WorldWideScience

Sample records for wild c-genome species

  1. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Ohyanagi, Hajime

    2015-11-18

    The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype-phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a textbased browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tabdelimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/ scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/.

  2. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Wild Rice (Oryza minuta) and Its Comparison to Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul L; Khan, Muhammad A; Kang, Sang-Mo; Imran, Qari M; Shahzad, Raheem; Bilal, Saqib; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Oryza minuta , a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice (family Poaceae), possesses a BBCC genome and contains genes that confer resistance to bacterial blight (BB) and white-backed (WBPH) and brown (BPH) plant hoppers. Based on the importance of this wild species, this study aimed to understand the phylogenetic relationships of O. minuta with other Oryza species through an in-depth analysis of the composition and diversity of the chloroplast (cp) genome. The analysis revealed a cp genome size of 135,094 bp with a typical quadripartite structure and consisting of a pair of inverted repeats separated by small and large single copies, 139 representative genes, and 419 randomly distributed microsatellites. The genomic organization, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to those of typical angiosperm cp genomes. Approximately 30 forward, 28 tandem and 20 palindromic repeats were detected in the O . minuta cp genome. Comparison of the complete O. minuta cp genome with another eleven Oryza species showed a high degree of sequence similarity and relatively high divergence of intergenic spacers. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted based on the complete genome sequence, 65 shared genes and matK gene showed same topologies and O. minuta forms a single clade with parental O. punctata . Thus, the complete O . minuta cp genome provides interesting insights and valuable information that can be used to identify related species and reconstruct its phylogeny.

  3. Genome Sequences of Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Kumagai, Masahiko

    2018-02-14

    This chapter summarizes recent data obtained from genome sequencing, annotation projects, and studies on the genome diversity of Oryza sativa and related Oryza species. O. sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the first monocot species whose complete genome sequence was deciphered based on physical mapping by an international collaborative effort. This genome, along with its accurate and comprehensive annotation, has become an indispensable foundation for crop genomics and breeding. With the development of innovative sequencing technologies, genomic studies of O. sativa have dramatically increased; in particular, a large number of cultivars and wild accessions have been sequenced and compared with the reference rice genome. Since de novo genome sequencing has become cost-effective, the genome of African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima, has also been determined. Comparative genomic studies have highlighted the independent domestication processes of different rice species, but it also turned out that Asian and African rice share a common gene set that has experienced similar artificial selection. An international project aimed at constructing reference genomes and examining the genome diversity of wild Oryza species is currently underway, and the genomes of some species are publicly available. This project provides a platform for investigations such as the evolution, development, polyploidization, and improvement of crops. Studies on the genomic diversity of Oryza species, including wild species, should provide new insights to solve the problem of growing food demands in the face of rapid climatic changes.

  4. Genome Sequences of Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Kumagai, Masahiko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Hsing, Yue-Ie C.; Itoh, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent data obtained from genome sequencing, annotation projects, and studies on the genome diversity of Oryza sativa and related Oryza species. O. sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the first monocot species whose complete genome sequence was deciphered based on physical mapping by an international collaborative effort. This genome, along with its accurate and comprehensive annotation, has become an indispensable foundation for crop genomics and breeding. With the development of innovative sequencing technologies, genomic studies of O. sativa have dramatically increased; in particular, a large number of cultivars and wild accessions have been sequenced and compared with the reference rice genome. Since de novo genome sequencing has become cost-effective, the genome of African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima, has also been determined. Comparative genomic studies have highlighted the independent domestication processes of different rice species, but it also turned out that Asian and African rice share a common gene set that has experienced similar artificial selection. An international project aimed at constructing reference genomes and examining the genome diversity of wild Oryza species is currently underway, and the genomes of some species are publicly available. This project provides a platform for investigations such as the evolution, development, polyploidization, and improvement of crops. Studies on the genomic diversity of Oryza species, including wild species, should provide new insights to solve the problem of growing food demands in the face of rapid climatic changes.

  5. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Wild Rice (Oryza minuta) and Its Comparison with Other Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Shahzad, Raheem; Seo, Chang-Woo; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Oryza minuta (Poaceae family) is a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice with a BBCC genome. O. minuta has the potential to resist against various pathogenic diseases such as bacterial blight (BB), white backed planthopper (WBPH) and brown plant hopper (BPH). Here, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. minuta. The mtDNA genome is 515,022 bp, containing 60 protein coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome organization and the gene content at the nucleotide level are highly similar (89%) to that of O. rufipogon. Comparison with other related species revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved among the Poaceae members. Similarly, O. minuta mt genome shared 24 protein-coding genes, 15 tRNA genes and 1 ribosomal RNA gene with other rice species (indica and japonica). The evolutionary relationship and phylogenetic analysis revealed that O. minuta is more closely related to O. rufipogon than to any other related species. Such studies are essential to understand the evolutionary divergence among species and analyze common gene pools to combat risks in the current scenario of a changing environment.

  6. Physiological and molecular characterization of Si uptake in wild rice species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani-Ueno, Namiki; Ogai, Hisao; Yamaji, Naoki; Ma, Jian Feng

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) accumulates high concentration of silicon (Si), which is required for its high and sustainable production. High Si accumulation in cultivated rice is achieved by a high expression of both influx (Lsi1) and efflux (Lsi2) Si transporters in roots. Herein, we physiologically investigated Si uptake, isolated and functionally characterized Si transporters in six wild rice species with different genome types. Si uptake by the roots was lower in Oryza rufipogon, Oryza barthii (AA genome), Oryza australiensis (EE genome) and Oryza punctata (BB genome), but similar in Oryza glumaepatula and Oryza meridionalis (AA genome) compared with the cultivated rice (cv. Nipponbare). However, all wild rice species and the cultivated rice showed similar concentration of Si in the shoots when grown in a field. All species with AA genome showed the same amino acid sequence of both Lsi1 and Lsi2 as O. sativa, whereas species with EE and BB genome showed several nucleotide differences in both Lsi1 and Lsi2. However, proteins encoded by these genes also showed transport activity for Si in Xenopus oocyte. The mRNA expression of Lsi1 in all wild rice species was lower than that in the cultivated rice, whereas the expression of Lsi2 was lower in O. rufipogon and O. barthii but similar in other species. Similar cellular localization of Lsi1 and Lsi2 was observed in all wild rice as the cultivated rice. These results indicate that superior Si uptake, the important trait for rice growth, is basically conserved in wild and cultivated rice species. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Seed coat microsculpturing is related to genomic components in wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-hao; Wei, Wei; Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species.

  8. Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonal; Nawaz, Kashif; Parween, Sabiha; Roy, Riti; Sahu, Kamlesh; Kumar Pole, Anil; Khandal, Hitaishi; Srivastava, Rishi; Kumar Parida, Swarup; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2017-02-01

    Cicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  9. Seed coat microsculpturing is related to genomic components in wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis.

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    Ying-hao Wang

    Full Text Available It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relationships between SCM and genomic types in wild Brassica and related species. Three wild collections were found to be tetraploid with a SCM reticulate pattern similar to B. juncea, and containing A and B genome-specific loci, indicating relatively high sexual compatibility with B. juncea. The others were diploid, carrying S-genome-specific DNA markers, and having relatively high sexual compatibility with Sinapis arvensis. Moreover, their SCM was in a rugose pattern similar to that of S. arvensis. It was suggested that SCM, as a morphological characteristic, can reflect genomic type, and be used to distinguish B-genome species such as B. juncea from the related S. arvensis. The relationship between SCM and genomic type can support taxonomic studies of the wild Brassica species and related species.

  10. Genome size, cytogenetic data and transferability of EST-SSRs markers in wild and cultivated species of the genus Theobroma L. (Byttnerioideae, Malvaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rangeline Azevedo; Souza, Gustavo; Lemos, Lívia Santos Lima; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Patrocínio, Nara Geórgia Ribeiro Braz; Alves, Rafael Moysés; Marcellino, Lucília Helena; Clement, Didier; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The genus Theobroma comprises several trees species native to the Amazon. Theobroma cacao L. plays a key economic role mainly in the chocolate industry. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. Variations in genome size and chromosome number have been used for prediction purposes including the frequency of interspecific hybridization or inference about evolutionary relationships. In this study, the nuclear DNA content, karyotype and genetic diversity using functional microsatellites (EST-SSR) of seven Theobroma species were characterized. The nuclear content of DNA for all analyzed Theobroma species was 1C = ~ 0.46 pg. These species presented 2n = 20 with small chromosomes and only one pair of terminal heterochromatic bands positively stained (CMA+/DAPI− bands). The small size of Theobroma ssp. genomes was equivalent to other Byttnerioideae species, suggesting that the basal lineage of Malvaceae have smaller genomes and that there was an expansion of 2C values in the more specialized family clades. A set of 20 EST-SSR primers were characterized for related species of Theobroma, in which 12 loci were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.23 to 0.65, indicating a high level of information per locus. Combined results of flow cytometry, cytogenetic data and EST-SSRs markers will contribute to better describe the species and infer about the evolutionary relationships among Theobroma species. In addition, the importance of a core collection for conservation purposes is highlighted. PMID:28187131

  11. Genome size, cytogenetic data and transferability of EST-SSRs markers in wild and cultivated species of the genus Theobroma L. (Byttnerioideae, Malvaceae.

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    Rangeline Azevedo da Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Theobroma comprises several trees species native to the Amazon. Theobroma cacao L. plays a key economic role mainly in the chocolate industry. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. Variations in genome size and chromosome number have been used for prediction purposes including the frequency of interspecific hybridization or inference about evolutionary relationships. In this study, the nuclear DNA content, karyotype and genetic diversity using functional microsatellites (EST-SSR of seven Theobroma species were characterized. The nuclear content of DNA for all analyzed Theobroma species was 1C = ~ 0.46 pg. These species presented 2n = 20 with small chromosomes and only one pair of terminal heterochromatic bands positively stained (CMA+/DAPI- bands. The small size of Theobroma ssp. genomes was equivalent to other Byttnerioideae species, suggesting that the basal lineage of Malvaceae have smaller genomes and that there was an expansion of 2C values in the more specialized family clades. A set of 20 EST-SSR primers were characterized for related species of Theobroma, in which 12 loci were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content (PIC ranged from 0.23 to 0.65, indicating a high level of information per locus. Combined results of flow cytometry, cytogenetic data and EST-SSRs markers will contribute to better describe the species and infer about the evolutionary relationships among Theobroma species. In addition, the importance of a core collection for conservation purposes is highlighted.

  12. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal evolutionary relationships of the Phytophthora 1c clade species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Erica S; Russ, Carsten; Nusbaum, Chad; Zeng, Qiandong; Saville, Amanda C; Olarte, Rodrigo A; Carbone, Ignazio; Hu, Chia-Hui; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Samaniego, Jose A; Thorne, Jeffrey L; Ristaino, Jean B

    2015-11-01

    Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens of potato and tomato globally. The pathogen is closely related to four other Phytophthora species in the 1c clade including P. phaseoli, P. ipomoeae, P. mirabilis and P. andina that are important pathogens of other wild and domesticated hosts. P. andina is an interspecific hybrid between P. infestans and an unknown Phytophthora species. We have sequenced mitochondrial genomes of the sister species of P. infestans and examined the evolutionary relationships within the clade. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the P. phaseoli mitochondrial lineage is basal within the clade. P. mirabilis and P. ipomoeae are sister lineages and share a common ancestor with the Ic mitochondrial lineage of P. andina. These lineages in turn are sister to the P. infestans and P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineages. The P. andina Ic lineage diverged much earlier than the P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineage and P. infestans. The presence of two mitochondrial lineages in P. andina supports the hybrid nature of this species. The ancestral state of the P. andina Ic lineage in the tree and its occurrence only in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Peru suggests that the origin of this species hybrid in nature may occur there.

  13. Ribosomal DNA variation in finger millet and wild species of Eleusine (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilu, K W; Johnson, J L

    1992-04-01

    Finger millet is an important cereal crop in the semi-arid regions of Africa and India. The crop belongs to the grass genus Eleusine, which includes nine annual and perennial species native to Africa except for the New World species E. tristachya. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) variation in finger millet and related wild species was used to provide information on the origin of the genomes of this tetraploid crop and point out genetic relationships of the crop to other species in the genus. The restriction endonucleases used revealed a lack of variability in the rDNA spacer region in domesticated finger millet. All the rDNA variants of the crop were found in the proposed direct tetraploid ancestor, E. coracana subsp. africana. Wild and domesticated finger millet displayed the phenotypes found in diploid E. indica. Diploid Eleusine tristachya showed some similarity to the crop in some restriction sites. The remaining species were quite distinct in rDNA fragment patterns. The study supports the direct origin of finger millet from subspecies africana shows E. indica to be one of the genome donors of the crop, and demonstrates that none of the other species examined could have donated the second genome of the crop. The rDNA data raise the possibility that wild and domesticated finger millet could have originated as infraspecific polyploid hybrids from different varieties of E. indica.

  14. Synthetic Hexaploids Derived from Wild Species Related to Sweet Potato

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOTANI, Itaru; KAWASE, Tsuneo; 塩谷, 格; 川瀬, 恒男

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of germplasm of the wild species in sweet-potato breeding has been conducted for the last three decades. Such attempts brought some remarkable achievments in improving root yield, starch content and resistance to the nematodes of sweet potato. Some wild plants in polyploid series may have many genes potentially important for further improvement of the agronomic traits. However, the genomic relationship between the wild relatives and hexaploid sweet potato (2n=6x=90) has been u...

  15. The Characteristics of Cytochrome C Oxidase Gene Subunit I in Wild Silkmoth Cricula trifenestrata Helfer and Its Evaluation for Species Marker

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    Suriana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the characteristics of partial gene of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI of wild silkmoth Cricula trifenestrata, and to detect the diagnostic sites from these gene for evaluation as species marker. A total of fifteen larvae of C. tifenestrata were collected from Bogor, Purwakarta, and Bantul Regencies. Genomic DNA was extracted from silk gland of individual larvae, then amplified by PCR method and sequenced. DNA sequencing was done to characterize their nucleotide and amino acid contents. The results showed that 595 nucleotides at the 5 ‘end of COI gene of C. tifenestrata was conserved at the species level, but varies at the family level. Nucleotide dominated by thymine and adenine bases (± 70%. There were 25 diagnostic sites for C. tifenestrata, and four diagnostic sites for genus level. One hundred eigthty nine (189 amino acids were alignment, and only one percent of the genes was varied among species. The 107th amino acid (valine and 138th (threonine were diagnostics amino acid for C. tifenestrata. Based on nucleotides and amino acids sequences, the phylogeny showed that C. tifenestrata lied on the same nodes with Antheraea, so the Saturniidae family is monophyletic.

  16. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecon-Slattery, Jill; McCracken, Carrie L; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue; Roelke, Melody; Sondgeroth, Kerry; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp) from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp) isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to

  17. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

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    Sondgeroth Kerry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion

  18. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  19. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

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    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  20. Exome-wide DNA capture and next generation sequencing in domestic and wild species

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    Ng Sarah B

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene-targeted and genome-wide markers are crucial to advance evolutionary biology, agriculture, and biodiversity conservation by improving our understanding of genetic processes underlying adaptation and speciation. Unfortunately, for eukaryotic species with large genomes it remains costly to obtain genome sequences and to develop genome resources such as genome-wide SNPs. A method is needed to allow gene-targeted, next-generation sequencing that is flexible enough to include any gene or number of genes, unlike transcriptome sequencing. Such a method would allow sequencing of many individuals, avoiding ascertainment bias in subsequent population genetic analyses. We demonstrate the usefulness of a recent technology, exon capture, for genome-wide, gene-targeted marker discovery in species with no genome resources. We use coding gene sequences from the domestic cow genome sequence (Bos taurus to capture (enrich for, and subsequently sequence, thousands of exons of B. taurus, B. indicus, and Bison bison (wild bison. Our capture array has probes for 16,131 exons in 2,570 genes, including 203 candidate genes with known function and of interest for their association with disease and other fitness traits. Results We successfully sequenced and mapped exon sequences from across the 29 autosomes and X chromosome in the B. taurus genome sequence. Exon capture and high-throughput sequencing identified thousands of putative SNPs spread evenly across all reference chromosomes, in all three individuals, including hundreds of SNPs in our targeted candidate genes. Conclusions This study shows exon capture can be customized for SNP discovery in many individuals and for non-model species without genomic resources. Our captured exome subset was small enough for affordable next-generation sequencing, and successfully captured exons from a divergent wild species using the domestic cow genome as reference.

  1. Exome-wide DNA capture and next generation sequencing in domestic and wild species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosart, Ted; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Chen, Shanyuan; Ng, Sarah B; Shendure, Jay; Luikart, Gordon

    2011-07-05

    Gene-targeted and genome-wide markers are crucial to advance evolutionary biology, agriculture, and biodiversity conservation by improving our understanding of genetic processes underlying adaptation and speciation. Unfortunately, for eukaryotic species with large genomes it remains costly to obtain genome sequences and to develop genome resources such as genome-wide SNPs. A method is needed to allow gene-targeted, next-generation sequencing that is flexible enough to include any gene or number of genes, unlike transcriptome sequencing. Such a method would allow sequencing of many individuals, avoiding ascertainment bias in subsequent population genetic analyses.We demonstrate the usefulness of a recent technology, exon capture, for genome-wide, gene-targeted marker discovery in species with no genome resources. We use coding gene sequences from the domestic cow genome sequence (Bos taurus) to capture (enrich for), and subsequently sequence, thousands of exons of B. taurus, B. indicus, and Bison bison (wild bison). Our capture array has probes for 16,131 exons in 2,570 genes, including 203 candidate genes with known function and of interest for their association with disease and other fitness traits. We successfully sequenced and mapped exon sequences from across the 29 autosomes and X chromosome in the B. taurus genome sequence. Exon capture and high-throughput sequencing identified thousands of putative SNPs spread evenly across all reference chromosomes, in all three individuals, including hundreds of SNPs in our targeted candidate genes. This study shows exon capture can be customized for SNP discovery in many individuals and for non-model species without genomic resources. Our captured exome subset was small enough for affordable next-generation sequencing, and successfully captured exons from a divergent wild species using the domestic cow genome as reference.

  2. Sequencing of Australian wild rice genomes reveals ancestral relationships with domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozynska, Marta; Copetti, Dario; Furtado, Agnelo; Wing, Rod A; Crayn, Darren; Fox, Glen; Ishikawa, Ryuji; Henry, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    The related A genome species of the Oryza genus are the effective gene pool for rice. Here, we report draft genomes for two Australian wild A genome taxa: O. rufipogon-like population, referred to as Taxon A, and O. meridionalis-like population, referred to as Taxon B. These two taxa were sequenced and assembled by integration of short- and long-read next-generation sequencing (NGS) data to create a genomic platform for a wider rice gene pool. Here, we report that, despite the distinct chloroplast genome, the nuclear genome of the Australian Taxon A has a sequence that is much closer to that of domesticated rice (O. sativa) than to the other Australian wild populations. Analysis of 4643 genes in the A genome clade showed that the Australian annual, O. meridionalis, and related perennial taxa have the most divergent (around 3 million years) genome sequences relative to domesticated rice. A test for admixture showed possible introgression into the Australian Taxon A (diverged around 1.6 million years ago) especially from the wild indica/O. nivara clade in Asia. These results demonstrate that northern Australia may be the centre of diversity of the A genome Oryza and suggest the possibility that this might also be the centre of origin of this group and represent an important resource for rice improvement. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Transcriptome Sequencing of Diverse Peanut (Arachis Wild Species and the Cultivated Species Reveals a Wealth of Untapped Genetic Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Chopra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the cultivated peanut species possesses almost no molecular variability, we sequenced a diverse panel of 22 Arachis accessions representing Arachis hypogaea botanical classes, A-, B-, and K- genome diploids, a synthetic amphidiploid, and a tetraploid wild species. RNASeq was performed on pools of three tissues, and de novo assembly was performed. Realignment of individual accession reads to transcripts of the cultivar OLin identified 306,820 biallelic SNPs. Among 10 naturally occurring tetraploid accessions, 40,382 unique homozygous SNPs were identified in 14,719 contigs. In eight diploid accessions, 291,115 unique SNPs were identified in 26,320 contigs. The average SNP rate among the 10 cultivated tetraploids was 0.5, and among eight diploids was 9.2 per 1000 bp. Diversity analysis indicated grouping of diploids according to genome classification, and cultivated tetraploids by subspecies. Cluster analysis of variants indicated that sequences of B genome species were the most similar to the tetraploids, and the next closest diploid accession belonged to the A genome species. A subset of 66 SNPs selected from the dataset was validated; of 782 SNP calls, 636 (81.32% were confirmed using an allele-specific discrimination assay. We conclude that substantial genetic variability exists among wild species. Additionally, significant but lesser variability at the molecular level occurs among accessions of the cultivated species. This survey is the first to report significant SNP level diversity among transcripts, and may explain some of the phenotypic differences observed in germplasm surveys. Understanding SNP variants in the Arachis accessions will benefit in developing markers for selection.

  4. Comparison of genome engineering using the CRISPR-Cas9 system in C. glabrata wild-type and lig4 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yuke; Timmermans, Bea; Souffriau, Ben; Thevelein, Johan M; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Candida glabrata is reported as the second most prevalent human opportunistic fungal pathogen in North America and is threatening patients all over the world. Its incidence is rising, while it has developed resistance to the most widely used antifungal drugs, necessitating new approaches based on better insight into the biology of the organism. Despite its close phylogenetic relationship with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, generating precise genomic alterations in this species is problematic. Previously we have shown that deletion of LIG4, which encodes an enzyme involved in Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ), strongly enhances the probability of obtaining correctly modified transformants. In this work we used the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system to genetically engineer the C. glabrata genome, targeting the genes ADE2, MET15 and SOK2, located on different chromosomes. We used the CRISPR-Cas9 technology to replace the open reading frame (ORF) by the SAT1 selective marker or introduced a premature stop codon in ADE2 and MET15, as they are easily scored by their adenine or methionine auxotrophy, respectively. The SOK2 gene was modified by insertion of a triple HA-tag sequence and the transformants were verified in a western blot. The CRISPR-Cas9 mediated targeting efficiency varies depending on the gene targeted and the genetic modification performed. We show that CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is more efficient than the conventional method in the wild-type strain, moreover it has the big advantage being marker-free. In previous work, we showed that the targeting efficiency is highly increased in the lig4Δ strain using the conventional way to delete genes in C. glabrata. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system in this strain, the percentage of correct transformants is consistently higher compared to the wild-type strain. This indicates that using the lig4 mutant as such is already a strong

  5. Contrasting Patterns of Genomic Diversity Reveal Accelerated Genetic Drift but Reduced Directional Selection on X-Chromosome in Wild and Domestic Sheep Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ze-Hui; Zhang, Min; Lv, Feng-Hua; Ren, Xue; Li, Wen-Rong; Liu, Ming-Jun; Nam, Kiwoong; Bruford, Michael W; Li, Meng-Hua

    2018-04-01

    Analyses of genomic diversity along the X chromosome and of its correlation with autosomal diversity can facilitate understanding of evolutionary forces in shaping sex-linked genomic architecture. Strong selective sweeps and accelerated genetic drift on the X-chromosome have been inferred in primates and other model species, but no such insight has yet been gained in domestic animals compared with their wild relatives. Here, we analyzed X-chromosome variability in a large ovine data set, including a BeadChip array for 943 ewes from the world's sheep populations and 110 whole genomes of wild and domestic sheep. Analyzing whole-genome sequences, we observed a substantially reduced X-to-autosome diversity ratio (∼0.6) compared with the value expected under a neutral model (0.75). In particular, one large X-linked segment (43.05-79.25 Mb) was found to show extremely low diversity, most likely due to a high density of coding genes, featuring highly conserved regions. In general, we observed higher nucleotide diversity on the autosomes, but a flat diversity gradient in X-linked segments, as a function of increasing distance from the nearest genes, leading to a decreased X: autosome (X/A) diversity ratio and contrasting to the positive correlation detected in primates and other model animals. Our evidence suggests that accelerated genetic drift but reduced directional selection on X chromosome, as well as sex-biased demographic events, explain low X-chromosome diversity in sheep species. The distinct patterns of X-linked and X/A diversity we observed between Middle Eastern and non-Middle Eastern sheep populations can be explained by multiple migrations, selection, and admixture during the domestic sheep's recent postdomestication demographic expansion, coupled with natural selection for adaptation to new environments. In addition, we identify important novel genes involved in abnormal behavioral phenotypes, metabolism, and immunity, under selection on the sheep X-chromosome.

  6. Genomic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005) (Leguminosae): multiple origin of Arachis species with x = 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Silvestri María; Ortiz, Alejandra Marcela; Robledo, Germán Ariel; Valls, José Francisco Montenegro; Lavia, Graciela Inés

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Arachis Linnaeus, 1753 comprises four species with x = 9, three belong to the section Arachis: Arachis praecox (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994), Arachis palustris (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and Arachis decora (Krapov. W.C. Greg. & Valls, 1994) and only one belongs to the section Erectoides: Arachis porphyrocalyx (Valls & C.E. Simpson, 2005). Recently, the x = 9 species of section Arachis have been assigned to G genome, the latest described so far. The genomic relationship of Arachis porphyrocalyx with these species is controversial. In the present work, we carried out a karyotypic characterisation of Arachis porphyrocalyx to evaluate its genomic structure and analyse the origin of all x = 9 Arachis species. Arachis porphyrocalyx showed a karyotype formula of 14m+4st, one pair of A chromosomes, satellited chromosomes type 8, one pair of 45S rDNA sites in the SAT chromosomes, one pair of 5S rDNA sites and pericentromeric C-DAPI+ bands in all chromosomes. Karyotype structure indicates that Arachis porphyrocalyx does not share the same genome type with the other three x = 9 species and neither with the remaining Erectoides species. Taking into account the geographic distribution, morphological and cytogenetic features, the origin of species with x = 9 of the genus Arachis cannot be unique; instead, they originated at least twice in the evolutionary history of the genus. PMID:28919947

  7. Differentiation of Meat Samples from Domestic Horses ( Equus caballus and Asiatic Wild Asses ( Equus hemionus Using a Species-Speci fi c Restriction Site in the Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Kuehn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that Asiatic wild asses ( Equus hemionus are being increasingly poached in a commercial fashion. Part of the meat is believed to reach the meat markets in the capital Ulaanbaatar. To test this hypothesis, we collected 500 meat samples between February and May 2006. To differentiate between domestic horse ( Equus caballus and wild ass meat, we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. We ampli fi ed and sequenced a cytochrome b fragment (335 bp and carried out a multialignment of the generated sequences for the domestic horse, the Asiatic wild ass, the domestic donkey ( Equus asinus and the Przewalski’s horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii . We detected a species-speci fi c restriction site (AatII for the Asiatic wild ass, resulting in a speci fi c restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP band pattern. This RFLP assay represents a rapid and cost-effective method to detect wild ass meat. All of the 500 meat samples we collected and analysed within this pilot project proved to be domestic horsemeat as declared by the sales people. Thus, either the assumption that wild ass meat is sold as “cheap horse meat” is wrong, or we picked the wrong markets, products or season.

