, interactions between domestic and wild suids (IDWS are suspected to facilitate the spread and maintenance of several pig pathogens which can impact on public health and pig production. However, information on the nature and factors facilitating those IDWS are rarely described in the literature. In order to understand the occurrence, nature, and the factors facilitating IDWS, a total of 85 semi-structured interviews were implemented face to face among 25 strict farmers, 20 strict hunters, and 40 hunting farmers in the main traditional pig-farming regions of Corsica, where IDWS are suspected to be common and widespread. Different forms of IDWS were described: those linked with sexual attraction of wild boars by domestic sows (including sexual interactions and fights between wild and domestic boars were most frequently reported (by 61 and 44% of the respondents, respectively in the autumn months and early winter. Foraging around common food or water was equally frequent (reported by 60% of the respondents but spread all along the year except in winter. Spatially, IDWS were more frequent in higher altitude pastures were pig herds remain unattended during summer and autumn months with limited human presence. Abandonment of carcasses and carcass offal in the forest were equally frequent and efficient form of IDWS reported by 70% of the respondents. Certain traditional practices already implemented by hunters and farmers had the potential to mitigate IDWS in the local context. This study provided quantitative evidence of the nature of different IDWS in the context of extensive commercial outdoor pig farming in Corsica and identified their spatial and temporal trends. The identification of those trends is useful to target suitable times and locations to develop further ecological

  16. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  17. A walk on the wild side: Oryza species as source for rice abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menguer, Paloma Koprovski; Sperotto, Raul Antonio; Ricachenevsky, Felipe Klein

    2017-01-01

    Oryza sativa, the common cultivated rice, is one of the most important crops for human consumption, but production is increasingly threatened by abiotic stresses. Although many efforts have resulted in breeding rice cultivars that are relatively tolerant to their local environments, climate changes and population increase are expected to soon call for new, fast generation of stress tolerant rice germplasm, and current within-species rice diversity might not be enough to overcome such needs. The Oryza genus contains other 23 wild species, with only Oryza glaberrima being also domesticated. Rice domestication was performed with a narrow genetic diversity, and the other Oryza species are a virtually untapped genetic resource for rice stress tolerance improvement. Here we review the origin of domesticated Oryza sativa from wild progenitors, the ecological and genomic diversity of the Oryza genus, and the stress tolerance variation observed for wild Oryza species, including the genetic basis underlying the tolerance mechanisms found. The summary provided here is important to indicate how we should move forward to unlock the full potential of these germplasms for rice improvement.

  18. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, D. G.; Simard, J.; Sinnett, D.; Hamdi, Y.; Soucy, P.; Ouimet, M.; Barjhoux, L.; Verny-Pierre, C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Szabo, C.; Greene, M. H.; Mai, P. L.; Andrulis, I. L.; Thomassen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA...

  19. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  20. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  1. Self-willed learning: experiments in wild pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jickling, Bob

    2015-03-01

    This paper is comprised of written text and photographs of wild experiences that relive a series of ontological experiments. The text represents reflections on these experiences. The photographs, artistic expressions of the same experiences, have been made with a homemade pinhole camera—without a lens and viewfinder—thus demanding special sensual presence during creation. The form of this experimental work is reminiscent of a lyric philosophy that seeks to engage the participant—reader of text and viewer of images—with these experiments. Component pairings are arranged for viewing with text on the left and photographs on the right. Together these parings invite participants to explore patterned resonances in the world. Implicit throughout are considerations of relationships between wildness, wild learning, and a form of wild pedagogy.

  2. Explaining the resurgent popularity of the wild: motivations for wild plant gathering in the Biosphere Reserve Grosses Walsertal, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Schunko, Christoph; Grasser, Susanne; Vogl, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wild plant gathering becomes again a popular and fashionable activity in Europe after gathering practices have been increasingly abandoned over the last decades. Recent ethnobotanical research documented a diversity of gathering practices from people of diverse socio-economic and cultural backgrounds who gather in urban and rural areas. Few efforts were though made to study the motivations for gathering wild plants and to understand the resurgent popularity of wild plant gathering....

  3. The hidden Mediterranean diet: wild vegetables traditionally gathered and consumed in the Gargano area, Apulia, SE Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nello Biscotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive bio-scientific literature concerning the Mediterranean diet, which emerged in the last three decades, systematic ethnography-centered investigations on a crucial portion of this food system, linked to the traditional consumption of non-cultivated vegetables, are still largely lacking in many areas of the Mediterranean Basin. In this research, an ethnobotanical field study focusing on wild vegetables traditionally gathered and consumed locally, was conducted in a few centers and villages located in the Gargano area, northern Apulia, SE Italy, by interviewing twenty-five elderly informants. The folk culinary uses of seventy-nine botanical taxa of wild vascular plants, belonging to nineteen families, were recorded, thus showing a remarkable resilience of traditional environmental knowledge (TEK related to wild food plants. In particular, approximately one-fourth of the recorded wild vegetables are still very commonly gathered and consumed nowadays, while ten taxa have never been reported in previous ethnobotanical studies conducted in Southern Italy. These findings demonstrate the crucial cultural role played by folk cuisines in preserving TEK, despite significant socio-economic changes that have affected the study area during the past four decades.

  4. The monoamine reuptake inhibitor BTS 74 398 fails to evoke established dyskinesia but does not synergise with levodopa in MPTP-treated primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansard, Matthew J; Smith, Lance A; Jackson, Michael J; Cheetham, Sharon C; Jenner, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with levodopa (L-dopa) induces dyskinesia that, once established, is provoked by each dose of L-dopa or a dopamine (DA) agonist. In contrast, monoamine reuptake inhibitors may reverse motor deficits in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated primates without provoking established involuntary movements. We now examine whether the potent monoamine reuptake blocker BTS 74 398 induces established dyskinesia in MPTP-treated common marmosets primed previously with L-dopa and whether co-administration of BTS 74 398 with L-dopa potentiates motor behaviour and dyskinesia induced by acute L-dopa treatment. Administration of BTS 74 398 (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg, p.o.) in MPTP-treated common marmosets increased locomotor activity and reduced motor disability in a dose-related manner but did not provoke involuntary movements. BTS 74 398 (2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg p.o.) co-administered with a threshold dose of L-dopa (2.5 mg/kg p.o.) did not evoke a motor response or induce dyskinesia. Similarly, concomitant administration of BTS 74 398 (5.0 mg/kg p.o.) with a submaximal L-dopa dose (12.5 mg/kg p.o.) did not potentiate the motor response produced by L-dopa alone and there was no alteration in the dyskinesia provoked by L-dopa challenge. BTS 74 398 reverses motor abnormalities in MPTP-treated marmosets without evoking established dyskinesia but no additive improvement occurs when administered in combination with L-dopa. The lack of synergy with L-dopa may suggest different sites of drug action. Copyright 2003 Movement Disorder Society

  5. Transfer of 137Cs to wild vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Mezawa, Akane; Kawakami, Akira

    1998-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal radiation dose, it is needed to estimate the amount of radionuclide incorporated to human body using a simulation model. 137 Cesium (Cs) is easily transferred associating with food intake as well as potassium and so, Cs is an important nuclide for evaluation of internal radiation. 137 Cs concentrations in wild vegetables are higher than those of cultured vegetables and milk. Therefore, the transfer coefficients of 137 Cs from soil to wild vegetables were estimated in this study. Wild vegetables and soils of their farms were collected in the Hakkoda Mountain range of Aomori Prefecture. The levels of 137 Cs in wild vegetables were 0.42-18.35 (Bq/kg), whereas those in cabbage and spinach were 0.08 and 0.01 (Bq/kg), respectively, indicating that the Cs level is dozens to several hundreds times higher in wild vegetables than cultured ones. And the transfer coefficient was estimated as 0.003-0.94 for the former and 0.001-0.8 for the latter. On the other hand, 1 37 Cs levels of the soils on which wild vegetables grew was 28.0 Bq/kg and it was 3.9 Bq/kg for the farm soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and pH of the soil on the transfer coefficient were studied. (M.N.)

  6. Genetic diversity in Oryza glumaepatula wild rice populations in Costa Rica and possible gene flow from O. sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Eric J; Meneses Martínez, Allan; Calvo, Amanda; Muñoz, Melania; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda

    2016-01-01

    Wild crop relatives are an important source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Diversity estimates are generally lacking for many wild crop relatives. The objective of the present study was to analyze how genetic diversity is distributed within and among populations of the wild rice species Oryza glumaepatula in Costa Rica. We also evaluated the likelihood of gene flow between wild and commercial rice species because the latter is commonly sympatric with wild rice populations. Introgression may change wild species by incorporating alleles from domesticated species, increasing the risk of losing original variation. Specimens from all known O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica were analyzed with 444 AFLP markers to characterize genetic diversity and structure. We also compared genetic diversity estimates between O. glumaepatula specimens and O. sativa commercial rice. Our results showed that O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica have moderately high levels of genetic diversity, comparable to those found in South American populations. Despite the restricted distribution of this species in Costa Rica, populations are fairly large, reducing the effects of drift on genetic diversity. We found a dismissible but significant structure (θ = 0.02 ± 0.001) among populations. A Bayesian structure analysis suggested that some individuals share a significant proportion of their genomes with O. sativa. These results suggest that gene flow from cultivated O. sativa populations may have occurred in the recent past. These results expose an important biohazard: recurrent hybridization may reduce the genetic diversity of this wild rice species. Introgression may transfer commercial traits into O. glumaepatula, which in turn could alter genetic diversity and increase the likelihood of local extinction. These results have important implications for in situ conservation strategies of the only wild populations of O. glumaepatula in Costa Rica.

  7. Unraveling the genetic history of the European wild goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, I.; Ersmark, E.; Samaniego, J. A.; Galindo-Pellicena, M. A.; Crégut-Bonnoure, E.; Bolívar, H.; Gómez-Olivencia, A.; Rios-Garaizar, J.; Garate, D.; Dalén, L.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Valdiosera, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    The population history of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex has been closely related to that of humans since the Palaeolithic. Current molecular and paleontological studies differ substantially on the phylogenetic origin of the European wild goats, possibly due the loss of genetic variation through time. We investigated the phylogenetic relationship between the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) including different Iberian wild goat subspecies by applying ancient DNA techniques combined with Next Generation Sequencing technologies. We analysed the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial genome in 33 ancient and modern European wild goats from Spain and France together with publicly available genetic information of modern wild goats. This work uncovers for the first time ancient genetic information of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex, spanning a time range of approximately 40,000 years to the present. Our results suggest genetic continuity between ancient and modern populations and indicate a monophyletic origin of the Alpine ibex and the Iberian wild goat when compared to other Capra species. The monophyly of both species is in agreement with other molecular studies based only on modern populations, therefore supporting one-wave migration of wild goats into Western Europe followed by possible allopatric speciation. We observe three major clades of wild goats in Western Europe: Capra ibex, Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica and the group containing the subspecies Capra pyrenaica hispanica and Capra pyrenaica victoriae. This genetic structure recognizes the distinctiveness of the bucardo (C. p. pyrenaica) from the rest of Iberian wild goats and thus supports the idea that this group is an Evolutionary Significant Unit. The divergence time estimated here indicates an almost contemporaneous split between the three clades around 50,000-90,000 years BP.

  8. Ethnomedicinal utilization of wild edible vegetables in district harnai of balochistan province-pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tareen, N.M.; Ahmad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Wild edible plants have a tremendous influence on human being even before civilization. These plants contain considerably high nutritional value. Present survey was conducted to explore edible wild vegetables species and their ethnomedicinal uses by the inhabitants of district Harnai, Balochistan, Pakistan. Information was obtained through informed free listing interviews with randomly selected informants and field interviews with key informants selected after free listing. A total of 59 wild edible vegetables belonging to 41 genera, 59 species and 20 plant families are used not only as vegetables and salads but treatment of various diseases The most common plant families in terms of the number of species are the Brassicaceae (10 species), Apiaceae (9 species) and Asteraceae (6 species). The most common parts of the plants used as vegetables and medicine are their leaves (44.45%) and whole plant (22.22%). Plants are often used as decoction (34%), powder (26%). Highest plants species are used for gastrointestinal diseases (45 species). Highest ICF value (0.4) was recorded for dermatological disorders category. 100% fidelity level was found for two plant species i.e., Descurainia sophia, and Caralluma tuberculata. The highest use value was reported for the Lepidium sativum (0.63). Highest RFC value was calculated for Caralluma tuberculata (0.14). Highest use report was calculated for three species Apium graveolens Lepidium sativum and Mentha longifolia, (7 UR for each). The highest FIV was calculated for family Brassicaceae (14 FIV).Our study reveals that plants are still used as a major source of food like vegetables as well as medicine for the local people. Too little or no information is available on their uses, cooking methods and nutritional and physiotherapeutic values. Necessary steps should be taken to perform phytochemical and pharmacological studies to explore the potential nutritional values and herbal drug discovery of such plants. (author)

  9. 50 CFR 12.34 - Return to the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return to the wild. 12.34 Section 12.34... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property § 12.34 Return to the wild... the wild in suitable habitat within the historical range of the species in the United States with the...

