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Sample records for wild capuchin monkey

  1. Wild capuchin monkeys anticipate the amount of ripe fruit in natural trees.

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    Tujague, María Paula; Janson, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    Tropical forests have a high diversity of tree species which have very low densities and vary across time in their seasons of peak fruiting and maturation rates. As evidence of the ability of primates to track or anticipate changes in fruit production at individual trees, researchers have used the increased speed of primate groups toward more rewarding food patches. We analyzed the speed of approach to natural trees of wild capuchin monkeys under the effect of scramble competition, after excluding any plausible visual, olfactory and auditory cues. We conducted all-day group follows of three habituated capuchin groups at Iguazú National Park, Argentina, collecting data on ranging behavior and patterns of visits to fruit trees in relation with their location and fruit availability. Travel speed varied according to the expected reward at a feeding tree, increasing as rewards increased from low values, but decreasing again at very high values. Also, travel speed varied with time of day, decreasing from the time of first activity as the monkeys became less hungry, and increasing again toward late afternoon. Measures of unripe fruit cover did not explain variation in travel speed at any distance from a focal tree. Our data imply that, after excluding sensory cues, capuchins appear to anticipate time-varying ripe fruit quantity of natural resources, suggesting that they use memory of tree location and anticipation of fruit maturation. We also confirm that speed is a good measure about expectations of resources, as has been shown in previous studies.

  2. Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys.

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    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica

    2008-06-01

    Reintroduction of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) into their social group in captivity can elicit sirena screams and embraces. Captive scream-embrace displays are male biased, and females never perform sirena screams. One hypothesis is that scream-embrace displays serve a tension-reduction or reconciliatory function between males with conflicting interests. Alternatively, these displays may function to maintain strong affiliative bonds between friendly male dyads. Scream and/or embrace displays in wild Brazilian black-horned capuchins were analyzed for social and ecological contexts, behavioral components, and individuals involved. Seventy-two displays were observed during the 199-day study period. Among the 66 displays for which both members could be identified by sex, there were 42 occurrences of male-male dyads, 17 of male-female dyads, and seven of female-female dyads. Scream-embrace dyads were male-male pairs significantly more often than expected from group membership, and the alpha male was the only male to engage in scream-embrace displays with females. Female-female pairs did embrace, but never emitted sirena screams. Displays most commonly occurred in "reunion" contexts, primarily the reuniting of subgroups after hours or days out of contact, but also after intergroup encounters, and across groups in "intergroup" displays. Displays were rare, but socially contagious, and subgroup reunions could elicit multiple displays in rapid succession. Although the occurrence of screams and embraces was positively correlated, both behaviors also occurred independently, and their functions may be different. Male sirena screams may be honest advertisements of united alliances, directed toward a third party, whereas the embrace may be a risky affiliative signal, directed primarily within the dyad. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Digging up food: excavation stone tool use by wild capuchin monkeys.

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    Falótico, Tiago; Siqueira, José O; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2017-07-24

    Capuchin monkeys at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) usually forage on the ground for roots and fossorial arthropods, digging primarily with their hands but also using stone tools to loosen the soil and aid the digging process. Here we describe the stone tools used for digging by two groups of capuchins on SCNP. Both groups used tools while digging three main food resources: Thiloa glaucocarpa tubers, Ocotea sp roots, and trapdoor spiders. One explanation for the occurrence of tool use in primates is the "necessity hypothesis", which states that the main function of tool use is to obtain fallback food. We tested for this, but only found a positive correlation between plant food availability and the frequency of stone tools' use. Thus, our data do not support the fallback food hypothesis for the use of tools to access burrowed resources.

  4. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

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    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  5. The Development of the Basal Ganglia in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

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    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Sobieski, Courtney A.; Gilbert, Valerie R.; Chiappini-Williamson, Christine; Sherwood, Chet C.; Strick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia are subcortical structures involved in the planning, initiation and regulation of movement as well as a variety of non-motor, cognitive and affective functions. Capuchin monkeys share several important characteristics of development with humans, including a prolonged infancy and juvenile period, a long lifespan, and complex manipulative abilities. This makes capuchins important comparative models for understanding age-related neuroanatomical changes in these structures. Here we report developmental volumetric data on the three subdivisions of the basal ganglia, the caudate, putamen and globus pallidus in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Based on a cross-sectional sample, we describe brain development in 28 brown capuchin monkeys (male n = 17, female n = 11; age range = 2 months – 20 years) using high-resolution structural MRI. We found that the raw volumes of the putamen and caudate varied significantly with age, decreasing in volume from birth through early adulthood. Notably, developmental changes did not differ between sexes. Because these observed developmental patterns are similar to humans, our results suggest that capuchin monkeys may be useful animal models for investigating neurodevelopmental disorders of the basal ganglia. PMID:20227397

  6. The effects of tradition on problem solving by two wild populations of bearded capuchin monkeys in a probing task.

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    Cardoso, Raphael Moura; Ottoni, Eduardo B

    2016-11-01

    The effects of culture on individual cognition have become a core issue among cultural primatologists. Field studies with wild populations provide evidence on the role of social cues in the ontogeny of tool use in non-human primates, and on the transmission of such behaviours over generations through socially biased learning. Recent experimental studies have shown that cultural knowledge may influence problem solving in wild populations of chimpanzees. Here, we present the results from a field experiment comparing the performance of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) from two wild savannah populations with distinct toolkits in a probing task. Only the population that already exhibited the customary use of probing tools succeeded in solving the new problem, suggesting that their cultural repertoire shaped their approach to the new task. Moreover, only this population, which uses stone tools in a broader range of contexts, tried to use them to solve the problem. Social interactions can affect the formation of learning sets and they affect the performance of the monkeys in problem solving. We suggest that behavioural traditions affect the ways non-human primates solve novel foraging problems using tools. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Predatory threat of harpy eagles for yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys in the Atlantic Forest.

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    Suscke, Priscila; Verderane, Michele; de Oliveira, Robson Santos; Delval, Irene; Fernández-Bolaños, Marcelo; Izar, Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    We describe seven encounters between different harpy eagle individuals (Harpia harpyja) and a group of yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus xanthosternos) in Una Biological Reserve. These interactions lasted 58 min on average. In each of those encounters, the capuchin monkeys used particular behavioral strategies against the harpy eagle that were not employed in reaction to other aerial predators. We did not observe any successful predation events, but after one of those encounters an infant disappeared from the capuchin group. As a whole, these observations indicate that the presence of harpy eagles in the group's home range increases predation risk for capuchin monkeys. The present report also suggests a reoccupation by H. harpyja of this area, as no previous recent records identify harpy eagle occurrence in Una Biological Reserve.

  8. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

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    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  9. Same/Different Concept Learning by Capuchin Monkeys in Matching-to-Sample Tasks

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    Truppa, Valentina; Piano Mortari, Eva; Garofoli, Duilio; Privitera, Sara; Visalberghi, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i) the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii) the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions. PMID:21858225

  10. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

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    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

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    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  12. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

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    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  13. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects.

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    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  14. Older, sociable capuchins (Cebus capucinus) invent more social behaviors, but younger monkeys innovate more in other contexts

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    Perry, Susan E.; Godoy, Irene

    2017-01-01

    An important extension to our understanding of evolutionary processes has been the discovery of the roles that individual and social learning play in creating recurring phenotypes on which selection can act. Cultural change occurs chiefly through invention of new behavioral variants combined with social transmission of the novel behaviors to new practitioners. Therefore, understanding what makes some individuals more likely to innovate and/or transmit new behaviors is critical for creating realistic models of culture change. The difficulty in identifying what behaviors qualify as new in wild animal populations has inhibited researchers from understanding the characteristics of behavioral innovations and innovators. Here, we present the findings of a long-term, systematic study of innovation (10 y, 10 groups, and 234 individuals) in wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica. Our methodology explicitly seeks novel behaviors, requiring their absence during the first 5 y of the study to qualify as novel in the second 5 y of the study. Only about 20% of 187 innovations identified were retained in innovators’ individual behavioral repertoires, and 22% were subsequently seen in other group members. Older, more social monkeys were more likely to invent new forms of social interaction, whereas younger monkeys were more likely to innovate in other behavioral domains (foraging, investigative, and self-directed behaviors). Sex and rank had little effect on innovative tendencies. Relative to apes, capuchins devote more of their innovations repertoire to investigative behaviors and social bonding behaviors and less to foraging and comfort behaviors. PMID:28739946

  15. Development of snake-directed antipredator behavior by wild white-faced capuchin monkeys: II. Influence of the social environment.

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    Meno, Whitney; Coss, Richard G; Perry, Susan

    2013-03-01

    Young animals are known to direct alarm calls at a wider range of animals than adults. If social cues are safer and/or more reliable to use than asocial cues for learning about predators, then it is expected that the development of this behavior will be affected by the social environment. Our study examined the influence of the social environment on antipredator behavior in infant, juvenile, and adult wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve in Costa Rica during presentations of different species of model snakes and novel models. We examined (a) the alarm calling behavior of the focal animal when alone versus in the vicinity of conspecific alarm callers and (b) the latency of conspecifics to alarm call once the focal animal alarm called. Focal animals alarm called more when alone than after hearing a conspecific alarm call. No reliable differences were found in the latencies of conspecifics to alarm call based on age or model type. Conspecifics were more likely to alarm call when focal individuals alarm called at snake models than when they alarm called at novel models. Results indicate (a) that alarm calling may serve to attract others to the predator's location and (b) that learning about specific predators may begin with a generalized response to a wide variety of species, including some nonthreatening ones, that is winnowed down via Pavlovian conditioned inhibition into a response directed toward specific dangerous species. This study reveals that conspecifics play a role in the development of antipredator behavior in white-faced capuchins. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The ecological rationality of delay tolerance: insights from capuchin monkeys.

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    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina

    2011-04-01

    Both human and non-human animals often face decisions between options available at different times, and the capacity of delaying gratification has usually been considered one of the features distinguishing humans from other animals. However, this characteristic can widely vary across individuals, species, and types of task and it is still unclear whether it is accounted for by phylogenetic relatedness, feeding ecology, social structure, or metabolic rate. To disentangle these hypotheses, we evaluated temporal preferences in capuchin monkeys, South-American primates that, despite splitting off from human lineage approximately 35 million years ago, show striking behavioural analogies with the great apes. Then, we compared capuchins' performance with that of the other primate species tested so far with the same procedure. Overall, capuchins showed a delay tolerance significantly higher than closely related species, such as marmosets and tamarins, and comparable to that shown by great apes. Capuchins' tool use abilities might explain their comparatively high preference for delayed options in inter-temporal choices. Moreover, as in humans, capuchin females showed a greater delay tolerance than males, possibly because of their less opportunistic foraging style. Thus, our results shed light on the evolutionary origins of self-control supporting explanations of delay tolerance in terms of feeding ecology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analogical reasoning in a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella).

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    Kennedy, Erica Hoy; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2008-05-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that analogical reasoning (recognizing similarities among object relations when the objects themselves are dissimilar) is limited to humans and apes. This study investigated whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) can use analogical reasoning to solve a 3-dimensional search task. The task involved hiding a food item under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of different sizes and then allowing subjects to search for food hidden under the cup of analogous size in their own set of cups. Four monkeys were exposed to a series of relational matching tasks. If subjects reached criterion on these tasks, they were exposed to relational transfer tasks involving novel stimuli. Three of the monkeys failed to reach criterion on the basic relational matching tasks and therefore were not tested further. One monkey, however, revealed above-chance performance on a series of transfer tasks with 3 novel stimuli. This evidence suggests that contrary to previous arguments, a member of a New World monkey species can solve an analogical problem. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. A novel nonsense mutation in the tyrosinase gene is related to the albinism in a capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella).

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    Galante Rocha de Vasconcelos, Felipe Tadeu; Hauzman, Einat; Dutra Henriques, Leonardo; Kilpp Goulart, Paulo Roney; de Faria Galvão, Olavo; Sano, Ronaldo Yuiti; da Silva Souza, Givago; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; de Lima Silveira, Luis Carlos; Fix Ventura, Dora; Oliveira Bonci, Daniela Maria

    2017-05-05

    Oculocutaneous Albinism (OCA) is an autosomal recessive inherited condition that affects the pigmentation of eyes, hair and skin. The OCA phenotype may be caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene (TYR), which expresses the tyrosinase enzyme and has an important role in the synthesis of melanin pigment. The aim of this study was to identify the genetic mutation responsible for the albinism in a captive capuchin monkey, and to describe the TYR gene of normal phenotype individuals. In addition, we identified the subject's species. A homozygous nonsense mutation was identified in exon 1 of the TYR gene, with the substitution of a cytosine for a thymine nucleotide (C64T) at codon 22, leading to a premature stop codon (R22X) in the albino robust capuchin monkey. The albino and five non-albino robust capuchin monkeys were identified as Sapajus apella, based on phylogenetic analyses, pelage pattern and geographic provenance. One individual was identified as S. macrocephalus. We conclude that the point mutation C64T in the TYR gene is responsible for the OCA1 albino phenotype in the capuchin monkey, classified as Sapajus apella.

  19. Male resource defense mating system in primates? An experimental test in wild capuchin monkeys.

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    Barbara Tiddi

    Full Text Available Ecological models of mating systems provide a theoretical framework to predict the effect of the defendability of both breeding resources and mating partners on mating patterns. In resource-based mating systems, male control over breeding resources is tightly linked to female mating preference. To date, few field studies have experimentally investigated the relationship between male resource control and female mating preference in mammals due to difficulties in manipulating ecological factors (e.g., food contestability. We tested the within-group male resource defense hypothesis experimentally in a wild population of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. Sapajus spp. represent an ideal study model as, in contrast to most primates, they have been previously argued to be characterized by female mate choice and a resource-based mating system in which within-group resource monopolization by high-ranking males drives female mating preference for those males. Here, we examined whether females (N = 12 showed a weaker preference for alpha males during mating seasons in which food distribution was experimentally manipulated to be less defendable relative to those in which it was highly defendable. Results did not support the within-group male resource defense hypothesis, as female sexual preferences for alpha males did not vary based on food defendability. We discuss possible reasons for our results, including the possibility of other direct and indirect benefits females receive in exercising mate choice, the potential lack of tolerance over food directed towards females by alpha males, and phylogenetic constraints.

  20. Color discrimination in the tufted capuchin monkey, Sapajus spp.

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    Goulart, Paulo Roney Kilpp; Bonci, Daniela Maria Oliveira; Galvão, Olavo de Faria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of an adapted version of the Mollon-Reffin test for the behavioral investigation of color vision in capuchin monkeys. Ten tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp., formerly referred to as Cebus apella) had their DNA analyzed and were characterized as the following: one trichromat female, seven deuteranope dichromats (six males and one female), and two protanope males, one of which was identified as an "ML protanope." For their behavioral characterization, all of the subjects were tested at three regions of the Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1976 u'v' diagram, with each test consisting of 20 chromatic variation vectors that were radially distributed around the chromaticity point set as the test background. The phenotypes inferred from the behavioral data were in complete agreement with those predicted from the genetic analysis, with the threshold distribution clearly differentiating between trichromats and dichromats and the estimated confusion lines characteristically converging for deuteranopes and the "classic" protanope. The discrimination pattern of the ML protanope was intermediate between protan and deutan, with confusion lines horizontally oriented and parallel to each other. The observed phenotypic differentiation confirmed the efficacy of the Mollon-Reffin test paradigm as a useful tool for evaluating color discrimination in nonhuman primates. Especially noteworthy was the demonstration of behavioral segregation between the "classic" and "ML" protanopes, suggesting identifiable behavioral consequences of even slight variations in the spectral sensitivity of M/L photopigments in dichromats.

  1. Social modulation of risky decision-making in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.).

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    Zoratto, F; Oddi, G; Gori, E; Micucci, A; De Petrillo, F; Paglieri, F; Adriani, W; Laviola, G; Addessi, E

    2018-02-24

    Both human and non-human animals frequently deal with risky decisions in a social environment. Nevertheless, the influence of the social context on decision-making has been scarcely investigated. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether the presence of a conspecific influences risk preferences in rats and in tufted capuchin monkeys. Subjects received a series of choices between a constant, safe option and a variable, risky option, both alone (Alone condition) and when paired with a conspecific (Paired condition). The average payoff of the risky option was always lower than that of the safe option. Overall, the two species differed in their attitude towards risk: whereas rats were indifferent between options, capuchins exhibited a preference for the safe option. In both species, risk preferences changed in the Paired condition compared to the Alone condition, although in an opposite way. Whereas rats increased their risk preferences over time when paired with a conspecific, capuchins chose the risky option less in the Paired condition than in the Alone condition. Moreover, whereas anxiety-like behaviours decreased across sessions in rats, these behaviours where more represented in the Paired condition than in the Alone condition in capuchins. Thus, our findings extends to two distantly-related non-human species the evidence, so far available for human beings, that a decrease in anxiety corresponds to an increase in risk preferences, and vice versa. This suggests that the modulation of risk preferences by social influences observed in rats and capuchin monkeys may rely on a common, evolutionarily ancient, mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

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    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) learning how to crack nuts: does variability decline throughout development?

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    Resende, Briseida Dogo; Nagy-Reis, Mariana Baldy; Lacerda, Fernanda Neves; Pagnotta, Murillo; Savalli, Carine

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the process of nut-cracking acquisition in a semi-free population of tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp) in São Paulo, Brazil. We analyzed the cracking episodes from monkeys of different ages and found that variability of actions related to cracking declined. Inept movements were more frequent in juveniles, which also showed an improvement on efficient striking. The most effective behavioral sequence for cracking was more frequently used by the most experienced monkeys, which also used non-optimal sequences. Variability in behavior sequences and actions may allow adaptive changes to behavior under changing environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d...... between periods. During the first enrichment period, the authors provided Buster cubes and wood cylinders with drilled holes filled with gum arabic. During the second enrichment period, monkeys were provided with a deep litter of bark shavings, and during the third enrichment period, they were given...... Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had...

  5. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  6. Effects of brief time delays on matching-to-sample abilities in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truppa, Valentina; De Simone, Diego Antonio; Piano Mortari, Eva; De Lillo, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, studies of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) tasks in nonhuman species have focused on the assessment of the limits of the retrieval of information stored in short- and long-term memory systems. However, it is still unclear if visual recognition in these tasks is affected by very brief delay intervals, which are typically used to study rapidly decaying types of visual memory. This study aimed at evaluating if tufted capuchin monkeys' ability to recognise visual stimuli in a DMTS task is affected by (i) the disappearance of the sample stimulus and (ii) the introduction of delay intervals (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0s) between the disappearance of the sample and the presentation of the comparison stimuli. The results demonstrated that the simple disappearance of the sample and the introduction of a delay of 0.5s did not affect capuchins' performance either in terms of accuracy or response time. A delay interval of 1.0s produced a significant increase in response time but still did not affect recognition accuracy. By contrast, delays of 2.0 and 3.0s determined a significant increase in response time and a reduction in recognition accuracy. These findings indicate the existence in capuchin monkeys of processes enabling a very accurate retention of stimulus features within time frames comparable to those reported for humans' sensory memory (0.5-1.0s). The extent to which such processes can be considered analogous to the sensory memory processes observed in human visual cognition is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Administration of high doses of copper to capuchin monkeys does not cause liver damage but induces transcriptional activation of hepatic proliferative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Magdalena; Núñez, Héctor; Pavez, Leonardo; Arredondo, Miguel; Méndez, Marco; Cisternas, Felipe; Pizarro, Fernando; Sierralta, Walter; Uauy, Ricardo; González, Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    Liver cells respond to copper loading upregulating protective mechanisms. However, to date, except for liver content, there are no good indicators that identify individuals with excess liver copper. We hypothesized that administering high doses of copper to young (5.5 mg Cu · kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹) and adult (7.5 mg Cu · kg⁻¹ . d⁻¹) capuchin monkeys would induce detectable liver damage. Study groups included adult monkeys (2 females, 2 males) 3-3.5 y old at enrollment treated with copper for 36 mo (ACu); age-matched controls (1 female, 3 males) that did not receive additional copper (AC); young monkeys (2 female, 2 males) treated from birth with copper for 36 mo (YCu); and young age-matched controls (2 female, 2 males) that did not receive additional copper (YC). We periodically assessed clinical, blood biochemical, and liver histological indicators and at 36 mo the hepatic mRNA abundance of MT2a, APP, DMT1, CTR1, HGF, TGFβ, and NFκΒ only in adult monkeys. After 36 mo, the liver copper concentration was 4-5 times greater in treated monkeys relative to controls. All monkeys remained healthy with normal routine serum biochemical indices and there was no evidence of liver tissue damage. Relative mRNA abundance of HGF, TGFβ and NFκB was significantly greater in ACu than in AC monkeys. In conclusion, capuchin monkeys exposed to copper at doses up to 50 times the current upper level enhanced expression of genes related to inflammation and injury without clinical, blood biochemical, or histological evidence of liver damage.

  8. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHF Bortoluci

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the behaviour of “Cebus” shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG, Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG and Slow Twitc (SO. In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities.

  10. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluci, C H F; Simionato, L H; Rosa Junior, G M; Oliveira, J A; Lauris, J R P; Moraes, L H R; Rodrigues, A C; Andreo, J C

    2014-08-01

    A general analysis of the behaviour of "Cebus" shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral) and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG), Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG) and Slow Twitc (SO). In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities.

  11. The relative use of proximity, shape similarity, and orientation as visual perceptual grouping cues in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, Giovanna; De Lillo, Carlo; Truppa, Valentina; Castorina, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    Recent experimental results suggest that human and nonhuman primates differ in how they process visual information to assemble component parts into global shapes. To assess whether some of the observed differences in perceptual grouping could be accounted for by the prevalence of different grouping factors in different species, we carried out 2 experiments designed to evaluate the relative use of proximity, similarity of shape, and orientation as grouping cues in humans (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Both species showed similarly high levels of accuracy using proximity as a cue. Moreover, for both species, grouping by orientation similarity produced a lower level of performance than grouping by proximity. Differences emerged with respect to the use of shape similarity as a cue. In humans, grouping by shape similarity also proved less effective than grouping by proximity but the same was not observed in capuchins. These results suggest that there may be subtle differences between humans and capuchin monkeys in the weighting assigned to different grouping cues that may affect the way in which they combine local features into global shapes. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Throwing behavior and mass distribution of stone selection in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, A; Rocca, A R; Wendt, E L; Westergaard, G C

    2003-12-01

    Cannell [Journal of Archaeological Science 29:335-339, 2002] argued that sex-based differences among humans in terms of the mass of chosen throwing stones could be used to infer body mass and patterns of sexual dimorphism in early hominids from Olduvai and Koobi Fora by examining the mass distributions of unaltered stone tools at those sites. We examined this hypothesis in tufted capuchin monkeys using a comparative approach, by investigating the relationships among body mass, sex, stone weight preference, and accuracy in a throwing task. The subject sample consisted of nine monkeys trained to perform an aimed-throwing task in which a food reward could be obtained by throwing a stone into a bucket. We found that 1) the subjects showed a strong mean stone mass preference; 2) the females chose heavier stones than the males, in terms of absolute mean selected stone mass and selected stone mass relative to body mass; 3) subjects threw more accurately when they used stones of preferred mass vs. stones of nonpreferred mass; and 4) overall, the males were more accurate in the throwing task than the females. We conclude that capuchins are highly selective when choosing throwing stones, and that this confers an advantage for throwing accuracy. Our results indicate that the sexually dimorphic pattern in stone mass preference observed among humans does not generalize to Cebus apella. We suggest that researchers examining this pattern in humans in an attempt to explain early hominid patterns of dimorphism and behavior should take into account not only stone weight preference, but also its adaptive advantage. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Francesca De; Micucci, Antonia; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual's reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins' performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed.

  14. Development of manipulation in capuchin monkeys during the first 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Curtis, L E; Fragaszy, D M

    1994-03-01

    This study describes the orderly changes in manipulation over the first 6 months in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). By 6 months of age, all the basic forms of manipulation seen in adults have appeared. Actions that occur frequently in the first 8 weeks are gentle and involve sustained visual orientation and aimed reaching. Later actions are more vigorous, and involve grasping. Large increases in the rate of activity are evident over the period of development studied. The increase from the first 8 weeks to the second may be due to (a) an increase in the amount of time spent alert and active, (b) a decrease in the amount of time spent in a ventral position, (c) improvements in postural control and stamina and (d) the onset of independent locomotion. Changes in form can be attributed primarily to postural factors and to neuromuscular development (precisely aimed and controlled movements appearing in the 5th and 6th months).

  15. Gestational ultrasonography and Dopplerfluxometry in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) zoometric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, S A; Leão, D L; Oliveira, K G; Sodré, I S; Domingues, S F S

    2018-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were as follows: 1) to evaluate blood flow in the uterine (UA) and umbilical (Uma) arteries in pregnant capuchin monkeys by measuring the resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI); 2) to determine the presence or absence of the early diastolic notch and diastolic flow in the UA and Uma flow waveforms, respectively; 3) to perform conceptus echobiometry for fetal growth assessment during pregnancy; 4) to describe the moment that the fetal organs were initially observed; and 5) to determine when the diagnosis of fetal gender is possible. Seven healthy, sexually mature female Sapajus apella were examined in Weeks -20 to -1 before whelping (whelping Week 0). Triplex Doppler was used to assess the blood flow and fetal heart rate, and B-mode ultrasonography was used to assess the fetal organs and conceptus measurements, including the gestational sac latero-lateral longitudinal (LLL) and latero-lateral transversal (LLT), the crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (BPD), occipito-frontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and fetal organ. All the pregnancies ended with a normal whelping and the birth of a live newborn. Prior to whelping, all conceptus dimensions increased significantly, whereas the RI and PI of both the UA and Uma decreased significantly. For the UA, the RI and PI were (mean ± SEM) 0.835 ± 0.017 and 2.157 ± 0.129, 0.808 ± 0.008 and 1.920 ± 0.041, and 0.761 ± 0.006 and 1.759 ± 0.036 on periods -3, -2 and -1, respectively. For the Uma, the RI and PI were 0.97 ± 0.01 and 2.50 ± 0.02 at Week -17 and were 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.98 ± 0.04 at Week -1, respectively. The complete disappearance of the early diastolic notch in the UA, and the complete appearance of diastolic flow in the Uma occurred on Week -1 and Week -11, respectively. Linear regression analyses regarding the relationship of the weeks before whelping (WBW) with the

  16. Reduced range of the endangered crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) and a possible hybrid zone with Sapajus nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Waldney Pereira; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Rylands, Anthony B

    2017-10-01

    The crested capuchin monkey (Sapajus robustus) is an endangered species endemic to the highly fragmented Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Surveys for S. robustus were carried out over a 25-month period (2003-2005) to obtain more precise geographical limits for the western range of the species. Previously published localities for S. robustus were mapped, and each point was given a 25-km radius "buffer zone." The largest forest remnants in the buffer zones (>300 ha) in Minas Gerais were visited in order to interview the local people and/or survey the forests directly using playback recordings of S. robustus. Camera traps were used in key localities if interviews suggested the presence of capuchins but no animals were sighted during the surveys. Of 127 valid interviews, only 39 people reported the presence of Sapajus in nearby forest fragments. We confirmed the presence of Sapajus in only 19 of these. S. robustus occurred in four, and S. libidinosus, S. nigritus, S. xanthosternos, or S. robustus × S. nigritus (hybrids?) occurred in the remaining 15. Based on our study, the estimated geographical distribution of S. robustus is 119,654 km 2 , which represents a reduction of more than 70,000 km 2 when compared to its formerly described range. The geographical limits as defined in this study are: northeast-the Jequitinhonha River; northwest and west-the Jequitinhonha River; southwest-the Suaçuí Grande River and the Espinhaço mountains; southeast-the Doce River; east-the Atlantic Ocean. A probable hybrid zone where capuchin monkeys have morphological features of both S. nigritus and S. robustus was found between the Santo Antônio and the Suaçuí Grande rivers. The elucidation of the geographical distribution of S. robustus is important for its conservation, facilitating the delineation of priority areas for the creation of reserves and the initiation of studies of the species' ecology and behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite protozoan. A large percentage of animals presents specific antibodies caused by a previous exposition, resulting in a chronic infection. Felides are the definitive hosts and the other warm-blooded animals, including primates, are the intermediate hosts. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in free-living tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella nigritus from an ecological station located on Mata de Santa Teresa, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. T. gondii antibodies were analyzed by modified agglutination test (MAT in serum samples of 36 tufted capuchin monkeys, considering eight as cut-off titer. From the studied animals, 3/36 (8.33%; CI95% 3.0-21.9% presented T. gondii antibodies, all with titer 32. No significative difference was observed relating to the sex (1/3 male and 2/3 female, and to the age (1/3 young and 2/3 adult (P>0.05. Thus, these results demonstrate the presence of T. gondii antibodies in primates from São Paulo state.

  18. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Francesca De; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual’s reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins’ performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed. PMID

  19. When and where to practice: social influences on the development of nut-cracking in bearded capuchins (Sapajus libidinosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshchar, Y; Izar, P; Visalberghi, E; Resende, B; Fragaszy, D

    2016-05-01

    The habitual use of tools by wild capuchin monkeys presents a unique opportunity to study the maintenance and transmission of traditions. Young capuchins spend several years interacting with nuts before cracking them efficiently with stone tools. Using a two-observer method, we quantified the magnitude of the social influences that sustain this long period of practice. During five collection periods (over 26 months), one observer recorded the behavior of 16 immature monkeys, and another observer concurrently recorded behavior of group members in the focal monkey's vicinity. The two-observer method provides a means to quantify distinct social influences. Data show that immatures match the behavior of the adults in time and especially in space. The rate of manipulation of nuts by the immatures quadrupled when others in the group cracked and ate nuts, and immatures were ten times more likely to handle nuts and 40 times more likely to strike a nut with a stone when they themselves were near the anvils. Moreover, immature monkeys were three times more likely to be near an anvil when others were cracking. We suggest a model for social influence on nut-cracking development, based on two related processes: (1) social facilitation from observing group members engaged in nut-cracking, and (2) opportunity for practice provided by the anvils, hammer stones and nut shells available on and around the anvils. Nut-cracking activities by others support learning by drawing immatures to the anvils, where extended practice can take place, and by providing materials for practice at these places.

  20. (Ir)rational choices of humans, rhesus macaques, and capuchin monkeys in dynamic stochastic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzek, Julia; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2018-05-28

    Human and animal decision-making is known to violate rational expectations in a variety of contexts. Previous models suggest that statistical structures of real-world environments can favor such seemingly irrational behavior, but this has not been tested empirically. We tested 16 capuchin monkeys, seven rhesus monkeys, and 30 humans in a computerized experiment that implemented such stochastic environments. Subjects chose from among up to three options of different value that disappeared and became available again with different probabilities. All species overwhelmingly chose transitively (A > B > C) in the control condition, where doing so maximized overall gain. Most subjects also adhered to transitivity in the test condition, where it was suboptimal, but ultimately led to negligible losses compared to the optimal, non-transitive strategy. We used a modelling approach to show that differences in temporal discounting may account for this pattern of choices on a proximate level. Specifically, when short- and long-term goals are valued similarly, near-optimal decision rules can map onto rational choice principles. Such cognitive shortcuts have been argued to have evolved to preserve mental resources without sacrificing good decision-making, and here we provide evidence that these heuristics can provide almost identical outcomes even in situations in which they lead to suboptimal choices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of fruit and invertebrate consumption on the gut microbiota of wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Elizabeth K; Amato, Katherine R; Garber, Paul A; Malhi, Ripan S

    2018-03-01

    Invertebrate consumption is thought to be an integral part of early hominin diets, and many modern human populations regularly consume insects and other arthropods. This study examines the response of gut microbial community structure and function to changes in diet in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus), a primate that incorporates a large proportion of invertebrates in its diet. The goal of the study is to better understand the role of both fruit and invertebrate prey consumption on shaping primate gut microbiomes. Fecal samples (n = 169) and dietary data were collected over 12 months. The V3-V5 region of microbial 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. The IM-TORNADO pipeline was used to analyze sequences. White-faced capuchin gut bacterial communities were characterized primarily by Firmicutes (41.6%) and Proteobacteria (39.2%). There was a significant relationship between the invertebrate diet composition of individual capuchins and their gut microbiome composition. However, there was no relationship between the fruit diet composition of individual capuchins and their gut microbiome composition, even when examining multiple timescales. The results of our study indicate that there is a stronger relationship between gut microbial community structure and invertebrate diet composition than between gut microbial community structure and fruit consumption. As invertebrates and other animal prey play an important role in the diet of many primates, these results give important insight into the role of faunivory in shaping the evolution of host-microbe interactions in primates. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Carmen Emilia; Wilson, Vanessa A. D.; Morton, F. Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Paukner, Annika; Bates, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical “cue”). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), for example, has been suggested as a cue to dominance in humans, with links to both dominant behaviour and the perception of dominance in other individuals. Whether this association is present in non-human animals is currently not known. Therefore, here we examine within-species links between fWHR and dominant behaviour in 64 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) aged between 2 and 40 years. fWHR was positively associated with alpha status and with a dimensional rating of assertive personality in both males and females. Moreover, fWHR showed significant sexual dimorphism in adults but not juveniles, suggesting a developmental change may occur during puberty. In a sub-sample, sex differences were mediated by weight, suggesting fWHR dimorphism does not exceed what would be expected by differences in body weight. This is the first report of an association between face shape and behaviour in a non-human species. Results are discussed in terms of the role that face-behaviour associations might play within capuchin societies, and the possible selective forces that might have led to the evolution of fWHR-dominance associations in humans. PMID:24705247

  3. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  4. Experimental field study of problem-solving using tools in free-ranging capuchins (Sapajus nigritus, formerly Cebus nigritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, P A; Gomes, D F; Bicca-Marques, J C

    2012-04-01

    Some populations of capuchins are reported to use tools to solve foraging problems in the wild. In most cases, this involves the act of pounding and digging. The use of probing tools by wild capuchins is considerably less common. Here we report on the results of an experimental field study conducted in southern Brazil designed to examine the ability of wild black-horned capuchins (Sapajus nigritus) to use a wooden dowel as a lever or a probe to obtain an embedded food reward. A group of eight capuchins was presented with two experimental platforms, each housing a clear Plexiglas box containing two bananas on a shelf and four inserted dowels. Depending on the conditions of the experiment, the capuchins were required either to pull (Condition I) or push (Conditions II and III) the dowels, in order to dislodge the food reward from the shelf so that it could be manually retrieved. In Condition I, four individuals spontaneously solved the foraging problem by pulling the dowels in 25% (72/291) of visits. In Conditions II and III, however, no capuchin successfully pushed the dowels forward to obtain the food reward. During these latter two experimental conditions, the capuchins continued to pull the dowels (41/151 or 27% of visits), even though this behavior did not result in foraging success. The results of these field experiments are consistent with an identical study conducted on wild Cebus capucinus in Costa Rica, and suggest that when using an external object as a probe to solve a foraging problem, individual capuchins were able to rapidly learn an association between the tool and the food reward, but failed to understand exactly how the tool functioned in accomplishing the task. The results also suggest that once a capuchin learned to solve this tool-mediated foraging problem, the individual persisted in using the same solution even in the face of repeated failure (slow rate of learning extinction). © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Mirian Naomi; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Scalercio, Sarah Raphaella Rocha de Azevedo; Benigno, Raimundo Nonato Moraes; Pereira, Washington Luiz Assunção; Cunha Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos

    2010-10-29

    This study reports a case of parasitism by Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1762) encysted in the abdominal cavity of a capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) coming from the Centro Nacional de Primatas, Brazil. The animal was sent to the Veterinary Clinic sector with an increase in abdominal volume and no occurrence of any other clinical signs. Upon palpation, a movable circular mass with a diameter of approximately 10 cm was found. Urinalysis, complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed without revealing any alterations. The animal was then submitted to an abdominal ultrasound exam. The cyst was punctured and a surgical removal procedure was performed, revealing a brownish-colored cylindrical structure that was already deteriorated, making it impossible to perform morphological analysis and classification. In the sediment of the liquid found, eggs were encountered that had morphological characteristics compatible with D. renale. The objective of this paper is to report the first case of parasitism by D. renale in C. apella (Linnaeus, 1758). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Christine Eadie

    Full Text Available Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis, or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis. Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1 capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2 variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016, indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896, indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978, while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more

  7. Ontogeny of Foraging Competence in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus capucinus) for Easy versus Difficult to Acquire Fruits: A Test of the Needing to Learn Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Elizabeth Christine

    2015-01-01

    Which factors select for long juvenile periods in some species is not well understood. One potential reason to delay the onset of reproduction is slow food acquisition rates, either due to competition (part of the ecological risk avoidance hypothesis), or due to a decreased foraging efficiency (a version of the needing to learn hypothesis). Capuchins provide a useful genus to test the needing to learn hypothesis because they are known for having long juvenile periods and a difficult-to-acquire diet. Generalized, linear, mixed models with data from 609 fruit forage focal follows on 49, habituated, wild Cebus capucinus were used to test two predictions from the needing-to-learn hypothesis as it applies to fruit foraging skills: 1) capuchin monkeys do not achieve adult foraging return rates for difficult-to-acquire fruits before late in the juvenile period; and 2) variance in return rates for these fruits is at least partially associated with differences in foraging skill. In support of the first prediction, adults, compared with all younger age classes, had significantly higher foraging return rates when foraging for fruits that were ranked as difficult-to-acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.30-0.41, p-value range 0.008-0.016), indicating that the individuals in the group who have the most foraging experience also achieve the highest return rates. In contrast, and in support of the second prediction, there were no significant differences between age classes for fruits that were ranked as easy to acquire (return rates relative to adults: 0.97-1.42, p-value range 0.086-0.896), indicating that strength and/or skill are likely to affect return rates. In addition, fruits that were difficult to acquire were foraged at nearly identical rates by adult males and significantly smaller (and presumably weaker) adult females (males relative to females: 1.01, p = 0.978), while subadult females had much lower foraging efficiency than the similarly-sized but more experienced

  8. Monkeys fail to reciprocate in an exchange task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelé, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2010-09-01

    Exchanges form the basis of human economies. Animals too can engage in reciprocal interactions but they do not barter goods like humans, which raises the question of the abilities necessary for trading to occur. Previous studies have shown that non-human primates can exchange food with human partners. Here, we tested the ability of brown capuchin monkeys and Tonkean macaques to reciprocate in a task requiring two conspecifics to exchange tokens in order to obtain rewards from an experimenter. We recorded 56 transfers between subjects in capuchin monkeys and 10 in Tonkean macaques. All transfers were passive in both species. Capuchins preferentially picked up tokens valuable for them in the partner's compartment. They tended to manipulate the partner-valued tokens more often than the no-value ones, leading to more opportunities for these tokens to end up within reach of the partner. Despite optimal conditions where values of goods were defined and known by partners, however, none of the pairs tested engaged in short-term reciprocal interactions. These results indicate that calculated reciprocity was difficult if not impossible in the animals tested.

  9. Third-party social evaluations of humans by monkeys and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Kuroshima, Hika; Takimoto, Ayaka; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-11-01

    Developmental psychologists are increasingly interested in young children's evaluations of individuals based on third-party interactions. Studies have shown that infants react negatively to agents who display harmful intentions toward others, and to those who behave unfairly. We describe experimental studies of capuchin monkeys' and pet dogs' differential reactions to people who are helpful or unhelpful in third-party contexts, and monkeys' responses to people who behave unfairly in exchanges of objects with a third party. We also present evidence that capuchin monkeys monitor the context of failures to help and violations of reciprocity, and that intentionality is one factor underlying their social evaluations of individuals whom they see interacting with others. We conclude by proposing some questions for studies of nonhuman species' third party-based social evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Memoria espacial en monos capuchinos de Argentina: un estudio observacional en vida silvestre / Spatial memory in capuchin monkeys (Argentina:a wildlife observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María P. Tujague

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La memoria espacial se considera un factor selectivo en la evolución de la inteligencia. Los estudios en animales permiten pensar que los procesos cognitivos descriptos en humanos comparten características con los de otras especies. Se estudió el comportamiento espacial vinculado a la búsqueda del alimento de los monos capuchinos y su capacidad de retener información sobre la ubicación y estado del mismo. Durante los seguimientos de tres grupos de Cebus nigritus silvestres se aplicó un diseño observacional cualitativo que evaluó las cantidades de fruta madura e inmadura presentes en los árboles frutales consumidos por los monos en sus desplazamientos diarios. Las visitas a los árboles de frutos indicaron que los monos retienen información particular sobre la ubicación y condición de cada árbol. Los resultados obtenidos son fundamentales para la comprensión del funcionamiento de los mecanismos cognitivos no mediados por el lenguaje, lo cual permite ampliar los conocimientos de la base biológica del comportamiento espacial no humano. Palabras clave: Cebus=Sapajus nigritus; árboles frutales; velocidad de acercamiento; visita Spatial memory is considered a selective factor in the evolution of intelligence. Animal studies lead us to believe that cognitive processes described in humans may have much in common with those of other species. We studied the foraging spatial behavior of capuchin monkeys and their ability to retain information about food location and quality. We analyzed whether individuals were able to integrate stored information about food sites and changes in the ripening of the resource. A qualitative observational design was used to monitor three groups of wild Cebus nigritus in their daily movements, evaluating the amounts of ripe and unripe fruit present in the fruiting trees consumed by monkeys. Visits to fruiting trees showed that monkeys remember specific information on the location and condition of each tree

  11. Working and waiting for better rewards: self-control in two monkey species (Cebus apella and Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie M; Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Self-control is typically defined as choosing a greater, delayed reward over a lesser, more immediate reward. However, in nature, there are other costs besides delay associated with obtaining the greatest outcome including increased effort, potential punishment, and low probability of reward. Effort is an interesting case because it sometimes impairs self-control, by acting as an additional cost, and at other times facilitates self-control, by distracting one from impulsive options. Additionally, different species may perform differently in effortful self-control tasks, based on their natural ecology. To gain insight into these aspects of self-control behavior, we examined capuchin monkeys' and rhesus monkeys' self-control in separate working and waiting choice tasks. We hypothesized that capuchins would show greater self-control in the working task, given their naturally higher activity level, whereas rhesus would perform similarly in both tasks. Rhesus performed as predicted, whereas contrary to our hypothesis, capuchins exhibited lesser performance in the working task. Nonetheless, these results may still stem from inherent species differences interacting with details of the methodology. Capuchins, being highly energetic and social monkeys, may have divided their energy and attention between the working task and other elements of the test environment such as visible group mates or manipulanda. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Give what you get: capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes to conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Leimgruber

    Full Text Available The breadth of human generosity is unparalleled in the natural world, and much research has explored the mechanisms underlying and motivating human prosocial behavior. Recent work has focused on the spread of prosocial behavior within groups through paying-it-forward, a case of human prosociality in which a recipient of generosity pays a good deed forward to a third individual, rather than back to the original source of generosity. While research shows that human adults do indeed pay forward generosity, little is known about the origins of this behavior. Here, we show that both capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and 4-year-old children pay forward positive and negative outcomes in an identical testing paradigm. These results suggest that a cognitively simple mechanism present early in phylogeny and ontogeny leads to paying forward positive, as well as negative, outcomes.

  13. Comparative anatomy of the arm muscles of the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with some comments on locomotor mechanics and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversi-Ferreira, Tales Alexandre; Aversi-Ferreira, Roqueline A G M F; Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Nishimaru, Hiroshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    The anatomical literature on the genus Macaca has focused mainly on the rhesus monkey. However, some aspects in the positional behaviors of the Japanese monkey may be different from those in rhesus monkey, suggesting that the anatomical details of these species are divergent. Four thoracic limbs of Macaca fuscata adults were dissected. The arm muscles in Japanese macaques are more similar to rhesus monkeys and Papio; these characteristics are closer to those of bearded capuchins than apes, indicating more proximity of this genus to New World primates. The anatomical features observed favor quadrupedal locomotor behaviors on the ground and in arboreal environments. Japanese monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and bearded capuchins, which share more primitive characteristics in their arm muscles, present features that favor both arboreal and quadrupedal locomotor behaviors, whereas apes, mainly Pan and Gorilla, which spend more time on the ground, present more quadrupedal specializations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V.; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S. F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but also in capuchin monkeys. Here we test the association of personality (assertiveness, openness, attentiveness, neuroticism, and sociability) with fWHR, face width/lower-face height, and lower face/face height ratio in 64 capuchins (Sapajus apella). In a structural model of personality and facial metrics, fWHR was associated with assertiveness, while lower face/face height ratio was associated with neuroticism (erratic vs. stable behaviour) and attentiveness (helpfulness vs. distractibility). Facial morphology thus appears to associate with three personality domains, which may act as a signal of status in capuchins. PMID:24347756

  15. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus from Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasta E. Webb

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus, highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR, located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin populations at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p<0.0001 than the non-habituated group, and spent significantly more time eating and foraging (p<0.0001. While the habituated monkeys at CWR may not be over-habituated, they could become that way as development, especially ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa

  16. Ecotourism and primate habituation: Behavioral variation in two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shasta E; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    The increase of ecotourism operations within Costa Rica during the last 20 yrs has brought more and more humans into close, direct contact with several wildlife species. One of these species is the white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinos), highly gregarious, and with exposure over time, willing to come into close vicinity of humans and their developments. Such contact has its advantages and disadvantages for the ecotourism industry. We observed white-faced monkeys in order to assess the impact of human presence and development on monkey behavior, with a focus on aggressive, affiliative, and foraging behaviors in Curú Wildlife Refuge (CWR), located in Puntarenas, Costa Rica, and to ascertain the degree of over-habituation of capuchin popula- tions at CWR. Though there exists no discrete behavioral parameters that measure over-habituation, it can be defined as an extreme state of habituation in which non-human primates not only lose fear of humans, but also actively include humans in social interactions or treat them as a food resource. We used instantaneous focal animal and group scan sampling during 8 wks in March and April 2012. Two groups (approximately 20-30 individuals each) of capuchins were observed; the first near the tourist development at the Southwestern area of CWR, representing a habituated population that regularly foraged, rested, and groomed in the presence of humans. The second, was observed in the Northeastern area of CWR, did not visit the center of human activity and exhibited fear of humans. The habituated group exhibited significantly fewer instances of threatened behavior in response to human presence (p ecotourism, increases. Over-habituation is a problem that affects capuchins in certain ecotourism sites in Costa Rica. It is critical that the consequences of habituation be studied more carefully, primarily in areas where ecotourism operations draw visitors to wildlife habitats.

  17. High Leptospira seroprevalence in captive and wild-caught vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus sabeus) on the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Sreekumari; Conan, Anne; Pratt, Nicola; Beierschmitt, Amy; Palmour, Roberta

    2017-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance. Very little information is available on Leptospira infection in nonhuman primates. We report herein a high seroprevalence (49.4%; 95% confidence interval: 41.6-57.2%) to Leptospira serovars in vervet monkeys ( Chlorocebus sabeus) on the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. Monkeys bred in captivity ( n = 81) had a significantly higher seroprevalence compared to wild-caught monkeys ( n = 81; p Leptospira serovars and seroconversion occurs in wild and captive vervet monkeys on the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. Further studies are warranted to better understand epidemiology, transmission, pathology, and possible reservoir status in this species.

  18. Stable isotope ratios indicate diet and habitat use in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeninger, M J; Iwaniec, U T; Glander, K E

    1997-05-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in animal tissue for indicating aspects of species behavioral strategy. We analyzed hair from individuals representing four species of New World monkeys (Alouatta palliata, the mantled howler; Ateles geoffroyi, the spider monkey; Cebus capucinus, the capuchin; and Brachyteles arachnoides, the woolly-spider monkey or muriqui) for delta 13C and delta 15N using previously developed methods. There are no significant differences in either carbon or nitrogen ratios between sexes, sampling year, or year of analysis. Seasonal differences in delta 13C reached a low level of significance but do not affect general patterns. Variation within species was similar to that recorded previously within single individuals. The omega 13C data show a bimodal distribution with significant difference between the means. The two monkey populations living in an evergreen forest were similar to each other and different from the other two monkey populations that inhabited dry, deciduous forests. This bimodal distribution is independent of any particular species' diet and reflects the level of leaf cover in the two types of forest. The delta 15N data display three significantly different modes. The omnivorous capuchins were most positive reflecting a trophic level offset. The spider monkeys and the muriquis were similar to one another and significantly more positive than the howlers. This distribution among totally herbivorous species correlates with the ingestion of legumes by the howler monkey population. In combination, these data indicate that museum-curated primate material can be analyzed to yield information on forest cover and diet in populations and species lacking behavioral data.

  19. Cardiothoracic ratio and vertebral heart size (VHS to standardize the heart size of the tufted capuchin (Cebus apella Linnaeus, 1758 in computerized radiographic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermínio J. Rocha-Neto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The VHS and CTR were assessed using computerized thoracic radiographs of ten clinically healthy tufted capuchin monkeys (five males and five females from the Wild Animal Screening Center in São Luís (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres de São Luís-MA-CETAS. Radiographs were taken in laterolateral and dorsoventral projections to calculate the cardiothoracic ratio (VHS and vertebral heart size (CTR. The VHS showed mean values of 9.34±0.32v (males and 9.16±0.34v (females and there was no statistical difference between males and females (p>0.05. The CTR showed mean values of 0.55±0.04 (males and 0.52±0.03 (females and there was no statistical difference between the sexes (p>0.05. There was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.78. The thoracic and heart diameters showed mean values of 5.70±0.48cm and 2.16±0.40cm in the males, respectively. In the females they measured 5.32±0.39cm and 2.94±0.32cm. There was no statistical difference between the sexes. Our results show that the high correlation found between VHS and CTR permitted the verification with similar clinical precision between the two methods to estimate alterations in the heart silhouette by radiographic examination of tufted capuchin, making it an easy technique to apply that can be considered in the investigation of heart problems for this wild species.