  8. High-efficiency genome editing and allele replacement in prototrophic and wild strains of Saccharomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William G; Doering, Drew T; Hittinger, Chris Todd

    2014-11-01

    Current genome editing techniques available for Saccharomyces yeast species rely on auxotrophic markers, limiting their use in wild and industrial strains and species. Taking advantage of the ancient loss of thymidine kinase in the fungal kingdom, we have developed the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene as a selectable and counterselectable marker that forms the core of novel genome engineering tools called the H: aploid E: ngineering and R: eplacement P: rotocol (HERP) cassettes. Here we show that these cassettes allow a researcher to rapidly generate heterogeneous populations of cells with thousands of independent chromosomal allele replacements using mixed PCR products. We further show that the high efficiency of this approach enables the simultaneous replacement of both alleles in diploid cells. Using these new techniques, many of the most powerful yeast genetic manipulation strategies are now available in wild, industrial, and other prototrophic strains from across the diverse Saccharomyces genus. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer. In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48% of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously

  10. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  11. Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng; Yu, Changshui; Shen, Yaou; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lang; Min, Jiumeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Shancen; Xu, Meng; Luo, Yong; Yang, Yulan; Wu, Zhiming; Mao, Likai; Wu, Haiyang; Ling-Hu, Changying; Zhou, Huangkai; Lin, Haijian; González-Morales, Sandra; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L.; Tian, Hao; Tang, Xin; Zhao, Maojun; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Anwei; Yao, Xiaoming; Cui, Junjie; Li, Wenqi; Chen, Zhe; Feng, Yongqiang; Niu, Yongchao; Bi, Shimin; Yang, Xiuwei; Li, Weipeng; Cai, Huimin; Luo, Xirong; Montes-Hernández, Salvador; Leyva-González, Marco A.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; He, Xiujing; Bai, Lijun; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xiangqun; Liu, Dan; Liu, Jinwen; Zhang, Shangxing; Chen, Maoshan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Liao, Weiqin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Min; Lv, Xiaodan; Wen, Bo; Liu, Hongjun; Luan, Hemi; Zhang, Yonggang; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Xiaodian; Xu, Jiaohui; Li, Xueqin; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Junyi; Palloix, Alain; Bosland, Paul W.; Li, Yingrui; Krogh, Anders; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Yin, Ye; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people’s spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded ∼0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of ∼81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs. PMID:24591624

  12. Seed Coat Microsculpturing Is Related to Genomic Components in Wild Brassica juncea and Sinapis arvensis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying-hao; Wei, Wei; Kang, Ding-ming; Ma, Ke-ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that wild Brassica and related species are widely distributed across Xinjiang, China, and there has been an argument for species identification. Seed coat microsculpturing (SCM) is known to be an excellent character for taxonomic and evolutionary studies. By identifying collections from Xinjiang, China, and combining SCM pattern, flow cytometry, and genome-specific DNA markers as well as sexual compatibility with known species, this study aimed to detect potential relatio...

  13. Drought Tolerance of Wild and Cultivated Species of Safflower and Assessment of Morphological Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shiravand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild species of crop plants carry useful genes which can be used for breeding programs. This study was performed to investigate genetic variation of 46 genotypes from five Carthamus species and to evaluate their drought tolerance under field conditions (normal and deficit moisture environments during 2011at Isfahan university of technology research farm. Results indicated that safflower species had different response to drought stress. Results showed that drought stress significantly reduced seed yield in C. tinctorius and C. palaestinus. The wild species of C. palaestinus had higher seed yield, its component and oil percent compared other species in both moisture conditions. Drought tolerance indice (STI showed that C. palaestinus had the highest drought tolerance. Cluster analysis based on agro-morphological traits indicated that three species C. tinctorius, C palaestinu and C. oxyacanthus had the most similarity among studied species. Finally in respect to high hybridization of two main safflower relatives C. palaestinus (because high STI and C. oxyacanthus (because high stability under drought condition are suitable source for transferring drought tolerance genes to cultivated species.

  14. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D

    2012-08-07

    Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Each marker was mapped with high confidence (etomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive identification of introgressed genes within crop species such as S. lycopersicum will help

  15. Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Raz; Nave, Moran; Barad, Omer; Baruch, Kobi; Twardziok, Sven O; Gundlach, Heidrun; Hale, Iago; Mascher, Martin; Spannagl, Manuel; Wiebe, Krystalee; Jordan, Katherine W; Golan, Guy; Deek, Jasline; Ben-Zvi, Batsheva; Ben-Zvi, Gil; Himmelbach, Axel; MacLachlan, Ron P; Sharpe, Andrew G; Fritz, Allan; Ben-David, Roi; Budak, Hikmet; Fahima, Tzion; Korol, Abraham; Faris, Justin D; Hernandez, Alvaro; Mikel, Mark A; Levy, Avraham A; Steffenson, Brian; Maccaferri, Marco; Tuberosa, Roberto; Cattivelli, Luigi; Faccioli, Primetta; Ceriotti, Aldo; Kashkush, Khalil; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Komatsuda, Takao; Eilam, Tamar; Sela, Hanan; Sharon, Amir; Ohad, Nir; Chamovitz, Daniel A; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Ronen, Gil; Peleg, Zvi; Pozniak, Curtis J; Akhunov, Eduard D; Distelfeld, Assaf

    2017-07-07

    Wheat ( Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent more than 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge about the genome of its allo-tetraploid progenitor, wild emmer ( T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides ). We report a 10.1-gigabase assembly of the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, as well as analyses of gene content, genome architecture, and genetic diversity. With this fully assembled polyploid wheat genome, we identified the causal mutations in Brittle Rachis 1 ( TtBtr1 ) genes controlling shattering, a key domestication trait. A study of genomic diversity among wild and domesticated accessions revealed genomic regions bearing the signature of selection under domestication. This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Intra-species sequence comparisons for annotating genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffelli, Dario; Weer, Claire V.; Weng, Li; Lewis, Keith D.; Shoukry, Malak I.; Pachter, Lior; Keys, David N.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2004-07-15

    Analysis of sequence variation among members of a single species offers a potential approach to identify functional DNA elements responsible for biological features unique to that species. Due to its high rate of allelic polymorphism and ease of genetic manipulability, we chose the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis, to explore intra-species sequence comparisons for genome annotation. A large number of C. intestinalis specimens were collected from four continents and a set of genomic intervals amplified, resequenced and analyzed to determine the mutation rates at each nucleotide in the sequence. We found that regions with low mutation rates efficiently demarcated functionally constrained sequences: these include a set of noncoding elements, which we showed in C intestinalis transgenic assays to act as tissue-specific enhancers, as well as the location of coding sequences. This illustrates that comparisons of multiple members of a species can be used for genome annotation, suggesting a path for the annotation of the sequenced genomes of organisms occupying uncharacterized phylogenetic branches of the animal kingdom and raises the possibility that the resequencing of a large number of Homo sapiens individuals might be used to annotate the human genome and identify sequences defining traits unique to our species. The sequence data from this study has been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. AY667278-AY667407.

  17. A walk on the wild side: Oryza species as source for rice abiotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menguer, Paloma Koprovski; Sperotto, Raul Antonio; Ricachenevsky, Felipe Klein

    2017-01-01

    Oryza sativa, the common cultivated rice, is one of the most important crops for human consumption, but production is increasingly threatened by abiotic stresses. Although many efforts have resulted in breeding rice cultivars that are relatively tolerant to their local environments, climate changes and population increase are expected to soon call for new, fast generation of stress tolerant rice germplasm, and current within-species rice diversity might not be enough to overcome such needs. The Oryza genus contains other 23 wild species, with only Oryza glaberrima being also domesticated. Rice domestication was performed with a narrow genetic diversity, and the other Oryza species are a virtually untapped genetic resource for rice stress tolerance improvement. Here we review the origin of domesticated Oryza sativa from wild progenitors, the ecological and genomic diversity of the Oryza genus, and the stress tolerance variation observed for wild Oryza species, including the genetic basis underlying the tolerance mechanisms found. The summary provided here is important to indicate how we should move forward to unlock the full potential of these germplasms for rice improvement.

  18. Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in eurasian wild birds: A phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Lewis (Nicola); J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); Z. Javakhishvili (Zurab); C.A. Russell (Colin); P. Lexmond (Pascal); K.B. Westgeest (Kim); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); R.A. Halpin (Rebecca); X. Lin (Xudong); A. Ransier (Amy); N.B. Fedorova (Nadia B.); T.B. Stockwell (Timothy B.); N. Latorre-Margalef (Neus); B. Olsen (Björn); G.J.D. Smith (Gavin); J. Bahl (Justin); D.E. Wentworth (David E.); J. Waldenström (Jonas); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); M.T. de Graaf (Marieke)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a natural host reservoir in wild waterbirds and the potential to spread to other host species. Here, we investigated the evolutionary, spatial and temporal dynamics of avian IAVs in Eurasian wild birds. We used whole-genome sequences

  19. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase families in wild and cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDNA methylation plays important roles in genome protection, regulation of gene expression and was associated with plants development. Plant DNA methylation pattern was mediated by cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase. Although the genomes of AA and BB wild peanuts have been fully sequence, these two gene families have not been studied. In this study we report the identification and analysis of putative cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases (C5-MTases and demethylase in AA and BB wild peanuts. Cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases in AA and BB wild peanuts could be classified in known MET, CMT and DRM2 groups based on their domain organization. This result was supported by the gene and protein structural characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. We found that some wild peanut DRM2 numbers didn’t contain UBA domain which was different from other plants such as Arabidopsis, maize, soybean. Five DNA demethylase were found in AA genome and five in BB genome. The selective pressure analysis showed that wild peanut C5-MTases gene mainly underwent purifying selection but many positive selection sites can be detected. Conversely, DNA demethylase genes mainly underwent positive selection during evolution. Additionally, the expression dynamic of cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases and demethylase genes in different cultivated peanut tissues were analyzed. Expression result showed that cold, heat or drought stress could influence the expression level of C5-MTases and DNA demethylase genes in cultivated peanut. These results are useful for better understanding the complexity of these two gene families, and will facilitate epigenetic studies in peanut.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of a wild Siberian tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Zhaohui; Guan, Weijun; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male wild tiger. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,996 bp. The genome structure of this tiger is in accordance with other Siberian tigers and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.

  1. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ebata, Toshinobu; Huang, Xuehui; Gong, Hao; Fujita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Feng, Qi; Wang, Zi Xuan; Han, Bin; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    . Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tabdelimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/ scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all

  2. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-08-17

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding.

  3. Genome survey of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) by next generation sequencing: Development of novel SSR markers and genetic diversity in Pistacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziya Motalebipour, Elmira; Kafkas, Salih; Khodaeiaminjan, Mortaza; Çoban, Nergiz; Gözel, Hatice

    2016-12-07

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important nut crops in the world. There are about 11 wild species in the genus Pistacia, and they have importance as rootstock seed sources for cultivated P. vera and forest trees. Published information on the pistachio genome is limited. Therefore, a genome survey is necessary to obtain knowledge on the genome structure of pistachio by next generation sequencing. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are useful tools for germplasm characterization, genetic diversity analysis, and genetic linkage mapping, and may help to elucidate genetic relationships among pistachio cultivars and species. To explore the genome structure of pistachio, a genome survey was performed using the Illumina platform at approximately 40× coverage depth in the P. vera cv. Siirt. The K-mer analysis indicated that pistachio has a genome that is about 600 Mb in size and is highly heterozygous. The assembly of 26.77 Gb Illumina data produced 27,069 scaffolds at N50 = 3.4 kb with a total of 513.5 Mb. A total of 59,280 SSR motifs were detected with a frequency of 8.67 kb. A total of 206 SSRs were used to characterize 24 P. vera cultivars and 20 wild Pistacia genotypes (four genotypes from each five wild Pistacia species) belonging to P. atlantica, P. integerrima, P. chinenesis, P. terebinthus, and P. lentiscus genotypes. Overall 135 SSR loci amplified in all 44 cultivars and genotypes, 41 were polymorphic in six Pistacia species. The novel SSR loci developed from cultivated pistachio were highly transferable to wild Pistacia species. The results from a genome survey of pistachio suggest that the genome size of pistachio is about 600 Mb with a high heterozygosity rate. This information will help to design whole genome sequencing strategies for pistachio. The newly developed novel polymorphic SSRs in this study may help germplasm characterization, genetic diversity, and genetic linkage mapping studies in the genus Pistacia.

  4. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  5. Genome sequence, population history, and pelage genetics of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Michael G; Parker, Lillian D; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Young, Hillary S; Helgen, Kristofer M; Szykman Gunther, Micaela; Woodroffe, Rosie; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2016-12-09

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered African canid threatened by severe habitat fragmentation, human-wildlife conflict, and infectious disease. A highly specialized carnivore, it is distinguished by its social structure, dental morphology, absence of dewclaws, and colorful pelage. We sequenced the genomes of two individuals from populations representing two distinct ecological histories (Laikipia County, Kenya and KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa). We reconstructed population demographic histories for the two individuals and scanned the genomes for evidence of selection. We show that the African wild dog has undergone at least two effective population size reductions in the last 1,000,000 years. We found evidence of Lycaon individual-specific regions of low diversity, suggestive of inbreeding or population-specific selection. Further research is needed to clarify whether these population reductions and low diversity regions are characteristic of the species as a whole. We documented positive selection on the Lycaon mitochondrial genome. Finally, we identified several candidate genes (ASIP, MITF, MLPH, PMEL) that may play a role in the characteristic Lycaon pelage.

  6. Small genomes and large seeds: chromosome numbers, genome size and seed mass in diploid Aesculus species (Sapindaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahulcová, Anna; Trávnícek, Pavel; Krahulec, František; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    Aesculus L. (horse chestnut, buckeye) is a genus of 12-19 extant woody species native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. This genus is known for unusually large seeds among angiosperms. While chromosome counts are available for many Aesculus species, only one has had its genome size measured. The aim of this study is to provide more genome size data and analyse the relationship between genome size and seed mass in this genus. Chromosome numbers in root tip cuttings were confirmed for four species and reported for the first time for three additional species. Flow cytometric measurements of 2C nuclear DNA values were conducted on eight species, and mean seed mass values were estimated for the same taxa. The same chromosome number, 2 n = 40, was determined in all investigated taxa. Original measurements of 2C values for seven Aesculus species (eight taxa), added to just one reliable datum for A. hippocastanum , confirmed the notion that the genome size in this genus with relatively large seeds is surprisingly low, ranging from 0·955 pg 2C -1 in A. parviflora to 1·275 pg 2C -1 in A. glabra var. glabra. The chromosome number of 2 n = 40 seems to be conclusively the universal 2 n number for non-hybrid species in this genus. Aesculus genome sizes are relatively small, not only within its own family, Sapindaceae, but also within woody angiosperms. The genome sizes seem to be distinct and non-overlapping among the four major Aesculus clades. These results provide an extra support for the most recent reconstruction of Aesculus phylogeny. The correlation between the 2C values and seed masses in examined Aesculus species is slightly negative and not significant. However, when the four major clades are treated separately, there is consistent positive association between larger genome size and larger seed mass within individual lineages. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  7. Disentangling urban habitat and matrix effects on wild bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Leonie K; Eichfeld, Julia; Kowarik, Ingo; Buchholz, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance. Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous and not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as a study region, we aimed to investigate (a) if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b) how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e.g., management, flower density) and urban matrix variables (e.g., isolation, urbanization); and (c) to what extent grassland restoration can promote bees in urban environments. In summer 2012, we collected 62 bee species belonging to more than 20% of the taxa known for Berlin. Urbanization significantly affected species composition of bees; 18 species were affiliated to different levels of urbanization. Most bee species were not affected by any of the environmental variables tested, and urbanization had a negative effect only for one bee species. Further, we determined that restoration of diverse grasslands positively affected bee species richnesss in urban environments. We conclude that differently structured and managed greenspaces in large-scale housing areas can provide additional foraging habitats and refuges for pollinators. This supports approaches towards a biodiversity friendly management within urban regions and may be of particular importance given that anthropogenic pressure is increasing in many rural landscapes.

  8. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing of Enterovirus species C Isolates by High-throughput Sequencing: Development of Generic Primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maël Bessaud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans and can cause diverse clinical syndromes ranging from minor febrile illness to severe and potentially fatal diseases. Enterovirus species C (EV-C consists of more than 20 types, among which the 3 serotypes of polioviruses, the etiological agents of poliomyelitis, are included. Biodiversity and evolution of EV-C genomes are shaped by frequent recombination events. Therefore, identification and characterization of circulating EV-C strains require the sequencing of different genomic regions.A simple method was developed to sequence quickly the entire genome of EV-C isolates. Four overlapping fragments were produced separately by RT-PCR performed with generic primers. The four amplicons were then pooled and purified prior to be sequenced by high-throughput technique.The method was assessed on a panel of EV-Cs belonging to a wide-range of types. It can be used to determine full-length genome sequences through de novo assembly of thousands of reads. It was also able to discriminate reads from closely related viruses in mixtures.By decreasing the workload compared to classical Sanger-based techniques, this method will serve as a precious tool for sequencing large panels of EV-Cs isolated in cell cultures during environmental surveillance or from patients, including vaccine-derived polioviruses.

  10. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbe, John R; Prakapenka, Dzianis; Tan, Cheng; Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28-45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0-69.1% common alleles and 45.6-48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8-77.0% common alleles and 51.7-60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection.

  12. Genomic Inbreeding and Relatedness in Wild Panda Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Inbreeding and relatedness in wild panda populations are important parameters for panda conservation. Habitat loss and fragmentation are expected to increase inbreeding but the actual inbreeding levels in natural panda habitats were unknown. Using 150,025 SNPs and 14,926 SNPs selected from published whole-genome sequences, we estimated genomic inbreeding coefficients and relatedness of 49 pandas including 34 wild pandas sampled from six habitats. Qinling and Liangshan pandas had the highest levels of inbreeding and relatedness measured by genomic inbreeding and coancestry coefficients, whereas the inbreeding levels in Qionglai and Minshan were 28–45% of those in Qinling and Liangshan. Genomic coancestry coefficients between pandas from different habitats showed that panda populations from the four largest habitats, Minshan, Qionglai, Qinling and Liangshan, were genetically unrelated. Pandas between these four habitats on average shared 66.0–69.1% common alleles and 45.6–48.6% common genotypes, whereas pandas within each habitat shared 71.8–77.0% common alleles and 51.7–60.4% common genotypes. Pandas in the smaller populations of Qinling and Liangshan were more similarly to each other than pandas in the larger populations of Qionglai and Minshan according to three genomic similarity measures. Panda genetic differentiation between these habitats was positively related to their geographical distances. Most pandas separated by 200 kilometers or more shared no common ancestral alleles. The results provided a genomic quantification of the actual levels of inbreeding and relatedness among pandas in their natural habitats, provided genomic confirmation of the relationship between genetic diversity and geographical distances, and provided genomic evidence to the urgency of habitat protection. PMID:27494031

  13. Genome - wide variation and demographic history of small cats with a focus on Felis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhab Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Majority of the 38 known cat species are classified as small and they inhabit five of the seven continents. They survive in a vast range of habitats but still 12 out of the 18 threatened felids are small cats. However, there has not been enough progress in the field of small cat research as they generally get overshadowed by the charismatic big cats. Here we attempt to create a resource for small cat research especially of the genus Felis which has six species out of which two are classified as vulnerable by IUCN and at least one more is at risk. We collected tissue samples of four Felis chaus (Jungle cat from central India and used available whole genome sequences of nine individuals from four other Felis species, two individuals of Prionailurus bengalensis and an Otocolobus manul. These whole genome sequences were filtered and aligned with the already published domestic cat (Felis catus genome assembly. Felids are closely related species and reads from all species in our study aligned with the domestic cat genome with a rate of at least 93%. We estimated the existing genomic variation by calculating heterozygous SNP encounter rate. So far, it seems that all wild cats have more genetic variation than Felis catus species. This can be attributed to the inbreeding in these cats. Among the wild cats, Felis silvestris seems to have the highest level of genetic variation. To understand the reasons behind the distribution of genetic variation in small cats, we estimated the demographic histories of each of the species using PSMC. This method can only detect demographic changes more than 1000 generations ago. We observe that roughly all species share a parallel history in terms of population increase. The most interesting and important feature might be that all wild small cat population sizes increased exponentially around twenty thousand years ago as opposed to domestic cat and big cats which declined around this time. Another interesting feature of

  14. Disentangling urban habitat and matrix effects on wild bee species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie K. Fischer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance. Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous and not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as a study region, we aimed to investigate (a if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e.g., management, flower density and urban matrix variables (e.g., isolation, urbanization; and (c to what extent grassland restoration can promote bees in urban environments. In summer 2012, we collected 62 bee species belonging to more than 20% of the taxa known for Berlin. Urbanization significantly affected species composition of bees; 18 species were affiliated to different levels of urbanization. Most bee species were not affected by any of the environmental variables tested, and urbanization had a negative effect only for one bee species. Further, we determined that restoration of diverse grasslands positively affected bee species richnesss in urban environments. We conclude that differently structured and managed greenspaces in large-scale housing areas can provide additional foraging habitats and refuges for pollinators. This supports approaches towards a biodiversity friendly management within urban regions and may be of particular importance given that anthropogenic pressure is increasing in many rural landscapes.

  15. The draft genome of the pest tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni: resources for the genomic analysis of hybridising species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Anthony Stuart; Shearman, Deborah C A; Frommer, Marianne; Raphael, Kathryn A; Deshpande, Nandan P; Wilkins, Marc R; Sherwin, William B; Sved, John A

    2014-12-20

    The tephritid fruit flies include a number of economically important pests of horticulture, with a large accumulated body of research on their biology and control. Amongst the Tephritidae, the genus Bactrocera, containing over 400 species, presents various species groups of potential utility for genetic studies of speciation, behaviour or pest control. In Australia, there exists a triad of closely-related, sympatric Bactrocera species which do not mate in the wild but which, despite distinct morphologies and behaviours, can be force-mated in the laboratory to produce fertile hybrid offspring. To exploit the opportunities offered by genomics, such as the efficient identification of genetic loci central to pest behaviour and to the earliest stages of speciation, investigators require genomic resources for future investigations. We produced a draft de novo genome assembly of Australia's major tephritid pest species, Bactrocera tryoni. The male genome (650-700 Mbp) includes approximately 150 Mb of interspersed repetitive DNA sequences and 60 Mb of satellite DNA. Assessment using conserved core eukaryotic sequences indicated 98% completeness. Over 16,000 MAKER-derived gene models showed a large degree of overlap with other Dipteran reference genomes. The sequence of the ribosomal RNA transcribed unit was also determined. Unscaffolded assemblies of B. neohumeralis and B. jarvisi were then produced; comparison with B. tryoni showed that the species are more closely related than any Drosophila species pair. The similarity of the genomes was exploited to identify 4924 potentially diagnostic indels between the species, all of which occur in non-coding regions. This first draft B. tryoni genome resembles other dipteran genomes in terms of size and putative coding sequences. For all three species included in this study, we have identified a comprehensive set of non-redundant repetitive sequences, including the ribosomal RNA unit, and have quantified the major satellite DNA

  16. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Catha edulis: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Features with Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihua Gu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas. The size of the small single-copy and the large single-copy regions were 18,491 bp and 86,315 bp, respectively. The C. edulis cp genome consists of 129 coding genes including 37 transfer RNA (tRNA genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes, and 84 protein coding genes. For those genes, 112 are single copy genes and 17 genes are duplicated in two inverted regions with seven tRNAs, four rRNAs, and six protein coding genes. The phylogenetic relationships resolved from the cp genome of qat and 32 other species confirms the monophyly of Celastraceae. The cp genomes of C. edulis, Euonymus japonicus and seven Celastraceae species lack the rps16 intron, which indicates an intron loss took place among an ancestor of this family. The cp genome of C. edulis provides a highly valuable genetic resource for further phylogenomic research, barcoding and cp transformation in Celastraceae.

  17. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Catha edulis: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Features with Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembrock, Luke R.; Zheng, Shaoyu; Wu, Zhiqiang

    2018-01-01

    Qat (Catha edulis, Celastraceae) is a woody evergreen species with great economic and cultural importance. It is cultivated for its stimulant alkaloids cathine and cathinone in East Africa and southwest Arabia. However, genome information, especially DNA sequence resources, for C. edulis are limited, hindering studies regarding interspecific and intraspecific relationships. Herein, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Catha edulis is reported. This genome is 157,960 bp in length with 37% GC content and is structurally arranged into two 26,577 bp inverted repeats and two single-copy areas. The size of the small single-copy and the large single-copy regions were 18,491 bp and 86,315 bp, respectively. The C. edulis cp genome consists of 129 coding genes including 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 84 protein coding genes. For those genes, 112 are single copy genes and 17 genes are duplicated in two inverted regions with seven tRNAs, four rRNAs, and six protein coding genes. The phylogenetic relationships resolved from the cp genome of qat and 32 other species confirms the monophyly of Celastraceae. The cp genomes of C. edulis, Euonymus japonicus and seven Celastraceae species lack the rps16 intron, which indicates an intron loss took place among an ancestor of this family. The cp genome of C. edulis provides a highly valuable genetic resource for further phylogenomic research, barcoding and cp transformation in Celastraceae. PMID:29425128

  18. The genomics of wild yeast populations sheds light on the domestication of man's best (micro) friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Chris; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R

    2015-11-01

    The domestication of plants, animals and microbes by humans are the longest artificial evolution experiments ever performed. The study of these long-term experiments can teach us about the genomics of adaptation through the identification of the genetic bases underlying the traits favoured by humans. In laboratory evolution, the characterization of the molecular changes that evolved specifically in some lineages is straightforward because the ancestors are readily available, for instance in the freezer. However, in the case of domesticated species, the ancestor is often missing, which leads to the necessity of going back to nature in order to infer the most likely ancestral state. Significant and relatively recent examples of this approach include wolves as the closest wild relative to domestic dogs (Axelsson et al. 2013) and teosinte as the closest relative to maize (reviewed in Hake & Ross-Ibarra 2015). In both cases, the joint analysis of domesticated lineages and their wild cousins has been key in reconstructing the molecular history of their domestication. While the identification of closest wild relatives has been done for many plants and animals, these comparisons represent challenges for micro-organisms. This has been the case for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose natural ecological niche is particularly challenging to define. For centuries, this unicellular fungus has been the cellular factory for wine, beer and bread crafting, and currently for bioethanol and drug production. While the recent development of genomics has lead to the identification of many genetic elements associated with important wine characteristics, the historical origin of some of the domesticated wine strains has remained elusive due to the lack of knowledge of their close wild relatives. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Almeida et al. (2015) identified what is to date the closest known wild population of the wine yeast. This population is found associated with

  19. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop–wild hybrid crosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop–wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar–wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability. PMID:23789025

  20. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Yorike; Uwimana, Brigitte; Hooftman, Danny A P; Schranz, Michael E; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2013-06-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop-wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selective advantage was conferred by the wild allele. Two fitness QTL were detected on linkage group 5 and 6, which were unique to one of the crop-wild crosses. Average hybrid fitness was lower than the fitness of the wild parent, but several hybrid lineages outperformed the wild parent, especially in a novel habitat for the wild type. In early-generation hybrids, this may partly be due to heterosis effects, whereas in late-generation hybrids transgressive segregation played a major role. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection across multiple environments and cultivar-wild crosses that might be applicable in transgene mitigation strategies. At the same time, results were cultivar-specific, so that a case-by-case environmental risk assessment is still necessary, decreasing its general applicability.