  10. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  11. MONITORING OF WILD BEES IN POSTINDUSTRIAL WASTELANDS IN THE KUJAWY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Twerd

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity of pollinating insects was studied in areas affected by soda and lime industry in the Kujawy region (central Poland. Environmental monitoring was conducted near 3 industrial plants related to lime processing: Soda-Mątwy S.A. in Inowrocław, Janiksoda S.A. in Janikowo, and Trzuskawica S.A. in Bielawy. We recorded there 183 species of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes. The species that are widespread in the study area, i.e. common to all the 3 localities, accounted for about 50%, while those observed only locally, i.e. associated with only 1 industrial area, accounted for 25%. In the analysed period (2007-2010, we confirmed the occurrence of most of the species recorded: 78% in the areas affected by soda industry and 55% in those affected by lime industry. The presented results indicate that, surprisingly, postindustrial wastelands (including human-made and strongly degraded habitats can create favourable conditions for stable populations of many species of insects, also of the monitored wild bees.

  12. LABA1, a Domestication Gene Associated with Long, Barbed Awns in Wild Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Wang, Diane R; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Xiao, Langtao; Zhu, Zuofeng; Fu, Qiang; Sun, Xianyou; Gu, Ping; Cai, Hongwei; McCouch, Susan R; Sun, Chuanqing

    2015-07-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), the wild relative of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), flaunts long, barbed awns, which are necessary for efficient propagation and dissemination of seeds. By contrast, O. sativa cultivars have been selected to be awnless or to harbor short, barbless awns, which facilitate seed processing and storage. The transition from long, barbed awns to short, barbless awns was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here, we show that the presence of long, barbed awns in wild rice is controlled by a major gene on chromosome 4, LONG AND BARBED AWN1 (LABA1), which encodes a cytokinin-activating enzyme. A frame-shift deletion in LABA1 of cultivated rice reduces the cytokinin concentration in awn primordia, disrupting barb formation and awn elongation. Sequencing analysis demonstrated low nucleotide diversity and a selective sweep encompassing an ∼800-kb region around the derived laba1 allele in cultivated rice. Haplotype analysis revealed that the laba1 allele originated in the japonica subspecies and moved into the indica gene pool via introgression, suggesting that humans selected for this locus in early rice domestication. Identification of LABA1 provides new insights into rice domestication and also sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying awn development. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Sabin and wild polioviruses from apparently healthy primary school children in northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M M; Oderinde, B S; Patrick, P Z; Jarmai, M M

    2012-02-01

    Despite significant success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Nigeria, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, wild poliovirus still occurs due to persistently high proportions of under and unimmunized children. The study aimed at determining the type of poliovirus often excreted into the environment. Four hundred nine fecal samples collected from apparently healthy school children aged 5-16 years in Borno and Adamawa States, northeastern Nigeria, were tested for poliovirus by tissue culture technique. The isolates were characterized further by intratypic differentiation testing and genetic sequencing. Three wild poliovirus type, 11 Sabin type, combination of Sabin-types 1 + 2 and 2 + 3 poliovirus, and 22 non-polio enteroviruses were obtained. The continued excretion of wild-type poliovirus among children above 5 years old vaccinated with oral polio vaccine contributes to the persistent circulation of these viruses in the environment and may limit the population immunity. However, the excreted Sabin poliovirus is capable of immunizing the unvaccinated children and promotes herd immunity. Similarly, the excretion of combination of two polio serotypes indicates the child susceptibility to the missing serotype (s) and therefore indicates an immunity gap. The common unhygienic practices in the environment could aid the spread of these viruses through oral-fecal route. Asymptomatic transmission of wild poliovirus among older oral polio vaccine-vaccinated children poses a serious threat to polio eradication program in Nigeria and therefore, environmental and serological surveillance with larger sample size are important for monitoring poliovirus circulation in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Wild-Caught Versus Farmed Fish – Consumer Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Marina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have limited knowledge of determinants of consumer preferences for wild-caught versus farmed-raised fish, so this work aims to investigate the impact of sociodemographics, habits and frequency of fresh fish consumption, such as involvement in cooking, on the preferences for wild versus farmed fish. A survey was done on a sample of 1151 fish consumers in Croatia. Results showed that female, older consumers, consumers with higher income and those living in coastal parts of Croatia give higher preferences for wild fish and they detect differences between the taste of wild and farmed fish. Consumers with higher levels of habits of fresh fish consumption, who eat fresh fish often and are more involved in cooking, prefer wild-caught fish. These findings provide valuable information for the aquaculture sector, especially for planning marketing strategies for the promotion of farmed fish.

  15. Tartusse tuleb Wilde'i ja Vilde monument

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tartu kesklinnas Wilde Irish Pubi ees peaks 1999. a. kevadel avatama kirjanike Oscar Wilde'i ja Eduard Vilde pronkskujud. Elusuuruses kirjanikud hakkavad istuma graniitistmel. Idee autorid - pubipidaja Liam Allen, ettevõtja Marju Unt, skulptor Tiiu Kirsipuu.

  16. Wild food plants used by the Tibetans of Gongba Valley (Zhouqu county, Gansu, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethnobotany of Tibetans is a seriously under-studied topic. The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants in a valley inhabited by Tibetans in the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Region. Methods The field research was carried out in a wooded mountain valley in 9 neighbouring villages the Zhouqu (Brugchu) county, and comprised 17 interviews with single informants and 14 group interviews, involving 122 people altogether. Results We recorded the use of 81 species of vascular plants from 41 families. Fruits formed the largest category, with 42 species, larger than the wild greens category, with 36 species. We also recorded the culinary use of 5 species of edible flowers, 7 species with underground edible organs and 5 taxa of fungi. On average, 16.2 edible taxa were listed per interview (median – 16). Green vegetables formed the largest category of wild foods (mean – 8.7 species, median – 9 species), but fruits were listed nearly as frequently (mean – 6.9, median – 6). Other categories were rarely mentioned: flowers (mean – 0.2, median – 0), underground edible parts (mean – 0.3, median – 0) and mushrooms (mean – 1.5, – median 1). Wild vegetables are usually boiled and/or fried and served as side-dishes (cai). They are often lacto-fermented. Wild fruits are mainly collected by children and eaten raw, they are not stored for further use. The most widely used wild vegetables are: Eleuterococcus spp., Pteridium aquilinum, Helwingia japonica, Aralia chinensis, Allium victorialis, Pteridium aquilinum, Ixeris chinensis, Thlaspi arvense and Chenopodium album. The culinary use of Caltha palustris as a green vegetable is very interesting. In its raw state, marsh marigold is a toxic plant, due to the presence of protoanemonin. In this area it is dried or lactofermented before use. The most commonly eaten fruits are: Pyrus xerophila, Prunus salicina, Berchemia sinica, Rubus spp. and Eleagnus umbellata. Conclusions The

  17. Personality in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garai, Cintia; Weiss, Alexander; Arnaud, Coline; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2016-11-01

    To understand the evolution of personality structure requires examining personality dimensions in multiple species using a common set of traits. Little research has been conducted on personality in wild populations of nonhuman primates. Using behavioral observations and questionnaire ratings, we examined factors influencing personality in 16 wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We extracted five factors from 31 of the items from the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire (HPQ) and three factors from observed behaviors. The HPQ factors were labeled Unemotionality Q , Friendliness Q , Aggressiveness Q , Irritability Q , and Activity Q . The behavioral factors were labeled Grooming B , Playfulness B , and Introversion B . We established the convergent and divergent validity of these factors by obtaining correlations between the HPQ and behavioral factors. We tested for sex differences and found that males were significantly higher on Introversion B and significantly lower in Irritability Q . We then tested for age differences and found that Friendliness Q was lower and Aggressiveness Q was higher in older individuals. Finally, we found that, among males, hierarchical rank was associated with higher Aggressiveness Q . These findings contrast with findings in chimpanzees in ways consistent with known species differences. For one, consistent with the more egalitarian structure of bonobo society, we did not identify a clear Dominance factor. Also, the results related to sex differences were consistent with previous findings that reveal closer bonds between female bonobos than female chimpanzees. These findings highlight the importance of studying personality in closely related species and the need to consider species' socioecology when studying personality. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1178-1189, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Lovely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded 1-4 bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Several of the bacterial and fungal species isolated have been implicated in cases of septicaemia in crocodilians. Knowledge of the normal intestinal flora will contribute towards the development of a crocodile-specific probiotic for use in farmed crocodiles.

  19. Genetic mapping of a novel recessive allele for non-glaucousness in wild diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii: implications for the evolution of common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Ryo; Tanaka, Chisa; Yoshida, Kentaro; Takumi, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    Cuticular wax on the aerial surface of plants has a protective function against many environmental stresses. The bluish-whitish appearance of wheat leaves and stems is called glaucousness. Most modern cultivars of polyploid wheat species exhibit the glaucous phenotype, while in a wild wheat progenitor, Ae. tauschii, both glaucous and non-glaucous accessions exist. Iw2, a wax inhibitor locus on the short arm of chromosome 2D, is the main contributor to this phenotypic variation in Ae. tauschii, and the glaucous/non-glaucous phenotype of Ae. tauschii is usually inherited by synthetic hexaploid wheat. However, a few synthetic lines show the glaucous phenotype although the parental Ae. tauschii accessions are non-glaucous. Molecular marker genotypes indicate that the exceptional non-glaucous Ae. tauschii accessions share the same genotype in the Iw2 chromosomal region as glaucous accessions, suggesting that these accessions have a different causal locus for their phenotype. This locus was assigned to the long arm of chromosome 3D using an F 2 mapping population and designated W4, a novel glaucous locus in Ae. tauschii. The dominant W4 allele confers glaucousness, consistent with phenotypic observation of Ae. tauschii accessions and the derived synthetic lines. These results implied that glaucous accessions of Ae. tauschii with the W2W2iw2iw2W4W4 genotype could have been the D-genome donor of common wheat.

  20. Wild food in Europe: a synthesis of knowledge and data of terrestrial wild food as an ecosystem service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, C.J.E.; Thuiller, W.; Verburg, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Wild food is an iconic ecosystem service that receives little attention in quantifying, valuating and mapping studies, due to the perceived low importance or due to lack of data. Here, we synthesize available data on the importance of wild food as ecosystem service, its spatial distribution and

  1. Oxidative Stress in Wild Boars Naturally and Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gassó

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS-RNS are important defence substances involved in the immune response against pathogens. An excessive increase in ROS-RNS, however, can damage the organism causing oxidative stress (OS. The organism is able to neutralise OS by the production of antioxidant enzymes (AE; hence, tissue damage is the result of an imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status. Though some work has been carried out in humans, there is a lack of information about the oxidant/antioxidant status in the presence of tuberculosis (TB in wild reservoirs. In the Mediterranean Basin, wild boar (Sus scrofa is the main reservoir of TB. Wild boar showing severe TB have an increased risk to Mycobacterium spp. shedding, leading to pathogen spreading and persistence. If OS is greater in these individuals, oxidant/antioxidant balance in TB-affected boars could be used as a biomarker of disease severity. The present work had a two-fold objective: i to study the effects of bovine TB on different OS biomarkers (namely superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalasa (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in wild boar experimentally challenged with Mycobacterium bovis, and ii to explore the role of body weight, sex, population and season in explaining the observed variability of OS indicators in two populations of free-ranging wild boar where TB is common. For the first objective, a partial least squares regression (PLSR approach was used whereas, recursive partitioning with regression tree models (RTM were applied for the second. A negative relationship between antioxidant enzymes and bovine TB (the more severe lesions, the lower the concentration of antioxidant biomarkers was observed in experimentally infected animals. The final PLSR model retained the GPX, SOD and GR biomarkers and showed that 17.6% of the observed variability of antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated

  2. Analysis of near infrared spectra for age-grading of wild populations of Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajacich, Benjamin J; Meyers, Jacob I; Alout, Haoues; Dabiré, Roch K; Dowell, Floyd E; Foy, Brian D

    2017-11-07

    Understanding the age-structure of mosquito populations, especially malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae, is important for assessing the risk of infectious mosquitoes, and how vector control interventions may impact this risk. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for age-grading has been demonstrated previously on laboratory and semi-field mosquitoes, but to date has not been utilized on wild-caught mosquitoes whose age is externally validated via parity status or parasite infection stage. In this study, we developed regression and classification models using NIRS on datasets of wild An. gambiae (s.l.) reared from larvae collected from the field in Burkina Faso, and two laboratory strains. We compared the accuracy of these models for predicting the ages of wild-caught mosquitoes that had been scored for their parity status as well as for positivity for Plasmodium sporozoites. Regression models utilizing variable selection increased predictive accuracy over the more common full-spectrum partial least squares (PLS) approach for cross-validation of the datasets, validation, and independent test sets. Models produced from datasets that included the greatest range of mosquito samples (i.e. different sampling locations and times) had the highest predictive accuracy on independent testing sets, though overall accuracy on these samples was low. For classification, we found that intramodel accuracy ranged between 73.5-97.0% for grouping of mosquitoes into "early" and "late" age classes, with the highest prediction accuracy found in laboratory colonized mosquitoes. However, this accuracy was decreased on test sets, with the highest classification of an independent set of wild-caught larvae reared to set ages being 69.6%. Variation in NIRS data, likely from dietary, genetic, and other factors limits the accuracy of this technique with wild-caught mosquitoes. Alternative algorithms may help improve prediction accuracy, but care should be taken to either maximize

  3. William Wilde: Historian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, L

    2016-05-01

    This essay attempts to assess William Wilde as a social historian. It examines some of his contributions to the discipline of history and looks particularly at 'The food of the Irish', which was published in the Dublin University Magazine in February 1854.