  20. Quantifying seasonal fallback on invertebrates, pith, and bromeliad leaves by white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdossy, Krisztina N; Melin, Amanda D; Fedigan, Linda M

    2015-09-01

    Fallback foods (FBFs) are hypothesized to shape the ecology, morphology, and behavior of primates, including hominins. Identifying FBFs is therefore critical for revealing past and present foraging adaptations. Recent research suggests invertebrates act as seasonal FBFs for many primate species and human populations. Yet, studies measuring the consumption of invertebrates relative to ecological variation are widely lacking. We address this gap by examining food abundance and entomophagy by primates in a seasonal forest. We study foraging behavior of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus)-a species renowned for its intelligence and propensity for extractive foraging-along with the abundance of invertebrates, dietary ripe fruits, pith, and bromeliads. Consumption events and processing time are recorded during focal animal samples. We determine abundance of vegetative foods through phenological and density records. Invertebrates are collected in malaise, pan, and terrestrial traps; caterpillar abundance is inferred from frass traps. Invertebrates are abundant throughout the year and capuchins consume invertebrates-including caterpillars-frequently when fruit is abundant. However, capuchins spend significantly more time processing protected invertebrates when fruit and caterpillars are low in abundance. Invertebrate foraging patterns are not uniform. Caterpillar consumption is consistent with a preferred strategy, whereas capuchins appear to fallback on invertebrates requiring high handling time. Capuchins are convergent with hominins in possessing large brains and high levels of sensorimotor intelligence, thus our research has broad implications for primate evolution, including factors shaping cognitive innovations, brain size, and the role of entomophagy in the human diet. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Utilisation des sécrétions de myriapodes chez les lémurs et les sapajous : fonction curative ou signalisation sociale ? Fur-rubbing with millipedes in lemurs and capuchin monkeys: social function or zoopharmacognosy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Simmen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available L’utilisation des myriapodes en friction sur le pelage et d’autres zones corporelles est documentée chez les primates en conditions naturelles, notamment à partir des observations récurrentes menées chez le genre Cebus. La typologie de ces comportements suggère différentes hypothèses, fonctionnelles (zoopharmacognosie, alimentaire, sociale ou non (sensorielle, auto-stimulation. Nous présentons des observations qualitatives comparées de l’utilisation non alimentaire de myriapodes diplopodes chez une forme hybride du genre Eulemur au Sud de Madagascar (occurrences en janvier 2005 et chez le sapajou Cebus apella en Guyane Française (occurrences en mars-avril 1996. L’application des sécrétions à benzoquinones sur une large partie du pelage chez Cebus contraste avec la friction exclusive de la zone périgénitale faisant suite au flairage du diplopode chez Eulemur qui manifeste en outre une réponse stéréotypée analogue au flehmen. Dans notre étude, l’imprégnation de fluides à forte intensité olfactive potentialiserait la signalisation de l’identité individuelle chez Eulemur alors que le "fur-rubbing" chez Cebus est compatible avec l’hypothèse commune d’une forme d’appropriation des défenses antiparasitaires de ces invertébrés. La sécrétion de ces défenses chimiques n’est pas automatiquement déclenchée par la manipulation des diplopodes. Le stress induit par les morsures légères (Eulemur et Cebus et l’arrachage des pattes sur plusieurs segments (Cebus augmente la probabilité de sécrétion, ce qui témoignerait d’un apprentissage d’autant plus efficace des conditions d’émission de ces fluides que l’usage est spécifique et très opportuniste.Body-rubbing with millipedes is repeatedly documented in primates living under natural conditions, mainly in capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp.. Various functional (zoopharmacognosy, ingestion, social and non-functional hypotheses (sensory, auto

  2. Seroprevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild and captive born Sykes' monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsyula Moses G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk. We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay and analyzed the data by origin, subspecies, age and sex. Results The SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay detected more serum samples as positive than either of the cross-reactive ELISA assays. Using this assay, we found that seroprevalence is higher than previously reported, but extremely variable in wild populations (from 0.0 to 90.9%. Females were infected more often than males in both wild and captive populations. Seropositive infants were common. However, no seropositive juveniles were identified. Conclusion We have developed a specific and sensitive Western blot assay for anti-SIVsyk antibody detection. Sykes' monkeys are commonly infected with SIVsyk, but with extremely variable prevalence in the wild. Higher infection prevalence in females suggests predominantly sexual transmission. High infection prevalence in infants, but none in juveniles, suggests maternal antibodies, but little or no vertical transmission.

  3. The fourth dimension of tool use: temporally enduring artefacts aid primates learning to use tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaszy, D M; Biro, D; Eshchar, Y; Humle, T; Izar, P; Resende, B; Visalberghi, E

    2013-11-19

    All investigated cases of habitual tool use in wild chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys include youngsters encountering durable artefacts, most often in a supportive social context. We propose that enduring artefacts associated with tool use, such as previously used tools, partly processed food items and residual material from previous activity, aid non-human primates to learn to use tools, and to develop expertise in their use, thus contributing to traditional technologies in non-humans. Therefore, social contributions to tool use can be considered as situated in the three dimensions of Euclidean space, and in the fourth dimension of time. This notion expands the contribution of social context to learning a skill beyond the immediate presence of a model nearby. We provide examples supporting this hypothesis from wild bearded capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees, and suggest avenues for future research.

  4. Cheating monkeys undermine group strength in enemy territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret Chatham; Gilby, Ian C

    2012-01-10

    In many social animals, group-mates cooperate to defend their range against intrusion by neighboring groups. Because group size tends to be highly variable, such conflicts are often asymmetric. Although numerical superiority is assumed to provide a competitive advantage, small groups can generally defend their ranges, even when greatly outnumbered. The prevailing explanation for this puzzling phenomenon is that individuals in relatively large groups experience a greater temptation to flee from conflicts, in effect leveling the balance of power. Using playback experiments simulating territorial intrusions by wild capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) groups, we show that such a collective action problem does indeed undermine the competitive ability of large groups. Focal capuchins were more likely to run away from territorial intrusions when their group had a numeric advantage; each one-individual increase in relative group size raised the odds of flight by 25%. However, interaction location had a more important impact on individuals' reactions, creating a strong home-field advantage. After controlling for relative group size, the odds that a focal animal fled were 91% lower in experiments that occurred in the center compared with on the edge of its group's range, whereas the odds that it rushed toward the speaker were more than sixfold higher. These location-dependent patterns of defection and cooperation create a competitive advantage for residents over intruders across a wide range of relative group sizes, which may stabilize range boundaries and provide a general explanation for how groups of widely divergent sizes can coexist, even in the face of intense intergroup competition.

  5. Biometric values, C-reactive protein, and proteinogram of healthy blonde capuchin (Sapajus flavius) kept in northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Stéphanie Machado; Ferreira, Adriano Fernandes; Azevedo, Jair; Nery, Thiago Lopes; Zermiani, Fabiana; Queiroga, Felisbina Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Sapajus flavius is a species of capuchin monkey classified as critically endangered. Studies related to their biometric values are scarce with incomplete external measurement reports available from only four specimens. Moreover, information regarding proteinogram is limited with no reference to C-reactive protein (CRP) and globulin fractions for this species. Biometric values, CRP, and proteinogram were determined for 12 clinically healthy S. flavius, kept in captivity in João Pessoa, Brazil. The measured values in biometric parameters present a tendency to be higher in males. The CRP mean values from 12 S. flavius were 1.2±0.2 mg/dL. For albumin, alpha, beta, and gamma globulin fraction parameters, the reference interval was calculated. Authors believe that with certain limitations, results obtained can be helpful for the populations in the wild, which could be of great aid in detecting unhealthy individuals and therefore contributing to the conservation of this species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Seroprevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild and captive born Sykes' monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Otsyula Moses G; Robinson James; Elliott Debra; Munene Elephas; Ellis Brett R; Michael Scott F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis) make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk). We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western...

  8. Cryptochrome 2 expression level is critical for adrenocorticotropin stimulation of cortisol production in the capuchin monkey adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Farfan, C; Abarzua-Catalan, L; Valenzuela, F J; Mendez, N; Richter, H G; Valenzuela, G J; Serón-Ferré, M

    2009-06-01

    Timely production of glucocorticoid hormones in response to ACTH is essential for survival by coordinating energy intake and expenditure and acting as homeostatic regulators against stress. Adrenal cortisol response to ACTH is clock time dependent, suggesting that an intrinsic circadian oscillator in the adrenal cortex contributes to modulate the response to ACTH. Circadian clock gene expression has been reported in the adrenal cortex of several species. However, there are no reports accounting for potential involvement of adrenal clock proteins on cortisol response to ACTH. Here we explored whether the clock protein cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) knockdown modifies the adrenal response to ACTH in a primate. Adrenal gland explants from adult capuchin monkey (n = 5) were preincubated for 6 h with transfection vehicle (control) or with two different Cry2 antisense and sense probes followed by 48 h incubation in medium alone (no ACTH) or with 100 nm ACTH. Under control and sense conditions, ACTH increased cortisol production, whereas CRY2 suppression inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol production. Expression of the steroidogenic enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase at 48 h of incubation was increased by ACTH in control explants and suppressed by Cry2 knockdown. Additionally, we found that Cry2 knockdown decreased the expression of the clock gene brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (Bmal1) at the mRNA and protein levels. Altogether these results strongly support that the clock protein CRY2 is involved in the mechanism by which ACTH increases the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Thus, adequate expression levels of components of the adrenal circadian clock are required for an appropriate cortisol response to ACTH.

  9. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Silva, Dayana Campelo da; Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle), which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti), 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense) were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.

  10. Male dominance and reproductive success in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Laura; Perry, Susan; Manson, Joseph H; Gilkenson, Hannah; Gros-Louis, Julie; Vigilant, Linda

    2010-12-01

    Theory and a growing body of empirical evidence suggest that higher ranking males experience reproductive advantages in group-living mammals. White-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) exhibit an interesting social system for investigating the relationship between dominance and reproductive success (RS) because they live in multimale multifemale social groups, in which the alpha males can have extraordinarily long tenures (i.e. they coreside with daughters of reproductive age). Genetic paternity was determined from fecal samples for 120 infants born into three social groups of wild C. capucinus at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males produced far more offspring than expected by chance, and significantly high Nonac's B indices (a measure of deviation from a random distribution of RS among potentially breeding individuals) were a feature of six out of eight male tenures. The likelihood of the alpha male siring a particular offspring was predicted by the kin relationship between the mother and the alpha male, as well as the total number of males and females in the group. The almost complete lack of father-daughter inbreeding [Muniz et al., 2006] constitutes an impediment to alpha male reproductive monopolization in this population, particularly toward the end of long alpha male tenures. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Monkeys Wait to Begin a Computer Task when Waiting Makes Their Responses More Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore A. Evans

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella performed a computerized inhibitory control task modeled after an “escalating interest task” from a recent human study (Young, Webb, & Jacobs, 2011. In the original study, which utilized a first-person shooter game, human participants learned to inhibit firing their simulated weapon long enough for the weapon‟s damage potential to grow in effectiveness (up to 10 seconds in duration. In the present study, monkeys earned food pellets for eliminating arrays of target objects using a digital eraser. We assessed whether monkeys could suppress trial-initiating joystick movements long enough for the eraser to grow in size and speed, thereby making their eventual responses more effective. Monkeys of both species learned to inhibit moving the eraser for as long as 10 seconds, and they allowed the eraser to grow larger for successively larger target arrays. This study demonstrates an interesting parallel in behavioral inhibition between human and nonhuman participants and provides a method for future comparative testing of human and nonhuman test groups.

  12. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  13. Insights into Intraspecies Variation in Primate Prosocial Behavior: Capuchins (Cebus apella Fail to Show Prosociality on a Touchscreen Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A. Drayton

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, many researchers have used food donation tasks to test whether nonhuman primates show human-like patterns of prosocial behavior in experimental settings. Although these tasks are elegant in their simplicity, performance within and across species is difficult to explain under a unified theoretical framework. Here, we attempt to better understand variation in prosociality by examining the circumstances that promote and hinder the expression of prosocial preferences. To this end, we tested whether capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella—a species that has previously demonstrated prosocial preferences—would behave prosocially using a novel touchscreen task. In contrast to previous studies, we found that capuchins as a group did not prosocially deliver food to a partner. Importantly however, data from control conditions revealed that subjects demonstrated limited understanding of the reward contingencies of the task. We also compared individuals’ performance in the current study with their performance in a previously published prosociality study. We conclude by discussing how continuing to explore intraspecies variation in performance on prosocial tasks may help inform debates regarding the existence of other-regarding preferences in nonhuman species.

  14. The effects of ecology and evolutionary history on robust capuchin morphological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kristin A; Wright, Barth W; Ford, Susan M; Fragaszy, Dorothy; Izar, Patricia; Norconk, Marilyn; Masterson, Thomas; Hobbs, David G; Alfaro, Michael E; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular work has confirmed the long-standing morphological hypothesis that capuchins are comprised of two distinct clades, the gracile (untufted) capuchins (genus Cebus, Erxleben, 1777) and the robust (tufted) capuchins (genus Sapajus Kerr, 1792). In the past, the robust group was treated as a single, undifferentiated and cosmopolitan species, with data from all populations lumped together in morphological and ecological studies, obscuring morphological differences that might exist across this radiation. Genetic evidence suggests that the modern radiation of robust capuchins began diversifying ∼2.5 Ma, with significant subsequent geographic expansion into new habitat types. In this study we use a morphological sample of gracile and robust capuchin craniofacial and postcranial characters to examine how ecology and evolutionary history have contributed to morphological diversity within the robust capuchins. We predicted that if ecology is driving robust capuchin variation, three distinct robust morphotypes would be identified: (1) the Atlantic Forest species (Sapajus xanthosternos, S. robustus, and S. nigritus), (2) the Amazonian rainforest species (S. apella, S. cay and S. macrocephalus), and (3) the Cerrado-Caatinga species (S. libidinosus). Alternatively, if diversification time between species pairs predicts degree of morphological difference, we predicted that the recently diverged S. apella, S. macrocephalus, S. libidinosus, and S. cay would be morphologically comparable, with greater variation among the more ancient lineages of S. nigritus, S. xanthosternos, and S. robustus. Our analyses suggest that S. libidinosus has the most derived craniofacial and postcranial features, indicative of inhabiting a more terrestrial niche that includes a dependence on tool use for the extraction of imbedded foods. We also suggest that the cranial robusticity of S. macrocephalus and S. apella are indicative of recent competition with sympatric gracile capuchin

  15. Assessment of mammal reproduction for hunting sustainability through community-based sampling of species in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; El Bizri, Hani; Bodmer, Richard E; Bowler, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase. (r max ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, so these assessments often rely on classic reproductive rates calculated mostly from studies of captive animals conducted 30 years ago. The result is a flaw in almost 50% of studies, which hampers management decision making. We conducted a 15-year study in the Amazon in which we used reproductive data from the genitalia of 950 hunted female mammals. Genitalia were collected by local hunters. We examined tissue from these samples to estimate birthrates for wild populations of the 10 most hunted mammals. We compared our estimates with classic measures and considered the utility of the use of r max in sustainability assessments. For woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii) and tapir (Tapirus terrestris), wild birthrates were similar to those from captive populations, whereas birthrates for other ungulates and lowland-paca (Cuniculus paca) were significantly lower than previous estimates. Conversely, for capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus), agoutis (Dasyprocta sp.), and coatis (Nasua nasua), our calculated reproductive rates greatly exceeded often-used values. Researchers could keep applying classic measures compatible with our estimates, but for other species previous estimates of r max may not be appropriate. We suggest that data from local studies be used to set hunting quotas. Our maximum rates of population growth in the wild correlated with body weight, which suggests that our method is consistent and reliable. Integration of this method into community-based wildlife management and the training of local hunters to record pregnancies in hunted animals could efficiently generate useful information of life

  16. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  17. Sensorimotor gating impairments induced by MK-801 treatment may be reduced by tolerance effect and by familiarization in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletti, Patricia G.; Maior, Rafael S.; Hori, Etsuro; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Dizocilpine (MK-801) is a non-competitive NMDA antagonist that induces schizophreniclike effects. It is therefore widely used in experimental models of schizophrenia including prepulse inhibition (PPI) impairments in rodents. Nevertheless, MK-801 has never been tested in monkeys on a PPI paradigm. In order to evaluate MK-801 effects on monkeys’ PPI, we tested eight capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) using three different doses of MK-801 (0.01; 0.02; 0.03 mg/kg). Results show PPI impairment in acute administration of the highest dose (0.03 mg/kg). PPI impairment induced by MK-801 was reversed by re-exposure to the PPI test throughout treatment trials, in contrast with rodent studies. These results indicate that tolerance effect and familiarization with PPI test may reduce the sensorimotor gating deficits induced by MK-801 in monkeys, suggesting a drug-training interaction. PMID:26441660

  18. Social facilitation of eating novel food in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella): input provided by group members and responses affected in the observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, E; Visalberghi, E

    2001-11-01

    Learning about food palatability from watching what conspecifics eat might be one of the advantages of group living. A previous study investigated whether group members' presence or eating activity account for social facilitation of eating of foods never previously tasted. Capuchins encountered novel colored foods when (1) alone (Alone condition) or (2) with group members visible in the nearby cage (Group-present condition) or (3) with group members present and eating a familiar food that had not been colored (Group+food condition). Social facilitation of eating occurred when group members were eating, despite the difference in color between the familiar food eaten by them and the novel food presented to the experimental subject. To clarify what subjects learnt from group members when social facilitation occurred, we further analyze here the data from the previous study. The number of visual exposures to the colored novel food (as a group member) correlated with increased consumption of that novel food when encountered later (as experimental subject). In contrast, the number of times that an individual fed on the familiar food (as a group member) did not decrease its consumption of novel food (as experimental subject). Therefore, capuchins (1) habituated to the colors of the novel foods, and (2) did not take into account that seeing group members eating a food does not provide information about the palatability of a differently colored food. Since social facilitation of eating occurs when foods do not match in color, at least in capuchins, social facilitation of eating should not be considered as a way of learning about a safe diet, but rather as a way of overcoming neophobia.

  19. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  20. A comparative analysis of global and local processing of hierarchical visual stimuli in young children (Homo sapiens) and monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lillo, Carlo; Spinozzi, Giovanna; Truppa, Valentina; Naylor, Donna M

    2005-05-01

    Results obtained with preschool children (Homo sapiens) were compared with results previously obtained from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in matching-to-sample tasks featuring hierarchical visual stimuli. In Experiment 1, monkeys, in contrast with children, showed an advantage in matching the stimuli on the basis of their local features. These results were replicated in a 2nd experiment in which control trials enabled the authors to rule out that children used spurious cues to solve the matching task. In a 3rd experiment featuring conditions in which the density of the stimuli was manipulated, monkeys' accuracy in the processing of the global shape of the stimuli was negatively affected by the separation of the local elements, whereas children's performance was robust across testing conditions. Children's response latencies revealed a global precedence in the 2nd and 3rd experiments. These results show differences in the processing of hierarchical stimuli by humans and monkeys that emerge early during childhood. 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  2. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current

  4. Quantification of hair cortisol concentration in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and tufted capuchins (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kimberley A; Tukan, Alyson N; Rigodanzo, Anna D; Reusch, Ryan T; Brasky, Kathleen M; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2018-06-04

    Quantifying cortisol concentration in hair is a non-invasive biomarker of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, and thus can provide important information on laboratory animal health. Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and capuchins (Cebus apella) are New World primates increasingly used in biomedical and neuroscience research, yet published hair cortisol concentrations for these species are limited. Review of the existing published hair cortisol values from marmosets reveals highly discrepant values and the use of variable techniques for hair collection, processing, and cortisol extraction. In this investigation we utilized a well-established, standardized protocol to extract and quantify cortisol from marmoset (n = 12) and capuchin (n = 4) hair. Shaved hair samples were collected from the upper thigh during scheduled exams and analyzed via methanol extraction and enzyme immunoassay. In marmosets, hair cortisol concentration ranged from 2,710 to 6,267 pg/mg and averaged 4,070 ± 304 pg/mg. In capuchins, hair cortisol concentration ranged from 621 to 2,089 pg/mg and averaged 1,092 ± 338 pg/mg. Hair cortisol concentration was significantly different between marmosets and capuchins, with marmosets having higher concentrations than capuchins. The incorporation of hair cortisol analysis into research protocols provides a non-invasive measure of HPA axis activity over time, which offers insight into animal health. Utilization of standard protocols across laboratories is essential to obtaining valid measurements and allowing for valuable future cross-species comparisons. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effects of gut passage, feces, and seed handling on latency and rate of germination in seeds consumed by capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Kim; Fedigan, Linda M

    2009-04-01

    One of the key measures of the effectiveness of primary seed dispersal by animals is the quality of seed dispersal (Schupp: Plant Ecol 107/108 [1993] 15-29). We present data on quality of seed dispersal by two groups of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica to test the hypothesis that capuchin seed handling results in effective primary dispersal for some fruit species they consume. We examined seed handling for 27 plant species, and germination rates of 18 species consumed by capuchins. For five of the most commonly swallowed seed species, we determined germination rates and average time to germination (latency) for seeds ingested and defecated by capuchins and compared these to seeds removed directly from fruit and planted. For the same five species, we compared germination rates and latency for passed seeds planted in capuchin feces to those cleaned of feces and planted in soil. For three of five species, differences in proportion of germinated seeds were significantly higher for gut passed seeds than for controls. For four of five species, germination latency was significantly faster for gut passed seeds than for controls. Feces had either no effect on seed germination rate or precluded germination. Data presented here support the hypothesis that white-faced capuchins are effective primary dispersers.

  6. [Monkey-pox, a model of emergent then reemergent disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, A J; Matton, T; Courbot-Georges, M C

    2004-01-01

    The recent emergence of monkey pox in the United States of America highlights the problem (known for other infectious agents) of dissemination of pathogens outside their endemic area, and of subsequent global threats of variable gravity according to agents. It is a real emergency since monkey pox had been confined to Africa for several decades, where small epidemics occurred from time to time, monkey pox is a "miniature smallpox" which, in Africa, evolves on an endemic (zoonotic) mode with, as reservoirs, several species of wild rodents (mainly squirrels) and some monkey species. It can be accidentally transmitted to man then develops as epidemics, sometimes leading to death. The virus was imported in 2003 in the United States of America, via Gambia rats and wild squirrels (all African species), and infected prairie dogs (which are now in fashion as pets), then crossed the species barrier to man. In the United States of America, screening campaigns, epidemiological investigations, and subsequent treatments led to a rapid control of the epidemic, which is a model of emergent disease for this country. Therapeutic and preventive measures directly applicable to monkey pox are discussed. They can also be applied against other pox virus infections (including smallpox). The risk of criminal introduction of pox viruses is discussed since it is, more than ever, a real worldwide threat.

  7. Jaw-muscle fiber architecture in tufted capuchins favors generating relatively large muscle forces without compromising jaw gape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea B.; Vinyard, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Cebus apella is renowned for its dietary flexibility and capacity to exploit hard and tough objects. Cebus apella differs from other capuchins in displaying a suite of craniodental features that have been functionally and adaptively linked to their feeding behavior, particularly the generation and dissipation of relatively large jaw forces. We compared fiber architecture of the masseter and temporalis muscles between the tufted capuchin (C. apella; n = 12 ) and two “untufted” capuchins (C. capuchinus, n = 3; C. albifrons, n = 5). These three species share broadly similar diets, but tufted capuchins occasionally exploit mechanically challenging tissues. We tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits architectural properties of their jaw muscles that facilitate relatively large forces, including relatively greater physiologic cross-sectional areas (PCSA), more pinnate fibers, and lower ratios of mass to tetanic tension (Mass/P0). Results show some evidence supporting these predictions, as C. apella has relatively greater superficial masseter, whole masseter, and temporalis PCSAs, significantly so only for the temporalis following Bonferroni adjustment. Capuchins did not differ in pinnation angle or Mass/P0. As an architectural trade-off between maximizing muscle force and muscle excursion/contraction velocity, we also tested the hypothesis that C. apella exhibits relatively shorter muscle fibers. Contrary to our prediction, there are no significant differences in relative fiber lengths between tufted and untufted capuchins. Therefore, we attribute the relatively greater PCSAs in C. apella primarily to their larger muscle masses. These findings suggest that relatively large jaw-muscle PCSAs can be added to the suite of masticatory features that have been functionally linked to the exploitation of a more resistant diet by C. apella. By enlarging jaw-muscle mass to increase PCSA, rather than reducing fiber lengths and increasing pinnation, tufted capuchins appear

  8. Attenuation and immunogenicity of recombinant yellow fever 17D-dengue type 2 virus for rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galler R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A chimeric yellow fever (YF-dengue serotype 2 (dengue 2 virus was constructed by replacing the premembrane and envelope genes of the YF 17D virus with those from dengue 2 virus strains of Southeast Asian genotype. The virus grew to high titers in Vero cells and, after passage 2, was used for immunogenicity and attenuation studies in rhesus monkeys. Subcutaneous immunization of naive rhesus monkeys with the 17D-D2 chimeric virus induced a neutralizing antibody response associated with the protection of 6 of 7 monkeys against viremia by wild-type dengue 2 virus. Neutralizing antibody titers to dengue 2 were significantly lower in YF-immune animals than in YF-naive monkeys and protection against challenge with wild-type dengue 2 virus was observed in only 2 of 11 YF-immune monkeys. An anamnestic response to dengue 2, indicated by a sharp increase of neutralizing antibody titers, was observed in the majority of the monkeys after challenge with wild-type virus. Virus attenuation was demonstrated using the standard monkey neurovirulence test. The 17D-D2 chimera caused significantly fewer histological lesions than the YF 17DD virus. The attenuated phenotype could also be inferred from the limited viremias compared to the YF 17DD vaccine. Overall, these results provide further support for the use of chimeric viruses for the development of a new live tetravalent dengue vaccine.

  9. Responses to the Assurance game in monkeys, apes, and humans using equivalent procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Parrish, Audrey; Beran, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    There is great interest in the evolution of economic behavior. In typical studies, species are asked to play one of a series of economic games, derived from game theory, and their responses are compared. The advantage of this approach is the relative level of consistency and control that emerges...... from the games themselves; however, in the typical experiment, procedures and conditions differ widely, particularly between humans and other species. Thus, in the current study, we investigated how three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and humans, played the Assurance (or Stag Hunt......) game using procedures that were, to the best of our ability, the same across species, particularly with respect to training and pretesting. Our goal was to determine what, if any, differences existed in the ways in which these species made decisions in this game. We hypothesized differences along...

  10. Wild Vervet Monkeys Trade Tolerance and Specific Coalitionary Support for Grooming in Experimentally Induced Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeaud, Christèle; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-11-16

    Grooming is a key social behavior in many primate species. Research has focused on three important aspects: the short- and long-term trading patterns of grooming for itself and/or for other commodities like tolerance or coalitionary support, the issue of whether exchanges are a convincing example for reciprocity, and what decision rules underlie trading. These issues remain largely unresolved due to the correlative nature of observational studies and the rarity of experimental studies. Here, we present a new experimental paradigm to address these questions in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). Adult females were first trained to approach a personal box, identifiable by unique color patterns, to access high-quality food. During the experiments, two boxes were placed next to each other to induce conflict through forced proximity. We found that while dominants were generally more tolerant toward bonded individuals, recent grooming increased tolerance independently of relationship quality. The latter result shows that vervet monkeys traded grooming for short-term tolerance, where dominants used a direct-reciprocity decision rule. In contrast, females invariably supported the higher-ranking opponent in a conflict, independently of who was the recent grooming partner. Nevertheless, recent grooming increased the probability that a female supported the partner during conflicts with a low-ranking third party. Thus, females' decisions about coalitionary support seem to integrate information about the current social hierarchy with recent grooming events. In conclusion, decision rules underlying trading of grooming for other commodities involve a variety of timescales and factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cyto-, myelo- and chemoarchitecture of the prefrontal cortex of the Cebus monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background According to several lines of evidence, the great expansion observed in the primate prefrontal cortex (PfC) was accompanied by the emergence of new cortical areas during phylogenetic development. As a consequence, the structural heterogeneity noted in this region of the primate frontal lobe has been associated with diverse behavioral and cognitive functions described in human and non-human primates. A substantial part of this evidence was obtained using Old World monkeys as experimental model; while the PfC of New World monkeys has been poorly studied. In this study, the architecture of the PfC in five capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) was analyzed based on four different architectonic tools, Nissl and myelin staining, histochemistry using the lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin and immunohistochemistry using SMI-32 antibody. Results Twenty-two architectonic areas in the Cebus PfC were distinguished: areas 8v, 8d, 9d, 12l, 45, 46v, 46d, 46vr and 46dr in the lateral PfC; areas 11l, 11m, 12o, 13l, 13m, 13i, 14r and 14c in the orbitofrontal cortex, with areas 14r and 14c occupying the ventromedial corner; areas 32r, 32c, 25 and 9m in the medial PfC, and area 10 in the frontal pole. This number is significantly higher than the four cytoarchitectonic areas previously recognized in the same species. However, the number and distribution of these areas in Cebus were to a large extent similar to those described in Old World monkeys PfC in more recent studies. Conclusions The present parcellation of the Cebus PfC considerably modifies the scheme initially proposed for this species but is in line with previous studies on Old World monkeys. Thus, it was observed that the remarkable anatomical similarity between the brains of genera Macaca and Cebus may extend to architectonic aspects. Since monkeys of both genera evolved independently over a long period of time facing different environmental pressures, the similarities in the architectonic maps of PfC in both genera

  12. Nutritional and health status of woolly monkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Timmer, S.; Jansen, W.L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha and L. flavicauda) are threatened species in the wild and in captivity. Numerous zoological institutions have historically kept Lagothrix lagotricha spp., but only a few of them have succeeded in breeding populations. Therefore the majority of institutions that

  13. Daytime birth and parturition assistant behavior in wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Yang, Le; Xiao, Wen

    2013-03-01

    Few quantitative descriptions of parturition behavior have been reported in wild nonhuman primates because the majority of births occur at night. We have recorded a daytime birth event of a primiparous black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti). The partum stage lasted 4 min 30 s, and the female skillfully severed the umbilical cord, ingested the placenta, and held and licked the newborn infant. During this period, the laboring female received delivery assistance from a multiparous female in same one-male unit (OMU) and female juveniles from same OMU showed great interesting during the partum. Our case study suggested that there might be considerable individual variation in birth-related behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  15. Integrating feeding behavior, ecological data, and DNA barcoding to identify developmental differences in invertebrate foraging strategies in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Elizabeth K; Garber, Paul A; Malhi, Ripan S

    2017-02-01

    Invertebrate foraging strategies in nonhuman primates often require complex extractive foraging or prey detection techniques. As these skills take time to master, juveniles may have reduced foraging efficiency or concentrate their foraging efforts on easier to acquire prey than adults. We use DNA barcoding, behavioral observations, and ecological data to assess age-based differences in invertebrate prey foraging strategies in a group of white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) in northeastern Costa Rica. Invertebrate availability was monitored using canopy traps and sweep netting. Fecal samples were collected from adult female, adult male, and juvenile white-faced capuchins (n = 225). COI mtDNA sequences were compared with known sequences in GenBank and the Barcode of Life Database. Frequencies of Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera consumption were higher in juveniles than in adults. A significantly smaller proportion of juvenile fecal samples contained Gryllidae and Cercopidae sequences, compared with adults (0% and 4.2% vs. 4.6% and 12.5%), and a significantly larger proportion contained Tenthredinidae, Culicidae, and Crambidae (5.6%, 9.7%, and 5.6% vs. 1.3%, 0.7%, and 1.3%). Juveniles spent significantly more time feeding and foraging than adults, and focused their foraging efforts on prey that require different skills to capture or extract. Arthropod availability was not correlated with foraging efficiency, and the rate of consumption of specific orders of invertebrates was not correlated with the availability of those same taxa. Our data support the hypothesis that juveniles are concentrating their foraging efforts on different prey than adults, potentially focusing their foraging efforts on more easily acquired types of prey. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Figs Are More Than Fallback Foods: The Relationship between Ficus and Cebus in a Tropical Dry Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel A. Parr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many studies on primate feeding ecology, figs (Ficus spp. are characterized as fallback foods, utilized only when preferred sources of food are unavailable. However, for white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus living in northwestern Costa Rica, figs are a consistently important resource and may increase groupwide energy intake. We investigated whether visits to figs affect ranging and behavioural patterns of capuchins. Although daily range length and average travel speed do not differ on days when fig trees are visited, capuchins spend more time in directed travel and more time stationary on “fig days”. Capuchins also increase time spent foraging for fruit and decrease time spent foraging for invertebrates on days when figs trees are visited. Capuchins experience higher energy intake and lower energy output on “fig” days. Thus, the patterns of foraging for figs support an energy-maximization strategy and constitute an important nutritional resource for capuchins.

  17. Negotiating Moral Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Lene; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, twelve capuchin monkeys were moved from the labs of the Danish psychiatric hospital of Sankt Hans to a small private-owned zoo in another part of Denmark in order to be rehabilitated. These monkeys were the last nonhuman primates to be used as research animals in Danish biomedical labora...

  18. Effect of environmental enrichment devices on behaviors of single- and group-housed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, S. E.; Clifford, J. O.; Tomko, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors over a broad area. Captivity limits these behaviors and consequently may disrupt normal social organizations. In captivity, squirrel monkeys may exhibit stereotypical behaviors that are believed to indicate decreased psychologic well-being. When a monkey's behavior can be made to approach that seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal, it is assumed that psychologic well-being is adequate. Environmental enrichment devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act requirement that psychologic well-being of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether various environmental enrichment devices improve the psychologic well-being of captive squirrel monkeys. In the study, we used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several environmental enrichment devices for reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed alone or in groups. Analysis of our results revealed that the environmental enrichment devices did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  19. Behavioral thermoregulation in a group of zoo-housed colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Jason D; Kuhar, Christopher W; Lukas, Kristen E

    2014-01-01

    Although wild primates are known to modify behavior in response to thermal stress, less is known about behavioral thermoregulation in zoo-housed primates. Zoo exhibits expose individuals to unique thermal environments and may constrain the thermoregulatory strategies available to individual animals. In this study, we observed a group of seven colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) living on a concrete "Monkey Island" style exhibit that featured limited shade and limited arboreal space. Behaviors were recorded using continuous focal animal sampling (n = 63 days, 97.7 hr). Logistic regression revealed 23°C was the temperature at which monkeys began resting more in shade than in sun. When temperatures exceeded 23°C, animals spent more time in open sitting postures with limbs extended from the body; sat less frequently in closed, hunched postures; spent more time in social contact; and performed more self-directed behaviors. Exhibit use also shifted under higher temperatures, with more time spent in areas with shade and lower surface temperatures. Lastly, when provided with access to an indoor holding area, the colobus monkeys spent more than half the time indoors when temperatures exceeded 23°C, yet only 10% of their time indoors when the temperature was below this value. Although postural changes have been reported in wild colobus, the postural and other behavioral changes observed in the current study occurred at temperatures lower than expected based on the published thermoneutral zone of colobus monkeys and highlight the importance of considering the specific thermoregulatory responses of zoo animals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Consume Cicadas in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Peng; Garber, Paul A; Hedley, Richard; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information on insectivory in folivorous primates. Here, we report that wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) consume cicadas (Karenia caelatata) in the Qinling Mountains of China. Our research suggests that snub-nosed monkeys expand their diet and prey on cicadas during summer and early autumn, possibly in response to increased availability of these insects and their relatively high protein and fat content relative to leaves. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Phylogenetic tests of a Cercopithecus monkey hybrid reveal X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A captive Cercopithecus nictitans × C. cephus male was examined at loci on the X- and Y-chromosomes as a test of previously described phylogenetic methods for identifying hybrid Cercopithecus monkeys. The results confirm the reliability of such assays, indicating that they can be of immediate utility for studies of wild ...

  2. First evidence of prey capture and meat eating by wild Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys in Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping REN, Dayong LI, Zhijin LIU, Baoguo LI, Fuwen WEI, Ming LI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Most extant nonhuman primates occasionally prey on fast-moving, warm-blooded animals; however, Indriidae, Lepilemuridae, and Colobinae either scavenged for meat or did not eat meat at all. Here we report six cases of animal consumption by the snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti in a wild, habituated group between 2004 and 2009 in Yunnan, China. At present, only males in an all-male unit within the study group were involved in active hunting. Such a male-biased activity may be related to the group structure and spatial spread of R. bieti. Two females were observed eating freshly killed birds. The findings confirmed that R. bieti engaged in scavenging and, when hunting, employed a cranio-cervical bite to kill their prey. Meat eating is likely a nutrient maximization feeding strategy in R. bieti, especially in males. A begging behavior occurred after successful prey capture. Although begging was observed, no sharing of the meat was seen. The present findings illuminate the dietary diversity of R. bieti and their ability to expand their dietary spectrum [Current Zoology 56 (2 : 227–231, 2010].

  3. Behavioral and endocrine characteristics of the reproductive cycle in wild muriqui monkeys, Brachyteles arachnoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Ziegler, T E

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of fecal ovarian steroids provides a powerful noninvasive method to obtain insights into ovulatory cycles, gestation length, and the timing of sexual interactions relative to the periovulatory period in wild primates. Techniques developed to collect and assay feces from free-ranging muriqui monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides) for estradiol and progesterone yield the first explicit reproductive data on this species, and provide the first opportunity to evaluate the timing of observed copulations with muriqui ovarian cycles. Hormonal profiles from seven females indicate average cycle lengths of 21.0 +/- 5.4 days (n = 20). Females conceived after 3-6 ovulatory cycles. Gestation length averaged 216.4 +/- 1.5 days for the five females for which conception cycles were sampled. Discrete copulation periods spanned an average of 2.1 +/- 1.2 days (n = 29), with intervals between these concentrated periods of copulations averaging 15.6 +/- 6.7 days (n = 20). There were no significant differences among females in cycle lengths, copulation period lengths, or copulation interval lengths. Ejaculation was visible following 71.8 +/- 26.7% of copulations during the females preovulatory periods. All females copulated outside the periovulatory period. The proportion of copulation days outside the periovulatory period was slightly greater (p = 0.08) for primiparous females (64.8 +/- 28.3%) than for multiparous females (28.7 +/- 19.7%).

  4. Induced cooperation to access a shareable reward increases the hierarchical segregation of wild vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Pansini

    Full Text Available Until now cooperation experiments in primates have paid little attention to how cooperation can emerge and what effects are produced on the structure of a social group in nature. I performed field experiments with three groups of wild vervet monkeys in South Africa. I induced individuals to repeatedly approach and operate food containers. At least two individuals needed to operate the containers in order to get the reward. The recurrent partner associations observed before the experiment only partly predicted the forming of cooperative partnerships during the experiment. While most of the tested subjects cooperated with other partners, they preferred to do so with specific combinations of individuals and they tended not to mix with other group members outside these preferred partnerships. Cooperation therefore caused the relatively homogeneous networks I observed before the experiment to differentiate. Similar to a matching market, the food sharing partners selected each other limiting their choice. Interestingly neither sex nor age classes explained the specific partner matching. Kinship could not explain it either. Rather, higher ranking individuals cooperated with other higher ranking individuals, and lower ranking also matched among the same rank. This study reveals the key role dominance rank plays when food resources are patchy and can only be accessed through sharing with other individuals.

  5. The gut microbiota appears to compensate for seasonal diet variation in the wild black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R; Leigh, Steven R; Kent, Angela; Mackie, Roderick I; Yeoman, Carl J; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A; Garber, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    For most mammals, including nonhuman primates, diet composition varies temporally in response to differences in food availability. Because diet influences gut microbiota composition, it is likely that the gut microbiota of wild mammals varies in response to seasonal changes in feeding patterns. Such variation may affect host digestive efficiency and, ultimately, host nutrition. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation in diet and gut microbiota composition and function in two groups (N = 13 individuals) of wild Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) over a 10-month period in Palenque National Park, Mexico. Temporal changes in the relative abundances of individual bacterial taxa were strongly correlated with changes in host diet. For example, the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae was highest during periods when energy intake was lowest, and the relative abundance of Butyricicoccus was highest when young leaves and unripe fruit accounted for 68 % of the diet. Additionally, the howlers exhibited increased microbial production of energy during periods of reduced energy intake from food sources. Because we observed few changes in howler activity and ranging patterns during the course of our study, we propose that shifts in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota provided additional energy and nutrients to compensate for changes in diet. Energy and nutrient production by the gut microbiota appears to provide an effective buffer against seasonal fluctuations in energy and nutrient intake for these primates and is likely to have a similar function in other mammal species.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  7. Group-level competition influences urinary steroid hormones among wild red-tailed monkeys, indicating energetic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggi, Adrian V; Trumble, Benjamin C; Brown, Michelle

    2018-04-10

    Various theories emphasize that intergroup competition should affect intragroup cooperation and social relationships, especially if the cost of intergroup competition outweighs that of intragroup competition. This cost of intergroup competition may be quantified by changes in physiological status, such as in the steroid hormones cortisol (C) and testosterone (T), which rise or are depressed during periods of energetic stress, respectively. Here we tested for changes in urinary C and T after intergroup encounters (IGEs) among wild red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius), a species that experiences frequent intergroup feeding competition, at the Ngogo station in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We assayed 108 urine samples, of which 36 were collected after IGEs, from 23 individuals in four social groups. Bayesian multilevel models controlling for various confounds revealed that IGEs increased C and decreased T relative to baseline, consistent with an energetic cost to IGEs. The C change was more apparent in samples collected early after IGEs, suggesting an anticipatory increase, whereas the T change was stronger in later samples, suggesting sustained energetic trade-offs. Hormone responses were not affected by the IGE outcome. This cost to intergroup competition, together with little evidence for intragroup competition in redtails and other guenons, establishes an interesting test case for theories emphasizing the effect of intergroup competition on intragroup cooperation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Socialization of adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lawrence E; Coke, C S; Weed, J L

    2017-01-01

    Social housing has often been recommended as one-way to address the psychological well-being of captive non-human primates. Published reports have examined methods to socialize compatible animals by forming pairs or groups. Successful socialization rates vary depending on the species, gender, and environment. This study presents a retrospective look at pairing attempts in two species of owl monkeys, Aotus nancymaae and A. azarae, which live in monogamous pairs in the wild. The results of 477 pairing attempt conducted with captive, laboratory housed owl monkeys and 61 hr of behavioral observations are reported here. The greatest success pairing these owl monkeys occurred with opposite sex pairs, with an 82% success rate. Opposite sex pairs were more successful when females were older than males. Female-female pairs were more successful than male-male (MM) pairs (62% vs 40%). Successful pairs stayed together between 3 and 7 years before the animals were separated due to social incompatibility. Vigilance, eating, and sleeping during introductions significantly predicted success, as did the performance of the same behavior in both animals. The results of this analysis show that it is possible to give captive owl monkeys a social alternative even if species appropriate social partners (i.e., opposite sex partners) are not available. The focus of this report is a description of one potential way to enhance the welfare of a specific new world primate, the owl monkey, under laboratory conditions. More important is how the species typical social structure of owl monkeys in nature affects the captive management of this genus. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22521, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of Environmental Enrichment on Singly- and Group-Housed Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Sarah E.; Clifford, James O.; Tomko, David L.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Nonhuman primates display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors. Captivity changes these behaviors, and disrupts normal social hierarchies. In captivity, animals may exhibit stereotypical behaviors which are thought to indicate decreased psychological well-being (PWB). If an animal's behaviors can be made to approach those seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal it is assumed that PWB is adequate. Environmental enrichment (EE) devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act's requirement that the PWB of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether various EE devices improve the PWB of captive squirrel monkeys. The present study used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several EE devices in reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed singly or in groups. Results showed that the EE devices used did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  10. Complementary roles of two resilient neotropical mammalian seed dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana; Morris, Rebecca J.; Lewis, Owen T.; Mikich, Sandra B.

    2018-04-01

    Capuchin monkeys (Cebus spp. and Sapajus spp.) and coatis (Nasua spp.) coexist in most neotropical forests, including small forest remnants. Both capuchins and coatis eat fruit and disperse seeds, but little is known about whether their roles in seed dispersal are redundant or complementary. We compiled 49 studies from the literature on feeding by capuchins and/or coatis, of which 19 were comprehensive enough for our analyses. We determined the relative importance of fruit eating to each species and compared their diets. Additionally, we analysed the structure of three fruit-frugivore networks built with both animal groups and the fruits they eat and evaluated whether fruit traits influenced the network topology. Fruits represented the largest part of capuchin and coati diets, even though coatis have been known for their opportunistic and generalist diets. Capuchins and coatis also exhibited similar general diet parameters (niche breadth and trophic diversity). The three networks exhibited high connectance values and variable niche overlap. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis, failed to detect any trait or trait combination related to food use. In conclusion, capuchins and coatis both have generalist diets; they feed on many different species of fruits and exhibit important complementarity as seed dispersers. Both are likely to be particularly important seed dispersers in disturbed and fragmented forests.

  11. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández-Duque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans, nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to

  12. An Experimental Analysis of Memory Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained and tested in visual and auditory list-memory tasks with sequences of four travel pictures or four natural/environmental sounds followed by single test items. Acquisitions of the visual list-memory task are presented. Visual recency (last item) memory diminished with retention delay, and primacy (first item) memory strengthened. Capuchin monkeys, pigeons, and humans showed similar visual-memory changes. Rhesus learned an auditory memory task and showed octave gener...

  13. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys (Procolobus kirkii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, John J; Atencia, Rebeca; Midtgaard, Fred; Robertson, Lucy J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in primates and determine their zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential. Direct immunofluorescence was used to identify Giardia and Cryptosporidium from faecal samples. PCR and DNA sequencing was performed on positive results. Giardia cysts were identified from 5.5% (5/90) of captive chimpanzees and 0% (0/11) of captive mandrills in the Republic of Congo; 0% (0/10) of captive chimpanzees in Norway; and 0% of faecal samples (n = 49) from wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys. Two Giardia positive samples were also positive on PCR, and sequencing revealed identical isolates of Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the samples. In these primate groups, in which interactions with humans and human environments are quite substantial, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are rare pathogens. In chimpanzees, Giardia may have a zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Intergroup Variation of Social Relationships in Wild Vervet Monkeys: A Dynamic Network Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeaud, Christèle; Sosa, Sebastian; Bshary, Redouan; Sueur, Cédric; van de Waal, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis is a powerful tool that enables us to describe and quantify relationships between individuals. So far most of the studies rely on the analyses of various network snapshots, but do not capture changes over time. Here we use a stochastic actor-oriented model (SAOM) to test both the structure and the dynamics of relationships of three groups of wild vervet monkeys. We found that triadic closure (i.e., the friend of a friend is a friend) was significant in all three groups while degree popularity (i.e., the willingness to associate with individuals with high degree of connections) was significant in only two groups (AK, BD). The structure and dynamics of relationships according to the attributes of sex, matrilineand age differed significantly among groups. With respect to the structure, when analyzing the likelihood of bonds according to the different attributes, we found that individuals associate themselves preferably to individuals of the same sex only in two groups (AK, NH), while significant results for attachment to individuals of the same matriline were found also in two groups (BD, NH). With respect to the dynamics, i.e., how quickly relationships are modified, we found in two groups (AK, BD) that females' relationships were more prone to variation than males.' In the BD group, relationships within high-ranking matrilines were less stable than low-ranking ones while in the NH group, juveniles' relationships were also less stable than adults' ones. The intergroup variation indicates that establishing species-specific or even population specific characteristics of social networks for later between-species comparisons will be challenging. Although, such variation could also indicate some methodological issue, we are quite confident that data was collected similarly within the different groups. Our study therefore provides a potential new method to quantify social complexity according to natural demographic variation.

  15. Patterns of MHC-G-Like and MHC-B Diversification in New World Monkeys.

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    Juan S Lugo

    Full Text Available The MHC class I (MHC-I region in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini has remained relatively understudied. To evaluate the diversification patterns and transcription behavior of MHC-I in Platyrrhini, we first analyzed public genomic sequences from the MHC-G-like subregion in Saimiri boliviensis, Ateles geoffroyi and Callicebus moloch, and from the MHC-B subregion in Saimiri boliviensis. While S. boliviensis showed multiple copies of both MHC-G-like (10 and -B (15 loci, A. geoffroyi and C. moloch had only three and four MHC-G-like genes, respectively, indicating that not all Platyrrhini species have expanded their MHC-I loci. We then sequenced MHC-G-like and -B cDNAs from nine Platyrrhini species, recovering two to five unique cDNAs per individual for both loci classes. In two Saguinus species, however, no MHC-B cDNAs were found. In phylogenetic trees, MHC-G-like cDNAs formed genus-specific clusters whereas the MHC-B cDNAs grouped by Platyrrhini families, suggesting a more rapid diversification of the former. Furthermore, cDNA sequencing in 12 capuchin monkeys showed that they transcribe at least four MHC-G-like and five MHC-B polymorphic genes, showing haplotypic diversity for gene copy number and signatures of positive natural selection at the peptide binding region. Finally, a quantitative index for MHC:KIR affinity was proposed and tested to predict putative interacting pairs. Altogether, our data indicate that i MHC-I genes has expanded differentially among Platyrrhini species, ii Callitrichinae (tamarins and marmosets MHC-B loci have limited or tissue-specific expression, iii MHC-G-like genes have diversified more rapidly than MHC-B genes, and iv the MHC-I diversity is generated mainly by genetic polymorphism and gene copy number variation, likely promoted by natural selection for ligand binding.

  16. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  17. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  18. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  19. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  20. Scales drive detection, attention, and memory of snakes in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Lynne A; Etting, Stephanie F

    2017-01-01

    Predatory snakes are argued to have been largely responsible for the origin of primates via selection favoring expansion of the primate visual system, and even today snakes can be deadly to primates. Neurobiological research is now beginning to reveal the mechanisms underlying the ability of primates (including humans) to detect snakes more rapidly than other stimuli. However, the visual cues allowing rapid detection of snakes, and the cognitive and ecological conditions contributing to faster detection, are unclear. Since snakes are often partially obscured by vegetation, the more salient cues are predicted to occur in small units. Here we tested for the salience of snake scales as the smallest of potential visual cues by presenting four groups of wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pytherythrus) with a gopher snake (Pituophis catenifer) skin occluded except for no more than 2.7 cm, in natural form and flat, the latter to control for even small curvilinear cues from their unusual body shape. Each of these treatments was preceded by a treatment without the snakeskin, the first to provide a baseline, and the second, to test for vigilance and memory recall after exposure to the snakeskin. We found that (1) vervets needed only a small portion of snakeskin for detection, (2) snake scales alone were sufficient for detection, (3) latency to detect the snakeskin was longer with more extensive and complex ground cover, and (4) vervets that were exposed to the snakeskin remembered where they last saw "snakes", as indicated by increased wariness near the occluding landmarks in the absence of the snakeskin and more rapid detection of the next presented snakeskin. Unexpectedly, adult males did not detect the snakeskin as well as adult females and juveniles. These findings extend our knowledge of the complex ecological and evolutionary relationships between snakes and primates.

  1. The use of camera traps to identify the set of scavengers preying on the carcass of a golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Pang; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Garber, Paul A; Jin, Tong; Guo, Song-Tao; Li, Sheng; Li, Bao-Guo

    2014-01-01

    There exists very limited information on the set of scavengers that feed on the carcasses of wild primates. Here, we describe, based on information collected using a remote camera trap, carnivores consuming/scavenging the carcass of a wild golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China. During a 3 month behavioral and ecology study of a band of golden snub-nosed monkeys (March through May 2013), we encountered the carcass of an adult male (male golden snub-nosed monkeys weigh approximately 12-16 kg). After examining the dead monkey, we returned it to the death site and set out a camera trap to record the behavior and identity of scavengers. Over the course of 25 days, we collected 4145 photographs taken by the camera trap. Scavengers identified from these photographs include a masked civet (Paguma larvata), Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus), large-billed crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) and the chestnut rat (Rattus fulvescens). No member of the golden snub-nosed monkey's social group, which was composed of approximately 120 individuals, was found to return to the general area of the death site. The masked civet fed principally on the face and intestines of the corpse at night, while the black bear consumed most of the body of the dead monkey during both the daytime and nighttime. These two taxa consumed virtually the entire carcass in one week. We suggest that the use of camera traps offers a powerful research tool to identify the scavenger community of a given ecosystem.

  2. The influence of anthropogenic edge effects on primate populations and their habitat in a fragmented rainforest in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Laura M; Schreier, Amy L; Voss, Kristofor A; Sheehan, Elizabeth A; Barrickman, Nancy L; Pryor, Nathaniel P; Barton, Matthew C

    2018-05-01

    When a forest is fragmented, this increases the amount of forest edge relative to the interior. Edge effects can lead to loss of animal and plant species and decreased plant biomass near forest edges. We examined the influence of an anthropogenic forest edge comprising cattle pasture, coconut plantations, and human settlement on the mantled howler (Alouatta palliata), white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus), Central American spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), and plant populations at La Suerte Biological Research Station (LSBRS), Costa Rica. We predicted that there would be lower monkey encounter rate, mean tree species richness, and diameter at breast height (DBH) in forest edge versus interior, and that monkeys would show species-specific responses to edge based on diet, body size, and canopy height preferences. Specifically, we predicted that howler monkeys would show positive or neutral edge effects due to their flexible folivorous diet, large body size, and preference for high canopy, capuchins would show positive edge effects due to their diverse diet, small body size, and preference for low to middle canopy, and spider monkeys would show negative edge effects due their reliance on ripe fruit, large body size, and preference for high upper canopy. We conducted population and vegetation surveys along edge and interior transects at LSBRS. Contrary to predictions, total monkey encounter rate did not vary between the forest edge and forest interior. Furthermore, all three species showed neutral edge effects with no significant differences in encounter rate between forest edge and interior. Interior transects had significantly higher mean tree species richness than edge transects, and interior trees had greater DBH than edge trees, although this difference was not significant. These results suggest that forest edges negatively impact plant populations at La Suerte but that the monkeys are able to withstand these differences in vegetation.