  1. Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens from wild carnivore species in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; D'Elia, Mirella Lauria; Tostes Teixeira, Erika Procópio; Pereira, Pedro Lúcio Lithg; de Magalhães Soares, Danielle Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Álvaro Roberto; Kocuvan, Aleksander; Rupnik, Maja; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Junior, Carlos Augusto Oliveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2014-08-01

    Despite some case reports, the importance of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile for wild carnivores remains unclear. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify C. perfringens and C. difficile strains in stool samples from wild carnivore species in Brazil. A total of 34 stool samples were collected and subjected to C. perfringens and C. difficile isolation. Suggestive colonies of C. perfringens were then analyzed for genes encoding the major C. perfringens toxins (alpha, beta, epsilon and iota) and the beta-2 toxin (cpb2), enterotoxin (cpe) and NetB (netb) genes. C. difficile strains were analyzed by multiplex-PCR for toxins A (tcdA) and B (tcdB) and a binary toxin gene (cdtB) and also submitted to a PCR ribotyping. Unthawed aliquots of samples positive for C. difficile isolation were subjected to the detection of A/B toxins by a cytotoxicity assay (CTA). C. perfringens was isolated from 26 samples (76.5%), all of which were genotyped as type A. The netb gene was not detected, whereas the cpb2 and cpe genes were found in nine and three C. perfringens strains, respectively. C. difficile was isolated from two (5.9%) samples. A non-toxigenic strain was recovered from a non-diarrheic maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Conversely, a toxigenic strain was found in the sample of a diarrheic ocelot (Leopardus pardallis); an unthawed stool sample was also positive for A/B toxins by CTA, indicating a diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea in this animal. The present work suggests that wild carnivore species could carry C. difficile strains and that they could be susceptible to C. difficile infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interspecific variation of total seed protein in wild rice germplasm using SDS-Page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.A.; Hidayat-ur-Rahman; Abbasi, F.M.; Ashiq, M.; Rabbani, A.M.; Khan, I.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Shah, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in seed protein of 14 wild rice species (Oryza spp.) along with cultivated rice species (O. sativa) was studied using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess genetic diversity in the rice germplasm. SDS bands were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for protein sample of each genotype. On the basis of cluster analysis, four clusters were identified at a similarity level of 0.85. O. nivara, O. rufipogon and O. sativa with AA genomes constituted the first cluster. The second cluster comprised O. punctata of BB genome and wild rice species of CC genome i.e., O. rhizomatis and O. officinalis. However, it also contained O. barthii and O. glumaepatula of AA genome. O. australiensis with EE genome, and O. latifolia, O. alta and O. grandiglumis having CCDD genomes comprised the third cluster. The fourth cluster consisted of wild rice species, O. brachyantha with EE genome along with two other wild rice species, O. longistaminata and O. meridionalis of AA genome. Overall, on the basis of total seed protein, the grouping pattern of rice genotypes was mostly compatible with their genome status. The results of the present work depicted considerable interspecific genetic variation in the investigated germplasm for total seed protein. Moreover, the results obtained in this study also suggest that analysis of seed protein can also provide a better understanding of genetic affinity of the germplasm. (author)

  3. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aur& #233; lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; P& #233; rez, Juli& #225; n P& #233; rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    Although Citrus is the most globally significant tree fruit, its domestication history is poorly understood. Cultivated citrus types are believed to comprise selections from and/or hybrids of several wild progenitor species, but the identities of these progenitors, and their contribution to modern cultivars, remain controversial. Here we report the genomes of a collection of mandarins, pummelos, and oranges, including a high quality reference sequence from a haploid Clementine mandarin. By comparative genome analysis we show that these cultivated types can be derived from two progenitor species. Cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species C. maxima. Unexpectedly, however, we find that cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into a distinct second population that we identify with the ancestral wild mandarin species C. reticulata. Sweet and sour oranges are found to be interspecific hybrids. Sweet orange, the most widely cultivated citrus, arose as the offspring of previously admixed individuals. In contrast, sour (or Seville) orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. Surprisingly, we also find that a wild Chinese mandarin from Mangshan, China shows substantial sequence divergence from C. reticulata and appears to represent a distinct taxon. Understanding the relationships and phylogeny of cultivated citrus through genome analysis will clarify taxonomic relationships and enable previously inconceivable opportunities for sequence-directed genetic improvement. Citrus are widely consumed worldwide as juice or fresh fruit, providing important sources of vitamin C and other health-promoting compounds. Global production in 2012 exceeded 86 million metric tons, with an estimated value of US$9 billion (http://www.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/citrus.pdf). The very narrow genetic diversity of cultivated citrus makes it highly

  4. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  5. Genome shuffling of Lactobacillus plantarum C88 improves adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yujuan; Duan, Cuicui; Gao, Lei; Yu, Xue; Niu, Chunhua; Li, Shengyu

    2017-01-01

    Genome shuffling is an important method for rapid improvement in microbial strains for desired phenotypes. In this study, ultraviolet irradiation and nitrosoguanidine were used as mutagens to enhance the adhesion of the wild-type Lactobacillus plantarum C88. Four strains with better property were screened after mutagenesis to develop a library of parent strains for three rounds of genome shuffling. Fusants F3-1, F3-2, F3-3, and F3-4 were screened as the improved strains. The in vivo and in vitro tests results indicated that the population after three rounds of genome shuffling exhibited improved adhesive property. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA results showed significant differences between the parent strain and recombinant strains at DNA level. These results suggest that the adhesive property of L. plantarum C88 can be significantly improved by genome shuffling. Improvement in the adhesive property of bacterial cells by genome shuffling enhances the colonization of probiotic strains which further benefits to exist probiotic function.

  6. Genomic definition of species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  7. Genomics of crop wild relatives: expanding the gene pool for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozynska, Marta; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Plant breeders require access to new genetic diversity to satisfy the demands of a growing human population for more food that can be produced in a variable or changing climate and to deliver the high-quality food with nutritional and health benefits demanded by consumers. The close relatives of domesticated plants, crop wild relatives (CWRs), represent a practical gene pool for use by plant breeders. Genomics of CWR generates data that support the use of CWR to expand the genetic diversity of crop plants. Advances in DNA sequencing technology are enabling the efficient sequencing of CWR and their increased use in crop improvement. As the sequencing of genomes of major crop species is completed, attention has shifted to analysis of the wider gene pool of major crops including CWR. A combination of de novo sequencing and resequencing is required to efficiently explore useful genetic variation in CWR. Analysis of the nuclear genome, transcriptome and maternal (chloroplast and mitochondrial) genome of CWR is facilitating their use in crop improvement. Genome analysis results in discovery of useful alleles in CWR and identification of regions of the genome in which diversity has been lost in domestication bottlenecks. Targeting of high priority CWR for sequencing will maximize the contribution of genome sequencing of CWR. Coordination of global efforts to apply genomics has the potential to accelerate access to and conservation of the biodiversity essential to the sustainability of agriculture and food production. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Park, Minkyu; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Yong-Min; Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eunyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jung, Kyongyong; Lee, Gir-Won; Oh, Sang-Keun; Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Shin-Young; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Yang, Hee-Bum; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Shin, Chanseok; Lim, Jae Yun; Park, June Hyun; Huh, Jin Hoe; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Byung-Dong; Cohen, Oded; Paran, Ilan; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Saet Buyl; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Shin, Younhee; Noh, Seung-Jae; Park, Junhyung; Seo, Young Sam; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyun A; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Bosland, Paul W; Reeves, Gregory; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Bong-Woo; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Choi, Hee-Seung; Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Yeisoo; Do Choi, Yang; Park, Beom-Seok; van Deynze, Allen; Ashrafi, Hamid; Hill, Theresa; Kim, Woo Taek; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Yeam, Inhwa; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Sørensen, Iben; Lee, Sang-Jik; Kim, Ryan W; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lim, Jong-Sung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-03-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the Americas, is the most widely grown spice crop in the world. We report whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the hot pepper (Mexican landrace of Capsicum annuum cv. CM334) at 186.6× coverage. We also report resequencing of two cultivated peppers and de novo sequencing of the wild species Capsicum chinense. The genome size of the hot pepper was approximately fourfold larger than that of its close relative tomato, and the genome showed an accumulation of Gypsy and Caulimoviridae family elements. Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses suggested that change in gene expression and neofunctionalization of capsaicin synthase have shaped capsaicinoid biosynthesis. We found differential molecular patterns of ripening regulators and ethylene synthesis in hot pepper and tomato. The reference genome will serve as a platform for improving the nutritional and medicinal values of Capsicum species.

  9. Genomic definition of species. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1993-03-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species- and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called species genome. Our proposal for the definition of a biological species is as follows: A species comprises a group of actual and potential biological organisms built according to a unique genome program that is recorded, and at least in part expressed, in the structures of their genomic nucleic acid molecule(s), having intragroup sequence differences which can be fully interconverted in the process of organismal reproduction.

  10. Microbial species delineation using whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Neha J; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Pati, Amrita

    2015-08-18

    Increased sequencing of microbial genomes has revealed that prevailing prokaryotic species assignments can be inconsistent with whole genome information for a significant number of species. The long-standing need for a systematic and scalable species assignment technique can be met by the genome-wide Average Nucleotide Identity (gANI) metric, which is widely acknowledged as a robust measure of genomic relatedness. In this work, we demonstrate that the combination of gANI and the alignment fraction (AF) between two genomes accurately reflects their genomic relatedness. We introduce an efficient implementation of AF,gANI and discuss its successful application to 86.5M genome pairs between 13,151 prokaryotic genomes assigned to 3032 species. Subsequently, by comparing the genome clusters obtained from complete linkage clustering of these pairs to existing taxonomy, we observed that nearly 18% of all prokaryotic species suffer from anomalies in species definition. Our results can be used to explore central questions such as whether microorganisms form a continuum of genetic diversity or distinct species represented by distinct genetic signatures. We propose that this precise and objective AF,gANI-based species definition: the MiSI (Microbial Species Identifier) method, be used to address previous inconsistencies in species classification and as the primary guide for new taxonomic species assignment, supplemented by the traditional polyphasic approach, as required. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Diversification of Cercopithifilaria species (Nematoda: Filarioidea in Japanese wild ruminants with description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uni S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve of the 17 Cervus nippon nippon deer from Kyushu Island, Japan, that we examined were infected with one or two Cercopithifilaria species. C. longa n. sp. adults were in the subcutaneous tissues of limbs and the abdomen, and C. crassa n. sp. adults were in the skin, mainly in the anterior part of the back ; the distribution of the dermal microfilariae generally matched that of the adult worms. The two new species were assigned to the group of primitive Cercopithifilaria species that parasitize ruminants (bovids and cervids, but the new species could readily be distinguished from others morphologically. C. longa was more primitive and resembled C. bulboidea, one of the five species from the serow Capricornis crispus, a Japanese member of the Caprinae, and species from Bovidae in Africa. C. crassa had a thick body and large spicules like C. rugosicauda from Capreolus capreolus in Europe, the only previously known Cercopithifilaria species from cervids, but it also had one or two hypertrophied pairs of caudal papillae, an unusual character found so far only in Japanese parasites. Among the 12 species known from ruminants, four are African, one is European and more highly evolved, and seven are Japanese, with some being primitive and some more evolved. The great diversity of Cercopithifilaria species in the two wild ruminants that live in Japan seems to have resulted from local speciation, which occurred during the Pleistocene, from a primitive form of the C. longa type derived from Eurasiatic ancestors, which has disappeared or, more probably, not yet been discovered.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zai-quan CHENG; Fu-you YING; Ding-qing LI; Teng-qiong YU; Jian FU; Hui-jun YAN; Qiao-fang ZHONG; Dun-yu ZHANG; Wei-jiao LI; Xing-qi HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide. Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice. Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice. However, many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years. Therefore, the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preserv...

  13. Molecular characterization of vernalization loci VRN1 in wild and cultivated wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovnina Kseniya A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability of the VRN1 promoter region of the unique collection of spring polyploid and wild diploid wheat species together with diploid goatgrasses (donor of B and D genomes of polyploid wheats were investigated. Accessions of wild diploid (T. boeoticum, T. urartu and tetraploid (T. araraticum, T. timopheevii species were studied for the first time. Results Sequence analysis indicated great variability in the region from -62 to -221 nucleotide positions of the VRN1 promoter region. Different indels were found within this region in spring wheats. It was shown that VRN1 promoter region of B and G genome can also contain damages such as the insertion of the transposable element. Some transcription factor recognition sites including hybrid C/G-box for TaFDL2 protein known as the VRN1 gene upregulator were predicted inside the variable region. It was shown that deletions leading to promoter damage occurred in diploid and polyploid species independently. DNA transposon insertions first occurred in polyploid species. At the same time, the duplication of the promoter region was observed in A genomes of polyploid species. Conclusions We can conclude that supposed molecular mechanism of the VRN1 gene activating in cultivated diploid wheat species T. monococcum is common also for wild T. boeoticum and was inherited by T. monococcum. The spring polyploids are not related in their origin to spring diploids. The spring T. urartu and goatgrass accessions have another mechanism of flowering activation that is not connected with indels in VRN1 promoter region. All obtained data may be useful for detailed insight into origin of spring wheat forms in evolution and domestication process.

  14. Genomic definition of species. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Dramanac, R.

    1992-06-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called (species) genome. The definition of species based on chromosomes, genes, or genome common to its member organisms has been implied or mentioned in passing numerous times. Some population biologists think that members of species have similar ``homeostatic genotypes,`` which are to a degree resistant to mutation or environmental change in the production of a basic phenotype.

  15. Chromosome Numbers and Genome Size Variation in Indian Species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong-Škorničková, Jana; Šída, Otakar; Jarolímová, Vlasta; Sabu, Mamyil; Fér, Tomáš; Trávníček, Pavel; Suda, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size and chromosome numbers are important cytological characters that significantly influence various organismal traits. However, geographical representation of these data is seriously unbalanced, with tropical and subtropical regions being largely neglected. In the present study, an investigation was made of chromosomal and genome size variation in the majority of Curcuma species from the Indian subcontinent, and an assessment was made of the value of these data for taxonomic purposes. Methods Genome size of 161 homogeneously cultivated plant samples classified into 51 taxonomic entities was determined by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Chromosome numbers were counted in actively growing root tips using conventional rapid squash techniques. Key Results Six different chromosome counts (2n = 22, 42, 63, >70, 77 and 105) were found, the last two representing new generic records. The 2C-values varied from 1·66 pg in C. vamana to 4·76 pg in C. oligantha, representing a 2·87-fold range. Three groups of taxa with significantly different homoploid genome sizes (Cx-values) and distinct geographical distribution were identified. Five species exhibited intraspecific variation in nuclear DNA content, reaching up to 15·1 % in cultivated C. longa. Chromosome counts and genome sizes of three Curcuma-like species (Hitchenia caulina, Kaempferia scaposa and Paracautleya bhatii) corresponded well with typical hexaploid (2n = 6x = 42) Curcuma spp. Conclusions The basic chromosome number in the majority of Indian taxa (belonging to subgenus Curcuma) is x = 7; published counts correspond to 6x, 9x, 11x, 12x and 15x ploidy levels. Only a few species-specific C-values were found, but karyological and/or flow cytometric data may support taxonomic decisions in some species alliances with morphological similarities. Close evolutionary relationships among some cytotypes are suggested based on the similarity in homoploid genome sizes and geographical grouping

  16. New insight into the history of domesticated apple: secondary contribution of the European wild apple to the genome of cultivated varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cornille

    Full Text Available The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica, on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species.

  17. New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, Amandine; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina; Feugey, Laurence; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Tenaillon, Maud I.; Giraud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The apple is the most common and culturally important fruit crop of temperate areas. The elucidation of its origin and domestication history is therefore of great interest. The wild Central Asian species Malus sieversii has previously been identified as the main contributor to the genome of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica), on the basis of morphological, molecular, and historical evidence. The possible contribution of other wild species present along the Silk Route running from Asia to Western Europe remains a matter of debate, particularly with respect to the contribution of the European wild apple. We used microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large sampling of five Malus species throughout Eurasia (839 accessions from China to Spain) to show that multiple species have contributed to the genetic makeup of domesticated apples. The wild European crabapple M. sylvestris, in particular, was a major secondary contributor. Bidirectional gene flow between the domesticated apple and the European crabapple resulted in the current M. domestica being genetically more closely related to this species than to its Central Asian progenitor, M. sieversii. We found no evidence of a domestication bottleneck or clonal population structure in apples, despite the use of vegetative propagation by grafting. We show that the evolution of domesticated apples occurred over a long time period and involved more than one wild species. Our results support the view that self-incompatibility, a long lifespan, and cultural practices such as selection from open-pollinated seeds have facilitated introgression from wild relatives and the maintenance of genetic variation during domestication. This combination of processes may account for the diversification of several long-lived perennial crops, yielding domestication patterns different from those observed for annual species. PMID:22589740

  18. The eco-evolutionary impacts of domestication and agricultural practices on wild species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Araki, Hitoshi; Karp, Daniel S; Poveda, Katja; Whitehead, Susan R

    2017-01-19

    Agriculture is a dominant evolutionary force that drives the evolution of both domesticated and wild species. However, the various mechanisms of agriculture-induced evolution and their socio-ecological consequences are not often synthetically discussed. Here, we explore how agricultural practices and evolutionary changes in domesticated species cause evolution in wild species. We do so by examining three processes by which agriculture drives evolution. First, differences in the traits of domesticated species, compared with their wild ancestors, alter the selective environment and create opportunities for wild species to specialize. Second, selection caused by agricultural practices, including both those meant to maximize productivity and those meant to control pest species, can lead to pest adaptation. Third, agriculture can cause non-selective changes in patterns of gene flow in wild species. We review evidence for these processes and then discuss their ecological and sociological impacts. We finish by identifying important knowledge gaps and future directions related to the eco-evolutionary impacts of agriculture including their extent, how to prevent the detrimental evolution of wild species, and finally, how to use evolution to minimize the ecological impacts of agriculture.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Wild tobacco genomes reveal the evolution of nicotine biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuqing; Brockmöller, Thomas; Navarro-Quezada, Aura; Kuhl, Heiner; Gase, Klaus; Ling, Zhihao; Zhou, Wenwu; Kreitzer, Christoph; Stanke, Mario; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Pandey, Priyanka; Pandey, Shree P; Timmermann, Bernd; Gaquerel, Emmanuel; Baldwin, Ian T

    2017-06-06

    Nicotine, the signature alkaloid of Nicotiana species responsible for the addictive properties of human tobacco smoking, functions as a defensive neurotoxin against attacking herbivores. However, the evolution of the genetic features that contributed to the assembly of the nicotine biosynthetic pathway remains unknown. We sequenced and assembled genomes of two wild tobaccos, Nicotiana attenuata (2.5 Gb) and Nicotiana obtusifolia (1.5 Gb), two ecological models for investigating adaptive traits in nature. We show that after the Solanaceae whole-genome triplication event, a repertoire of rapidly expanding transposable elements (TEs) bloated these Nicotiana genomes, promoted expression divergences among duplicated genes, and contributed to the evolution of herbivory-induced signaling and defenses, including nicotine biosynthesis. The biosynthetic machinery that allows for nicotine synthesis in the roots evolved from the stepwise duplications of two ancient primary metabolic pathways: the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) pathways. In contrast to the duplication of the polyamine pathway that is shared among several solanaceous genera producing polyamine-derived tropane alkaloids, we found that lineage-specific duplications within the NAD pathway and the evolution of root-specific expression of the duplicated Solanaceae-specific ethylene response factor that activates the expression of all nicotine biosynthetic genes resulted in the innovative and efficient production of nicotine in the genus Nicotiana Transcription factor binding motifs derived from TEs may have contributed to the coexpression of nicotine biosynthetic pathway genes and coordinated the metabolic flux. Together, these results provide evidence that TEs and gene duplications facilitated the emergence of a key metabolic innovation relevant to plant fitness.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of wild-type Epstein-Barr virus genomes derived from healthy individuals of the 1,000 Genomes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santpere, Gabriel; Darre, Fleur; Blanco, Soledad; Alcami, Antonio; Villoslada, Pablo; Mar Albà, M; Navarro, Arcadi

    2014-04-01

    Most people in the world (∼90%) are infected by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which establishes itself permanently in B cells. Infection by EBV is related to a number of diseases including infectious mononucleosis, multiple sclerosis, and different types of cancer. So far, only seven complete EBV strains have been described, all of them coming from donors presenting EBV-related diseases. To perform a detailed comparative genomic analysis of EBV including, for the first time, EBV strains derived from healthy individuals, we reconstructed EBV sequences infecting lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the 1000 Genomes Project. As strain B95-8 was used to transform B cells to obtain LCLs, it is always present, but a specific deletion in its genome sets it apart from natural EBV strains. After studying hundreds of individuals, we determined the presence of natural EBV in at least 10 of them and obtained a set of variants specific to wild-type EBV. By mapping the natural EBV reads into the EBV reference genome (NC007605), we constructed nearly complete wild-type viral genomes from three individuals. Adding them to the five disease-derived EBV genomic sequences available in the literature, we performed an in-depth comparative genomic analysis. We found that latency genes harbor more nucleotide diversity than lytic genes and that six out of nine latency-related genes, as well as other genes involved in viral attachment and entry into host cells, packaging, and the capsid, present the molecular signature of accelerated protein evolution rates, suggesting rapid host-parasite coevolution.

  1. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Y.; Uwimana, B; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Schranz, M.E.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop-wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL)

  2. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Y.; Uwimana, B.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Schranz, M.E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tienderen, van P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop–wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL)

  3. The chloroplast genome of a symbiodinium sp. clade C3 isolate

    KAUST Repository

    Barbrook, Adrian C.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium form important symbioses within corals and other benthic marine animals. Dinoflagellates possess an extremely reduced plastid genome relative to those examined in plants and other algae. In dinoflagellates the plastid genes are located on small plasmids, commonly referred to as \\'minicircles\\'. However, the chloroplast genomes of dinoflagellates have only been extensively characterised from a handful of species. There is also evidence of considerable variation in the chloroplast genome organisation across those species that have been examined. We therefore characterised the chloroplast genome from an environmental coral isolate, in this case containing a symbiont belonging to the Symbiodinium sp. clade C3. The gene content of the genome is well conserved with respect to previously characterised genomes. However, unlike previously characterised dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes we did not identify any \\'empty\\' minicircles. The sequences of this chloroplast genome show a high rate of evolution relative to other algal species. Particularly notable was a surprisingly high level of sequence divergence within the core polypeptides of photosystem I, the reasons for which are currently unknown. This chloroplast genome also possesses distinctive codon usage and GC content. These features suggest that chloroplast genomes in Symbiodinium are highly plastic. © 2013 Adrian C. Barbrook.

  4. The chloroplast genome of a symbiodinium sp. clade C3 isolate

    KAUST Repository

    Barbrook, Adrian C.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium form important symbioses within corals and other benthic marine animals. Dinoflagellates possess an extremely reduced plastid genome relative to those examined in plants and other algae. In dinoflagellates the plastid genes are located on small plasmids, commonly referred to as 'minicircles'. However, the chloroplast genomes of dinoflagellates have only been extensively characterised from a handful of species. There is also evidence of considerable variation in the chloroplast genome organisation across those species that have been examined. We therefore characterised the chloroplast genome from an environmental coral isolate, in this case containing a symbiont belonging to the Symbiodinium sp. clade C3. The gene content of the genome is well conserved with respect to previously characterised genomes. However, unlike previously characterised dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes we did not identify any 'empty' minicircles. The sequences of this chloroplast genome show a high rate of evolution relative to other algal species. Particularly notable was a surprisingly high level of sequence divergence within the core polypeptides of photosystem I, the reasons for which are currently unknown. This chloroplast genome also possesses distinctive codon usage and GC content. These features suggest that chloroplast genomes in Symbiodinium are highly plastic. © 2013 Adrian C. Barbrook.

  5. Population Genomics of Paramecium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Parul; Krenek, Sascha; Marinov, Georgi K; Doak, Thomas G; Berendonk, Thomas U; Lynch, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Population-genomic analyses are essential to understanding factors shaping genomic variation and lineage-specific sequence constraints. The dearth of such analyses for unicellular eukaryotes prompted us to assess genomic variation in Paramecium, one of the most well-studied ciliate genera. The Paramecium aurelia complex consists of ∼15 morphologically indistinguishable species that diverged subsequent to two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs, as long as 320 MYA) and possess extremely streamlined genomes. We examine patterns of both nuclear and mitochondrial polymorphism, by sequencing whole genomes of 10-13 worldwide isolates of each of three species belonging to the P. aurelia complex: P. tetraurelia, P. biaurelia, P. sexaurelia, as well as two outgroup species that do not share the WGDs: P. caudatum and P. multimicronucleatum. An apparent absence of global geographic population structure suggests continuous or recent dispersal of Paramecium over long distances. Intergenic regions are highly constrained relative to coding sequences, especially in P. caudatum and P. multimicronucleatum that have shorter intergenic distances. Sequence diversity and divergence are reduced up to ∼100-150 bp both upstream and downstream of genes, suggesting strong constraints imposed by the presence of densely packed regulatory modules. In addition, comparison of sequence variation at non-synonymous and synonymous sites suggests similar recent selective pressures on paralogs within and orthologs across the deeply diverging species. This study presents the first genome-wide population-genomic analysis in ciliates and provides a valuable resource for future studies in evolutionary and functional genetics in Paramecium. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The whole chloroplast genome of wild rice (Oryza australiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Ge, Song

    2016-01-01

    The whole chloroplast genome of wild rice (Oryza australiensis) is characterized in this study. The genome size is 135,224  bp, exhibiting a typical circular structure including a pair of 25,776  bp inverted repeats (IRa,b) separated by a large single-copy region (LSC) of 82,212  bp and a small single-copy region (SSC) of 12,470  bp. The overall GC content of the genome is 38.95%. 110 unique genes were annotated, including 76 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30t RNA genes. Among these, 18 are duplicated in the inverted repeat regions, 13 genes contain one intron, and 2 genes (rps12 and ycf3) have two introns.

  7. A first glimpse of wild lupin karyotype variation as revealed by comparative cytogenetic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Susek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insight into plant genomes at the cytomolecular level provides useful information about their karyotype structure, enabling inferences about taxonomic relationships and evolutionary origins. The Old World lupins demonstrate a high level of genomic diversification involving variation in chromosome numbers (2n=32-52, basic chromosome numbers (x=5-7, 9, 13 and in nuclear genome size (2C DNA=0.97-2.68 pg. Lupins comprise both crop and wild species and provide an intriguing system to study karyotype evolution.In order to investigate lupin chromosome structure, heterologous FISH was used. Sixteen BACs that had been generated as chromosome markers for the reference species, Lupinus angustifolius, were used to identify chromosomes in the wild species and explore karyotype variation. While all ‘single-locus’ in L. angustifolius, in the wild lupins these clones proved to be ‘single-locus’, ‘single-locus’ with additional signals, ‘repetitive’ or had no detectable BAC-FISH signal. The diverse distribution of the clones in the targeted genomes suggests a complex evolution history, which possibly involved multiple chromosomal changes such as fusions/fissions and repetitive sequence amplification. Twelve BACs were sequenced and we found numerous transposable elements including DNA transposons as well as LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons with varying quantity and composition among the different lupin species. However, at this preliminary stage, no correlation was observed between the pattern of BAC-FISH signals and the repeat content in particular BACs. Here, we describe the first BAC-based chromosome-specific markers for the wild species: L. cosentinii, L. cryptanthus, L. pilosus, L. micranthus and one New World lupin, L. multiflorus. These BACs could constitute the basis for an assignment of the chromosomal and genetic maps of other lupins, e.g. L. albus and L. luteus. Moreover, we identified karyotype variation that helps illustrate the

  8. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-04-26

    It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with the Nipponbare (O. sativa) complete genome without assembly of the DXWR genome. Based on the results from the comparative genomics analysis, structural variations (SVs) between DXWR and Nipponbare were determined to locate deleted genes which could have been acquired by Nipponbare during rice domestication. To overcome the limit of the SV detection, the DXWR transcriptome was also sequenced and compared with the Nipponbare transcriptome to discover the genes which could have been lost in DXWR during domestication. Both 1591 Nipponbare-acquired genes and 206 DXWR-lost transcripts were further analyzed using annotations from multiple sources. The NGS data are available in the NCBI SRA database with ID SRP070627. These results help better understanding the domestication from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level and provide a genomic data resource for rice genetic research or breeding. One finding confirmed transposable elements contribute greatly to the genome evolution from wild rice to cultivated rice. Another finding suggested the photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation system in cultivated rice could have adapted to environmental changes simultaneously during domestication.