  4. TOPOGRAFIA VÉRTEBRO-MEDULAR EM SAGUI-DE-TUFO-BRANCO (Callithrix jacchus, LINNAEUS 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Célia Stunitz da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of spinal cord morphological studies, their applicability in clinical veterinary during cerebrospinal fluid punction, location of nervous injuries in spinal levels, and epidural anesthesia, this study aimed at analyzing and describing the spinal cord and vertebral-medullary topography in the primate Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset. Ten adult specimens, 5 females and 5 males, with 170g-300g were used. The animals came from a wildlife breeding center and died of natural causes. After fixation in 10% formaldehyde solution, the animals were incised at the dorsal midline, from foramen magnum to the tail base, with removal of epaxial muscles and vertebral arches to expose the spinal cord. Total length measurements from the spinal cord, medullary cone and cervical and lumbar intumescences were performed, as well as skeletopie of all structures. Based on the analyzed material and the technique apllied we concluded that the spine of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus presents standard morphometric and morphological characteristic, and through the medullary cone morphological description, between L2-L5, we suggest that epidural anesthesia in this species should be performed at lumbosacral region.

  5. ‘‘What's wrong with my monkey?''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    in marmosets in some areas of research. The mainstream, broadly utilitarian view of animal research suggests that such a transition will not give rise to greater ethical problems than those presently faced. It can be argued that using marmosets rather than mice will not result in more animal suffering......, readily available in the way that transgenic laboratory mice are currently, prompts excitement in the scientific community; but the idea of monkeys being bred to carry diseases is also contentious. We structure an ethical analysis of the transgenic marmoset case around three questions: whether...

  6. Chromatic summation and receptive field properties of blue-on and blue-off cells in marmoset lateral geniculate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, C D; Pietersen, A N J; Zeater, N; Solomon, S G; Martin, P R

    2017-11-22

    The "blue-on" and "blue-off" receptive fields in retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of diurnal primates combine signals from short-wavelength sensitive (S) cone photoreceptors with signals from medium/long wavelength sensitive (ML) photoreceptors. Three questions about this combination remain unresolved. Firstly, is the combination of S and ML signals in these cells linear or non-linear? Secondly, how does the timing of S and ML inputs to these cells influence their responses? Thirdly, is there spatial antagonism within S and ML subunits of the receptive field of these cells? We measured contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency tuning for four types of drifting sine gratings: S cone isolating, ML cone isolating, achromatic (S + ML), and counterphase chromatic (S - ML), in extracellular recordings from LGN of marmoset monkeys. We found that responses to stimuli which modulate both S and ML cones are well predicted by a linear sum of S and ML signals, followed by a saturating contrast-response relation. Differences in sensitivity and timing (i.e. vector combination) between S and ML inputs are needed to explain the amplitude and phase of responses to achromatic (S + ML) and counterphase chromatic (S - ML) stimuli. Best-fit spatial receptive fields for S and/or ML subunits in most cells (>80%) required antagonistic surrounds, usually in the S subunit. The surrounds were however generally weak and had little influence on spatial tuning. The sensitivity and size of S and ML subunits were correlated on a cell-by-cell basis, adding to evidence that blue-on and blue-off receptive fields are specialised to signal chromatic but not spatial contrast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wild Coastline Birds as Reservoirs of Broad-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Miami Beach, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potron, Anaïs; De La Cuesta, Carolina; Cleary, Timothy; Nordmann, Patrice; Munoz-Price, L. Silvia

    2012-01-01

    A high rate of broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates was identified from seagull and pelican feces collected in the Miami Beach, Florida, area. The most commonly identified resistance determinants were CMY-2 and CTX-M-15. Those wild birds might be therefore considered vehicles for wide dissemination of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the United States. PMID:22314536

  8. Behavioral and neurogenomic transcriptome changes in wild-derived zebrafish with fluoxetine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    several different molecular pathways to reduce anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish. This study provides data that could help identify common molecular mechanisms of fluoxetine action across animal taxa. PMID:23706039

  9. Delivery of crop pollination services is an insufficient argument for wild pollinator conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijn, David; Winfree, Rachael; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Henry, Mickaël; Isaacs, Rufus; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kremen, Claire; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Rader, Romina; Ricketts, Taylor H; Williams, Neal M; Lee Adamson, Nancy; Ascher, John S; Báldi, András; Batáry, Péter; Benjamin, Faye; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Blitzer, Eleanor J; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brand, Mariëtte R; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Button, Lindsey; Cariveau, Daniel P; Chifflet, Rémy; Colville, Jonathan F; Danforth, Bryan N; Elle, Elizabeth; Garratt, Michael P.D.; Herzog, Felix; Holzschuh, Andrea; Howlett, Brad G; Jauker, Frank; Jha, Shalene; Knop, Eva; Krewenka, Kristin M; Le Féon, Violette; Mandelik, Yael; May, Emily A; Park, Mia G; Pisanty, Gideon; Reemer, Menno; Riedinger, Verena; Rollin, Orianne; Rundlöf, Maj; Sardiñas, Hillary S; Scheper, Jeroen; Sciligo, Amber R; Smith, Henrik G; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thorp, Robbin; Tscharntke, Teja; Verhulst, Jort; Viana, Blandina F; Vaissière, Bernard E; Veldtman, Ruan; Westphal, Catrin; Potts, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that more diverse ecosystems deliver greater benefits to people, and these ecosystem services have become a key argument for biodiversity conservation. However, it is unclear how much biodiversity is needed to deliver ecosystem services in a cost-effective way. Here we show that, while the contribution of wild bees to crop production is significant, service delivery is restricted to a limited subset of all known bee species. Across crops, years and biogeographical regions, crop-visiting wild bee communities are dominated by a small number of common species, and threatened species are rarely observed on crops. Dominant crop pollinators persist under agricultural expansion and many are easily enhanced by simple conservation measures, suggesting that cost-effective management strategies to promote crop pollination should target a different set of species than management strategies to promote threatened bees. Conserving the biological diversity of bees therefore requires more than just ecosystem-service-based arguments. PMID:26079893

  10. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  11. Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wild Melon MLO Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wild species have a potential value in crop breeding. Explore MLO gene which related with powdery mildew natural resistance is very important for improving the quality of melon. Resistance to powdery mildew was examined in cultivar and wild species by leaf inoculation. The wild germplasms showed resistance to powdery mildew Race1. Cloning and sequence analysis of the CmMLO2 gene identified an 85 bp difference between the wild and cultivated species. The CmMLO2 gene was expressed in the wild germplasm after fluorescence-labeled Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A positive transgenic plant showed successful invasion by powdery mildew Race1. These results suggested that the wild species might have failed to encode the MLO protein, thereby resulting in the MLO-negative regulation of powdery mildew, which in turn resulted in the broad-spectrum resistance of the wild species to powdery mildew.

  12. [An overview of surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Shi, Jing-Hong; Shu, Yue-Long

    2014-05-01

    Wild birds (mainly Anseriformes and Charadriiformes) are recognized as the natural reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The long-term surveillance of AIVs in wild birds has been conducted in North America and Europe since 1970s. More and more surveillance data revealed that all the HA and NA subtypes of AIVs were identified in the wild ducks, shorebirds, and gulls, and the AIVs circulating in wild birds were implicated in the outbreaks of AIVs in poultry and humans. Therefore, the AIVs in wild birds pose huge threat to poultry industry and human health. To gain a better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of AIVs in wild birds, we summarize the transmission of AIVs between wild birds, poultry, and humans, the main results of surveillance of AIVs in wild birds worldwide and methods for surveillance, and the types of samples and detection methods for AIVs in wild birds, which would be vital for the effective control of avian influenza and response to possible influenza pandemic.

  13. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity and Development of a Core Collection of Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) Populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Bai, Lin; Lu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yuhong; Jiang, Lan; Diao, Mengyang; Liu, Xiangdong; Lu, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.), the progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L.), is endangered due to habitat loss. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the genetic diversity of wild rice species in isolated populations and to develop a core collection of representative genotypes for ex situ conservation. We collected 885 wild rice accessions from eight geographically distinct regions and transplanted these accessions in a protected conservation garden over a period of almost two decades. We evaluated these accessions for 13 morphological or phenological traits and genotyped them for 36 DNA markers evenly distributed on the 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of variation of quantitative traits was 0.56 and ranged from 0.37 to 1.06. SSR markers detected 206 different alleles with an average of 6 alleles per locus. The mean polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.64 in all populations, indicating that the marker loci have a high level of polymorphism and genetic diversity in all populations. Phylogenetic analyses based on morphological and molecular data revealed remarkable differences in the genetic diversity of common wild rice populations. The results showed that the Zengcheng, Gaozhou, and Suixi populations possess higher levels of genetic diversity, whereas the Huilai and Boluo populations have lower levels of genetic diversity than do the other populations. Based on their genetic distance, 130 accessions were selected as a core collection that retained over 90% of the alleles at the 36 marker loci. This genetically diverse core collection will be a useful resource for genomic studies of rice and for initiatives aimed at developing rice with improved agronomic traits.

  14. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal ... On the other hand, if nutrition analysis reveals different nutrition parameters for both types of mushrooms, 43.3% opted for cultivated mushroom, 42.2%, wild; 12.2% both; while 2.2% would eat ... Keywords: Consumption pattern, Lentinus squarrosulus, nutrition, perception, wild mushroom ...

  15. LABA1, a Domestication Gene Associated with Long, Barbed Awns in Wild Rice[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Lei; Wang, Diane R.; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Liu, Fengxia; Xiao, Langtao; Zhu, Zuofeng; Fu, Qiang; Sun, Xianyou; Gu, Ping; Cai, Hongwei; McCouch, Susan R.; Sun, Chuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), the wild relative of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), flaunts long, barbed awns, which are necessary for efficient propagation and dissemination of seeds. By contrast, O. sativa cultivars have been selected to be awnless or to harbor short, barbless awns, which facilitate seed processing and storage. The transition from long, barbed awns to short, barbless awns was a crucial event in rice domestication. Here, we show that the presence of long, barbed awns in wild rice is controlled by a major gene on chromosome 4, LONG AND BARBED AWN1 (LABA1), which encodes a cytokinin-activating enzyme. A frame-shift deletion in LABA1 of cultivated rice reduces the cytokinin concentration in awn primordia, disrupting barb formation and awn elongation. Sequencing analysis demonstrated low nucleotide diversity and a selective sweep encompassing an ∼800-kb region around the derived laba1 allele in cultivated rice. Haplotype analysis revealed that the laba1 allele originated in the japonica subspecies and moved into the indica gene pool via introgression, suggesting that humans selected for this locus in early rice domestication. Identification of LABA1 provides new insights into rice domestication and also sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying awn development. PMID:26082172

  16. The absence of wild game and fish species from the USDA National Nutrient Database for standard reference: addressing information gaps in wild caught foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidball, Moira M; Tidball, Keith G; Curtis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We highlighted gaps in nutritional data for wild game meat and wild caught fish that have a regulated harvesting season in New York State, and examined the possible role that wild game and fish play in current trends towards consumption of local, healthy meat sources. This project is part of larger study that examines family food decision-making, and explores possibilities for leveraging the locavore movement in support of consumption of wild game and fish.