  3. CURRENT STATE OF CONSERVATION, FIRST PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD AND POPULATION ESTIMATION OF THE COASTAL JAGUAR (Panthera onca centralis AND RECORDS OF COMPANION FAUNA OF MEDIUM-SIZED AND HIGHER MAMMALS IN THE PROTECTED FOREST CERRO BLANCO OF THE CHONGÓN COLONCHE MOUNTAIN RANGE, GUAYAQUIL – ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chongón-Colonche Mountain Range is important for their goods and environmental services, its high biodiversity, and being one of the few coastal regions of Ecuador, which still houses the coastal Jaguar Panthera onca centralis. In the Forest Protector Cerro Blanco (BPCB, last Southeast extension of the mountain chain, it was developed the field research through the data collection with direct and indirect medium-sized and higher mammals’ records. Besides a Cuddeback Digital camera trap was used, by selecting a sampling point within a probable route of the jaguar. Inspections in a nearby quarry were made to observe traces of major feline registries. The same consolidated past sightings or evidence of witnesses which complemented the study for the determination of the status of the species in the BPCB. The study showed indirect and direct records of white-tailed deer, peccaries, raccoons, agoutis, wild rabbits, howler monkeys, Capuchin white or monkeys, agouti, bears Anteaters and Jaguars from the coast for which it is considered that the BPCB is probably a meeting place between two individuals; however, it is important to note that the results presented are preliminary.

  4. Social monogamy in wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) of Argentina: the potential influences of resource distribution and ranging patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Using published and new data from a population of monogamous owl monkeys in the Argentinean Chaco, I examine the hypothesis that social monogamy is a default social system imposed upon males because the spatial and/or temporal distribution of resources and females makes it difficult for a single male to defend access to more than one mate. First, I examine a set of predictions on ranging patterns, use of space, and population density. This first section is followed by a second one considering predictions related to the abundance and distribution of food. Finally, I conclude with a section attempting to link the ranging and ecological data to demographic and life-history parameters as proxies for reproductive success. In support of the hypothesis, owl monkey species do live at densities (7 to 64 ind/km2) that are predicted for monogamous species, but groups occupy home ranges and core areas that vary substantially in size, with pronounced overlap of home ranges, but not of core areas. There are strong indications that the availability of food sources in the core areas during the dry season may be of substantial importance for regulating social monogamy in owl monkeys. Finally, none of the proxies for the success of groups were strongly related to the size of the home range or core area. The results I present do not support conclusively any single explanation for the evolution of social monogamy in owl monkeys, but they help us to better understand how it may function. Moreover, the absence of conclusive answers linking ranging, ecology, and reproductive success with the evolution of social monogamy in primates, offer renewed motivation for continuing to explore the evolution of monogamy in owl monkeys. PMID:25931263

  5. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that...

  6. Molecular characterization of trypanosomatid infections in wild howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya in northeastern Argentina

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    Mariela Florencia Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by vectors is confined to the Americas, and the infection circulates in at least two broadly defined transmission cycles occurring in domestic and sylvatic habitats. This study sought to detect and characterize infection by T. cruzi and other trypanosomes using PCR strategies in blood samples from free-ranging howler monkeys, Alouatta caraya, in the northeastern Argentina. Blood samples were collected at four sites with variable levels of habitat modification by human activity. PCR was conducted using primers for kinetoplast DNA, satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA of the trypanosomatid parasites. Ribosomal and satellite DNA fragments were sequenced to identify the trypanosomatid species and to characterize the discrete typing units (DTUs of T. cruzi. Overall, 46% (50/109 of the howlers were positive according to the kDNA-PCR assay, but only 7 of the howlers were positive according to the SatDNA-PCR protocol. We sequenced the amplicons of the satellite DNA obtained from five specimens, and the sequences were 99% and 100% similar to T. cruzi. A sequence typical of DTU T. cruzi I was found in one howler monkey from the “remote” site, while sequences compatible with DTUs II, V, and VI were found in howlers from the “remote”, “rural” and “village” sites. We detected 96% positive samples for RibDNA-PCR, 9 of which were sequenced and displayed 99% identity with Trypanosoma minasense, while none showed identity with T. cruzi. The results demonstrated the presence of T. cruzi and a species closely related to T. minasense in blood samples from free-ranging A. caraya, belonging to different T. cruzi DTUs circulating in these howler monkey populations. The results obtained in this study could help evaluate the role of A. caraya as a reservoir of T. cruzi in regions where Chagas disease is hyper-endemic and where the human-wildlife interface is increasing.

  7. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Carrapatos (Acari: Ixodidae associados com o ambiente em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Marcos Valério Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros

  8. Identification of the social and cognitive processes underlying human cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L G; Kendal, R L; Schapiro, S J; Thierry, B; Laland, K N

    2012-03-02

    The remarkable ecological and demographic success of humanity is largely attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture, with knowledge and technology accumulating over time, yet the social and cognitive capabilities that have enabled cumulative culture remain unclear. In a comparative study of sequential problem solving, we provided groups of capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees, and children with an experimental puzzlebox that could be solved in three stages to retrieve rewards of increasing desirability. The success of the children, but not of the chimpanzees or capuchins, in reaching higher-level solutions was strongly associated with a package of sociocognitive processes-including teaching through verbal instruction, imitation, and prosociality-that were observed only in the children and covaried with performance.

  9. Self-medication by orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) using bioactive properties of Dracaena cantleyi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morrogh-Bernard, H.; Foitová, I.; Yeen, Z.; Wilkin, P.; De Martin, R.; Rárová, Lucie; Doležal, Karel; Nurcahyo, W.; Olšanský, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 30 (2017), č. článku 16653. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1163 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : STEROIDAL SAPONINS * CAPUCHIN MONKEYS * CHIMPANZEES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  10. Aggression and conflict management at fusion in spider monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M

    2007-04-22

    In social systems characterized by a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, members of a large community are rarely all together, spending most of their time in smaller subgroups with flexible membership. Although fissioning into smaller subgroups is believed to reduce conflict among community members, fusions may create conflict among individuals from joining subgroups. Here, we present evidence for aggressive escalation at fusion and its mitigation by the use of embraces in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Our findings provide the first systematic evidence for conflict management at fusion and may have implications for the function of human greetings.

  11. Genome Editing of Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Cai, Yijun; Sun, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Gene-modified monkey models would be particularly valuable in biomedical and neuroscience research. Virus-based transgenic and programmable nucleases-based site-specific gene editing methods (TALEN, CRISPR-cas9) enable the generation of gene-modified monkeys with gain or loss of function of specific genes. Here, we describe the generation of transgenic and knock-out (KO) monkeys with high efficiency by lentivirus and programmable nucleases.

  12. Estrogenic plant foods of red colobus monkeys and mountain gorillas in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael D; Taylor-Gutt, Alexandra; Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Milton, Katharine; Leitman, Dale C

    2012-05-01

    Phytoestrogens, or naturally occurring estrogen-mimicking compounds, are found in many human plant foods, such as soybeans (Glycine max) and other legumes. Because the consumption of phytoestrogens may result in both health benefits of protecting against estrogen-dependent cancers and reproductive costs of disrupting the developing endocrine system, considerable biomedical research has been focused on the physiological and behavioral effects of these compounds. Despite this interest, little is known about the occurrence of phytoestrogens in the diets of wild primates, nor their likely evolutionary importance. We investigated the prevalence of estrogenic plant foods in the diets of two folivorous primate species, the red colobus monkey (Procolobus rufomitratus) of Kibale National Park and mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, both in Uganda. To examine plant foods for estrogenic activity, we screened 44 plant items (species and part) comprising 78.4% of the diet of red colobus monkeys and 53 plant items comprising 85.2% of the diet of mountain gorillas using transient transfection assays. At least 10.6% of the red colobus diet and 8.8% of the gorilla diet had estrogenic activity. This was mainly the result of the red colobus eating three estrogenic staple foods and the gorillas eating one estrogenic staple food. All estrogenic plants exhibited estrogen receptor (ER) subtype selectivity, as their phytoestrogens activated ERβ, but not ERα. These results demonstrate that estrogenic plant foods are routinely consumed by two folivorous primate species. Phytoestrogens in the wild plant foods of these two species and many other wild primates may have important implications for understanding primate reproductive ecology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Newly Identified CYP2C93 Is a Functional Enzyme in Rhesus Monkey, but Not in Cynomolgus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Kohara, Sakae; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Nagata, Ryoichi; Fukuzaki, Koichiro; Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey are used in drug metabolism studies due to their evolutionary closeness and physiological resemblance to human. In cynomolgus monkey, we previously identified cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) 2C76 that does not have a human ortholog and is partly responsible for species differences in drug metabolism between cynomolgus monkey and human. In this study, we report characterization of CYP2C93 cDNA newly identified in cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey. The CYP2C9...

  14. The ecology of primate material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Absence of frequent herpesvirus transmission in a nonhuman primate predator-prey system in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sripriya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Metzger, Sonja; Nowak, Kathrin; De Nys, Helene; Boesch, Christophe; Wittig, Roman; Jarvis, Michael A; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Emergence of viruses into the human population by transmission from nonhuman primates (NHPs) represents a serious potential threat to human health that is primarily associated with the increased bushmeat trade. Transmission of RNA viruses across primate species appears to be relatively frequent. In contrast, DNA viruses appear to be largely host specific, suggesting low transmission potential. Herein, we use a primate predator-prey system to study the risk of herpesvirus transmission between different primate species in the wild. The system was comprised of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and their primary (western red colobus, Piliocolobus badius badius) and secondary (black-and-white colobus, Colobus polykomos) prey monkey species. NHP species were frequently observed to be coinfected with multiple beta- and gammaherpesviruses (including new cytomegalo- and rhadinoviruses). However, despite frequent exposure of chimpanzees to blood, organs, and bones of their herpesvirus-infected monkey prey, there was no evidence for cross-species herpesvirus transmission. These findings suggest that interspecies transmission of NHP beta- and gammaherpesviruses is, at most, a rare event in the wild.

  17. Traditions in spider monkeys are biased towards the social domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Santorelli

    Full Text Available Cross-site comparison studies of behavioral variation can provide evidence for traditions in wild species once ecological and genetic factors are excluded as causes for cross-site differences. These studies ensure behavior variants are considered within the context of a species' ecology and evolutionary adaptations. We examined wide-scale geographic variation in the behavior of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi across five long-term field sites in Central America using a well established ethnographic cross-site survey method. Spider monkeys possess a relatively rare social system with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, also typical of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and humans (Homo sapiens. From the initial 62 behaviors surveyed 65% failed to meet the necessary criteria for traditions. The remaining 22 behaviors showed cross-site variation in occurrence ranging from absent through to customary, representing to our knowledge, the first documented cases of traditions in this taxon and only the second case of multiple traditions in a New World monkey species. Of the 22 behavioral variants recorded across all sites, on average 57% occurred in the social domain, 19% in food-related domains and 24% in other domains. This social bias contrasts with the food-related bias reported in great ape cross-site comparison studies and has implications for the evolution of human culture. No pattern of geographical radiation was found in relation to distance across sites. Our findings promote A. geoffroyi as a model species to investigate traditions with field and captive based experiments and emphasize the importance of the social domain for the study of animal traditions.

  18. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  20. Newly identified CYP2C93 is a functional enzyme in rhesus monkey, but not in cynomolgus monkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Uno

    Full Text Available Cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey are used in drug metabolism studies due to their evolutionary closeness and physiological resemblance to human. In cynomolgus monkey, we previously identified cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP 2C76 that does not have a human ortholog and is partly responsible for species differences in drug metabolism between cynomolgus monkey and human. In this study, we report characterization of CYP2C93 cDNA newly identified in cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey. The CYP2C93 cDNA contained an open reading frame of 490 amino acids approximately 84-86% identical to human CYP2Cs. CYP2C93 was located in the genomic region, which corresponded to the intergenic region in the human genome, indicating that CYP2C93 does not correspond to any human genes. CYP2C93 mRNA was expressed predominantly in the liver among 10 tissues analyzed. The CYP2C93 proteins heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli metabolized human CYP2C substrates, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, paclitaxel, S-mephenytoin, and tolbutamide. In addition to a normal transcript (SV1, an aberrantly spliced transcript (SV2 lacking exon 2 was identified, which did not give rise to a functional protein due to frameshift and a premature termination codon. Mini gene assay revealed that the genetic variant IVS2-1G>T at the splice site of intron 1, at least partly, accounted for the exon-2 skipping; therefore, this genotype would influence CYP2C93-mediated drug metabolism. SV1 was expressed in 6 of 11 rhesus monkeys and 1 of 8 cynomolgus monkeys, but the SV1 in the cynomolgus monkey was nonfunctional due to a rare null genotype (c.102T>del. These results suggest that CYP2C93 can play roles as a drug-metabolizing enzyme in rhesus monkeys (not in cynomolgus monkeys, although its relative contribution to drug metabolism has yet to be validated.

  1. Vicarious learning from human models in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Falcone

    Full Text Available We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was apparent from the first trial of the test phase, confirming the ability of monkeys to learn by vicarious observation of human models.

  2. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  3. The Demographic and Adaptive History of the African Green Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Susanne P

    2017-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the evolutionary history of the African green monkey (genus Chlorocebus) due to the lack of sampled polymorphism data from wild populations. Yet, this characterization of genetic diversity is not only critical for a better understanding of their own history, but also for human biomedical research given that they are one of the most widely used primate models. Here, I analyze the demographic and selective history of the African green monkey, utilizing one of the most comprehensive catalogs of wild genetic diversity to date, consisting of 1,795,643 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms in 25 individuals, representing all five major populations: C. a. aethiops, C. a. cynosurus, C. a. pygerythrus, C. a. sabaeus, and C. a tantalus. Assuming a mutation rate of 5.9 × 10-9 per base pair per generation and a generation time of 8.5 years, divergence time estimates range from 523 to 621 kya for the basal split of C. a. aethiops from the other four populations. Importantly, the resulting tree characterizing the relationship and split-times between these populations differs significantly from that presented in the original genome paper, owing to their neglect of within-population variation when calculating between population-divergence. In addition, I find that the demographic history of all five populations is well explained by a model of population fragmentation and isolation, rather than novel colonization events. Finally, utilizing these demographic models as a null, I investigate the selective history of the populations, identifying candidate regions potentially related to adaptation in response to pathogen exposure. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  5. Vicarious Learning from Human Models in Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Falcone, Rossella; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether monkeys can learn by observing a human model, through vicarious learning. Two monkeys observed a human model demonstrating an object-reward association and consuming food found underneath an object. The monkeys observed human models as they solved more than 30 learning problems. For each problem, the human models made a choice between two objects, one of which concealed a piece of apple. In the test phase afterwards, the monkeys made a choice of their own. Learning was app...

  6. Comparative plasma lipidome between human and cynomolgus monkey: are plasma polar lipids good biomarkers for diabetic monkeys?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Shui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHP are now being considered as models for investigating human metabolic diseases including diabetes. Analyses of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma derived from NHPs can easily be achieved using methods employed in humans. Information pertaining to other lipid species in monkey plasma, however, is lacking and requires comprehensive experimental analysis. METHODOLOGIES/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the plasma lipidome from 16 cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS. We established novel analytical approaches, which are based on a simple gradient elution, to quantify polar lipids in plasma including (i glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; phosphatidylinositol, PI; phosphatidylglycerol, PG; phosphatidylserine, PS; phosphatidic acid, PA; (ii sphingolipids (sphingomyelin, SM; ceramide, Cer; Glucocyl-ceramide, GluCer; ganglioside mannoside 3, GM3. Lipidomic analysis had revealed that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, with PC, SM, PE, LPC and PI constituting the major polar lipid species present. Human plasma contained significantly higher levels of plasmalogen PE species (p<0.005 and plasmalogen PC species (p<0.0005, while cynomolgus monkey had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acyls (PUFA in PC, PE, PS and PI. Notably, cynomolgus monkey had significantly lower levels of glycosphingolipids, including GluCer (p<0.0005 and GM(3 (p<0.0005, but higher level of Cer (p<0.0005 in plasma than human. We next investigated the biochemical alterations in blood lipids of 8 naturally occurring diabetic cynomolgus monkeys when compared with 8 healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we demonstrated that the plasma of human and cynomolgus monkey were of similar compositions, but contained different mol distribution of individual molecular species. Diabetic monkeys

  7. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Sam; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males has been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales = 70, NFemales...... = 73) and captive (NMales = 25, NFemales = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting bi-parental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations...

  8. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Epidurography with metrizamide in Rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, D.K.; Baker, R.A.; Saubermann, A.; Salem, J.; Schoene, W.C.; Fournier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Epidurography with metrizamide was performed on 9 Rhesus monkeys; physiologic saline was substituted for metrizamide in 3 control monkeys. Metrizamide successfully outlined the epidural space without causing any adverse clinical effects or direct tissue injury. (Auth.)

  10. R-warfarin clearances from plasma associated with polymorphic cytochrome P450 2C19 and simulated by individual physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for 11 cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utoh, Masahiro; Kusama, Takashi; Miura, Tomonori; Mitsui, Marina; Kawano, Mirai; Hirano, Takahiro; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    1. Cynomolgus monkey cytochrome P450 2C19 (formerly known as P450 2C75), homologous to human P450 2C19, has been identified as R-warfarin 7-hydroxylase. In this study, simulations of R-warfarin clearance in individual cynomolgus monkeys genotyped for P450 2C19 p.[(Phe100Asn; Ala103Val; Ile112Leu)] were performed using individual simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. 2. Pharmacokinetic parameters and absorption rate constants, volumes of the systemic circulation, and hepatic intrinsic clearances for individual PBPK models were estimated for eleven cynomolgus monkeys. 3. One-way ANOVA revealed significant effects of the genotype (p warfarin among the homozygous mutant, heterozygous mutant, and wild-type groups. R-Warfarin clearances in individual cynomolgus monkeys genotyped for P450 2C19 were simulated by simplified PBPK modeling. The modeled hepatic intrinsic clearances were significantly associated with the P450 2C19 genotypes. The liver microsomal elimination rates of R-warfarin for individual animals after in vivo administration showed significant reductions associated with the genotype (p warfarin and related medicines associated with polymorphic P450 2C19 in individual cynomolgus monkeys, thereby facilitating calculation of the fraction of hepatic clearance.

  11. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa

  12. Placental Transport of Zidovudine in the Rhesus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ridgway III, Louis E.; King, Thomas S.; Henderson, George I.; Schenker, Steven; Schenken, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to characterize the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine (ZDV) and ZDV-glucuronide (ZDVG) in the material and :fetal circulations of the rhesus monkey. Methods: Cannulas were placed in the maternal external jugular and the fetal internal jugular and carotid artery in 8 pregnant monkeys at .120–130 days gestation. ZDV (3.5 mg/kg) was administered to 5 monkeys and ZDVG (3.5 mg/kg) to 3 monkeys as single intravenous bolus infusions through the maternal catheter. Ma...

  13. The Palermo Capuchin Catacombs Project: a multidisciplinary approach to the study of a modern Mummy Collection (ca 1600-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sineo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a multidisciplinary project for the study of the present conditions, history, bioanthropological features and conservation status of a large collection of modern human mummies, kept in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo (Sicily, Italy. Due to the large amount of spontaneously and anthropogenically mummified human bodies, and to an abundant presence of associated artefacts, this collection provides a unique opportunity to carry out a large multidisciplinary survey useful for a thorough biocultural understanding of these remains, a conservation plan, and testing of new restoration protocols.

  14. Autoshaping in Japanese Monkeys (Macaca Fuscata)

    OpenAIRE

    Itakura, Shoji; Fushimi, Takao; Asano, Toshio; Shoji, Itakura; Takao, Fushimi; Toshio, Asano

    1992-01-01

    Three Japanese monkeys were exposed to autoshaping and omission procedures. The Japanese momkeys seemed to be more sensitive to response-reinforcer contingency than to stimulus-reinforcer contingency. These results were compared with pigeons and squirrel monkeys in the previous reports.

  15. Somatosensory deficits in monkeys treated with misonidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurissen, J.P.J.; Conroy, P.J.; Passalacqua, W.; Von Burg, R.; Weiss, B.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Misonidazole, a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, can produce peripheral sensory disorders in humans. It has been studied in monkeys with a computer-controlled system for evaluating vibration sensitivity. Monkeys were trained to report when vibration was stimulating the finger tip. Sinusoidal vibrations of several frequencies were presented. Two monkeys were dosed with misonidazole and their vibration sensitivity tested. They received a dose of 3 g/m 2 (about 180 mg/kg) twice weekly over a period of 6 to 10 weeks. An amplitude-frequency detection function was determined for each monkey before and after drug treatment. An analysis of covariance comparing polynomial regressions was performed. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between control and experimental curves in both monkeys. Pharmacokinetic data indicated a half-life of the drug in blood of about 4 to 5 hr. The overall half-life for elimination did not increase throughout prolonged treatment with msonidazole. Neither motor nor sensory nerve conduction velocity was reduced after treatment

  16. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  17. Experimental infection of macaques with a wild water bird-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Fujiyuki

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV continues to threaten human health. Non-human primate infection models of human influenza are desired. To establish an animal infection model with more natural transmission and to determine the pathogenicity of HPAIV isolated from a wild water bird in primates, we administered a Japanese isolate of HPAIV (A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008, H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, in droplet form, via the intratracheal route. Infection of the lower and upper respiratory tracts and viral shedding were observed in both macaques. Inoculation of rhesus monkeys with higher doses of the isolate resulted in stronger clinical symptoms of influenza. Our results demonstrate that HPAIV isolated from a water bird in Japan is pathogenic in monkeys by experimental inoculation, and provide a new method for HPAIV infection of non-human primate hosts, a good animal model for investigation of HPAIV pathogenicity.

  18. Molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 and Ebola virus. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs are ancient retroviruses that infect Old and New World monkeys and apes. Although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic exposure risks. Surprisingly, no information exists concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of SFVs in wild-living monkeys and apes. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of SFVcpz infection in free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes using newly developed, fecal-based assays. Chimpanzee fecal samples (n = 724 were collected at 25 field sites throughout equatorial Africa and tested for SFVcpz-specific antibodies (n = 706 or viral nucleic acids (n = 392. SFVcpz infection was documented at all field sites, with prevalence rates ranging from 44% to 100%. In two habituated communities, adult chimpanzees had significantly higher SFVcpz infection rates than infants and juveniles, indicating predominantly horizontal rather than vertical transmission routes. Some chimpanzees were co-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz; however, there was no evidence that SFVcpz and SIVcpz were epidemiologically linked. SFVcpz nucleic acids were recovered from 177 fecal samples, all of which contained SFVcpz RNA and not DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial gag (616 bp, pol-RT (717 bp, and pol-IN (425 bp sequences identified a diverse group of viruses, which could be subdivided into four distinct SFVcpz lineages according to their chimpanzee subspecies of origin. Within these lineages, there was evidence of frequent superinfection and viral recombination. One chimpanzee was infected by a foamy virus from a Cercopithecus monkey

  19. [Hybrids of human and monkey adenoviruses (adeno-adeno hybrids) that can reproduce in monkey cells: biological and molecular genetic peculiarities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinenko, N F; Savitskaia, N V; Pashvykina, G V; Al'tshteĭn, A D

    2003-06-01

    A highly oncogenic monkey adenovirus SA7(C8) facilitates the reproduction of human adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) in monkey cells. Upon mixed infection of monkey cells with both viruses, these viruses recombine producing defective adeno-adeno hybrids Ad2C8 serologically identical to Ad2 and capable of assisting Ad2 to reproduce in monkey cells. Ad2C8 and Ad2 form an intercomplementary pair inseparable in monkey cells. Unlike oncogenic SA7(C8), Ad2C8 is a nononcogenic virus for hamsters but is able to induce tumor antigens of this virus (T and TSTA). Molecular genetic analysis of 68 clones of adeno-adeno hybrids revealed that the left part of their genome consists of Ad2 DNA, and the right part contains no less than 40% of the viral SA7(C8) genome where E2A, E3, and E4 genes are located. Apparently, the products of these genes contribute to the composition of adenoviral tumor antigens, while the E4 gene is involved in complementation of monkey and human adenoviruses and makes a contribution to host range determination of these viruses.

  20. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  1. Visible spatial contiguity of social information and reward affects social learning in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins ( Sapajus apella ), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children ( Homo sapiens ), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition. Participants were presented with a novel transparent apparatus where a reward was either proximal or distal to a demonstrated means of releasing it. A distal reward location decreased attention toward the location of the demonstration and impaired subsequent success in gaining rewards. Generally, the capuchins produced the alternative method to that demonstrated, whereas children copied the method demonstrated, although a distal reward location reduced copying in younger children. We conclude that some design features in common social learning tasks may significantly degrade the evidence for social learning. We have demonstrated this for 2 different primates but suggest that it is a significant factor to control for in social learning research across all taxa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Microbial survey of the mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Italy: biodeterioration risk and contamination of the indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-11-01

    The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo contain over 1800 preserved bodies dating from the 16th to 20th centuries AD and showing evidence of biodeterioration. An extensive microbiological and molecular investigation was recently performed. Samples were taken from skin, muscle, hair, bone, stuffing materials, clothes, and surrounding walls as well as from the indoor air. In this study, we witnessed that the different degradation phenomena observed on the variety of materials located at the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo are biological in origin. Molecular techniques showed the dominance of halophilic species of the domains Bacteria and Archaea on the walls and - as a result of salt emanating from the walls - on the mummies themselves. Nevertheless, specialized microorganisms belonging to taxa well-known for their cellulolytic and proteolytic activities were detected on clothes and stuffing material, and on skin, muscle, hair, and bone, respectively. This specialized microbiota is threatening the conservation of the mummies themselves. Additionally, sequences related to the human skin microbiome and to some pathogenic Bacteria (order Clostridiales) and fungi (genus Phialosimplex) were identified on samples derived from the mummies. Furthermore, a phosphate-reducing fungus, Penicillium radicum, was detected on bone. Finally, the high concentration of airborne fungal spores is not conducive to the conservation of the human remains and is posing a potential health risk for visitors. © 2013 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  3. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  4. The effect of dietary adaption on cranial morphological integration in capuchins (order Primates, genus Cebus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Makedonska

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals, while covariance magnitudes vary. Results further suggest that food material properties structure integration among functionally-linked facial elements and possibly integration between the face and the basicranium. Hard-object-feeding capuchins, especially C. apella s.s., whose faces experience particularly high biomechanical loads are characterized by higher facial and cranial integration especially compared to C. albifrons, likely because morphotypes compromising feeding performance are selected against in species relying on obdurate fallback

  5. Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, Shiva Nemati; Jabbari, Reza; Hajinasrollah, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    , therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model...... on Tarlov's scale and our established behavioral tests for monkeys. CONCLUSION: Our findings have indicated that mNSCs can facilitate recovery in contusion SCI models in rhesus macaque monkeys. Additional studies are necessary to determine the im- provement mechanisms after cell transplantation....

  6. Radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone (parathyrin) in monkey and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, G.K.; Williams, G.A.; Reynolds, W.A.; Kawahara, W.; Jackson, B.; Bowser, E.N.; Pitkin, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for rhesus monkey and human innumoreactive parathyrin was developed in which a selected anti-bovine parathyrin antiserum, radioiodinated purified bovine parathyrin tracer, and human parathyroid tissue-culture media standards were used. The resulting data indicate that the method is sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible; it is valid for both the rhesus monkey and the human; the serum immunoreactive parathyrin concentration of the monkey is essentially the same as that in man; monkey immunoreactive parathyrin responds to changes in serum calcium concentration similarly to that in man; and the rhesus monkey is therefore a suitable species in which to study parathyroid physiology, from which conclusions can be applied to the human

  7. Spider monkey, Muriqui and Woolly monkey relationships revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Margarida Maria Celeira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Vieira, Ricardo dos Santos; Schneider, Horacio

    2007-01-01

    The taxonomic relationships among the four genera of the Atelidae family, Alouatta (Howler), Ateles (Spider), Lagothrix (Woolly) and Brachyteles (Muriqui), have been the subject of great debate. In general, almost all authors agree with the assignment of Howler monkeys as the basal genus, either in its own tribe Alouattini or in the subfamily Alouattinae, but they disagree on the associations among the other members of the family. Muriquis have been grouped with Spider monkeys based on the fact that they share various behavioral and morphological characteristics. Cladistic analyses using morphological, biochemical, karyotype and behavioral characteristics depicted a phylogenetic tree that places Howler as the basal genus and the remaining genera in an unresolved politomy. More recent studies using molecular data have suggested that Muriqui and Woolly monkeys are sister groups. However, a recent study based on nuclear and mtDNA argued that politomy is what best represents the relationships among Spider, Woolly and Muriqui. To contribute to this debate we have added new data from two nuclear genes, Transferrin and von Willebrand Factor, and using an alignment of 17,997 bp we demonstrate that a total analysis strongly supports the Muriqui-Woolly clade. A gene-to-gene approach showed that four of the eight nuclear genes provide support for the Muriqui-Woolly clade, two strongly and two moderately, while none of the eight genes provide support for any alternative arrangement. The mitochondrial genes were not able to resolve the politomy. A possible reason for the difficulty in resolving atelid relationships may be the short period of time separating each cladogenetic event in the evolutionary process that shaped this family.

  8. Research and in situ conservation of owl monkeys enhances environmental law enforcement at the Colombian-Peruvian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Angela M; Peck, Mika R

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on impacts of illegal trade in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans) for the biomedical research market in the Colombian-Peruvian Amazonian border. Through freedom of information requests and interviews with hunters we found that 912 owl monkeys, including A. nancymaae captured in Peru, were trapped over a 3-month period in 2012 to supply a malaria research facility based in Leticia, Colombia, which had trapping permits for the use of only 800 A. vociferans annually yet experimentation took place using A. nancymaae. High levels of extraction in Peru have had population-level impacts with significantly lower densities of Aotus spp. (3-24 individuals/km(2)) compared to Colombian sites with low hunting pressure (26-44 individuals/km(2)). Post-experimental release of this species in Colombian territory has created a new distribution whose status and impacts on resident populations of A. vociferans remain unknown. The trapping method has also had environmental impact, with loss of over 65,000 trees (including sleeping sites), annually. As Aotus species are registered under the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II, international trade requires official permission and evidence that extraction does not impact wild populations. However, no official records exist and CITES legislation has failed, due principally to a lack of appropriate monitoring by national authorities responsible for compliance. Of further concern is that we had previously documented and reported the illegal trade to the appropriate governmental authorities yet still no action was taken-as demonstrated by the continuing trade in 2013. Enforcement eventually occurred when a non-governmental organization initiated legal action against organizations responsible. A successful second instance ruling by the Colombian State's Council in 2013 revoked trapping permits. Using the trade in owl monkeys as a case study we consider

  9. Test stálosti objektu u primátů

    OpenAIRE

    Gálik, Michal

    2014-01-01

    5 ABSTRACT Object permanence is a cognitive ability to perceive the continuous existence of objects, even if they cannot be directly observed, respectively perceived by other senses (Piaget 1954). In humans object permanence develops in 6 qualitatively different stages. By using a comparative approach, it was found that the last stage 6 of this ability also occurs in great apes, gibbons and some New World monkeys (capuchin, marmoset and tamarin). In this study, we conducted a study with a ser...

  10. Functional Imaging of Audio–Visual Selective Attention in Monkeys and Humans: How do Lapses in Monkey Performance Affect Cross-Species Correspondences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muers, Ross S.; Salo, Emma; Slater, Heather; Petkov, Christopher I.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio–visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI. Further analyses ruled out trivial explanations, suggesting that labile selective-attention performance was associated with inhomogeneous modulations in wide cortical regions in the monkeys. The findings provide initial insights into how audio–visual selective attention modulates the primate brain, identify sources for “lost” attention effects in monkeys, and carry implications for modeling the neurobiology of human cognition with nonhuman animals. PMID:28419201

  11. Functional Imaging of Audio-Visual Selective Attention in Monkeys and Humans: How do Lapses in Monkey Performance Affect Cross-Species Correspondences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Teemu; Muers, Ross S; Salo, Emma; Slater, Heather; Petkov, Christopher I

    2017-06-01

    The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio-visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI. Further analyses ruled out trivial explanations, suggesting that labile selective-attention performance was associated with inhomogeneous modulations in wide cortical regions in the monkeys. The findings provide initial insights into how audio-visual selective attention modulates the primate brain, identify sources for "lost" attention effects in monkeys, and carry implications for modeling the neurobiology of human cognition with nonhuman animals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Radiation-induced emesis in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, J.L.; Yochmowitz, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    To determine the emesis ED 50 for 60 Co radiation, 15 male rhesus monkeys were exposed to whole-body radiation doses ranging from 350 to 550 rad midline tissue dose. An up-and-down sequence of exposures was used. Step size between doses was 50 rad, and dose rate was 20 rad/min. There had been no access to food for 1 to 2 h. The ED 50 +- SE was found to be 446 +- 27 rad. To determine the effect of motion on emesis ED 50 , six more monkeys were exposed to 60 Co radiation as above, except that the chair in which they were seated was oscillated forward and backward 5 to 15 0 (pitch axis) at a variable rate not exceeding 0.3 Hz. Radioemesis ED 50 +- SE with motion was 258 +- 19 rad, a value significantly lower (P < 0.01) than for stationary monkeys

  13. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    OpenAIRE

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative a...

  14. Dissociation of item and source memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2017-09-01

    Source memory, or memory for the context in which a memory was formed, is a defining characteristic of human episodic memory and source memory errors are a debilitating symptom of memory dysfunction. Evidence for source memory in nonhuman primates is sparse despite considerable evidence for other types of sophisticated memory and the practical need for good models of episodic memory in nonhuman primates. A previous study showed that rhesus monkeys confused the identity of a monkey they saw with a monkey they heard, but only after an extended memory delay. This suggests that they initially remembered the source - visual or auditory - of the information but forgot the source as time passed. Here, we present a monkey model of source memory that is based on this previous study. In each trial, monkeys studied two images, one that they simply viewed and touched and the other that they classified as a bird, fish, flower, or person. In a subsequent memory test, they were required to select the image from one source but avoid the other. With training, monkeys learned to suppress responding to images from the to-be-avoided source. After longer memory intervals, monkeys continued to show reliable item memory, discriminating studied images from distractors, but made many source memory errors. Monkeys discriminated source based on study method, not study order, providing preliminary evidence that our manipulation of retention interval caused errors due to source forgetting instead of source confusion. Finally, some monkeys learned to select remembered images from either source on cue, showing that they did indeed remember both items and both sources. This paradigm potentially provides a new model to study a critical aspect of episodic memory in nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Depth perception from moving cast shadow in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Saneyuki; Usui, Nobuo; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Taira, Masato; Katsuyama, Narumi

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we investigate whether the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow. To accomplish this, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, an adult Japanese monkey was trained in a motion discrimination task in depth by binocular disparity. A square was presented on the display so that it appeared with a binocular disparity of 0.12 degrees (initial position), and moved toward (approaching) or away from (receding) the monkey for 1s. The monkey was trained to discriminate the approaching and receding motion of the square by GO/delayed GO-type responses. The monkey showed a significantly high accuracy rate in the task, and the performance was maintained when the position, color, and shape of the moving object were changed. In the next experiment, the change in the disparity was gradually decreased in the motion discrimination task. The results showed that the performance of the monkey declined as the distance of the approaching and receding motion of the square decreased from the initial position. However, when a moving cast shadow was added to the stimulus, the monkey responded to the motion in depth induced by the cast shadow in the same way as by binocular disparity; the reward was delivered randomly or given in all trials to prevent the learning of the 2D motion of the shadow in the frontal plane. These results suggest that the macaque monkey can perceive motion in depth using a moving cast shadow as well as using binocular disparity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear weapon testing and the monkey business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Reasons for India's total ban on the export of rhesus monkeys to U.S. have been explained. The major reason is that some of the animals were used in nuclear weapon related radiation experiments. This was a clear violation of a stricture in the agreement about supply of monkeys. The stricture prohibited the use of animals for research concerning military operations, including nuclear weapon testing. It is pleaded that a strict enforcement of strictures rather than a total ban on the export of monkeys would be better in the interest of advancement of knowledge in human medicine and disease control. (M.G.B.)

  17. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using 125 T-antibodies were done

  18. Distribution and abundance of sacred monkeys in Igboland, southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lynne R; Tanimola, Adebowale A; Olubode, Oluseun S; Garshelis, David L

    2009-07-01

    Although primates are hunted on a global scale, some species are protected against harassment and killing by taboos or religious doctrines. Sites where the killing of sacred monkeys or the destruction of sacred groves is forbidden may be integral to the conservation of certain species. In 2004, as part of a distribution survey of Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southern Nigeria, we investigated reports of sacred monkeys in the Igbo-speaking region of Nigeria. We confirmed nine new sites where primates are protected as sacred: four with tantalus monkeys (Chlorocebus tantalus) and five with mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona). During 2004-2006, we visited two communities (Akpugoeze and Lagwa) previously known to harbor sacred populations of Ce. sclateri to estimate population abundance and trends. We directly counted all groups and compared our estimates with previous counts when available. We also estimated the size of sacred groves and compared these with grove sizes reported in the literature. The mean size of the sacred groves in Akpugoeze (2.06 ha, n = 10) was similar to others in Africa south of the Sahel, but larger than the average grove in Lagwa (0.49 ha, n = 15). We estimated a total population of 124 Sclater's monkeys in 15 groups in Lagwa and 193 monkeys in 20 groups in Akpugoeze. The Akpugoeze population was relatively stable over two decades, although the proportion of infants declined, and the number of groups increased. As Sclater's monkey does not occur in any official protected areas, sacred populations are important to the species' long-term conservation. Despite the monkeys' destruction of human crops, most local people still adhere to the custom of not killing monkeys. These sites represent ideal locations in which to study the ecology of Sclater's monkey and human-wildlife interactions. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  20. Default Mode of Brain Function in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, Dante; Gerits, Annelis; Nelissen, Koen; Durand, Jean-Baptiste; Joly, Olivier; Simone, Luciano; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Wardak, Claire; Orban, Guy A.; Buckner, Randy L.; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Human neuroimaging has revealed a specific network of brain regions—the default-mode network (DMN)—that reduces its activity during goal-directed behavior. So far, evidence for a similar network in monkeys is mainly indirect, since, except for one positron emission tomography study, it is all based on functional connectivity analysis rather than activity increases during passive task states. Here, we tested whether a consistent DMN exists in monkeys using its defining property. We performed a meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in 10 awake monkeys to reveal areas in which activity consistently decreases when task demands shift from passive tasks to externally oriented processing. We observed task-related spatially specific deactivations across 15 experiments, implying in the monkey a functional equivalent of the human DMN. We revealed by resting-state connectivity that prefrontal and medial parietal regions, including areas 9/46d and 31, respectively, constitute the DMN core, being functionally connected to all other DMN areas. We also detected two distinct subsystems composed of DMN areas with stronger functional connections between each other. These clusters included areas 24/32, 8b, and TPOC and areas 23, v23, and PGm, respectively. Such a pattern of functional connectivity largely fits, but is not completely consistent with anatomical tract tracing data in monkeys. Also, analysis of afferent and efferent connections between DMN areas suggests a multisynaptic network structure. Like humans, monkeys increase activity during passive epochs in heteromodal and limbic association regions, suggesting that they also default to internal modes of processing when not actively interacting with the environment. PMID:21900574

  1. Captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) arm-raise to solicit allo-grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H; Edwards, Dori

    2012-03-01

    Old World monkeys solicit allo-grooming from conspecifics. However, there are relatively few studies of allo-grooming among spider monkeys, and descriptions of allo-grooming solicitation among spider monkeys are anecdotal. In this study, eighty-one hours of video, shot over eight weeks, captured 271 allo-grooming bouts among small groups of captive spider monkeys. Six of eight monkeys made heretofore unreported arm-raises that solicited higher than normal rates of allo-grooming. Allo-grooming bout durations following arm-raises also tended to be longer than bouts not preceded by arm-raises. The efficacy of the arm-raise at soliciting allo-grooming suggests spider monkeys are capable of intentional communication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-01-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production

  3. Monkey Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  4. Functional analysis of aldehyde oxidase using expressed chimeric enzyme between monkey and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kunio; Asakawa, Tasuku; Hoshino, Kouichi; Adachi, Mayuko; Fukiya, Kensuke; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Yorihisa

    2009-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a homodimer with a subunit molecular mass of approximately 150 kDa. Each subunit consists of about 20 kDa 2Fe-2S cluster domain storing reducing equivalents, about 40 kDa flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain and about 85 kDa molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain containing a substrate binding site. In order to clarify the properties of each domain, especially substrate binding domain, chimeric cDNAs were constructed by mutual exchange of 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains between monkey and rat. Chimeric monkey/rat AO was referred to one with monkey type 2Fe-2S/FAD domains and a rat type MoCo domain. Rat/monkey AO was vice versa. AO-catalyzed 2-oxidation activities of (S)-RS-8359 were measured using the expressed enzyme in Escherichia coli. Substrate inhibition was seen in rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, but not in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, suggesting that the phenomenon might be dependent on the natures of MoCo domain of rat. A biphasic Eadie-Hofstee profile was observed in monkey AO and chimeric rat/monkey AO, but not rat AO and chimeric monkey/rat AO, indicating that the biphasic profile might be related to the properties of MoCo domain of monkey. Two-fold greater V(max) values were observed in monkey AO than in chimeric rat/monkey AO, and in chimeric monkey/rat AO than in rat AO, suggesting that monkey has the more effective electron transfer system than rat. Thus, the use of chimeric enzymes revealed that 2Fe-2S/FAD and MoCo domains affect the velocity and the quantitative profiles of AO-catalyzed (S)-RS-8359 2-oxidation, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of monkey intraocular pressure by rebound tonometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhan; Cao, Guiqun; Qiu, Jinghua; Ma, Jia; Li, Ni; Yu, Man; Yan, Naihong; Chen, Lei; Pang, Iok-Hou

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of the TonoVet™ rebound tonometer in measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) of monkeys. Methods The accuracy of the TonoVet™ rebound tonometer was determined in cannulated eyes of anesthetized rhesus monkeys where IOP was controlled by adjusting the height of a connected perfusate reservoir. To assess the applicability of the equipment through in vivo studies, the diurnal fluctuation of IOP and effects of IOP-lowering compounds were evaluated in monkeys. Results IOP readings generated by the TonoVet™ tonometer correlated very well with the actual pressure in the cannulated monkey eye. The linear correlation had a slope of 0.922±0.014 (mean±SEM, n=4), a y-intercept of 3.04±0.61, and a correlation coefficient of r2=0.97. Using this method, diurnal IOP fluctuation of the rhesus monkey was demonstrated. The tonometer was also able to detect IOP changes induced by pharmacologically active compounds. A single topical ocular instillation (15 μg) of the rho kinase inhibitor, H1152, produced a 5–6 mmHg reduction (pmonkey eye. PMID:19898690

  6. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Byun, Yoon Woo; Zhuang, Katie Z; Lebedev, Mikhail A; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2015-07-09

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal.

  7. Irrational choice behavior in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Brown, Ella R

    2018-03-01

    Choice behavior in humans has motivated a large body of research with a focus on whether decisions can be considered to be rational. In general, humans prefer having choice, as do a number of other species that have been tested, even though having increased choice does not necessarily yield a positive outcome. Humans have been found to choose an option more often only because the opportunity to select it was diminishing, an example of a deviation from economic rationality. Here we extend this paradigm to nonhuman primates in an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying this finding. In this study, we presented two groups of laboratory monkeys, capuchins (Cebus apella) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), as well as human subjects, with a computerized task in which subjects were presented with two differently colored icons. When the subject selected an icon, differing numbers of food pellets were dispensed (or points were assigned), making each icon correspond to a certain level of risk (one icon yielded 1 or 4 pellets/points and the other yielded 2 or 3). Initially, both options remained constantly available and we established choice preference scores for each subject. Then, we assessed preference patterns once the options were not continuously available. Specifically, choosing one icon would cause the other to shrink in size on the screen and eventually disappear if never selected. Selecting it would restore it to its full size. As predicted, humans shifted their risk preferences in the diminishing options phase, choosing to click on both icons more equally in order to keep both options available. At the group level, capuchin monkeys showed this pattern as well, but there was a great deal of individual variability in both capuchins and macaques. The present work suggests that there is some degree of continuity between human and nonhuman primates in the desire to have choice simply for the sake of having choice.

  8. Control of Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, while discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the two cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of two consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25436219

  9. Allergic asthma induced in rhesus monkeys by house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, E S; Gershwin, L J; Miller, L A; Fanucchi, M V; Van Winkle, L S; Gerriets, J P; Walby, W F; Omlor, A M; Buckpitt, A R; Tarkington, B K; Wong, V J; Joad, J P; Pinkerton, K B; Wu, R; Evans, M J; Hyde, D M; Plopper, C G

    2001-01-01

    To establish whether allergic asthma could be induced experimentally in a nonhuman primate using a common human allergen, three female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were sensitized with house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) allergen (HDMA) by subcutaneous injection, followed by four intranasal sensitizations, and exposure to allergen aerosol 3 hours per day, 3 days per week for up to 13 weeks. Before aerosol challenge, all three monkeys skin-tested positive for HDMA. During aerosol challenge with HDMA, sensitized monkeys exhibited cough and rapid shallow breathing and increased airway resistance, which was reversed by albuterol aerosol treatment. Compared to nonsensitized monkeys, there was a fourfold reduction in the dose of histamine aerosol necessary to produce a 150% increase in airway resistance in sensitized monkeys. After aerosol challenge, serum levels of histamine were elevated in sensitized monkeys. Sensitized monkeys exhibited increased levels of HDMA-specific IgE in serum, numbers of eosinophils and exfoliated cells within lavage, and elevated CD25 expression on circulating CD4(+) lymphocytes. Intrapulmonary bronchi of sensitized monkeys had focal mucus cell hyperplasia, interstitial infiltrates of eosinophils, and thickening of the basement membrane zone. We conclude that a model of allergic asthma can be induced in rhesus monkeys using a protocol consisting of subcutaneous injection, intranasal instillation, and aerosol challenge with HDMA.

  10. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  11. Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences parallel those of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Janice M.; Siebert, Erin R.; Wallen, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Socialization processes, parents, or peers encouraging play with gender specific toys are thought to be the primary force shaping sex differences in toy preference. A contrast in view is that toy preferences reflect biologically determined preferences for specific activities facilitated by specific toys. Sex differences in juvenile activities, such as rough and tumble play, peer preferences, and infant interest, share similarities in humans and monkeys. Thus if activity preferences shape toy preferences, male and female monkeys may show toy preferences similar to those seen in boys and girls. We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a 135 monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences. Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialization. We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioral and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans. PMID:18452921

  12. A preliminary report on oral fat tolerance test in rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Di; Liu, Qingsu; Wei, Shiyuan; Zhang, Yu Alex; Yue, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral fat tolerance test (OFTT) has been widely used to assess the postprandial lipemia in human beings, but there is few studies concerning OFTT in nonhuman primates. This study is designed to explore the feasibility of OFTT in rhesus monkeys. Methods In a cross-over study, a total of 8 adult female rhesus monkeys were fed with normal monkey diet (NND), high sugar high fat diet (HHD), and extremely high fat diet (EHD), respectively. Each monkey consumed NND, HHD and EHD respectivel...

  13. Rhesus monkey lens as an in vitro model for studying oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigler, J.S. Jr.; Lucas, V.A.; Du, X.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Lenses from young rhesus monkeys were incubated in the presence of H 2 O 2 or oxygen radical generating systems to determine their suitability as a model for investigating lenticular oxidative stress. Additionally, direct comparisons were made between the effects found with the monkey lenses and those observed with cultured rat lenses exposed to the same oxidizing systems. As in earlier studies with rat lenses the monkey lenses exhibited impaired ability to actively accumulate from the medium radioactively labelled rubidium and choline following exposure to oxidative stress. Based on the effects of various scavengers of oxygen radicals it appeared that the mechanisms responsible for lens damage were the same for both rat and monkey lenses. However, rat lenses were damaged by lower concentrations of oxidants than were monkey lenses. It was concluded that oxidative stress affects both rat and monkey lenses by similar mechanisms but that lenses from monkeys, and probably other primates, are more resistant to these effects because they have better endogenous antioxidant defenses

  14. Change detection by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, L Caitlin; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A

    2012-08-01

    Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) learned a color change-detection task where two colored circles (selected from a 4-color set) were presented on a 4 × 4 invisible matrix. Following a delay, the correct response was to touch the changed colored circle. The monkeys' learning, color transfer, and delay transfer were compared to a similar experiment with pigeons. Monkeys, like pigeons (Columba livia), showed full transfer to four novel colors, and to delays as long as 6.4 s, suggesting they remembered the colors as opposed to perceptual based attentional capture process that may work at very short delays. The monkeys and pigeons were further tested to compare transfer with other dimensions. Monkeys transferred to shape and location changes, unlike the pigeons, but neither species transferred to size changes. Thus, monkeys were less restricted in their domain to detect change than pigeons, but both species learned the basic task and appear suitable for comparative studies of visual short-term memory. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Comparison of Object Recognition Behavior in Human and Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingham, Rishi; Schmidt, Kailyn

    2015-01-01

    Although the rhesus monkey is used widely as an animal model of human visual processing, it is not known whether invariant visual object recognition behavior is quantitatively comparable across monkeys and humans. To address this question, we systematically compared the core object recognition behavior of two monkeys with that of human subjects. To test true object recognition behavior (rather than image matching), we generated several thousand naturalistic synthetic images of 24 basic-level objects with high variation in viewing parameters and image background. Monkeys were trained to perform binary object recognition tasks on a match-to-sample paradigm. Data from 605 human subjects performing the same tasks on Mechanical Turk were aggregated to characterize “pooled human” object recognition behavior, as well as 33 separate Mechanical Turk subjects to characterize individual human subject behavior. Our results show that monkeys learn each new object in a few days, after which they not only match mean human performance but show a pattern of object confusion that is highly correlated with pooled human confusion patterns and is statistically indistinguishable from individual human subjects. Importantly, this shared human and monkey pattern of 3D object confusion is not shared with low-level visual representations (pixels, V1+; models of the retina and primary visual cortex) but is shared with a state-of-the-art computer vision feature representation. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that rhesus monkeys and humans share a common neural shape representation that directly supports object perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To date, several mammalian species have shown promise as animal models for studying the neural mechanisms underlying high-level visual processing in humans. In light of this diversity, making tight comparisons between nonhuman and human primates is particularly critical in determining the best use of nonhuman primates to

  16. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  17. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  18. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A

    2014-08-06

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of fMRI experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained concerning human brain evolution. We here provide a comprehensive overview of awake monkey fMRI studies mainly confined to the visual system. We review the latest insights about the topographic organization of monkey visual cortex and discuss the spatial relationships between retinotopy and category- and feature-selective clusters. We briefly discuss the functional layout of parietal and frontal cortex and continue with a summary of some fascinating functional and effective connectivity studies. Finally, we review recent comparative fMRI experiments and speculate about the future of nonhuman primate imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comment on "Monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Monkey vocal tracts are capable of producing monkey speech, not the full range of articulate human speech. The evolution of human speech entailed both anatomy and brains. Fitch, de Boer, Mathur, and Ghazanfar in Science Advances claim that "monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready," and conclude that "…the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural change rather than modifications of vocal anatomy." Neither premise is consistent either with the data presented and the conclusions reached by de Boer and Fitch themselves in their own published papers on the role of anatomy in the evolution of human speech or with the body of independent studies published since the 1950s.