  9. Prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Oh, Jae-Young; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Moon, Oun-Kyoung; Kang, Min-Su; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; An, Byung-Ki; Youn, So-Youn; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Jang, Il; Lee, Hee-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Campylobacter species cause human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. They commonly inhabit intestines of avian species including wild birds. They might play a role in the spread of infections to humans and other bird species. The prevalence of Campylobacter species in 2164 faecal samples of wild birds (representing 71 species and 28 families) captured across the Korean peninsula was evaluated in this study. The overall prevalence was 15.3% (332/2164). Bird species belonging to the family Charadriidae had the highest isolation rate (30.0%), followed by those belonging to the families Ardeidae (26.4%), Turdidae (21.9%), and Anatidae (15.3%). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed significantly according to migratory habit. Stopover birds were the most commonly infected (19.0%), followed by winter migratory (16.7%) and summer migratory birds (12.3%). However, indigenous birds showed very low prevalence (2.7%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed for 213 isolates. Results showed that Campylobacter jejuni isolates (n = 169) exhibited resistance to nalidixic acid (5.3%), ciprofloxacin (3.0%), and tetracycline (1.8%), while Campylobacter lari (n = 1) displayed resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. However, all Campylobacter coli isolates (n = 20) were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. This is the first report on the prevalence of Campylobacter species in wild birds that seasonally or indigenously inhabit the Korean peninsula. Our results indicate that the overall prevalence of Campylobacter in wild birds is moderate. Therefore, birds might serve as significant reservoirs for Campylobacter pathogens.

  10. Three invariant Hi-C interaction patterns: Applications to genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddes, Sivan; Zelig, Aviv; Kaplan, Noam

    2018-06-01

    Assembly of reference-quality genomes from next-generation sequencing data is a key challenge in genomics. Recently, we and others have shown that Hi-C data can be used to address several outstanding challenges in the field of genome assembly. This principle has since been developed in academia and industry, and has been used in the assembly of several major genomes. In this paper, we explore the central principles underlying Hi-C-based assembly approaches, by quantitatively defining and characterizing three invariant Hi-C interaction patterns on which these approaches can build: Intrachromosomal interaction enrichment, distance-dependent interaction decay and local interaction smoothness. Specifically, we evaluate to what degree each invariant pattern holds on a single locus level in different species, cell types and Hi-C map resolutions. We find that these patterns are generally consistent across species and cell types but are affected by sequencing depth, and that matrix balancing improves consistency of loci with all three invariant patterns. Finally, we overview current Hi-C-based assembly approaches in light of these invariant patterns and demonstrate how local interaction smoothness can be used to easily detect scaffolding errors in extremely sparse Hi-C maps. We suggest that simultaneously considering all three invariant patterns may lead to better Hi-C-based genome assembly methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic variability of concentration of microelements in wild sunflower species and hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastori Rudolf R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate genetic specificity of sunflower nutrition with microelements. Therefore, concentrations of essential (Zn, B, Mn, Cu, Fe and Ni and non-essential (Cr, Al, Cd, As, Pb and Ba micronutrients were analyzed. Five sunflower hybrids the most grown in Serbia and different populations of wild sunflower species originating from North America: Helianthus neglectus Heiser (3, Helianthus agrophyllus T&G (3, Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. (2, Helianthus annuus L. (4 were included in the experiment. Populations of wild sunflower species and hybrids differed significantly with respect to the concentration of analyzed elements. Manganese concentration was significantly higher in hybrids than in wild species. In all genotypes Fe, B and Mn had the highest concentration. Coefficient of variation of microelement concentration depended on genotype and particular element. In wild populations, for essential microelements, it was between 3.7 and 59.5, whereas in hybrids it varied from 10.0 to 48.8. Coefficient of variation of concentration of non-essential microelements in wild populations varied from 7.7 to 73.8, and in hybrids from 15.1 to 48.8. Average coefficient of variation in both wild species and hybrids was the lowest for Mn and Pb. It was the highest for Cr, Ni, and Zn in hybrids and for Cd, Ni, and Cr in wild species. The results suggest that genetic specificity with respect to uptake of microelements in wild species and hybrids is highly expressed. Broad genetic variability of concentrations of microelements in wild species and hybrids indicate that their reactions to deficiency and/or excess of those elements probably are not the same either. This finding may be used in breeding process aimed specifically at improvement of tolerance and capacity to accumulate microelements in sunflower. Phytoremediation technology designed to reduce the amount of microelements in the soil could thus be advanced by utilization of such

  12. Molecular and Biological Characterization of an Isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus from Glycine soja by Generating its Infectious Full-genome cDNA Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sa Vo Phan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and biological characteristics of an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV from Glycine soja (wild soybean, named as CMV-209, was examined in this study. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analyses of CMV-209 with the other CMV strains revealed that CMV-209 belonged to CMV subgroup I. However, CMV-209 showed some genetic distance from the CMV strains assigned to subgroup IA or subgroup IB. Infectious full-genome cDNA clones of CMV-209 were generated under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Infectivity of the CMV-209 clones was evaluated in Nicotiana benthamiana and various legume species. Our assays revealed that CMV-209 could systemically infect Glycine soja (wild soybean and Pisum sativum (pea as well as N. benthamiana, but not the other legume species.

  13. Observation of Wild Seaweed Species in Labuhanbua Waters, Indonesia: a preliminary assessment for aquaculture development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlania .

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed industry has been growing up and is supplied by either wild or cultivated seaweed crops. This study was aimed to present relevant information regarding ecological availability of wild seaweed in Labuhanbua coastal waters, Sumbawa Regency, West Nusa Tenggara and potential use of important species as candidate species for aquaculture. 46 sampling stations were determined along line transects perpendicular to coastal line; and seaweeds sampling were conducted during low tide by using 1 x 1 m2 quadrat transect. Field data consist of in-situ parameter including number of seaweed species and coverage area of each species; and ex-situ parameters consist of carbohydrate, protein, total C, total N, and total P content of seaweeds. The results showed that 33 species were found and three species has the most widely distribu tion, i.e. Padina sp., Dictyota dichotoma, and Gracilaria salicornia. Turbinaria, Dictyota, Padina, Stoechospermum, Hydroclathrus, Halimeda, and Chaetomorpha might be some important species that could be develop as aquaculture species candidates among other uncultivated species that were found along this study location. They have potencies as human food, livestock feed, neutraceuicals, cosmetics, pulp, textile, biofuel and any other industries; but conversely, they were found in lower density at Labuhanbua coastal waters. These species should be develop through aquaculture technology, involve genetic improvement and possibly genetic engineering. Commercial scale cultivation of those important seaweed species will contribute to industrial needs and prevent decreasing of wild seaweed availability in natural ecosystem.

  14. Saponin Profile of Wild Asparagus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; López, Sergio; Gil, Juan; Moreno, Roberto; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the saponin profiles from spears of different wild asparagus species in the context of its genetic diversity aside from geographical seed origin. They included Asparagus pseudoscaber Grecescu, Asparagus maritimus (L.) Mill., Asparagus brachiphyllus Turcz., Asparagus prostrates Dumort., and Asparagus officinalis L. The saponin analysis by LC-MS has shown that saponin profile from wild asparagus is similar to that previously described for triguero asparagus from Huétor-Tájar landrace (triguero HT), which had not ever been reported in the edible part of asparagus. All the samples, except A. officinalis, were characterized for having saponins distinct to protodioscin and the total saponin contents were 10-fold higher than those described for commercial hybrids of green asparagus. In particular, A. maritimus from different origins were rich in saponins previously found in triguero HT. These findings supported previous suggestion, based on genetic analysis, about A. maritimus being the origin of triguero HT. Multivariate statistics including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis were used to define both similarities and differences among samples. The results showed that the greatest variance of the tested wild asparagus could be attributed to differences in the concentration of particular saponins and this knowledge could be a tool for identifying similar species. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Babesia spp. in European wild ruminant species: parasite diversity and risk factors for infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Adam O; Mathis, Alexander; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2014-06-13

    Babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. We aimed to assess the role of European free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for Babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. EDTA blood was collected from 222 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (Cervus e. elaphus), 267 Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex) from all over Switzerland and analysed by PCR with pan-Babesia primers targeting the 18S rRNA gene, primers specific for B. capreoli and Babesia sp. EU1, and by sequencing. Babesia species, including B. divergens, B. capreoli, Babesia sp. EU1, Babesia sp. CH1 and B. motasi, were detected in 10.7% of all samples. Five individuals were co-infected with two Babesia species. Infection with specific Babesia varied widely between host species. Cervidae were significantly more infected with Babesia spp. than Caprinae. Babesia capreoli and Babesia sp. EU1 were mostly found in roe deer (prevalences 17.1% and 7.7%, respectively) and B. divergens and Babesia sp. CH1 only in red deer. Factors significantly associated with infection were low altitude and young age. Identification of Babesia sp. CH1 in red deer, co-infection with multiple Babesia species and infection of wild Caprinae with B. motasi and Babesia sp. EU1 are novel findings. We propose wild Caprinae as spillover or accidental hosts for Babesia species but wild Cervidae as mammalian reservoir hosts for B. capreoli, possibly Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia sp. CH1, whereas their role regarding B. divergens is more elusive.

  16. Gene flow among wild and domesticated almond species: insights from chloroplast and nuclear markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplancke, Malou; Alvarez, Nadir; Espíndola, Anahí; Joly, Hélène; Benoit, Laure; Brouck, Elise; Arrigo, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization has played a central role in the evolutionary history of domesticated plants. Notably, several breeding programs relying on gene introgression from the wild compartment have been performed in fruit tree species within the genus Prunus but few studies investigated spontaneous gene flow among wild and domesticated Prunus species. Consequently, a comprehensive understanding of genetic relationships and levels of gene flow between domesticated and wild Prunus species is needed. Combining nuclear and chloroplastic microsatellites, we investigated the gene flow and hybridization among two key almond tree species, the cultivated Prunus dulcis and one of the most widespread wild relative Prunus orientalis in the Fertile Crescent. We detected high genetic diversity levels in both species along with substantial and symmetric gene flow between the domesticated P. dulcis and the wild P. orientalis. These results were discussed in light of the cultivated species diversity, by outlining the frequent spontaneous genetic contributions of wild species to the domesticated compartment. In addition, crop-to-wild gene flow suggests that ad hoc transgene containment strategies would be required if genetically modified cultivars were introduced in the northwestern Mediterranean. PMID:25568053

  17. Quantifying Temporal Genomic Erosion in Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Del-Molino, David; Sánchez-Barreiro, Fatima; Barnes, Ian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Dalén, Love

    2018-03-01

    Many species have undergone dramatic population size declines over the past centuries. Although stochastic genetic processes during and after such declines are thought to elevate the risk of extinction, comparative analyses of genomic data from several endangered species suggest little concordance between genome-wide diversity and current population sizes. This is likely because species-specific life-history traits and ancient bottlenecks overshadow the genetic effect of recent demographic declines. Therefore, we advocate that temporal sampling of genomic data provides a more accurate approach to quantify genetic threats in endangered species. Specifically, genomic data from predecline museum specimens will provide valuable baseline data that enable accurate estimation of recent decreases in genome-wide diversity, increases in inbreeding levels, and accumulation of deleterious genetic variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome size evolution at the speciation level: the cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter; Riss, Simone; Stadler, Peter

    2011-04-07

    Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg). Most of this variation (67%) could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32%) at lower taxonomic levels--within and among genealogical species--and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.

  19. Mediterranean species of Caulerpa are polyploid with smaller genomes in the invasive ones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Varela-Álvarez

    Full Text Available Caulerpa species are marine green algae, which often act as invasive species with rapid clonal proliferation when growing outside their native biogeographical borders. Despite many publications on the genetics and ecology of Caulerpa species, their life history and ploidy levels are still to be resolved and are the subject of large controversy. While some authors claimed that the thallus found in nature has a haplodiplobiontic life cycle with heteromorphic alternation of generations, other authors claimed a diploid or haploid life cycle with only one generation involved. DAPI-staining with image analysis and microspectrophotometry were used to estimate relative nuclear DNA contents in three species of Caulerpa from the Mediterranean, at individual, population and species levels. Results show that ploidy levels and genome size vary in these three Caulerpa species, with a reduction in genome size for the invasive ones. Caulerpa species in the Mediterranean are polyploids in different life history phases; all sampled C. taxifolia and C. racemosa var. cylindracea were in haplophasic phase, but in C. prolifera, the native species, individuals were found in both diplophasic and haplophasic phases. Different levels of endopolyploidy were found in both C. prolifera and C. racemosa var. cylindracea. Life history is elucidated for the Mediterranean C. prolifera and it is hypothesized that haplophasic dominance in C. racemosa var. cylindracea and C. taxifolia is a beneficial trait for their invasive strategies.

  20. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  1. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Hartman, Y.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Jansen, J.; McHale, L.K.; Michelmore, R.W.; Visser, R.G.F.; van de Wiel, C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural

  2. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwimana, B.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Hartman, Y.; Tienderen, van P.H.; Jansen, J.; McHale, L.K.; Michelmore, R.; Visser, R.G.F.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The

  3. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  4. Genome survey of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) by next generation sequencing: Development of novel SSR markers and genetic diversity in Pistacia species

    OpenAIRE

    Ziya Motalebipour, Elmira; Kafkas, Salih; Khodaeiaminjan, Mortaza; ?oban, Nergiz; G?zel, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    Background Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is one of the most important nut crops in the world. There are about 11 wild species in the genus Pistacia, and they have importance as rootstock seed sources for cultivated P. vera and forest trees. Published information on the pistachio genome is limited. Therefore, a genome survey is necessary to obtain knowledge on the genome structure of pistachio by next generation sequencing. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are useful tools for germplasm cha...

  5. Genome wide re-sequencing of newly developed Rice Lines from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) for the identification of NBS-LRR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Ghouri, Fozia; Yu, Hang; Li, Xiang; Yu, Shuhong; Shahid, Muhammad Qasim; Liu, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is an important germplasm for rice breeding, which contains many resistance genes. Re-sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore the abundant useful genes at whole genome level. Here, we identified the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) encoding genes by re-sequencing of two wild rice lines (i.e. Huaye 1 and Huaye 2) that were developed from common wild rice. We obtained 128 to 147 million reads with approximately 32.5-fold coverage depth, and uniquely covered more than 89.6% (> = 1 fold) of reference genomes. Two wild rice lines showed high SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) variation rate in 12 chromosomes against the reference genomes of Nipponbare (japonica cultivar) and 93-11 (indica cultivar). InDels (insertion/deletion polymorphisms) count-length distribution exhibited normal distribution in the two lines, and most of the InDels were ranged from -5 to 5 bp. With reference to the Nipponbare genome sequence, we detected a total of 1,209,308 SNPs, 161,117 InDels and 4,192 SVs (structural variations) in Huaye 1, and 1,387,959 SNPs, 180,226 InDels and 5,305 SVs in Huaye 2. A total of 44.9% and 46.9% genes exhibited sequence variations in two wild rice lines compared to the Nipponbare and 93-11 reference genomes, respectively. Analysis of NBS-LRR mutant candidate genes showed that they were mainly distributed on chromosome 11, and NBS domain was more conserved than LRR domain in both wild rice lines. NBS genes depicted higher levels of genetic diversity in Huaye 1 than that found in Huaye 2. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction analysis showed that NBS genes mostly interacted with the cytochrome C protein (Os05g0420600, Os01g0885000 and BGIOSGA038922), while some NBS genes interacted with heat shock protein, DNA-binding activity, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and a coiled coil region. We explored abundant NBS-LRR encoding genes in two common wild rice lines through genome wide re

  6. Genome size evolution at the speciation level: The cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

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    Riss Simone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. Results We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg. Most of this variation (67% could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32% at lower taxonomic levels - within and among genealogical species - and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Conclusions Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.

  7. Genomic analysis of influenza A virus from captive wild boars in Brazil reveals a human-like H1N2 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Natalha; Schaefer, Rejane; Gava, Danielle; Cantão, Mauricio E; Silveira, Simone; Mores, Marcos A Z; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice R; Barcellos, David E S N

    2014-01-10

    Influenza is a viral disease that affects human and several animal species. In Brazil, H1N1, H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza A viruses (IAV) circulate in domestic swine herds. Wild boars are also susceptible to IAV infection but in Brazil until this moment there are no reports of IAV infection in wild boars or in captive wild boars populations. Herein the occurrence of IAV in captive wild boars with the presence of lung consolidation lesions during slaughter was investigated. Lung samples were screened by RT-PCR for IAV detection. IAV positive samples were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRRT-PCR), virus isolation, genomic sequencing, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Eleven out of 60 lungs (18.3%) were positive for IAV by RT-PCR and seven out of the eleven were also positive for A(H1N1)pdm09 by qRRT-PCR. Chronic diffuse bronchopneumonia was observed in all samples and IHC analysis was negative for influenza A antigen. Full genes segments of H1N2 IAV were sequenced using Illumina's genome analyzer platform (MiSeq). The genomic analysis revealed that the HA and NA genes clustered with IAVs of the human lineage and the six internal genes were derived from the H1N1pdm09 IAV. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus infection in captive wild boars in Brazil and indicates the need to monitor IAV evolution in Suidae populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection of Wild Plant Species from Organic Rice Field in Sumberngepoh Village in Malang as Attractant of Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae

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    Wahyu Kusumayanti Putri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the actions in biological control is the use of parasitoid. Some wild plant species can attract those parasitoid. By the fact, the objective of this research are to select some of wild plant species attracting Trichogramma spp. These wild plant were belong to Asteraceae (Eupatorium odoratum, Bidens pilosa, Crassocephalum crepidioides and Mimosaceae (Parkia speciosa, Leucaena glauca, Mimosa pudica. Mass rearing of trichogramma spp. was prepared for those purpose. The selection were conducted by using four armed olfactometer. The percentage of the tested Trichogramma spp. attracted to the wild plant species was noted as well as their orientation duration to select the plant species. The difference of the mean of their orientation duration was analyzed statistically by T-Test. Both of plant familia can attract the parasitoid. This were the plant species that attracted Trichogramma spp. From the most attractive to the lowest one : B. pilosa 22 %, E. odoratum 18.6 %, M. pudica 18.2 %, C. crepidioides 13.8 %, P. speciosa 13.6 %, and L. glauca 13.6 %. For the orientation duration, this are the plant species that can attract the parasitoid from the fastest one to the slowest one : P. speciosa 45.5 seconds, C. crepidioides 46.2 seconds, L. glauca 49 seconds, E. odoratum 50.6 seconds , B. pilosa 53.4 seconds, and M. pudica 55.2 seconds. Keywords : Asteraceae, Mimosaceae, Trichogramma spp.

  9. Complete DNA sequences of the plastid genomes of two parasitic flowering plant species, Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Helena T; Berg, Sabine; Krupinska, Karin; Maier, Uwe G; Krause, Kirsten

    2007-08-22

    The holoparasitic plant genus Cuscuta comprises species with photosynthetic capacity and functional chloroplasts as well as achlorophyllous and intermediate forms with restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts. Previous data indicated significant differences with respect to the plastid genome coding capacity in different Cuscuta species that could correlate with their photosynthetic activity. In order to shed light on the molecular changes accompanying the parasitic lifestyle, we sequenced the plastid chromosomes of the two species Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii. Both species are capable of performing photosynthesis, albeit with varying efficiencies. Together with the plastid genome of Epifagus virginiana, an achlorophyllous parasitic plant whose plastid genome has been sequenced, these species represent a series of progression towards total dependency on the host plant, ranging from reduced levels of photosynthesis in C. reflexa to a restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts in C. gronovii to an achlorophyllous state in E. virginiana. The newly sequenced plastid genomes of C. reflexa and C. gronovii reveal that the chromosome structures are generally very similar to that of non-parasitic plants, although a number of species-specific insertions, deletions (indels) and sequence inversions were identified. However, we observed a gradual adaptation of the plastid genome to the different degrees of parasitism. The changes are particularly evident in C. gronovii and include (a) the parallel losses of genes for the subunits of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase and the corresponding promoters from the plastid genome, (b) the first documented loss of the gene for a putative splicing factor, MatK, from the plastid genome and (c) a significant reduction of RNA editing. Overall, the comparative genomic analysis of plastid DNA from parasitic plants indicates a bias towards a simplification of the plastid gene expression

  10. Complete DNA sequences of the plastid genomes of two parasitic flowering plant species, Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Uwe G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The holoparasitic plant genus Cuscuta comprises species with photosynthetic capacity and functional chloroplasts as well as achlorophyllous and intermediate forms with restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts. Previous data indicated significant differences with respect to the plastid genome coding capacity in different Cuscuta species that could correlate with their photosynthetic activity. In order to shed light on the molecular changes accompanying the parasitic lifestyle, we sequenced the plastid chromosomes of the two species Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta gronovii. Both species are capable of performing photosynthesis, albeit with varying efficiencies. Together with the plastid genome of Epifagus virginiana, an achlorophyllous parasitic plant whose plastid genome has been sequenced, these species represent a series of progression towards total dependency on the host plant, ranging from reduced levels of photosynthesis in C. reflexa to a restricted photosynthetic activity and degenerated chloroplasts in C. gronovii to an achlorophyllous state in E. virginiana. Results The newly sequenced plastid genomes of C. reflexa and C. gronovii reveal that the chromosome structures are generally very similar to that of non-parasitic plants, although a number of species-specific insertions, deletions (indels and sequence inversions were identified. However, we observed a gradual adaptation of the plastid genome to the different degrees of parasitism. The changes are particularly evident in C. gronovii and include (a the parallel losses of genes for the subunits of the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase and the corresponding promoters from the plastid genome, (b the first documented loss of the gene for a putative splicing factor, MatK, from the plastid genome and (c a significant reduction of RNA editing. Conclusion Overall, the comparative genomic analysis of plastid DNA from parasitic plants indicates a bias towards

  11. Avian metapneumovirus subtype C in Wild Waterfowl in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, C M; Parmley, E J; Buchanan, T; Nituch, L; Ojkic, D

    2018-02-18

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is an emerging poultry pathogen that has a significant economic impact on poultry production worldwide. The geographic range of the virus continues to expand, and wild birds have been implicated as reservoirs of aMPV that have the potential to spread the virus over long distances. Our objective was to determine the apparent prevalence of aMPV subtype C in wild waterfowl in Ontario, Canada. Wild waterfowl were captured in August and September, 2016 as part of routine migratory waterfowl population monitoring by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and placed together for aMPV testing using real-time RT-PCR. A total of 374 live wild birds from 23 lakes were sampled and tested for aMPV. Among all ducks tested, 84 (22%) were positive for aMPV. The proportion of samples that tested positive ranged from 0% in ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) and green-winged teal (Anas carolinensis) to 44% (8 of 18) in American black ducks (A. rubripes). Waterfowl positive for aMPV were found at 14 of 23 lakes in the study area and the percent positive at these 14 lakes ranged between 5% and 84%. Although subtype C aMPV has been detected in a variety of wild birds in North America, this is the first report of aMPV in wild ducks in Ontario, Canada. The high apparent prevalence, particularly in mallards and American black ducks (37 and 44%, respectively), suggests that these species may be important reservoirs of aMPV. Given the potential impact of aMPV on domestic poultry and the potential role of wild birds as reservoirs of the virus, further investigation of the geographic distribution, risk factors associated with aMPV carriage in wild waterfowl and potential role of other birds in the epidemiology of aMPV in Canada is warranted. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Serendipitous discovery of Wolbachia genomes in multiple Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberg, Steven L; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Delcher, Arthur L; Pop, Mihai; Smith, Douglas R; Eisen, Michael B; Nelson, William C

    2005-01-01

    The Trace Archive is a repository for the raw, unanalyzed data generated by large-scale genome sequencing projects. The existence of this data offers scientists the possibility of discovering additional genomic sequences beyond those originally sequenced. In particular, if the source DNA for a sequencing project came from a species that was colonized by another organism, then the project may yield substantial amounts of genomic DNA, including near-complete genomes, from the symbiotic or parasitic organism. By searching the publicly available repository of DNA sequencing trace data, we discovered three new species of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis in three different species of fruit fly: Drosophila ananassae, D. simulans, and D. mojavensis. We extracted all sequences with partial matches to a previously sequenced Wolbachia strain and assembled those sequences using customized software. For one of the three new species, the data recovered were sufficient to produce an assembly that covers more than 95% of the genome; for a second species the data produce the equivalent of a 'light shotgun' sampling of the genome, covering an estimated 75-80% of the genome; and for the third species the data cover approximately 6-7% of the genome. The results of this study reveal an unexpected benefit of depositing raw data in a central genome sequence repository: new species can be discovered within this data. The differences between these three new Wolbachia genomes and the previously sequenced strain revealed numerous rearrangements and insertions within each lineage and hundreds of novel genes. The three new genomes, with annotation, have been deposited in GenBank.

  13. Genome-wide comparative analysis of four Indian Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Khanna, Radhika

    2017-12-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes of closely or distantly related Drosophila species undoubtedly creates excitement among evolutionary biologists in exploring the genomic changes with an ecology and evolutionary perspective. We present herewith the de novo assembled whole genome sequences of four Drosophila species, D. bipectinata, D. takahashii, D. biarmipes and D. nasuta of Indian origin using Next Generation Sequencing technology on an Illumina platform along with their detailed assembly statistics. The comparative genomics analysis, e.g. gene predictions and annotations, functional and orthogroup analysis of coding sequences and genome wide SNP distribution were performed. The whole genome of Zaprionus indianus of Indian origin published earlier by us and the genome sequences of previously sequenced 12 Drosophila species available in the NCBI database were included in the analysis. The present work is a part of our ongoing genomics project of Indian Drosophila species.

  14. Genomic sequence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' haplotype C and its comparison with haplotype A and B genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Wang

    Full Text Available Haplotypes A and B of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso are associated with diseases of solanaceous plants, especially Zebra chip disease of potato, and haplotypes C, D and E are associated with symptoms on apiaceous plants. To date, one complete genome of haplotype B and two high quality draft genomes of haplotype A have been obtained for these unculturable bacteria using metagenomics from the psyllid vector Bactericera cockerelli. Here, we present the first genomic sequences obtained for the carrot-associated CLso. These two genomic sequences of haplotype C, FIN114 (1.24 Mbp and FIN111 (1.20 Mbp, were obtained from carrot psyllids (Trioza apicalis harboring CLso. Genomic comparisons between the haplotypes A, B and C revealed that the genome organization differs between these haplotypes, due to large inversions and other recombinations. Comparison of protein-coding genes indicated that the core genome of CLso consists of 885 ortholog groups, with the pan-genome consisting of 1327 ortholog groups. Twenty-seven ortholog groups are unique to CLso haplotype C, whilst 11 ortholog groups shared by the haplotypes A and B, are not found in the haplotype C. Some of these ortholog groups that are not part of the core genome may encode functions related to interactions with the different host plant and psyllid species.

  15. Proteomic analysis of seed storage proteins in wild rice species of the Oryza genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tengqiong; Zhong, Qiaofang; Shen, J Qingxi; Huang, Xingqi

    2014-01-01

    The total protein contents of rice seeds are significantly higher in the three wild rice species (Oryza rufipogon Grill., Oryza officinalis Wall. and Oryza meyeriana Baill.) than in the cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is still no report regarding a systematic proteomic analysis of seed proteins in the wild rice species. Also, the relationship between the contents of seed total proteins and rice nutritional quality has not been thoroughly investigated. The total seed protein contents, especially the glutelin contents, of the three wild rice species were higher than those of the two cultivated rice materials. Based on the protein banding patterns of SDS-PAGE, O. rufipogon was similar to the two cultivated rice materials, followed by O. officinalis, while O. meyeriana exhibited notable differences. Interestingly, O. meyeriana had high contents of glutelin and low contents of prolamine, and lacked 26 kDa globulin band and appeared a new 28 kDa protein band. However, for O. officinali a 16 kDa protein band was absent and a row of unique 32 kDa proteins appeared. In addition, we found that 13 kDa prolamine band disappeared while special 14 kDa and 12 kDa protein bands were present in O. officinalis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis revealed remarkable differences in protein profiles of the wild rice species and the two cultivated rice materials. Also, the numbers of detected protein spots of the three wild rice species were significantly higher than those of two cultivated rice. A total of 35 differential protein spots were found for glutelin acidic subunits, glutelin precursors and glutelin basic subunits in wild rice species. Among those, 18 protein spots were specific and 17 major spots were elevated. Six differential protein spots for glutelin acidic subunits were identified, including a glutelin type-A 2 precursor and five hypothetical proteins. This was the first report on proteomic analysis of the three wild rice species

  16. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

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    Lippold Sebastian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73% already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the

  17. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world’s most important vegetable crop and central to global food security. Cultivated potato is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Numerous wild potato species serve as a resource for introgress...