  17. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khlaif Rasha B

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A comparative food ethnobotanical study was carried out in fifteen local communities distributed in five districts in the Palestinian Authority, PA (northern West Bank, six of which were located in Nablus, two in Jenin, two in Salfit, three in Qalqilia, and two in Tulkarm. These are among the areas in the PA whose rural inhabitants primarily subsisted on agriculture and therefore still preserve the traditional knowledge on wild edible plants. Methods Data on the use of wild edible plants were collected for one-year period, through informed consent semi-structured interviews with 190 local informants. A semi-quantitative approach was used to document use diversity, and relative importance of each species. Results and discussion The study recorded 100 wild edible plant species, seventy six of which were mentioned by three informants and above and were distributed across 70 genera and 26 families. The most significant species include Majorana syriaca, Foeniculum vulgare, Malvasylvestris, Salvia fruticosa, Cyclamen persicum, Micromeria fruticosa, Arum palaestinum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Gundelia tournefortii, and Matricaria aurea. All the ten species with the highest mean cultural importance values (mCI, were cited in all five areas. Moreover, most were important in every region. A common cultural background may explain these similarities. One taxon (Majoranasyriaca in particular was found to be among the most quoted species in almost all areas surveyed. CI values, as a measure of traditional botanical knowledge, for edible species in relatively remote and isolated areas (Qalqilia, and Salfit were generally higher than for the same species in other areas. This can be attributed to the fact that local knowledge of wild edible plants and plant gathering are more spread in remote or isolated areas. Conclusion Gathering, processing and consuming wild edible plants are still practiced in all the studied Palestinian areas. About 26

  18. Ed & Os : kahe Wilde näitemäng / Mati Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Mati, 1944-2005

    1998-01-01

    Mati Undi näidend Eduard Vilde ja Oscar Wilde'i kohtumisest. Illustratsiooniks Tiiu Kirsipuu Tartusse Wilde Irish Pubi ette loodava skulptuurigrupi kavand. Autori märkus : Tekst on kirjutatud Kahe Wilde Pubi avamiseks ja koostatud Wilde'i ja Vilde tekstidest.

  19. Seasonal Food Scarcity Prompts Long-Distance Foraging by a Wild Social Bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Nathaniel S; Jha, Shalene

    2018-01-01

    Foraging is an essential process for mobile animals, and its optimization serves as a foundational theory in ecology and evolution; however, drivers of foraging are rarely investigated across landscapes and seasons. Using a common bumblebee species from the western United States (Bombus vosnesenskii), we ask whether seasonal decreases in food resources prompt changes in foraging behavior and space use. We employ a unique integration of population genetic tools and spatially explicit foraging models to estimate foraging distances and rates of patch visitation for wild bumblebee colonies across three study regions and two seasons. By mapping the locations of 669 wild-caught individual foragers, we find substantial variation in colony-level foraging distances, often exhibiting a 60-fold difference within a study region. Our analysis of visitation rates indicates that foragers display a preference for destination patches with high floral cover and forage significantly farther for these patches, but only in the summer, when landscape-level resources are low. Overall, these results indicate that an increasing proportion of long-distance foraging bouts take place in the summer. Because wild bees are pollinators, their foraging dynamics are of urgent concern, given the potential impacts of global change on their movement and services. The behavioral shift toward long-distance foraging with seasonal declines in food resources suggests a novel, phenologically directed approach to landscape-level pollinator conservation and greater consideration of late-season floral resources in pollinator habitat management.

  20. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  1. Distribution of Wild and Cultivated Grapes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H UZUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of main gene centers in the world for grapes. It is believed that cultivated grapes have their origins in Turkey and the surrounding countries. Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris is the only wild grape species in this region. That is why Turkey has a very large amount of wild grapevine populations and grape cultivars which offer to grapevine breeders a valuable gene pool. Wild grapevines have significant characters for inducing the resistence to biotic and abiotic stress factors, such as resistance to lime, drought, pests and diseases. Turkey has over 1.600 local grape cultivars, among which the majority of them are conserved at the national grape collection vineyard in Tekirda?. They are mostly used as table grapes, dried grapes or for local consumptions. Wild grapes are distributed all over the country territory, mainly in the river basins and forests. Wild grape collection vineyards were established at some universities in Turkey. These grapevines will be screened for the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors.

  2. Vitamin D status of wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and captive and wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta) in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Jan C; Maria, Roberto; Reichard, Tim; Tolson, Peter J; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F

    2005-06-01

    Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 22 wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta). Calcitriol (1,25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 12 wild Ricord's iguanas and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas. These animals were captured as part of a larger health assessment study being conducted on Ricord's iguanas in Isla Cabritos National Park, Dominican Republic. A total of 13 captive rhinoceros iguanas held outdoors at Parque Zoológico Nacional were also sampled for comparison. Mean concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 554 nmol/L (222 ng/ml) with a range of 250-1,118 nmol/L (100-448 ng/ml) for wild Ricord's iguanas, 332 nmol/L (133 ng/ml) with a range of 260-369 nmol/L (104-148 ng/ml) for wild rhinoceros iguanas, and 317 nmol/L (127 ng/ml) with a range of 220-519 nmol/L (88-208 ng/ml) for captive rhinoceros iguanas. On the basis of these results, serum concentrations of at least 325 nmol/L (130 ng/ml) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be considered normal for healthy Ricord's and rhinoceros iguanas.

  3. Transgenic Monkey Model of the Polyglutamine Diseases Recapitulating Progressive Neurological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Minakawa, Eiko N.; Motohashi, Hideyuki H.; Takayama, Osamu; Popiel, H. Akiko; Puentes, Sandra; Owari, Kensuke; Nakatani, Terumi; Nogami, Naotake; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Yonekawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yoko; Fujita, Naoko; Suzuki, Hikaru; Aizawa, Shu; Nagano, Seiichi; Yamada, Daisuke; Wada, Keiji; Kohsaka, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and the polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, are becoming prevalent as a consequence of elongation of the human lifespan. Although various rodent models have been developed to study and overcome these diseases, they have limitations in their translational research utility owing to differences from humans in brain structure and function and in drug metabolism. Here, we generated a transgenic marmoset model of the polyQ diseases, showing progressive neurological symptoms including motor impairment. Seven transgenic marmosets were produced by lentiviral introduction of the human ataxin 3 gene with 120 CAG repeats encoding an expanded polyQ stretch. Although all offspring showed no neurological symptoms at birth, three marmosets with higher transgene expression developed neurological symptoms of varying degrees at 3–4 months after birth, followed by gradual decreases in body weight gain, spontaneous activity, and grip strength, indicating time-dependent disease progression. Pathological examinations revealed neurodegeneration and intranuclear polyQ protein inclusions accompanied by gliosis, which recapitulate the neuropathological features of polyQ disease patients. Consistent with neuronal loss in the cerebellum, brain MRI analyses in one living symptomatic marmoset detected enlargement of the fourth ventricle, which suggests cerebellar atrophy. Notably, successful germline transgene transmission was confirmed in the second-generation offspring derived from the symptomatic transgenic marmoset gamete. Because the accumulation of abnormal proteins is a shared pathomechanism among various neurodegenerative diseases, we suggest that this new marmoset model will contribute toward elucidating the pathomechanisms of and developing clinically applicable therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28374014

  4. Serosurveillance of wild deer and wild boar after the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Dekker, A.; Dekkers, L.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Blood samples from 140 wild deer and 208 wild boar shot in the aftermath of the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in the Netherlands in 2001 were examined for antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. They were all negative

  5. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-04-26

    It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with the Nipponbare (O. sativa) complete genome without assembly of the DXWR genome. Based on the results from the comparative genomics analysis, structural variations (SVs) between DXWR and Nipponbare were determined to locate deleted genes which could have been acquired by Nipponbare during rice domestication. To overcome the limit of the SV detection, the DXWR transcriptome was also sequenced and compared with the Nipponbare transcriptome to discover the genes which could have been lost in DXWR during domestication. Both 1591 Nipponbare-acquired genes and 206 DXWR-lost transcripts were further analyzed using annotations from multiple sources. The NGS data are available in the NCBI SRA database with ID SRP070627. These results help better understanding the domestication from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level and provide a genomic data resource for rice genetic research or breeding. One finding confirmed transposable elements contribute greatly to the genome evolution from wild rice to cultivated rice. Another finding suggested the photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation system in cultivated rice could have adapted to environmental changes simultaneously during domestication.

  6. Wild translation surfaces and infinite genus

    OpenAIRE

    Randecker, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The Gauss-Bonnet formula for classical translation surfaces relates the cone angle of the singularities (geometry) to the genus of the surface (topology). When considering more general translation surfaces, we observe so-called wild singularities for which the notion of cone angle is not applicable any more. In this article, we study whether there still exist relations between the geometry and the topology for translation surfaces with wild singularities. By considering short saddle connectio...

  7. Optimization of the cultivation conditions for mushroom production with European wild strains of Agaricus subrufescens and Brazilian cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llarena-Hernández, Carlos R; Largeteau, Michèle L; Ferrer, Nathalie; Regnault-Roger, Catherine; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-15

    The almond mushroom Agaricus subrufescens (formerly Agaricus blazei or Agaricus brasiliensis) is cultivated at commercial level in Brazil and some Asian countries on local substrates and casing mixtures. Despite its tropical origin, A. subrufescens might be a seasonal option for mushroom growers in western countries, where some wild strains have been isolated. For this purpose, cultivation conditions were developed starting from the substrate and casing mixture commonly used for commercial production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus in France. The commercial compost, based on wheat straw and horse manure, used for A. bisporus and the casing mixture (peat and limestone) supplemented with fine sand proved efficient to grow A. subrufescens. Increasing the depth of the casing layer improved significantly the yield and time to fruiting. Daily variations in temperature did not markedly modify the yield. Significantly higher mushroom biomass was obtained with three wild European strains compared with three Brazilian cultivars. The very productive wild strain CA438-A gave mushrooms of size and dry matter content comparable to those of a cultivar. Commercial production of A. subrufescens can be developed in western countries on the wheat straw-based substrate commonly used for A. bisporus in these regions, by a simple modification of the casing mixture and maintaining the incubation temperature throughout the crop, which is expected to save energy during summer. Good yields were obtained cultivating European strains under optimised parameters. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of ethyl [18F]fluoroacetate as a proradiotracer of [18F]fluoroacetate for the measurement of glial metabolism by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tetsuya; Sun, Li-Quan; Kobayashi, Masato; Kiyono, Yasushi; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Furukawa, Takako; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Welch, Michael J.; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in glial metabolism in brain ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy and manganese neurotoxicity have been reported in recent studies. Therefore, it is very important to measure glial metabolism in vivo for the elucidation and diagnosis of these diseases. Radiolabeled acetate is a good candidate for this purpose, but acetate has little uptake in the brain due to its low lipophilicity. We have designed a new proradiotracer, ethyl [ 18 F]fluoroacetate ([ 18 F]EFA), which is [ 18 F]fluoroacetate ([ 18 F]FA) esterified with ethanol, to increase the lipophilicity of fluoroacetate (FA), allowing the measurement of glial metabolism. Methods: The synthesis of [ 18 F]EFA was achieved using ethyl O-mesyl-glycolate as precursor. The blood-brain barrier permeability of ethyl [1- 14 C]fluoroacetate ([ 14 C]EFA) was estimated by a brain uptake index (BUI) method. Hydrolysis of [ 14 C]EFA in the brain was calculated by the fraction of radioactivity in lipophilic and water fractions of homogenized brain. Using the plasma of five animal species, the stability of [ 14 C]EFA was measured. Biodistribution studies of [ 18 F]EFA in ddY mice were carried out and compared with [ 18 F]FA. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning using common marmosets was performed for 90 min postadministration. At 60 min postinjection of [ 18 F]EFA, metabolite studies were performed. Organs were dissected from the marmosets, and extracted metabolites were analyzed with a thin-layer chromatography method. Results: The synthesis of [ 18 F]EFA was accomplished in a short time (29 min) and with a reproducible radiochemical yield of 28.6±3.6% (decay corrected) and a high radiochemical purity of more than 95%. In the brain permeability study, the BUI of [ 14 C]EFA was 3.8 times higher than that of sodium [1- 14 C]fluoroacetate. [ 14 C]EFA was hydrolyzed rapidly in rat brains. In stability studies using the plasma of five animal species, [ 14 C]EFA was stable