  20. Habitat selection of black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) in Tibet: implications for species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Huo, Sheng; Xiao, Wen

    2011-04-01

    As anthropogenic habitat changes are often considered a threat to natural ecosystems and wildlife, a sound understanding of the effects of habitat alteration on endangered species is crucial when designing management strategies or performing conservation activities. Black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) are categorized as endangered on the IUCN Red List and are endemic to the trans-Himalayas in China. At present, there are only 15 groups and 2,500 individuals remaining in the wild, and they are facing intense habitat degradation with selective logging for house building and firewood. Habitat deterioration through wood extraction is occurring at Xiaochangdu, Tibet, where one stable group of R. bieti lives in a marginal habitat in the northernmost part of the species' distribution. To understand the species' response to selective logging in an extremely marginal habitat, data on habitat preference and diet composition of a group of R. bieti were collected at Xiaochangdu from 2003 to 2005. The monkeys used different habitats nonrandomly during the year. The selection index for secondary conifer forest (SC), where selective logging has occurred, was the highest of all habitat types (>1), suggesting that the groups strongly preferred SC. The monkeys fed more on buds/leaves, more on flowers/fruit/seeds, and less on lichen in SC than in primary conifer forest (PC). Dietary diversity was significantly higher in SC than in PC. These results indicate that over the short term, low-intensity disturbances may result in increased foliage diversity that enable groups of R. bieti to survive in this marginal habitat. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Rhesus monkeys see who they hear: spontaneous cross-modal memory for familiar conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Adachi

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys.

  2. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development. PMID:17825347

  3. Comparative imaging study on monkeys with hemi-parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Yu Xiaoping; Mao Jun; Liu Sheng; Wang Xiaoyi; Peng Guangchun; Wang Ruiwen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearance of experimental Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the different medical imaging exams on PD. Methods: CT, MRI, SPECT (dopamine transporter imaging and regional cerebral blood flow imaging, DAT imaging and rCBF imaging), and PET (glucose metabolism imaging) were performed on 8 monkeys before and after the infusion of MPTP into unilateral internal carotid artery to develop hemi-Parkinsonism models. Results: Hemi-Parkinsonism models were successfully induced on all 8 monkeys. On DAT imaging, the uptake values of the lesioned striatums decreased obviously after the MPTP treatment and were lower than that of the contralateral ones. The glucose metabolic rates of the lesioned striatums and thalamus in PD models were lower, compared to that of the healthy monkeys and that of the contralateral sides of themselves. Neither DAT nor glucose metabolism abnormalities was found on both the contralateral sides of the healthy and PD monkeys. On MRI images before MPTP treatment, only 4 of 8 PD models showed hypointense in bilateral globus pallidus. No abnormal MRI findings occurred in the first 2 months after injection of MPTP. At tile third month, hypointense appeared in globus pallidus of three monkeys. Enlarged hyposignal region in globus pallidus were found in three models. Of the above 6 monkeys, two appeared hypointense in putamina. Substantia nigra demonstrated no abnormalities before and after MPTP treatment. All rCBF and CT images were normal. Conclusion: The decreased density of DAT and decreased glucose metabolism on experimental PD can be showed early by DAT imaging and glucose metabolism imaging, MRI can show abnormal signal in the basal ganglia of PD but it is later than DAT and glucose metabolism imaging. CT and rCBF find no abnormality on PD

  4. Widespread and evolutionary analysis of a MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shutao; Hou, Jinna; Long, Yan; Wang, Jing; Li, Cong; Xiao, Qinqin; Jiang, Xiaoxue; Zou, Xiaoxiao; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling

    2015-06-19

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are important components of eukaryotic genomes, with hundreds of families and many copies, which may play important roles in gene regulation and genome evolution. However, few studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms involved. In our previous study, a Tourist-like MITE, Monkey King, was identified from the promoter region of a flowering time gene, BnFLC.A10, in Brassica napus. Based on this MITE, the characteristics and potential roles on gene regulation of the MITE family were analyzed in Brassicaceae. The characteristics of the Tourist-like MITE family Monkey King in Brassicaceae, including its distribution, copies and insertion sites in the genomes of major Brassicaceae species were analyzed in this study. Monkey King was actively amplified in Brassica after divergence from Arabidopsis, which was indicated by the prompt increase in copy number and by phylogenetic analysis. The genomic variations caused by Monkey King insertions, both intra- and inter-species in Brassica, were traced by PCR amplification. Genomic sequence analysis showed that most complete Monkey King elements are located in gene-rich regions, less than 3kb from genes, in both the B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes. Sixty-seven Brassica expressed sequence tags carrying Monkey King fragments were also identified from the NCBI database. Bisulfite sequencing identified specific DNA methylation of cytosine residues in the Monkey King sequence. A fragment containing putative TATA-box motifs in the MITE sequence could bind with nuclear protein(s) extracted from leaves of B. napus plants. A Monkey King-related microRNA, bna-miR6031, was identified in the microRNA database. In transgenic A. thaliana, when the Monkey King element was inserted upstream of 35S promoter, the promoter activity was weakened. Monkey King, a Brassicaceae Tourist-like MITE family, has amplified relatively recently and has induced intra- and inter-species genomic

  5. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Palacios

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Ca...

  6. Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, N; Hirasawa, M; Takada, K

    2016-02-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism was isolated from the oral cavity of tufted capuchin (Cebus apella). Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of the organism within the genus Streptococcus. Strain M8T was related most closely to Streptococcus oralis ATCC 35037T (96.17 % similarity) followed by Streptococcus massiliensis CCUG 49690T (95.90 %) based on the 16S rRNA gene. Strain M8T was related most closely to S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (86.58 %) based on the RNA polymerase β subunit-encoding gene (rpoB), and to Streptococcus tigurinus AZ_3aT (81.26 %) followed by S. massiliensis CCUG 49690T (80.45 %) based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The phylogenetic trees of 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL gene sequences showed that strain M8T was most closely related to S. massiliensis. Based on phenotypic characterization as well as 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping gene (rpoB and groEL) sequence data, a novel taxon, Streptococcus oricebi sp. nov. (type strain M8T = JCM 30719T = DSM 100101T), is proposed.

  7. Transmission of naturally occurring lymphoma in macaque monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, R D; Blake, B J; Chalifoux, L V; Sehgal, P K; King, N W; Letvin, N L

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and ...

  8. Monkey-based research on human disease: the implications of genetic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jarrod

    2014-11-01

    Assertions that the use of monkeys to investigate human diseases is valid scientifically are frequently based on a reported 90-93% genetic similarity between the species. Critical analyses of the relevance of monkey studies to human biology, however, indicate that this genetic similarity does not result in sufficient physiological similarity for monkeys to constitute good models for research, and that monkey data do not translate well to progress in clinical practice for humans. Salient examples include the failure of new drugs in clinical trials, the highly different infectivity and pathology of SIV/HIV, and poor extrapolation of research on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke. The major molecular differences underlying these inter-species phenotypic disparities have been revealed by comparative genomics and molecular biology - there are key differences in all aspects of gene expression and protein function, from chromosome and chromatin structure to post-translational modification. The collective effects of these differences are striking, extensive and widespread, and they show that the superficial similarity between human and monkey genetic sequences is of little benefit for biomedical research. The extrapolation of biomedical data from monkeys to humans is therefore highly unreliable, and the use of monkeys must be considered of questionable value, particularly given the breadth and potential of alternative methods of enquiry that are currently available to scientists. 2014 FRAME.

  9. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  10. Lethal canine distemper virus outbreak in cynomolgus monkeys in Japan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Nagata, Noriyo; Ami, Yasushi; Seki, Fumio; Suzaki, Yuriko; Iwata-Yoshikawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Komase, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Ryoji; Hasegawa, Hideki; Saijo, Masayuki; Takeda, Makoto; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported from China. In that outbreak, 46 monkeys died from severe pneumonia during a quarantine period. A CDV strain (CYN07-dV) was isolated in Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Phylogenic analysis showed that CYN07-dV was closely related to the recent CDV outbreaks in China, suggesting continuing chains of CDV infection in monkeys. In vitro, CYN07-dV uses macaca SLAM and macaca nectin4 as receptors as efficiently as dog SLAM and dog nectin4, respectively. CYN07-dV showed high virulence in experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys and excreted progeny viruses in oral fluid and feces. These data revealed that some of the CDV strains, like CYN07-dV, have the potential to cause acute systemic infection in monkeys.

  11. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  12. The Ecological Rationality of Delay Tolerance: Insights from Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Both human and non-human animals often face decisions between options available at different times, and the capacity of delaying gratification has usually been considered one of the features distinguishing humans from other animals. However, this characteristic can widely vary across individuals, species, and types of task and it is still unclear…

  13. PENGARUH PERSEPSI EKOWISATA TERHADAP TINGKAT KEPUASAN WISATAWAN DI MONKEY FOREST UBUD, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Via Reza Efrida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate (1 the ecotourism perception of tourists visiting Monkey Forest Ubud; (2 the visitor satisfaction level on Monkey Forest Ubud attraction; and (3 the influence of ecotourism perception on visitor satisfaction level at Monkey Forest Ubud. The result of this research carried out descriptive statistic by using an importance-performance analysis (IPA and inferential statistic by using a simple linear regression analysis. The technique of determining sample size is incidental sampling technique by distributing questionnaires to 170 tourists visiting Monkey Forest Ubud. The result showed that tourists which visit Monkey Forest Ubud strongly agree on the implementation of ecotourism concept. On the other hand, the calculation results of concordance rate showed 89.59% which means that the overall tourist is satisfied with the Monkey Forest Ubud attraction. Moreover, based on the hypothesis testing by using t-test statistical significance showed that there is a significant influence of independent variable (perception of ecotourism on the dependent variable (tourist satisfaction.

  14. Reference values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Younan; Qin, Shengfang; Ding, Yang; Wei, Lingling; Zhang, Jie; Li, Hongxia; Bu, Hong; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2009-01-01

    Rhesus monkey models are valuable to the studies of human biology. Reference values for clinical chemistry and hematology parameters of rhesus monkeys are required for proper data interpretation. Whole blood was collected from 36 healthy Chinese rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of either sex, 3 to 5 yr old. Routine chemistry and hematology parameters, and some special coagulation parameters including thromboelastograph and activities of coagulation factors were tested. We presented here the baseline values of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters in normal Chinese rhesus monkeys. These data may provide valuable information for veterinarians and investigators using rhesus monkeys in experimental studies.

  15. Short parietal lobe connections of the human and monkey brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catani, Marco; Robertsson, Naianna; Beyh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    projections were reconstructed for both species and results compared to identify similarities or differences in tract anatomy (i.e., trajectories and cortical projections). In addition, post-mortem dissections were performed in a human brain. The largest tract identified in both human and monkey brains...... and angular gyri of the inferior parietal lobule in humans but only to the supramarginal gyrus in the monkey brain. The third tract connects the postcentral gyrus to the anterior region of the superior parietal lobule and is more prominent in monkeys compared to humans. Finally, short U-shaped fibres...... and monkeys with some differences for those areas that have cytoarchitectonically distinct features in humans. The overall pattern of intraparietal connectivity supports the special role of the inferior parietal lobule in cognitive functions characteristic of humans....

  16. Macaque monkeys can learn token values from human models through vicarious reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Sara; Cerasti, Erika; Falcone, Rossella; Cervelloni, Milena; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Ferraina, Stefano; Genovesio, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Monkeys can learn the symbolic meaning of tokens, and exchange them to get a reward. Monkeys can also learn the symbolic value of a token by observing conspecifics but it is not clear if they can learn passively by observing other actors, e.g., humans. To answer this question, we tested two monkeys in a token exchange paradigm in three experiments. Monkeys learned token values through observation of human models exchanging them. We used, after a phase of object familiarization, different sets of tokens. One token of each set was rewarded with a bit of apple. Other tokens had zero value (neutral tokens). Each token was presented only in one set. During the observation phase, monkeys watched the human model exchange tokens and watched them consume rewards (vicarious rewards). In the test phase, the monkeys were asked to exchange one of the tokens for food reward. Sets of three tokens were used in the first experiment and sets of two tokens were used in the second and third experiments. The valuable token was presented with different probabilities in the observation phase during the first and second experiments in which the monkeys exchanged the valuable token more frequently than any of the neutral tokens. The third experiments examined the effect of unequal probabilities. Our results support the view that monkeys can learn from non-conspecific actors through vicarious reward, even a symbolic task like the token-exchange task.

  17. The properties of B-form monoamine oxidase in mitochondria from monkey platelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Toshio; Aomine, Masahiro

    The present study was examined the effect of the properties of monkey platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) based on inhibitor sensitivity. Monkey platelet showed a high MAO activity with beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA) as substrate and a very low A-form MAO activity with 5 hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) as substrate. Moreover, monkey platelet MAO was sensitive to the drugs deprenyl as B-form MAO inhibitor and less sensitive to clorgyline and harmaline as A form MAO inhibitor with beta-PEA as the B-form MAO substrate. B-form MAO from monkey platelet was more stable against heat treatment at 55 degrees C than B-form MAO in brain. After digestion with trypsin at 37 degrees C for 4 hrs, it was found that MAO from platelet was inhibited about 70% with beta-PEA as substrate with brain. The tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and nortriptyline inhibited B-form MAO activity more potency than B-form MAO in brain. However, when the noncyclic antidepressant nomifensine was used, monkey platelet B-form MAO activities were less potently inhibited. All these reagents were noncompetitive inhibitors of B form MAO in monkey platelet. The present studies demonstrated that monkey platelet MAO is a single of B-form MAO and sensitive to tricyclic antidepressants.

  18. Sporadic Premature Aging in a Japanese Monkey: A Primate Model for Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Takao; Imai, Hiroo; Go, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Masanori; Hirai, Hirohisa; Takada, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged) monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes. PMID:25365557

  19. Long term lung clearance and cellular retention of cadmium in rats and monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdorster, G.; Cox, C.; Baggs, R.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes experiments to determine the long term lung clearance and cellular retention of cadmium in rats and monkeys. The rats and monkeys were exposed to 109 Cd Cl 2 aerosols, and one monkey was exposed to 115 CdO particles. The thoracic activity of the respective Cd isotopes was measured with time after exposure, for both species. Accumulation of 109 Cd in the kidneys of the monkeys exposed to 109 Cd Cl 2 was also examined, and autoradiographs of lung sections of these monkeys were also prepared. The results showed that the cadmium accumulated differently in the lungs of the rats and primates. (U.K.)

  20. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  1. Monkey brain damage from radiation in the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagaki, H.; Brunhart, G.; Kemper, T.L.; Caveness, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve Macaca mulatta monkeys received 200 rads of supervoltage radiation to the whole brain per day, 5 days a week. The course in four monkeys was 4 weeks for a total dose of 4000 rads; in four monkeys, 6 weeks for 6000 rads; and in four monkeys, 8 weeks for 8000 rads. Four unirradiated monkeys served as controls. One from each group, sacrificed at 6 and 12 months from start of irradiation, is reported here. The results from 4000 rads were negligible; those from 8000 rads, profound, with gross brain destruction. The results from 6000 rads, within the therapeutic range, included at 6 months punctate necrotic lesions, 1 mm or less, widely scattered but with a predilection for the forebrain white matter. The reaction to these lesions ranged from an early macrophage response to calcification. Some were accompanied by focal edema. There were occasional examples of vascular endothelial proliferation. In addition, there were patches of dilated capillaries or telangiectasia. Twelve months after 6000 rads there were a few mineralized lesions and innumerable minute deposits of calcium and iron. A more active process was suggested by widely disseminated areas of telangiectasia, 6 to 12 mm in extent. The clinical course from this exposure included papilledema from the third to the sixth month and depressed visual evoked response accompanied by delta activity in the electroencephalogram from the sixth to the twelfth month

  2. Basic math in monkeys and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2007-12-01

    Adult humans possess a sophisticated repertoire of mathematical faculties. Many of these capacities are rooted in symbolic language and are therefore unlikely to be shared with nonhuman animals. However, a subset of these skills is shared with other animals, and this set is considered a cognitive vestige of our common evolutionary history. Current evidence indicates that humans and nonhuman animals share a core set of abilities for representing and comparing approximate numerosities nonverbally; however, it remains unclear whether nonhuman animals can perform approximate mental arithmetic. Here we show that monkeys can mentally add the numerical values of two sets of objects and choose a visual array that roughly corresponds to the arithmetic sum of these two sets. Furthermore, monkeys' performance during these calculations adheres to the same pattern as humans tested on the same nonverbal addition task. Our data demonstrate that nonverbal arithmetic is not unique to humans but is instead part of an evolutionarily primitive system for mathematical thinking shared by monkeys.

  3. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general......, the old monkeys scored significantly worse than did the animals in the two other age groups. Longer delays between stimulus presentation and response increased the performance differences between the old and younger monkeys. The old monkeys in particular showed signs of impaired visuo-spatial memory...

  4. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from children and rhesus monkeys in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hisao; Wu, Zhiliang; Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Kanbara, Hiroji

    2009-03-23

    To investigate the possible transmission of Blastocystis organisms between local rhesus monkeys and children in Kathmandu, Nepal, we compared the subtype (ST) and sequence of Blastocystis isolates from children with gastrointestinal symptoms and local rhesus monkeys. Twenty and 10 Blastocystis isolates were established from 82 and 10 fecal samples obtained from children and monkeys, respectively. Subtype analysis with seven sequence-tagged site (STS) primers indicated that the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. ST1, ST2 and ST3 was 20%, 20% and 60% in the child isolates, respectively. In contrast to human isolates, ST3 was not found in monkey isolates and the prevalence of ST1 and ST2 was 50% and 70%, respectively, including three mixed STs1 and 2 and one isolate not amplified by any STS primers, respectively. Since Blastocystis sp. ST2 has been reported as the most dominant genotype in the survey of Blastocystis infection among the various monkey species, sequence comparison of the 150bp variable region of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene was conducted among ST2 isolates of humans and monkeys. Sequence alignment of 24 clones developed from ST2 isolates of 4 humans and 4 monkeys showed three distinct subgroups, defined as ST2A, ST2B and ST2C. These three subgroups were shared between the child and monkey isolates. These results suggest that the local rhesus monkeys are a possible source of Blastocystis sp. ST2 infection of humans in Kathmandu.

  5. A. Femoralis in the small Green Monkey(Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The small Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus in large groups inhabits the African savannah. The animals delivered to us were from East Africa, that is from Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The length of the animal is 110 cm, and the tail itself is 50 cm long. They can often be seen in Zoos. According to data, mostly by zoo gardens, these monkeys live for about 15 to 17 years, exceptionally for 20 years. The objective of our work was to investigate a part of their cardiovascular system so in that way to contribute to a better knowledge of this animal body structure and accordingly to comparative anatomy in general. The investigation included 6 Small Green Monkeys, of both gender, 3-4 years old, body weight 2000-3000 grams, obtained from The Institute for Virusology, vaccines and serums from Belgrade. For obtaining the hindlimb arterial vascularization, after exsanguination of the animal, contrast mass of gelatin coloured with tempera was injected into the abdominal aorta. After injecting, the blood vessels were prepared and photographed. In the Small Green Monkey, femoral artery (A. femoralis is an continuation of the external iliac artery (A. iliaca externa. The branches of the femoral artery are: A. profunda femoris, A. saphena, A. genus descendens and A. caudalis femoralis. A. profunda femoris separates to A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, Ramus muscularis and A. circumflexa femoris medialis. In humans A. femoralis branches into: A. epigastrica superficialis, A. circumflexa ilium superficialis, Aa. pudendae externae, A. profunda femoris and A. genus descendens (A. descendens genus. A. profunda femoris branches into: A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, A. circumflexa femoris medialis and Aa. perforantes. In domestic animals, mammals, the branches of the femoral artery (A. femoralis are: A. circumflexa femoris lateralis, A. saphena, A. genus descendens and Aa. caudales femoris In the Small Green Monkey, humans and domestic mammals A. femoralis

  6. Present and potential distribution of Snub-nosed Monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    are the Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus), a temperate-subtropical East Asian genus. We use species distribution modeling to assess the following question of key relevancy for conservation management of Rhinopithecus; 1. Which climatic factors determine the present distribution of Rhinopithecus within...... distribution of Rhinopithecus within the region, considering climate, habitat availability and the locations of nature reserves. Keywords: biodiversity, biogeography, conservation, China, snub-nosed monkey, rhinopithecus, primates, species distribution modeling...

  7. Tahyna virus genetics, infectivity, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tahyna virus (TAHV is a human pathogen of the California encephalitis virus (CEV serogroup (Bunyaviridae endemic to Europe, Asia, and Africa. TAHV maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. Human TAHV infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. TAHV disease can progress to CNS involvement, although unlike related La Crosse virus (LACV, fatalities have not been reported. Human infections are frequent with neutralizing antibodies present in 60-80% of the elderly population in endemic areas. Results In order to determine the genomic sequence of wild-type TAHV, we chose three TAHV isolates collected over a 26-year period from mosquitoes. Here we present the first complete sequence of the TAHV S, M, and L segments. The three TAHV isolates maintained a highly conserved genome with both nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity greater than 99%. In order to determine the extent of genetic relatedness to other members of the CEV serogroup, we compared protein sequences of TAHV with LACV, Snowshoe Hare virus (SSHV, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, and Inkoo virus (INKV. By amino acid comparison, TAHV was most similar to SSHV followed by LACV, JCV, and INKV. The sequence of the GN protein is most conserved followed by L, N, GC, NSS, and NSM. In a weanling Swiss Webster mouse model, all three TAHV isolates were uniformly neurovirulent, but only one virus was neuroinvasive. In rhesus monkeys, the virus was highly immunogenic even in the absence of viremia. Cross neutralization studies utilizing monkey immune serum demonstrated that TAHV is antigenically distinct from North American viruses LACV and JCV. Conclusions Here we report the first complete sequence of TAHV and present genetic analysis of new-world viruses, LACV, SSHV, and JCV with old

  8. Highly polymorphic colour vision in a New World monkey with red facial skin, the bald uakari (Cacajao calvus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Josmael; Bowler, Mark; Heymann, Eckhard W; Roos, Christian; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2016-04-13

    Colour vision is highly variable in New World monkeys (NWMs). Evidence for the adaptive basis of colour vision in this group has largely centred on environmental features such as foraging benefits for differently coloured foods or predator detection, whereas selection on colour vision for sociosexual communication is an alternative hypothesis that has received little attention. The colour vision of uakaris (Cacajao) is of particular interest because these monkeys have the most dramatic red facial skin of any primate, as well as a unique fission/fusion social system and a specialist diet of seeds. Here, we investigate colour vision in a wild population of the bald uakari,C. calvus, by genotyping the X-linked opsin locus. We document the presence of a polymorphic colour vision system with an unprecedented number of functional alleles (six), including a novel allele with a predicted maximum spectral sensitivity of 555 nm. This supports the presence of strong balancing selection on different alleles at this locus. We consider different hypotheses to explain this selection. One possibility is that trichromacy functions in sexual selection, enabling females to choose high-quality males on the basis of red facial coloration. In support of this, there is some evidence that health affects facial coloration in uakaris, as well as a high prevalence of blood-borne parasitism in wild uakari populations. Alternatively, the low proportion of heterozygous female trichromats in the population may indicate selection on different dichromatic phenotypes, which might be related to cryptic food coloration. We have uncovered unexpected diversity in the last major lineage of NWMs to be assayed for colour vision, which will provide an interesting system to dissect adaptation of polymorphic trichromacy. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  10. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, S T; Novak, M A; Bond, M

    1998-06-01

    The authors tested orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) on object permanence tasks. In Experiment 1, orangutans solved all visible displacements and most invisible displacements except those involving movements into 2 boxes successively. In Experiment 2, performance of orangutans on double invisible displacements and control displacements (assessing simple strategies) was compared. Orangutans did not use the simple strategy of selecting the box visited last by the experimenter. Instead, poorer performance on double invisible displacements may have been related to increased memory requirements. In Experiment 3, squirrel monkeys were tested using the procedure of Experiment 1. Squirrel monkeys solved visible but did not comprehend invisible displacements. Results suggest that orangutans but not squirrel monkeys possess Stage 6 object permanence capabilities.

  11. What interests them in the pictures?--differences in eye-tracking between rhesus monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ying-Zhou; Jiang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Ci-Rong; Wang, Jian-Hong; Yu, Cheng-Yang; Carlson, Synnöve; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Rizak, Joshua D; Tian, Xiao-Guang; Tan, Hen; Chen, Zhu-Yue; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2013-10-01

    Studies estimating eye movements have demonstrated that non-human primates have fixation patterns similar to humans at the first sight of a picture. In the current study, three sets of pictures containing monkeys, humans or both were presented to rhesus monkeys and humans. The eye movements on these pictures by the two species were recorded using a Tobii eye-tracking system. We found that monkeys paid more attention to the head and body in pictures containing monkeys, whereas both monkeys and humans paid more attention to the head in pictures containing humans. The humans always concentrated on the eyes and head in all the pictures, indicating the social role of facial cues in society. Although humans paid more attention to the hands than monkeys, both monkeys and humans were interested in the hands and what was being done with them in the pictures. This may suggest the importance and necessity of hands for survival. Finally, monkeys scored lower in eye-tracking when fixating on the pictures, as if they were less interested in looking at the screen than humans. The locations of fixation in monkeys may provide insight into the role of eye movements in an evolutionary context.

  12. X-ray induced translocations in premeiotic germ cells of monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buul, P.P.W. van

    1991-01-01

    Induction of reciprocal translocations by various X-ray exposures was studied in spermatogonial stem cells of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and stump-tailed Macaques (arctoides) by means of spermatocyte analysis many cell generations after irradiation. The yields of trans-locations recovered from irradiated stump-tailed macaques were lower than those observed in rhesus monkeys and represent in fact the lowest induction rates per Gy ever recorded for experimental mammals. In the rhesus monkey a humped dose-effect relationship was found with 1.a homo -geneous response with (pseudo-)linear kinetics below 1 Gy, 2.much more variability at higher doses, and 3.no induction at all at doses of 4 Gy and above. It is suggested that the post-irradiation proliferation differentiation pattern of surviving rhesus monkey spermatogonial stem cells is mainly responsible for these characteristics of the dose-response curve. (author). 41 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  13. Single subcutaneous dosing of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, J.; Thuesen, Line Risager; Braskamp, G.

    2011-01-01

    was to determine whether cefovecin is a suitable antibiotic to prevent skin wound infection in rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of cefovecin after a single subcutaneous injection at 8 mg/kg bodyweight in four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and sensitivity of bacterial isolates from fresh skin...... wounds were determined. After administration, blood, urine, and feces were collected, and concentrations of cefovecin were determined. Further, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for bacteria isolated from fresh skin wounds of monkeys during a health control program were determined. The mean...... maximum plasma concentration (C(max) ) of cefovecin was 78 µg/mL and was achieved after 57 min. The mean apparent long elimination half-life (t½) was 6.6 h and excretion occurred mainly via urine. The MIC for the majority of the bacteria examined was >100 µg/mL. The PK of cefovecin in rhesus monkeys...

  14. Number of Grooming Partners Is Associated with Hookworm Infection in Wild Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Brandi T; Remis, Melissa J; Camp, Joseph W; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    There are many known benefits of social grooming among primates, including maintenance of social relationships, removal of ectoparasites, and improved physiological condition. Recently, however, researchers have noted that social grooming and social contact may also present a significant cost by facilitating transmission of some parasites and pathogens. We investigated whether the number of social grooming partners varied based on infection status for gastrointestinal parasites. We used focal animal sampling and continuous recording to collect data on the number of grooming partners for known individual vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). We collected non-invasive faecal samples and examined them using faecal flotation, faecal sedimentation, and immunofluorescence microscopy. We detected 6 parasites: Trichuris sp. (92%), hookworm (71%), spirurids (68%), Oesophagostomum sp. (84%), Strongyloides sp. (24%), and Entamoeba coli (92%). The number of grooming partners varied significantly based on infection with hookworm and sex. No significant relationships were detected for other parasites. Associations between host behavioural variation and some parasite taxa (specifically Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, and Entamoeba spp.) were impossible to explore due to an extremely high prevalence among hosts. This is the first report that we are aware of that has detected an association between social grooming behaviours and infection with hookworm. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  16. Geophagy in brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a lowland tropical rainforest in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Andres; de Luna, Ana Gabriela; Arango, Ricardo; Diaz, Maria Clara

    2011-01-01

    Spider monkeys and howler monkeys are the only Neotropical primates that eat soil from mineral licks. Not all species within these genera visit mineral licks, and geophagy has been restricted to populations of Ateles belzebuth belzebuth,Ateles belzebuth chamek and Alouatta seniculus in western Amazonian rainforests. With the aid of a camera trap we studied the visitation patterns of a group of brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) to a mineral lick at Serrania de Las Quinchas, in Colombia. Spider monkeys visited the lick frequently throughout the year, with a monthly average of 21.7 ± 7.2 visits per 100 days of camera trapping (n = 14 months). Spider monkeys visited the mineral lick almost always on days with no rain, or very little (<3 mm) rain, suggesting that proximate environmental variables might determine spider monkeys' decisions to come to the ground at the licks. This study expands the geographical occurrence of mineral lick use by spider monkeys providing additional data for future assessments on the biogeographical correlates of mineral lick use by platyrrhines. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggu Cai

    Full Text Available Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2 and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3. Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  18. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenggu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Song, Xuejie; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species.

  19. Heterochrony and cross-species intersensory matching by infant vervet monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Zangenehpour

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolutionary origins of a phenotype requires understanding the relationship between ontogenetic and phylogenetic processes. Human infants have been shown to undergo a process of perceptual narrowing during their first year of life, whereby their intersensory ability to match the faces and voices of another species declines as they get older. We investigated the evolutionary origins of this behavioral phenotype by examining whether or not this developmental process occurs in non-human primates as well.We tested the ability of infant vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops, ranging in age from 23 to 65 weeks, to match the faces and voices of another non-human primate species (the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. Even though the vervets had no prior exposure to rhesus monkey faces and vocalizations, our findings show that infant vervets can, in fact, recognize the correspondence between rhesus monkey faces and voices (but indicate that they do so by looking at the non-matching face for a greater proportion of overall looking time, and can do so well beyond the age of perceptual narrowing in human infants. Our results further suggest that the pattern of matching by vervet monkeys is influenced by the emotional saliency of the Face+Voice combination. That is, although they looked at the non-matching screen for Face+Voice combinations, they switched to looking at the matching screen when the Voice was replaced with a complex tone of equal duration. Furthermore, an analysis of pupillary responses revealed that their pupils showed greater dilation when looking at the matching natural face/voice combination versus the face/tone combination.Because the infant vervets in the current study exhibited cross-species intersensory matching far later in development than do human infants, our findings suggest either that intersensory perceptual narrowing does not occur in Old World monkeys or that it occurs later in development. We argue that these

  20. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S; Lusink, G

    1977-01-01

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1 to 6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  1. Placental Transport of Zidovudine in the Rhesus Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas S.; Henderson, George I.; Schenker, Steven; Schenken, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to characterize the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine (ZDV) and ZDV-glucuronide (ZDVG) in the material and :fetal circulations of the rhesus monkey. Methods: Cannulas were placed in the maternal external jugular and the fetal internal jugular and carotid artery in 8 pregnant monkeys at .120–130 days gestation. ZDV (3.5 mg/kg) was administered to 5 monkeys and ZDVG (3.5 mg/kg) to 3 monkeys as single intravenous bolus infusions through the maternal catheter. Maternal and fetal blood , samples were collected every 20 min for the first 2 h and then every hour for the next 4 h. Maternal and fetal concentrations of ZDV and ZDVG were determined using high, performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection. Results: In monkeys who received ZDV, the terminal half-life (T1/2) for ZDV was 37±15 and 33 ± 13 min in the maternal and fetal compartments, respectively. The apparent T1/2 for maternal ZDVG was 124 ± 44 and 142 ± 50 min in the maternal and fetal compartments, respectively. Peak levels of ZDV and ZDVG in the fetal compartment were reached 40 min after injection. The mean fetal/maternal concentration ratios for ZDV and ZDVG ranged from 0.20 ± 0.20 at 20 min to a maximum of 0.74 ± 1.0 at 120 min and from 0.28 ± 0.08 at 20 min to 1.4 ± 1.3 at 180 min, respectively. In monkeys who received ZDVG, the T1/2 for ZDWG in the maternal and fetal compartments was 47 ± 26 and 119 ± 164 min, respectively. ZDVG reached its peak in the fetal compartment at 60 min post-injection. The fetal/maternal rafio ranged from 0.08 ± 0.11 at 20 min to 4.2 ± 4.2 at 180 min post-injection. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that 1) ZDV and ZDVG rapidly cross the placenta to the fetal compartment, 2) ZDV crosses more rapidly than ZDVG, and 3) some metabolism of ZDV to ZDVG occurs in the fetal compartment. PMID:18475334

  2. Pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever in Rhesus Monkeys: Role of Interferon Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    hemorrhagic fever characterized by epistaxis, petechial to purpuric cutaneous lesions, anorexia, and vomiting prior to death. The 14 remaining monkeys survived...DMI, FILE Copy Arch Virol (1990) 110: 195-212 Amhivesirology ( by Springer-Verlag 1990 00 N Pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever in rhesus monkeys: (NI...inoculated intravenously with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus presented clinical disease syndromes similar to human cases of RVF. All 17 infected monkeys

  3. Distribution of [1-14C]acrylonitrile in rat and monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.Ch.; Slanina, P.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of [1- 14 C]acrylonitrile (ACN) in rat and monkey has been studied by whole-body autoradiography, after being administered orally and intravenously to rats and orally to monkeys. Uptake of radioactivity was seen in the blood, liver, kidney, lung, adrenal cortex and stomach mucosa. (Auth.)

  4. Mutant alpha-synuclein causes age-dependent neuropathology in monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weili; Wang, Guohao; Wang, Chuan-En; Guo, Xiangyu; Yin, Peng; Gao, Jinquan; Tu, Zhuchi; Wang, Zhengbo; Wu, Jing; Hu, Xintian; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-27

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease that often occurs in those over age 60. Although rodents and small animals have been used widely to model PD and investigate its pathology, their short life span makes it difficult to assess the aging-related pathology that is likely to occur in PD patient brains. Here, we used brain tissues from rhesus monkeys at 2-3, 7-8, and >15 years of age to examine the expression of Parkin, PINK1, and α-synuclein, which are known to cause PD via loss- or gain-of-function mechanisms. We found that α-synuclein is increased in the older monkey brains, whereas Parkin and PINK1 are decreased or remain unchanged. Because of the gain of toxicity of α-synuclein, we performed stereotaxic injection of lentiviral vectors expressing mutant α-synuclein (A53T) into the substantia nigra of monkeys and found that aging also increases the accumulation of A53T in neurites and its associated neuropathology. A53T also causes more extensive reactive astrocytes and axonal degeneration in monkey brain than in mouse brain. Using monkey brain tissues, we found that A53T interacts with neurofascin, an adhesion molecule involved in axon subcellular targeting and neurite outgrowth. Aged monkey brain tissues show an increased interaction of neurofascin with A53T. Overexpression of A53T causes neuritic toxicity in cultured neuronal cells, which can be attenuated by transfected neurofascin. These findings from nonhuman primate brains reveal age-dependent pathological and molecular changes that could contribute to the age-dependent neuropathology in PD. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358345-14$15.00/0.

  5. SV40 host-substituted variants: a new look at the monkey DNA inserts and recombinant junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Maxine; Winocour, Ernest

    2011-04-10

    The available monkey genomic data banks were examined in order to determine the chromosomal locations of the host DNA inserts in 8 host-substituted SV40 variant DNAs. Five of the 8 variants contained more than one linked monkey DNA insert per tandem repeat unit and in all cases but one, the 19 monkey DNA inserts in the 8 variants mapped to different locations in the monkey genome. The 50 parental DNAs (32 monkey and 18 SV40 DNA segments) which spanned the crossover and flanking regions that participated in monkey/monkey and monkey/SV40 recombinations were characterized by substantial levels of microhomology of up to 8 nucleotides in length; the parental DNAs also exhibited direct and inverted repeats at or adjacent to the crossover sequences. We discuss how the host-substituted SV40 variants arose and the nature of the recombination mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Loss of metabolites from monkey striatum during PET with FDOPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, P; Munk, O L; Doudet, D

    2001-01-01

    constants using data recorded during 240 min of FDOPA circulation in normal monkeys and in monkeys with unilateral 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) lesions. Use of the extended models increased the magnitudes of K(D)(i) and k(D)(3) in striatum; in the case of k(D)(3), variance...... of the estimate was substantially improved upon correction for metabolite loss. The rate constants for metabolite loss were higher in MPTP-lesioned monkey striatum than in normal striatum. The high correlation between individual estimates of k(Lin)(cl) and k(DA)(9) suggests that both rate constants reveal loss...

  7. Construction and evaluation of novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vaccine vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N; Iampietro, M Justin; Bricault, Christine A; Teigler, Jeffrey E; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H

    2015-02-01

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. The phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. Here we describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors. Although there have been substantial efforts in the development of vaccine vectors from human and chimpanzee adenoviruses, far less is known about rhesus monkey adenoviruses. In this report, we describe the isolation and vectorization of three novel rhesus monkey adenoviruses. These vectors exhibit virologic and immunologic characteristics that make them attractive as potential candidate vaccine vectors for both HIV-1 and other pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference of vascular endothelial growth factor in monkey eyes with iris neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Meng-Ke; Tao, Yong; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Kai, Wang; Jiang, Yan-Rong

    2010-08-25

    To explore the in vivo anti-angiogenesis effects resulting from lentivirus-mediated RNAi of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in monkeys with iris neovascularization (INV). Five specific recombinant lentiviral vectors for RNA interference, targeting Macaca mulatta VEGFA, were designed and the one with best knock down efficacy (LV-GFP-VEGFi1) in H1299 cells and RF/6A cells was selected by real-time PCR for in vivo use. A laser-induced retinal vein occlusion model was established in one eye of seven cynomolgus monkeys. In monkeys number 1, 3, and 5 (Group 1), the virus (1x10(8) particles) was intravitreally injected into the preretinal space of the animal's eye immediately after laser coagulation; and in monkeys number 2, 4, and 6 (Group 2), the virus (1x10(8) particles) was injected at 10 days after laser coagulation. In monkey number 7, a blank control injection was performed. In monkeys number 1 and 2, virus without RNAi sequence was used; in monkeys number 3 and 4, virus with nonspecific RNAi sequence was used; and in monkeys 5 and 6, LV-GFP-VEGFi1 was used. In monkey number 5, at 23 days after laser treatment, no obvious INV was observed, while fluorescein angiography of the iris revealed high fluorescence at the margin of pupil and point posterior synechiae. At 50 days after laser treatment, only a slight ectropion uvea was found. However, in the other eyes, obvious INV or hyphema was observed. The densities of new iridic vessels all significantly varied: between monkey number 5 and number 3 (36.01+/-4.49/mm(2) versus 48.68+/-9.30/mm(2), p=0.025), between monkey number 3 and monkey number 7 (48.68+/-9.30/mm(2) versus 74.38+/-9.23/mm(2), p=0.002), and between monkey number 5 and number 7 (36.01+/-4.49/mm(2) versus 74.38+/-9.23/mm(2), p<0.001). Lentivirus-mediated RNAi of VEGF may be a new strategy to treat iris neovascularization, while further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effect.

  9. Abstract Knowledge in the Broken-String Problem: Evidence from Nonhuman Primates and Pre-Schoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Carolina; Call, Josep; Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Gloria; Seed, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    There is still large controversy about whether abstract knowledge of physical problems is uniquely human. We presented 9 capuchin monkeys, 6 bonobos, 6 chimpanzees and 48 children with two versions of a broken-string problem. In the standard condition, participants had to choose between an intact and a broken string as means to a reward. In the critical condition, the functional parts of the strings were covered up and replaced by perceptually similar, but non-functional cues. Apes, monkeys and young children performed significantly better in the standard condition in which the cues played a functional role, indicating knowledge of the functional properties involved. Moreover, a control experiment with chimpanzees and young children ruled out that this difference in performance could be accounted for by differences of perceptual feedback in the two conditions. We suggest that, similar to humans, nonhuman primates partly rely on abstract concepts in physical problem-solving. PMID:25272161

  10. Human-Rhesus Monkey conflict at Rampur Village under Monohardi Upazila in Narsingdi District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ahsan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-Rhesus monkey conflicts were recorded at Rampur Village under Khidirpur Union Parishad of Monohardi upazila under Narsingdi District in Bangladesh from April to September 2012. There were three groups of Rhesus monkeys living in the area. The focal study group comprised 26 individuals (4 adult males, 6 adult females, 10 juveniles and 6 infants. The monkeys consumed parts of 10 plant species. From the questionnaire survey, it was found that the greatest damage caused by monkeys was on betel leaf vines and the least damage on vegetables. Eighty percent respondents opted to conserve the monkeys and 20% opined status quo. Some restricted areas (especially khas lands may be identified and planted with some fruit trees for survival of monkeys and for reducing conflicts with humans.

  11. Supply and demand determine the market value of food providers in wild vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruteau, Cécile; Voelkl, Bernhard; van Damme, Eric; Noë, Ronald

    2009-07-21

    Animals neither negotiate verbally nor conclude binding contracts, but nevertheless regularly exchange goods and services without overt coercion and manage to arrive at agreements over exchange rates. Biological market theory predicts that such exchange rates fluctuate according to the law of supply and demand. Previous studies showed that primates pay more when commodities become scarcer: subordinates groomed dominants longer before being tolerated at food sites in periods of shortage; females groomed mothers longer before obtaining permission to handle their infants when there were fewer newborns and males groomed fertile females longer before obtaining their compliance when fewer such females were present. We further substantiated these results by conducting a 2-step experiment in 2 groups of free-ranging vervet monkeys in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa. We first allowed a single low-ranking female to repeatedly provide food to her entire group by triggering the opening of a container and measured grooming bouts involving this female in the hour after she made the reward available. We then measured the shifts in grooming patterns after we added a second food container that could be opened by another low-ranking female, the second provider. All 4 providers received more grooming, relative to the amount of grooming they provided themselves. As biological market theory predicts, the initial gain of first providers was partially lost again after the introduction of a second provider in both groups. We conclude that grooming was fine-tuned to changes in the value of these females as social partners.

  12. Discrepancies in the occurrence of Balantidium coli between wild and captive African great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Petrželková, Klára J; Profousová, Ilona; Petrášová, Jana; Modrý, David

    2010-12-01

    Balantidium coli is a ciliate reported in many mammalian species, including African great apes. In the former, asymptomatic infections as well as clinical balantidiasis have been reported in captivity. We carried out a cross-sectional study of B. coli in African great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and both species of gorillas) and examined 1,161 fecal samples from 28 captive facilities in Europe, plus 2 sanctuaries and 11 wild sites in Africa. Samples were analyzed with the use of Sheather's flotation and merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIFC) sedimentation. MIFC sedimentation was the more sensitive technique for diagnostics of B. coli in apes. Although not detected in any wild-ape populations, B. coli was diagnosed in 52.6% of captive individuals. Surprisingly, in the apes' feces, trophozoites of B. coli were commonly detected, in contrast with other animals, e.g., Old World monkeys, pigs, etc. Most likely reservoirs for B. coli in captive apes include synantropic rats. High starch diets in captive apes are likely to exacerbate the occurrence of balantidiasis in captive apes.

  13. Ethograms indicate stable well-being during prolonged training phases in rhesus monkeys used in neurophysiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Ott, Torben; Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Jacob, Simon N; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Awake, behaving rhesus monkeys are widely used in neurophysiological research. Neural signals are typically measured from monkeys trained with operant conditioning techniques to perform a variety of behavioral tasks in exchange for rewards. Over the past years, monkeys' psychological well-being during experimentation has become an increasingly important concern. We suggest objective criteria to explore whether training sessions during which the monkeys work under controlled water intake over many days might affect their behavior. With that aim, we analyzed a broad range of species-specific behaviors over several months ('ethogram') and used these ethograms as a proxy for the monkeys' well-being. Our results show that monkeys' behavior during training sessions is unaffected by the duration of training-free days in-between. Independently of the number of training-free days (two or nine days) with ad libitum food and water supply, the monkeys were equally active and alert in their home group cages during training phases. This indicates that the monkeys were well habituated to prolonged working schedules and that their well-being was stably ensured during the training sessions.

  14. Response of sublethally irradiated monkeys to a replicating viral antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmas, D.E.; Spertzel, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    Temporal effects of exposure to sublethal, total-body x radiation (400 R) on responses to vaccination with the attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis vaccine virus, TC-83, were examined in rhesus monkeys. Viremia, often with delayed onset, was prolonged even when irradiation preceded vaccination by 28 days. Virus titers were increased, particularly in groups irradiated 4 or 7 days before vaccination. Delay in appearance of hemagglutination-inhibition and serum-neutralizing antibody correlated closely with persistence of viremia in irradiated-vaccinated monkeys. The temporal course of antibody response was markedly affected by the interval between irradiation and injection of this replicating antigen. With longer intervals between irradiation and vaccination, the somewhat depressed antibody responses approached normal or surpassed those of nonirradiated monkeys. Vaccination 14 days after radiation exposure resulted in lethality to 8 of 12 monkeys, apparently as a result of secondary infection. The additional lymphopenic stress due to the effect of TC-83, superimposed on the severely depressed hematopoietic competence at 14 days, undoubtedly contributed to this increased susceptibility to latent infection

  15. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  16. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of [14C]ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected [14C]ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats

  17. The neonatal marmoset monkey ovary is very primitive exhibiting many oogonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereydouni, B; Drummer, C; Aeckerle, N; Schlatt, S; Behr, R

    2014-01-01

    Oogonia are characterized by diploidy and mitotic proliferation. Human and mouse oogonia express several factors such as OCT4, which are characteristic of pluripotent cells. In human, almost all oogonia enter meiosis between weeks 9 and 22 of prenatal development or undergo mitotic arrest and subsequent elimination from the ovary. As a consequence, neonatal human ovaries generally lack oogonia. The same was found in neonatal ovaries of the rhesus monkey, a representative of the old world monkeys (Catarrhini). By contrast, proliferating oogonia were found in adult prosimians (now called Strepsirrhini), which is a group of ‘lower’ primates. The common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) belongs to the new world monkeys (Platyrrhini) and is increasingly used in reproductive biology and stem cell research. However, ovarian development in the marmoset monkey has not been widely investigated. Herein, we show that the neonatal marmoset ovary has an extremely immature histological appearance compared with the human ovary. It contains numerous oogonia expressing the pluripotency factors OCT4A, SALL4, and LIN28A (LIN28). The pluripotency factor-positive germ cells also express the proliferation marker MKI67 (Ki-67), which has previously been shown in the human ovary to be restricted to premeiotic germ cells. Together, the data demonstrate the primitiveness of the neonatal marmoset ovary compared with human. This study may introduce the marmoset monkey as a non-human primate model to experimentally study the aspects of primate primitive gonad development, follicle assembly, and germ cell biology in vivo. PMID:24840529

  18. Black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) as sentinels of ecosystem health: patterns of zoonotic protozoa infection relative to degree of human-primate contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Martin M; Salzer, Johanna S; Deutsch, Joseph C; Raño, Mariana; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Exponential expansion of human populations and human activities within primate habitats has resulted in high potential for pathogen exchange creating challenges for biodiversity conservation and global health. Under such conditions, resilient habitat generalists such as black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) may act as effective sentinels to overall ecosystem health and alert us to impending epidemics in the human population. To better understand this potential, we examined noninvasively collected fecal samples from black and gold howler monkeys from remote, rural, and village populations in Northern Argentina. We examined all samples (n=90) for the zoonotic protozoa Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. via immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) detection. All samples were negative for Cryptosporidium sp. The prevalence of Giardia sp. was significantly higher at the rural site (67%) compared with the remote forest (57%) and village (40%) sites. A lack of Cryptosporidium sp. in all samples examined suggests that this pathogen is not a natural component of the howler parasite communities at these sites and that current land-use patterns and livestock contact are not exposing Argentine howler monkeys to this pathogen. High prevalence of Giardia sp. at all sites suggests that howler monkeys may serve as a viable reservoir for Giardia. Significantly higher prevalence of Giardia sp. at the rural site, where primate-livestock contact is highest, suggests the presence of multiple Giardia clades or increased exposure to Giardia through repeated zoonotic transmission among nonhuman primates, livestock, and/or people. These results highlight the need for future research into the epidemiology, cross-species transmission ecology, and clinical consequences of Giardia and other infectious agents not only in humans and livestock, but also in the wild animals that share their environments. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Event-based proactive interference in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkar, Deepna T; Wright, Anthony A

    2016-10-01

    Three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were tested in a same/different memory task for proactive interference (PI) from prior trials. PI occurs when a previous sample stimulus appears as a test stimulus on a later trial, does not match the current sample stimulus, and the wrong response "same" is made. Trial-unique pictures (scenes, objects, animals, etc.) were used on most trials, except on trials where the test stimulus matched potentially interfering sample stimulus from a prior trial (1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 trials prior). Greater interference occurred when fewer trials separated interference and test. PI functions showed a continuum of interference. Delays between sample and test stimuli and intertrial intervals were manipulated to test how PI might vary as a function of elapsed time. Contrary to a similar study with pigeons, these time manipulations had no discernable effect on the monkey's PI, as shown by compete overlap of PI functions with no statistical differences or interactions. These results suggested that interference was strictly based upon the number of intervening events (trials with other pictures) without regard to elapsed time. The monkeys' apparent event-based interference was further supported by retesting with a novel set of 1,024 pictures. PI from novel pictures 1 or 2 trials prior was greater than from familiar pictures, a familiar set of 1,024 pictures. Moreover, when potentially interfering novel stimuli were 16 trials prior, performance accuracy was actually greater than accuracy on baseline trials (no interference), suggesting that remembering stimuli from 16 trials prior was a cue that this stimulus was not the sample stimulus on the current trial-a somewhat surprising conclusion particularly given monkeys.

  20. Predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to a visual metronome in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeya, Ryuji; Kameda, Masashi; Patel, Aniruddh D; Tanaka, Masaki

    2017-07-21

    Predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to an auditory beat is a fundamental component of human music. To date, only certain vocal learning species show this behaviour spontaneously. Prior research training macaques (vocal non-learners) to tap to an auditory or visual metronome found their movements to be largely reactive, not predictive. Does this reflect the lack of capacity for predictive synchronization in monkeys, or lack of motivation to exhibit this behaviour? To discriminate these possibilities, we trained monkeys to make synchronized eye movements to a visual metronome. We found that monkeys could generate predictive saccades synchronized to periodic visual stimuli when an immediate reward was given for every predictive movement. This behaviour generalized to novel tempi, and the monkeys could maintain the tempo internally. Furthermore, monkeys could flexibly switch from predictive to reactive saccades when a reward was given for each reactive response. In contrast, when humans were asked to make a sequence of reactive saccades to a visual metronome, they often unintentionally generated predictive movements. These results suggest that even vocal non-learners may have the capacity for predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to a beat, but that only certain vocal learning species are intrinsically motivated to do it.