  18. Identification of concomitant infection with Chlamydia trachomatis IncA-negative mutant and wild-type strains by genomic, transcriptional, and biological characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchland, Robert J; Jeffrey, Brendan M; Xia, Minsheng; Bhatia, Ajay; Chu, Hencelyn G; Rockey, Daniel D; Stamm, Walter E

    2008-12-01

    Clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis that lack IncA on their inclusion membrane form nonfusogenic inclusions and have been associated with milder, subclinical infections in patients. The molecular events associated with the generation of IncA-negative strains and their roles in chlamydial sexually transmitted infections are not clear. We explored the biology of the IncA-negative strains by analyzing their genomic structure, transcription, and growth characteristics in vitro and in vivo in comparison with IncA-positive C. trachomatis strains. Three clinical samples were identified that contained a mixture of IncA-positive and -negative same-serovar C. trachomatis populations, and two more such pairs were found in serial isolates from persistently infected individuals. Genomic sequence analysis of individual strains from each of two serovar-matched pairs showed that these pairs were very similar genetically. In contrast, the genome sequence of an unmatched IncA-negative strain contained over 5,000 nucleotide polymorphisms relative to the genome sequence of a serovar-matched but otherwise unlinked strain. Transcriptional analysis, in vitro culture kinetics, and animal modeling demonstrated that IncA-negative strains isolated in the presence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain are phenotypically more similar to the wild-type strain than are IncA-negative strains isolated in the absence of a serovar-matched wild-type strain. These studies support a model suggesting that a change from an IncA-positive strain to the previously described IncA-negative phenotype may involve multiple steps, the first of which involves a translational inactivation of incA, associated with subsequent unidentified steps that lead to the observed decrease in transcript level, differences in growth rate, and differences in mouse infectivity.

  19. Wild Musa Species Collection of Purwodadi Botanic Garden: Inventory and Its Morpho - taxonomic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia, being part of the center of origin of bananas (Musaceae, has a large number diversity of bananas both wild seeded species and edible seedless cultivated varieties. Inventory of wild Musa species in Purwodadi Botanic Garden has been conducted through compiling data records from PBG’s Registration section, field inspection and observation to living collections in the garden, herbarium specimens and literature studies. The results show that total 17 wild Musa accessions has been recorded planted in Purwodadi Botanic Garden since 1990 until 2012; comprises of 8 Musa acuminata sub species, 2 Musa balbisiana forms, 1 Musa ornata, 1 Musa troglodytarum, 1 Musa borneensis and 4 unidentified species Musa spp.; but only 8 living accessions remained in 2012. Morphotaxonomic review of those 8 wild Musa accessions remained will be discussed in this paper including their geographical distributions. According to its differentiated morphological characteristics observations, it is known that there are three accessions were resembled cultivars and one unidentified species have been determined its species level, so that their registration identity needs to be revised. It is important next to prioritize ex-situ conservation of wild Musa species not yet collected in Purwodadi Botanic Garden especially from Eastern Indonesia.

  20. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimana, Brigitte; Smulders, Marinus J M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Hartman, Yorike; van Tienderen, Peter H; Jansen, Johannes; McHale, Leah K; Michelmore, Richard W; Visser, Richard G F; van de Wiel, Clemens C M

    2012-03-26

    After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F(1) hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC(1) and BC(2) populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC(1)S(1) and BC(2)S(1)). Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency). Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC(1)S(1) and BC(2)S(1) hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC(1) and BC(2) hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a positive

  1. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwimana Brigitte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (transgenes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1. Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency. Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop

  2. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (trans)genes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1). Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency). Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei DmW181, a Bacterium Isolated from Wild Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Austin J.; Walters, Amber; Carroll, Courtney; Newell, Peter D.; Chaston, John M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei DmW181, an anaerobic bacterium isolate from wild Drosophila flies, is reported here. Strain DmW181 possesses genes for sialic acid and mannose metabolism. The assembled genome is 3,201,429?bp, with 3,454 predicted genes.

  4. Yield-enhancing heterotic QTL transferred from wild species to cultivated rice Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Kiran B; Singh, Naveen; Bhatia, Dharminder; Kaur, Rupinder; Bains, Navtej S; Bharaj, Tajinder S; Singh, Kuldeep

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of "hidden genes" from wild species has emerged as a novel option for enrichment of genetic diversity for productivity traits. In rice we have generated more than 2000 lines having introgression from 'A' genome-donor wild species of rice in the genetic background of popular varieties PR114 and Pusa44 were developed. Out of these, based on agronomic acceptability, 318 lines were used for developing rice hybrids to assess the effect of introgressions in heterozygous state. These introgression lines and their recurrent parents, possessing fertility restoration ability for wild abortive (WA) cytoplasm, were crossed with cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line PMS17A to develop hybrids. Hybrids developed from recurrent parents were used as checks to compare the performance of 318 hybrids developed by hybridizing alien introgression lines with PMS17A. Seventeen hybrids expressed a significant increase in yield and its component traits over check hybrids. These 17 hybrids were re-evaluated in large-size replicated plots. Of these, four hybrids, viz., ILH299, ILH326, ILH867 and ILH901, having introgressions from O. rufipogon and two hybrids (ILH921 and ILH951) having introgressions from O. nivara showed significant heterosis over parental introgression line, recurrent parents and check hybrids for grain yield-related traits. Alien introgressions were detected in the lines taken as male parents for developing six superior hybrids, using a set of 100 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Percent introgression showed a range of 2.24 from in O. nivara to 7.66 from O. rufipogon. The introgressed regions and their putative association with yield components in hybrids is reported and discussed.

  5. Characterization of seeds of selected wild species of rice (Oryza) stored under high temperature and humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Smruti; Nayak, Monalisa; Patra, B C; Ramakrishnan, B; Krishnan, P

    2010-06-01

    Wild progenitors of rice (Oryza) are an invaluable resource for restoring genetic diversity and incorporating useful traits back into cultivars. Studies were conducted to characterize the biochemical changes, including SDS-PAGE banding pattern of storage proteins in seeds of six wild species (Oryza alta, O. grandiglumis, O. meridionalis, O. nivara, O. officinalis and O. rhizomatis) of rice stored under high temperature (45 degrees C) and humidity (approixmately 100%) for 15 days, which facilitated accelerated deterioration. Under the treated conditions, seeds of different wild rice species showed decrease in per cent germination and concentrations of protein and starch, but increase in conductivity of leachate and content of sugar. The SDS-PAGE analysis of seed proteins showed that not only the total number of bands, but also their intensity in terms of thickness differed for each species under storage. The total number of bands ranged from 11 to 22, but none of the species showed all the bands. Similarity index for protein bands between the control and treated seeds was observed to be least in O. rhizomatis and O. alta, while the indices were 0.7 and 0.625 for O. officinalis and O. nivara, respectively. This study clearly showed that seed deterioration led to distinctive biochemical changes, including the presence or absence as well as altered levels of intensity of proteins. Hence, SDS-PAGE protein banding pattern can be used effectively to characterize deterioration of seeds of different wild species of rice.

  6. Genomic and environmental selection patterns in two distinct lettuce crop-wild hybrid crosses

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Y.; Uwimana, B.; Hooftman, D.A.P.; Schranz, M.E.; Wiel, van de, C.C.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Tienderen, van, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic selection patterns and hybrid performance influence the chance that crop (trans)genes can spread to wild relatives. We measured fitness(-related) traits in two different field environments employing two different crop?wild crosses of lettuce. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses and estimated the fitness distribution of early- and late-generation hybrids. We detected consistent results across field sites and crosses for a fitness QTL at linkage group 7, where a selectiv...

  7. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance breeding utilizing wild Helianthus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild Helianthus species possess valuable resistance genes for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.), especially the 39 largely under-utilized perennial species. Resistance to race F has been transferred into cultivated background via bridging of interspecific amphiploids. More recently, a si...

  8. Unraveling the genetic history of the European wild goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña, I.; Ersmark, E.; Samaniego, J. A.; Galindo-Pellicena, M. A.; Crégut-Bonnoure, E.; Bolívar, H.; Gómez-Olivencia, A.; Rios-Garaizar, J.; Garate, D.; Dalén, L.; Arsuaga, J. L.; Valdiosera, C. E.

    2018-04-01

    The population history of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex has been closely related to that of humans since the Palaeolithic. Current molecular and paleontological studies differ substantially on the phylogenetic origin of the European wild goats, possibly due the loss of genetic variation through time. We investigated the phylogenetic relationship between the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica) including different Iberian wild goat subspecies by applying ancient DNA techniques combined with Next Generation Sequencing technologies. We analysed the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial genome in 33 ancient and modern European wild goats from Spain and France together with publicly available genetic information of modern wild goats. This work uncovers for the first time ancient genetic information of the Iberian wild goat and the Alpine ibex, spanning a time range of approximately 40,000 years to the present. Our results suggest genetic continuity between ancient and modern populations and indicate a monophyletic origin of the Alpine ibex and the Iberian wild goat when compared to other Capra species. The monophyly of both species is in agreement with other molecular studies based only on modern populations, therefore supporting one-wave migration of wild goats into Western Europe followed by possible allopatric speciation. We observe three major clades of wild goats in Western Europe: Capra ibex, Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica and the group containing the subspecies Capra pyrenaica hispanica and Capra pyrenaica victoriae. This genetic structure recognizes the distinctiveness of the bucardo (C. p. pyrenaica) from the rest of Iberian wild goats and thus supports the idea that this group is an Evolutionary Significant Unit. The divergence time estimated here indicates an almost contemporaneous split between the three clades around 50,000-90,000 years BP.

  9. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Genome-Wide Distribution, Organisation and Functional Characterization of Disease Resistance and Defence Response Genes across Rice Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sangeeta; Chand, Suresh; Singh, N. K.; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2015-01-01

    The resistance (R) genes and defense response (DR) genes have become very important resources for the development of disease resistant cultivars. In the present investigation, genome-wide identification, expression, phylogenetic and synteny analysis was done for R and DR-genes across three species of rice viz: Oryza sativa ssp indica cv 93-11, Oryza sativa ssp japonica and wild rice species, Oryza brachyantha. We used the in silico approach to identify and map 786 R -genes and 167 DR-genes, 672 R-genes and 142 DR-genes, 251 R-genes and 86 DR-genes in the japonica, indica and O. brachyanth a genomes, respectively. Our analysis showed that 60.5% and 55.6% of the R-genes are tandemly repeated within clusters and distributed over all the rice chromosomes in indica and japonica genomes, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis along with motif distribution shows high degree of conservation of R- and DR-genes in clusters. In silico expression analysis of R-genes and DR-genes showed more than 85% were expressed genes showing corresponding EST matches in the databases. This study gave special emphasis on mechanisms of gene evolution and duplication for R and DR genes across species. Analysis of paralogs across rice species indicated 17% and 4.38% R-genes, 29% and 11.63% DR-genes duplication in indica and Oryza brachyantha, as compared to 20% and 26% duplication of R-genes and DR-genes in japonica respectively. We found that during the course of duplication only 9.5% of R- and DR-genes changed their function and rest of the genes have maintained their identity. Syntenic relationship across three genomes inferred that more orthology is shared between indica and japonica genomes as compared to brachyantha genome. Genome wide identification of R-genes and DR-genes in the rice genome will help in allele mining and functional validation of these genes, and to understand molecular mechanism of disease resistance and their evolution in rice and related species. PMID:25902056

  11. Re-exploration of U's Triangle Brassica Species Based on Chloroplast Genomes and 45S nrDNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Kug; Seol, Young-Joo; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Jayakodi, Murukarthick; Lee, Sang-Choon; Jin, Seungwoo; Choi, Beom-Soon; Yu, Yeisoo; Ko, Ho-Cheol; Choi, Ji-Weon; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul; Sohn, Seong-Han; Parkin, Isobel; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2018-05-09

    The concept of U's triangle, which revealed the importance of polyploidization in plant genome evolution, described natural allopolyploidization events in Brassica using three diploids [B. rapa (A genome), B. nigra (B), and B. oleracea (C)] and derived allotetraploids [B. juncea (AB genome), B. napus (AC), and B. carinata (BC)]. However, comprehensive understanding of Brassica genome evolution has not been fully achieved. Here, we performed low-coverage (2-6×) whole-genome sequencing of 28 accessions of Brassica as well as of Raphanus sativus [R genome] to explore the evolution of six Brassica species based on chloroplast genome and ribosomal DNA variations. Our phylogenomic analyses led to two main conclusions. (1) Intra-species-level chloroplast genome variations are low in the three allotetraploids (2~7 SNPs), but rich and variable in each diploid species (7~193 SNPs). (2) Three allotetraploids maintain two 45SnrDNA types derived from both ancestral species with maternal dominance. Furthermore, this study sheds light on the maternal origin of the AC chloroplast genome. Overall, this study clarifies the genetic relationships of U's triangle species based on a comprehensive genomics approach and provides important genomic resources for correlative and evolutionary studies.

  12. Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P. A.; Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.

    2017-01-01

    Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre...... barrier to gene flow in the wild. Cyprinid fishes commonly produce fertile, viable hybrid offspring and therefore make excellent study organisms to investigate ecological costs to hybrids. We electronically tagged two freshwater cyprinid fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus and bream Abramis brama...... to directly test for a predation cost to hybrids in the wild. Hybrid individuals were found significantly more susceptible to cormorant predation than individuals from either parental species. Such ecological selection against hybrids contributes to species integrity, and can enhance species diversification....

  13. Occurrence and distribution of Giardia species in wild rodents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Yosra A; Spierling, Nastasja G; Schmidt, Sabrina; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Reil, Daniela; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer G; Aebischer, Toni; Klotz, Christian

    2018-03-27

    Giardiasis is an important gastrointestinal parasitic disease in humans and other mammals caused by the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. This species complex is represented by genetically distinct groups (assemblages A-H) with varying zoonotic potential and host preferences. Wild rodents can harbor potentially zoonotic assemblages A and B, and the rodent-specific assemblage G. Other Giardia spp. found in these animals are Giardia muris and Giardia microti. For the latter, only limited information on genetic typing is available. It has been speculated that wild rodents might represent an important reservoir for parasites causing human giardiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Giardia spp. and assemblage types in wild rodents from different study sites in Germany. Screening of 577 wild rodents of the genera Apodemus, Microtus and Myodes, sampled at eleven study sites in Germany, revealed a high overall Giardia prevalence. Giardia species determination at the SSU rDNA gene locus revealed that Apodemus mice, depending on species, were predominantly infected with one of two distinct G. muris sequence types. Giardia microti was the predominant parasite species found in voles of the genera Microtus and Myodes. Only a few animals were positive for potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis. Subtyping at the beta-giardin (bg) and glutamine dehydrogenase (gdh) genes strongly supported the existence of different phylogenetic subgroups of G. microti that are preferentially harbored by distinct host species. The present study highlights the preference of G. muris for Apodemus, and G. microti for Microtus and Myodes hosts and argues for a very low prevalence of zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in wild rodents in Germany. It also provides evidence that G. muris and G. microti subdivide into several phylogenetically distinguishable subgroups, each of which appears to be preferentially harbored by species of a particular rodent host genus

  14. Roegneria alashanica Keng: a species with the StStStYStY genome constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard R-C; Jensen, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    The genome constitution of tetraploid Roegneria alashanica Keng has been in question for a long time. Most scientific studies have suggested that R. alashanica had two versions of the St genome, St 1 St 2 , similar to that of Pseudoroegneria elytrigioides (C. Yen & J.L. Yang) B.R. Lu. A study, however, concluded that R. alashanica had the StY genome formula typical for tetraploid species of Roegneria. For the present study, R. alashanica, Elymus longearistatus (Bioss.) Tzvelev (StY genomes), Pseudoroegneria strigosa (M. Bieb.) Á. Löve (St), Pseudoroegneria libanoctica (Hackel) D.R. Dewey (St), and Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Á. Löve (St) were screened for the Y-genome specific marker B14(F+R) 269 . All E. longearistatus plants expressed intense bands specific to the Y genome. Only 6 of 10 R. alashanica plants exhibited relatively faint bands for the STS marker. Previously, the genome in species of Pseudoroegneria exhibiting such faint Y-genome specific marker was designated as St Y . Based on these results, R. alashanica lacks the Y genome in E. longearistatus but likely possess two remotely related St genomes, St and St Y . According to its genome constitution, R. alashanica should be classified in the genus Pseudoroenera and given the new name Pseudoroegneria alashanica (Keng) R.R.-C. Wang and K.B. Jensen.

  15. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper: Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Byrne, Stephen; Frei, Ursula; Studer, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species. PMID:23184232

  16. Genome Microscale Heterogeneity among Wild Potatoes Revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology Marker Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Traini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuber-bearing potato species possess several genes that can be exploited to improve the genetic background of the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum. Among them, S. bulbocastanum and S. commersonii are well known for their strong resistance to environmental stresses. However, scant information is available for these species in terms of genome organization, gene function, and regulatory networks. Consequently, genomic tools to assist breeding are meager, and efficient exploitation of these species has been limited so far. In this paper, we employed the reference genome sequences from cultivated potato and tomato and a collection of sequences of 1,423 potato Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers that show polymorphic representation across the genomes of S. bulbocastanum and/or S. commersonii genotypes. Our results highlighted microscale genome sequence heterogeneity that may play a significant role in functional and structural divergence between related species. Our analytical approach provides knowledge of genome structural and sequence variability that could not be detected by transcriptome and proteome approaches.

  17. Genome Microscale Heterogeneity among Wild Potatoes Revealed by Diversity Arrays Technology Marker Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Alessandra; Iorizzo, Massimo; Mann, Harpartap; Bradeen, James M; Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Chiusano, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Tuber-bearing potato species possess several genes that can be exploited to improve the genetic background of the cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum. Among them, S. bulbocastanum and S. commersonii are well known for their strong resistance to environmental stresses. However, scant information is available for these species in terms of genome organization, gene function, and regulatory networks. Consequently, genomic tools to assist breeding are meager, and efficient exploitation of these species has been limited so far. In this paper, we employed the reference genome sequences from cultivated potato and tomato and a collection of sequences of 1,423 potato Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers that show polymorphic representation across the genomes of S. bulbocastanum and/or S. commersonii genotypes. Our results highlighted microscale genome sequence heterogeneity that may play a significant role in functional and structural divergence between related species. Our analytical approach provides knowledge of genome structural and sequence variability that could not be detected by transcriptome and proteome approaches.

  18. Culicoides Species Communities Associated with Wild Ruminant Ecosystems in Spain: Tracking the Way to Determine Potential Bridge Vectors for Arboviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Talavera

    Full Text Available The genus Culicoides Latreille 1809 is a well-known vector for protozoa, filarial worms and, above all, numerous viruses. The Bluetongue virus (BTV and the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV are responsible for important infectious, non-contagious, insect-borne viral diseases found in domestic ruminants and transmitted by Culicoides spp. Both of these diseases have been detected in wild ruminants, but their role as reservoirs during the vector-free season still remains relatively unknown. In fact, we tend to ignore the possibility of wild ruminants acting as a source of disease (BTV, SBV and permitting its reintroduction to domestic ruminants during the following vector season. In this context, a knowledge of the composition of the Culicoides species communities that inhabit areas where there are wild ruminants is of major importance as the presence of a vector species is a prerequisite for disease transmission. In this study, samplings were conducted in areas inhabited by different wild ruminant species; samples were taken in both 2009 and 2010, on a monthly basis, during the peak season for midge activity (in summer and autumn. A total of 102,693 specimens of 40 different species of the genus Culicoides were trapped; these included major BTV and SBV vector species. The most abundant vector species were C. imicola and species of the Obsoletus group, which represented 15% and 11% of total numbers of specimens, respectively. At the local scale, the presence of major BTV and SBV vector species in areas with wild ruminants coincided with that of the nearest sentinel farms included in the Spanish Bluetongue Entomological Surveillance Programme, although their relative abundance varied. The data suggest that such species do not exhibit strong host specificity towards either domestic or wild ruminants and that they could consequently play a prominent role as bridge vectors for different pathogens between both types of ruminants. This finding

  19. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences and Comparative Analysis of Chenopodium quinoa and C. album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su-Young; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Yoo, Ki-Oug; Lee, Hyun-Oh; Cho, Kwang-Soo; Suh, Jong-Taek; Kim, Su-Jeong; Nam, Jeong-Hwan; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The Chenopodium genus comprises ~150 species, including Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium album , two important crops with high nutritional value. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the two species, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of these species were obtained by next generation sequencing. We performed comparative analysis of the sequences and, using InDel markers, inferred phylogeny and genetic diversity of the Chenopodium genus. The cp genome is 152,099 bp ( C. quinoa ) and 152,167 bp ( C. album ) long. In total, 119 genes (78 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and 4 rRNA) were identified. We found 14 ( C. quinoa ) and 15 ( C. album ) tandem repeats (TRs); 14 TRs were present in both species and C. album and C. quinoa each had one species-specific TR. The trnI-GAU intron sequences contained one ( C. quinoa ) or two ( C. album ) copies of TRs (66 bp); the InDel marker was designed based on the copy number variation in TRs. Using the InDel markers, we detected this variation in the TR copy number in four species, Chenopodium hybridum, Chenopodium pumilio, Chenopodium ficifolium , and Chenopodium koraiense , but not in Chenopodium glaucum . A comparison of coding and non-coding regions between C. quinoa and C. album revealed divergent sites. Nucleotide diversity >0.025 was found in 17 regions-14 were located in the large single copy region (LSC), one in the inverted repeats, and two in the small single copy region (SSC). A phylogenetic analysis based on 59 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa resolved Chenopodioideae monophyletic and sister to Betoideae. The complete plastid genome sequences and molecular markers based on divergence hotspot regions in the two Chenopodium taxa will help to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Chenopodium .

  20. The Vigna Genome Server, 'VigGS': A Genomic Knowledge Base of the Genus Vigna Based on High-Quality, Annotated Genome Sequence of the Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Muto, Isamu; Itoh, Takeshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server ('VigGS', http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Africa's wild C4 plant foods and possible early hominid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Charles R; Vogel, John C

    2005-03-01

    A small minority of Africa's wild plant foods are C4. These are primarily the seeds of some of the C4 grasses, the rootstocks and stem/leaf bases of some of the C4 sedges (especially papyrus), and the leaves of some of the C4 herbaceous dicots (forbs). These wild food plants are commonly found in disturbed ground and wetlands (particularly the grasses and sedges). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that C4 grasses were present in Africa by at least the late Miocene. It is a reasonable hypothesis that the prehistory of the C4 sedges parallels that of the C4 grasses, but the C4 forbs may not have become common until the late Pleistocene. CAM plants may have a more ancient history, but offer few opportunities for an additional C4-like dietary signal. The environmental reconstructions available for the early South African hominid sites do not indicate the presence of large wetlands, and therefore probably the absence of a strong potential for a C4 plant food diet. However, carbon isotope analyses of tooth enamel from three species of early South African hominids have shown that there was a significant but not dominant contribution of C4 biomass in their diets. Since it appears unlikely that this C4 component could have come predominantly from C4 plant foods, a broad range of potential animal contributors is briefly considered, namely invertebrates, reptiles, birds, and small mammals. It is concluded that the similar average C4 dietary intake seen in the three South African hominid species could have been acquired by differing contributions from the various sources, without the need to assume scavenging or hunting of medium to large grazing ungulates. Effectively similar dominantly dryland paleo-environments may also be part of the explanation. Theoretically, elsewhere in southern and eastern Africa, large wetlands would have offered early hominids greater opportunities for a C4 plant diet.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei DmW181, a Bacterium Isolated from Wild Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Austin J; Walters, Amber; Carroll, Courtney; Newell, Peter D; Chaston, John M

    2017-07-06

    The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei DmW181, an anaerobic bacterium isolate from wild Drosophila flies, is reported here. Strain DmW181 possesses genes for sialic acid and mannose metabolism. The assembled genome is 3,201,429 bp, with 3,454 predicted genes. Copyright © 2017 Hammer et al.

  3. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lolium-Festuca Complex Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Byrne, Stephen; Sharma, Sapna

    2015-01-01

    , winter hardiness, drought tolerance and resistance to grazing. In this study we have sequenced and assembled the low copy fraction of the genomes of Lolium westerwoldicum, Lolium multiflorum, Festuca pratensis and Lolium temulentum. We have also generated de-novo transcriptome assemblies for each species......, and these have aided in the annotation of the genomic sequence. Using this data we were able to generate annotated assemblies of the gene rich regions of the four species to complement the already sequenced Lolium perenne genome. Using these gene models we have identified orthologous genes between the species...

  4. Seed dormancy alleviation of grewia tenax (forssk.): a wild fruit tree species of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Saied, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori is a fruit shrub and grows wild in arid and semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa. The species is highly valuable for the rural populations because of its edible fruit and fodder for livestock. Species has immense potential for re-vegetation of degraded lands, as it has ability to withstand soil salinity and drought. Wild stands of the species are sparse which is supposed to have some kind of seed dormancy. Seeds of G. tenax were subjected to different combinations of heat and cold seed stratification treatments in two consecutive experiments. A positive correlation (r2 = 0.97) was observed between total emergence and weeks of seed exposure to constant dry heat at 40 degree C from 0 to 4 weeks. Maximum germination (70%) was achieved, when seeds were exposed to dry heat at 40 degree C for 4 weeks as compared to control (20%). Seeds exposed to constant heat for 4 weeks also took only 4 and 5 days to reach 1st and 50% emergence, respectively as compared to untreated seeds, which took 10 and 14 days to reach 1st and 50% emergence, respectively. Moreover, emergence spread lasted only 4 days as compared to untreated seeds with 21 days. Our results indicate that seeds of G. tenax possess a limited physiological dormancy which can be overcome by heat stratification. (author)

  5. Study of the Metatranscriptome of Eight Social and Solitary Wild Bee Species Reveals Novel Viruses and Bee Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonvaere, Karel; Smagghe, Guy; Francis, Frédéric; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2018-01-01

    Bees are associated with a remarkable diversity of microorganisms, including unicellular parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The application of next-generation sequencing approaches enables the identification of this rich species composition as well as the discovery of previously unknown associations. Using high-throughput polyadenylated ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing, we investigated the metatranscriptome of eight wild bee species ( Andrena cineraria, Andrena fulva, Andrena haemorrhoa, Bombus terrestris, Bombus cryptarum, Bombus pascuorum, Osmia bicornis , and Osmia cornuta ) sampled from four different localities in Belgium. Across the RNA sequencing libraries, 88-99% of the taxonomically informative reads were of the host transcriptome. Four viruses with homology to insect pathogens were found including two RNA viruses (belonging to the families Iflaviridae and Tymoviridae that harbor already viruses of honey bees), a double stranded DNA virus (family Nudiviridae ) and a single stranded DNA virus (family Parvoviridae ). In addition, we found genomic sequences of 11 unclassified arthropod viruses (related to negeviruses, sobemoviruses, totiviruses, rhabdoviruses, and mononegaviruses), seven plant pathogenic viruses, and one fungal virus. Interestingly, nege-like viruses appear to be widespread, host-specific, and capable of attaining high copy numbers inside bees. Next to viruses, three novel parasite associations were discovered in wild bees, including Crithidia pragensis and a tubulinosematid and a neogregarine parasite. Yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia were identified in solitary bees. This study gives a glimpse of the microorganisms and viruses associated with social and solitary wild bees and demonstrates that their diversity exceeds by far the subset of species first discovered in honey bees.