  9. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR: A Serious Threat for Wild Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is the most contagious and extremely infectious respiratory diseases in goats and sheep and is most common in West and Central Africa, Middle East and Southern Asia; it spreads rapidly regardless of country borders (1. A serological and virological outbreak of PPR was identified in Ilam province, Iran near the Iraqi border in 1995. Since then, despite all control measures, numerous incidents of the disease have been reported throughout the country (2. Between 1995 and 2004, vaccination of sheep and goats was performed by cell cultured rinderpest (RP vaccine; the small ruminants started to be vaccinated from early 2005 (2. In spite of vaccination of susceptible animals and application of some containment measures, PPR spread through the whole country, infecting every province with fluctuating prevalence and continuity. The cause of this failure might be related to the fact that well-designed control program in the country was not carried out appropriately and vaccination schedule was not covered abundantly. For instance in 2011, just over 3.5 million small ruminants received vaccine from an estimated National population of just fewer than 80 million animals (3. Some species of animal , e.g. such as gazelles, goats and sheep, that are relatively prevalent in Middle Eastern countries especially in Iran are believed to be immune to PPR infection (4. The wildlife in Iran consists of several animal species that include bears, gazelles, foxes, and also domestic animals including sheep, goats, cattle, and camels. It is believed that PPR virus circulates in domestic ruminants and acts as a potential source of virus for wild animal species in wildlife and the role of domestic small ruminants in the spread of the disease to wild ruminants is clear. It is quite possible that in cases of pastures exchange between domestic and wild animals, the spread of PPR is facilitated between the two populations (5. In Iran

  10. Introgression Between Cultivars and Wild Populations of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chung Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The landrace strains of Momordica charantia are widely cultivated vegetables throughout the tropics and subtropics, but not in Taiwan, a continental island in Southeast Asia, until a few hundred years ago. In contrast, the related wild populations with smaller fruit sizes are native to Taiwan. Because of the introduction of cultivars for agricultural purposes, these two accessions currently exhibit a sympatric or parapatric distribution in Taiwan. In this study, the cultivars and wild samples from Taiwan, India, and Korea were collected for testing of their hybridization and evolutionary patterns. The cpDNA marker showed a clear distinction between accessions of cultivars and wild populations of Taiwan and a long divergence time. In contrast, an analysis of eight selectively neutral nuclear microsatellite loci did not reveal a difference between the genetic structures of these two accessions. A relatively short divergence time and frequent but asymmetric gene flows were estimated based on the isolation-with-migration model. Historical and current introgression from cultivars to wild populations of Taiwan was also inferred using MIGRATE-n and BayesAss analyses. Our results showed that these two accessions shared abundant common ancestral polymorphisms, and the timing of the divergence and colonization of the Taiwanese wild populations is consistent with the geohistory of the Taiwan Strait land bridge of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. Long-term and recurrent introgression between accessions indicated the asymmetric capacity to receive foreign genes from other accessions. The modern introduction of cultivars of M. charantia during the colonization of Taiwan by the Han Chinese ethnic group enhanced the rate of gene replacement in the native populations and resulted in the loss of native genes.

  11. WILDE,OSCAR SKIN-DISEASE - ALLERGIC CONTACT-DERMATITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NATER, JP

    During the last years of his life, Oscar Wilde (1856-1900) suffered from a suppurating otitis media as well as from an unidentified skin disease. The eruption was localized to his face, arms, chest and back and itched severely. A new theory is suggested, based on the fact that Wilde almost certainly

  12. Sampling wild species to conserve genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling seed from natural populations of crop wild relatives requires choice of the locations to sample from and the amount of seed to sample. While this may seem like a simple choice, in fact careful planning of a collector’s sampling strategy is needed to ensure that a crop wild collection will ...

  13. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  14. Quantifying the economic contribution of wild food harvests to rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, Gordon M.; Pouliot, Mariéve; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    policies. We used household income data from 7975 households in 24 developing countries across three continents collected by the Poverty Environment Network (PEN). We found 77% of households to be engaged in wild food collection from forest and non-forest environments even though the share of wild food...... regional variation in determinants and the direction of significant relationships indicate there is no one-size-fits-all approach to integrating wild foods into food and forest policies. However, our results reveal potential to increase household food security by integrating wild foods into national food......This paper empirically quantifies and analyses (i) the economic contribution of wild foods to rural households, (ii) the household socio-economic, demographic, and geographical correlates of wild food income, and (iii) how wild foods can be better incorporated into integrative food security...

  15. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms—particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals’ knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or “conservation consciousness” was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species

  16. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    Full Text Available A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners. In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM, and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs derived from well

  17. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species, such

  18. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  19. Low genetic diversity of the endangered Indian wild ass Equus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DEVENDRA KHAIRE

    (Equus hemionus khur) belongs to an endangered wild species/subspecies of wild ... species of the Asiatic wild asses, E. hemionus and E. kiang, have been described on .... 57.9. Tseng et al. (2010). 5 -TCA CCC ACT AAA TCT CAA ATC C-3.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zai-quan CHENG; Fu-you YING; Ding-qing LI; Teng-qiong YU; Jian FU; Hui-jun YAN; Qiao-fang ZHONG; Dun-yu ZHANG; Wei-jiao LI; Xing-qi HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide. Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice. Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice. However, many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years. Therefore, the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preserv...

  1. Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots in natural populations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, L.S.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2007-01-01

    Many cultivated plant species are able to hybridize with related wild plants. However, it is not clear whether their hybrids are able to survive and reproduce outside managed fields, and if cultivar genes introgress into wild populations. In areas where wild carrots co-occur with carrot root......-crops, pollen and seeds may flow from two different sources in the fields to the surrounding wild populations: from pure cultivar plants that occasionally flower, and from flowering 'bolters' that originate from hybridizations between wild (male) and cultivated carrots (female) in seed production fields...... by AFLP. Four hybrids were identified among the 71 plants analysed, and these were most likely F(2) or backcross individuals, sired by pollen from hybrid bolters. Wild populations close to fields were genetically somewhat more similar to cultivars than wild populations far from fields, suggesting...

  2. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  3. Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente José

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa, and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs. Results Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica, Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica, and red deer (Cervus elaphus. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, fallow deer (Dama dama, mouflon (Ovis aries and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs. Conclusions In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for

  4. Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop–wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J.M.; Hooftman, Danny A.P.; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H.; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K.; Michelmore, Richard W.; van de Wiel , Clemens C.M.; Visser , Richard G.F.

    2012-01-01

    With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the v...

  5. The tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares common ancestors with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from wild tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A; Peever, Tobin L; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity.

  6. wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in nigeria abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of awareness, consumption history, wild or ... 15.6% were students and 11.1% business ... 1.1. N/A. 5. 5.6. NA = Not applicable mushrooms for over 10 years; whereas 13.3% ... Consumption history of wild and cultivated mushrooms in Nigeria.

  7. Infectious offspring: how birds acquire and transmit an avian polyomavirus in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Potti

    Full Text Available Detailed patterns of primary virus acquisition and subsequent dispersal in wild vertebrate populations are virtually absent. We show that nestlings of a songbird acquire polyomavirus infections from larval blowflies, common nest ectoparasites of cavity-nesting birds, while breeding adults acquire and renew the same viral infections via cloacal shedding from their offspring. Infections by these DNA viruses, known potential pathogens producing disease in some bird species, therefore follow an 'upwards vertical' route of an environmental nature mimicking horizontal transmission within families, as evidenced by patterns of viral infection in adults and young of experimental, cross-fostered offspring. This previously undescribed route of viral transmission from ectoparasites to offspring to parent hosts may be a common mechanism of virus dispersal in many taxa that display parental care.

  8. EFFECTS OF HETEROGENIETY ON SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF WILD PISTACHIO TREES IN ZAGROS WOODLANDS, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Erfanifard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf. trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0–50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150–200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  9. Effects of Heterogeniety on Spatial Pattern Analysis of Wild Pistachio Trees in Zagros Woodlands, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanifard, Y.; Rezayan, F.

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity biases second-order summary statistics, e.g., Ripley's K-function, applied for spatial pattern analysis in ecology. Second-order investigation based on Ripley's K-function and related statistics (i.e., L- and pair correlation function g) is widely used in ecology to develop hypothesis on underlying processes by characterizing spatial patterns of vegetation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate effects of underlying heterogeneity of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) trees on the second-order summary statistics of point pattern analysis in a part of Zagros woodlands, Iran. The spatial distribution of 431 wild pistachio trees was accurately mapped in a 40 ha stand in the Wild Pistachio & Almond Research Site, Fars province, Iran. Three commonly used second-order summary statistics (i.e., K-, L-, and g-functions) were applied to analyse their spatial pattern. The two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test showed that the observed pattern significantly followed an inhomogeneous Poisson process null model in the study region. The results also showed that heterogeneous pattern of wild pistachio trees biased the homogeneous form of K-, L-, and g-functions, demonstrating a stronger aggregation of the trees at the scales of 0-50 m than actually existed and an aggregation at scales of 150-200 m, while regularly distributed. Consequently, we showed that heterogeneity of point patterns may bias the results of homogeneous second-order summary statistics and we also suggested applying inhomogeneous summary statistics with related null models for spatial pattern analysis of heterogeneous vegetations.

  10. Plant Fitness Assessment for Wild Relatives of Insect Resistant Bt-Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Letourneau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When field tests of transgenic plants are precluded by practical containment concerns, manipulative experiments can detect potential consequences of crop-wild gene flow. Using topical sprays of bacterial Bacillus thuringiensis larvicide (Bt and larval additions, we measured fitness effects of reduced herbivory on Brassica rapa (wild mustard and Raphanus sativus (wild radish. These species represent different life histories among the potential recipients of Bt transgenes from Bt cole crops in the US and Asia, for which rare spontaneous crosses are expected under high exposure. Protected wild radish and wild mustard seedlings had approximately half the herbivore damage of exposed plants and 55% lower seedling mortality, resulting in 27% greater reproductive success, 14-day longer life-spans, and 118% more seeds, on average. Seed addition experiments in microcosms and in situ indicated that wild radish was more likely to spread than wild mustard in coastal grasslands.

  11. Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Hartman, Y.; Tienderen, van P.H.; Jansen, J.; McHale, L.K.; Michelmore, R.W.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop–wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting

  12. Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Hartman, Y.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Jansen, J.; McHale, L.K.; Michelmore, R.W.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting

  13. Assessing landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs and support for control options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplenor, Carlotta A; Poudyal, Neelam C; Muller, Lisa I; Yoest, Chuck

    2017-10-01

    Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species with destructive habits, particularly rooting and wallowing, which can directly impact agricultural crops, pasture land, and water quality. Considering wild hogs are widely dispersed across the landscape, they are extremely difficult to control. Disagreements can arise among different stakeholders over whether and how their populations should be managed. The purpose of this article was to examine Tennessee, United States landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs, to compare acceptability of control methods, and to evaluate factors significantly influencing public support for regulations to control wild hogs. Logistic regression was employed to analyze data collected from a statewide survey of rural landowners in the fall of 2015. Landowners had overwhelmingly negative attitudes towards wild hogs, and were concerned about their impact on the natural environment and rural economy. Although landowners showed support for controlling wild hogs, levels of acceptability for management options varied. Respondents favored active management and supported education and incentive-based control programs to control wild hogs. Cognitive concepts such as social and personal norms and awareness of consequences, as well as demographic characteristics, significantly predicted landowners' support for state regulations to control wild hogs in Tennessee. Findings increase our understanding of the human dimensions of wild hog management and that of other similarly invasive animals, and may guide resource managers in designing effective and socially acceptable management strategies to control wild hog populations in Tennessee and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of near infrared spectra for age-grading of wild populations of Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Krajacich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the age-structure of mosquito populations, especially malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae, is important for assessing the risk of infectious mosquitoes, and how vector control interventions may impact this risk. The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS for age-grading has been demonstrated previously on laboratory and semi-field mosquitoes, but to date has not been utilized on wild-caught mosquitoes whose age is externally validated via parity status or parasite infection stage. In this study, we developed regression and classification models using NIRS on datasets of wild An. gambiae (s.l. reared from larvae collected from the field in Burkina Faso, and two laboratory strains. We compared the accuracy of these models for predicting the ages of wild-caught mosquitoes that had been scored for their parity status as well as for positivity for Plasmodium sporozoites. Results Regression models utilizing variable selection increased predictive accuracy over the more common full-spectrum partial least squares (PLS approach for cross-validation of the datasets, validation, and independent test sets. Models produced from datasets that included the greatest range of mosquito samples (i.e. different sampling locations and times had the highest predictive accuracy on independent testing sets, though overall accuracy on these samples was low. For classification, we found that intramodel accuracy ranged between 73.5–97.0% for grouping of mosquitoes into “early” and “late” age classes, with the highest prediction accuracy found in laboratory colonized mosquitoes. However, this accuracy was decreased on test sets, with the highest classification of an independent set of wild-caught larvae reared to set ages being 69.6%. Conclusions Variation in NIRS data, likely from dietary, genetic, and other factors limits the accuracy of this technique with wild-caught mosquitoes. Alternative algorithms may help improve

  15. WILD BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APOIDEA AS BIOINDICATORS IN THE NEOTROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Reyes-Novelo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present is a review about the use of wild bees as an indicator group in biodiversity and fragmentation studies. It describes the criteria used for the selection of bioindicator groups and it discusses the available information to evaluate if wild bees meet this criteria. The reviewed information suggests that wild bees comply with the requeriments for a suitable bioindicator group. Its use is recommended for Neotropical ecosystems.