  1. Discovery of a Cynomolgus Monkey Family With Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nishiguchi, Koji M; Miya, Fuyuki; Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Funatsu, Jun; Nakatake, Shunji; Fujiwara, Kohta; Tachibana, Takashi; Murakami, Yusuke; Hisatomi, Toshio; Yoshida, Shigeo; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Nakazawa, Toru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2018-02-01

    To accelerate the development of new therapies, an inherited retinal degeneration model in a nonhuman primate would be useful to confirm the efficacy in preclinical studies. In this study, we describe the discovery of retinitis pigmentosa in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) pedigree. First, screening with fundus photography was performed on 1443 monkeys at the Tsukuba Primate Research Center. Ophthalmic examinations, such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, ERGs using RETeval, and optic coherent tomography (OCT) measurement, were then performed to confirm diagnosis. Retinal degeneration with cystoid macular edema was observed in both eyes of one 14-year-old female monkey. In her examinations, the full-field ERGs were nonrecordable and the outer layer of the retina in the parafoveal area was not visible on OCT imaging. Moreover, less frequent pigmentary retinal anomalies also were observed in her 3-year-old nephew. His full-field ERGs were almost nonrecordable and the outer layer was not visible in the peripheral retina. His father was her cousin (the son of her mother's older brother) and his mother was her younger half-sibling sister with a different father. The hereditary nature is highly probable (autosomal recessive inheritance suspected). However, whole-exome analysis performed identified no pathogenic mutations in these monkeys.

  2. Neural Monkey: An Open-source Tool for Sequence Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helcl Jindřich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we announce the development of Neural Monkey – an open-source neural machine translation (NMT and general sequence-to-sequence learning system built over the TensorFlow machine learning library. The system provides a high-level API tailored for fast prototyping of complex architectures with multiple sequence encoders and decoders. Models’ overall architecture is specified in easy-to-read configuration files. The long-term goal of the Neural Monkey project is to create and maintain a growing collection of implementations of recently proposed components or methods, and therefore it is designed to be easily extensible. Trained models can be deployed either for batch data processing or as a web service. In the presented paper, we describe the design of the system and introduce the reader to running experiments using Neural Monkey.

  3. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C19 is involved in R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Yoshio; Uno, Yasuhiro; Murayama, Norie; Fujino, Hideki; Shukuya, Mitsunori; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Makiko; Utoh, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2012-12-15

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as primate models in preclinical studies. However, some differences are occasionally seen between monkeys and humans in the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes. R- and S-warfarin are model substrates for stereoselective oxidation in humans. In this current research, the activities of monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey cytochrome P450 enzymes were analyzed with respect to R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation. Monkey liver microsomes efficiently mediated both R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, in contrast to human liver microsomes, which preferentially catalyzed S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation. R-Warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities in monkey liver microsomes were not inhibited by α-naphthoflavone or ketoconazole, and were roughly correlated with P450 2C19 levels and flurbiprofen 4-hydroxylation activities in microsomes from 20 monkey livers. In contrast, S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation activities were not correlated with the four marker drug oxidation activities used. Among the 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes tested, P450 2C19 had the highest activities for R- and S-warfarin 7-hydroxylations. Monkey P450 3A4 and 3A5 slowly mediated R- and S-warfarin 6-hydroxylations. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C19 had high V(max) and low K(m) values for R-warfarin 7-hydroxylation, comparable to those for monkey liver microsomes. Monkey P450 2C19 also mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation with V(max) and V(max)/K(m) values comparable to those for recombinant human P450 2C9. R-warfarin could dock favorably into monkey P450 2C19 modeled. These results collectively suggest high activities for monkey liver P450 2C19 toward R- and S-warfarin 6- and 7-hydroxylation in contrast to the saturation kinetics of human P450 2C9-mediated S-warfarin 7-hydroxylation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities.

  5. Inquérito sorológico para toxoplasmose e leptospirose em mamíferos selvagens neotropicais do Zoológico de Aracaju, Sergipe Serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in neotropical wild mammals from Aracaju Zoo, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert S. Pimentel

    2009-12-01

    ção aos quatro mamíferos soropositivos para Leptospira spp., três (75% foram procedentes da natureza e um (25% nasceu no zoológico. Este foi o primeiro inquérito sorológico de anticorpos anti-Leptospira spp. em primatas e carnívoros neotropicais em um zoológico do Nordeste do Brasil e descreveu pela primeira vez a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-T. gondii e anti-Leptospira spp. com sorovar mais provável Copenhageni no primata ameaçado de extinção macaco-prego-de-peito-amarelo (C. xanthosternus em Aracaju, SE.Modern zoological gardens are institutions to wildlife maintenance, aiming its conservation, the performance of scientific research and leisure, recreation and environ-mental education activities. The variety of wild species living in conditions different from the one found in its natural habitats represents a propitious environment for diseases spread, specially the zoonotic ones. Due to data shortage and wild mammals' epidemio-logical relevance both for toxoplasmosis as for leptospirosis, this study aimed to determine the serological survey of toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Neotropical wild mammals, from Zoo of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 32 wild mammals, adults and from both sexes: 14 wild bearded capuchins (Cebus libidinosus, four golden-bellied capuchins (Cebus xanthosternus, three pumas (Puma concolor, one jaguar (Pantheraonca, one crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous, six crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus, two South American coatis (Nasua nasua, and one tayra (Eira barbara. Sera were tested to Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT e"1:25, and by the microscopic seroaglutination test (cut-off e"1:100 using 24 serovar of pathogenic leptospiras and two serovar of saprophyte leptospiras. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 17 of 32 (53.1% wild mammals, and antibodies to Leptospira spp. were found in 4 of 32 (12.5% wild mammals. In relation to gender, 9 of 15 (60% males, and 8 of 17

  6. Comparison of oxime reactivation and aging of nerve agent-inhibited monkey and human acetylcholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chunyuan; Tong, Min; Maxwell, Donald M; Saxena, Ashima

    2008-09-25

    Non-human primates are valuable animal models that are used for the evaluation of nerve agent toxicity as well as antidotes and results from animal experiments are extrapolated to humans. It has been demonstrated that the efficacy of an oxime primarily depends on its ability to reactivate nerve agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). If the in vitro oxime reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited animal AChE is similar to that of human AChE, it is likely that the results of an in vivo animal study will reliably extrapolate to humans. Therefore, the goal of this study was to compare the aging and reactivation of human and different monkey (Rhesus, Cynomolgus, and African Green) AChEs inhibited by GF, GD, and VR. The oximes examined include the traditional oxime 2-PAM, two H-oximes HI-6 and HLo-7, and the new candidate oxime MMB4. Results indicate that oxime reactivation of all three monkey AChEs was very similar to human AChE. The maximum difference in the second-order reactivation rate constant between human and three monkey AChEs or between AChEs from different monkey species was 5-fold. Aging rate constants of GF-, GD-, and VR-inhibited monkey AChEs were very similar to human AChE except for GF-inhibited monkey AChEs, which aged 2-3 times faster than the human enzyme. The results of this study suggest that all three monkey species are suitable animal models for nerve agent antidote evaluation since monkey AChEs possess similar biochemical/pharmacological properties to human AChE.

  7. Formal monkey linguistics : The debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Schel, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333450; Fuller, James; Gautier, Jean Pierre; Kuhn, Jeremy; Veselinović, Dunja; Arnold, Kate; Cäsar, Cristiane; Keenan, Sumir; Lemasson, Alban; Ouattara, Karim; Ryder, Robin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    We explain why general techniques from formal linguistics can and should be applied to the analysis of monkey communication - in the areas of syntax and especially semantics. An informed look at our recent proposals shows that such techniques needn't rely excessively on categories of human language:

  8. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor regulation by stress inoculation in squirrel monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping in a process called stress inoculation. Stress inoculation also enhances cognitive control and response inhibition of impulsive motivated behavior. Cognitive control and motivation have been linked to striatal dopamine D2 and/or D3 receptors (DRD2/3 in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Here, we study squirrel monkeys randomized early in life to stress inoculation with or without maternal companionship and a no-stress control treatment condition. Striatal DRD2/3 availability in adulthood was measured in vivo by [11C]raclopride binding using positron emission tomography (PET. DRD2/3 availability was greater in caudate and putamen compared to ventral striatum as reported in PET studies of humans and other non-human primates. DRD2/3 availability in ventral striatum was also consistently greater in stress inoculated squirrel monkeys compared to no-stress controls. Squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation in the presence of their mother did not differ from squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation without maternal companionship. Similar effects in different social contexts extend the generality of our findings and together suggest that stress inoculation increases striatal DRD2/3 availability as a correlate of cognitive control in squirrel monkeys.

  9. Occurrence of Listeria species in different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria species were isolated from faecal samples collected from different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, using selective enrichment medium. The isolates were characterized based on their cell morphology, biochemical and sugar fermentation characteristics as well as culture morphology. Further, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests were carried out to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates. Listeria were found in 24 (23.07% of the total 104 faecal samples. Listeria were isolated from the samples of tiger, bear, hyena, leopard, zebra, elephant, jackal, lion, barking deer, porcupine, chital, monkey and wild boar. Out of the 24 Listeria isolates 11 were confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The other 13 isolates included L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and L. ivanovii. The pathogenicity study revealed that only four isolates were pathogenic. Three of these were L. monocytogenes isolated from tiger, hyena and elephant and one was L. ivanovii isolated from leopard. Antibiotic sensitivity of the 24 isolates was high towards ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, azithromycin and enrofloxacin. The isolates showed resistance towards oxytetracyclin, gentamicin, cephadroxil, penicillin- G and nalidixic acid.

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation on male germ cells of crab-eating monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Masanori; Kitazuma, Masayuki; Tobari, Izuo

    1989-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on sperm concentration, testicular volume, and sperm shape of the crab-eating monkey were studied by using acute and low dose-rate gamma-ray and X-ray. The animals were acutely irradiated with 0.25-3.00 Gy with Cs-137 gamma-ray at a dose-rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Sperm concentrations were decreased with time after irradiation in a dose-dependent fashion. The time required for the lowest concentration of sperm depended on radiation doses. A linear dose-response relationship was seen for sperm concentrations. In comparing the present results in monkeys to previous results in mice and golden hamsters, the sensitivity of spermatogenic cells in killing effect of gamma ray varied in the following order: monkeys>hamsters>mice. The present monkeys were also subjected to whole-body irradiation with 0.3-1.5 Gy of Cs-137 gamma-ray at 1.8 x 10 -5 Gy/min, for the purpose of estimating low-dose rate irradiation on sperm concentrations, testicular volume and sperm shape. Noticeable changes in either sperm concentration or testicular volume did not occur by irradiation of 0.3 Gy. Sperm concentrations were markedly changed with 1.0 Gy. Changes in sperm concentrations and testicular volume after X-ray irradiation at the dose-rate of 0.32 Gy/min showed that killing effects of X-ray are apparently higher than those of gamma-ray. When the incidence of abnormal head shapes of sperm was examined in monkeys with chronic gamma-ray irradiation, the highest incidence of abnormality was 1.5-1.8% at 0.25-0.50 Gy. The incidence of sperm abnormality in monkeys was comparable to that in hamsters; however, it was markedly higher in mice than monkeys. (Namekawa, K)

  11. Can human eyes prevent perceptual narrowing for monkey faces in human infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Fabrice; Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Méary, David; Dupierrix, Eve; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Perceptual narrowing has been observed in human infants for monkey faces: 6-month-olds can discriminate between them, whereas older infants from 9 months of age display difficulty discriminating between them. The difficulty infants from 9 months have processing monkey faces has not been clearly identified. It could be due to the structural characteristics of monkey faces, particularly the key facial features that differ from human faces. The current study aimed to investigate whether the information conveyed by the eyes is of importance. We examined whether the presence of Caucasian human eyes in monkey faces allows recognition to be maintained in 6-month-olds and facilitates recognition in 9- and 12-month-olds. Our results revealed that the presence of human eyes in monkey faces maintains recognition for those faces at 6 months of age and partially facilitates recognition of those faces at 9 months of age, but not at 12 months of age. The findings are interpreted in the context of perceptual narrowing and suggest that the attenuation of processing of other-species faces is not reversed by the presence of human eyes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Selection and Pairing of ’Normal’ Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-08

    week intervals. Fecal bacteriological cultures did not detect any Salmonella or Shigella car- riers in the population. The male monkeys ranged in age...1Special Roert 78-6 LVEL•$ SELECTION AND PAIRING OF "NORMAL" RHESUS MONKEYS (Macaca mulatto) FOR RESEARC Matthew J. Kessler, James L. Kupper, James D...public release; distribution unlimited. SELECTION AND PAIRING OF "NORMAL" RHESUS MONKEYS (Macaca mulatta) FOR RESEARCH Matthew J. Kessler, James L

  13. Metabolic changes in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjie Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS in a study of cross-modal plasticity in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four healthy neonatal macaque monkeys were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 2 in each group. Optic nerve transection was performed in both monkeys in the experimental group (group B to obtain binocular blindness. Two healthy macaque monkeys served as a control group (group A. After sixteen months post-procedure, (1H-MRS was performed in the visual cortex of all monkeys. We compared the peak areas of NAA, Cr, Cho, Glx and Ins and the ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Glx/Cr and Ins/Cr of each monkey in group B with group A. RESULTS: The peak area of NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B were found to be dramatically decreased, the peak area of NAA slightly decreased and the NAA/Cr ratio clearly decreased in visual cortex of monkey 3 in group B than those in group A. The peak area of Ins and the Ins/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B slightly increased. The peak area of Cho and the Cho/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B dramatically increased compared with group A. The peak area of Glx in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B slightly increased compared with group A. CONCLUSIONS: (1H-MRS could detect biochemical and metabolic changes in the visual cortex and therefore this technique can be used to provide valuable information for investigating the mechanisms of cross-modal plasticity of binocular blindness in a macaque monkey model.

  14. Evidence of aortic dissection and Marfan syndrome in a mummy from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Stephanie; Thompson, Randall C; Hergan, Klaus; Zink, Albert R; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2018-06-08

    The authors report on the assessment of an anthropogenic mummy of a young man from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, tentatively dated from the mid- to late 19 th century AD. The mummy was investigated by full-body CT examination. CT images clearly showed aortic dissection classified as Stanford-A. Due to the relation of aortic dissection to inherited connective tissue diseases in young people, such as Marfan syndrome, conspicuous and pathological findings possibly indicating the presence of underlying Marfan syndrome were assessed. Several systemic features were scored that supported the presence of underlying Marfan syndrome in this mummy. These findings were: pectus carinatum and chest asymmetry, dural ectasia, protrusio acetabuli, dolichocephaly, down-slanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia and (probable) reduced elbow extension. Aortic dissection, a cardinal feature of Marfan syndrome, turned out to be the diagnostic key for the paleoradiological diagnosis of this disease. The demonstrated CT findings contribute to the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases and inherited connective tissue disease in the fields of paleopathology and paleoradiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  16. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Edén, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  17. Reproductive function of monkeys subjected to chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artem'eva, N.S.; Kosichenko, L.P.; Andreeva, A.V.; Zvereva, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Marked functional disorders have been detected in reproductive glands of eight female monkeys (as compared to twelve control animals) subjected to protracted (up to eight years) irradiation (cumulative doses 826-3282 R). Irradiated monkeys exhibited a drastically decreased reproductive capacity, early menopause and sterility. Irradiation of preadolescent animals inhibited, in most cases, the puberty processes and disturbed sex cycles. Structural disorders in sex glands, inhibition of the processes of maturation and ovulation of folloculi, death of the mass of germ cells, atypical vegetations of the integmentary epithelium, sclerosing and cystic degeneration of the glandular tissue have been revealed

  18. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  19. Hemorrhoids: an experimental model in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plapler Hélio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hemorrhoids are a matter of concern due to a painful outcome. We describe a simple, easy and reliable experimental model to produce hemorrhoids in monkeys. METHODS: 14 monkeys (Cebus apella were used. After general anesthesia, hemorrhoids were induced by ligation of the inferior hemorrhoidal vein, which is very alike to humans. The vein was located through a perianal incision, dissected and ligated with a 3-0 vicryl. The skin was sutured with a 4-0 catgut thread. Animals were kept in appropriate cages and evaluated daily. RESULTS: Nine days later there were hemorrhoidal piles in the anus in fifty percent (50% of the animals. Outcome was unremarkable. There was no bleeding and all animals showed no signs of pain or suffering. CONCLUSION: This is an affordable and reliable experimental model to induce hemorrhoids for experimental studies.

  20. Rod photoreceptors express GPR55 in the adult vervet monkey retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Casanova, Christian

    2013-01-01

    . Yet, its formal classification is still a matter of debate. CB1R and CB2R expression patterns are well described for rodent and monkey retinas. In the monkey retina, CB1R has been localized in its neural (cone photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells) and CB2R in glial...

  1. Species-specific calls evoke asymmetric activity in the monkey's temporal poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremba, Amy; Malloy, Megan; Saunders, Richard C; Carson, Richard E; Herscovitch, Peter; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2004-01-29

    It has often been proposed that the vocal calls of monkeys are precursors of human speech, in part because they provide critical information to other members of the species who rely on them for survival and social interactions. Both behavioural and lesion studies suggest that monkeys, like humans, use the auditory system of the left hemisphere preferentially to process vocalizations. To investigate the pattern of neural activity that might underlie this particular form of functional asymmetry in monkeys, we measured local cerebral metabolic activity while the animals listened passively to species-specific calls compared with a variety of other classes of sound. Within the superior temporal gyrus, significantly greater metabolic activity occurred on the left side than on the right, only in the region of the temporal pole and only in response to monkey calls. This functional asymmetry was absent when these regions were separated by forebrain commissurotomy, suggesting that the perception of vocalizations elicits concurrent interhemispheric interactions that focus the auditory processing within a specialized area of one hemisphere.

  2. Parasitosis intestinal en monos capuchinos cariblancos Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae de un área protegida en la provincia de Limón, noreste de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La deforestación de bosques tropicales está amenazando la biodiversidad de las especies de primates y su estado de salud, dependiente de un lugar ecológicamente equilibrado. Con el fin de evaluar esta relación, se analizó la presencia de parásitos en los intestinos de esta especie. El estudio se realizó en la Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS, Limón, Costa Rica. El grupo de monos capuchinos cariblancos (Cebus capucinus fue observado entre marzo y diciembre de 2006. Se recolectaron 75 muestras de heces a las que se les identificó las plantas ingeridas, y se procesaron en el laboratorio para evaluar la prevalencia de parásitos. Moraceae fue la familia de plantas más reportada. Strongyloides spp. y acantocéfalos fueron los más comunes. La distribución positiva de las mismas fue similar independientemente del sexo y la edad. Microsporidios se reportaron mayoritariamente en heces asociadas con la familia Piperaceae. Fue encontrada una baja existencia de éstos parásitos en muestras asociadas con Myrtaceae en cuyo género Psidium, se han reportado compuestos activos antiparasitarios. La aparición de parásitos fue relativamente mayor en la EBLS, comparado con muestras de otras regiones más secas de Costa Rica. Por lo tanto, esa expresión parasitaria puede deberse al hecho de ser la EBLS una selva lluviosa, además de estar rodeada por zonas con actividades antrópicas. Se sugiere incrementar las investigaciones de parasitología de campo en primates neotropicales con el fin de entender plenamente las relaciones parásitos-hospederos, para en un largo plazo poder comprender los ecosistemas donde conviven, y en consecuencia, preservar la diversidad biológica.Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus Primates: Cebidae inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica. Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an

  3. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes from man and crab-eating monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, E.; Hirai, M.; Tobari, I.; Utsugi, T.; Nakai, S.

    1982-01-01

    To obtain information on the relation between yield of chromosome aberrations and dose at low-dose levels, experiments were conducted with 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 rad of 137 Cs γ-rays, on lymphocytes from man and crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis). The dose-response relationship for dicentrics was obtained from the combined data of these low-dose experiments with those of our previous ones at high doses (100-400 rad). When the difference between observed yields and those expected from the linear-quadratic model were computed, the dose-response curve had a good fit for man, but not for the monkey. The linear regression lines between 0 and 30 rad were calculated, because the expected values of α/β for man and monkey would be about 100 and 60 rad. The human data gave a satisfactory fit to a linear model, i.e., a linear increase in aberration frequency with dose, whereas this was not so for those of the monkey. Furthermore, there was some suggestive evidence for the existence of a plateau in dicentric yields between 10 and 30 rad for the monkey and between 20 and 30 rad for human lymphocytes, but more data would be needed to verify this suggestion, particularly for human lymphocytes. (orig.)

  4. The Moral Lives of Laboratory Monkeys: Television and the Ethics of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Lesley A

    2017-06-01

    Why do lab monkeys watch TV? This essay examines the preponderance of televisions in primate housing units based in academic research laboratories. Within such labs, television and related visual media are glossed as part-and-parcel of welfare or species-specific enrichment practices intended for research monkeys, a logic that is simultaneously historically- and ontologically-based. In many research centers, television figures prominently in the two inseparable domains of a lab monkey's life: as a research tool employed during experiments, and in housing units where captive monkeys are said to enjoy watching TV during "down time." My purpose is not to determine whether monkeys do indeed enjoy, or need, television; rather, I employ visual media as a means to uncover, and decipher, the moral logic of an ethics of care directed specifically at highly sentient creatures who serve as human proxies in a range of experimental contexts. I suggest that this specialized ethics of animal care materializes Mattingly's notion of "moral laboratories" (Mattingly in Moral laboratories: family peril and the struggle for a good life, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2014), where television mediates the troublesome boundary of species difference among the simian and human subjects who cohabit laboratory worlds.

  5. The Monkey game: A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Jolani, Shahab; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6-12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a paper-and-pencil version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Reading comprehension and math achievement test scores were obtained from the schools. First, the internal consistency of the Monkey game was examined. Second, multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of classroom membership. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the Monkey game's concurrent relationship with the Lion game and its predictive relationships with reading comprehension and math achievement. Also, age-related differences in performance were examined. In Study 2, the concurrent relationships between the Monkey game and two tester-led computerized working memory tasks were further examined (n = 140). Also, the 1- and 2-year stability of the Monkey game was investigated. The Monkey game showed excellent internal consistency, good concurrent relationships with the other working memory measures, and significant age differences in performance. Performance on the Monkey game was also predictive of subsequent reading comprehension and mathematics performance, even after controlling for individual differences in intelligence. Performance on the Monkey game was influenced by classroom membership. The Monkey game is a reliable and suitable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant assessment of verbal working memory in primary school children.

  6. Differences in behaviour and physiology between adult surrogate-reared and mother-reared Cynomolgous monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, I.A.F. van; Timmermans, P.J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.; Willems, J.; Vossen, J.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies of the effects of rearing conditions on exploratory behaviour revealed that 80% of monkeys reared in peer groups with surrogate mothers developed neophobia, whereas only 15 % of mother-reared monkeys did. Young surrogate-reared and, especially, isolated rhesus monkeys are known to

  7. Comparing cognition by integrating concept learning, proactive interference, and list memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M; Katz, Jeffrey S

    2018-06-01

    This article describes an approach for training a variety of species to learn the abstract concept of same/different, which in turn forms the basis for testing proactive interference and list memory. The stimulus set for concept-learning training was progressively doubled from 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 . . . to 1,024 different pictures with novel-stimulus transfer following learning. All species fully learned the same/different abstract concept: capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned more readily than pigeons; nutcrackers and magpies were at least equivalent to monkeys and transferred somewhat better following initial training sets. A similar task using the 1,024-picture set plus delays was used to test proactive interference on occasional trials. Pigeons revealed greater interference with 10-s than with 1-s delays, whereas delay time had no effect on rhesus monkeys, suggesting that the monkeys' interference was event based. This same single-item same/different task was expanded to a 4-item list memory task to test animal list memory. Humans were tested similarly with lists of kaleidoscope pictures. Delays between the list and test were manipulated, resulting in strong initial recency effects (i.e., strong 4th-item memory) at short delays and changing to a strong primacy effect (i.e., strong 1st-item memory) at long delays (pigeons 0-s to 10-s delays; monkeys 0-s to 30-s delays; humans 0-s to 100-s delays). Results and findings are discussed in terms of these species' cognition and memory comparisons, evolutionary implications, and future directions for testing other species in these synergistically related tasks.

  8. Comparative analysis of field-isolate and monkey-adapted Plasmodium vivax genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ernest R; Barnwell, John W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2015-03-01

    Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology.

  9. Effects of anesthesia upon 18F-FDG uptake in rhesus monkey brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takashi; Wakahara, Shunichi; Nakano, Takayuki; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Inoue, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) in the monkey brain were monitored, and comparisons were made between the conscious state and when under ketamine and pentobarbital anesthesia. Rhesus monkeys were intravenously injected with 18 F-FDG and followed by 60 min of PET scanning. In the conscious state, the 18 F-FDG concentration reached a plateau 5 min after intravenous injection. Under ketamine anesthesia, the 18 F-FDG concentration gradually increased with time in all monitored regions. At 60 min after injection, the concentration in the striatum was about 3.2 times greater than that in the conscious state, and about 4.5 times greater in the cerebral cortex. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, the 18 F-FDG concentration in the occipital cortex was slightly lower. These findings demonstrate that 18 F-FDG concentration in the monkey brain is significantly affected by anesthesia. The results also imply the existence of a short-term regulation mechanism for hexokinase activity in intact monkey brain. (author)

  10. Autonomous replication of plasmids bearing monkey DNA origin-enriched sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappier, L.; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M.

    1987-01-01

    Twelve clones of origin-enriched sequences (ORS) isolated from early replicating monkey (CV-1) DNA were examined for transient episomal replication in transfected CV-1, COS-7, and HeLa cells. Plasmid DNA was isolated at time intervals after transfection and screened by the Dpn I resistance assay or by the bromodeoxyuridine substitution assay to differentiate between input and replicated DNA. The authors have identified four monkey ORS (ORS3, -8, -9, and -12) that can support plasmid replication in mammalian cells. This replication is carried out in a controlled and semiconservative manner characteristic of mammalian replicons. ORS replication was most efficient in HeLa cells. Electron microscopy showed ORS8 and ORS12 plasmids of the correct size with replication bubbles. Using a unique restriction site in ORS12, we have mapped the replication bubble within the monkey DNA sequence

  11. Standardized Full-Field Electroretinography in the Green Monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Palmour, Roberta M

    2014-01-01

    Full-field electroretinography is an objective measure of retinal function, serving as an important diagnostic clinical tool in ophthalmology for evaluating the integrity of the retina. Given the similarity between the anatomy and physiology of the human and Green Monkey eyes, this species has......). Photopic and scotopic ERG recordings were obtained by full-field stimulation over a range of 6 log units of intensity in dark-adapted or light-adapted eyes of adult Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Intensity, duration, and interval of light stimuli were varied separately. Reproducible values...... of amplitude and latency were obtained for the a- and b-waves, under well-controlled adaptation and stimulus conditions; the i-wave was also easily identifiable and separated from the a-b-wave complex in the photopic ERG. The recordings obtained in the healthy Green Monkey matched very well with those...

  12. Integrase of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snášel, Jan; Krejčík, Zdeněk; Jenčová, Věra; Rosenberg, Ivan; Ruml, Tomáš; Alexandratos, J.; Gustchina, A.; Pichová, Iva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. 1 (2005), s. 203-216 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4055304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : integrase * Mason-Pfizer monkey virus * HIV-1 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. Tonal frequency affects amplitude but not topography of rhesus monkey cranial EEG components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    The rhesus monkey is an important model of human auditory function in general and auditory deficits in neuro-psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia in particular. Several rhesus monkey studies have described homologs of clinically relevant auditory evoked potentials such as pitch-based mismatch negativity, a fronto-central negativity that can be observed when a series of regularly repeating sounds is disrupted by a sound of different tonal frequency. As a result it is well known how differences of tonal frequency are represented in rhesus monkey EEG. However, to date there is no study that systematically quantified how absolute tonal frequency itself is represented. In particular, it is not known if frequency affects rhesus monkey EEG component amplitude and topography in the same way as previously shown for humans. A better understanding of the effect of frequency may strengthen inter-species homology and will provide a more solid foundation on which to build the interpretation of frequency MMN in the rhesus monkey. Using arrays of up to 32 cranial EEG electrodes in 4 rhesus macaques we identified 8 distinct auditory evoked components including the N85, a fronto-central negativity that is the presumed homolog of the human N1. In line with human data, the amplitudes of most components including the N85 peaked around 1000 Hz and were strongly attenuated above ∼1750 Hz. Component topography, however, remained largely unaffected by frequency. This latter finding may be consistent with the known absence of certain anatomical structures in the rhesus monkey that are believed to cause the changes in topography in the human by inducing a rotation of generator orientation as a function of tonal frequency. Overall, the findings are consistent with the assumption of a homolog representation of tonal frequency in human and rhesus monkey EEG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diet Versus Phylogeny: a Comparison of Gut Microbiota in Captive Colobine Monkey Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Vanessa L; Tan, Chia L; Niu, Kefeng; Yang, Yeqin; Knight, Rob; Zhang, Qikun; Cui, Duoying; Amato, Katherine R

    2018-02-01

    Both diet and host phylogeny shape the gut microbial community, and separating out the effects of these variables can be challenging. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the impact of diet and phylogeny on the gut microbiota of nine colobine monkey species (N = 64 individuals). Colobines are leaf-eating monkeys that fare poorly in captivity-often exhibiting gastrointestinal (GI) problems. This study included eight Asian colobines (Rhinopithecus brelichi, Rhinopithecus roxellana, Rhinopithecus bieti, Pygathrix nemaeus, Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus francoisi, Trachypithecus auratus, and Trachypithecus vetulus) and one African colobine (Colobus guereza). Monkeys were housed at five different captive institutes: Panxi Wildlife Rescue Center (Guizhou, China), Beijing Zoo, Beijing Zoo Breeding Center, Singapore Zoo, and Singapore Zoo Primate Conservation Breeding Center. Captive diets varied widely between institutions, but within an institution, all colobine monkey species were fed nearly identical or identical diets. In addition, four monkey species were present at multiple captive institutes. This allowed us to parse the effects of diet and phylogeny in these captive colobines. Gut microbial communities clustered weakly by host species and strongly by diet, and overall, colobine phylogenetic relationships were not reflected in gut microbiota analyses. Core microbiota analyses also identified several key taxa-including microbes within the Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families-that were shared by over 90% of the monkeys in this study. Microbial species within these families include many butyrate producers that are important for GI health. These results highlight the importance of diet in captive colobines.

  15. Birth origin differentially affects depressive-like behaviours: are captive-born cynomolgus monkeys more vulnerable to depression than their wild-born counterparts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine M J Camus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse early-life experience might lead to the expression of abnormal behaviours in animals and the predisposition to psychiatric disorder (e.g. major depressive disorder in Humans. Common breeding processes employ weaning and housing conditions different from what happens in the wild. METHODS: The present study, therefore, investigated whether birth origin impacts the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 captive-born and 40 wild-born socially-housed cynomolgus macaques in farming conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses. RESULTS: We identified 10 distinct profiles (groups A to J that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, distances between individuals and locations in the cage. Data suggest that 4 captive-born and 1 wild-born animals (groups G and J present depressive-like symptoms, unnatural early life events thereby increasing the risk of developing pathological symptoms. General differences were also highlighted between the captive- and wild-born populations, implying the expression of differential coping mechanisms in response to the same captive environment. CONCLUSIONS: Birth origin thus impacts the development of atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups.

  16. Full-length cDNA sequences from Rhesus monkey placenta tissue: analysis and utility for comparative mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sang-Rae

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta are widely-used as experimental animals in biomedical research and are closely related to other laboratory macaques, such as cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, and to humans, sharing a last common ancestor from about 25 million years ago. Although rhesus monkeys have been studied extensively under field and laboratory conditions, research has been limited by the lack of genetic resources. The present study generated placenta full-length cDNA libraries, characterized the resulting expressed sequence tags, and described their utility for comparative mapping with human RefSeq mRNA transcripts. Results From rhesus monkey placenta full-length cDNA libraries, 2000 full-length cDNA sequences were determined and 1835 rhesus placenta cDNA sequences longer than 100 bp were collected. These sequences were annotated based on homology to human genes. Homology search against human RefSeq mRNAs revealed that our collection included the sequences of 1462 putative rhesus monkey genes. Moreover, we identified 207 genes containing exon alterations in the coding region and the untranslated region of rhesus monkey transcripts, despite the highly conserved structure of the coding regions. Approximately 10% (187 of all full-length cDNA sequences did not represent any public human RefSeq mRNAs. Intriguingly, two rhesus monkey specific exons derived from the transposable elements of AluYRa2 (SINE family and MER11B (LTR family were also identified. Conclusion The 1835 rhesus monkey placenta full-length cDNA sequences described here could expand genomic resources and information of rhesus monkeys. This increased genomic information will greatly contribute to the development of evolutionary biology and biomedical research.

  17. Spontaneous expression of mirror self-recognition in monkeys after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liangtang; Zhang, Shikun; Poo, Mu-Ming; Gong, Neng

    2017-03-21

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the transition from simple mirror use to MSR remains unclear. Here we show that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images. We trained head-fixed monkeys on a chair in front of a mirror to touch with spatiotemporal precision a laser pointer light spot on an adjacent board that could only be seen in the mirror. After several weeks of training, when the same laser pointer light was projected to the monkey's face, a location not used in training, all three trained monkeys successfully touched the face area marked by the light spot in front of a mirror. All trained monkeys passed the standard face mark test for MSR both on the monkey chair and in their home cage. Importantly, distinct from untrained control monkeys, the trained monkeys showed typical mirror-induced self-directed behaviors in their home cage, such as using the mirror to explore normally unseen body parts. Thus, bodily self-consciousness may be a cognitive ability present in many more species than previously thought, and acquisition of precise visual-proprioceptive association for the images in the mirror is critical for revealing the MSR ability of the animal.

  18. Soluble human CD4 elicits an antibody response in rhesus monkeys that inhibits simian immunodeficiency virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Chen, Zheng W.; Tsubota, Hiroshi; Lord, C.I.; Levine, C.G.; Letvin, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIV mac ) demonstrate significant virologic and clinical improvement as a result of treatment with human recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4). The authors show that human rsCD4 does not efficiently inhibit SIV mac replication in bone marrow macrophages of rhesus monkeys and does not significantly augment bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro. However, plasma of human rsCD4-treated rhesus monkeys does exhibit significant anti-SIV mac activity in vitro. Plasma of these animals efficiently blocks SIV mac replicaton in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow macrophages. It also increases granulocyte/macrophage colony formation in vitro by bone marrow cells of SIV mac -infected monkeys. This plasma and the IgG fraction of plasma from a rhesus monkey immunized with human rsCD4 in adjuvant demonstrate reactivity with a soluble form of the rhesus monkey CD4 molecule, exhibit binding to CD4 + but not CD8 + concanavalin A-activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes, and precipitate the CD4 molecule from surface-labeled activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-viral activity is demonstrable in the IgG fraction of plasma from a human rsCD4-immunized monkey. These studies raise the possibility that a modified human CD4 molecule serving as an immunogen might elicit an antibody response that could potentially induce a beneficial therapeutic response in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

  19. Fission-fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amici, Federica; Aureli, Filippo; Call, Josep

    2008-09-23

    The Machiavellian Intelligence or Social Brain Hypothesis explains the evolution of increased brain size as mainly driven by living in complex organized social systems in which individuals represent "moving targets" who can adopt multiple strategies to respond to one another. Frequently splitting and merging in subgroups of variable composition (fission-fusion or FF dynamics) has been proposed as one aspect of social complexity ( compare with) that may be associated with an enhancement of cognitive skills like inhibition, which allows the suppression of prepotent but ineffective responses in a changing social environment. We compared the performance of primates experiencing high levels of FF dynamics (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, and spider monkeys) to that of species living in more cohesive groups (gorillas, capuchin monkeys, and long-tailed macaques) on five inhibition tasks. Testing species differing in diet, phylogenetic relatedness, and levels of FF dynamics allowed us to contrast ecological, phylogenetic, and socioecological explanations for interspecific differences. Spider monkeys performed at levels comparable to chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans, and better than gorillas. A two-cluster analysis grouped all species with higher levels of FF dynamics together. These findings confirmed that enhanced inhibitory skills are positively associated with FF dynamics, more than to phylogenetic relations or feeding ecology.

  20. Psychophysical chromatic mechanisms in macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Cleo M; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Gagin, Galina; Conway, Bevil R

    2012-10-24

    Chromatic mechanisms have been studied extensively with psychophysical techniques in humans, but the number and nature of the mechanisms are still controversial. Appeals to monkey neurophysiology are often used to sort out the competing claims and to test hypotheses arising from the experiments in humans, but psychophysical chromatic mechanisms have never been assessed in monkeys. Here we address this issue by measuring color-detection thresholds in monkeys before and after chromatic adaptation, employing a standard approach used to determine chromatic mechanisms in humans. We conducted separate experiments using adaptation configured as either flickering full-field colors or heterochromatic gratings. Full-field colors would favor activity within the visual system at or before the arrival of retinal signals to V1, before the spatial transformation of color signals by the cortex. Conversely, gratings would favor activity within the cortex where neurons are often sensitive to spatial chromatic structure. Detection thresholds were selectively elevated for the colors of full-field adaptation when it modulated along either of the two cardinal chromatic axes that define cone-opponent color space [L vs M or S vs (L + M)], providing evidence for two privileged cardinal chromatic mechanisms implemented early in the visual-processing hierarchy. Adaptation with gratings produced elevated thresholds for colors of the adaptation regardless of its chromatic makeup, suggesting a cortical representation comprised of multiple higher-order mechanisms each selective for a different direction in color space. The results suggest that color is represented by two cardinal channels early in the processing hierarchy and many chromatic channels in brain regions closer to perceptual readout.

  1. No effects of dioxin singly on limb malformations in macaque monkeys through epidemiological and treated studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, Kazuo; Iida, Hiroko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Insitute, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Watanabe, Kunio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Institute, Field Research Center; Goda, Hiroshi [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ihara, Toshio; Nagata, Ryoichi [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (Japan). Safety Research Facility; Yasuda, Mineo [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan). Fac. of Health Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Engineering; Kubata, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Life Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    2004-09-15

    Human populations exposed with highly dioxin were suspected to be caused immunological dysfunctions, carcinogenesis, and developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. Because of species resemblances, the dioxin effects have been investigating using monkeys as a model for assessment of dioxin exposure on human health. Since 1957 the limb malformations of monkeys in Japan have been reported. The higher frequency of them was found in provisional groups of monkeys who were given the same kind of food for human. The chromosomal abnormalities are excluded from the factor for the congenital limb malformations that are still producing in Japan. In this study, the relations between dioxin and the limb malformations of macaque monkeys were estimated by the epidemiological and administered researches. The dioxin levels in monkeys were measured at two districts that one has the provisional groups including monkeys with limb malformations and the other has breeding groups never seeing the malformations for a long time. TEQ was calculated by the levels of dioxin isomers in the monkeys and the values show no difference between the two places and between the individuals with and without the limb malformations. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was administered via subcutaneous to pregnant rhesus monkeys from the day 20 of gestation to the day 90 after birth. The exposed babies, including the offspring and died in neonatal, had observed normal limbs in the range of 30-300 ng TCDD /kg of body weight.

  2. On the nature of directed behavior to drug-associated light cues in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mark P; Berndt, Sonja I; Woods, James H

    2016-11-01

    The present study investigated the role of drug-paired stimuli in controlling the behavior of rhesus monkeys. Systematic observations were made with nine monkeys who had a history of drug self-administration; they had been lever pressing to produce intravenous infusions of various drugs. These observations revealed that the stimulus light co-occurring with drug infusion produced robust and cue-directed behavior such as orienting, touching and biting. Experiment 1 showed that this light-directed behavior would occur in naïve monkeys exposed to a Pavlovian pairing procedure. Four monkeys were given response-independent injections of cocaine. In two monkeys, a red light preceded cocaine injections by 5 s, and a green light co-occurred with the 5-s cocaine injections. In the other two monkeys, the light presentations and cocaine injections occurred independently. Light-directed behavior occurred in all four monkeys within the first couple of trials and at high levels but decreased across sessions. The cocaine-paired stimulus maintained behavior longer and at higher levels than the uncorrelated stimuli. Furthermore, light-directed behavior was not maintained when cocaine was replaced with saline. Light-directed behavior did not occur in the absence of the lights. When these monkeys were subsequently trained to lever press for cocaine, light-directed behavior increased to levels higher than previously observed. Behavior directed towards drug-paired stimuli is robust, reliable and multiply determined; the mechanisms underlying this activity likely include Pavlovian conditioning, stimulus novelty, habituation and operant conditioning.

  3. Protective effect and the therapeutic index of indralin in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasin, Mikhail V.; Antipov, Vsevolod V.; Ushakov, Igor B.; Semenov, Leonid F.; Lapin, Boris A.; Suvorov, Nikolai N.; Ilyin, Leonid A.

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of indralin in rhesus monkeys was examined over 60 d following gamma irradiation. Male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 2-3-years-old and weighing 2.1-3.5 kg were used. Animals were exposed to total-body gamma irradiation from 60 Co at a dose of 6.8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40-120 mg kg -1 ) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg -1 protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3-94.3) mg kg -1 , and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg -1 . Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose, was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index in rhesus monkeys. (author)

  4. Modification of a loop sequence between α-helices 6 and 7 of virus capsid (CA protein in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 derivative that has simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239 vif and CA α-helices 4 and 5 loop improves replication in cynomolgus monkey cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Akio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not cynomolgus or rhesus monkeys while simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac readily establishes infection in those monkeys. Several HIV-1 and SIVmac chimeric viruses have been constructed in order to develop an animal model for HIV-1 infection. Construction of an HIV-1 derivative which contains sequences of a SIVmac239 loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5 of capsid protein (CA and the entire SIVmac239 vif gene was previously reported. Although this chimeric virus could grow in cynomolgus monkey cells, it did so much more slowly than did SIVmac. It was also reported that intrinsic TRIM5α restricts the post-entry step of HIV-1 replication in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cells, and we previously demonstrated that a single amino acid in a loop between α-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 of HIV type 2 (HIV-2 CA determines the susceptibility of HIV-2 to cynomolgus monkey TRIM5α. Results In the study presented here, we replaced L6/7 of HIV-1 CA in addition to L4/5 and vif with the corresponding segments of SIVmac. The resultant HIV-1 derivatives showed enhanced replication capability in established T cell lines as well as in CD8+ cell-depleted primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cynomolgus monkey. Compared with the wild type HIV-1 particles, the viral particles produced from a chimeric HIV-1 genome with those two SIVmac loops were less able to saturate the intrinsic restriction in rhesus monkey cells. Conclusion We have succeeded in making the replication of simian-tropic HIV-1 in cynomolgus monkey cells more efficient by introducing into HIV-1 the L6/7 CA loop from SIVmac. It would be of interest to determine whether HIV-1 derivatives with SIVmac CA L4/5 and L6/7 can establish infection of cynomolgus monkeys in vivo.

  5. The Monkey Puzzle: A Systematic Review of Studies of Stress, Social Hierarchies, and Heart Disease in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, Mark; Davey Smith, George

    2012-01-01

    Background It is often suggested that psychosocial factors, such as stress, or one's social position, may play an important role in producing social gradients in human disease. Evidence in favour of this model of health inequalities has relied, in part, on studies of the health effects of the natural social hierarchies found among non-human primates. This study aimed to assess the strength of this evidence. Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic review was carried out to identify all studies of psychosocial factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) in non-human primates. We searched databases (MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and Primatelit from inception to November 2010) to identify experimental and observational studies of the impact of social reorganisation, social instability, and disruption of dominance hierarchies on primate CAD outcomes. We also handsearched bibliographies and examined the citations to those studies in public health articles. Fourteen studies were found which presented evidence on CAD and social status and/or psychosocial stress. These suggested that the association between social status and disease may be sex-specific: in female monkeys dominant status may be protective, with subordinate females having a greater extent of atherosclerosis. In male monkeys the reverse may be the case. Conclusions/Significance Overall, non-human primate studies present only limited evidence for an association between social status and CAD, Despite this, there is selective citation of individual non-human primate studies in reviews and commentaries relating to human disease aetiology. Such generalisation of data from monkey studies to human societies does not appear warranted. PMID:22470414

  6. Radioprotective effectiveness of adeturone in monkey experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, I.; Pantev, T.; Rogozkin, P.; Chertkov, K.; Dikovenko, E.; Kosarenkov, V.

    1976-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of adeturone (adenosine triphsophate salt of AET) was tested on 28 monkeys (Macaca mulata). The animals were gamma-irradiated (cobalt 60) with a dose of 680 R (17,6 R/min, LDsub(100/18)). Adeturone was administered intravenously for 5 minutes, from 6 to 15 minutes before irradiation in a dose of 150 mg/kg (1/2 of thr maximal tolerable dose). It was found that adeturone administration before the absolute lethal irradiation will ensure survival of 50 % of the monkeys. Radiation sickness in protected animals runs a milder course as shown by the duration of the latency period, the manifestation of the hemorrhagic syndrome, the leukopenia and erythrocytes in the peripheral blood. Some symptoms do not appear at all (diarrhoea) or develop later(hyperthermia, hypodynamia). (A.B.)

  7. Easy rider: monkeys learn to drive a wheelchair to navigate through a complex maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Stephanie; Guthrie, Martin; Goillandeau, Michel; Nguyen, Tho Hai; Orignac, Hugues; Gross, Christian; Boraud, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The neurological bases of spatial navigation are mainly investigated in rodents and seldom in primates. The few studies led on spatial navigation in both human and non-human primates are performed in virtual, not in real environments. This is mostly because of methodological difficulties inherent in conducting research on freely-moving monkeys in real world environments. There is some incertitude, however, regarding the extrapolation of rodent spatial navigation strategies to primates. Here we present an entirely new platform for investigating real spatial navigation in rhesus monkeys. We showed that monkeys can learn a pathway by using different strategies. In these experiments three monkeys learned to drive the wheelchair and to follow a specified route through a real maze. After learning the route, probe tests revealed that animals successively use three distinct navigation strategies based on i) the place of the reward, ii) the direction taken to obtain reward or iii) a cue indicating reward location. The strategy used depended of the options proposed and the duration of learning. This study reveals that monkeys, like rodents and humans, switch between different spatial navigation strategies with extended practice, implying well-conserved brain learning systems across different species. This new task with freely driving monkeys provides a good support for the electrophysiological and pharmacological investigation of spatial navigation in the real world by making possible electrophysiological and pharmacological investigations.

  8. De novo DNA methylation during monkey pre-implantation embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Niu, Yuyu; Sun, Yi Eve; Lu, Hanlin; Chen, Yongchang; Li, Siguang; Kang, Yu; Luo, Yuping; Si, Chenyang; Yu, Juehua; Li, Chang; Sun, Nianqin; Si, Wei; Wang, Hong; Ji, Weizhi; Tan, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Critical epigenetic regulation of primate embryogenesis entails DNA methylome changes. Here we report genome-wide composition, patterning, and stage-specific dynamics of DNA methylation in pre-implantation rhesus monkey embryos as well as male and female gametes studied using an optimized tagmentation-based whole-genome bisulfite sequencing method. We show that upon fertilization, both paternal and maternal genomes undergo active DNA demethylation, and genome-wide de novo DNA methylation is also initiated in the same period. By the 8-cell stage, remethylation becomes more pronounced than demethylation, resulting in an increase in global DNA methylation. Promoters of genes associated with oxidative phosphorylation are preferentially remethylated at the 8-cell stage, suggesting that this mode of energy metabolism may not be favored. Unlike in rodents, X chromosome inactivation is not observed during monkey pre-implantation development. Our study provides the first comprehensive illustration of the 'wax and wane' phases of DNA methylation dynamics. Most importantly, our DNA methyltransferase loss-of-function analysis indicates that DNA methylation influences early monkey embryogenesis.

  9. Electrons at the monkey saddle: A multicritical Lifshitz point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyk, A.; Goldstein, G.; Chamon, C.

    2017-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional interacting electrons at a monkey saddle with dispersion ∝px3-3 pxpy2 . Such a dispersion naturally arises at the multicritical Lifshitz point when three Van Hove saddles merge in an elliptical umbilic elementary catastrophe, which we show can be realized in biased bilayer graphene. A multicritical Lifshitz point of this kind can be identified by its signature Landau level behavior Em∝(Bm ) 3 /2 and related oscillations in thermodynamic and transport properties, such as de Haas-Van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, whose period triples as the system crosses the singularity. We show, in the case of a single monkey saddle, that the noninteracting electron fixed point is unstable to interactions under the renormalization-group flow, developing either a superconducting instability or non-Fermi-liquid features. Biased bilayer graphene, where there are two non-nested monkey saddles at the K and K' points, exhibits an interplay of competing many-body instabilities, namely, s -wave superconductivity, ferromagnetism, and spin- and charge-density waves.

  10. Sterile protection against Plasmodium knowlesi in rhesus monkeys from a malaria vaccine: comparison of heterologous prime boost strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jiang

    Full Text Available Using newer vaccine platforms which have been effective against malaria in rodent models, we tested five immunization regimens against Plasmodium knowlesi in rhesus monkeys. All vaccines included the same four P. knowlesi antigens: the pre-erythrocytic antigens CSP, SSP2, and erythrocytic antigens AMA1, MSP1. We used four vaccine platforms for prime or boost vaccinations: plasmids (DNA, alphavirus replicons (VRP, attenuated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad, or attenuated poxvirus (Pox. These four platforms combined to produce five different prime/boost vaccine regimens: Pox alone, VRP/Pox, VRP/Ad, Ad/Pox, and DNA/Pox. Five rhesus monkeys were immunized with each regimen, and five Control monkeys received a mock vaccination. The time to complete vaccinations was 420 days. All monkeys were challenged twice with 100 P. knowlesi sporozoites given IV. The first challenge was given 12 days after the last vaccination, and the monkeys receiving the DNA/Pox vaccine were the best protected, with 3/5 monkeys sterilely protected and 1/5 monkeys that self-cured its parasitemia. There was no protection in monkeys that received Pox malaria vaccine alone without previous priming. The second sporozoite challenge was given 4 months after the first. All 4 monkeys that were protected in the first challenge developed malaria in the second challenge. DNA, VRP and Ad5 vaccines all primed monkeys for strong immune responses after the Pox boost. We discuss the high level but short duration of protection in this experiment and the possible benefits of the long interval between prime and boost.