  6. Study of the Metatranscriptome of Eight Social and Solitary Wild Bee Species Reveals Novel Viruses and Bee Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Schoonvaere

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bees are associated with a remarkable diversity of microorganisms, including unicellular parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The application of next-generation sequencing approaches enables the identification of this rich species composition as well as the discovery of previously unknown associations. Using high-throughput polyadenylated ribonucleic acid (RNA sequencing, we investigated the metatranscriptome of eight wild bee species (Andrena cineraria, Andrena fulva, Andrena haemorrhoa, Bombus terrestris, Bombus cryptarum, Bombus pascuorum, Osmia bicornis, and Osmia cornuta sampled from four different localities in Belgium. Across the RNA sequencing libraries, 88–99% of the taxonomically informative reads were of the host transcriptome. Four viruses with homology to insect pathogens were found including two RNA viruses (belonging to the families Iflaviridae and Tymoviridae that harbor already viruses of honey bees, a double stranded DNA virus (family Nudiviridae and a single stranded DNA virus (family Parvoviridae. In addition, we found genomic sequences of 11 unclassified arthropod viruses (related to negeviruses, sobemoviruses, totiviruses, rhabdoviruses, and mononegaviruses, seven plant pathogenic viruses, and one fungal virus. Interestingly, nege-like viruses appear to be widespread, host-specific, and capable of attaining high copy numbers inside bees. Next to viruses, three novel parasite associations were discovered in wild bees, including Crithidia pragensis and a tubulinosematid and a neogregarine parasite. Yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia were identified in solitary bees. This study gives a glimpse of the microorganisms and viruses associated with social and solitary wild bees and demonstrates that their diversity exceeds by far the subset of species first discovered in honey bees.

  7. Identifications of Captive and Wild Tilapia Species Existing in Hawaii by Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Yang, Jinzeng

    2012-01-01

    Background The tilapia family of the Cichlidae includes many fish species, which live in freshwater and saltwater environments. Several species, such as O. niloticus, O. aureus, and O. mossambicus, are excellent for aquaculture because these fish are easily reproduced and readily adapt to diverse environments. Historically, tilapia species, including O. mossambicus, S. melanotheron, and O. aureus, were introduced to Hawaii many decades ago, and the state of Hawaii uses the import permit policy to prevent O. niloticus from coming into the islands. However, hybrids produced from O. niloticus may already be present in the freshwater and marine environments of the islands. The purpose of this study was to identify tilapia species that exist in Hawaii using mitochondrial DNA analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed 382 samples collected from 13 farm (captive) and wild tilapia populations in Oahu and the Hawaii Islands. Comparison of intraspecies variation between the mitochondrial DNA control region (mtDNA CR) and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene from five populations indicated that mtDNA CR had higher nucleotide diversity than COI. A phylogenetic tree of all sampled tilapia was generated using mtDNA CR sequences. The neighbor-joining tree analysis identified seven distinctive tilapia species: O. aureus, O. mossambicus, O. niloticus, S. melanotheron, O. urolepies, T. redalli, and a hybrid of O. massambicus and O. niloticus. Of all the populations examined, 10 populations consisting of O. aureus, O. mossambicus, O. urolepis, and O. niloticus from the farmed sites were relatively pure, whereas three wild populations showed some degree of introgression and hybridization. Conclusions/Significance This DNA-based tilapia species identification is the first report that confirmed tilapia species identities in the wild and captive populations in Hawaii. The DNA sequence comparisons of mtDNA CR appear to be a valid method for tilapia species

  8. Morphological and Molecular Data Reveal Three Distinct Populations of Indian Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwant; Singh, Nisha; Mishra, Shefali; Tripathi, Kabita; Singh, Bikram P; Rai, Vandna; Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Nagendra K

    2018-01-01

    Wild relatives of crops possess adaptive mutations for agronomically important traits, which could play significant role in crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. However, global climate change and human activities pose serious threats to the natural habitats leading to erosion of genetic diversity of wild rice populations. The purpose of this study was to explore and characterize India's huge untapped wild rice diversity in Oryza rufipogon Griff. species complex from a wide range of ecological niches. We made strategic expeditions around diversity hot spots in 64 districts of nine different agro-climatic zones of the country and collected 418 wild rice accessions. Significant variation was observed among the accessions for 46 morphological descriptors, allowing classification into O. nivara, O. rufipogon , and O. sativa f. spontanea morpho-taxonomic groups. Genome-specific pSINE1 markers confirmed all the accessions having AA genome, which were further classified using ecotype-specific pSINE1 markers into annual, perennial, intermediate, and an unknown type. Principal component analysis revealed continuous variation for the morphological traits in each ecotype group. Genetic diversity analysis based on multi-allelic SSR markers clustered these accessions into three major groups and analysis of molecular variance for nine agro-climatic zones showed that 68% of the genetic variation was inherent amongst individuals while only 11% of the variation separated the zones, though there was significant correlation between genetic and spatial distances of the accessions. Model based population structure analysis using genome wide bi-allelic SNP markers revealed three sub-populations designated 'Pro-Indica,' 'Pro-Aus,' and 'Mid-Gangetic,' which showed poor correspondence with the morpho - taxonomic classification or pSINE1 ecotypes. There was Pan-India distribution of the 'Pro-Indica' and 'Pro-Aus' sub-populations across agro-climatic zones, indicating a more

  9. Morphological and Molecular Data Reveal Three Distinct Populations of Indian Wild Rice Oryza rufipogon Griff. Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwant; Singh, Nisha; Mishra, Shefali; Tripathi, Kabita; Singh, Bikram P.; Rai, Vandna; Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Nagendra K.

    2018-01-01

    Wild relatives of crops possess adaptive mutations for agronomically important traits, which could play significant role in crop improvement for sustainable agriculture. However, global climate change and human activities pose serious threats to the natural habitats leading to erosion of genetic diversity of wild rice populations. The purpose of this study was to explore and characterize India’s huge untapped wild rice diversity in Oryza rufipogon Griff. species complex from a wide range of ecological niches. We made strategic expeditions around diversity hot spots in 64 districts of nine different agro-climatic zones of the country and collected 418 wild rice accessions. Significant variation was observed among the accessions for 46 morphological descriptors, allowing classification into O. nivara, O. rufipogon, and O. sativa f. spontanea morpho-taxonomic groups. Genome-specific pSINE1 markers confirmed all the accessions having AA genome, which were further classified using ecotype-specific pSINE1 markers into annual, perennial, intermediate, and an unknown type. Principal component analysis revealed continuous variation for the morphological traits in each ecotype group. Genetic diversity analysis based on multi-allelic SSR markers clustered these accessions into three major groups and analysis of molecular variance for nine agro-climatic zones showed that 68% of the genetic variation was inherent amongst individuals while only 11% of the variation separated the zones, though there was significant correlation between genetic and spatial distances of the accessions. Model based population structure analysis using genome wide bi-allelic SNP markers revealed three sub-populations designated ‘Pro-Indica,’ ‘Pro-Aus,’ and ‘Mid-Gangetic,’ which showed poor correspondence with the morpho-taxonomic classification or pSINE1 ecotypes. There was Pan-India distribution of the ‘Pro-Indica’ and ‘Pro-Aus’ sub-populations across agro-climatic zones

  10. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species: The case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Dong, Q.; Albright, Thomas P.; Guo, Q.

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and historic records spanning thousands of years to characterize the complex relationships among kudzu, its natural enemies, and humans, and provide a synthesis and conceptual model relevant to the ecology and management of quasi-wild invasive species. We documented over 350, mostly insect, natural enemy species and their impacts on kudzu in its native East Asian range. These natural enemies play a minor role in limiting kudzu in its native range, rarely generating severe impacts on populations of wild kudzu. We identified a number of significant influences of humans including dispersal, diverse cultural selection, and facilitation through disturbances, which catalyzed the expansion and exuberance of kudzu. On the other hand, harvest by humans appears to be the major control mechanism in its native areas. Humans thus have a complex relationship with kudzu. They have acted as both friend and foe, affecting the distribution and abundance of kudzu in ways that vary across its range and over time. Our conceptual model of kudzu emphasizes the importance of multiple human dimensions in shaping the biogeography of a species and illustrates how kudzu and other quasi-wild species are more likely to be successful invaders. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.(outside the USA).

  11. Natural and human dimensions of a quasi-wild species:the case of kudzu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyu Li; Quan Dong; Thomas Albright; Qinfeng Guo

    2011-01-01

    The human dimensions of biotic invasion are generally poorly understood, even among the most familiar invasive species. Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a prominent invasive plant and an example of quasi-wild species, which has experienced repeated introduction, cultivation, and escape back to the wild. Here, we review a large body of primary scientific and...

  12. Massive gene losses in Asian cultivated rice unveiled by comparative genome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoh Takeshi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world. With increasing world demand for food crops, there is an urgent need to develop new cultivars that have enhanced performance with regard to yield, disease resistance, and so on. Wild rice is expected to provide useful genetic resources that could improve the present cultivated species. However, the quantity and quality of these unexplored resources remain unclear. Recent accumulation of the genomic information of both cultivated and wild rice species allows for their comparison at the molecular level. Here, we compared the genome sequence of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica with sets of bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences (BESs from two wild rice species, O. rufipogon and O. nivara, and an African rice species, O. glaberrima. Results We found that about four to five percent of the BESs of the two wild rice species and about seven percent of the African rice could not be mapped to the japonica genome, suggesting that a substantial number of genes have been lost in the japonica rice lineage; however, their close relatives still possess their counterpart genes. We estimated that during evolution, O. sativa has lost at least one thousand genes that are still preserved in the genomes of the other species. In addition, our BLASTX searches against the non-redundant protein sequence database showed that disease resistance-related proteins were significantly overrepresented in the close relative-specific genomic portions. In total, 235 unmapped BESs of the three relatives matched 83 non-redundant proteins that contained a disease resistance protein domain, most of which corresponded to an NBS-LRR domain. Conclusion We found that the O. sativa lineage appears to have recently experienced massive gene losses following divergence from its wild ancestor. Our results imply that the domestication process accelerated large-scale genomic deletions in the lineage of Asian

  13. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  14. Evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C infection of wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, E A; Stallknecht, D E; Slemons, R D; Zsak, L; Swayne, D E

    2008-06-01

    Metapneumoviruses (MPVs) were first reported in avian species (aMPVs) in the late 1970s and in humans in 2001. Although aMPVs have been reported in Europe and Asia for over 20 years, the virus first appeared in the United States in 1996, leaving many to question the origin of the virus and why it proved to be a different subtype from those found elsewhere. To examine the potential role of migratory waterfowl and other wild birds in aMPV spread, our study focused on determining whether populations of wild birds have evidence of aMPV infection. Serum samples from multiple species were initially screened using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to aMPVs were identified in five of the 15 species tested: American coots, American crows, Canada geese, cattle egrets, and rock pigeons. The presence of aMPV-specific antibodies was confirmed with virus neutralization and western blot assays. Oral swabs were collected from wild bird species with the highest percentage of aMPV-seropositive serum samples: the American coots and Canada geese. From these swabs, 17 aMPV-positive samples were identified, 11 from coots and six from geese. Sequence analysis of the matrix, attachment gene and short hydrophobic genes revealed that these viruses belong to subtype C aMPV. The detection of aMPV antibodies and the presence of virus in wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio demonstrates that wild birds can serve as a reservoir of subtype C aMPV, and may provide a potential mechanism to spread aMPVs to poultry in other regions of the United States and possibly to other countries in Central and South America.

  15. The genome sequence of the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium provides insights into salinity tolerance

    KAUST Repository

    Razali, Rozaimi; Bougouffa, Salim; Morton, Mitchell J. L.; Lightfoot, Damien; Alam, Intikhab; Essack, Magbubah; Arold, Stefan T.; Kamau, Allan; Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Pailles, Yveline; Shahid, Mohammed; Michell, Craig; Al-Babili, Salim; Ho, Yung Shwen; Tester, Mark A.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Negrã o, Só nia

    2017-01-01

    Solanum pimpinellifolium, a wild relative of cultivated tomato, offers a wealth of breeding potential for several desirable traits such as tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we report the genome and annotation of S. pimpinellifolium LA0480. The LA0480 genome size (811 Mb) and the number of annotated genes (25,970) are within the range observed for other sequenced tomato species. We developed and utilized the Dragon Eukaryotic Analyses Platform (DEAP) to functionally annotate the LA0480 protein-coding genes. Additionally, we used DEAP to compare protein function between S. pimpinellifolium and cultivated tomato. Our data suggest enrichment in genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Moreover, we present phenotypic data from one field experiment that demonstrate a greater salinity tolerance for fruit- and yield-related traits in S. pimpinellifolium compared with cultivated tomato. To understand the genomic basis for these differences in S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum, we analyzed 15 genes that have previously been shown to mediate salinity tolerance in plants. We show that S. pimpinellifolium has a higher copy number of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase and phosphatase genes, which are both key enzymes in the production of inositol and its derivatives. Moreover, our analysis indicates that changes occurring in the inositol phosphate pathway may contribute to the observed higher salinity tolerance in LA0480. Altogether, our work provides essential resources to understand and unlock the genetic and breeding potential of S. pimpinellifolium, and to discover the genomic basis underlying its environmental robustness.

  16. The genome sequence of the wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium provides insights into salinity tolerance

    KAUST Repository

    Razali, Rozaimi

    2017-11-14

    Solanum pimpinellifolium, a wild relative of cultivated tomato, offers a wealth of breeding potential for several desirable traits such as tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Here, we report the genome and annotation of S. pimpinellifolium LA0480. The LA0480 genome size (811 Mb) and the number of annotated genes (25,970) are within the range observed for other sequenced tomato species. We developed and utilized the Dragon Eukaryotic Analyses Platform (DEAP) to functionally annotate the LA0480 protein-coding genes. Additionally, we used DEAP to compare protein function between S. pimpinellifolium and cultivated tomato. Our data suggest enrichment in genes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. Moreover, we present phenotypic data from one field experiment that demonstrate a greater salinity tolerance for fruit- and yield-related traits in S. pimpinellifolium compared with cultivated tomato. To understand the genomic basis for these differences in S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum, we analyzed 15 genes that have previously been shown to mediate salinity tolerance in plants. We show that S. pimpinellifolium has a higher copy number of the inositol-3-phosphate synthase and phosphatase genes, which are both key enzymes in the production of inositol and its derivatives. Moreover, our analysis indicates that changes occurring in the inositol phosphate pathway may contribute to the observed higher salinity tolerance in LA0480. Altogether, our work provides essential resources to understand and unlock the genetic and breeding potential of S. pimpinellifolium, and to discover the genomic basis underlying its environmental robustness.

  17. Development of genome- and transcriptome-derived microsatellites in related species of snapping shrimps with highly duplicated genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Kaitlyn M; Solomon, Joseph W; Siller, Stefanie; Jessell, Linnet; Duffy, J Emmett; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-11-01

    Molecular markers are powerful tools for studying patterns of relatedness and parentage within populations and for making inferences about social evolution. However, the development of molecular markers for simultaneous study of multiple species presents challenges, particularly when species exhibit genome duplication or polyploidy. We developed microsatellite markers for Synalpheus shrimp, a genus in which species exhibit not only great variation in social organization, but also interspecific variation in genome size and partial genome duplication. From the four primary clades within Synalpheus, we identified microsatellites in the genomes of four species and in the consensus transcriptome of two species. Ultimately, we designed and tested primers for 143 microsatellite markers across 25 species. Although the majority of markers were disomic, many markers were polysomic for certain species. Surprisingly, we found no relationship between genome size and the number of polysomic markers. As expected, markers developed for a given species amplified better for closely related species than for more distant relatives. Finally, the markers developed from the transcriptome were more likely to work successfully and to be disomic than those developed from the genome, suggesting that consensus transcriptomes are likely to be conserved across species. Our findings suggest that the transcriptome, particularly consensus sequences from multiple species, can be a valuable source of molecular markers for taxa with complex, duplicated genomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan wild ass (Equus kiang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Chen, Yu; Liu, Fuyu; Jiang, Chunhua; Gao, Yuqi

    2011-02-01

    The Tibetan wild ass, or kiang (Equus kiang) is endemic to the cold and hypoxic (4000-7000 m above sea level) climates of the montane and alpine grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the E. kiang mitochondrial genome. Our results show that E. kiang mitochondrial DNA is 16,634 bp long, and predicted to encode all the 37 genes that are typical for vertebrates.

  19. The assessment of genetic diversity between and within brassica species and their wild relative (eruca sativa) using ssr markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, M.; Farhatullah, A.; Iqbal, S.; Fayyaz, L.; Rabbani, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites markers were tested for their ability to distinguish genomic distribution of the Brassica species of the U Triangle and E. sativa. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the genetic diversity of six Brassica species from U-Triangle (representing three genomes, A, B, C) and one from genus Eruca and to identify promising sources of genetic variation for breeding purposes. A total of 54 SSR markers were analyzed in order to detect variation between and within the selected genomes. Three primer pairs depicted the greatest genetic diversity showing 97% polymorphism between Brassica and Eruca genomes (2.55 alleles per locus). Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0.40 (SSR primer Na14-DO7) to 0.79 (NA10-G09). For comparison within Brassica genomes and Eruca, all the genomes were grouped in three modules i.e., ABE, ACE and BCE (Fig. 1). The tetraploid originating from their parental diploids along-with Eruca was considered in the same module. For the estimation of relatedness within and among genomes, dice coefficients were computed as a measure of genetic similarity matrix. On the basis of genetic distances, dendrogram was constructed through cluster analysis. Two major clusters at coefficient of similarity level (0.47) were observed. One cluster comprised of all Brassica genomes and their accessions, while another consisting of all accessions of Eruca genome. The cluster containing Brassica genomes was further subdivided into four sub-groups that contained diploid and tetraploid species in a way that tetraploid species were grouped in between their diploid parental species with varying genetic distances. Present findings confirmed the validity of SSR markers in genomic studies. (author)

  20. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakham, F; Belayachi, L; Ussery, D; Akrim, M; Benjouad, A; El Aouad, R; Ennaji, M M

    2011-02-08

    The genus Mycobacterium represents more than 120 species including important pathogens of human and cause major public health problems and illnesses. Further, with more than 100 genome sequences from this genus, comparative genome analysis can provide new insights for better understanding the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str. Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length of genomes, GC content, number of genes in different data bases (Genbank, Refseq, and Prodigal). The BLAST matrix of these genomes has been figured to give a lot of information about the similarity between species in a simple scheme. As a result of multiple genome analysis, the pan and core genome have been defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene for tuberculosis and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria to understand the evolutionary events of these species.

  1. ATYPICAL CHLAMYDIACEAE IN WILD POPULATIONS OF HAWKS ( BUTEO SPP.) IN CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján-Vega, Charlene; Hawkins, Michelle G; Johnson, Christine K; Briggs, Christopher; Vennum, Chris; Bloom, Peter H; Hull, Joshua M; Cray, Carolyn; Pesti, Denise; Johnson, Lisa; Ciembor, Paula; Ritchie, Branson R

    2018-03-01

    Chlamydiaceae bacteria infect many vertebrate hosts, and previous reports based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and serologic assays that are prone to cross-reaction among chlamydial organisms have been used to describe the prevalence of either DNA fragments or antibodies to Chlamydia spp. in wild raptorial populations. This study reports the PCR-based prevalence of Chlamydiaceae DNA that does not 100% match any avian or mammalian Chlamydiaceae in wild populations of hawks in California Buteo species. In this study, multimucosal swab samples ( n = 291) for quantitative PCR (qPCR) and plasma ( n = 78) for serology were collected from wild hawks. All available plasma samples were negative for antibodies using a C. psittaci-specific elementary body agglutination test (EBA; n = 78). For IgY antibodies all 51 available samples were negative using the indirect immunofluorescent assay. The overall prevalence of Chlamydiaceae DNA detection in wild Buteo species sampled was 1.37% (4/291) via qPCR-based analysis. Two fledgling Swainson's hawks ( Buteo swainsoni) and two juvenile red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis) were positive by qPCR-based assay for an atypical chlamydial sequence that did not 100% match any known C. psittaci genotype. Positive swab samples from these four birds were sequenced based on the ompA gene and compared by high-resolution melt analysis with all known avian and mammalian Chlamydiaceae. The amplicon sequence did not 100% match any known avian chlamydial sequence; however, it was most similar (98.6%) to C. psittaci M56, a genotype that is typically found in muskrats and hares. Culture and full genome sequence analysis of Chlamydia spp. isolated from diseased hawks will be necessary to classify this organism and to better understand its epizootiology and potential health impact on wild Buteo populations in California.

  2. Meiotic behavior of wild Caricaceae species potentially suitable for papaya improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelli Narducci da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meiotic behavior and determine the meiotic index and pollen viability of representative plants of the wild species V. goudotiana, V. quercifolia and J. spinosa. Meiotic analysis confirmed that the species are diploid and have 18 chromosomes. Meiosis was partially normal, since some abnormalities, e.g, sticky and lagging chromosomes, precocious segregation, lack of synchrony, and disturbances in the spindle fibers were observed. These abnormalities resulted in post-meiotic products (monads, dyads, triads, and polyads that probably contributed to the meiotic index of 85.7 % (V. goudotiana to 95.9 % (J. spinosa; significant variation was observed in the species V. goudotiana. The pollen viability of 68.0% (V. goudotiana to 96.0 % (J. spinosa was reasonably good in these wild species. Crossings in breeding programs involving V. goudotiana should therefore be carefully planned, since part of the gametes of this species is unviable.

  3. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high-glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Hamilton, John P; Crisovan, Emily; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Marand, Alexandre P; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Jiang, Jiming; Douches, David S; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin

    2018-05-01

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp. Pseudomolecule construction anchored 508 Mb of the genome assembly into 12 chromosomes. Genome annotation yielded 49 124 high-confidence gene models representing 37 740 genes. Comparative analyses of the M6 genome with six other Solanaceae species revealed a core set of 158 367 Solanaceae genes and 1897 genes unique to three potato species. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the M6 genome revealed enhanced residual heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 8 and 9 relative to the other chromosomes. Access to the M6 genome provides a resource for identification of key genes for important agronomic traits and aids in genome-enabled development of inbred diploid potatoes with the potential to accelerate potato breeding. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Preliminary Genomic Characterization of Ten Hardwood Tree Species from Multiplexed Low Coverage Whole Genome Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Staton

    Full Text Available Forest health issues are on the rise in the United States, resulting from introduction of alien pests and diseases, coupled with abiotic stresses related to climate change. Increasingly, forest scientists are finding genetic/genomic resources valuable in addressing forest health issues. For a set of ten ecologically and economically important native hardwood tree species representing a broad phylogenetic spectrum, we used low coverage whole genome sequencing from multiplex Illumina paired ends to economically profile their genomic content. For six species, the genome content was further analyzed by flow cytometry in order to determine the nuclear genome size. Sequencing yielded a depth of 0.8X to 7.5X, from which in silico analysis yielded preliminary estimates of gene and repetitive sequence content in the genome for each species. Thousands of genomic SSRs were identified, with a clear predisposition toward dinucleotide repeats and AT-rich repeat motifs. Flanking primers were designed for SSR loci for all ten species, ranging from 891 loci in sugar maple to 18,167 in redbay. In summary, we have demonstrated that useful preliminary genome information including repeat content, gene content and useful SSR markers can be obtained at low cost and time input from a single lane of Illumina multiplex sequence.

  5. Comparative analyses identified species-specific functional roles in oral microbial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsute; Gajare, Prasad; Olsen, Ingar; Dewhirst, Floyd E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The advent of next generation sequencing is producing more genomic sequences for various strains of many human oral microbial species and allows for insightful functional comparisons at both intra- and inter-species levels. This study performed in-silico functional comparisons for currently available genomic sequences of major species associated with periodontitis including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA), Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Treponema denticola (TD), and Tannerella forsythia (TF), as well as several cariogenic and commensal streptococcal species. Complete or draft sequences were annotated with the RAST to infer structured functional subsystems for each genome. The subsystems profiles were clustered to groups of functions with similar patterns. Functional enrichment and depletion were evaluated based on hypergeometric distribution to identify subsystems that are unique or missing between two groups of genomes. Unique or missing metabolic pathways and biological functions were identified in different species. For example, components involved in flagellar motility were found only in the motile species TD, as expected, with few exceptions scattered in several streptococcal species, likely associated with chemotaxis. Transposable elements were only found in the two Bacteroidales species PG and TF, and half of the AA genomes. Genes involved in CRISPR were prevalent in most oral species. Furthermore, prophage related subsystems were also commonly found in most species except for PG and Streptococcus mutans, in which very few genomes contain prophage components. Comparisons between pathogenic (P) and nonpathogenic (NP) genomes also identified genes potentially important for virulence. Two such comparisons were performed between AA (P) and several A. aphrophilus (NP) strains, and between S. mutans + S. sobrinus (P) and other oral streptococcal species (NP). This comparative genomics approach can be readily used to identify functions unique to

  6. Comparison of C. elegans and C. briggsae genome sequences reveals extensive conservation of chromosome organization and synteny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaDeana W Hillier

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the distinctive features of Caenorhabditis elegans chromosomal organization are shared with the C. briggsae genome, we constructed a single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic map to order and orient the whole genome shotgun assembly along the six C. briggsae chromosomes. Although these species are of the same genus, their most recent common ancestor existed 80-110 million years ago, and thus they are more evolutionarily distant than, for example, human and mouse. We found that, like C. elegans chromosomes, C. briggsae chromosomes exhibit high levels of recombination on the arms along with higher repeat density, a higher fraction of intronic sequence, and a lower fraction of exonic sequence compared with chromosome centers. Despite extensive intrachromosomal rearrangements, 1:1 orthologs tend to remain in the same region of the chromosome, and colinear blocks of orthologs tend to be longer in chromosome centers compared with arms. More strikingly, the two species show an almost complete conservation of synteny, with 1:1 orthologs present on a single chromosome in one species also found on a single chromosome in the other. The conservation of both chromosomal organization and synteny between these two distantly related species suggests roles for chromosome organization in the fitness of an organism that are only poorly understood presently.

  7. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  8. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  9. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB genome configuration had similar genome sizes (average 2C = 25.74 pg). Genome size was mostly consistent within species and in general agreement with current information about evolutionary distance among species. Results also suggest that most of the polyploid species in Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology.

  10. Incompatibility and competitive exclusion of genomic segments between sibling Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shu; Yukilevich, Roman; Chen, Ying; Turissini, David A; Zeng, Kai; Boussy, Ian A; Wu, Chung-I

    2012-06-01

    The extent and nature of genetic incompatibilities between incipient races and sibling species is of fundamental importance to our view of speciation. However, with the exception of hybrid inviability and sterility factors, little is known about the extent of other, more subtle genetic incompatibilities between incipient species. Here we experimentally demonstrate the prevalence of such genetic incompatibilities between two young allopatric sibling species, Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia. Our experiments took advantage of 12 introgression lines that carried random introgressed D. sechellia segments in different parts of the D. simulans genome. First, we found that these introgression lines did not show any measurable sterility or inviability effects. To study if these sechellia introgressions in a simulans background contained other fitness consequences, we competed and genetically tracked the marked alleles within each introgression against the wild-type alleles for 20 generations. Strikingly, all marked D. sechellia introgression alleles rapidly decreased in frequency in only 6 to 7 generations. We then developed computer simulations to model our competition results. These simulations indicated that selection against D. sechellia introgression alleles was high (average s = 0.43) and that the marker alleles and the incompatible alleles did not separate in 78% of the introgressions. The latter result likely implies that most introgressions contain multiple genetic incompatibilities. Thus, this study reveals that, even at early stages of speciation, many parts of the genome diverge to a point where introducing foreign elements has detrimental fitness consequences, but which cannot be seen using standard sterility and inviability assays.