  16. Transcriptional regulatory program in wild-type and retinoblastoma gene-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts during adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakim-Weber, Robab; Krogsdam, Anne-M; Jørgensen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Although many molecular regulators of adipogenesis have been identified a comprehensive catalogue of components is still missing. Recent studies showed that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) was expressed in the cell cycle and late cellular differentiation phase during adipogenesis. To investigate...... this dual role of pRb in the early and late stages of adipogenesis we used microarrays to perform a comprehensive systems-level analysis of the common transcriptional program of the classic 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and retinoblastoma gene-deficient MEFs...... of experimental data and computational analyses pinpointed a feedback-loop between Pparg and Foxo1.To analyze the effects of the retinoblastoma protein at the transcriptional level we chose a perturbated system (Rb-/- MEFs) for comparison to the transcriptional program of wild-type MEFs. Gene ontology analysis...

  17. Haemoglobin polymorphism in wild and cultured African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemoglobin polymorphism, haemoglobin concentration, blood group and genotypes of wild and cultured Clarias gariepinus were investigated. Blood samples of Clarias gariepinus collected from Lake Alau (wild) and Dalori fish farm (cultured) were subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis to reveal the activities of ...

  18. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Mark L.; Braune, Birgit M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Conor D.; Forbes, Mark R.; Wells, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health

  19. Cleome viscosa (wild mustard): a review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Ravindra G

    2010-01-01

    Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae), commonly known as "wild or dog mustard," is an annual, sticky herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and throughout the tropics of the world. The whole plant and its parts (leaves, seeds, and roots) are widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine the plant is reported to possess beneficial effects as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, antiscorbutic, sudorific, febrifuge, and cardiac stimulant. Following the various traditional claims for the use of C. viscosa (CV) as a cure of numerous diseases, considerable efforts have been made by researchers to verify its utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. The pharmacological studies have shown that CV possesses various notable biological activities such as anthelmintic, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, psychopharmacological, antidiarrheal, and hepatoprotective activities. A wide variety of phytoprinciples have been isolated from the plant. The present review is an effort to consolidate traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological information available on C. viscosa.

  20. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  1. Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8 g/100 g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6 g/100 g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9 g/100 g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7 g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets.

  2. Evaluation of wild animals browsing preferences in forage resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Excessive presence of wild ungulates can produce negative effects on herbaceous crops or woody species, and to face this problem, habitat improvements are often performed to recreate suitable environments for a given animal species and to attract animals far from cultivated crops. A common example of these interventions is represented by grassland restoration and to evaluate the real animal preferences on restored forage resources a proper trial was established in a hilly area of Tuscany (central Italy, inside the historical Park of Pratolino, near Florence. The trial compared six different forage species or mixtures sown in plots: vegetal material was represented by two pure stands (Onobrychis viciifolia and Medicago sativa and four mixtures differing in number and kind of used species. Plots were utilised only by wild animals occurring in the area. Data collection consisted of botanical samples in each plot in different periods to obtain the percent presence of each species. At the same time, a visual estimation of animal intake on all occurring species was performed to obtain the browsing ratio of single species and overall defoliation rate for each species/mixture. Moreover, six camera traps were placed on the boundary of the experimental site to record videos of wild animals browsing in the area for identification of animals actually occurring on different plots and for comparison of these results with botanical data. Vegetation surveys permitted a proper evaluation of animals intake and of their feeding preferences. In general, sown species performed a major role in animal browsing, even if in some periods also a few native species (such as Plantago lanceolata or Cichorium intybus were utilised in a strong way, depending on vegetation context and existing biomass. Camera traps results permitted the identification of browsing animal species (mainly represented by roe deer and plots frequentation resulted to be highly related to animal

  3. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China: herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Kang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in Han (i.e. Chinese nationality villages in central China, including famine plants used in the respondents' childhood. A valley adjacent to the extremely species-rich temperate forest vegetation of the Taibai Nature Reserve was chosen. Eighty-two people from 5 villages took part in the study. Altogether, 159 wild food plant species and 13 fungi folk taxa were mentioned by informants. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high (24.8; median – 21.5. An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables (mean – 17, me- dian – 14.5, a few wild fruits (mean – 5.9 and median – 6 and very few fungi (mean – 1.9, median – 1, which they had eaten. Over 50% of respondents mentioned gathering the young shoots or leaves of Celastrus orbiculatus, Staphylea bumalda and S. holocapra, Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pimpinella sp., Amaranthus spp., Matteucia struthiopteris, Allium spp., Cardamine macrophylla and Chenopodium album. Only one species of fruits (Schisandra sphenanthera and none of the mushrooms were mentioned by over half of the respondents. Although very diverse, it can be noted that the use of wild vegetables has decreased compared to the second half of the 20th century, as informants listed several plants which they had stopped using (e.g. Abelia engleriana due to the availability of cultivated vegetables and other foodstuffs. On the other hand, the collection of the most well-known wild vegetables is maintained by selling them to tourists visiting agritourist farms, and restaurants.

  4. Bacteriological and genetic assessment of game meat from Japanese wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Yuka; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Shinagawa, Morikazu

    2003-01-15

    Bacterial tests were used to assess bacterial contamination of game meat from Japanese wild boars. The bacterial contamination of wild boar meat was less than that of domestic pork, as determined by aerobic plate counts (APC) and coliform counts. None of the meat examined in this study was contaminated by Salmonella or E. coli O-157. To detect adulteration by domestic pig meat or European wild boar meat, 46 samples of game meat sold as Japanese wild boar were examined genetically. A total of 17 samples showed genetic haplotypes of European and Asian domestic pigs in the D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and 16 samples showed nuclear glucosephosphate isomerase-processed pseudogene (GPIP) genotypes of European domestic pigs. The European GPIP genotypes of these samples were confirmed by PCR-RFLP analysis. These results indicate that some game meat sold as Japanese wild boar is adulterated by cross-breeding between pigs and wild boars or by contamination with meat from domestic pigs or European wild boars.

  5. Estimation of in situ mating systems in wild sorghum (Sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The high outcrossing rates of wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia indicate a high potential for crop genes (including transgenes) to spread within the wild pool. Therefore, effective risk management strategies may be needed if the introgression of transgenes or other crop genes from improved cultivars into wild or ...

  6. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  7. Salmonella spp. and antibiotic-resistant strains in wild mammals and birds in north-western Italy from 2002 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen of economic importance. In Europe, salmonellosis is the second food-borne infection, in Italy, Salmonella is still the major cause of food-borne outbreaks. In Europe, there are many Salmonella surveillance plans on farmed animals, while Salmonella survey of wild animals is occasionally performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella including the antibiotic-resistant strains in wild animals. Between 2002 and 2010, 2,713 wild animals (canids, mustelids, birds, rodents, ungulates, were collected in north-western Italy and tested for Salmonella by classical microbiological culture method followed by serological and biochemical typing. One hundred and seventeen wild animals (63 canids, 25 mustelids, 24 birds, 5 ungulates were found positive for Salmonella (4.3%. One hundred and thirty strains, belonging to several serotypes were isolated, and S. Typhimurium was the most common serotype found. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disk-diffusion test on 88 strains. Almost all the analyzed strains (97.7% showed resistance/intermediate resistance to at least one class of antibiotics and the highest resistance values were observed for the tetracycline class. In conclusion, zoonotic and antibiotic-resistant serotypes were found in many species of wildlife.

  8. A comparison of gene transcription profiles of domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) at early life stages, reared under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicskei, Beatrix; Bron, James E; Glover, Kevin A; Taggart, John B

    2014-10-09

    Atlantic salmon have been subject to domestication for approximately ten generations, beginning in the early 1970s. This process of artificial selection will have created various genetic differences between wild and farmed stocks. Each year, hundreds of thousands of farmed fish escape into the wild. These escapees may interbreed with wild conspecifics raising concerns for both the fish-farming industry and fisheries managers. Thus, a better understanding of the interactions between domesticated and wild salmon is essential to the continued sustainability of the aquaculture industry and to the maintenance of healthy wild stocks. We compared the transcriptomes of a wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon population (Figgjo) and a Norwegian farmed strain (Mowi) at two life stages: yolk sac fry and post first-feeding fry. The analysis employed 44 k oligo-microarrays to analyse gene expression of 36 farmed, wild and hybrid (farmed dam x wild sire) individuals reared under identical hatchery conditions. Although some of the transcriptional differences detected overlapped between sampling points, our results highlighted the importance of studying various life stages. Compared to the wild population, the Mowi strain displayed up-regulation in mRNA translation-related and down regulation in nervous and immune system -related pathways in the sac fry, whereas up-regulation of digestive and endocrine activities, carbohydrate, energy, amino acid and lipid metabolism and down-regulation of environmental information processing and immune system pathways were evident in the feeding fry. Differentially regulated pathways that were common among life stages generally belonged to environmental information processing and immune system functional groups. In addition, we found indications of strong maternal effects, reinforcing the importance of including reciprocal hybrids in the analysis. In agreement with previous studies we showed that domestication has caused changes in the transcriptome of

  9. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  10. 36 CFR 261.23 - Wild free-roaming horses and burros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild free-roaming horses and... AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.23 Wild free-roaming horses and burros. The following are prohibited: (a) Removing or attempting to remove a wild free-roaming horse or burro from the National Forest...

  11. CWRML: representing crop wild relative conservation and use data in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan D; Kell, Shelagh P; Iriondo, Jose M; Ford-Lloyd, Brian V; Maxted, Nigel

    2008-02-25

    Crop wild relatives are wild species that are closely related to crops. They are valuable as potential gene donors for crop improvement and may help to ensure food security for the future. However, they are becoming increasingly threatened in the wild and are inadequately conserved, both in situ and ex situ. Information about the conservation status and utilisation potential of crop wild relatives is diverse and dispersed, and no single agreed standard exists for representing such information; yet, this information is vital to ensure these species are effectively conserved and utilised. The European Community-funded project, European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, determined the minimum information requirements for the conservation and utilisation of crop wild relatives and created the Crop Wild Relative Information System, incorporating an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema to aid data sharing and exchange. Crop Wild Relative Markup Language (CWRML) was developed to represent the data necessary for crop wild relative conservation and ensure that they can be effectively utilised for crop improvement. The schema partitions data into taxon-, site-, and population-specific elements, to allow for integration with other more general conservation biology schemata which may emerge as accepted standards in the future. These elements are composed of sub-elements, which are structured in order to facilitate the use of the schema in a variety of crop wild relative conservation and use contexts. Pre-existing standards for data representation in conservation biology were reviewed and incorporated into the schema as restrictions on element data contents, where appropriate. CWRML provides a flexible data communication format for representing in situ and ex situ conservation status of individual taxa as well as their utilisation potential. The development of the schema highlights a number of instances where additional standards-development may

  12. Wild grapevine management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1989-01-01

    Wild grapevines are a problem for forest managers in many areas of the central hardwood forests. The vines grow on a wide range of soil and site conditions but usually are more concentrated on good sites (northern red oak site index 70 and above), on the faster growing more valuable timber. Presently there is more interest and concern in controlling grapevine for the...

  13. Consumerism, Celebrity Culture and the Aesthetic Impure in Oscar Wilde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino, Pierpaolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the discursive arena in which Oscar Wilde exercised his countercultural and necessarily impure aesthetic taste, focusing on some defining aspects and texts of Wilde's epopee, namely his cult of celebrity, which was nourished, in particular, by his 1882 tour of the United States, his interest in performance – which turned the author into the director and main actor of the very drama entitled Oscar Wilde – and his apparently contradictory approach to consumer culture. Wilde, indeed, seemed to embrace opposite stances in relation to consumerism as it is witnessed by such works as «The Soul of Man Under Socialism» and The Picture of Dorian Gray, on the one side, and «The Decay of Lying», Lady Windermere's Fan and An Ideal Husband, on the other. This essay also reads Wilde's last play The Importance of Being Earnest in terms of a «performance about performance», rooted as Wilde's previous plays in consumer culture and capable of deconstructing the Victorian highly normative (and 'rational' approach to gender and, in particular, to masculinity.