  11. Comprehensive Evaluation for Substrate Selectivity of Cynomolgus Monkey Cytochrome P450 2C9, a New Efavirenz Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Shinya; Murayama, Norie; Satsukawa, Masahiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Iwano, Shunsuke; Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are widely used as primate models in preclinical studies, because of their evolutionary closeness to humans. In humans, the cytochrome P450 (P450) 2C enzymes are important drug-metabolizing enzymes and highly expressed in livers. The CYP2C enzymes, including CYP2C9, are also expressed abundantly in cynomolgus monkey liver and metabolize some endogenous and exogenous substances like testosterone, S-mephenytoin, and diclofenac. However, comprehensive evaluation regarding substrate specificity of monkey CYP2C9 has not been conducted. In the present study, 89 commercially available drugs were examined to find potential monkey CYP2C9 substrates. Among the compounds screened, 20 drugs were metabolized by monkey CYP2C9 at a relatively high rates. Seventeen of these compounds were substrates or inhibitors of human CYP2C9 or CYP2C19, whereas three drugs were not, indicating that substrate specificity of monkey CYP2C9 resembled those of human CYP2C9 or CYP2C19, with some differences in substrate specificities. Although efavirenz is known as a marker substrate for human CYP2B6, efavirenz was not oxidized by CYP2B6 but by CYP2C9 in monkeys. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that monkey CYP2C9 and human CYP2B6 formed the same mono- and di-oxidized metabolites of efavirenz at 8 and 14 positions. These results suggest that the efavirenz 8-oxidation could be one of the selective markers for cynomolgus monkey CYP2C9 among the major three CYP2C enzymes tested. Therefore, monkey CYP2C9 has the possibility of contributing to limited specific differences in drug oxidative metabolism between cynomolgus monkeys and humans. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Risky business: rhesus monkeys exhibit persistent preferences for risky options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Eric R; Kralik, Jerald D

    2014-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys have been shown to prefer risky over safe options in experiential decision-making tasks. These findings might be due, however, to specific contextual factors, such as small amounts of fluid reward and minimal costs for risk-taking. To better understand the factors affecting decision-making under risk in rhesus monkeys, we tested multiple factors designed to increase the stakes including larger reward amounts, distinct food items rather than fluid reward, a smaller number of trials per session, and risky options with greater variation that also included non-rewarded outcomes. We found a consistent preference for risky options, except when the expected value of the safe option was greater than the risky option. Thus, with equivalent mean utilities between the safe and risky options, rhesus monkeys appear to have a robust preference for the risky options in a broad range of circumstances, akin to the preferences found in human children and some adults in similar tasks. One account for this result is that monkeys make their choices based on the salience of the largest payoff, without integrating likelihood and value across trials. A related idea is that they fail to override an impulsive tendency to select the option with the potential to obtain the highest possible outcome. Our results rule out strict versions of both accounts and contribute to an understanding of the diversity of risky decision-making among primates.

  13. Pharmacokinetic modeling: Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of bisphenol A in monkeys with extrapolation to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Jeffrey W.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys using intravenous (iv) and oral bolus doses of 100 μg d6-BPA/kg (). This calibrated PBPK adult monkey model for BPA was then evaluated against published monkey kinetic studies with BPA. Using two versions of the adult monkey model based on monkey BPA kinetic data from and , the aglycone BPA pharmacokinetics were simulated for human oral ingestion of 5 mg d16-BPA per person (Völkel et al., 2002). Völkel et al. were unable to detect the aglycone BPA in plasma, but were able to detect BPA metabolites. These human model predictions of the aglycone BPA in plasma were then compared to previously published PBPK model predictions obtained by simulating the Völkel et al. kinetic study. Our BPA human model, using two parameter sets reflecting two adult monkey studies, both predicted lower aglycone levels in human serum than the previous human BPA PBPK model predictions. BPA was metabolized at all ages of monkey (PND 5 to adult) by the gut wall and liver. However, the hepatic metabolism of BPA and systemic clearance of its phase II metabolites appear to be slower in younger monkeys than adults. The use of the current non-human primate BPA model parameters provides more confidence in predicting the aglycone BPA in serum levels in humans after oral ingestion of BPA. -- Highlights: ► A bisphenol A (BPA) PBPK model for the infant and adult monkey was constructed. ► The hepatic metabolic rate of BPA increased with age of the monkey. ► The systemic clearance rate of metabolites increased with age of the monkey. ► Gut wall metabolism of orally administered BPA was substantial across all ages of monkeys. ► Aglycone BPA plasma concentrations were predicted in humans orally given oral doses of deuterated BPA.

  14. Naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troan, Brigid V; Perelygina, Ludmila; Patrusheva, Irina; Wettere, Arnaud J van; Hilliard, Julia K; Loomis, Michael R; Voe, Ryan S De

    2007-12-15

    A 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence. The monkey was ataxic and lethargic, but no other abnormalities were detected via physical examination, radiography, or clinicopathologic analyses. During the next 2 days, the monkey's clinical condition deteriorated, and its WBC count decreased dramatically. Cytologic examination of a CSF sample revealed marked lymphohistiocytic inflammation. Despite supportive care, the monkey became apneic; after 20 hours of mechanical ventilation, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. At necropsy, numerous petechiae were detected within the white matter tracts of the brain; microscopic lesions of multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusions identified in the brain and adrenal glands were consistent with an acute herpesvirus infection. A specific diagnosis of herpesvirus papio-2 (HVP-2) infection was made on the basis of results of serologic testing; PCR assay of tissue specimens; live virus isolation from the lungs; and immunohistochemical identification of the virus within brain, spinal cord, and adrenal gland lesions. Via phylogenetic tree analysis, the colobus HVP-2 isolate was grouped with neuroinvasive strains of the virus. The virus was most likely transmitted to the colobus monkey through toys shared with a nearby colony of baboons (the natural host of HVP-2). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of natural transmission of HVP-2 to a nonhost species. Infection with HVP-2 should be a differential diagnosis for acute encephalopathy in primate monkeys and humans, particularly following exposure to baboons.

  15. High Expression of UGT1A1/1A6 in Monkey Small Intestine: Comparison of Protein Expression Levels of Cytochromes P450, UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases, and Transporters in Small Intestine of Cynomolgus Monkey and Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Takanori; Uchida, Yasuo; Miyauchi, Eisuke; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2018-01-02

    Cynomolgus monkeys have been widely used for the prediction of drug absorption in humans. The purpose of this study was to clarify the regional protein expression levels of cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and transporters in small intestine of cynomolgus monkey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and to compare them with the corresponding levels in human. UGT1A1 in jejunum and ileum were >4.57- and >3.11-fold and UGT1A6 in jejunum and ileum were >16.1- and >8.57-fold, respectively, more highly expressed in monkey than in human. Also, jejunal expression of monkey CYP3A8 (homologue of human CYP3A4) was >3.34-fold higher than that of human CYP3A4. Among apical drug efflux transporters, BCRP showed the most abundant expression in monkey and human, and the expression levels of BCRP in monkey and human were >1.74- and >1.25-fold greater than those of P-gp and >2.76- and >4.50-fold greater than those of MRP2, respectively. These findings should be helpful to understand species differences of the functions of CYPs, UGTs, and transporters between monkey and human. The UGT1A1/1A6 data would be especially important because it is difficult to identify isoforms responsible for species differences of intestinal glucuronidation by means of functional studies due to overlapping substrate specificity.

  16. TALEN-based generation of a cynomolgus monkey disease model for human microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qiong; Li, Weiqiang; Lai, Xingqiang; Chen, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Kang, Zhuang; Li, Kai; Ren, Jie; Lin, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Haiqing; Huang, Weijun; Ma, Yunhan; Xu, Dongdong; Chen, Zheng; Song, Xinming; Lin, Xinyi; Zhuang, Min; Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Fengfeng; Xi, Jianzhong; Mao, Frank Fuxiang; Xia, Huimin; Lahn, Bruce T; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2016-01-01

    Gene editing in non-human primates may lead to valuable models for exploring the etiologies and therapeutic strategies of genetically based neurological disorders in humans. However, a monkey model of neurological disorders that closely mimics pathological and behavioral deficits in humans has not yet been successfully generated. Microcephalin 1 (MCPH1) is implicated in the evolution of the human brain, and MCPH1 mutation causes microcephaly accompanied by mental retardation. Here we generated a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) carrying biallelic MCPH1 mutations using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. The monkey recapitulated most of the important clinical features observed in patients, including marked reductions in head circumference, premature chromosome condensation (PCC), hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and upper limb spasticity. Moreover, overexpression of MCPH1 in mutated dermal fibroblasts rescued the PCC syndrome. This monkey model may help us elucidate the role of MCPH1 in the pathogenesis of human microcephaly and better understand the function of this protein in the evolution of primate brain size. PMID:27502025

  17. Bioassay of circulating luteinizing hormone in the rhesus monkey: comparison with radioimmunoassay during physiological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufau, M.L.; Hodgen, G.D.; Goodman, A.L.; Catt, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of biologically active LH in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum was measured by a highly sensitive bioassay based upon testosterone production by dispersed rat interstitial cells. The sensitivity of the in vitro bioassay was equal to or higher than that of radioimmunoassay, with detection limits of 0.1 mIU of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) or 10 ng of a Rhesus pituitary gonadotropin preparation (LER-1909-2). Parallel dose-response curves were obtained for hMG and Rhesus monkey pituitary gonadotropin. The method permits bioassay of LH in 20--100 μl of serum from adult male monkeys, and from female monkeys during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Bioactive LH concentrations could be assayed in 0.25 to 5 μl of serum from mid-cycle, postmenopausal, and castrated female monkeys. Serum LH was undetectable in two hypophysectomized adult female monkeys and six intact immature animals, and was 13 +- 6 (SD) mIU/ml in adult male monkeys. In adult females, follicular phase LH levels ranged from 17 to 169 mIU/ml, with a mean of 76 +- 52 mIU/ml. The midcycle LH peak was 1738 +- 742 mIU/ml and the luteal phase values ranged from 6-47 mIU/ml, with a mean of 35 +- 5 mIU/ml. Serum LH concentrations ranged from 100 to 900 mIU/ml in two menopausal females, and from 590--1480 mIU/ml in castrated females. Treatment of castrated female monkeys with estrogen plus progesterone produced an initial two-fold rise in sepum LH within 3 days, followed by a gradual decline to one-fourth to one-tenth of the initial levels after 10 days of treatment. Serum LH was suppressed to undetectable levels during the third week, and remained so for the duration of the 60-day treatment period

  18. Monkey Feeding Assay for Testing Emetic Activity of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Keun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are unique bacterial toxins that cause gastrointestinal toxicity as well as superantigenic activity. Since systemic administration of SEs induces superantigenic activity leading to toxic shock syndrome that may mimic enterotoxic activity of SEs such as vomiting and diarrhea, oral administration of SEs in the monkey feeding assay is considered as a standard method to evaluate emetic activity of SEs. This chapter summarizes and discusses practical considerations of the monkey feeding assay used in studies characterizing classical and newly identified SEs.

  19. Hemopoiesis in monkeys in the course of and after total chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhikikidze, Eh.E.; Kosichenko, L.P.; Kuksova, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic changes in blood-formation system of 2 types of monkeys were studied following chronic prolonged irradiation with low daily doses and considerable integral radiation load. Peak decrease of total leukocyte number of 1 mkl in both groups of monkeys at the expense of neutrophils was observed at integral dose of 10.78 Gy and was caused by decrease of index of neutrophil maturation. Violations of hereditary structures of bone marrow cells and peripheric blood lymphocytes were stable. Structural chromosomal aberrations remained in monkeys of both groups up to natural animal death. Quantitative and qualitative violations were less pronounced in macaca rhesus than in hamadryas baboons. This fact revealed high radiosensitivity of the baboons

  20. Basic Math in Monkeys and College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies with humans and monkeys provide compelling evidence of shared numerical capacities across species. Our understanding of the emergence of human mathematical competence is well-served by these kinds of comparative assessments.

  1. Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from Southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herder S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One possible explanation of the maintenance of many historical foci of sleeping sickness in Central Africa could be the existence of a wild animal reservoir. In this study, PCR was used to detect the different trypanosome species present in wild animal captured by hunters in the southern forest belt of Cameroon (Bipindi. Trypanosomes were also detected by a parasitological method (Quantitative buffy coat : QBC. Parasite could not be isolated in culture medium (Kit for in vitro isolation : KIVI. Specific primers of T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type, T. congolense savannah type, T. vivax, T. simiae and T. b. gambiense group 1 were used to identify parasites in the blood of 164 animals belonging to 24 different species including ungulates, rodents, pangolins, carnivores, reptiles and primates. Of the 24 studied species, eight were carrying T. b. gambiense group 1. Those parasites pathogenic to man were found in monkeys (Cercocebus torquatus and Cercopithecus nictitans, in ungulates (Cephalophus dorsalis and C. monticola, in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus. 13 species (54 % were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1.

  2. Face Pareidolia in the Rhesus Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; Wardle, Susan G; Flessert, Molly; Leopold, David A; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2017-08-21

    Face perception in humans and nonhuman primates is rapid and accurate [1-4]. In the human brain, a network of visual-processing regions is specialized for faces [5-7]. Although face processing is a priority of the primate visual system, face detection is not infallible. Face pareidolia is the compelling illusion of perceiving facial features on inanimate objects, such as the illusory face on the surface of the moon. Although face pareidolia is commonly experienced by humans, its presence in other species is unknown. Here we provide evidence for face pareidolia in a species known to possess a complex face-processing system [8-10]: the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). In a visual preference task [11, 12], monkeys looked longer at photographs of objects that elicited face pareidolia in human observers than at photographs of similar objects that did not elicit illusory faces. Examination of eye movements revealed that monkeys fixated the illusory internal facial features in a pattern consistent with how they view photographs of faces [13]. Although the specialized response to faces observed in humans [1, 3, 5-7, 14] is often argued to be continuous across primates [4, 15], it was previously unclear whether face pareidolia arose from a uniquely human capacity. For example, pareidolia could be a product of the human aptitude for perceptual abstraction or result from frequent exposure to cartoons and illustrations that anthropomorphize inanimate objects. Instead, our results indicate that the perception of illusory facial features on inanimate objects is driven by a broadly tuned face-detection mechanism that we share with other species. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

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    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  4. Foreign Policy, Agrarian Unrest, and Missionary Praxis: the Italian Capuchins and the Relations Between Brazil and the Vatican at the Beginning of the Second Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Palacios

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the role played by the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide’s Apostolic Missions in the political relations between the Empire of Brazil and the Holy See. Based mainly on Vatican sources, the text follows the negotiations between the Brazilian State, the Roman Curia, the Brazilian bishops, and the Italian Friar Capuchin Missions, in search of a common ground to solve institutional policy problems as well as the definition of power spheres between the State and the Catholic Church for the missionary practice to take place. Agreements were reach in the context of a threatening series of insurrections and revolts performed by communities of free men and women in the Northeastern countryside.

  5. Neurotoxic response of infant monkeys to methylmercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willes, R.F.; Truelove, J.F.; Nera, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Four infant monkeys were dosed orally with 500 ..mu..g Hg/kg body wt./day (as methylmercury (MeHg) chloride dissolved sodium carbonate) beginning at 1 day of age. Neurological and behavioral signs of MeHg toxicity and blood Hg levels were monitored weekly. At first sign of MeHg intoxication, dosing with MeHg was terminated and the infants were monitored to assess reversal of the signs of MeHg toxicity. The first signs of MeHg toxicity, exhibited as a loss in dexterity and locomotor ability, were observed after 28 to 29 days of treatment; the blood Hg levels were 8.0 to 9.4 ..mu..g Hg/g blood. Dosing was terminated at 28 to 29 days of treatment but the signs of MeHg toxicity continued to develop. The infants became ataxic, blind, comatose and were necropsied at 35 to 43 days after initiating treatment with MgHg. The mercury concentrations in tissues analyzed after necropsy were highest in liver followed by occipital cortex and renal cortex. The mean blood/brain ratio was 0.21 +- 0.4. Histopathologic lesions were marked in the cerebrum with less severe lesions in the cerebellar nuclei. The Purkinje and granular cells of the cerebellar vermis appeared histologically normal. Lesions were not observed in the peripheral nervous system. The signs of MeHg intoxication, the tissue distribution of MeHg and histopathologic lesions observed in the infant monkeys were similar to those reported for adult monkeys.

  6. microRNA-128a dysregulation in transgenic Huntington’s disease monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a single causal mutation in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been implicated as epigenetic regulators of neurological disorders, however, their role in HD pathogenesis is not well defined. Here we study transgenic HD monkeys (HD monkeys) to examine miRNA dysregulation in a primate model of the disease. Results In this report, 11 miRNAs were found to be significantly associated (P value monkeys. We further focused on one of those candidates, miR-128a, due to the corresponding disruption in humans and mice with HD as well as its intriguing lists of gene targets. miR-128a was downregulated in our HD monkey model by the time of birth. We then confirmed that miR-128a was also downregulated in the brains of pre-symptomatic and post-symptomatic HD patients. Additionally, our studies confirmed a panel of canonical HD signaling genes regulated by miR-128a, including HTT and Huntingtin Interaction Protein 1 (HIP1). Conclusion Our studies found that miR-128a may play a critical role in HD and could be a viable candidate as a therapeutic or biomarker of the disease. PMID:24929669

  7. Autoshaping and automaintenance of a key-press response in squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamzu, E; Schwam, E

    1974-03-01

    Following exposure for a minimum of 500 to 600 trials, three of four naive squirrel monkeys eventually pressed a response key, illumination of which always preceded delivery of a food pellet. Three other naive monkeys did not press the key when the pellets were delivered randomly with respect to key illumination. Despite some similarities to autoshaping using pigeons, the data indicate many points of difference when squirrel monkeys are used as subjects. Although key-food pairings were shown to be important in the acquisition of the key-press response, they were ineffective in maintaining the response when either a negative response-reinforcer dependency was introduced, or when there was no scheduled response-reinforcer dependency (fixed trial). Not all demonstrations of autoshaping can be considered to be under the control of those processes that are primarily responsible for the phenomena obtained in pigeons.

  8. A case of polymicrogyria in macaque monkey: impact on anatomy and function of the motor system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouiller Eric M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymicrogyria is a malformation of the cerebral cortex often resulting in epilepsy or mental retardation. It remains unclear whether this pathology affects the structure and function of the corticospinal (CS system. The anatomy and histology of the brain of one macaque monkey exhibiting a spontaneous polymicrogyria (PMG monkey were examined and compared to the brain of normal monkeys. The CS tract was labelled by injecting a neuronal tracer (BDA unilaterally in a region where low intensity electrical microstimulation elicited contralateral hand movements (presumably the primary motor cortex in the PMG monkey. Results The examination of the brain showed a large number of microgyri at macro- and microscopic levels, covering mainly the frontoparietal regions. The layered cortical organization was locally disrupted and the number of SMI-32 stained pyramidal neurons in the cortical layer III of the presumed motor cortex was reduced. We compared the distribution of labelled CS axons in the PMG monkey at spinal cervical level C5. The cumulated length of CS axon arbors in the spinal grey matter was not significantly different in the PMG monkey. In the red nucleus, numerous neurons presented large vesicles. We also assessed its motor performances by comparing its capacity to execute a complex reach and grasp behavioral task. The PMG monkey exhibited an increase of reaction time without any modification of other motor parameters, an observation in line with a normal CS tract organisation. Conclusion In spite of substantial cortical malformations in the frontal and parietal lobes, the PMG monkey exhibits surprisingly normal structure and function of the corticospinal system.

  9. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  10. Optimized total body irradiation for induction of renal allograft tolerance through mixed chimerism in cynomolgus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimikawa, Masaaki; Kawai, Tatsuo; Ota, Kazuo [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that a nonmyeloablative preparative regimen can induce mixed chimerism and renal allograft tolerance between MHC-disparate non-human primates. The basic regimen includes anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), total body irradiation (TBI, 300 cGy), thymic irradiation (TI, 700 cGy), splenectomy, donor bone marrow (DBM) infusion, and posttransplant cyclosporine therapy (CYA, discontinued after 4 weeks). To evaluate the importance and to minimize the toxicity of irradiation, kidney allografts were transplanted with various manipulations of the irradiation protocol. Monkeys treated with the basic protocol without TBI and TI did not develop chimerism or long-term allograft survival. In monkeys treated with the full protocol, all six monkeys treated with two fractionated dose of 150 cGy developed chimerism and five monkeys appeared tolerant. In contrast, only two of the four monkeys treated with fractionated doses of 125 cGy developed chimerism and only one monkey survived long term. The degree of lymphocyte depletion in all recipients was proportional to the TBI dose. The fractionated TBI regimen of 150 cGy appears to be the most consistently effective regimen for establishing donor bone marrow cell engraftment and allograft tolerance. (author)

  11. Using photographs to study animal social cognition and behaviour: Do capuchins' responses to photos reflect reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F; Prétôt, Laurent; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Stocker, Martina; D'Mello, Daniel; Wilson, Vanessa A D

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural responses to photos are often used to infer what animals understand about their social environment, but are rarely validated against the same stimuli in real life. If subjects' responses to photos do not reflect responses to the same live stimuli, it is difficult to conclude what happens in reality based on photo responses alone. We compared capuchins' responses to photos versus live stimuli in an identical scenario within research cubicles. Subjects had the opportunity to approach food placed in front of an alpha group member and, in a separate condition, photos depicting the same individual. Subjects' latencies to approach food when placed in front of the real alpha negatively correlated with time subjects spent in close proximity to the alpha in their main enclosure. We therefore predicted subjects' latencies to approach food in the presence of photos would positively correlate with their latencies to approach food in the presence of the real alpha inside the cubicles, but negatively correlate with time they spent in proximity to the alpha in their enclosure. Neither prediction was supported. While not necessarily surprising, we explain why these results should be an important reminder that care is needed when interpreting results from photo studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polymorphic New World monkeys with more than three M/L cone types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H.; Deegan, Jess F.

    2005-10-01

    Most New World (platyrrhine) monkeys have M/L cone photopigment polymorphisms that map directly into individual variations in visual sensitivity and color vision. We used electroretinogram flicker photometry to examine M/L cone photopigments in the New World monkey Callicebus moloch (the dusky Titi). Like other New World monkeys, this species has an M/L cone photopigment polymorphism that reflects the presence of X-chromosome opsin gene alleles. However, unlike other platyrrhines in which three M/L photopigments are typical, Callicebus has a total of five M/L cone photopigments. The peak sensitivity values for these pigments extend across the range from 530 to 562 nm. The result is an enhanced array of potential color vision phenotypes in this species.

  13. Metabolic alkalosis during immobilization in monkeys (M. nemestrina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. R.; Yeh, I.; Swenson, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systemic and renal acid-base response of monkeys during ten weeks of immobilization was studied. By three weeks of immobilization, arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations were elevated (chronic metabolic alkalosis). Net urinary acid excretion increased in immobilized animals. Urinary bicarbonate excretion decreased during the first three weeks of immobilization, and then returned to control levels. Sustained increases in urinary ammonium excretion were seen throughout the time duration of immobilization. Neither potassium depletion nor hypokalemia was observed. Most parameters returned promptly to the normal range during the first week of recovery. Factors tentatively associated with changes in acid-base status of monkeys include contraction of extracellular fluid volume, retention of bicarbonate, increased acid excretion, and possible participation of extrarenal buffers.

  14. Sensor placement on Canton Tower for health monitoring using asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ting-Hua; Li, Hong-Nan; Zhang, Xu-Dong

    2012-12-01

    Heuristic optimization algorithms have become a popular choice for solving complex and intricate sensor placement problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. This paper proposes a novel and interesting methodology called the asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm (AMA) for the optimum design of sensor arrays for a structural health monitoring system. Different from the existing algorithms, the dual-structure coding method is designed and adopted for the representation of the design variables. The asynchronous-climb process is incorporated in the proposed AMA that can adjust the trajectory of each individual dynamically in the search space according to its own experience and other monkeys. The concept of ‘monkey king’ is introduced in the AMA, which reflects the Darwinian principle of natural selection and can create an interaction network to correctly guide the movement of other monkeys. Numerical experiments are carried out using two different objective functions by considering the Canton Tower in China with or without the antenna mast to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Investigations have indicated that the proposed AMA exhibits faster convergence characteristics and can generate sensor configurations superior in all instances when compared to the conventional monkey algorithm. For structures with stiffness mutation such as the Canton Tower, the sensor placement needs to be considered for each part separately.

  15. Sensor placement on Canton Tower for health monitoring using asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ting-Hua; Li, Hong-Nan; Zhang, Xu-Dong

    2012-01-01

    Heuristic optimization algorithms have become a popular choice for solving complex and intricate sensor placement problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. This paper proposes a novel and interesting methodology called the asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm (AMA) for the optimum design of sensor arrays for a structural health monitoring system. Different from the existing algorithms, the dual-structure coding method is designed and adopted for the representation of the design variables. The asynchronous-climb process is incorporated in the proposed AMA that can adjust the trajectory of each individual dynamically in the search space according to its own experience and other monkeys. The concept of ‘monkey king’ is introduced in the AMA, which reflects the Darwinian principle of natural selection and can create an interaction network to correctly guide the movement of other monkeys. Numerical experiments are carried out using two different objective functions by considering the Canton Tower in China with or without the antenna mast to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Investigations have indicated that the proposed AMA exhibits faster convergence characteristics and can generate sensor configurations superior in all instances when compared to the conventional monkey algorithm. For structures with stiffness mutation such as the Canton Tower, the sensor placement needs to be considered for each part separately. (paper)

  16. Prenatal methylmercury exposure affects spatial vision in adult monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbacher, Thomas M.; Grant, Kimberly S.; Mayfield, David B.; Gilbert, Steven G.; Rice, Deborah C.

    2005-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can have both early and long-term neurobehavioral consequences in exposed offspring. The present study assessed visual functioning in adult macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) exposed in utero to 0, 50, 70, or 90 μg/kg/day of MeHg hydroxide. Twenty-one full-term, normal birth weight offspring (9 controls, 12 exposed) were tested at approximately 11-14.5 years of age on a visual contrast sensitivity task. A forced-choice tracking procedure was utilized with spatial frequencies of 1, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle. On each test session, a single spatial frequency was presented across five levels of contrast, each differing by 3 dB. Methylmercury-exposed monkeys exhibited reduced contrast sensitivity thresholds, particularly at the higher spatial frequencies. The degree of visual impairment was not related to MeHg body burden or clearance and almost half of the exposed animals were unimpaired. The results from this study demonstrate that chronic in utero MeHg exposure, at subclinical levels, is associated with permanent adverse effects on spatial vision in adult monkeys

  17. Effects of social reorganization on dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and cocaine self-administration in male cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoty, P W; Gould, R W; Gage, H D; Nader, M A

    2017-09-01

    Studies have demonstrated that brain dopamine D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) and the reinforcing effects of cocaine can be influenced by a monkey's position in the social dominance hierarchy. In this study, we manipulated the social ranks of monkeys by reorganizing social groups and assessed effects on D2/D3R availability and cocaine self-administration. Male cynomolgus monkeys (N = 12) had been trained to self-administer cocaine under a concurrent cocaine-food reinforcement schedule. Previously, PET measures of D2/D3R availability in the caudate nucleus and putamen had been obtained with [ 18 F]fluoroclebopride during cocaine abstinence, while monkeys lived in stable social groups of four monkeys/pen. For this study, monkeys were reorganized into groups that consisted of (1) four previously dominant, (2) four previously subordinate, and (3) a mix of previously dominant and subordinate monkeys. After 3 months, D2/D3R availability was redetermined and cocaine self-administration was reexamined. D2/D3R availability significantly increased after reorganization in monkeys who were formerly subordinate, with the greatest increases observed in those that became dominant. No consistent changes in D2/D3R availability were observed in formerly dominant monkeys. Cocaine self-administration did not vary according to rank after reorganization of social groups. However, when compared to their previous cocaine self-administration data, the potency of cocaine as a reinforcer decreased in 9 of 11 monkeys. These results indicate that changing the social conditions can alter D2/D3R availability in subordinate monkeys in a manner suggestive of environmental enrichment. In most monkeys, social reorganization shifted the cocaine dose-response curve to the right, also consistent with environmental enrichment.

  18. Molecularly engineered live-attenuated chimeric West Nile/dengue virus vaccines protect rhesus monkeys from West Nile virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletnev, Alexander G.; St Claire, Marisa; Elkins, Randy; Speicher, Jim; Murphy, Brian R.; Chanock, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Two molecularly engineered, live-attenuated West Nile virus (WN) vaccine candidates were highly attenuated and protective in rhesus monkeys. The vaccine candidates are chimeric viruses (designated WN/DEN4) bearing the membrane precursor and envelope protein genes of WN on a backbone of dengue 4 virus (DEN4) with or without a deletion of 30 nucleotides (Δ30) in the 3' noncoding region of DEN4. Viremia in WN/DEN4- infected monkeys was reduced 100-fold compared to that in WN- or DEN4-infected monkeys. WN/DEN4-3'Δ30 did not cause detectable viremia, indicating that it is even more attenuated for monkeys. These findings indicate that chimerization itself and the presence of the Δ30 mutation independently contribute to the attenuation phenotype for nonhuman primates. Despite their high level of attenuation in monkeys, the chimeras induced a moderate-to-high titer of neutralizing antibodies and prevented viremia in monkeys challenged with WN. The more attenuated vaccine candidate, WN/DEN4-3'Δ30, will be evaluated first in our initial clinical studies

  19. Processing of vocalizations in humans and monkeys: A comparative fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, Olivier; Orban, Guy A.; Pallier, Christophe; Ramus, Franck; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Humans and many other animals use acoustical signals to mediate social interactions with con-specifics. The evolution of sound-based communication is still poorly understood and its neural correlates have only recently begun to be investigated. In the present study, we applied functional MRI to humans and macaque monkeys listening to identical stimuli in order to compare the cortical networks involved in the processing of vocalizations. At the first stages of auditory processing, both species showed similar fMRI activity maps within and around the lateral sulcus (the Sylvian fissure in humans). Monkeys showed remarkably similar responses to monkey calls and to human vocal sounds (speech or otherwise), mainly in the lateral sulcus and the adjacent superior temporal gyrus (STG). In contrast, a preference for human vocalizations and especially for speech was observed in the human STG and superior temporal sulcus (STS). The STS and Broca's region were especially responsive to intelligible utterances. The evolution of the language faculty in humans appears to have recruited most of the STS. It may be that in monkeys, a much simpler repertoire of vocalizations requires less involvement of this temporal territory. (authors)

  20. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Physiology and Cognitive Control of Behavior in Stress Inoculated Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Lindley, Steven E.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to stress inoculation protocols early in life subsequently exhibit diminished neurobiological responses to moderate psychological stressors and enhanced cognitive control of behavior during juvenile development compared to non-inoculated monkeys. The present experiments extended these findings and revealed that stress inoculated…

  1. Processing of pro-opiomelanocortin-derived amidated joining peptide and glycine-extended precursor in monkey pituitary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1991-01-01

    The molecular forms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived amidated and C-terminal glycine-extended joining peptide from monkey (Macaca mulatta) pituitary were determined. The predominant forms of joining peptide found were the low molecular peptides POMC(76-105) and POMC(76-106), respectively...... sequence of monkey and human POMC extremely conserved, but also the processing patterns are similar. The monkey therefore serves as a suitable model for studying regulation of the processing of POMC and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in man....

  2. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

  3. Morphological study of the eye and adnexa in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus sp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Nascimento Silva

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the anatomic and histologic features of the Sapajus sp. eye, comparing similarities and differences of humans and other species of non-human primates for biomedical research purposes. Computed tomography (CT of adnexa, eye and orbit live animal, as well as formolized pieces of the same structures of Sapajus sp. for anatomical and histological study were also performed. The anatomical description of the eye and adnexa was performed using the techniques of topographic dissection and exenteration. Histological fragments were fixated in buffered formalin 10%, processed by the routine paraffin inclusion technique, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and special stains. CT scan evaluation showed no differences between the live animal and the formolized head on identification of visual apparatus structures. Anatomic and histologic evaluation revealed rounded orbit, absence of the supraorbital foramen and frontal notch, little exposure of the sclera, with slight pigmentation of the exposed area and marked pigmentation at the sclerocorneal junction. Masson's Trichrome revealed the Meibomian glands, the corneal epithelium and Bowman's membrane; in the choroid, melanocytes and Bruch's membrane were observed; and in the retina, cones and rods as well as, optic nerve, the lamina cribrosa of the nerve fibers bundles. Toluidine blue highlighted the membranes: Bowman, Descemet and the endothelium; in the choroid: melanocytes; and in the retina: nuclear layers and retinal pigment epithelium. In view of the observed results Sapajus sp. is an important experimental model for research in the ophthalmology field, which has been shown due to the high similarity of its anatomical and histological structures with the human species.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity investigation of a human anti-interleukin-17 monoclonal antibody in non-naïve cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Gunn, George R; Marini, Joseph C; Shankar, Gopi; Han Hsu, Helen; Davis, Hugh M

    2015-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologic therapeutics, especially monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), in monkeys generally presents the most relevant predictive PK information for humans. However, human mAbs, xenogeneic proteins to monkeys, are likely to be immunogenic. Monkeys previously treated with a human mAb (non-naïve) may have developed antidrug antibodies (ADAs) that cross-react with another test mAb in subsequent studies. Unlike PK studies for small-molecule therapeutics, in which animals may be reused, naïve monkeys have been used almost exclusively for preclinical PK studies of biologic therapeutics to avoid potential pre-existing immunologic cross-reactivity issues. The propensity and extent of pre-existing ADAs have not been systematically investigated to date. In this study, the PK and immunogenicity of mAb A, a human anti-human interkeukin-17 mAb, were investigated in a colony of 31 cynomolgus monkeys previously exposed to other human mAbs against different targets. We screened the monkeys for pre-existing antibodies to mAb A prior to the PK study and showed that 44% of the monkeys had pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies to mAb A, which could affect the PK characterization of the antibody. In the subcolony of monkeys without measurable pre-existing ADAs, PK and immunogenicity of mAb A were successfully characterized. The impact of ADAs on mAb A PK was also demonstrated in the monkeys with pre-existing ADAs. Here we report the results and propose a pragmatic approach for the use of non-naïve monkeys when conducting PK studies of biologic therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. Electrical stimulation of superior colliculus affects strabismus angle in monkey models for strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Suraj; Meng, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of binocular vision during the critical period for development leads to eye misalignment in humans and in monkey models. We have previously suggested that disruption within a vergence circuit could be the neural basis for strabismus. Electrical stimulation in the rostral superior colliculus (rSC) leads to vergence eye movements in normal monkeys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SC stimulation on eye misalignment in strabismic monkeys. Electrical stimulation was delivered to 51 sites in the intermediate and deep layers of the SC (400 Hz, 0.5-s duration, 10–40 μA) in 3 adult optical prism-reared strabismic monkeys. Scleral search coils were used to measure movements of both eyes during a fixation task. Staircase saccades with horizontal and vertical components were elicited by stimulation as predicted from the SC topographic map. Electrical stimulation also resulted in significant changes in horizontal strabismus angle, i.e., a shift toward exotropia/esotropia depending on stimulation site. Electrically evoked saccade vector amplitude in the two eyes was not significantly different (P > 0.05; paired t-test) but saccade direction differed. However, saccade disconjugacy accounted for only ~50% of the change in horizontal misalignment while disconjugate postsaccadic movements accounted for the other ~50% of the change in misalignment due to electrical stimulation. In summary, our data suggest that electrical stimulation of the SC of strabismic monkeys produces a change in horizontal eye alignment that is due to a combination of disconjugate saccadic eye movements and disconjugate postsaccadic movements. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Electrical stimulation of the superior colliculus in strabismic monkeys results in a change in eye misalignment. These data support the notion of developmental disruption of vergence circuits leading to maintenance of eye misalignment in strabismus. PMID:28031397

  6. Homogeneous antibodies in lethally irradiated and autologous bone marrow reconstituted Rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, P. Van Den; Radl, J.; Loewenberg, B.; Swart, A.C.W.

    1976-01-01

    Ten Rhesus monkeys were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow. During the restoration period, the animals were immunized with DNP-Rhesus albumin and IgA1lambda-10S human paraprotein. One or more transient homogenous immunoglobulin components appeared in sera of all experimental monkeys. In four animals, these homogeneous immunoglobulins were shown to be specific antibodies against DNP-Rhesus albumin. They gradually became as heterogeneous as those in control monkeys which were immunized but not irradiated and transplanted. The onset of the specific antibody response after immunization was slightly delayed in the experimental group. On determining the time necessary to reach normalization of the overall immunoglobulin levels and the normal heterogeneity of the immunoglobulin spectrum, it was found to be more than 1 year in most of the animals. (author)

  7. Spatial Attention and Temporal Expectation Under Timed Uncertainty Predictably Modulate Neuronal Responses in Monkey V1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra; Sugihara, Hiroki; Katz, Yarden; Schummers, James; Tenenbaum, Joshua; Sur, Mriganka

    2015-01-01

    The brain uses attention and expectation as flexible devices for optimizing behavioral responses associated with expected but unpredictably timed events. The neural bases of attention and expectation are thought to engage higher cognitive loci; however, their influence at the level of primary visual cortex (V1) remains unknown. Here, we asked whether single-neuron responses in monkey V1 were influenced by an attention task of unpredictable duration. Monkeys covertly attended to a spot that remained unchanged for a fixed period and then abruptly disappeared at variable times, prompting a lever release for reward. We show that monkeys responded progressively faster and performed better as the trial duration increased. Neural responses also followed monkey's task engagement—there was an early, but short duration, response facilitation, followed by a late but sustained increase during the time monkeys expected the attention spot to disappear. This late attentional modulation was significantly and negatively correlated with the reaction time and was well explained by a modified hazard function. Such bimodal, time-dependent changes were, however, absent in a task that did not require explicit attentional engagement. Thus, V1 neurons carry reliable signals of attention and temporal expectation that correlate with predictable influences on monkeys' behavioral responses. PMID:24836689

  8. Proliferation of granule cell precursors in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys is diminished by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth; Tanapat, Patima; McEwen, Bruce S.; Flügge, Gabriele; Fuchs, Eberhard

    1998-01-01

    Although granule cells continue to be added to the dentate gyrus of adult rats and tree shrews, this phenomenon has not been demonstrated in the dentate gyrus of adult primates. To determine whether neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult primates, adult marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr or 3 weeks later. BrdU is a thymidine analog that is incorporated into proliferating cells during S phase. A substantial number of cells in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys incorporated BrdU and ≈80% of these cells had morphological characteristics of granule neurons and expressed a neuronal marker by the 3-week time point. Previous studies suggest that the proliferation of granule cell precursors in the adult dentate gyrus can be inhibited by stress in rats and tree shrews. To test whether an aversive experience has a similar effect on cell proliferation in the primate brain, adult marmoset monkeys were exposed to a resident-intruder model of stress. After 1 hr in this condition, the intruder monkeys were injected with BrdU and perfused 2 hr later. The number of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus of the intruder monkeys was compared with that of unstressed control monkeys. We found that a single exposure to this stressful experience resulted in a significant reduction in the number of these proliferating cells. Our results suggest that neurons are produced in the dentate gyrus of adult monkeys and that the rate of precursor cell proliferation can be affected by a stressful experience. PMID:9501234

  9. Thermoregulatory Responses of Febrile Monkeys During Microwave Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adair, E

    1997-01-01

    .... In a controlled ambient temperature of 26 degrees C, autonomic mechanisms of heat production and heat loss were measured in febrile squirrel monkeys during 30-min exposures to 450 or 2450 MHz CW MW...

  10. Pentatrichomonas hominis: prevalence and molecular characterization in humans, dogs, and monkeys in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chao; Ying, Meng; Gong, Peng-Tao; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Ju; Li, He; Zhang, Xi-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic amitochondrial flagellated protist that primarily colonizes the large intestines of a number of species, including cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, monkeys, and humans is, however, poorly understood. In this study, a total of 362 fecal samples including 252 dogs, 60 monkeys, and 50 humans from northern China were collected for an epidemiological survey of P. hominis infection.The average prevalence of P. hominis infection determined by nested PCR was 27.38% (69/252), 4.00% (2/50), and 46.67% (28/60) in dogs, humans, and monkeys, respectively. The prevalence was significantly higher in 6-month-old dogs (41.53%) and children (7.69%) than in older dogs (14.39%) and adults (0%) (P dogs, monkeys, and humans, especially in children and young dogs. Given the infection prevalence, P. hominis may pose a risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Woodling, Kellie A.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. The concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 μg/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.

  12. Habitat quality of the woolly spider monkey (Brachyteles hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Wilson Marcelo; Alves Meira-Neto, João Augusto; da Silva Carmo, Flávia Maria; Rodrigues de Melo, Fabiano; Santana Moreira, Leandro; Ferreira Barbosa, Elaine; Dias, Luiz Gustavo; da Silva Peres, Carlos Augusto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how habitat structure affects the home range use of a group of Brachyteles hypoxanthus in the Brigadeiro State Park, Brazil. It has been reported that most of the annual feeding time of woolly spider monkeys is spent eating leaves, but they prefer fruits when available. We hypothesise that the protein-to-fibre ratio (PF; best descriptor of habitat quality for folivorous primates) is a better descriptor of habitat quality and abundance for these primates than the structural attributes of forests (basal area is the best descriptor of habitat quality for frugivorous primates of Africa and Asia). We evaluated plant community structure, successional status, and PF of leaf samples from the dominant tree populations, both within the core and from a non-core area of the home range of our study group. Forest structure was a combination of stem density and basal area of dominant tree populations. The core area had larger trees, a higher forest basal area, and higher stem density than the non-core area. Mean PF did not differ significantly between these sites, although PF was influenced by differences in tree regeneration guilds. Large-bodied monkeys could be favoured by later successional stages of forests because larger trees and denser stems prevent the need for a higher expenditure of energy for locomotion as a consequence of vertical travel when the crowns of trees are disconnected in early successional forests. Forest structure variables (such as basal area of trees) driven by succession influence woolly spider monkey abundance in a fashion similar to frugivorous monkeys of Asia and Africa, and could explain marked differences in ranging behaviour and home range use by B. hypoxanthus. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Fast optical signal not detected in awake behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Vanduffel, Wim; Deng, Hong Ping; Ekstrom, Leeland; Boas, David A; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2009-04-01

    While the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure cerebral hemodynamic evoked responses (slow optical signal) is well established, its ability to measure non-invasively the 'fast optical signal' is still controversial. Here, we aim to determine the feasibility of performing NIRS measurements of the 'fast optical signal' or Event-Related Optical Signals (EROS) under optimal experimental conditions in awake behaving macaque monkeys. These monkeys were implanted with a 'recording well' to expose the dura above the primary visual cortex (V1). A custom-made optical probe was inserted and fixed into the well. The close proximity of the probe to the brain maximized the sensitivity to changes in optical properties in the cortex. Motion artifacts were minimized by physical restraint of the head. Full-field contrast-reversing checkerboard stimuli were presented to monkeys trained to perform a visual fixation task. In separate sessions, two NIRS systems (CW4 and ISS FD oximeter), which previously showed the ability to measure the fast signal in human, were used. In some sessions EEG was acquired simultaneously with the optical signal. The increased sensitivity to cortical optical changes with our experimental setup was quantified with 3D Monte Carlo simulations on a segmented MRI monkey head. Averages of thousands of stimuli in the same animal, or grand averages across the two animals and across repeated sessions, did not lead to detection of the fast optical signal using either amplitude or phase of the optical signal. Hemodynamic responses and visual evoked potentials were instead always detected with single trials or averages of a few stimuli. Based on these negative results, despite the optimal experimental conditions, we doubt the usefulness of non-invasive fast optical signal measurements with NIRS.

  14. A deficit in face-voice integration in developing vervet monkeys exposed to ethanol during gestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Zangenehpour

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders display behavioural and intellectual impairments that strongly implicate dysfunction within the frontal cortex. Deficits in social behaviour and cognition are amongst the most pervasive outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure. Our naturalistic vervet monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey concurrently presenting two different calls along with a single audio track matching the content of one of the calls, they were not able to match the correct video to the single audio track. This was manifest by their average looking time being equally spent towards both the matching and non-matching videos. However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration.

  15. The influence of social structure on social isolation in amphetamine-treated Java monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbout, D.A.; Ellenbroek, B.A.; Cools, A.R.

    1996-10-01

    Amphetamine-induced social isolation in monkeys has often been considered a valid animal model for certain negative symptoms of schizophrenia. However, there appear to be many ambiguities in relation to the exact nature of the isolation. Therefore, the effect of orally administered amphetamine (AMP) on the occurrence of social isolation in Java monkeys was studied. In part I the rank dependency of the effects of AMP (0.5mg/kg) was investigated in four alpha-males and three beta-males. AMP increased 'proximity' and 'passive groom', and decreased 'active allogroom' in alpha-males. In contrast, AMP decreased all three behavioural elements to a certain extent in beta-males. It is concluded that AMP induces social isolation in beta-males, but not in alpha-males. In part II of this study the AMP-induced behaviour of the treated monkey and the simultaneously occurring changes in the non-treated monkeys were investigated in a detailed study of a single social group. AMP significantly reduced the frequency of 'exploration', 'locomotion', 'self-groom', 'swing', 'active groom', 'inspect', 'approach' and originally-present stereotypies. Thus AMP apparently reduces the ability to initiate behaviour which is characteristic for the adult animal. AMP did not affect the frequency of 'present' and 'play' and enhanced that of 'aggression' and 'fear' in the beta-male; it also elicited various juvenile-like behaviours in both alpha- and beta-males, suggesting that AMP induces a behavioural regression. Furthermore, the behaviour of the non-treated monkeys of the group was decisive for the occurrence of social isolation of the treated monkey. Thus, the effects of AMP on the social behaviour of Java monkeys depend on the individual sensitivity, the social position which the subject occupies in its group, and the behaviour of the partners of the treated subject.

  16. A deficit in face-voice integration in developing vervet monkeys exposed to ethanol during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders display behavioural and intellectual impairments that strongly implicate dysfunction within the frontal cortex. Deficits in social behaviour and cognition are amongst the most pervasive outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure. Our naturalistic vervet monkey model of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) provides an unparalleled opportunity to study the neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal ethanol exposure in a controlled experimental setting. Recent work has revealed a significant reduction of the neuronal population in the frontal lobes of these monkeys. We used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey concurrently presenting two different calls along with a single audio track matching the content of one of the calls, they were not able to match the correct video to the single audio track. This was manifest by their average looking time being equally spent towards both the matching and non-matching videos. However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration of information that is presented by the face and the voice and does not affect more elementary aspects of sensory integration.

  17. Canine distemper virus isolated from a monkey efficiently replicates on Vero cells expressing non-human primate SLAM receptors but not human SLAM receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Na; Liu, Yuxiu; Wang, Jianzhong; Xu, Weiwei; Li, Tiansong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Lei; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Gao, Yuwei; Hu, Guixue; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-08-02

    In 2008, an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in monkeys was reported in China. We isolated CDV strain (subsequently named Monkey-BJ01-DV) from lung tissue obtained from a rhesus monkey that died in this outbreak. We evaluated the ability of this virus on Vero cells expressing SLAM receptors from dog, monkey and human origin, and analyzed the H gene of Monkey-BJ01-DV with other strains. The Monkey-BJ01-DV isolate replicated to the highest titer on Vero cells expressing dog-origin SLAM (10(5.2±0.2) TCID50/ml) and monkey-origin SLAM (10(5.4±0.1) TCID50/ml), but achieved markedly lower titers on human-origin SLAM cells (10(3.3±0.3) TCID50/ml). Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length H gene showed that Monkey-BJ01-DV was highly related to other CDV strains obtained during recent CDV epidemics among species of the Canidae family in China, and these Monkey strains CDV (Monkey-BJ01-DV, CYN07-dV, Monkey-KM-01) possessed a number of amino acid specific substitutions (E276V, Q392R, D435Y and I542F) compared to the H protein of CDV epidemic in other animals at the same period. Our results suggested that the monkey origin-CDV-H protein could possess specific substitutions to adapt to the new host. Monkey-BJ01-DV can efficiently use monkey- and dog-origin SLAM to infect and replicate in host cells, but further adaptation may be required for efficient replication in host cells expressing the human SLAM receptor.

  18. Phenobarbital treatments lower DDT body burden in rhesus monkeys

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    Ferguson, P.W.; Clark, C.R.; Gee, S.J.; Krieger, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Decreased DDT, DDD, DDE in blood and DDA in urine followed phenobarbital treatments (10 mg/kg/day, 11 days, intramuscular (im)) in three male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animals were fed DDT diets containing up to 500 ppm DDT during a 3-year period. Induction of liver monooxygenases was confirmed by reduced in vivo antipyrine plasma half-life and increased in vitro oxidation rates of dihydroisodrin, p-nitroanisole and benz(alpha)pyrene by homogenates of liver obtained from closed needle biopsy. Chlorohydrocarbon blood levels significantly decreased during the induction period (days 1-11). Concentrations on day 28 were at or below pre-DDT exposure levels. Urine DDA gradually decreased in all monkeys from days 16 to 28.

  19. Subarachnoid administration of iohexol in cynomolgus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobeck, H.P.; Mayes, B.A.; Barbolt, T.A.; Fabian, R.J.; Kimball, J.P.; Slighter, R.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A non-ionic diagnostic medium, iohexol, was administered by subarachnoid injection to groups of six cynomolgus monkeys and compared with the vehicle, physiologically normal saline, and/or saline of equal osmolality to determine its potential for increasing total protein and leucocyte levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Also investigated was the effect of repeated spinal taps not subsequently followed by the intrathecal injection of test or control articles. In the monkey, unlike man, low-level leucocyte counts were consistently observed following initial withdrawal of spinal fluid. Elevated leucocyte and total protein levels were observed in the present investigations one day to a week after intrathecal injection of radiopaque, vehicle or saline solution. Total protein returned to normal levels earlier than did leucocyte counts. However, repeated needle puncture alone was found to be sufficient to cause an elevation of leucocytes 3 to 4 times the baseline level, while inflammatory effects were observed histologically only when autopsy was performed soon after the final spinal tap. (orig.)

  20. Timing of births in sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Mendes, S L; Santos, R R

    2001-10-01

    We monitored the birth patterns of sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) during a 4-yr period from October 1996 to August 2000 at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brown howler monkey births (n = 34) occurred throughout the year, and birth frequencies did not differ between rainy and dry season months. The aseasonal birth patterns of the howler monkeys differed significantly from the dry season concentration and dry month peak in muriqui births (n = 23). We found no effects of infant sex or the number of females on interbirth intervals (IBIs) in our 10 howler monkey study troops. IBIs of brown howler monkeys averaged 21.2 +/- 2.5 mo (n = 8, median = 21.0 mo), and were significantly shorter following dry season births than rainy season births. Their IBIs and yearling survivorship (74%) were similar to those reported for other species of howler monkeys, but yearling survivorship was much lower than that of muriquis (94%), whose IBIs were more than 12 mo longer than those of the howler monkeys. Our study extends comparative knowledge of birth patterns in Alouatta to a poorly known species, and provides insights into the different ways in which diet and life history may affect the timing of births in large-bodied platyrrhines under the same seasonal ecological conditions. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Nature of the Refractive Errors in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Experimentally Induced Ametropias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang; Kee, Chea-su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Smith, Earl L.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the contribution of individual ocular components to vision-induced ametropias in 210 rhesus monkeys. The primary contribution to refractive-error development came from vitreous chamber depth; a minor contribution from corneal power was also detected. However, there was no systematic relationship between refractive error and anterior chamber depth or between refractive error and any crystalline lens parameter. Our results are in good agreement with previous studies in humans, suggesting that the refractive errors commonly observed in humans are created by vision-dependent mechanisms that are similar to those operating in monkeys. This concordance emphasizes the applicability of rhesus monkeys in refractive-error studies. PMID:20600237

  2. Modified Monkey Optimization Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagasabai Lenin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach Modified Monkey optimization (MMO algorithm for solving optimal reactive power dispatch problem has been presented. MMO is a population based stochastic meta-heuristic algorithm and it is inspired by intelligent foraging behaviour of monkeys. This paper improves both local leader and global leader phases.  The proposed (MMO algorithm has been tested in standard IEEE 30 bus test system and simulation results show the worthy performance of the proposed algorithm in reducing the real power loss.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of rhesus monkey platelet glycoprotein Ibα, a major ligand-binding subunit of GPIb-IX-V complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianlin; Shen, Yang; Shi, Meimei; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu; Chen, Younan

    2014-05-01

    Through binding to von Willebrand factor (VWF), platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, the major ligand-binding subunit of the GPIb-IX-V complex, initiates platelet adhesion and aggregation in response to exposed VWF or elevated fluid-shear stress. There is little data regarding non-human primate platelet GPIbα. This study cloned and characterized rhesus monkey (Macaca Mullatta) platelet GPIbα. DNAMAN software was used for sequence analysis and alignment. N/O-glycosylation sites and 3-D structure modelling were predicted by online OGPET v1.0, NetOGlyc 1.0 Server and SWISS-MODEL, respectively. Platelet function was evaluated by ADP- or ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. Rhesus monkey GPIbα contains 2,268 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 755 amino acids. Rhesus monkey GPIbα nucleotide and protein sequences share 93.27% and 89.20% homology respectively, with human. Sequences encoding the leucine-rich repeats of rhesus monkey GPIbα share strong similarity with human, whereas PEST sequences and N/O-glycosylated residues vary. The GPIbα-binding residues for thrombin, filamin A and 14-3-3ζ are highly conserved between rhesus monkey and human. Platelet function analysis revealed monkey and human platelets respond similarly to ADP, but rhesus monkey platelets failed to respond to low doses of ristocetin where human platelets achieved 76% aggregation. However, monkey platelets aggregated in response to higher ristocetin doses. Monkey GPIbα shares strong homology with human GPIbα, however there are some differences in rhesus monkey platelet activation through GPIbα engagement, which need to be considered when using rhesus monkey platelet to investigate platelet GPIbα function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance norms for a rhesus monkey neuropsychological testing battery: acquisition and long-term performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, M R; Taffe, M A; Polis, I; Roberts, A C; Robbins, T W; Koob, G F; Bloom, F E; Gold, L H

    1999-10-25

    A computerized behavioral battery based upon human neuropsychological tests (CANTAB, CeNeS, Cambridge, UK) has been developed to assess cognitive behaviors of rhesus monkeys. Monkeys reliably performed multiple tasks, providing long-term assessment of changes in a number of behaviors for a given animal. The overall goal of the test battery is to characterize changes in cognitive behaviors following central nervous system (CNS) manipulations. The battery addresses memory (delayed non-matching to sample, DNMS; spatial working memory, using a self-ordered spatial search task, SOSS), attention (intra-/extra-dimensional shift, ID/ED), motivation (progressive-ratio, PR), reaction time (RT) and motor coordination (bimanual task). As with human neuropsychological batteries, different tasks are thought to involve different neural substrates, and therefore performance profiles should assess function in particular brain regions. Monkeys were tested in transport cages, and responding on a touch sensitive computer monitor was maintained by food reinforcement. Parametric manipulations of several tasks demonstrated the sensitivity of performance to increases in task difficulty. Furthermore, the factors influencing difficulty for rhesus monkeys were the same as those shown to affect human performance. Data from this study represent performance of a population of healthy normal monkeys that will be used for comparison in subsequent studies of performance following CNS manipulations such as infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (NeuroAIDS) or drug administration.