  11. Genomic resources for multiple species in the Drosophila ananassae species group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signor, Sarah; Seher, Thaddeus; Kopp, Artyom

    2013-01-01

    The development of genomic resources in non-model taxa is essential for understanding the genetic basis of biological diversity. Although the genomes of many Drosophila species have been sequenced, most of the phenotypic diversity in this genus remains to be explored. To facilitate the genetic analysis of interspecific and intraspecific variation, we have generated new genomic resources for seven species and subspecies in the D. ananassae species subgroup. We have generated large amounts of transcriptome sequence data for D. ercepeae, D. merina, D. bipectinata, D. malerkotliana malerkotliana, D. m. pallens, D. pseudoananassae pseudoananassae, and D. p. nigrens. de novo assembly resulted in contigs covering more than half of the predicted transcriptome and matching an average of 59% of annotated genes in the complete genome of D. ananassae. Most contigs, corresponding to an average of 49% of D. ananassae genes, contain sequence polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers. Subsets of these markers were validated by genotyping the progeny of inter- and intraspecific crosses. The ananassae subgroup is an excellent model system for examining the molecular basis of speciation and phenotypic evolution. The new genomic resources will facilitate the genetic analysis of inter- and intraspecific differences in this lineage. Transcriptome sequencing provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify molecular markers at nearly single-gene density, and is equally applicable to any non-model taxa.

  12. Low genetic diversity of the endangered Indian wild ass Equus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DEVENDRA KHAIRE

    (Equus hemionus khur) belongs to an endangered wild species/subspecies of wild ... species of the Asiatic wild asses, E. hemionus and E. kiang, have been described on .... 57.9. Tseng et al. (2010). 5 -TCA CCC ACT AAA TCT CAA ATC C-3.

  13. Whole genome phylogenies for multiple Drosophila species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetharam Arun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructing the evolutionary history of organisms using traditional phylogenetic methods may suffer from inaccurate sequence alignment. An alternative approach, particularly effective when whole genome sequences are available, is to employ methods that don’t use explicit sequence alignments. We extend a novel phylogenetic method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD to reconstruct the phylogeny of 12 sequenced Drosophila species. SVD analysis provides accurate comparisons for a high fraction of sequences within whole genomes without the prior identification of orthologs or homologous sites. With this method all protein sequences are converted to peptide frequency vectors within a matrix that is decomposed to provide simplified vector representations for each protein of the genome in a reduced dimensional space. These vectors are summed together to provide a vector representation for each species, and the angle between these vectors provides distance measures that are used to construct species trees. Results An unfiltered whole genome analysis (193,622 predicted proteins strongly supports the currently accepted phylogeny for 12 Drosophila species at higher dimensions except for the generally accepted but difficult to discern sister relationship between D. erecta and D. yakuba. Also, in accordance with previous studies, many sequences appear to support alternative phylogenies. In this case, we observed grouping of D. erecta with D. sechellia when approximately 55% to 95% of the proteins were removed using a filter based on projection values or by reducing resolution by using fewer dimensions. Similar results were obtained when just the melanogaster subgroup was analyzed. Conclusions These results indicate that using our novel phylogenetic method, it is possible to consult and interpret all predicted protein sequences within multiple whole genomes to produce accurate phylogenetic estimations of relatedness between

  14. Karyotipic asymmetry of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed the establishment of the relation between karyotipic asymmetry values obtained for different accessions of both wild and cultivated species of Pennisetum from Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite/Juiz de Fora-Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Conventional cell cycle synchronization protocols and Feulgen staining method were used to obtain metaphases plates. The wild-type accessions corresponded to the species P. setosum (2n=6x=54, P. nervosum (2n=4x=36, and P. orientale (2n=4x=36, and the cultivated to P. purpureum (2n=4x=28 and P. glaucum (2n=2x=14. No significant difference was found for the total length of chromosomes (p>0.05 among the species. The analysis of intra-chromosomal asymmetry (A1 and inter-chromosomal asymmetry (A2 has shown that P. setosum has a tendency to chromosome asymmetry. P. nervosum, P. orientale, and P. purpureum have presented an intermediary level of asymmetry and P. glaucum, low asymmetry. Considering Stebbins criteria, the karyotype of P. glaucum and those from the three wild species fitted into the category 1A-symmetrical. With regard to P. purpureum, karyotypes of the accessions BAGs 54, 65 and 91 fitted into the category 2B and the other two genotypes (BAGs 63 and 75 fitted into the 1A. Comparison between the karyotype classification according to the inter- and intra-chromosomal asymmetry and Stebbins methodologies revealed that this last one alone was not able to detect small variations between karyotypes of the taxa closely related.

  15. Assessing the origin of species in the genomic era

    OpenAIRE

    Moyle, Leonie C

    2005-01-01

    Advances in genomics have rapidly accelerated research into the genetics of species differences, reproductive isolating barriers, and hybrid incompatibility. Recent genomic analyses in Drosophila species suggest that modified olfactory cues are involved in discrimination that is reinforced by natural selection.

  16. Genome-level comparisons provide insight into the phylogeny and metabolic diversity of species within the genus Lactococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Song, Yuqin; Ren, Yan; Qing, Yanting; Liu, Wenjun; Sun, Zhihong

    2017-11-03

    The genomic diversity of different species within the genus Lactococcus and the relationships between genomic differentiation and environmental factors remain unclear. In this study, type isolates of ten Lactococcus species/subspecies were sequenced to assess their genomic characteristics, metabolic diversity, and phylogenetic relationships. The total genome sizes varied between 1.99 (Lactococcus plantarum) and 2.46 megabases (Mb; L. lactis subsp. lactis), and the G + C content ranged from 34.81 (L. lactis subsp. hordniae) to 39.67% (L. raffinolactis) with an average value of 37.02%. Analysis of genome dynamics indicated that the genus Lactococcus has an open pan-genome, while the core genome size decreased with sequential addition at the genus and species group levels. A phylogenetic dendrogram based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of 643 core genes was largely consistent with the phylogenetic tree obtained by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, but it provided a more robust phylogenetic resolution than the 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. Comparative genomics indicated that species in the genus Lactococcus had high degrees of diversity in genome size, gene content, and carbohydrate metabolism. This may be important for the specific adaptations that allow different Lactococcus species to survive in different environments. These results provide a quantitative basis for understanding the genomic and metabolic diversity within the genus Lactococcus, laying the foundation for future studies on taxonomy and functional genomics.

  17. Novel genomes and genome constitutions identified by GISH and 5S rDNA and knotted1 genomic sequences in the genus Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meicheng; Zhi, Hui; Doust, Andrew N; Li, Wei; Wang, Yongfang; Li, Haiquan; Jia, Guanqing; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ning; Diao, Xianmin

    2013-04-11

    The Setaria genus is increasingly of interest to researchers, as its two species, S. viridis and S. italica, are being developed as models for understanding C4 photosynthesis and plant functional genomics. The genome constitution of Setaria species has been studied in the diploid species S. viridis, S. adhaerans and S. grisebachii, where three genomes A, B and C were identified respectively. Two allotetraploid species, S. verticillata and S. faberi, were found to have AABB genomes, and one autotetraploid species, S. queenslandica, with an AAAA genome, has also been identified. The genomes and genome constitutions of most other species remain unknown, even though it was thought there are approximately 125 species in the genus distributed world-wide. GISH was performed to detect the genome constitutions of Eurasia species of S. glauca, S. plicata, and S. arenaria, with the known A, B and C genomes as probes. No or very poor hybridization signal was detected indicating that their genomes are different from those already described. GISH was also performed reciprocally between S. glauca, S. plicata, and S. arenaria genomes, but no hybridization signals between each other were found. The two sets of chromosomes of S. lachnea both hybridized strong signals with only the known C genome of S. grisebachii. Chromosomes of Qing 9, an accession formerly considered as S. viridis, hybridized strong signal only to B genome of S. adherans. Phylogenetic trees constructed with 5S rDNA and knotted1 markers, clearly classify the samples in this study into six clusters, matching the GISH results, and suggesting that the F genome of S. arenaria is basal in the genus. Three novel genomes in the Setaria genus were identified and designated as genome D (S. glauca), E (S. plicata) and F (S. arenaria) respectively. The genome constitution of tetraploid S. lachnea is putatively CCC'C'. Qing 9 is a B genome species indigenous to China and is hypothesized to be a newly identified species. The

  18. Seed viability of five wild Saudi Arabian species by germination and X-ray tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, B A; Al-Ammari, B S

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the germination vs. the X-ray test in determining the initial viability of seeds of five wild species ( Moringa peregrina , Abrus precatorius , Arthrocnemum macrostachyum , Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis ) from Saudi Arabia. Usually several days were required to determine the viability of all five species via germination tests. However, X-ray test will give immediate results on filled/viable seeds. Seeds of all species, except Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis showed high viability in both germination (96-72% at 25/15 °C, 94-70% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (100-80%) test. Furthermore, there was a general agreement between the germination (19%, 14% at 25/15 °C and 17% and 12% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (8%, 4%) tests in which seed viability of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis was very low due to insect damaged embryo as shown in X-ray analysis. Seeds of Abruspreca torius have physical dormancy, which was broken by scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid (10 min), and they exhibited high viability in both the germination (83% at 25/15 °C and 81% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (96%) tests. Most of the nongerminated seeds of the five species except those of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis , were alive as judged by the tetrazolium test (TZ). Thus, for the five species examined, the X-ray test was proved to be a good and rapid predictor of seed viability.

  19. Ensembl Genomes: an integrative resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Paul J; Staines, Daniel M; Lawson, Daniel; Kulesha, Eugene; Derwent, Paul; Humphrey, Jay C; Hughes, Daniel S T; Keenan, Stephan; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Koscielny, Gautier; Langridge, Nicholas; McDowall, Mark D; Megy, Karine; Maheswari, Uma; Nuhn, Michael; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Toneva, Iliana; Wilson, Derek; Yates, Andrew; Birney, Ewan

    2012-01-01

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrative resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species. The project exploits and extends technology (for genome annotation, analysis and dissemination) developed in the context of the (vertebrate-focused) Ensembl project and provides a complementary set of resources for non-vertebrate species through a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces. These provide access to data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, polymorphisms and comparative analysis. Since its launch in 2009, Ensembl Genomes has undergone rapid expansion, with the goal of providing coverage of all major experimental organisms, and additionally including taxonomic reference points to provide the evolutionary context in which genes can be understood. Against the backdrop of a continuing increase in genome sequencing activities in all parts of the tree of life, we seek to work, wherever possible, with the communities actively generating and using data, and are participants in a growing range of collaborations involved in the annotation and analysis of genomes.

  20. Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflitos, Saulo; Schijlen, Elio; de Jong, Hans; de Ridder, Dick; Smit, Sandra; Finkers, Richard; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Gengyun; Li, Ning; Mao, Likai; Bakker, Freek; Dirks, Rob; Breit, Timo; Gravendeel, Barbara; Huits, Henk; Struss, Darush; Swanson-Wagner, Ruth; van Leeuwen, Hans; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Fito, Laia; Guignier, Laëtitia; Sevilla, Myrna; Ellul, Philippe; Ganko, Eric; Kapur, Arvind; Reclus, Emannuel; de Geus, Bernard; van de Geest, Henri; Te Lintel Hekkert, Bas; van Haarst, Jan; Smits, Lars; Koops, Andries; Sanchez-Perez, Gabino; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Visser, Richard; Quan, Zhiwu; Min, Jiumeng; Liao, Li; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Guangbiao; Yue, Zhen; Yang, Xinhua; Xu, Na; Schranz, Eric; Smets, Erik; Vos, Rutger; Rauwerda, Johan; Ursem, Remco; Schuit, Cees; Kerns, Mike; van den Berg, Jan; Vriezen, Wim; Janssen, Antoine; Datema, Erwin; Jahrman, Torben; Moquet, Frederic; Bonnet, Julien; Peters, Sander

    2014-10-01

    We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative of the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon and Neolycopersicon groups, which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new reference genomes were reconstructed to support our comparative genome analyses. Comparative sequence alignment revealed group-, species- and accession-specific polymorphisms, explaining characteristic fruit traits and growth habits in the various cultivars. Using gene models from the annotated Heinz 1706 reference genome, we observed differences in the ratio between non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs (dN/dS) in fruit diversification and plant growth genes compared to a random set of genes, indicating positive selection and differences in selection pressure between crop accessions and wild species. In wild species, the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) exceeds 10 million, i.e. 20-fold higher than found in most of the crop accessions, indicating dramatic genetic erosion of crop and heirloom tomatoes. In addition, the highest levels of heterozygosity were found for allogamous self-incompatible wild species, while facultative and autogamous self-compatible species display a lower heterozygosity level. Using whole-genome SNP information for maximum-likelihood analysis, we achieved complete tree resolution, whereas maximum-likelihood trees based on SNPs from ten fruit and growth genes show incomplete resolution for the crop accessions, partly due to the effect of heterozygous SNPs. Finally, results suggest that phylogenetic relationships are correlated with habitat, indicating the occurrence of geographical races within these groups, which is of practical importance for Solanum genome evolution studies. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Characterization of the Cultivable Gut Microflora in Wild-Caught 
Mediterranean Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammal, Ahmad; Bariche, Michel; Zu Dohna, Heinrich; Kambris, Zakaria

    2017-05-01

    Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract plays important roles in food digestion, nutrient absorption and in host defense against ingested pathogens. Several studies have focused on the microflora of farmed fishes, but the gut flora of wild fishes remains poorly characterized. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of the bacteria colonizing the gut of wild-caught fishes and to determine whether some bacterial species can be pathogenic. We isolated cultivable bacteria from fifteen wild-caught Mediterranean fish species corresponding to different habitat, diet and origin. Bacterial species identity was determined by 16s rRNA gene sequencing for the 61 isolates. The potential pathogenicity of isolated bacteria was investigated using fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) as model organisms. Two bacterial strains (Serratia sp. and Aeromonas salmonicida) were lethal when microinjected to Drosophila, while zebrafish did not develop any disease when exposed to any of 34 isolated bacterial strains. However, it was interesting to note that two bacterial strains (Shewanella and Arthrobacter) isolated from marine fishes were able to colonize the guts of freshwater zebrafish. The results of this study give an overview of the bacterial species found in the guts of wild fishes living off Beirut seashore. It shows that some parameters believed to be limiting factors to host-gut colonization by bacteria can be overcome by some species. This pilot study could be extended by sampling a larger number of fish species with several specimens per fish species, and by identifying uncultivable bacteria that reside in the fish guts. Our results may have implications for the utilization of certain bacterial species in fish farming or their use as bio-indicators for water and/or food quality.

  2. Reconstitution of wild type viral DNA in simian cells transfected with early and late SV40 defective genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F J; Gao, Y; Xu, X

    1993-11-01

    The DNAs of polyomaviruses ordinarily exist as a single circular molecule of approximately 5000 base pairs. Variants of SV40, BKV and JCV have been described which contain two complementing defective DNA molecules. These defectives, which form a bipartite genome structure, contain either the viral early region or the late region. The defectives have the unique property of being able to tolerate variable sized reiterations of regulatory and terminus region sequences, and portions of the coding region. They can also exchange coding region sequences with other polyomaviruses. It has been suggested that the bipartite genome structure might be a stage in the evolution of polyomaviruses which can uniquely sustain genome and sequence diversity. However, it is not known if the regulatory and terminus region sequences are highly mutable. Also, it is not known if the bipartite genome structure is reversible and what the conditions might be which would favor restoration of the monomolecular genome structure. We addressed the first question by sequencing the reiterated regulatory and terminus regions of E- and L-SV40 DNAs. This revealed a large number of mutations in the regulatory regions of the defective genomes, including deletions, insertions, rearrangements and base substitutions. We also detected insertions and base substitutions in the T-antigen gene. We addressed the second question by introducing into permissive simian cells, E- and L-SV40 genomes which had been engineered to contain only a single regulatory region. Analysis of viral DNA from transfected cells demonstrated recombined genomes containing a wild type monomolecular DNA structure. However, the complete defectives, containing reiterated regulatory regions, could often compete away the wild type genomes. The recombinant monomolecular genomes were isolated, cloned and found to be infectious. All of the DNA alterations identified in one of the regulatory regions of E-SV40 DNA were present in the recombinant

  3. Some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro as the potential sources of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljancić, I S; Vajs, V E; Tesević, V V; Milosavljević, S M

    2008-01-01

    The results of phytochemical investigation, over the last decade, of some wild-growing plant species from Serbia and Montenegro belonging to the families Asteraceae, Guttiferae and Gentianaceae are reported. Most of the investigated species are endemites and the emphasis in this report is on those exhibiting biological activities that could be regarded as the potential sources of drugs. This review comprises 154 compounds, e.g. sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids (Asteraceae), xanthones, secoiridoids and C-glucoflavonoids (Gentanaceae) and prenylated phloroglucinols (Guttiferae) as well as some other secondary metabolites, produced by the above families, which could be of pharmacological interest.

  4. Babesia spp. in European wild ruminant species: parasite diversity and risk factors for infection

    OpenAIRE

    Michel , Adam O; Mathis , Alexander; Ryser-Degiorgis , Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Babesia are tick-borne parasites that are increasingly considered as a threat to animal and public health. We aimed to assess the role of European free-ranging wild ruminants as maintenance mammalian hosts for Babesia species and to determine risk factors for infection. EDTA blood was collected from 222 roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus), 231 red deer (Cervus e. elaphus), 267 Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) and 264 Alpine ibex (Capra i. ibex) from all over Switz...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Wild Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini

    2014-06-05

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a wild peacock. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it belongs to genotype II, class II of NDV strains. This study helps to understand the ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host of this geographical region during the outbreak of 2012 in northwest India. Copyright © 2014 Khulape et al.

  6. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, William L.; LaPlant, Kyle E.; Bell, Duane C.; Jahn, Molly M.; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection. PMID:27936008

  7. Cultivar-Based Introgression Mapping Reveals Wild Species-Derived Pm-0, the Major Powdery Mildew Resistance Locus in Squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, William L; LaPlant, Kyle E; Bell, Duane C; Jahn, Molly M; Mazourek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is a major fungal disease on squash and pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) in the US and throughout the world. Genetic resistance to the disease is not known to occur naturally within Cucurbita pepo and only infrequently in Cucurbita moschata, but has been achieved in both species through the introgression of a major resistance gene from the wild species Cucurbita okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii. At present, this gene, Pm-0, is used extensively in breeding, and is found in nearly all powdery mildew-resistant C. pepo and C. moschata commercial cultivars. In this study, we mapped C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles in a set of taxonomically and morphologically diverse and resistant C. pepo and C. moschata cultivars bred at Cornell University that, by common possession of Pm-0, form a shared-trait introgression panel. High marker density was achieved using genotyping-by-sequencing, which yielded over 50,000 de novo SNP markers in each of the three Cucurbita species genotyped. A single 516.4 kb wild-derived introgression was present in all of the resistant cultivars and absent in a diverse set of heirlooms that predated the Pm-0 introgression. The contribution of this interval to powdery mildew resistance was confirmed by association mapping in a C. pepo cultivar panel that included the Cornell lines, heirlooms, and 68 additional C. pepo cultivars and with an independent F2 population derived from C. okeechobeensis subsp. martinezii x C. moschata. The interval was refined to a final candidate interval of 76.4 kb and CAPS markers were developed inside this interval to facilitate marker-assisted selection.

  8. The evolutionary genetics and emergence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien G Dugan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the genetic diversity among avian influenza virus (AIV in wild birds, comprising 167 complete viral genomes from 14 bird species sampled in four locations across the United States. These isolates represented 29 type A influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA subtype combinations, with up to 26% of isolates showing evidence of mixed subtype infection. Through a phylogenetic analysis of the largest data set of AIV genomes compiled to date, we were able to document a remarkably high rate of genome reassortment, with no clear pattern of gene segment association and occasional inter-hemisphere gene segment migration and reassortment. From this, we propose that AIV in wild birds forms transient "genome constellations," continually reshuffled by reassortment, in contrast to the spread of a limited number of stable genome constellations that characterizes the evolution of mammalian-adapted influenza A viruses.

  9. A novel genome-wide microsatellite resource for species of Eucalyptus with linkage-to-physical correspondence on the reference genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattapaglia, Dario; Mamani, Eva M C; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Faria, Danielle A

    2015-03-01

    Keystone species in their native ranges, eucalypts, are ecologically and genetically very diverse, growing naturally along extensive latitudinal and altitudinal ranges and variable environments. Besides their ecological importance, eucalypts are also the most widely planted trees for sustainable forestry in the world. We report the development of a novel collection of 535 microsatellites for species of Eucalyptus, 494 designed from ESTs and 41 from genomic libraries. A selected subset of 223 was evaluated for individual identification, parentage testing, and ancestral information content in the two most extensively studied species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus. Microsatellites showed high transferability and overlapping allele size range, suggesting they have arisen still in their common ancestor and confirming the extensive genome conservation between these two species. A consensus linkage map with 437 microsatellites, the most comprehensive microsatellite-only genetic map for Eucalyptus, was built by assembling segregation data from three mapping populations and anchored to the Eucalyptus genome. An overall colinearity between recombination-based and physical positioning of 84% of the mapped microsatellites was observed, with some ordering discrepancies and sporadic locus duplications, consistent with the recently described whole genome duplication events in Eucalyptus. The linkage map covered 95.2% of the 605.8-Mbp assembled genome sequence, placing one microsatellite every 1.55 Mbp on average, and an overall estimate of physical to recombination distance of 618 kbp/cM. The genetic parameters estimates together with linkage and physical position data for this large set of microsatellites should assist marker choice for genome-wide population genetics and comparative mapping in Eucalyptus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. De novo assembly of the Aedes aegypti genome using Hi-C yields chromosome-length scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudchenko, Olga; Batra, Sanjit S; Omer, Arina D; Nyquist, Sarah K; Hoeger, Marie; Durand, Neva C; Shamim, Muhammad S; Machol, Ido; Lander, Eric S; Aiden, Aviva Presser; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2017-04-07

    The Zika outbreak, spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, highlights the need to create high-quality assemblies of large genomes in a rapid and cost-effective way. Here we combine Hi-C data with existing draft assemblies to generate chromosome-length scaffolds. We validate this method by assembling a human genome, de novo, from short reads alone (67× coverage). We then combine our method with draft sequences to create genome assemblies of the mosquito disease vectors Ae aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus , each consisting of three scaffolds corresponding to the three chromosomes in each species. These assemblies indicate that almost all genomic rearrangements among these species occur within, rather than between, chromosome arms. The genome assembly procedure we describe is fast, inexpensive, and accurate, and can be applied to many species. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Genomic regions under selection in crop-wild hybrids of lettuce: implications for crop breeding and environmental risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The results of this thesis show that the probability of introgression of a putative transgene to wild relatives indeed depends strongly on the insertion location of the transgene. The study of genomic selection patterns can identify crop genomic regions under negative selection in multiple

  12. Where did the chili get its spice? Biogeography of capsaicinoid production in ancestral wild chili species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewksbury, Joshua J; Manchego, Carlos; Haak, David C; Levey, Douglas J

    2006-03-01

    The biogeography of pungency in three species of wild chili in the chaco and surrounding highland habitats of southeastern Bolivia is described. We report that Capsicum chacoense, C. baccatum, and C. eximium are polymorphic for production of capsaicin and its analogs, such that completely pungent and completely nonpungent individuals co-occur in some populations. In C. chacoense, the density of plants and the proportion of pungent plants increased with elevation. Above 900 m, all individuals in all populations except two were pungent; nonpungent individuals in at least one of the two polymorphic populations were likely a result of spreading by humans. The occurrence of pungent and nonpungent individuals in three species of ancestral Capsicum and the geographic variation of pungency within species suggest that production of capsaicin and its analogs entails both costs and benefits, which shift from one locality to another. Determining the selection pressures behind such shifts is necessary to understand the evolution of pungency in chilies.

  13. Analysis of the Rickettsia africae genome reveals that virulence acquisition in Rickettsia species may be explained by genome reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audic Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rickettsia genus includes 25 validated species, 17 of which are proven human pathogens. Among these, the pathogenicity varies greatly, from the highly virulent R. prowazekii, which causes epidemic typhus and kills its arthropod host, to the mild pathogen R. africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever, which does not affect the fitness of its tick vector. Results We evaluated the clonality of R. africae in 70 patients and 155 ticks, and determined its genome sequence, which comprises a circular chromosome of 1,278,540 bp including a tra operon and an unstable 12,377-bp plasmid. To study the genetic characteristics associated with virulence, we compared this species to R. prowazekii, R. rickettsii and R. conorii. R. africae and R. prowazekii have, respectively, the less and most decayed genomes. Eighteen genes are present only in R. africae including one with a putative protease domain upregulated at 37°C. Conclusion Based on these data, we speculate that a loss of regulatory genes causes an increase of virulence of rickettsial species in ticks and mammals. We also speculate that in Rickettsia species virulence is mostly associated with gene loss. The genome sequence was deposited in GenBank under accession number [GenBank: NZ_AAUY01000001].

  14. Human impact on wild firewood species in the rural Andes community of Apillapampa, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Douterlungne, David; Vandebroek, Ina; Heens, Frieke; Goetghebeur, Paul; Van Damme, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Firewood is the basic fuel source in rural Bolivia. A study was conducted in an Andean village of subsistence farmers to investigate human impact on wild firewood species. A total of 114 different fuel species was inventoried during fieldtrips and transect sampling. Specific data on abundance and growth height of wild firewood species were collected in thirty-six transects of 50 ×2 m(2). Information on fuel uses of plants was obtained from 13 local Quechua key participants. To appraise the impact of fuel harvest, the extraction impact value (EIV) index was developed. This index takes into account local participants' appreciation of (1) decreasing plant abundance; (2) regeneration capacity of plants; (3) impact of root harvesting; and (4) quality of firewood. Results suggest that several (sub-)woody plant species are negatively affected by firewood harvesting. We found that anthropogenic pressure, expressed as EIV, covaried with density of firewood species, which could entail higher human pressure on more abundant and/or more accessible species. The apparent negative impact of anthropogenic pressure on populations of wild fuel species is corroborated by our finding that, in addition to altitude, several anthropogenic variables (i.e. site accessibility, cultivation of exotics and burning practices) explain part of the variation in height of firewood species in the surroundings of Apillapampa.

  15. Monitoring potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Feng, D.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds and poultry have caught worldwide attention. To explore the association between wild bird migration and avian influenza virus transmission, we monitored potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species that might carry the avian influenza viruses in China. They are Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). They served as major reservoir of the avian influenza viruses. We used bird watching records with the precise latitude/longitude coordinates from January 2002 to August 2014, and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 5 km × 5 km from 2002 to 2014. The study utilized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on ecological niche model approaches, and got the following results: 1) MaxEnt model have good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.86-0.97; 2) The four wild bird species were estimated to concentrate in the North China Plain, the middle and lower region of the Yangtze River, Qinghai Lake, Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, part of Tibet Plateau, and Hengduan Mountains; 3) Radiation and the minimum temperature were found to provide the most significant information. Our findings will help to understand the spread of avian influenza viruses by wild bird migration in China, which benefits for effective monitoring strategies and prevention measures.

  16. Genome re-sequencing of semi-wild soybean reveals a complex Soja population structure and deep introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qiu

    Full Text Available Semi-wild soybean is a unique type of soybean that retains both wild and domesticated characteristics, which provides an important intermediate type for understanding the evolution of the subgenus Soja population in the Glycine genus. In this study, a semi-wild soybean line (Maliaodou and a wild line (Lanxi 1 collected from the lower Yangtze regions were deeply sequenced while nine other semi-wild lines were sequenced to a 3-fold genome coverage. Sequence analysis revealed that (1 no independent phylogenetic branch covering all 10 semi-wild lines was observed in the Soja phylogenetic tree; (2 besides two distinct subpopulations of wild and cultivated soybean in the Soja population structure, all semi-wild lines were mixed with some wild lines into a subpopulation rather than an independent one or an intermediate transition type of soybean domestication; (3 high heterozygous rates (0.19-0.49 were observed in several semi-wild lines; and (4 over 100 putative selective regions were identified by selective sweep analysis, including those related to the development of seed size. Our results suggested a hybridization origin for the semi-wild soybean, which makes a complex Soja population structure.