  14. WildSpan: mining structured motifs from protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Yu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic extraction of motifs from biological sequences is an important research problem in study of molecular biology. For proteins, it is desired to discover sequence motifs containing a large number of wildcard symbols, as the residues associated with functional sites are usually largely separated in sequences. Discovering such patterns is time-consuming because abundant combinations exist when long gaps (a gap consists of one or more successive wildcards are considered. Mining algorithms often employ constraints to narrow down the search space in order to increase efficiency. However, improper constraint models might degrade the sensitivity and specificity of the motifs discovered by computational methods. We previously proposed a new constraint model to handle large wildcard regions for discovering functional motifs of proteins. The patterns that satisfy the proposed constraint model are called W-patterns. A W-pattern is a structured motif that groups motif symbols into pattern blocks interleaved with large irregular gaps. Considering large gaps reflects the fact that functional residues are not always from a single region of protein sequences, and restricting motif symbols into clusters corresponds to the observation that short motifs are frequently present within protein families. To efficiently discover W-patterns for large-scale sequence annotation and function prediction, this paper first formally introduces the problem to solve and proposes an algorithm named WildSpan (sequential pattern mining across large wildcard regions that incorporates several pruning strategies to largely reduce the mining cost. Results WildSpan is shown to efficiently find W-patterns containing conserved residues that are far separated in sequences. We conducted experiments with two mining strategies, protein-based and family-based mining, to evaluate the usefulness of W-patterns and performance of WildSpan. The protein-based mining mode

  15. DEMAND FOR WILD BLUEBERRIES AT FARM AND PROCESSOR LEVELS

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hsiang-Tai; Peavey, Stephanie R.; Kezis, Alan S.

    2000-01-01

    The wild blueberry crop harvested in Maine and eastern Canada has increased considerably in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand the recent trends in demand for wild blueberries with particular attention to the effects of production and the marketing of wild and cultivated blueberries. A price response model was developed to analyze farm-gate price and the processor price, using annual data from 1978 through 1997. Key explanatory variables in the model include quantity of ...

  16. 19 CFR 12.29 - Plumage and eggs of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plumage and eggs of wild birds. 12.29 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.29 Plumage and eggs of wild birds. (a) The provisions of Chapter 5, Additional U.S. Note 1, relating to the plumage of...

  17. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunocontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials I with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of I PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to begin using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a I means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption process.

  18. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy A Seabert

    Full Text Available Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3 than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72 from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs and hair (mercury. We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  19. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae: exploratory patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Mayumi Francisco

    Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  20. Long-sightedness in old wild bonobos during grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Heungjin; Graham, Kirsty E; Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2016-11-07

    Some scientists have suggested that, among Hominidae, prolonged postmenopausal longevity evolved uniquely in humans [1], while others disagree [2]. There have, however, been few empirical studies on how physiological aging and somatic durability in humans compare to our closest relatives - chimpanzees and bonobos [3]. If prolonged lifespan is selected for in humans, physiological aging, including reproductive and somatic senescence, might be different for Pan and Homo. But it seems that the parameters of reproductive senescence, such as the age of having their final offspring and the number of years between generations, are not very different between chimpanzee and human females [4]. Here, we report evidence for five cases of long-sightedness (presbyopia) in old wild bonobos, exhibited during grooming. Our results suggest that senescence of the eye has not changed much since the divergence of Pan and Homo from their common ancestor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social learning of diet and foraging skills by wild immature Bornean orangutans: implications for culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Dunkel, Lynda P; Van Noordwijk, Maria A; Wich, Serge A; Sura, Agnes A L; Van Schaik, Carel P

    2010-01-01

    Studies of social learning in the wild are important to complement findings from experiments in captivity. In this field study, immature Bornean orangutans rarely foraged independently but consistently followed their mothers' choices. Their diets were essentially identical to their mothers' even though not all mothers had the same diet. This suggests vertical transmission of diet by enhancement. Also, immatures selectively observed their mothers during extractive foraging, which increased goal-directed practice but not general manipulation of similar objects, suggesting observational forms of learning of complex skills. Teaching was not observed. These results are consistent with the reported presence of food traditions and skill cultures in wild orangutans. We suggest that food traditions can develop wherever association commonly allows for social learning. However, the capacity for observational learning, and thus more complex culture, is more likely to evolve among extractive foragers with prolonged association between adults and immatures. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Wild ideas in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münke, Christopher; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Foraging for all manner of wild plants, animals and fungi and their products makes up part of the traditional diets of approximately 300 million worldwide (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Furthermore, their relevance in the global food supply is often underestimated, as policies and statistics...

  3. Into the urban wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria; Pouliot, Mariéve; McDonald, Morag A.

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many people depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. While urbanisation causes landscape changes, little is known of how this process affects the use of wild plant resources by urban populations. This study contributes to addressing this knowledge gap by exploring...

  4. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Marson, Pamela Merlo; Hayasaka, Enio Yoshinori; Victoria, Cassiano; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction.

  5. Emerging adults and the future of wild nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry C. Zinn; Alan R. Graefe

    2007-01-01

    Many resource managers and wilderness advocates see links between appreciating wild nature, participating in traditional outdoor activities, and support for protecting wild areas. Some of these individuals express concern that the values and recreation behavior of today's young people may suggest less support for protecting wilderness in the future. Although...

  6. Hybridization between crops and wild relatives: the contribution of cultivated lettuce to the vigour of crop-wild hybrids under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Visser, Richard G F

    2012-10-01

    With the development of transgenic crop varieties, crop-wild hybridization has received considerable consideration with regard to the potential of transgenes to be transferred to wild species. Although many studies have shown that crops can hybridize with their wild relatives and that the resulting hybrids may show improved fitness over the wild parents, little is still known on the genetic contribution of the crop parent to the performance of the hybrids. In this study, we investigated the vigour of lettuce hybrids using 98 F(2:3) families from a cross between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative Lactuca serriola under non-stress conditions and under drought, salinity and nutrient deficiency. Using single nucleotide polymorphism markers, we mapped quantitative trait loci associated with plant vigour in the F(2:3) families and determined the allelic contribution of the two parents. Seventeen QTLs (quantitative trait loci) associated with vigour and six QTLs associated with the accumulation of ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)) were mapped on the nine linkage groups of lettuce. Seven of the vigour QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele and six had a positive effect from the wild allele across treatments, and four QTLs had a positive effect from the crop allele in one treatment and from the wild allele in another treatment. Based on the allelic effect of the QTLs and their location on the genetic map, we could suggest genomic locations where transgene integration should be avoided when aiming at the mitigation of its persistence once crop-wild hybridization takes place.

  7. Newly Identified Wild Rice Accessions Conferring High Salt Tolerance Might Use a Tissue Tolerance Mechanism in Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Manas R.; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Vinarao, Ricky; Entila, Frederickson; Egdane, James; Diaz, Maria G. Q.; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2018-01-01

    Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is very sensitive to salt stress. So far a few rice landraces have been identified as a source of salt tolerance and utilized in rice improvement. These tolerant lines primarily use Na+ exclusion mechanism in root which removes Na+ from the xylem stream by membrane Na+ and K+ transporters, and resulted in low Na+ accumulation in shoot. Identification of a new donor source conferring high salt tolerance is imperative. Wild relatives of rice having wide genetic diversity are regarded as a potential source for crop improvement. However, they have been less exploited against salt stress. Here, we simultaneously evaluated all 22 wild Oryza species along with the cultivated tolerant lines including Pokkali, Nona Bokra, and FL478, and sensitive check varieties under high salinity (240 mM NaCl). Based on the visual salt injury score, three species (O. alta, O. latifolia, and O. coarctata) and four species (O. rhizomatis, O. eichingeri, O. minuta, and O. grandiglumis) showed higher and similar level of tolerance compared to the tolerant checks, respectively. All three CCDD genome species exhibited salt tolerance, suggesting that the CCDD genome might possess the common genetic factors for salt tolerance. Physiological and biochemical experiments were conducted using the newly isolated tolerant species together with checks under 180 mM NaCl. Interestingly, all wild species showed high Na+ concentration in shoot and low concentration in root unlike the tolerant checks. In addition, the wild-tolerant accessions showed a tendency of a high tissue tolerance in leaf, low malondialdehyde level in shoot, and high retention of chlorophyll in the young leaves. These results suggest that the wild species employ tissue tolerance mechanism to manage salt stress. Gene expression analyses of the key salt tolerance-related genes suggested that high Na+ in leaf of wild species might be affected by OsHKT1;4-mediated Na+ exclusion in leaf and the following Na

  8. Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ( Pisum sativum L.) ... was isolated and characterized from wild Egyptian pea (Pisum sativum L.) ... DNA sequence indicated an open reading frame which predicts a protein ...

  9. Physical and sensory properties of corn flakes with added dry residue of wild oregano distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košutić Milenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern nutritionist opinions, cereal products such as flakes and snacks are the most common foods in the daily diet. Extrusion technology makes it possible to apply different sources of ingredients for the enrichment of cereal-based flakes or snack products. Substances with strong antioxidant properties such as wild oregano have a positive impact on human health. Therefore, they attract the attention of scientists, consumers and food industry experts. This paper investigates the effects of the simultaneous addition of dry residue from wild oregano distillation (0.5 g / 100g of sample and 1 g / 100g of sample, on the physical-textural and color properties of corn flakes in order to create a new product with improved nutritional properties. The addition of dry residue of wild oregano positively influenced physical characteristics (decreased bulk density 30.2 %, increased expansion rate 44.9 %, as well as texture hardness and the work of compression, 38.1 % and 40.3 %, respectively. Also, oregano significantly changed the color of flakes. Tukey’s HSD test showed statistically significant differences between most of the mean values of physical-textural, color and sensory attributes in the oregano-added corn flakes compared to the control sample. Principal component analysis has been applied to classify the samples according to differences in the studied parameters. The data pointed out that investigated corn flakes with the addition of wild oregano are new food products with good physical-textural and sensory properties due to a higher level of antioxidant activity. Moreover, it may contribute to the valorization of edible industrial waste in food production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46005 i br. TR 31027

  10. Provision of supplementary food for wild birds may increase the risk of local nest predation

    OpenAIRE

    Hanmer, Hugh J.; Thomas, Rebecca L.; Fellowes, Mark D. E.

    2017-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, USA and Australia, approximately half of households provide supplementary food for wild birds, making this the public’s most common form of active engagement with nature. Year round supplementary feeding is currently encouraged by major conservation charities in the UK as it is thought to be of benefit to bird conservation. However, little is understood of how the provision of supplementary food affects the behaviour and ecology of target and non-target species. G...

  11. Hunting with lead: association between blood lead levels and wild game consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahed; Blumenthal, Wendy; Kennedy, Chinaro; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Pickard, Stephen; Flanders, W Dana; Loringer, Kelly; Kruger, Kirby; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jean Brown, Mary

    2009-11-01

    Wild game hunting is a popular activity in many regions of the United States. Recently, the presence of lead fragments in wild game meat, presumably from the bullets or shot used for hunting, has raised concerns about health risks from meat consumption. This study examined the association between blood lead levels (PbB) and wild game consumption. We recruited 742 participants, aged 2-92 years, from six North Dakota cities. Blood lead samples were collected from 736 persons. Information on socio-demographic background, housing, lead exposure source, and types of wild game consumption (i.e., venison, other game such as moose, birds) was also collected. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to determine the association between PbB and wild game consumption. Most participants reported consuming wild game (80.8%) obtained from hunting (98.8%). The geometric mean PbB were 1.27 and 0.84 microg/dl among persons who did and did not consume wild game, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, persons who consumed wild game had 0.30 microg/dl (95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.44 microg/dl) higher PbB than persons who did not. For all game types, recent (game consumption was associated with higher PbB. PbB was also higher among those who consumed a larger serving size (> or = 2 oz vs. game' consumption only. Participants who consumed wild game had higher PbB than those who did not consume wild game. Careful review of butchering practices and monitoring of meat-packing processes may decrease lead exposure from wild game consumption.

  12. Effect of hunting awareness on wild game meat purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Marescotti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although wild game meat constitutes a sustainable and healthy alternative to conventional meat and hunting contributes to the control of game populations, international studies on consumer attitudes towards this type of meat are still limited and no previous research has been focused on the Italian population. For the development of successful marketing strategies and/or public policy intervention, the knowledge of consumers’ purchase behavior is a key factor. Among all the determinants that can influence the behavior of consumers of hunted wild game meat (i.e. animal welfare, sustainability, ecological food choice, product safety, nutritional quality, the consumers’ awareness of hunting activity and their perceptions of wild game meat assume a crucial role. Accordingly, in this paper an online survey on a sample of 741 Italian meat consumers has been conducted to investigate the relationship between consumers’ purchase behavior and their awareness of hunted game meat and hunting practices (chi-square test, F-test. Statistically significant differences were found among segments of consumers with different levels of wild game meat consumption frequency. The analysis shows that, as expected, the highest consumption level of wild game meat relates to the highest level of general awareness of wild game meat and hunting practices. Our findings are in line with previous literature, that links positive behaviors of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting to familiarity and experience with hunting and hunters. Nonetheless, the present study provides a deeper understanding of the Italian consumers’ attitudes and perceptions of wild game meat and could suggests policy guidelines for the development of future targeted marketing strategies.