  5. Constancy and variability in cortical structure. A study on synapses and dendritic spines in hedgehog and monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, A; Demianenko, G P

    1995-01-01

    Synapses and dendritic spines were investigated in the parietal cortex of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and the monkey (Macaca mulatta). There was no significant difference in the density of synapses between the two species (14 synapses/100 microns2 in the hedgehog, 15/100 microns2 in the monkey), neither in the size of the synaptic junctions, in the proportion of Type I and Type II synapses (8-10% were of Type II in the hedgehog, 10-14% in the monkey) nor in the proportion of perforated synapses (8% in the hedgehog, 5% in the monkey). The only striking difference at the electron microscopic level concerned the frequency of synapses in which the postsynaptic profile was deeply indented into the presynaptic terminal. Such synapses were 10 times more frequent in the monkey. Dendritic spines were investigated in Golgi-preparations. The density of spines along dendrites was similar in both species. The results are discussed with regard to connectivity in the cortex of small and large brains.

  6. Long-term blood glucose monitoring with implanted telemetry device in conscious and stress-free cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Sun, G; Qiao, W; Liu, Y; Qiao, J; Ye, W; Wang, H; Wang, X; Lindquist, R; Wang, Y; Xiao, Y-F

    2017-09-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring, especially long-term and remote, in diabetic patients or research is very challenging. Nonhuman primate (NHP) is an excellent model for metabolic research, because NHPs can naturally develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) similarly to humans. This study was to investigate blood glucose changes in conscious, moving-free cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during circadian, meal, stress and drug exposure. Blood glucose, body temperature and physical activities were continuously and simultaneously recorded by implanted HD-XG telemetry device for up to 10 weeks. Blood glucose circadian changes in normoglycemic monkeys significantly differed from that in diabetic animals. Postprandial glucose increase was more obvious after afternoon feeding. Moving a monkey from its housing cage to monkey chair increased blood glucose by 30% in both normoglycemic and diabetic monkeys. Such increase in blood glucose declined to the pre-procedure level in 30 min in normoglycemic animals and >2 h in diabetic monkeys. Oral gavage procedure alone caused hyperglycemia in both normoglycemic and diabetic monkeys. Intravenous injection with the stress hormones, angiotensin II (2 μg/kg) or norepinephrine (0.4 μg/kg), also increased blood glucose level by 30%. The glucose levels measured by the telemetry system correlated significantly well with glucometer readings during glucose tolerance tests (ivGTT or oGTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), graded glucose infusion (GGI) and clamp. Our data demonstrate that the real-time telemetry method is reliable for monitoring blood glucose remotely and continuously in conscious, stress-free, and moving-free NHPs with the advantages highly valuable to diabetes research and drug discovery.

  7. Prevalence of antibody to adult T-cell leukemia virus-associated antigens (ATLA) in Japanese monkeys and other non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, M; Komuro, A; Nozawa, K; Shotake, T; Ishikawa, K; Yamamoto, K; Ishida, T; Honjo, S; Hinuma, Y

    1984-02-15

    The prevalence of adult T-cell-leukemia virus (ATLV) infection was examined in Japanese monkeys living naturally in various parts of Japan and in other species of non-human primates imported into and kept in Japan. Sera of 2,650 Japanese monkeys from 41 troops throughout Japan were tested. High incidences of anti-ATLV-associated antigen (ATLA)-positive monkeys were found in most troops, not only in the endemic area of human ATL(Southwestern Japan), but also in non-endemic areas. The incidence of sero-positive individuals increased gradually with age, reaching a maximum when the animals became adult, indicating age dependency, like that found by epidemiological studies on humans. Anti-ATLA antibodies were also detected in 90 of 815 sera of imported non-human primates of 33 species other than Japanese monkeys. All the anti-ATLA sero-positive monkeys were Catarrhines (Old World monkeys), mainly macaques of Asian origin. Some sero-positive monkeys were also found among animals of African origin, but no antibody was detected in Prosimians and Platyrrhines (New World monkeys). The clear-cut difference between the geographical distribution of sero-positive simians and that of humans indicates the improbability of direct transmission of ATLV from simians to humans.

  8. What do monkeys' music choices mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra M

    2005-08-01

    McDermott and Hauser have recently shown that although monkeys show some types of preferences for sound, preferences for music are found only in humans. This suggests that music might be a relatively recent adaptation in human evolution. Here, I focus on the research methods used by McDermott and Hauser, and consider the findings in relation to infancy research and music psychology.

  9. Responsiveness in Behaving Monkeys and Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-31

    Status of Current Research - Statement of Work Each study involving awake , behaving monkey neurophysiological recording used a behavioral paradigm that...anesthesia. A craniotomy was performed at approximately A+ 14.5mm. The recording chamber then was fixed to the skull at a lateral angle of 8’ from

  10. Prevalence of Balantidium coli Infection in Bred Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta in Guangxi, southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Long Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Balantidium coli infects humans, primates and pigs, causing serious diarrhea and dysentery. Little information on the prevalence of B. coli in primates is available in China. This investigation was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. coli infection in bred rhesus monkeys in Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region (GZNAR, southern China.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from rhesus monkeys bred in cages in GZNAR and B. coli cysts and/or trophozoites were examined microscopically after sedimentation with water in May 2013.(64.2% samples were tested positive. The prevalence was 65% (39/60 and 63.3% (38/60 in female and male monkeys, respectively. 80% (48/60 cages in this nonhuman primate center were positive for B. coli.The present survey revealed high circulation of B. coli in bred rhesus monkeys in GZNAR, which poses potential threats to animal and human health.

  11. Analogical reasoning and the differential outcome effect: transitory bridging of the conceptual gap for rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Thompson, Roger K R; Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2011-07-01

    Monkeys, unlike chimpanzees and humans, have a marked difficulty acquiring relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks that likely reflect the cognitive foundation upon which analogical reasoning rests. In the present study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed a categorical (identity and nonidentity) RMTS task with differential reward (pellet ratio) and/or punishment (timeout ratio) outcomes for correct and incorrect choices. Monkeys in either differential reward-only or punishment-only conditions performed at chance levels. However, the RMTS performance of monkeys experiencing both differential reward and punishment conditions was significantly better than chance. Subsequently when all animals experienced nondifferential outcomes tests, their RMTS performance levels were at chance. These results indicate that combining differential reward and punishment contingencies provide an effective, albeit transitory, scaffolding for monkeys to judge analogical relations-between-relations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. [Blood plasma volume dynamics in monkeys during immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, V P; Burkovskaia, T E; Dotsenko, M A; Gordeev, Iu V; Nosovskiĭ, A M; Chel'naia, N A

    2004-01-01

    Dynamics of blood plasma volume (PV) was studied with indirect methods (hematocrit count, hemoglobin, total protein and high-molecular protein) during 9-d immersion of monkeys Macaca mulatta. The animals were donned in waterproof suits, motor restrained in space seat liners and immersed down to the xiphisternum. Two monkeys were immersed in the bath at one time. The suits were changed every day under ketamine (10 mg/kg of body mass). There were two groups with 12 animals in each. The first group was kept in the bath 3 days and the second--9 days. Prior to the experiment, the animals had been trained to stay in the seat liner put down into the dry bath. It was shown that already two days of exposure to the hydrostatic forces (approximately 15 mm Hg) and absence of negative pressure breathing reduced PV by 18-20% on the average in all animals. Subsequent PV dynamics was individual by character; however, PV deficit persisted during 4 days of immersion in the whole group. In this period, albumin filtration was increased significantly, whereas high-molecular protein filtration was increased to a less degree. During the remaining days in immersion PV regained normal values. Ten days of readaptation (reclined positioning of monkeys brought back into cage) raised VP beyond baseline values. This phenomenon can be attributed to the necessity to provide appropriate venous return and sufficient blood supply of organs and tissues following extension of blood vessels capacity.

  13. Autoradiographic studies on the effect of allopurinol on 14C-hydpoxanthine metabolism in the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Yoshimasa; Miyazaki, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Masahisa

    1980-01-01

    The Effect of orally given allopurinol on the distribution of intravenously administered 14 C-hypoxanthine radioactivity was studied in squirrel monkeys 8 hr after administration of the label by the whole body autoradiography. Although the distribution of radioactivity in the normal and allopurinol-treated animals was essentially similar to each other, more intense radioactivity was noted in the latter monkey; salvage of 14 C-hypoxanthine was enhanced. Similarly to our previous observation in mice, significant radioactivity in monkeys was seen in tissues undergoing rapid nucleic acid synthesis except for slight species differences in some organs. 14 C-Allantoin alone was the urinary metabolite of the hypoxanthine in the normal monkey whereas significant amounts of 14 C-hypoxanthine and 14 C-xanthine as well were detected in the urine of the drug-treated animal. (author)

  14. Effects of heated hydrotherapy on muscle HSP70 and glucose metabolism in old and young vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Davis, Ashely T; Jenkins, Kurt A; Flynn, D Mickey

    2016-07-01

    Increasing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in aged and/or insulin-resistant animal models confers benefits to healthspan and lifespan. Heat application to increase core temperature induces HSPs in metabolically important tissues, and preliminary human and animal data suggest that heated hydrotherapy is an effective method to achieve increased HSPs. However, safety concerns exist, particularly in geriatric medicine where organ and cardiovascular disease commonly will preexist. We evaluated young vervet monkeys compared to old, insulin-resistant vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in their core temperatures, glucose tolerance, muscle HSP70 level, and selected safety biomarkers after 10 sessions of hot water immersions administered twice weekly. Hot water immersion robustly induced the heat shock response in muscles. We observed that heat-treated old and young monkeys have significantly higher muscle HSP70 than control monkeys and treatment was without significant adverse effects on organ or cardiovascular health. Heat therapy improved pancreatic responses to glucose challenge and tended to normalize glucose excursions. A trend for worsened blood pressure and glucose values in the control monkeys and improved values in heat-treated monkeys were seen to support further investigation into the safety and efficacy of this intervention for metabolic syndrome or diabetes in young or old persons unable to exercise.

  15. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-09-01

    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-I metabolism in cynomolgus monkey. Identification and characterization of beta-migrating pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, G.W.; Castle, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    Fresh plasma from control (C) and hypercholesterolemic (HC) cynomolgus monkeys was analyzed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting with antibody to cynomolgus monkey apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Two bands were evident on the autoradiogram: an alpha-migrating band (high density lipoprotein) and a beta-migrating band that comigrated exactly with cynomolgus monkey low density lipoprotein (LDL). The presence of beta-migrating apo A-I in the plasma of these monkeys was confirmed by Geon-Pevikon preparative electrophoresis, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and isotope dilution studies in which radiolabeled apo A-I was found to equilibrate also with alpha- and beta-migrating pools of apo A-I in the plasma. Subfractionation of C and HC plasma by agarose column chromatography (Bio-Gel A-0.5M and A-15M) followed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting indicated that the beta-migrating apo A-I in C was relatively homogeneous and eluted with proteins of Mr approximately 50 kD [apo A-I(50 kD)], whereas two beta-migrating fractions were identified in HC, one that eluted with the 50-kD proteins, and the other that eluted in the LDL Mr range [apo A-I(LDL)]. The apo A-I(LDL) was precipitated by antibody to cynomolgus monkey apo B. The apo A-I(50 kD) accounted for 5 +/- 1% (mean +/- SD) of the plasma apo A-I in C plasma, and 15 +/- 7% in HC plasma. No apo A-I(LDL) was detected in C plasma, but that fraction accounted for 9 +/- 7% of the apo A-I in HC plasma. These data establish the presence of multiple pools of apo A-I in the cynomolgus monkey, which must be taken into consideration in any comprehensive model of apo A-I metabolism in this species

  18. Hemopoietic stem cells in rhesus monkeys : surface antigens, radiosensitivity, and responses to GM-CSF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Wielenga (Jenne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractRhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were bred at the Primate Center TNO, Rijswijk, The Netherlands!. Both male and female animals were used for the experiments. The monkeys weighed 2.5-4 kg and were 2-4 years old at the time of the experiment. They were all typed for RhLA-A, -B and -DR

  19. PET measurement of FK506 concentration in a monkey model of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yoshihiro; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Noda, Akihiro; Osoda, Kazuhiko; Nishimura, Shintaro

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The immunosuppressive agent FK506 (tacrolimus) has neuroprotective properties in an experimental model of cerebral ischemia. To improve the accuracy of clinical studies in acute stroke, a clinical dose setting should be based on the brain concentration, but not on the blood concentration of agents in humans. We have already established a measurement method using PET for FK506 concentration in the normal monkey brain, which could be applicable for human study; however, under ischemic conditions, in this study, we aimed to examine the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. Methods: Studies were performed on six male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion model was used. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by an intravenous injection of [ 15 O]H 2 O 165 min after MCA occlusion. FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) containing [ 11 C]FK506 was intravenously injected into the monkeys 180 min after MCA occlusion, and dynamic PET images were acquired for 30 min after administration. FK506 concentrations in the brain were calculated in moles per liter (M) units using the specific activity of injected FK506. Results: MCA occlusion produced ischemia, confirmed by rCBF measurement before the administration of [ 11 C]FK506. Fifteen minutes after FK506 (0.1 mg/kg) administration, the concentrations in the contralateral and ipsilateral cortex were 22.4±6.4 and 19.7±4.0 ng/g, respectively. Conclusion: We successfully measured the brain concentration of FK506 in a monkey model of stroke. The difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral concentrations of FK506 was not significant. This characteristic that FK506 readily penetrates ischemic tissue as well as normal tissue might explain the neuroprotective effect of FK506 in the ischemic brain and is suitable for the treatment of stroke patients

  20. Comparative response of dogs and monkeys to sublethal acute and continuous low dose-rate gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.; Johnson, O.S.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Vigil, E.A.

    1977-02-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (injury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with 35 R/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injury remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50 percent) and monkeys (8 percent) died from injury incurred during the conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what might be expected from a single acute dose. Mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approximately 1400 h). Thus, hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35 R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater than for their control counterparts. Thus, the long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than four times the acute LD 50 - 30 in dogs and approximately two times that of monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 R/day

  1. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major challenges associated with constructing phased array coils for monkeys are the variation in head size and space constraints. Here, we apply phased array technology to a 4-channel phased array coil capable of improving the resolution and image quality of full brain awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments. The phased array coil is that can adapt to different rhesus monkey head sizes (ages 4-8) and fits in the limited space provided by monkey stereotactic equipment and provides SNR gains in primary visual cortex and anatomical accuracy in conjunction with parallel imaging and improves resolution in fMRI experiments by a factor of 2 (1.25 mm to 1.0 mm isotropic) and diffusion MRI experiments by a factor of 4 (1.5 mm to 0.9 mm isotropic).

  2. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis Fed with High Soluble Carbohydrate Diet: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI APRI ASTUTI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate as obese diet is not yet available commercially for monkeys. Therefore, this preliminary study was to carry out nutrient intake and digestibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis fed with high soluble carbohydrate diet compared to monkey chow. Five adult female macaques (average body weight 2.67 kg were made to consume freshly diet. Commercial monkey chows (contains 3500 cal/g energy and 35% starch were fed to three adult females (average body weight 3.62 kg. Nutrient intakes and digestibility parameters were measured using modified metabolic cages. Result showed that average of protein, fat, starch, and energy intakes in treatment diet were higher than control diet (T-test. Fat intake in the treatment diet was three times higher, while starch and energy intakes were almost two times higher than monkey chow. Digestibility percentage of all nutrients were the same in both diets except for the protein. The study concludes that the freshly prepared high sugar diet was palatable and digestible for the cynomolgus monkeys. Further studies are in progress to develop obese diet high in energy content based on fat and source of starch treatments.

  3. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, I-H.; Huang, W.-S.; Yeh, C.-B.; Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H.; Liu, J.-C.; Ma, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [ 123 I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [ 123 I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1 and [ 123 I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  4. Limited Susceptibility of Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to Leprosy after Experimental Administration of Mycobacterium leprae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gerald P.; Dela Cruz, Eduardo C.; Abalos, Rodolfo M.; Tan, Esterlina V.; Fajardo, Tranquilino T.; Villahermosa, Laarni G.; Cellona, Roland V.; Balagon, Maria V.; White, Valerie A.; Saunderson, Paul R.; Walsh, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration. PMID:22855766

  5. Establishment of reference values for complete blood count and blood gases in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAKAYAMA, Shunya; KOIE, Hiroshi; KANAYAMA, Kiichi; KATAKAI, Yuko; ITO-FUJISHIRO, Yasuyo; SANKAI, Tadashi; YASUTOMI, Yasuhiro; AGEYAMA, Naohide

    2017-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys are closely related to humans phylogenetically, and this has resulted in their widespread use as a preclinical model. Hematological data with regard to these monkeys are thus important. Although reference values for blood components and sex hormones have been established for cynomolgus monkeys, those for arterial blood gases have not. The arterial blood gases quickly reflect respiratory and circulatory dynamics, and are thus useful for animal management and safe general anesthesia and surgical operations. Furthermore, since O2 is transported by RBC, CBC and blood gases are closely related. The present study aimed to establish reference values for arterial blood gases and CBC in cynomolgus monkeys over a wide age range. Blood gases and CBC of arterial blood, collected from 41 female and 21 male anesthetized monkeys, were measured. Age correlated with RBC, HGB and HCT in the CBC. Values differed significantly between males and females in pCO2, CO2 concentration, MCV and MCH. The pH of blood was equivalent to that of humans and pCO2 was more stable, whereas MCV and MCH were lower than those in humans. Erythrocytes were smaller and less pigmented than in other Macaca species. Several relationships between gender and age, and blood gases and CBC were identified in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these reference values will be useful as markers for veterinary applications and in the care and maintenance of these animals. PMID:28381665

  6. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  7. Plant DNA sequences from feces: potential means for assessing diets of wild primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Brenda J; Stiller, Mathias; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M; Harris, Tara; Chapman, Colin A; Vigilant, Linda; Poinar, Hendrik

    2007-06-01

    Analyses of plant DNA in feces provides a promising, yet largely unexplored, means of documenting the diets of elusive primates. Here we demonstrate the promise and pitfalls of this approach using DNA extracted from fecal samples of wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza). From these DNA extracts we amplified, cloned, and sequenced small segments of chloroplast DNA (part of the rbcL gene) and plant nuclear DNA (ITS-2). The obtained sequences were compared to sequences generated from known plant samples and to those in GenBank to identify plant taxa in the feces. With further optimization, this method could provide a basic evaluation of minimum primate dietary diversity even when knowledge of local flora is limited. This approach may find application in studies characterizing the diets of poorly-known, unhabituated primate species or assaying consumer-resource relationships in an ecosystem. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Cognitive performance of juvenile monkeys after chronic fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Mari S; Hackett, Edward P; Hogrefe, Casey E; Leranth, Csaba; Elsworth, John D; Roth, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Potential long term effects on brain development are a concern when drugs are used to treat depression and anxiety in childhood. In this study, male juvenile rhesus monkeys (three-four years of age) were dosed with fluoxetine or vehicle (N=16/group) for two years. Histomorphometric examination of cortical dendritic spines conducted after euthanasia at one year postdosing (N=8/group) suggested a trend toward greater dendritic spine synapse density in prefrontal cortex of the fluoxetine-treated monkeys. During dosing, subjects were trained for automated cognitive testing, and evaluated with a test of sustained attention. After dosing was discontinued, sustained attention, recognition memory and cognitive flexibility were evaluated. Sustained attention was affected by fluoxetine, both during and after dosing, as indexed by omission errors. Response accuracy was not affected by fluoxetine in post-dosing recognition memory and cognitive flexibility tests, but formerly fluoxetine-treated monkeys compared to vehicle controls had more missed trial initiations and choices during testing. Drug treatment also interacted with genetic and environmental variables: MAOA genotype (high- and low transcription rate polymorphisms) and testing location (upper or lower tier of cages). Altered development of top-down cortical regulation of effortful attention may be relevant to this pattern of cognitive test performance after juvenile fluoxetine treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  10. Epigenetic mechanism underlying the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like phenotypes in prenatally androgenized rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Kwon, Soonil; Abbott, David H; Geller, David H; Dumesic, Daniel A; Azziz, Ricardo; Guo, Xiuqing; Goodarzi, Mark O

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is poorly understood. PCOS-like phenotypes are produced by prenatal androgenization (PA) of female rhesus monkeys. We hypothesize that perturbation of the epigenome, through altered DNA methylation, is one of the mechanisms whereby PA reprograms monkeys to develop PCOS. Infant and adult visceral adipose tissues (VAT) harvested from 15 PA and 10 control monkeys were studied. Bisulfite treated samples were subjected to genome-wide CpG methylation analysis, designed to simultaneously measure methylation levels at 27,578 CpG sites. Analysis was carried out using Bayesian Classification with Singular Value Decomposition (BCSVD), testing all probes simultaneously in a single test. Stringent criteria were then applied to filter out invalid probes due to sequence dissimilarities between human probes and monkey DNA, and then mapped to the rhesus genome. This yielded differentially methylated loci between PA and control monkeys, 163 in infant VAT, and 325 in adult VAT (BCSVD Pexcess fetal androgen exposure in female nonhuman primates may predispose to PCOS via alteration of the epigenome, providing a novel avenue to understand PCOS in humans.

  11. Wild Maid, Wild Soul, A Wild Wild Weed: Niki de Saint Phalle’s Fierce Femininities, c. 1960-66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Jones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-described as “wild maid,” “wild soul,” “a wild wild weed,” Niki de Saint Phalle narrated herself as artistic subject in a concerted way that stands out in the history of art: as both creatively driven and emotionally renegade and excessive, as both definitively woman and definitively artist. In this essay I take this special case of self-narration, and the particular power of St. Phalle’s work, as an opportunity to explore the relationship between.(auto-biography and artistic practice. The case of St. Phalle, a radical sculptor, performance artist, writer, and filmmaker, allows us to understand the exaggerated way in which women artists were until very recently forced to adopt “fierce femininities” to make a place for themselves as artists. In this way, I suggest that St. Phalle represents a key inspirational force opening the door for second wave feminism and the feminist art movement.

  12. Population coding of forelimb joint kinematics by peripheral afferents in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Umeda

    Full Text Available Various peripheral receptors provide information concerning position and movement to the central nervous system to achieve complex and dexterous movements of forelimbs in primates. The response properties of single afferent receptors to movements at a single joint have been examined in detail, but the population coding of peripheral afferents remains poorly defined. In this study, we obtained multichannel recordings from dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons in cervical segments of monkeys. We applied the sparse linear regression (SLiR algorithm to the recordings, which selects useful input signals to reconstruct movement kinematics. Multichannel recordings of peripheral afferents were performed by inserting multi-electrode arrays into the DRGs of lower cervical segments in two anesthetized monkeys. A total of 112 and 92 units were responsive to the passive joint movements or the skin stimulation with a painting brush in Monkey 1 and Monkey 2, respectively. Using the SLiR algorithm, we reconstructed the temporal changes of joint angle, angular velocity, and acceleration at the elbow, wrist, and finger joints from temporal firing patterns of the DRG neurons. By automatically selecting a subset of recorded units, the SLiR achieved superior generalization performance compared with a regularized linear regression algorithm. The SLiR selected not only putative muscle units that were responsive to only the passive movements, but also a number of putative cutaneous units responsive to the skin stimulation. These results suggested that an ensemble of peripheral primary afferents that contains both putative muscle and cutaneous units encode forelimb joint kinematics of non-human primates.

  13. Experimental cross-species infection of common marmosets by titi monkey adenovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Yu

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that infect a number of vertebrate hosts and are associated with both sporadic and epidemic disease in humans. We previously identified a novel adenovirus, titi monkey adenovirus (TMAdV, as the cause of a fulminant pneumonia outbreak in a colony of titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus at a national primate center in 2009. Serological evidence of infection by TMAdV was also found in a human researcher at the facility and household family member, raising concerns for potential cross-species transmission of the virus. Here we present experimental evidence of cross-species TMAdV infection in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. Nasal inoculation of a cell cultured-adapted TMAdV strain into three marmosets produced an acute, mild respiratory illness characterized by low-grade fever, reduced activity, anorexia, and sneezing. An increase in virus-specific neutralization antibody titers accompanied the development of clinical signs. Although serially collected nasal swabs were positive for TMAdV for at least 8 days, all 3 infected marmosets spontaneously recovered by day 12 post-inoculation, and persistence of the virus in tissues could not be established. Thus, the pathogenesis of experimental inoculation of TMAdV in common marmosets resembled the mild, self-limiting respiratory infection typically seen in immunocompetent human hosts rather than the rapidly progressive, fatal pneumonia observed in 19 of 23 titi monkeys during the prior 2009 outbreak. These findings further establish the potential for adenovirus cross-species transmission and provide the basis for development of a monkey model useful for assessing the zoonotic potential of adenoviruses.

  14. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  15. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E 2 ) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E 2 dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E 2 increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Dental disorders in brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) maintained in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Neto, Ramiro das Neves; Fecchio, Roberto Silva; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto; Gioso, Marco Antônio; Pereira, Camila Trevisan; Santos, Maria Augusta Adami Pereira Dos; Milanelo, Liliane

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dental disorders of brown howler monkeys maintained in captivity. The hypothesis is that the identification and diagnosis of the lesions may contribute to control and prevention. Sixteen intact brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans), eight females and eight males, weighing from 3.9 to 6.8 kg, were studied. Under general anesthesia, the teeth were evaluated by visual inspection, probing, palpation, and intra-oral radiographic exam. The findings were registered on a dental chart specific for primates. Of the 16 monkeys evaluated in the present study, 94% (n = 15) had some type of dental disorder. The lesions observed were dental calculus (88%), dental wear (81%), missing teeth (38%), gingivitis (19%), gingival recession (6%), dental fracture (19%), pulp exposure (19%), and dental staining (25%). Alouatta guariba clamitans maintained in captivity have a high rate of dental problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. RepSox improves viability and regulates gene expression in rhesus monkey-pig interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Luo, Zhao-Bo; Li, Xiao-Chen; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Xing, Xiao-Xu; Xuan, Mei-Fu; Zhang, Guang-Lei; Luo, Qi-Rong; Wang, Jun-Xia; Cui, Cheng-Du; Li, Wen-Xue; Cui, Zheng-Yun; Yin, Xi-Jun; Kang, Jin-Dan

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effect of the small molecule, RepSox, on the expression of developmentally important genes and the pre-implantation development of rhesus monkey-pig interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos. Rhesus monkey cells expressing the monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 which have a normal (42) chromosome complement, were used as donor cells to generate iSCNT embryos. RepSox increased the expression levels of the pluripotency-related genes, Oct4 and Nanog (p  0.05), this was not significant. RepSox can improve the developmental potential of rhesus monkey-pig iSCNT embryos by regulating the expression of pluripotency-related genes.

  18. Neurotoxic response of infant monkeys to methylmercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willes, R F; Truelove, J F; Nera, E A

    1978-02-01

    Four infant monkeys were dosed orally with 500 microgram Hg/kg body wt./day /as methylmercury (MeHg) chloride dissolved sodium carbonate) beginning at 1 day of age. Neurological and behavioral signs of MeHg toxicity and blood Hg levels were monitored weekly. At first sign of MeHg intoxication, dosing with MeHg was terminated and the infants were monitored to assess reversal of the signs of MeHg toxicity. The first signs of MeHg toxicity, exhibited as a loss in dexterity and locomotor ability, were observed after 28--29 days of treatment; the blood Hg levels were 8.0--9.4 microgram Hg/g blood. Dosing was terminated at 28--29 days of treatment but the signs of MeHg toxicity continued to develop. The infants became ataxic, blind, comatose and were necropsied at 35--43 days after initiating treatment with MgHg. The mercury concentrations in tissues analyzed after necropsy were highest in liver (55.8 +/- 3.2 microgram Hg/g) followed by occipital cortex (35.6 +/- 4.8 microgram Hg/g) renal cortex (32.8 +/- 1.6 microgram Hg/g). The frontal and temporal cortices had 27.0 +/- 3.4 and 29.6 +/- 4.9 microgram Hg/g respectively while the cerebellar Hg concentration averaged 13.0 +/- 1.5 microgram Hg/g. The mean blood/brain ratio was 0.21 +/- 0.4. Histopathologic lesions were marked in the cerebrum with less severe lesions in the cerebellar nuclei. The Purkinje and granular cells of the cerebellar vermis appeared histologically normal. Lesions were not observed in the peripheral nervous system. The signs of MeHg intoxication, the tissue distribution of MeHg and histopathologic lesions observed in the infant monkeys were similar to those reported for adult monkeys.

  19. PET studie4s of dopamine D2 receptors in subclinical and clinical hemi-parkinsonism monkeys with 11C-Raclopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Yanzhu; Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Yao Shulin; Liu Huaijun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characters of dopamine D 2 receptors (D 2 R) of subclinical and clinical hemi-parkinsonism monkeys. Methods: Four subclinical hemi-pakinsonism monkeys were developed by given one dose of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropridine (MPTP) 0.3 mg/kg through fight internal carotid artery. Two clinical hemi-pakinsonism monkeys were developed by given 2 doses of MPTP 0.7 mg/kg through right internal carotid artery and the 2 doses were 4 weeks apart. 11 C-Raclopride was synthesized as an imaging agent of D 2 R. Four normal, 4 subclinical and 2 clinical hemi-parkinsonism monkeys underwent 11 C-Raclopride D 2 R PET, and the striatum D 2 R function was evaluated by region of interest (ROI) technique. Results: Symmetric striatal uptake was observed in normal and subclinical hemi-parkinsonism monkeys, the radioactivity ratios of striatum/cerebellum were 5.00±0.74, 5.04±0.72, respectively (t=1.016, P>0.05). There was a significant increase in 11 C-Raclopride binding in the fight striatum (lesioned side) of the two clinical hemi-pakinsonism monkeys; up-regulation of leisoned side striatum D 2 R was found; compared to the left sides, the radioactivity ratios of striatum cerebellum of right sides (lesioned sides) of the two monkeys were increased by 19.69%, 22.68%, respectively. Conclusions: 11 C-Raclopride was successfully synthesized as a D 2 R PET agent. The striatum D 2 R function was of no evident changes in subclinical hemi-parkinsonism monkeys. The striatum 132 R function was upregulated in lesioned side in clinical hemi-parkinsonism monkeys. (authors)

  20. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  1. Effects of cholinergic deafferentation of the rhinal cortex on visual recognition memory in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Janita; Saunders, Richard C; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2005-02-08

    Excitotoxic lesion studies have confirmed that the rhinal cortex is essential for visual recognition ability in monkeys. To evaluate the mnemonic role of cholinergic inputs to this cortical region, we compared the visual recognition performance of monkeys given rhinal cortex infusions of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin, ME20.4-SAP, with the performance of monkeys given control infusions into this same tissue. The immunotoxin, which leads to selective cholinergic deafferentation of the infused cortex, yielded recognition deficits of the same magnitude as those produced by excitotoxic lesions of this region, providing the most direct demonstration to date that cholinergic activation of the rhinal cortex is essential for storing the representations of new visual stimuli and thereby enabling their later recognition.

  2. Spermatogenesis in adult rhesus monkeys following irradiation with X-rays or fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooij, D.G. de; Sonneveld, P.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    A group of male rhesus monkeys was exposed to total body irradiation followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation. The animals were irradiated in the period between 1965 and 1976 and received a dose of 8.5 Gy of X-rays (300 KVP) or 3.6 Gy of 1 MeV fission neutrons. Of this group, a total of 11 male monkeys proved to be evaluable for studying the effects of irradiation on spermatogenesis. (Auth.)

  3. Validation of an auditory sensory reinforcement paradigm: Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) do not prefer consonant over dissonant sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Hiroki; Basile, Muriel; Olivier, Marion; Remeuf, Kevin; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Lemasson, Alban

    2013-08-01

    The central position and universality of music in human societies raises the question of its phylogenetic origin. One of the most important properties of music involves harmonic musical intervals, in response to which humans show a spontaneous preference for consonant over dissonant sounds starting from early human infancy. Comparative studies conducted with organisms at different levels of the primate lineage are needed to understand the evolutionary scenario under which this phenomenon emerged. Although previous research found no preference for consonance in a New World monkey species, the question remained opened for Old World monkeys. We used an experimental paradigm based on a sensory reinforcement procedure to test auditory preferences for consonant sounds in Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli), an Old World monkey species. Although a systematic preference for soft (70 dB) over loud (90 dB) control white noise was found, Campbell's monkeys showed no preference for either consonant or dissonant sounds. The preference for soft white noise validates our noninvasive experimental paradigm, which can be easily reused in any captive facility to test for auditory preferences. This would suggest that human preference for consonant sounds is not systematically shared with New and Old World monkeys. The sensitivity for harmonic musical intervals emerged probably very late in the primate lineage.

  4. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  5. Effects of altered FcγR binding on antibody pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leabman, Maya K; Meng, Y Gloria; Kelley, Robert F; DeForge, Laura E; Cowan, Kyra J; Iyer, Suhasini

    2013-01-01

    Antibody interactions with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), like FcγRIIIA, play a critical role in mediating antibody effector functions and thereby contribute significantly to the biologic and therapeutic activity of antibodies. Over the past decade, considerable work has been directed towards production of antibodies with altered binding affinity to FcγRs and evaluation of how the alterations modulate their therapeutic activity. This has been achieved by altering glycosylation status at N297 or by engineering modifications in the crystallizable fragment (Fc) region. While the effects of these modifications on biologic activity and efficacy have been examined, few studies have been conducted to understand their effect on antibody pharmacokinetics (PK). We present here a retrospective analysis in which we characterize the PK of three antibody variants with decreased FcγR binding affinity caused by amino acid substitutions in the Fc region (N297A, N297G, and L234A/L235A) and three antibody variants with increased FcγRIIIA binding affinity caused by afucosylation at N297, and compare their PK to corresponding wild type antibody PK in cynomolgus monkeys. For all antibodies, PK was examined at a dose that was known to be in the linear range. Since production of the N297A and N297G variants in Chinese hamster ovary cells results in aglycosylated antibodies that do not bind to FcγRs, we also examined the effect of expression of an aglycosylated antibody, without sequence change(s), in E. coli. All the variants demonstrated similar PK compared with that of the wild type antibodies, suggesting that, for the six antibodies presented here, altered FcγR binding affinity does not affect PK. PMID:24492343

  6. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain. PMID:21801646

  7. Autoprocessing of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus protease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauerová, Helena; Rumlová, Michaela; Hunter, E.; Ruml, T.; Pichová, Iva

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2001), s. 131-133 ISSN 0168-1702 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/1241; GA AV ČR IAA4055904 Grant - others:Fogarty International Award(US) TW00050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2001

  8. Investigations of rhesus monkey video-task performance: evidence for enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) for psychological research. Basically, the LRC-CTS is a battery of software tasks--computerized versions of many of the classic testing paradigms of cognitive and comparative psychology--and the hardware required to administer them. An XT- or 386-compatible computer is connected to a color monitor, onto which computer-generated stimuli are presented. Sound feedback is delivered through an external speaker/amplifier, and a joystick is used as an input device. The animals reach through the mesh of their home cages to manipulate the joystick, which causes isomorphic movements of a cursor on the screen thereby allowing animals to respond according to the varied demands of the tasks. Correct responses are rewarded with a fruit-flavored chow pellet. Using this technology, we have trained and tested rhesus monkeys, a variety of apes, human adults, and normally developing or mentally retarded human children. Other labs using the LRC-CTS are beginning to report encouraging results with other monkey species as well. From this research, a number of interesting and important psychological findings have resulted. In the present paper, however, evidence will be reviewed which suggests that the LRC-CTS is an effective means of providing environmental enrichment to singly housed rhesus monkeys.

  9. The origins of cognitive dissonance: evidence from children and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Louisa C; Santos, Laurie R; Bloom, Paul

    2007-11-01

    In a study exploring the origins of cognitive dissonance, preschoolers and capuchins were given a choice between two equally preferred alternatives (two different stickers and two differently colored M&M's, respectively). On the basis of previous research with adults, this choice was thought to cause dissonance because it conflicted with subjects' belief that the two options were equally valuable. We therefore expected subjects to change their attitude toward the unchosen alternative, deeming it less valuable. We then presented subjects with a choice between the unchosen option and an option that was originally as attractive as both options in the first choice. Both groups preferred the novel over the unchosen option in this experimental condition, but not in a control condition in which they did not take part in the first decision. These results provide the first evidence of decision rationalization in children and nonhuman primates. They suggest that the mechanisms underlying cognitive-dissonance reduction in human adults may have originated both developmentally and evolutionarily earlier than previously thought.

  10. Cone pigment polymorphism in New World monkeys: are all pigments created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Mickey P; Jacobs, Gerald H

    2004-01-01

    Most platyrrhine monkeys have a triallelic M/L opsin gene polymorphism that underlies significant individual variations in color vision. A survey of the frequencies of these polymorphic genes suggests that the three alleles occur with equal frequency among squirrel monkeys (subfamily Cebinae), but are not equally frequent in a number of species from the subfamily Callitrichinae. This departure from equal frequency in the Callitrichids should slightly increase the ratio of dichromats to trichromats in the population and significantly alter the relative representation of the three possible dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes. A particular feature of the inequality is that it leads to a relative increase in the number of trichromats whose M/L pigments have the largest possible spectral separation. To assess whether these trichromatic phenotypes are equally well equipped to make relevant visual discriminations, psychophysical experiments were run on human observers. A technique involving the functional substitution of photopigments was used to simulate the discrimination between fruits among a background of leaves. The goal of the simulation was to reproduce in the cones of human observers excitations equivalent to those produced in monkey cones as the animals view fruit. Three different viewing conditions were examined involving variations in the relative luminances of fruit and leaves and the spectrum of the illuminant. In all cases, performance was best for simulated trichromacies including M/L pigments with the largest spectral separation. Thus, the inequality of opsin gene frequency in Callitrichid monkeys may reflect adaptive pressures.

  11. Dependence of behavioral performance on material category in an object grasping task with monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Isao; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Minamimoto, Takafumi; Goda, Naokazu; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2018-05-02

    Material perception is an essential part of our cognitive function that enables us to properly interact with our complex daily environment. One important aspect of material perception is its multimodal nature. When we see an object, we generally recognize its haptic properties as well as its visual properties. Consequently, one must examine behavior using real objects that are perceived both visually and haptically to fully understand the characteristics of material perception. As a first step, we examined whether there is any difference in the behavioral responses to different materials in monkeys trained to perform an object grasping task in which they saw and grasped rod-shaped real objects made of various materials. We found that the monkeys' behavior in the grasping task, measured based on the success rate and the pulling force, differed depending on the material category. Monkeys easily and correctly grasped objects of some materials, such as metal and glass, but failed to grasp objects of other materials. In particular, monkeys avoided grasping fur-covered objects. The differences in the behavioral responses to the material categories cannot be explained solely based on the degree of familiarity with the different materials. These results shed light on the organization of multimodal representation of materials, where their biological significance is an important factor. In addition, a monkey that avoided touching real fur-covered objects readily touched images of the same objects presented on a CRT display. This suggests employing real objects is important when studying behaviors related to material perception.

  12. Tail function during arboreal quadrupedalism in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jesse W; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D; Thatikunta, Meena A; Chadwell, Brad A

    2015-10-01

    The need to maintain stability on narrow branches is often presented as a major selective force shaping primate morphology, with adaptations to facilitate grasping receiving particular attention. The functional importance of a long and mobile tail for maintaining arboreal stability has been comparatively understudied. Tails can facilitate arboreal balance by acting as either static counterbalances or dynamic inertial appendages able to modulate whole-body angular momentum. We investigate associations between tail use and inferred grasping ability in two closely related cebid platyrrhines-cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and black-capped squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Using high-speed videography of captive monkeys moving on 3.2 cm diameter poles, we specifically test the hypothesis that squirrel monkeys (characterized by grasping extremities with long digits) will be less dependent on the tail for balance than tamarins (characterized by claw-like nails, short digits, and a reduced hallux). Tamarins have relatively longer tails than squirrel monkeys, move their tails through greater angular amplitudes, at higher angular velocities, and with greater angular accelerations, suggesting dynamic use of tail to regulate whole-body angular momentum. By contrast, squirrel monkeys generally hold their tails in a comparatively stationary posture and at more depressed angles, suggesting a static counterbalancing mechanism. This study, the first empirical test of functional tradeoffs between grasping ability and tail use in arboreal primates, suggests a critical role for the tail in maintaining stability during arboreal quadrupedalism. Our findings have the potential to inform our functional understanding of tail loss during primate evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Locomotor recovery after spinal cord hemisection/contusion injures in bonnet monkeys: footprint testing--a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Suresh Babu

    2013-07-01

    Spinal cord injuries usually produce loss or impairment of sensory, motor and reflex function below the level of damage. In the absence of functional regeneration or manipulations that promote regeneration, spontaneous improvements in motor functions occur due to the activation of multiple compensatory mechanisms in animals and humans following the partial spinal cord injury. Many studies were performed on quantitative evaluation of locomotor recovery after induced spinal cord injury in animals using behavioral tests and scoring techniques. Although few studies on rodents have led to clinical trials, it would appear imperative to use nonhuman primates such as macaque monkeys in order to relate the research outcomes to recovery of functions in humans. In this review, we will discuss some of our research evidences concerning the degree of spontaneous recovery in bipedal locomotor functions of bonnet monkeys that underwent spinal cord hemisection/contusion lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report to discuss on the extent of spontaneous recovery in bipedal locomotion of macaque monkeys through the application of footprint analyzing technique. In addition, the results obtained were compared with the published data on recovery of quadrupedal locomotion of spinally injured rodents. We propose that the mechanisms underlying spontaneous recovery of functions in spinal cord lesioned monkeys may be correlated to the mature function of spinal pattern generator for locomotion under the impact of residual descending and afferent connections. Moreover, based on analysis of motor functions observed in locomotion in these subjected monkeys, we understand that spinal automatism and development of responses by afferent stimuli from outside the cord could possibly contribute to recovery of paralyzed hindlimbs. This report also emphasizes the functional contribution of progressive strengthening of undamaged nerve fibers through a collateral sprouts/synaptic plasticity formed

  14. Hepatic folate metabolism in the chronic alcoholic monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Romero, J.J.; Watson, J.E.; Gong, E.J.; Halsted, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the role of altered hepatic folate metabolism in the pathogenesis of the folate deficiency of chronic alcoholism, the hepatic metabolism of a tracer dose of 3 H-PteGlu was compared in monkeys given 50% of energy as ethanol for 2 years and in control monkeys. Long-term ethanol feeding resulted in mild hepatic injury, with a significant decrease in hepatic folate levels. Chromatographic studies of liver biopsies obtained after the tracer dose indicated that the processes of reduction, methylation, and formylation of reduced folate and the synthesis of polyglutamyl folates were not affected by long-term ethanol feeding. Hepatic tritium levels were significantly decreased in the ethanol-fed group. These studies suggest that the decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decreased ability to retain folates in the liver, whereas reduction and further metabolism of folates is not affected

  15. Impact of chronodisruption during primate pregnancy on the maternal and newborn temperature rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Serón-Ferré

    Full Text Available Disruption of the maternal environment during pregnancy is a key contributor to offspring diseases that develop in adult life. To explore the impact of chronodisruption during pregnancy in primates, we exposed pregnant capuchin monkeys to constant light (eliminating the maternal melatonin rhythm from the last third of gestation to term. Maternal temperature and activity circadian rhythms were assessed as well as the newborn temperature rhythm. Additionally we studied the effect of daily maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy on these rhythms. Ten pregnant capuchin monkeys were exposed to constant light from 60% of gestation to term. Five received a daily oral dose of melatonin (250 µg kg/body weight at 1800 h (LL+Mel and the other five a placebo (LL. Six additional pregnant females were maintained in a 14∶10 light:dark cycles and their newborns were used as controls (LD. Rhythms were recorded 96 h before delivery in the mother and at 4-6 days of age in the newborn. Exposure to constant light had no effect on the maternal body temperature rhythm however it delayed the acrophase of the activity rhythm. Neither rhythm was affected by melatonin replacement. In contrast, maternal exposure to constant light affected the newborn body temperature rhythm. This rhythm was entrained in control newborns whereas LL newborns showed a random distribution of the acrophases over 24-h. In addition, mean temperature was decreased (34.0±0.6 vs 36.1±0.2°C, in LL and control, respectively P<0.05. Maternal melatonin replacement during pregnancy re-synchronized the acrophases and restored mean temperature to the values in control newborns. Our findings demonstrate that prenatal melatonin is a Zeitgeber for the newborn temperature rhythm and supports normal body temperature maintenance. Altogether these prenatal melatonin effects highlight the physiological importance of the maternal melatonin rhythm during pregnancy for the newborn primate.

  16. Evaluation of drug-induced hematotoxicity using novel in vitro monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Koichi; Goto, Mayumi; Ando-Imaoka, Masako; Kai, Kiyonori; Mori, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate drug-induced hematotoxicity in monkey cells in vitro, colony-forming unit-granulocyte, macrophage (CFU-GM), and burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) colony assays were established using mononuclear cells in the bone marrow collected from male cynomolgus monkeys. Furthermore, the effects of doxorubicin, chloramphenicol, and linezolid on CFU-GM and BFU-E colony formation were investigated using established monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays in comparison with those on human CFU-GM and BFU-E colonies acquired from human umbilical cord blood cells. Bone marrow mononuclear cells were collected from the ischial or iliac bone of male cynomolgus monkeys. The cells were subsequently processed by density gradient separation at 1.067, 1.070, or 1.077 g/mL for CFU-GM or 1.077 g/mL for BFU-E, and then cultured in methylcellulose medium for 9 or 13 days, respectively. A sufficient number of CFU-GM colonies were formed from mononuclear cells processed at a density of 1.070 g/mL. Moreover, the number of BFU-E colonies from the cells processed at a density of 1.077 g/mL was sufficient for the colony assay. The number of CFU-GM or BFU-E colonies decreased after treatment with the drugs of interest in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with human CFU-GM, monkey CFU-GM were more sensitive to chloramphenicol and resistant to doxorubicin, whereas monkey BFU-E were more sensitive to all compounds in comparison to the sensitivity of human BFU-E. In conclusion, monkey CFU-GM and BFU-E colony assays were established and considered useful tools to evaluate the differences in drug-induced hematotoxicity between species.

  17. Effect of mass of neptunium V in intestinal absorption in the monkey and the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    The coefficient of gastrointestinal transfer of neptunium as pentavalent neptunyl nitrate was studied in rats and monkeys as a function of the ingested mass. In both species, the transfer coefficient ranged between 1.10 - 3 - 1.10 - 2 when the administered mass varied from 0.3 ng to 2 mg per kg. At low concentrations, the values obtained in the monkey are about twice as low as thoses obtained in the rat. Considering the strong urinary excretion, the amounts retained at the organ levels represent about 0.1% in the rat and 0.04% in the monkey for low concentrations. The values obtained are usually in good agreement with the few data published on the rat [fr

  18. Effects of hippocampal lesions on the monkey's ability to learn large sets of object-place associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Annabelle M; Harrington, Rebecca A; Malkova, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies found that recognition memory for object-place associations was impaired in patients with relatively selective hippocampal damage (Vargha-Khadem et al., Science 1997; 277:376-380), but was unaffected after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys (Malkova and Mishkin, J Neurosci 2003; 23:1956-1965). A potentially important methodological difference between the two studies is that the patients were required to remember a set of 20 object-place associations for several minutes, whereas the monkeys had to remember only two such associations at a time, and only for a few seconds. To approximate more closely the task given to the patients, we trained monkeys on several successive sets of 10 object-place pairs each, with each set requiring learning across days. Despite the increased associative memory demands, monkeys given hippocampal lesions were unimpaired relative to their unoperated controls, suggesting that differences other than set size and memory duration underlie the different outcomes in the human and animal studies. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. In vivo tomographic study of cerebral blood perfusion with SPECT in hemiparkinsonian monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengdi; Xu Delong

    1994-01-01

    The authors present data on the utility of functional brain imaging with 99m Tc-ECD and SPECT in the study of MPTP induced hemiparkinsonism in monkeys. Injection of MPTP into the right common carotid artery of 10 rhesus monkeys produced hemiparkinsonism in the contralateral limbs which responded to antiparkinsonian medication. The unilateral neurotoxicity of the MPTP treated side was confirmed biochemically by marked reduction of DA contents in the nigrostriatum and histologically by selective neuronal loss in the substantia nigra. These monkeys with hemiparkinsonism were studied with SPECT using 99m Tc-ECD as perfusion marker. The results of brain scanning showed that the cerebral blood perfusion of MPTP treated side was significantly depleted 20∼90 days after MPTP intoxication, and returned to normal 8 months after perfusion. The experiment indicates that abnormal cerebral blood perfusion is involved in the course of parkinsonian pathophysiology

  20. Long-term effects of neonatal medial temporal ablations on socioemotional behavior in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málková, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer; Suomi, Stephen J.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Socioemotional abnormalities, including low levels of social interaction and high levels of self-directed activity, were reported when rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe (AH) or the inferior temporal cortex (TE) were paired with unoperated peers at two and six months of age, though these abnormalities were more severe in the AH group (Bachevalier et al., 2001). As they reached adulthood (Experiment 1), the same monkeys were re-evaluated in the same dyads and their reactivity to novel toys, social status, and reactions to separation from age-matched peers were also assessed. Group TE now showed few if any of the abnormal behaviors observed when they were infants. By contrast, Group AH continued to display low levels of social interaction, high levels of self-directed activity and submissive behavior, and reduced responses to separation, although they reacted normally to novel toys. To determine whether this degree of socioemotional impairment was less severe than that produced by the same damage in adulthood, we assessed dyadic social interactions of monkeys raised until adulthood in laboratory conditions similar to those of the earlier groups and then given the AH ablation (Experiment 2). Two months postoperatively these adult-lesioned monkeys showed a small reduction in social interactions that became more pronounced six months postoperatively, yet remained less severe than that seen in the infant-lesioned monkeys. Also, except for an increase in food and water consumption throughout this 6-month period, they showed no other socioemotional effects. The finding that neonatal AH lesions produce more severe socioemotional disturbances than the same lesion in adulthood is the reverse of the effect commonly reported for other cognitive functions after cerebral damage. PMID:21133531

  1. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Merchant, Hugo; Háden, Gábor P; Prado, Luis; Bartolo, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN) to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1). Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2) and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3). In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm), the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm) is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group), but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm).

  2. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta detect rhythmic groups in music, but not the beat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henkjan Honing

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that rhythmic entrainment, long considered a human-specific mechanism, can be demonstrated in a selected group of bird species, and, somewhat surprisingly, not in more closely related species such as nonhuman primates. This observation supports the vocal learning hypothesis that suggests rhythmic entrainment to be a by-product of the vocal learning mechanisms that are shared by several bird and mammal species, including humans, but that are only weakly developed, or missing entirely, in nonhuman primates. To test this hypothesis we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, probing a well-documented component in humans, the mismatch negativity (MMN to study rhythmic expectation. We demonstrate for the first time in rhesus monkeys that, in response to infrequent deviants in pitch that were presented in a continuous sound stream using an oddball paradigm, a comparable ERP component can be detected with negative deflections in early latencies (Experiment 1. Subsequently we tested whether rhesus monkeys can detect gaps (omissions at random positions in the sound stream; Experiment 2 and, using more complex stimuli, also the beat (omissions at the first position of a musical unit, i.e. the 'downbeat'; Experiment 3. In contrast to what has been shown in human adults and newborns (using identical stimuli and experimental paradigm, the results suggest that rhesus monkeys are not able to detect the beat in music. These findings are in support of the hypothesis that beat induction (the cognitive mechanism that supports the perception of a regular pulse from a varying rhythm is species-specific and absent in nonhuman primates. In addition, the findings support the auditory timing dissociation hypothesis, with rhesus monkeys being sensitive to rhythmic grouping (detecting the start of a rhythmic group, but not to the induced beat (detecting a regularity from a varying rhythm.

  3. Genetic consequences of seed dispersal to sleeping trees by white-bellied spider monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karubian, Jordan; Ottewell, Kym; Link, Andres; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Frugivorous animals frequently generate clumped distributions of seeds away from source trees via 'destination-based' dispersal processes. For example, use of traditional sleeping trees by white-bellied spider monkeys Ateles belzebuth generates high densities of seeds of a preferred food source, the palm Oenocarpus bataua, at these sites. Little is known about the maternal seed source diversity and population genetic metrics of seed pools encountered at these sites. Given the repeated use of sleeping trees over time, and the fluid social organization and wide ranging movements exhibited by spider monkeys, we predicted that O. bataua seed pools beneath sleeping trees would be characterized by relatively high values of maternal seed source diversity and standard metrics of genetic diversity. Contrary to these expectations, we found relatively low average maternal seed source diversity beneath each of 6 sleeping trees we studied (weighted mean α = 3.74), but considerable variation in diversity of maternal seed sources between sleeping trees (range = 1.75-10.1) and high heterogeneity in standard genetic diversity measures between sleeping trees. There was no evidence for overlap in maternal seed sources between sleeping tree sites (δ = 1.0), resulting in significant genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.055-0.319) between these sites. Observed variation between sleeping trees could not be explained by the number of individual spider monkeys whose core home ranges included a given tree, nor by distance to a central mineral lick, a focal point of spider monkey activity. These findings suggest that spider monkey seed dispersal to sleeping trees is spatially restricted, perhaps because the animals visit sleeping trees at the end of the day and therefore only disperse O. bataua fruits that they ingest late in the day. These results add to our growing appreciation of the ways frugivore behavior mechanistically shapes seed dispersal outcomes.

  4. In vitro germ cell differentiation from cynomolgus monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yamauchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells can differentiate into female and male germ cells in vitro. Primate ES cells can also differentiate into immature germ cells in vitro. However, little is known about the differentiation markers and culture conditions for in vitro germ cell differentiation from ES cells in primates. Monkey ES cells are thus considered to be a useful model to study primate gametogenesis in vitro. Therefore, in order to obtain further information on germ cell differentiation from primate ES cells, this study examined the ability of cynomolgus monkey ES cells to differentiate into germ cells in vitro. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To explore the differentiation markers for detecting germ cells differentiated from ES cells, the expression of various germ cell marker genes was examined in tissues and ES cells of the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis. VASA is a valuable gene for the detection of germ cells differentiated from ES cells. An increase of VASA expression was observed when differentiation was induced in ES cells via embryoid body (EB formation. In addition, the expression of other germ cell markers, such as NANOS and PIWIL1 genes, was also up-regulated as the EB differentiation progressed. Immunocytochemistry identified the cells expressing stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA 1, OCT-4, and VASA proteins in the EBs. These cells were detected in the peripheral region of the EBs as specific cell populations, such as SSEA1-positive, OCT-4-positive cells, OCT-4-positive, VASA-positive cells, and OCT-4-negative, VASA-positive cells. Thereafter, the effect of mouse gonadal cell-conditioned medium and growth factors on germ cell differentiation from monkey ES cells was examined, and this revealed that the addition of BMP4 to differentiating ES cells increased the expression of SCP1, a meiotic marker gene. CONCLUSION: VASA is a valuable gene for the detection of germ cells differentiated from ES cells in monkeys, and the

  5. Near-term and late biological effects of acute and low-dose-rate continuous gamma-ray exposure in dogs and monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.

    1979-07-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (inury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with gamma rays at 35 r/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injry remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50%) and monkeys (8%) died from injury incurred during conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response (in terms of lethality) of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what we would expect from a single acute dose. The mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approx. 1400 h). Thus, the hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35-R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater (significant in dogs but not in monkeys) than for their control counterparts. Thus, long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than 4 times the acute LD 50 30 in dogs and approximately 2 times that in monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 Rat/day

  6. Steroid excretion during the ovarian cycle in captive and wild muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, T E; Santos, C V; Pissinatti, A; Strier, K B

    1997-01-01

    Urine, feces, and copulation frequency were collected from two captive muriqui females, Brachyteles arachnoides, at the Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro following the resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles. Fecal steroid profiles from seven wild muriqui females at the Estação Biologica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were compared to the captive females to determine the approximate patterns of steroid excretion relative to the urinary LH peak. Hormonal profiles from one of the captive female muriquis revealed a discrete urinary LH peak. For this female, fecal progesterone increased on the same day as the urinary LH peak, while fecal estradiol increased 6 days later and urinary steroids increased 5 days later. For both captive females, the onset of fecal progesterone increase was preceded by the onset of copulations, which occurred during at least a 5-day period. The complete fecal hormonal profiles of the one captive female for which continuos data were available were similar to those found in wild muriqui monkeys, with the onset of an increase in sustained progesterone levels occurring several days prior to the onset of sustained estradiol increase. These patterns suggest that fecal progesterone may be excreted rapidly in this species. The onset of sustained increase in fecal progesterone levels, together with the consistent delay in the onset of the sustained increase in estradiol, may provide the best indicators of the periovulatory period for muriqui females.

  7. Phenol emulsion-enhanced DNA-driven subtractive cDNA cloning: isolation of low-abundance monkey cortex-specific mRNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, G.H.; Sutcliffe, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    To isolate cDNA clones of low-abundance mRNAs expressed in monkey cerebral cortex but absent from cerebellum, the authors developed an improved subtractive cDNA cloning procedure that requires only modest quantities of mRNA. Plasmid DNA from a monkey cerebellum cDNA library was hybridized in large excess to radiolabeled monkey cortex cDNA in a phenol emulsion-enhanced reaction. The unhybridized cortex cDNA was isolated by chromatography on hydroxyapatite and used to probe colonies from a monkey cortex cDNA library. Of 60,000 colonies screened, 163 clones were isolated and confirmed by colony hybridization or RNA blotting to represent mRNAs, ranging from 0.001% to 0.1% abundance, specific to or highly enriched in cerebral cortex relative to cerebellum. Clones of one medium-abundance mRNA were recovered almost quantitatively. Two of the lower-abundance mRNAs were expressed at levels reduced by a factor of 10 in Alzheimer disease relative to normal human cortex. One of these was identified as the monkey preprosomatostatin I mRNA

  8. Comparative anatomy of the prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, postsubiculum, and parasubiculum in human, monkey, and rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Song-Lin

    2013-12-15

    The subicular complex, including the prosubiculum (ProS), subiculum (Sub), presubiculum, postsubiculum (PoS), and parasubiculum (PaS), plays important roles in the medial temporal memory system and is heavily involved in many neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. In the literature, the ProS (in primate) and PoS (in rodent) are inconstantly identified, making data comparison difficult across species. This review is an attempt to discuss equivalencies and extent of the five subicular components in human, monkey, and rodent based on available information on their cytoarchitecture, chemoarchitecture, molecular signature, and neural connectivity. All five subicular cortices exist in human, monkey, and rodent. In human and monkey, the ProS and Sub extend into the uncal region anteriorly, and the PoS and PaS reach the cingulate isthmus posteriorly. In rodent, most of the typical subicular cortices are located in the dorsal and caudal portions of the hippocampal formation, and the modified version of the ventral ProS and Sub corresponds to the modified description of the uncal ProS and Sub in monkey and human. An interesting triangular region in rodent located at the juncture of the PoS, PaS, retrosplenial cortex, and visual cortex appears to be the equivalent of the monkey area prostriata. Major connections of the five subicular cortices are also summarized based on unified criteria discussed in this review, with distinct connections revealed between the ProS and the Sub. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of whole-body irradiation on skeletal growth in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonneveld, P.; van Bekkum, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Late effects of single whole-body doses of 400 to 500 and 750 to 900 rads on skeletal growth in 32 rhesus monkeys were studied. Findings indicated growth inhibition strongly related to dose and age at irradiation. Doses of 750 to 900 rads before the age of 40 months resulted in significantly greater growth inhibition (11%) than doses given during or shortly after adolescence (p < 0.005). Doses of less than 750 rads were not significant. In view of the close similarity between monkeys and man, irradiation of children at doses greater than 750 rads may carry a strong risk of subsequent growth retardation

  10. Selective bilateral amygdala lesions in rhesus monkeys fail to disrupt object reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2007-01-31

    Neuropsychological studies in nonhuman primates have led to the view that the amygdala plays an essential role in stimulus-reward association. The main evidence in support of this idea is that bilateral aspirative or radiofrequency lesions of the amygdala yield severe impairments on object reversal learning, a task that assesses the ability to shift choices of objects based on the presence or absence of food reward (i.e., reward contingency). The behavioral effects of different lesion techniques, however, can vary. The present study therefore evaluated the effects of selective, excitotoxic lesions of the amygdala in rhesus monkeys on object reversal learning. For comparison, we tested the same monkeys on a task known to be sensitive to amygdala damage, the reinforcer devaluation task. Contrary to previous results based on less selective lesion techniques, monkeys with complete excitotoxic amygdala lesions performed object reversal learning as quickly as controls. As predicted, however, the same operated monkeys were impaired in making object choices after devaluation of the associated food reinforcer. The results suggest two conclusions. First, the results demonstrate that the amygdala makes a selective contribution to stimulus-reward association; the amygdala is critical for guiding object choices after changes in reward value but not after changes in reward contingency. Second, the results implicate a critical contribution to object reversal learning of structures nearby the amygdala, perhaps the subjacent rhinal cortex.

  11. Post-encoding control of working memory enhances processing of relevant information in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Ryan J; Hampton, Robert R

    2018-06-01

    Working memory is a system by which a limited amount of information can be kept available for processing after the cessation of sensory input. Because working memory resources are limited, it is adaptive to focus processing on the most relevant information. We used a retro-cue paradigm to determine the extent to which monkey working memory possesses control mechanisms that focus processing on the most relevant representations. Monkeys saw a sample array of images, and shortly after the array disappeared, they were visually cued to a location that had been occupied by one of the sample images. The cue indicated which image should be remembered for the upcoming recognition test. By determining whether the monkeys were more accurate and quicker to respond to cued images compared to un-cued images, we tested the hypothesis that monkey working memory focuses processing on relevant information. We found a memory benefit for the cued image in terms of accuracy and retrieval speed with a memory load of two images. With a memory load of three images, we found a benefit in retrieval speed but only after shortening the onset latency of the retro-cue. Our results demonstrate previously unknown flexibility in the cognitive control of memory in monkeys, suggesting that control mechanisms in working memory likely evolved in a common ancestor of humans and monkeys more than 32 million years ago. Future work should be aimed at understanding the interaction between memory load and the ability to control memory resources, and the role of working memory control in generating differences in cognitive capacity among primates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clustering of PCOS-like traits in naturally hyperandrogenic female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D H; Rayome, B H; Dumesic, D A; Lewis, K C; Edwards, A K; Wallen, K; Wilson, M E; Appt, S E; Levine, J E

    2017-04-01

    Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS. Progress in treating women with PCOS is limited by incomplete knowledge of its pathogenesis and the absence of naturally occurring PCOS in animal models. A female macaque monkey, however, with naturally occurring hyperandrogenism, anovulation and polyfollicular ovaries, accompanied by insulin resistance, increased adiposity and endometrial hyperplasia, suggests naturally occurring origins for PCOS in nonhuman primates. As part of a larger study, circulating serum concentrations of selected pituitary, ovarian and adrenal hormones, together with fasted insulin and glucose levels, were determined in a single, morning blood sample obtained from 120 apparently healthy, ovary-intact, adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while not pregnant or nursing. The monkeys were then sedated for somatometric and ultrasonographic measurements. Female monkeys were of prime reproductive age (7.2 ± 0.1 years, mean ± SEM) and represented a typical spectrum of adult body weight (7.4 ± 0.2 kg; maximum 12.5, minimum 4.6 kg). Females were defined as having normal (n = 99) or high T levels (n = 21; ≥1 SD above the overall mean, 0.31 ng/ml). Electronic health records provided menstrual and fecundity histories. Steroid hormones were determined by tandem LC-MS-MS; AMH was measured by enzymeimmunoassay; LH, FSH and insulin were determined by radioimmunoassay; and glucose was read by glucose meter. Most analyses were limited to 80 females (60 normal T, 20 high T) in

  13. Suppression of metabolic activity caused by infantile strabismus and strabismic amblyopia in striate visual cortex of macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Agnes M F; Burkhalter, Andreas; Tychsen, Lawrence

    2005-02-01

    Suppression is a major sensorial abnormality in humans and monkeys with infantile strabismus. We previously reported evidence of metabolic suppression in the visual cortex of strabismic macaques, using the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome oxidase as an anatomic label. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate alterations in cortical metabolic activity, with or without amblyopia. Six macaque monkeys were used in the experiments (four strabismic and two control). Three of the strabismic monkeys had naturally occurring, infantile strabismus (two esotropic, one exotropic). The fourth strabismic monkey had infantile microesotropia induced by alternating monocular occlusion in the first months of life. Ocular motor behaviors and visual acuity were tested after infancy in each animal, and development of stereopsis was recorded during infancy in one strabismic and one control monkey. Ocular dominance columns (ODCs) of the striate visual cortex (area V1) were labeled using cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry alone, or CO in conjunction with an anterograde tracer ([H 3 ]proline or WGA-HRP) injected into one eye. Each of the strabismic monkeys showed inequalities of metabolic activity in ODCs of opposite ocularity, visible as rows of lighter CO staining, corresponding to ODCs of lower metabolic activity, alternating with rows of darker CO staining, corresponding to ODCs of higher metabolic activity. In monkeys who had infantile strabismus and unilateral amblyopia, lower metabolic activity was found in (suppressed) ODCs driven by the nondominant eye in each hemisphere. In monkeys who had infantile esotropia and alternating fixation (no amblyopia), metabolic activity was lower in ODCs driven by the ipsilateral eye in each hemisphere. The suppression included a monocular core zone at the center of ODCs and binocular border zones at the boundaries of ODCs. This suppression was not evident in the monocular lamina of the LGN, indicating an intracortical rather than

  14. Visual habit formation in monkeys with neurotoxic lesions of the ventrocaudal neostriatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Wang, Jin; Aigner, Thomas G.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2001-01-01

    Visual habit formation in monkeys, assessed by concurrent visual discrimination learning with 24-h intertrial intervals (ITI), was found earlier to be impaired by removal of the inferior temporal visual area (TE) but not by removal of either the medial temporal lobe or inferior prefrontal convexity, two of TE's major projection targets. To assess the role in this form of learning of another pair of structures to which TE projects, namely the rostral portion of the tail of the caudate nucleus and the overlying ventrocaudal putamen, we injected a neurotoxin into this neostriatal region of several monkeys and tested them on the 24-h ITI task as well as on a test of visual recognition memory. Compared with unoperated monkeys, the experimental animals were unaffected on the recognition test but showed an impairment on the 24-h ITI task that was highly correlated with the extent of their neostriatal damage. The findings suggest that TE and its projection areas in the ventrocaudal neostriatum form part of a circuit that selectively mediates visual habit formation. PMID:11274442

  15. Detailed analysis of the African green monkey model of Nipah virus disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C Johnston

    Full Text Available Henipaviruses are implicated in severe and frequently fatal pneumonia and encephalitis in humans. There are no approved vaccines or treatments available for human use, and testing of candidates requires the use of well-characterized animal models that mimic human disease. We performed a comprehensive and statistically-powered evaluation of the African green monkey model to define parameters critical to disease progression and the extent to which they correlate with human disease. African green monkeys were inoculated by the intratracheal route with 2.5 × 10(4 plaque forming units of the Malaysia strain of Nipah virus. Physiological data captured using telemetry implants and assessed in conjunction with clinical pathology were consistent with shock, and histopathology confirmed widespread tissue involvement associated with systemic vasculitis in animals that succumbed to acute disease. In addition, relapse encephalitis was identified in 100% of animals that survived beyond the acute disease phase. Our data suggest that disease progression in the African green monkey is comparable to the variable outcome of Nipah virus infection in humans.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys and common marmosets in preclinical studies for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Shotaro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-12-23

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Old World Monkeys) and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, New World Monkeys) have been widely, and expectedly, used as non-human primate models in drug development studies. Major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes information is now available that supports these primate species as animal models, and it is established that multiple forms of cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes have generally similar substrate recognition functionality to human P450 enzymes. This research update provides information on genetic polymorphisms of P450 enzymes in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset like human P450 enzymes. Information on rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), another macaque species used in drug metabolism studies, is also included for comparison. Among a variety of cynomolgus monkey P450 variants investigated, typical examples include individual pharmacokinetic data for efavirenz and R-warfarin associated with cynomolgus monkey P450 2C9 (formerly 2C43) and 2C19 (2C75) variants, respectively, and for R-omeprazole and S-warfarin associated with marmoset P450 2C19 variants. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the individual pharmacokinetic and toxicological results in non-human primates as preclinical models and will help to further support understanding of molecular mechanisms of human P450 function. In addition to these polymorphic P450 enzymes, effects of aging on some drug clearances mediated by cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes were found in elder animals or animals pretreated with rifampicin. This review describes genetic and acquired individual differences in cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes involved in drug oxidation associated with pharmacological and/or toxicological effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  18. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  19. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  20. Finger pressure adjustments to various object configurations during precision grip in humans and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaro, Riccardo; Tia, Banty; Coudé, Gino; Canto, Rosario; Oliynyk, Andriy; Salmas, Paola; Masia, Lorenzo; Sandini, Giulio; Fadiga, Luciano

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we recorded the pressure exerted onto an object by the index finger and the thumb of the preferred hand of 18 human subjects and either hand of two macaque monkeys during a precision grasping task. The to-be-grasped object was a custom-made device composed by two plates which could be variably oriented by a motorized system while keeping constant the size and thus grip dimension. The to-be-grasped plates were covered by an array of capacitive sensors to measure specific features of finger adaptation, namely pressure intensity and centroid location and displacement. Kinematic measurements demonstrated that for human subjects and for monkeys, different plate configurations did not affect wrist velocity and grip aperture during the reaching phase. Consistently, at the instant of fingers-plates contact, pressure centroids were clustered around the same point for all handle configurations. However, small pressure centroid displacements were specifically adopted for each configuration, indicating that both humans and monkeys can display finger adaptation during precision grip. Moreover, humans applied stronger thumb pressure intensity, performed less centroid displacement and required reduced adjustment time, as compared to monkeys. These pressure patterns remain similar when different load forces were required to pull the handle, as ascertained by additional measurements in humans. The present findings indicate that, although humans and monkeys share common features in motor control of grasping, they differ in the adjustment of fingertip pressure, probably because of skill and/or morphology divergences. Such a precision grip device may form the groundwork for future studies on prehension mechanisms. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Disruption of a hydrogen bond network in human versus spider monkey cytochrome c affects heme crevice stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldes, Matthew E; Jeakins-Cooley, Margaret E; McClelland, Levi J; Mou, Tung-Chung; Bowler, Bruce E

    2016-05-01

    The hypothesis that the recent rapid evolution of primate cytochromes c, which primarily involves residues in the least stable Ω-loop (Ω-loop C, residues 40-57), stabilizes the heme crevice of cytochrome c relative to other mammals, is tested. To accomplish this goal, we have compared the properties of human and spider monkey cytochrome c and a set of four variants produced in the process of converting human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability of all variants has been measured by guanidine hydrochloride denaturation. The stability of the heme crevice has been assessed with the alkaline conformational transition. Structural insight into the effects of the five amino acid substitutions needed to convert human cytochrome c into spider monkey cytochrome c is provided by a 1.15Å resolution structure of spider monkey cytochrome c. The global stability for all variants is near 9.0kcal/mol at 25°C and pH7, which is higher than that observed for other mammalian cytochromes c. The heme crevice stability is more sensitive to the substitutions required to produce spider monkey cytochrome c with decreases of up to 0.5 units in the apparent pKa of the alkaline conformational transition relative to human cytochrome c. The structure of spider monkey cytochrome c indicates that the Y46F substitution destabilizes the heme crevice by disrupting an extensive hydrogen bond network that connects three surface loops including Ω-loop D (residues 70-85), which contains the Met80 heme ligand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring decoy effects on computerized task preferences in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E. Parrish

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric dominance effect or decoy effect emerges when a third inferior option is introduced to a choice set. The decoy option, although typically not chosen, impacts relative preference for the original two options. This decisional bias stands in contrast with rational choice theory, which dictates that choice behavior should remain consistent for the original options with the addition of different alternatives to a choice set such as the decoy. In the current study, we assessed the decoy effect in rhesus monkeys using a computerized task battery that introduced two different computerized tasks, including a matching-to-sample task and a psychomotor task called PURSUIT. Decoy tasks were designed such that they were inferior versions of these original task options, requiring longer time to completion (via slowed cursor speeds and subsequently reduced reinforcement rates. Monkeys learned to associate unique icons for each task (including for decoy tasks, and used these icons to select their preferred task from a choice set of two to three task options. Monkeys learned to perform all tasks, but did not show evidence of the decoy effect using this task preference paradigm. We discuss the role of initial task preference (and task biases, task type (symbolic vs. perceptual, and decoy effect sizes in light of these findings. We contrast the current results to previous findings of the decoy effect in rhesus monkeys using a perceptual paradigm as well as to other evidence of the decoy effect in non-primate animal species.

  3. γ-Ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Yamagiwa, J.; Utsugi, T.; Kitazume, M.; Nakai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by γ-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity. (orig.)

  4. Rhesus monkey neural stem cell transplantation promotes neural regeneration in rats with hippocampal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-juan Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkey neural stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons and glial cells. Therefore, neural stem cell transplantation can be used to promote functional recovery of the nervous system. Rhesus monkey neural stem cells (1 × 105 cells/μL were injected into bilateral hippocampi of rats with hippocampal lesions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that green fluorescent protein-labeled transplanted cells survived and grew well. Transplanted cells were detected at the lesion site, but also in the nerve fiber-rich region of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum. Some transplanted cells differentiated into neurons and glial cells clustering along the ventricular wall, and integrated into the recipient brain. Behavioral tests revealed that spatial learning and memory ability improved, indicating that rhesus monkey neural stem cells noticeably improve spatial learning and memory abilities in rats with hippocampal lesions.

  5. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  6. Effects of GABA[subscript A] Modulators on the Repeated Acquisition of Response Sequences in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Una C.; Winsauer, Peter J.; Stevenson, Michael W.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of positive and negative GABA[subscript A] modulators under three different baselines of repeated acquisition in squirrel monkeys in which the monkeys acquired a three-response sequence on three keys under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of food reinforcement. In two of these baselines, the…

  7. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  8. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Structural study of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus protease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veverka, V.; Bauerová, Helena; Hrabal, R.; Pichová, Iva

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 269, - (2002), s. 57-58 ISSN 0014-2956. [Meeting of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies /28./. 20.10.2002-25.10.2002, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/1241 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  10. Neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in the cerebral cortex of humans and other haplorrhine primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghanti, Mary Ann; Conley, Tiffini; Sudduth, Jessica; Erwin, Joseph M.; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the distribution of neurons immunoreactive for neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the posterior part of the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann's area 22 or area Tpt) of humans and nonhuman haplorrhine primates. NPY has been implicated in learning and memory and the density of NPY-expressing cortical neurons and axons is reduced in depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Due to the role that NPY plays in both cognition and neurodegenerative diseases, we tested the hypothesis that the density of cortical and interstitial neurons expressing NPY was increased in humans relative to other primate species. The study sample included great apes (chimpanzee and gorilla), Old World monkeys (pigtailed macaque, moor macaque, and baboon) and New World monkeys (squirrel monkey and capuchin). Stereologic methods were used to estimate the density of NPY-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in layers I-VI of area Tpt and the subjacent white matter. Adjacent Nissl-stained sections were used to calculate local densities of all neurons. The ratio of NPY-ir neurons to total neurons within area Tpt and the total density of NPY-ir neurons within the white matter were compared among species. Overall, NPY-ir neurons represented only an average of 0.006% of the total neuron population. While there were significant differences among species, phylogenetic trends in NPY-ir neuron distributions were not observed and humans did not differ from other primates. However, variation among species warrants further investigation into the distribution of this neuromodulator system. PMID:23042407

  11. Monkey alcohol tissue research resource: banking tissues for alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better

  12. Self-anointing behaviour in captive titi monkeys (Callicebus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Souza-Alves

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-anointing behaviour using Bauhinia sp. was reported in two captive titi monkeys (Callicebus coimbrai and Callicebus barbarabrownae. The study was carried out from October 2013 to May 2014 during an experimental study investigating the gut passage time of these individuals at the Getúlio Vargas Zoobotanical Park, north-eastern Brazil. Although leaves, petioles and flowers of Bauhinia contain chemical substances that could affect the presence of ectoparasites, it is unclear if titi monkeys demonstrate self-anointing behaviour as a method of self-medication. However, due to the presence of large glands in C. coimbrai and C. barbarabrownae chests, and the high frequency of occurrence observed for the adult male, we cautiously suggest that the use of Bauhinia may be linked to olfactory communication.

  13. Co-infection patterns of intestinal parasites in arboreal primates (proboscis monkeys, Nasalis larvatus in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Klaus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates of South-East Asia remain under-studied concerning parasite epidemiology and co-infection patterns. Simultaneously, efforts in conservation demand knowledge of parasite abundance and biodiversity in threatened species. The Endangered proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus, a primate flagship species for conservation in Borneo, was investigated in the present study. Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the greatest threats to bachelor and harem groups of this folivorous colobine. Designed as a follow-up study, prevalence and co-infection status of intestinal parasites from N. larvatus in a protected area in Malaysian Borneo were analyzed from fecal samples using a flotation method. For the first time, the intestinal parasite co-infection patterns were examined using quantitative analyses. Overall, 92.3% of fecal samples (N = 652 were positive for helminth eggs. Five helminth groups were detected: (1 trichurids (82.7% prevalence including Trichuris spp. (82.1% and Anatrichosoma spp. (1.4%, (2 strongyles (58.9% including Trichostrongylus spp. (48.5% and Oesophagostomum/Ternidens spp. (22.8%, (3 Strongyloides fuelleborni (32.7%, (4 Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%, and (5 Enterobius spp. (5.5%. On average, an individual was co-infected with two different groups. Significant positive associations were found for co-infections of trichurids with strongyles and S. fuelleborni as well as S. fuelleborni with A. lumbricoides and strongyles. This study shows a high prevalence of various gastrointestinal helminths with potential transmission pathways primarily related to soil and with zoonotic relevance in wild proboscis monkeys in their remaining natural habitats. Observed positive associations of trichurids with strongyles and Strongyloides spp. may result from the high prevalence of trichurids. Similarly, positive associations between Strongyloides and Ascaris were found, both of which typically occur predominantly in juvenile hosts

  14. Topographic and age-related changes of the retinal epithelium and Bruch's membrane of rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouras, Peter; Ivert, Lena; Neuringer, Martha; Mattison, Julie A

    2010-07-01

    To examine structural differences in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as a function of topography and age. The retinas of two old (24 and 26 years old) and two young (1 and 6 years old) female monkeys were examined by light fluorescence and electron microscopy at the macula, equator, and ora serrata. All monkeys lacked fluorescence and lipofuscin granules in the RPE at the ora serrata where photoreceptors are absent. The equator and macula showed intense fluorescence and many lipofuscin granules in the RPE of the old but not the young monkeys. At the ora, the RPE contained many dense round melanin granules throughout the cell. At the equator and macula, melanin granules were more apical, less frequent, and often elongated. Mitochondria were clustered at the basal side of the RPE cell near infolds of the plasma membrane. Both mitochondria and infolds tended to increase toward the macula. In all regions, the basal lamina of the RPE did not penetrate the extracellular space adjacent to infolds. The elastin layer of Bruch's membrane was wide at the ora and equator and thinner at the macula. In the old monkeys, drusen were found at all retinal regions between the basal lamina and the internal collagen layer of Bruch's membrane. The drusen were often membrane-bound with a basal lamina and contained material resembling structures in the RPE. Lack of fluorescence and lipofuscin in the RPE at the ora serrata, where photoreceptors are absent, confirms that RPE fluorescence occurs only where outer segments are phagocytized. Mitochondrial clustering indicates that the basal side of the RPE cell uses the most energy and this becomes maximal at the macula. The presence of age-related degenerative changes and drusen at all retinal locations in the older monkeys, even at the ora where RPE lipofuscin was absent, indicates that these processes are not dependent on local lipofuscin accumulation. Therefore lipofuscin

  15. Derivation and characterization of monkey embryonic stem cells

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    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem (ES cell based therapy carries great potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, before clinical application is realized, the safety, efficacy and feasibility of this therapeutic approach must be established in animal models. The rhesus macaque is physiologically and phylogenetically similar to the human, and therefore, is a clinically relevant animal model for biomedical research, especially that focused on neurodegenerative conditions. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells can be maintained in a pluripotent state for many passages, as characterized by a collective repertoire of markers representing embryonic cell surface molecules, enzymes and transcriptional factors. They can also be differentiated into lineage-specific phenotypes of all three embryonic germ layers by epigenetic protocols. For cell-based therapy, however, the quality of ES cells and their progeny must be ensured during the process of ES cell propagation and differentiation. While only a limited number of primate ES cell lines have been studied, it is likely that substantial inter-line variability exists. This implies that diverse ES cell lines may differ in developmental stages, lineage commitment, karyotypic normalcy, gene expression, or differentiation potential. These variables, inherited genetically and/or induced epigenetically, carry obvious complications to therapeutic applications. Our laboratory has characterized and isolated rhesus monkey ES cell lines from in vitro produced blastocysts. All tested cell lines carry the potential to form pluripotent embryoid bodies and nestin-positive progenitor cells. These ES cell progeny can be differentiated into phenotypes representing the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal lineages. This review article describes the derivation of monkey ES cell lines, characterization of the undifferentiated phenotype, and their differentiation into lineage-specific, particularly neural, phenotypes

  16. Idiopathic New Bone Formation in the Femoral Shafts of a Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-il; Kim, Young-suk; Kim, Myung-Jin; Hong, Sung-Hyeok

    2008-01-01

    A 6.5-y-old cynomolgus monkey was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Chungnam National University for suspected bone fracture. The monkey had been reared singly in a cage at a laboratory facility. An animal caretaker incidentally found a bone fragment protruding through the skin of the right leg. Radiographic examination revealed 2 new bone fragments clearly distinguishable from the original femurs; the fragments seemed to be inserted into both femurs. One of the new bone...

  17. Bimatoprost Effects on Aqueous Humor Dynamics in Monkeys

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    David F. Woodward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of bimatoprost on aqueous humor dynamics were quantified in monkey eyes. Uveoscleral outflow was measured by the anterior chamber perfusion method, using FITC-dextran. Total outflow facility was determined by the two-level constant pressure method. Aqueous flow was measured with a scanning ocular fluorophotometer. Uveoscleral outflow was 0.96±0.19 L min−1 in vehicle-treated eyes and 1.37±0.27 L min−1 (=6; <.05 in eyes that received bimatoprost 0.01% b.i.d. × 5 days. Bimatoprost had no effect on total outflow facility, which was 0.42±0.05 L min−1 at baseline and 0.42±0.04 L min−1 after bimatoprost treatment. Bimatoprost had no significant effect on aqueous humor flow. This study demonstrates that bimatoprost increases uveoscleral outflow but not total outflow facility or aqueous humor flow, indicating that it lowers intraocular pressure in ocular normotensive monkeys by a mechanism that exclusively involves uveoscleral outflow.

  18. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P endocrine system were similar to the effects of chairing on the ground, but were more pronounced. Reduced intestinal calcium absorption, losses in body weight, increases in cortisol, and higher postflight blood urea nitrogen were the changes in flight monkeys that distinguished them from the flight simulation study animals.

  19. Why are there apes? Evidence for the co-evolution of ape and monkey ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Apes, members of the superfamily Hominoidea, possess a distinctive suite of anatomical and behavioral characters which appear to have evolved relatively late and relatively independently. The timing of paleontological events, extant cercopithecine and hominoid ecomorphology and other evidence suggests that many distinctive ape features evolved to facilitate harvesting ripe fruits among compliant terminal branches in tree edges. Precarious, unpredictably oriented, compliant supports in the canopy periphery require apes to maneuver using suspensory and non-sterotypical postures (i.e. postures with eccentric limb orientations or extreme joint excursions). Diet differences among extant species, extant species numbers and evidence of cercopithecoid diversification and expansion, in concert with a reciprocal decrease in hominoid species, suggest intense competition between monkeys and apes over the last 20 Ma. It may be that larger body masses allow great apes to succeed in contest competitions for highly desired food items, while the ability of monkeys to digest antifeedant-rich unripe fruits allows them to win scramble competitions. Evolutionary trends in morphology and inferred ecology suggest that as monkeys evolved to harvest fruit ever earlier in the fruiting cycle they broadened their niche to encompass first more fibrous, tannin- and toxin-rich unripe fruits and later, for some lineages, mature leaves. Early depletion of unripe fruit in the central core of the tree canopy by monkeys leaves a hollow sphere of ripening fruits, displacing antifeedant-intolerant, later-arriving apes to small-diameter, compliant terminal branches. Hylobatids, orangutans, Pan species, gorillas and the New World atelines may have each evolved suspensory behavior independently in response to local competition from an expanding population of monkeys. Genetic evidence of rapid evolution among chimpanzees suggests that adaptations to suspensory behavior, vertical climbing, knuckle

  20. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Demonstrate Robust Memory for What and Where, but Not When, in an Open-Field Test of Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, R.R.; Hampstead, B.M.; Murray, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    We adapted a paradigm developed by Clayton and Dickinson (1998), who demonstrated memory for what, where, and when in scrub jays, for use with rhesus monkeys. In the study phase of each trial, monkeys found a preferred and a less-preferred food reward in a trial-unique array of three locations in a large room. After 1h, monkeys returned to the…

  1. Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on the activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) in the southern Ethiopian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Addisu; Fashing, Peter J; Bekele, Afework; Hernandez-Aguilar, R Adriana; Rueness, Eli K; Nguyen, Nga; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types. We also found that Bale monkeys in continuous forest spent more time feeding and traveling and less time resting and socializing than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest also had higher movement rates (m/hr) than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest used exclusively bamboo and mixed bamboo forest habitats while conspecifics in fragments used a greater variety of habitats including human use areas (i.e., matrix). Our findings suggest that Bale monkeys in fragments use an energy minimization strategy to cope with the lower availability of the species' primary food species, bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). We contend that Bale monkeys may retain some of the ancestral ecological flexibility assumed to be characteristic of the genus Chlorocebus, within which all extant species except Bale monkeys are regarded as ecological generalists. Our results suggest that, like other bamboo eating primates (e.g., the bamboo lemurs of Madagascar), Bale monkeys can cope with a certain threshold of habitat destruction. However, the long-term conservation prospects for Bale monkeys in fragments remain unclear and will require further monitoring to be properly evaluated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments.

  3. Conservação e fisiologia pós-colheita de folhas de Capuchinha (Tropaeolum majus L. Conservation and postharvest physiology of leaves Capuchin (Tropaeolum majus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S. Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a vida útil pós-colheita de folhas de Capuchinha (Tropaeolum majus L. embaladas com filme PVC de baixa densidade e proteínas nas concentrações de 1, 3 e 5%. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica do Centro de Ciências Agrárias (CCA da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB Areia - PB. As folhas de Capuchinha colhidas no CCA foram levadas imediatamente ao Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica, para pré-seleção, desinfestação em água clorada contendo 100mg.L-1 de cloro ativo, e seca à temperatura ambiente. Após o controle fitossanitário, as folhas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: solução de proteína nas concentrações de 1, 3 e 5%, filme PVC de baixa densidade e a testemunha sem recobrimento. As folhas foram armazenadas durante cinco dias em temperatura média de 26 - 29ºC e umidade relativa média de 59,5 - 71,5% e outra parte foi armazenada em câmara fria com temperatura média de 12 ± 0,5 ºC e umidade relativa média de 95 ± 3%. Durante o período de armazenamento as folhas foram avaliadas quanto à perda de massa fresca, determinação de ácido ascórbico, sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável. O armazenamento durante quatro dias sob refrigeração a temperatura média de 12 ± 0,5ºC associada ao recobrimento com filme PVC mostrou melhores resultados na conservação da vida útil pós-colheita das folhas de Capuchinha.This study aimed to evaluate the shelf-life of Capuchin sheets (Tropaeolum majus L. packed with plastic wrap and low density proteins at concentrations of 1, 3 and 5%. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica and the Centro de Ciências Agrárias (CCA of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB Areia - PB. Capuchin leaves harvested in the CCA were taken immediately to the Laboratório de Química e Bioquímica, for pre-screening, disinfection in chlorinated water containing 100mg.L-1

  4. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  5. Evaluation of cobalt-60 energy deposit in mouse and monkey using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Wook; Park, Yong Sung; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Doo Wan; Lee, Hong Soo; Han, Su Cheol [Jeonbuk Department of Inhalation Research, Korea Institute of toxicology, KRICT, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    These absorbed dose can calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-particle transport code). Internal radiotherapy absorbed dose was calculated using conventional software, such as OLINDA/EXM or Monte Carlo simulation. However, the OLINDA/EXM does not calculate individual absorbed dose and non-standard organ, such as tumor. While the Monte Carlo simulation can calculated non-standard organ and specific absorbed dose using individual CT image. External radiotherapy, absorbed dose can calculated by specific absorbed energy in specific organs using Monte Carlo simulation. The specific absorbed energy in each organ was difference between species or even if the same species. Since they have difference organ sizes, position, and density of organs. The aim of this study was to individually evaluated cobalt-60 energy deposit in mouse and monkey using Monte Carlo simulation. We evaluation of cobalt-60 energy deposit in mouse and monkey using Monte Carlo simulation. The absorbed energy in each organ compared with mouse heart was 54.6 fold higher than monkey absorbed energy in heart. Likewise lung was 88.4, liver was 16.0, urinary bladder was 29.4 fold higher than monkey. It means that the distance of each organs and organ mass was effects of the absorbed energy. This result may help to can calculated absorbed dose and more accuracy plan for external radiation beam therapy and internal radiotherapy.

  6. Evaluation of cobalt-60 energy deposit in mouse and monkey using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Wook; Park, Yong Sung; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin; Cho, Doo Wan; Lee, Hong Soo; Han, Su Cheol

    2016-01-01

    These absorbed dose can calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-particle transport code). Internal radiotherapy absorbed dose was calculated using conventional software, such as OLINDA/EXM or Monte Carlo simulation. However, the OLINDA/EXM does not calculate individual absorbed dose and non-standard organ, such as tumor. While the Monte Carlo simulation can calculated non-standard organ and specific absorbed dose using individual CT image. External radiotherapy, absorbed dose can calculated by specific absorbed energy in specific organs using Monte Carlo simulation. The specific absorbed energy in each organ was difference between species or even if the same species. Since they have difference organ sizes, position, and density of organs. The aim of this study was to individually evaluated cobalt-60 energy deposit in mouse and monkey using Monte Carlo simulation. We evaluation of cobalt-60 energy deposit in mouse and monkey using Monte Carlo simulation. The absorbed energy in each organ compared with mouse heart was 54.6 fold higher than monkey absorbed energy in heart. Likewise lung was 88.4, liver was 16.0, urinary bladder was 29.4 fold higher than monkey. It means that the distance of each organs and organ mass was effects of the absorbed energy. This result may help to can calculated absorbed dose and more accuracy plan for external radiation beam therapy and internal radiotherapy.

  7. Evaluation of an intragastric challenge model for Shigella dysenteriae 1 in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for the pre-clinical assessment of Shigella vaccine formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Dilara; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Gettayacamin, Montip; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Mason, Carl J

    2014-06-01

    Shigellosis is a worldwide disease, characterized by abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and the passage of blood- and mucus-streaked stools. Rhesus monkeys and other primates are the only animals that are naturally susceptible to shigellosis. A suitable animal model is required for the pre-clinical evaluation of vaccines candidates. In this study, the minimal dose of Shigella dysenteriae1 1617 strain required to produce dysentery in four of five (80% attack rate) monkeys using an escalating dose range for three groups [2 × 10(8) , 2 × 10(9) and 2 × 10(10) colony forming unit (CFU)] was determined. In addition, the monkeys were re-infected. The identified optimal challenge dose was 2 × 10(9) CFU; this dose elicited 60% protection in monkeys when they were re-challenged with a one log higher dose (2 × 10(10) CFU). The challenge dose, 2 × 10(10) CFU, produced severe dysentery in all monkeys, with one monkey dying within 24 h, elicited 100% protection when re-challenged with the same dose. All monkeys exhibited immune responses. This study concludes that the rhesus monkey model closely mimics the disease and immune response seen in humans and is a suitable animal model for the pre-clinical evaluation of Shigella vaccine candidates. Prior infection with the 1617 strain can protect monkeys against subsequent re-challenges with homologous strains. © 2013 The Authors. APMIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Empty Sets as Part of the Numerical Continuum: Conceptual Precursors to the Zero Concept in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Dustin J.; Rugani, Rosa; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the current research was to explore whether monkeys possess conceptual precursors necessary for understanding zero. We trained rhesus monkeys on a nonsymbolic numerical matching-to-sample task, and on a numerical ordering task. We then introduced nondifferentially reinforced trials that contained empty sets to determine whether monkeys…

  9. Food intake and meal patterns in rhesus monkeys: Significance of chronic hyperinsulinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannah, J.; Hansen, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the role of plasma insulin on food intake, we have examined the effect of naturally occurring chronic hyperinsulinemia on the feeding behavior of male rhesus monkeys. Two groups of monkeys, a group with normal fasting insulin concentrations (52.4 +/- 2.2 microU/ml) (mean +/- SE) and a hyperinsulinemic group (148.6 +/- 14.5 microU/ml), were selected to be similar in weight, 13.0 +/- 1.0 and 15.3 +/- 0.5 kg, respectively, prior to study. Food intake and feeding patterns were recorded and analyzed. No differences in either daily caloric intake, 815.2 +/- 27.4 versus 890.0 +/- 64.2 kcal (p less than 0.32), or feeding patterns were found. The number of meals taken per day did not differ between the two groups, 8.7 +/- 1.7 versus 6.7 +/- 1.1 (p less than 0.35), nor did meal size differ, 129 +/- 16.5 versus 110.5 +/- 16.3 (p less than 0.45). We conclude that chronic endogenous hyperinsulinemia as it occurs naturally in some obese rhesus monkeys has no significant effect on daily feeding behavior

  10. Herniation pits in human mummies: a CT investigation in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Panzer

    Full Text Available Herniation pits (HPs of the femoral neck were first described in a radiological publication in 1982 as round to oval radiolucencies in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck on anteroposterior radiographs of adults. In following early clinical publications, HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding. In contrast, in current clinical literature they are mentioned in the context of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI of the hip joint, which is known to cause osteoarthritis (OA. The significance of HPs in chronic skeletal disorders such as OA is still unclear, but they are discussed as a possible radiological indicator for FAI in a large part of clinical studies.In this paleoradiological study we examined a sample of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, by a mobile computed tomography (CT scanner. Evaluation of the CT examinations revealed HPs in six out of 16 (37.5% adult male mummies.The first aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of HPs shown in our mummy collection to the findings described in clinical literature. Thereby CT evaluation revealed that their osseous imaging characteristics are in accordance, consisting of round to oval subcortical lesions at the anterior femoral neck, clearly demarcated by a sclerotic margin.The second aim was to introduce HPs to the paleoradiological and paleopathological methodology as an entity that underwent a renaissance from an incidental finding to a possible radiological indicator of FAI in the clinical situation. As FAI plays an important role in the development of OA of the hip, which is a very common finding in human skeletal remains, HPs should always be considered in paleoradiological evaluation of hip joint diseases.

  11. Chronic suppression of testicular function by constant infusion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and testosterone supplementation in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, N; Ramesh, V; Krishnamurthy, H N; Rao, A J; Moudgal, R N

    1992-03-01

    To study the efficacy of long-term buserelin acetate infusion to desensitize pituitary and block testicular function in adult male monkeys (Macaca radiata). Proven fertile male monkeys exhibiting normal testicular function. Each of the control (n = 5) and experimental monkeys (n = 10) received a fresh miniosmotic pump every 21 days, whereas pumps in controls delivered vehicle of experimentals released 50 micrograms buserelin acetate every 24 hours. On day 170 (renewed every 60 days) a silastic capsule containing crystalline testosterone (T) was implanted in the experimental monkeys. At the end of 3 years, treatment was stopped, and recovery of testicular function and fertility monitored. (1) Treatment resulted in marked reduction of nocturnal but not basal serum T; (2) the pituitary remained desensitized to buserelin acetate throughout the 3-year period; (3) animals were largely azoospermic with occasional oligospermia exhibited by two monkeys; and (4) withdrawal of treatment restored testicular function, with 70% of animals regaining fertility. Long-term infertility (but restorable) can be induced in male monkeys by constant infusion of buserelin acetate and T.

  12. Female snub-nosed monkeys exchange grooming for sex and infant handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Yao, Hui; Grueter, Cyril C; Li, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming in primates has acquired an important social function beyond its original hygienic function and can be exchanged either for itself or used as a currency to obtain other benefits such as copulations, access to infants or agonistic support. We explore the strategic use of grooming as a social tool in semi-wild golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in central China, a species where two desirable resources, viz. reproductive males and infants, are restricted to the mating and birth season, respectively. We predict that females expend their grooming selectively to different individuals according to their "value". Our results show that in the mating season, females devoted more grooming to the resident male than in the birth season, and this effect was particularly strong in non-mothers (females without newborn infants). Moreover, females were more likely to groom the resident male after copulation than during baseline social conditions. In the birth season, females devoted more grooming to other females than in the mating season, and mothers (females with newborn infants) were the most valuable grooming partners. The mean rate of contact by non-mothers toward infants of other females was significantly higher after grooming the mothers than in baseline social conditions. In conclusion, our findings lend credence to the notion that primate females use grooming as a strategic tool to obtain limited resources such as males and infants and vary preference for particular individuals depending on the seasonal availability of valuable resources.

  13. Two processes support visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderian, Sebastian; Brigham, Danielle; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2011-11-29

    A large body of evidence in humans suggests that recognition memory can be supported by both recollection and familiarity. Recollection-based recognition is characterized by the retrieval of contextual information about the episode in which an item was previously encountered, whereas familiarity-based recognition is characterized instead by knowledge only that the item had been encountered previously in the absence of any context. To date, it is unknown whether monkeys rely on similar mnemonic processes to perform recognition memory tasks. Here, we present evidence from the analysis of receiver operating characteristics, suggesting that visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys also can be supported by two separate processes and that these processes have features considered to be characteristic of recollection and familiarity. Thus, the present study provides converging evidence across species for a dual process model of recognition memory and opens up the possibility of studying the neural mechanisms of recognition memory in nonhuman primates on tasks that are highly similar to the ones used in humans.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys in Lake Ziway area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2018-02-20

    To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.

  15. Metabolism of lead-210 in juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, J.G.; Marlar, R.J.; Allen, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted measuring the gastrointestinal absorption and elimination of a single dose of lead-210 acetate in infant and adult rhesus monkeys. Urinary and fecal excretion of absorbed lead was followed for 23 days. Infant monkeys eliminated less and absorbed more orally administered lead. Adult animals excreted more absorbed lead in feces, while urinary excretion between adults and infants was similar. Increased absorption of administered lead and reduced fecal excretion of absorbed lead resulted in significantly greater body burden of lead-210 in infant animals. Blood lead values were increased in the infant animals, and were inversely correlated with body burden and percent absorption of ingested lead

  16. Predicting Human Clearance of OATP substrates using Cynomolgus monkey: In vitro-in vivo scaling of hepatic uptake clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Tom; Ufuk, Ayse; Cantrill, Carina; Kosa, Rachel E; Bi, Yi-An; Niosi, Mark; Modi, Sweta; Rodrigues, A David; Tremaine, Larry M; Varma, Manthena Vs; Galetin, Aleksandra; Houston, J Brian

    2018-05-02

    This work explores the utility of the cynomolgus monkey as a preclinical model to predict hepatic uptake clearance mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters. Nine OATP substrates (rosuvastatin, pravastatin, repaglinide, fexofenadine, cerivastatin, telmisartan, pitavastatin, bosentan and valsartan) were investigated in plated cynomolgus monkey and human hepatocytes. Total uptake clearance and passive diffusion were measured in vitro from initial rates in the absence and presence of the OATP inhibitor rifamycin SV, respectively. Total uptake clearance values in plated hepatocytes ranged over three orders of magnitude in both species with a similar rank order and good agreement in the relative contribution of active transport to total uptake between cynomolgus monkey and human. In vivo hepatic clearance for these nine drugs was determined in cynomolgus monkey after intravenous dosing. Hepatic clearances showed a similar range to human parameters and good predictions from respective hepatocyte parameters (with 2.7 and 3.8-fold bias on average, respectively). The use of cross species empirical scaling factors (based on either dataset average or individual drug scaling factor from cynomolgus monkey data) improved