  13. Population genetics and disease ecology of European wild boar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Welke factoren beïnvloeden de frequentie van de ziekten in wilde populaties? Het promotieonderzoek van Daniel Goedbloed beoordeelde de invloed van demografische, genetische en omgevingsfactoren op de frequentie van twee infectieziekten in Noordwest-Europese wilde zwijnen populaties.

  14. Molecular characterization of vernalization loci VRN1 in wild and cultivated wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovnina Kseniya A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability of the VRN1 promoter region of the unique collection of spring polyploid and wild diploid wheat species together with diploid goatgrasses (donor of B and D genomes of polyploid wheats were investigated. Accessions of wild diploid (T. boeoticum, T. urartu and tetraploid (T. araraticum, T. timopheevii species were studied for the first time. Results Sequence analysis indicated great variability in the region from -62 to -221 nucleotide positions of the VRN1 promoter region. Different indels were found within this region in spring wheats. It was shown that VRN1 promoter region of B and G genome can also contain damages such as the insertion of the transposable element. Some transcription factor recognition sites including hybrid C/G-box for TaFDL2 protein known as the VRN1 gene upregulator were predicted inside the variable region. It was shown that deletions leading to promoter damage occurred in diploid and polyploid species independently. DNA transposon insertions first occurred in polyploid species. At the same time, the duplication of the promoter region was observed in A genomes of polyploid species. Conclusions We can conclude that supposed molecular mechanism of the VRN1 gene activating in cultivated diploid wheat species T. monococcum is common also for wild T. boeoticum and was inherited by T. monococcum. The spring polyploids are not related in their origin to spring diploids. The spring T. urartu and goatgrass accessions have another mechanism of flowering activation that is not connected with indels in VRN1 promoter region. All obtained data may be useful for detailed insight into origin of spring wheat forms in evolution and domestication process.

  15. Epidemiology of Pestivirus infection in wild ungulates of the French South Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Claire; Letellier, Carine; Caij, Brigitte; Gauthier, Dominique; Jean, Nicolas; Shaffii, Anahita; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-01-27

    Inter-species transmission is often incriminated in the epidemiology of Pestivirus diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pestivirus in some mountain wild ungulates and to determine their role in Pestivirus transmission, as mountain pastures are a place where cohabitations between wild and domestic ungulates are particularly high. Between 2003 and 2007, a longitudinal epidemiological study was carried out on hunted ungulates in the French Hautes-Alpes department. Pestivirus-specific antibodies against p80 protein (also named NS3) common to all Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Border Disease Virus (BDV) were found in 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 40.5-51.3%) of the 343 tested chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). In addition, mouflons (Ovis gmelinii musimon) were shown for the first time to be strongly infected (61.1%; CI95%: 38.6-83.6) by a Pestivirus. These serological ELISA results were confirmed by comparative virus neutralization tests, performed on seven Pestivirus strains by using 15 seropositive samples. The highest antibody titers were directed against 2 BDV strains (Av and 33s strains), rather than BDV-4, a strain responsible for Pyrenean-chamois epizooties. Virus neutralization tests confirm a BDV circulation in wild ungulates in the French South Alps. However, no Pestivirus RNA was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in serum and spleen samples from seronegative animals and no virus was isolated from those samples either. Efforts should be made to improve the protocol in order to be able to isolate and characterize the local strain. Finally, the oldness (age) and femaleness (gender) increase the risk of seroconversion in chamois. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Short- and long-term consequences of early developmental conditions: a case study on wild and domesticated zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, B; Rutstein, A N; Postma, E; Mariette, M; Griffith, S C

    2009-02-01

    Divergent selection pressures among populations can result not only in significant differentiation in morphology, physiology and behaviour, but also in how these traits are related to each other, thereby driving the processes of local adaptation and speciation. In the Australian zebra finch, we investigated whether domesticated stock, bred in captivity over tens of generations, differ in their response to a life-history manipulation, compared to birds taken directly from the wild. In a 'common aviary' experiment, we thereto experimentally manipulated the environmental conditions experienced by nestlings early in life by means of a brood size manipulation, and subsequently assessed its short- and long-term consequences on growth, ornamentation, immune function and reproduction. As expected, we found that early environmental conditions had a marked effect on both short- and long-term morphological and life-history traits in all birds. However, although there were pronounced differences between wild and domesticated birds with respect to the absolute expression of many of these traits, which are indicative of the different selection pressures wild and domesticated birds were exposed to in the recent past, manipulated rearing conditions affected morphology and ornamentation of wild and domesticated finches in a very similar way. This suggests that despite significant differentiation between wild and domesticated birds, selection has not altered the relationships among traits. Thus, life-history strategies and investment trade-offs may be relatively stable and not easily altered by selection. This is a reassuring finding in the light of the widespread use of domesticated birds in studies of life-history evolution and sexual selection, and suggests that adaptive explanations may be legitimate when referring to captive bird studies.

  17. First TBEV serological screening in Flemish wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Roelandt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a Flemish wildlife surveillance in 2013, a serological screening was performed on sera from wild boar (Sus scrofa; n=238 in order to detect tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV-specific antibodies. Neutralising antibodies were titrated with a seroneutralisation test (SNT, using two cut-off titres (1/10–1/15. Seven wild boars were found TBEV-seropositive and showed moderate (>1/15 to high (>1/125 SNT-titres; three individuals had borderline results (1/10–1/15. This study demonstrated the presence of TBEV-specific antibodies in wild boar and highlighted potential TBEV-foci in Flanders. Additional surveillance including direct virus testing is now recommended.

  18. [Wild animals and law and ethics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouët, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Legal systems applying to wild animals are very different depending on whether the animals are in captivity or under human control, or whether they are in the wild. Animals in captivity, like domesticated animals, are covered by protective measures for the welfare of the individual animal, but wild animals are not considered as individuals but only as members of a species, their numbers being controlled by humans and determined by human interests. In the light of contemporary scientific knowledge, such legal approaches are now inappropriate and can no longer be accepted for ethical reasons. The legal systems need to develop and must include a definition of the animal as an individual and as a sentient being.

  19. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  20. Gene flow and genetic diversity in cultivated and wild cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumacero de Schawe, Claudia; Durka, Walter; Tscharntke, Teja; Hensen, Isabell; Kessler, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The role of pollen flow within and between cultivated and wild tropical crop species is little known. To study the pollen flow of cacao, we estimated the degree of self-pollination and pollen dispersal distances as well as gene flow between wild and cultivated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We studied pollen flow and genetic diversity of cultivated and wild cacao populations by genotyping 143 wild and 86 cultivated mature plants and 374 seedlings raised from 19 wild and 25 cultivated trees at nine microsatellite loci. A principal component analysis distinguished wild and cultivated cacao trees, supporting the notion that Bolivia harbors truly wild cacao populations. Cultivated cacao had a higher level of genetic diversity than wild cacao, presumably reflecting the varied origin of cultivated plants. Both cacao types had high outcrossing rates, but the paternity analysis revealed 7-14% self-pollination in wild and cultivated cacao. Despite the tiny size of the pollinators, pollen was transported distances up to 3 km; wild cacao showed longer distances (mean = 922 m) than cultivated cacao (826 m). Our data revealed that 16-20% of pollination events occurred between cultivated and wild populations. We found evidence of self-pollination in both wild and cultivated cacao. Pollination distances are larger than those typically reported in tropical understory tree species. The relatively high pollen exchange from cultivated to wild cacao compromises genetic identity of wild populations, calling for the protection of extensive natural forest tracts to protect wild cacao in Bolivia.

  1. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes.

  2. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  3. Ombre di ombre. Wilde cita Balzac II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Pietri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Wilde, “reader of Balzac” in Balzac in English and in The Decay of Lying, as well as in other essays and imagined conversations, tests an especially transgressive practice of quotation, rewriting and rereading both Balzac’s self-readings and the readings of Balzac made by other writers, such as Charles Baudelaire, Théophile Gautier and Algernon Charles Swinburne. In this way, Oscar Wilde transforms the manipulation of quotations into a new aesthetic invention. Indeed, by inserting themes and characters taken from the Comédie humaine in his own essays and dialogues, Wilde follows a complex strategy to take possession of Balzac’s inheritance and explores the performative power of the “mask”, the systematic use of critical paradoxes, the poetics of “plagiarism” and of “living plagiarism” as “reverse quotation” of Art by Life and vice versa.

  4. Microflora diversity on the phyloplane of wild Okra ( Corchorus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial genera isolated included; Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Serratia and Proteus. Rhodotorula, Mucor, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Helminthosporium were the genera of fungi isolated. Further studies could help to elucidate major players in wild okra phylloplane ecology. Keywords: Wild Okra ...

  5. A review of ecosystem service benefits from wild bees across social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Denise Margaret S; Leventon, Julia; Rau, Anna-Lena; Borgemeister, Christian; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination. We also found that wild bees directly provide benefits to communities to a greater extent than individuals. In the social contexts where they are found, wild bees occupy a central role. Several drivers of change affect bee-human systems, ranging from environmental to political drivers. These are the areas where we recommend making interventions for conserving the bee-human system.

  6. Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boar of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ganna; Molozhanova, Alona; Halka, Ihor; Nychyk, Serhiy

    2017-12-01

    A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.0-30.8) and in at least some of the wild boar from all of the four oblasts. This preliminary survey of IA antibodies in wild boar populations of northern Ukraine indicates a substantial frequency of exposure to IAV throughout the region. Infection of wild boar populations could provide an alternative or additional route for spillover from wild populations to domestic animals and humans.

  7. Nutritional composition and flavonoid content of edible wild greens and green pies: a potential rich source and antioxidant nutrients in the Mediterranean diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trichopoulou, A.; Vasilopoulou, E.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Chamalides, Ch.; Foufa, E.

    2000-01-01

    The traditional Greek diet is dominated by the high consumption of olive oil, fruit and vegetables. Antioxidants represent a common element in these foods and may be important mediators of the beneficial effect of this diet. Wild edible greens are frequently consumed throughout Greece. Seven edible

  8. Neurally mediated airway constriction in human and other species: a comparative study using precision-cut lung slices (PCLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Schlepütz

    Full Text Available The peripheral airway innervation of the lower respiratory tract of mammals is not completely functionally characterized. Recently, we have shown in rats that precision-cut lung slices (PCLS respond to electric field stimulation (EFS and provide a useful model to study neural airway responses in distal airways. Since airway responses are known to exhibit considerable species differences, here we examined the neural responses of PCLS prepared from mice, rats, guinea pigs, sheep, marmosets and humans. Peripheral neurons were activated either by EFS or by capsaicin. Bronchoconstriction in response to identical EFS conditions varied between species in magnitude. Frequency response curves did reveal further species-dependent differences of nerve activation in PCLS. Atropine antagonized the EFS-induced bronchoconstriction in human, guinea pig, sheep, rat and marmoset PCLS, showing cholinergic responses. Capsaicin (10 µM caused bronchoconstriction in human (4 from 7 and guinea pig lungs only, indicating excitatory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses (eNANC. However, this effect was notably smaller in human responder (30 ± 7.1% than in guinea pig (79 ± 5.1% PCLS. The transient receptor potential (TRP channel blockers SKF96365 and ruthenium red antagonized airway contractions after exposure to EFS or capsaicin in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the different species show distinct patterns of nerve-mediated bronchoconstriction. In the most common experimental animals, i.e. in mice and rats, these responses differ considerably from those in humans. On the other hand, guinea pig and marmoset monkey mimic human responses well and may thus serve as clinically relevant models to study neural airway responses.

  9. "This place is about the struggle”. Producing the common through homelessness and biopolitical resistance in a public park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Rose

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The democratic struggle for constructing a viable common is, ultimately, a biopolitical project. During an extended ethnography of homelessness in a Salt Lake City public park, I used Hardt and Negri’s lens to interpret the spaces of the park’s social, political, and physical landscape as a common. The park sits in the liminal spaces along various material and discursive tensions, between public space and private space, nature and society, urban and wild.

  10. Identification of Potential Wild Herbal as parts of Landscape Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyantara, Bambang; Mentari, Nio

    2017-10-01

    Many landscape plants can grow on their own without cultivated by humans. They are type of plants that can be found anywhere, so they can be categorized as wild plants. The economic value of wild plants are easy to obtain and their maintenance costs are low. Because wild plants not widely known even a just a few of people that aware of their existence, it is necessary to do a study to learn the potential of the wild plants to be used as an element of landscape. This research aims to identify the species that have potent