  17. Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Wild female black flies attracted to a man or an idling automobile were collected at Oita, Japan where five cases of zoonotic onchocerciasis had occurred. Among the five Simulium species captured, 2% of Simulium bidentatum, the predominant species, were infected with filarial larvae. There were at least two types of infective larvae, types A and B, based on morphometric observation. Moreover, molecular analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene revealed that types A and B were represented by a single unknown species of Onchocerca and two species, i.e., Onchocerca dewittei japonica from wild boar, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan, and an undescribed Onchocerca sp. from wild boar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rRNA gene also showed that type A is likely to be an unknown species of Onchocerca. Natural infection of black flies with infective larvae of O. dewittei japonica and O. sp. was demonstrated for the first time. The present study strongly suggests that S. bidentatum plays a role as a vector in the transmission of zoonotic onchocerciasis due to O. dewittei japonica in Japan.

  18. Genomic affinity between Oryza sativa and Oryza brachyantha as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... distantly related wild species, usually difficult to produce. These hybrids are ... assessment of genomic relationship between these two species by .... closely related and the sterility of the hybrid may be due to genetics and not ...

  19. Discrimination and similarity evaluation of tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobium species using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-dong; Chen, Han; Li, Jun; Sang, Mang-mang; Ding, Shen; Yu, Hao

    2015-04-01

    The FTIR method was applied to evaluate the similarity of tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobium huoshanense C.Z. Tang et S.J. Cheng, Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo and Dendrobium moniliforme (Linn.) Sw and discriminate different Dendrobium species, especially D. huoshanense and its main goldbrick Dendrobium henanense J.L. Lu et L.X. Gao. Despite the general pattern of the IR spectra, different intensities, shapes and peak positions were found in the IR spectra of these samples, especially in the range of 1800-600 cm-1, which could be used to discriminate them. The methanol, aqueous extracting procedure and the second derivative transformation obviously enlarged the tiny spectral differences among these samples. The similarity evaluation based on the IR spectra and the second derivative IR spectrum revealed that the similarity of the methanol extracts between tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobiums might be lower than that between different Dendrobium species. The similarities of the powders and aqueous extracts between tissue-cultured and wild Dendrobiums were higher than those between different Dendrobium species. The further principal component analysis showed that the first three components explained 99.7%, 87.7% and 85.1% of data variance for powder, methanol extract and aqueous extract, respectively, demonstrating a good discrimination between samples. Our research suggested that the variations of secondary metabolites between different origins of the investigated Dendrobiums might be higher than what we had supposed. Tissue culture techniques were widely used in the conversation of rare and endangered medicinal amedica, however, our study suggested that the chemical constituents of tissue-cultured plants might be quite different from their wild correspondences.

  20. Differential paralog divergence modulates genome evolution across yeast species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R Sanchez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary outcomes depend not only on the selective forces acting upon a species, but also on the genetic background. However, large timescales and uncertain historical selection pressures can make it difficult to discern such important background differences between species. Experimental evolution is one tool to compare evolutionary potential of known genotypes in a controlled environment. Here we utilized a highly reproducible evolutionary adaptation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate whether experimental evolution of other yeast species would select for similar adaptive mutations. We evolved populations of S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, S. mikatae, S. uvarum, and interspecific hybrids between S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae for ~200-500 generations in sulfate-limited continuous culture. Wild-type S. cerevisiae cultures invariably amplify the high affinity sulfate transporter gene, SUL1. However, while amplification of the SUL1 locus was detected in S. paradoxus and S. mikatae populations, S. uvarum cultures instead selected for amplification of the paralog, SUL2. We measured the relative fitness of strains bearing deletions and amplifications of both SUL genes from different species, confirming that, converse to S. cerevisiae, S. uvarum SUL2 contributes more to fitness in sulfate limitation than S. uvarum SUL1. By measuring the fitness and gene expression of chimeric promoter-ORF constructs, we were able to delineate the cause of this differential fitness effect primarily to the promoter of S. uvarum SUL1. Our data show evidence of differential sub-functionalization among the sulfate transporters across Saccharomyces species through recent changes in noncoding sequence. Furthermore, these results show a clear example of how such background differences due to paralog divergence can drive changes in genome evolution.

  1. Genome Sequences of Three Vaccine Strains and Two Wild-Type Canine Distemper Virus Strains from a Recent Disease Outbreak in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Angelika K; Du Plessis, Morné; Dalton, Desiré Lee; Mitchell, Emily; Venter, Estelle H

    2017-07-06

    Canine distemper virus causes global multihost infectious disease. This report details complete genome sequences of three vaccine and two new wild-type strains. The wild-type strains belong to the South African lineage, and all three vaccine strains to the America 1 lineage. This constitutes the first genomic sequences of this virus from South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Loots et al.

  2. Seed viability of five wild Saudi Arabian species by germination and X-ray tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Al-Hammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the germination vs. the X-ray test in determining the initial viability of seeds of five wild species (Moringa peregrina, Abrus precatorius, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis from Saudi Arabia. Usually several days were required to determine the viability of all five species via germination tests. However, X-ray test will give immediate results on filled/viable seeds. Seeds of all species, except Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis showed high viability in both germination (96–72% at 25/15 °C, 94–70% at 35/25 °C and X-ray (100–80% test. Furthermore, there was a general agreement between the germination (19%, 14% at 25/15 °C and 17% and 12% at 35/25 °C and X-ray (8%, 4% tests in which seed viability of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis was very low due to insect damaged embryo as shown in X-ray analysis. Seeds of Abruspreca torius have physical dormancy, which was broken by scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid (10 min, and they exhibited high viability in both the germination (83% at 25/15 °C and 81% at 35/25 °C and X-ray (96% tests. Most of the nongerminated seeds of the five species except those of Acacia ehrenbergiana and Acacia tortilis, were alive as judged by the tetrazolium test (TZ. Thus, for the five species examined, the X-ray test was proved to be a good and rapid predictor of seed viability.

  3. 78 FR 13694 - Conference of the Parties to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); Sixteenth Regular Meeting; Tentative U.S. Negotiating Positions for... Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), will attend the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna...

  4. Evaluation of Wild Lentil Species as Genetic Resources to Improve Drought Tolerance in Cultivated Lentil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Y. Gorim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly unpredictable annual rainfall amounts and distribution patterns have far reaching implications for pulse crop biology. Seedling and whole plant survival will be affected given that water is a key factor in plant photosynthesis and also influences the evolving disease spectrum that affects crops. The wild relatives of cultivated lentil are native to drought prone areas, making them good candidates for the evaluation of drought tolerance traits. We evaluated root and shoot traits of genotypes of cultivated lentil and five wild species grown under two water deficit regimes as well as fully watered conditions over a 13 week period indoors. Plants were grown in sectioned polyvinyl chloride (PVC tubes containing field soil from the A, B, and C horizons. We found that root distribution into different soil horizons varied among wild lentil genotypes. Secondly, wild lentil genotypes employed diverse strategies such as delayed flowering, reduced transpiration rates, reduced plant height, and deep root systems to either escape, evade or tolerate drought conditions. In some cases, more than one drought strategy was observed within the same genotype. Sequence based classification of wild and cultivated genotypes did not explain patterns of drought response. The environmental conditions at their centers of origin may explain the patterns of drought strategies observed in wild lentils. The production of numerous small seeds by wild lentil genotypes may have implications for yield improvement in lentil breeding programs.

  5. Mitochondrial genomic comparison of Clonorchis sinensis from South Korea with other isolates of this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daxi; Young, Neil D; Koehler, Anson V; Tan, Patrick; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Korhonen, Pasi K; Gasser, Robin B

    2017-07-01

    Clonorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects >35 million people mainly in China, Vietnam, South Korea and some parts of Russia. The disease-causing agent, Clonorchis sinensis, is a liver fluke of humans and other piscivorous animals, and has a complex aquatic life cycle involving snails and fish intermediate hosts. Chronic infection in humans causes liver disease and associated complications including malignant bile duct cancer. Central to control and to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of the specific identity of the causative agent as well as genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single species and that genetic variation within the species is limited, karyotypic variation within C. sinensis among China, Korea (2n=56) and Russian Far East (2n=14) suggests that this taxon might contain sibling species. Here, we assessed and applied a deep sequencing-bioinformatic approach to sequence and define a reference mitochondrial (mt) genome for a particular isolate of C. sinensis from Korea (Cs-k2), to confirm its specific identity, and compared this mt genome with homologous data sets available for this species. Comparative analyses revealed consistency in the number and structure of genes as well as in the lengths of protein-coding genes, and limited genetic variation among isolates of C. sinensis. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences predicted from mt genes showed that representatives of C. sinensis clustered together, with absolute nodal support, to the exclusion of other liver fluke representatives, but sub-structuring within C. sinensis was not well supported. The plan now is to proceed with the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a high quality draft nuclear genome of this defined isolate (Cs-k2) as a basis for a detailed investigation of molecular variation within C. sinensis from disparate

  6. Genomics Strategies for Germplasm Characterization and the Development of Climate Resilient Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHenry

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security requires the development and deployment of crop varieties resilient to climate variation and change. The study of variations in the genome of wild plant populations can be used to guide crop improvement. Genome variation found in wild crop relatives may be directly relevant to the breeding of environmentally adapted and climate resilient crops. Analysis of the genomes of populations growing in contrasting environments will reveal the genes subject to natural selection in adaptation to climate variations. Whole genome sequencing of these populations should define the numbers and types of genes associated with climate adaptation. This strategy is facilitated by recent advances in sequencing technologies. Wild relatives of rice and barley have been used to assess these approaches. This strategy is most easily applied to species for which a high quality reference genome sequence is available and where populations of wild relatives can be found growing in diverse environments or across environmental gradients.

  7. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  8. Variation, Evolution, and Correlation Analysis of C+G Content and Genome or Chromosome Size in Different Kingdoms and Phyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Qing; Du, Donglei

    2014-01-01

    C+G content (GC content or G+C content) is known to be correlated with genome/chromosome size in bacteria but the relationship for other kingdoms remains unclear. This study analyzed genome size, chromosome size, and base composition in most of the available sequenced genomes in various kingdoms. Genome size tends to increase during evolution in plants and animals, and the same is likely true for bacteria. The genomic C+G contents were found to vary greatly in microorganisms but were quite similar within each animal or plant subkingdom. In animals and plants, the C+G contents are ranked as follows: monocot plants>mammals>non-mammalian animals>dicot plants. The variation in C+G content between chromosomes within species is greater in animals than in plants. The correlation between average chromosome C+G content and chromosome length was found to be positive in Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria (but not in other analyzed bacterial phyla), Ascomycota fungi, and likely also in some plants; negative in some animals, insignificant in two protist phyla, and likely very weak in Archaea. Clearly, correlations between C+G content and chromosome size can be positive, negative, or not significant depending on the kingdoms/groups or species. Different phyla or species exhibit different patterns of correlation between chromosome-size and C+G content. Most chromosomes within a species have a similar pattern of variation in C+G content but outliers are common. The data presented in this study suggest that the C+G content is under genetic control by both trans- and cis- factors and that the correlation between C+G content and chromosome length can be positive, negative, or not significant in different phyla. PMID:24551092

  9. 4Cin: A computational pipeline for 3D genome modeling and virtual Hi-C analyses from 4C data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibai Irastorza-Azcarate

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of 3C-based methods has revealed the importance of the 3D organization of the chromatin for key aspects of genome biology. However, the different caveats of the variants of 3C techniques have limited their scope and the range of scientific fields that could benefit from these approaches. To address these limitations, we present 4Cin, a method to generate 3D models and derive virtual Hi-C (vHi-C heat maps of genomic loci based on 4C-seq or any kind of 4C-seq-like data, such as those derived from NG Capture-C. 3D genome organization is determined by integrative consideration of the spatial distances derived from as few as four 4C-seq experiments. The 3D models obtained from 4C-seq data, together with their associated vHi-C maps, allow the inference of all chromosomal contacts within a given genomic region, facilitating the identification of Topological Associating Domains (TAD boundaries. Thus, 4Cin offers a much cheaper, accessible and versatile alternative to other available techniques while providing a comprehensive 3D topological profiling. By studying TAD modifications in genomic structural variants associated to disease phenotypes and performing cross-species evolutionary comparisons of 3D chromatin structures in a quantitative manner, we demonstrate the broad potential and novel range of applications of our method.

  10. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aconitum coreanum and Aconitum carmichaelii and comparative analysis with other Aconitum species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyu Park

    Full Text Available Aconitum species (belonging to the Ranunculaceae are well known herbaceous medicinal ingredients and have great economic value in Asian countries. However, there are still limited genomic resources available for Aconitum species. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast (cp genomes of two Aconitum species, A. coreanum and A. carmichaelii, using the MiSeq platform. The two Aconitum chloroplast genomes were 155,880 and 157,040 bp in length, respectively, and exhibited LSC and SSC regions separated by a pair of inverted repeat regions. Both cp genomes had 38% GC content and contained 131 unique functional genes including 86 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 transfer RNA genes. The gene order, content, and orientation of the two Aconitum cp genomes exhibited the general structure of angiosperms, and were similar to those of other Aconitum species. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order with that of other Aconitum species revealed general contraction and expansion of the inverted repeat regions and single copy boundary regions. Divergent regions were also identified. In phylogenetic analysis, Aconitum species positon among the Ranunculaceae was determined with other family cp genomes in the Ranunculales. We obtained a barcoding target sequence in a divergent region, ndhC-trnV, and successfully developed a SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region marker for discrimination of A. coreanum. Our results provide useful genetic information and a specific barcode for discrimination of Aconitum species.

  11. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Aconitum coreanum and Aconitum carmichaelii and comparative analysis with other Aconitum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Inkyu; Kim, Wook-Jin; Yang, Sungyu; Yeo, Sang-Min; Li, Hulin; Moon, Byeong Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Aconitum species (belonging to the Ranunculaceae) are well known herbaceous medicinal ingredients and have great economic value in Asian countries. However, there are still limited genomic resources available for Aconitum species. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast (cp) genomes of two Aconitum species, A. coreanum and A. carmichaelii, using the MiSeq platform. The two Aconitum chloroplast genomes were 155,880 and 157,040 bp in length, respectively, and exhibited LSC and SSC regions separated by a pair of inverted repeat regions. Both cp genomes had 38% GC content and contained 131 unique functional genes including 86 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 transfer RNA genes. The gene order, content, and orientation of the two Aconitum cp genomes exhibited the general structure of angiosperms, and were similar to those of other Aconitum species. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order with that of other Aconitum species revealed general contraction and expansion of the inverted repeat regions and single copy boundary regions. Divergent regions were also identified. In phylogenetic analysis, Aconitum species positon among the Ranunculaceae was determined with other family cp genomes in the Ranunculales. We obtained a barcoding target sequence in a divergent region, ndhC-trnV, and successfully developed a SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) marker for discrimination of A. coreanum. Our results provide useful genetic information and a specific barcode for discrimination of Aconitum species.

  12. Novel and highly informative Capsicum SSR markers and their cross-species transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buso, G S C; Reis, A M M; Amaral, Z P S; Ferreira, M E

    2016-09-23

    This study was undertaken primarily to develop new simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for Capsicum. As part of this project aimed at broadening the use of molecular tools in Capsicum breeding, two genomic libraries enriched for AG/TC repeat sequences were constructed for Capsicum annuum. A total of 475 DNA clones were sequenced from both libraries and 144 SSR markers were tested on cultivated and wild species of Capsicum. Forty-five SSR markers were randomly selected to genotype a panel of 48 accessions of the Capsicum germplasm bank. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 11, with an average of 6 alleles. The polymorphism information content was on average 0.60, ranging from 0.20 to 0.83. The cross-species transferability to seven cultivated and wild Capsicum species was tested with a set of 91 SSR markers. We found that a high proportion of the loci produced amplicons in all species tested. C. frutescens had the highest number of transferable markers, whereas the wild species had the lowest. Our results indicate that the new markers can be readily used in genetic analyses of Capsicum.

  13. Recombination in the evolution of enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus. However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C. In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5'UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses.

  14. Genomics Assisted Ancestry Deconvolution in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Reisch, Bruce; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Schwaninger, Heidi; Simon, Charles; Buckler, Edward; Myles, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars. PMID:24244717

  15. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  16. Transposon fingerprinting using low coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Saemundur; Gill, Navdeep; Kane, Nolan C; Cronk, Quentin

    2013-07-24

    Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive elements are a large and dynamically evolving part of eukaryotic genomes, especially in plants where they can account for a significant proportion of genome size. Their dynamic nature gives them the potential for use in identifying and characterizing crop germplasm. However, their repetitive nature makes them challenging to study using conventional methods of molecular biology. Next generation sequencing and new computational tools have greatly facilitated the investigation of TE variation within species and among closely related species. (i) We generated low-coverage Illumina whole genome shotgun sequencing reads for multiple individuals of cacao (Theobroma cacao) and related species. These reads were analysed using both an alignment/mapping approach and a de novo (graph based clustering) approach. (ii) A standard set of ultra-conserved orthologous sequences (UCOS) standardized TE data between samples and provided phylogenetic information on the relatedness of samples. (iii) The mapping approach proved highly effective within the reference species but underestimated TE abundance in interspecific comparisons relative to the de novo methods. (iv) Individual T. cacao accessions have unique patterns of TE abundance indicating that the TE composition of the genome is evolving actively within this species. (v) LTR/Gypsy elements are the most abundant, comprising c.10% of the genome. (vi) Within T. cacao the retroelement families show an order of magnitude greater sequence variability than the DNA transposon families. (vii) Theobroma grandiflorum has a similar TE composition to T. cacao, but the related genus Herrania is rather different, with LTRs making up a lower proportion of the genome, perhaps because of a massive presence (c. 20%) of distinctive low complexity satellite-like repeats in this genome. (i) Short read alignment/mapping to reference TE contigs provides a simple and effective method of investigating

  17. Genome size of 14 species of fireflies (Insecta, Coleoptera, Lampyridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Chun Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genome size data are important both as the basis for comparative research into genome evolution and as estimators of the cost and difficulty of genome sequencing programs for non-model organisms. In this study, the genome size of 14 species of fireflies (Lampyridae (two genera in Lampyrinae, three genera in Luciolinae, and one genus in subfamily incertae sedis were estimated by propidium iodide (PI-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes of Lampyridae ranged from 0.42 to 1.31 pg, a 3.1-fold span. Genome sizes of the fireflies varied within the tested subfamilies and genera. Lamprigera and Pyrocoelia species had large and small genome sizes, respectively. No correlation was found between genome size and morphological traits such as body length, body width, eye width, and antennal length. Our data provide additional information on genome size estimation of the firefly family Lampyridae. Furthermore, this study will help clarify the cost and difficulty of genome sequencing programs for non-model organisms and will help promote studies on firefly genome evolution.

  18. Estimating radionuclide transfer to wild species-data requirements and availability for terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N A; Broadley, M R; Howard, B J; Barnett, C L; White, P J

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the transfer of radionuclides to wild species is an important component in the estimation of predicted doses to biota. Reviews of available data for the many potential radionuclide-biota combinations which may be required for environmental assessments highlight many data gaps for terrestrial species. Here, we discuss different approaches which have been suggested to compensate for these data gaps. All of the reviewed approaches have merit; however, there is a requirement for transparency in methodology and data provenance which in some instances is currently missing. Furthermore, there is a need to validate the various methodologies to enable their use with confidence. The requirements of improving our ability to predict radionuclide transfer to wild species are discussed and recommendations made

  19. Introduction of wild MAP species into the field culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušková, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Althea officinalis L., Dracocephalum moldavica L., Gentiana lutea L., Rhodiola rosea L., and Valeriana officinalis L. are the species of wild medicinal plants which are not very commonly grown in field culture. The methods and practical experiences of their multiplication and growing in a field nursery in Olomouc (the Czech Republic are explained and shown in the manuscript.

  20. Resource base influences genome-wide DNA methylation levels in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Amanda J.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.; Tung, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Variation in resource availability commonly exerts strong effects on fitness-related traits in wild animals. However, we know little about the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, or about their persistence over time. To address these questions, we profiled genome-wide whole blood DNA methylation levels in two sets of wild baboons: (i) ‘wild-feeding’ baboons that foraged naturally in a savanna environment and (ii) ‘Lodge’ baboons that had ready access to spatially concentrated human food scraps, resulting in high feeding efficiency and low daily travel distances. We identified 1,014 sites (0.20% of sites tested) that were differentially methylated between wild-feeding and Lodge baboons, providing the first evidence that resource availability shapes the epigenome in a wild mammal. Differentially methylated sites tended to occur in contiguous stretches (i.e., in differentially methylated regions or DMRs), in promoters and enhancers, and near metabolism-related genes, supporting their functional importance in gene regulation. In agreement, reporter assay experiments confirmed that methylation at the largest identified DMR, located in the promoter of a key glycolysis-related gene, was sufficient to causally drive changes in gene expression. Intriguingly, all dispersing males carried a consistent epigenetic signature of their membership in a wild-feeding group, regardless of whether males dispersed into or out of this group as adults. Together, our findings support a role for DNA methylation in mediating ecological effects on phenotypic traits in the wild, and emphasize the dynamic environmental sensitivity of DNA methylation levels across the life course. PMID:26508127

  1. Genome-wide analysis of codon usage bias in four sequenced cotton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyuan; Xing, Huixian; Yuan, Yanchao; Wang, Xianlin; Saeed, Muhammad; Tao, Jincai; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Guihua; Song, Xianliang; Sun, Xuezhen

    2018-01-01

    Codon usage bias (CUB) is an important evolutionary feature in a genome which provides important information for studying organism evolution, gene function and exogenous gene expression. The CUB and its shaping factors in the nuclear genomes of four sequenced cotton species, G. arboreum (A2), G. raimondii (D5), G. hirsutum (AD1) and G. barbadense (AD2) were analyzed in the present study. The effective number of codons (ENC) analysis showed the CUB was weak in these four species and the four subgenomes of the two tetraploids. Codon composition analysis revealed these four species preferred to use pyrimidine-rich codons more frequently than purine-rich codons. Correlation analysis indicated that the base content at the third position of codons affect the degree of codon preference. PR2-bias plot and ENC-plot analyses revealed that the CUB patterns in these genomes and subgenomes were influenced by combined effects of translational selection, directional mutation and other factors. The translational selection (P2) analysis results, together with the non-significant correlation between GC12 and GC3, further revealed that translational selection played the dominant role over mutation pressure in the codon usage bias. Through relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis, we detected 25 high frequency codons preferred to end with T or A, and 31 low frequency codons inclined to end with C or G in these four species and four subgenomes. Finally, 19 to 26 optimal codons with 19 common ones were determined for each species and subgenomes, which preferred to end with A or T. We concluded that the codon usage bias was weak and the translation selection was the main shaping factor in nuclear genes of these four cotton genomes and four subgenomes.

  2. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon: a genome-wide view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Molina, Jeanmaire; Flowers, Jonathan M; Rubinstein, Samara; Jackson, Scott A; Purugganan, Michael D; Schaal, Barbara A

    2012-09-01

    Asian wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) that ranges widely across the eastern and southern part of Asia is recognized as the direct ancestor of cultivated Asian rice (O. sativa). Studies of the geographic structure of O. rufipogon, based on chloroplast and low-copy nuclear markers, reveal a possible phylogeographic signal of subdivision in O. rufipogon. However, this signal of geographic differentiation is not consistently observed among different markers and studies, with often conflicting results. To more precisely characterize the phylogeography of O. rufipogon populations, a genome-wide survey of unlinked markers, intensively sampled from across the entire range of O. rufipogon is critical. In this study, we surveyed sequence variation at 42 genome-wide sequence tagged sites (STS) in 108 O. rufipogon accessions from throughout the native range of the species. Using Bayesian clustering, principal component analysis and amova, we conclude that there are two genetically distinct O. rufipogon groups, Ruf-I and Ruf-II. The two groups exhibit a clinal variation pattern generally from north-east to south-west. Different from many earlier studies, Ruf-I, which is found mainly in China and the Indochinese Peninsula, shows genetic similarity with one major cultivated rice variety, O. satvia indica, whereas Ruf-II, mainly from South Asia and the Indochinese Peninsula, is not found to be closely related to cultivated rice varieties. The other major cultivated rice variety, O. sativa japonica, is not found to be similar to either O. rufipogon groups. Our results support the hypothesis of a single origin of the domesticated O. sativa in China. The possible role of palaeoclimate, introgression and migration-drift balance in creating this clinal variation pattern is also discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

  4. Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Günç Ergönül

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2. Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

  5. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J., E-mail: jessica.j.vamathevan@gsk.com [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Kenny, Steve [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Brown, James R. [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA (United States); Huxley-Jones, Julie [UK Platform Technology Sciences (PTS) Operations and Planning, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John [Safety Assessment, PTS, GlaxoSmithKline, Ware (United Kingdom); Min, Jiumeng [BGI-Shenzen, Shenzhen (China); Sanseau, Philippe [Computational Biology, Quantitative Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns.

  6. Minipig and beagle animal model genomes aid species selection in pharmaceutical discovery and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J.; Hall, Matthew D.; Hasan, Samiul; Woollard, Peter M.; Xu, Meng; Yang, Yulan; Li, Xin; Wang, Xiaoli; Kenny, Steve; Brown, James R.; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Lyon, Jon; Haselden, John; Min, Jiumeng; Sanseau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Improving drug attrition remains a challenge in pharmaceutical discovery and development. A major cause of early attrition is the demonstration of safety signals which can negate any therapeutic index previously established. Safety attrition needs to be put in context of clinical translation (i.e. human relevance) and is negatively impacted by differences between animal models and human. In order to minimize such an impact, an earlier assessment of pharmacological target homology across animal model species will enhance understanding of the context of animal safety signals and aid species selection during later regulatory toxicology studies. Here we sequenced the genomes of the Sus scrofa Göttingen minipig and the Canis familiaris beagle, two widely used animal species in regulatory safety studies. Comparative analyses of these new genomes with other key model organisms, namely mouse, rat, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque, two related breeds (S. scrofa Duroc and C. familiaris boxer) and human reveal considerable variation in gene content. Key genes in toxicology and metabolism studies, such as the UGT2 family, CYP2D6, and SLCO1A2, displayed unique duplication patterns. Comparisons of 317 known human drug targets revealed surprising variation such as species-specific positive selection, duplication and higher occurrences of pseudogenized targets in beagle (41 genes) relative to minipig (19 genes). These data will facilitate the more effective use of animals in biomedical research. - Highlights: • Genomes of the minipig and beagle dog, two species used in pharmaceutical studies. • First systematic comparative genome analysis of human and six experimental animals. • Key drug toxicology genes display unique duplication patterns across species. • Comparison of 317 drug targets show species-specific evolutionary patterns

  7. Field protocols for the genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bulatova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available For many decades karyotype was the only source of overall genomic information obtained from species of mammal. However, approaches have been developed in recent years to obtain molecular and ultimately genomic information directly from the extracted DNA of an organism. Molecular data have accumulated hugely for mammalian taxa. The growing volume of studies should motivate field researchers to collect suitable samples for molecular analysis from various species across all their ranges. This is the reason why we here include a molecular sampling procedure within a field work protocol, which also includes more traditional (including cytogenetic techniques. In this way we hope to foster the development of molecular and genomic studies in non-standard wild mammals.

  8. Recombinant Goose Circoviruses Circulating in Domesticated and Wild Geese in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stenzel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that infect a variety of animals, both domestic and wild. Circovirus infection in birds is associated with immunosuppression and this in turn predisposes the infected animals to secondary infections that can lead to mortality. Farmed geese (Anser anser in many parts of the world are infected with circoviruses. The majority of the current genomic information for goose circoviruses (GoCVs (n = 40 are from birds sampled in China and Taiwan, and only two genome sequences are available from Europe (Germany and Poland. In this study, we sampled 23 wild and 19 domestic geese from the Gopło Lake area in Poland. We determined the genomes of GoCV from 21 geese; 14 domestic Greylag geese (Anser anser, three wild Greylag geese (A. anser, three bean geese (A. fabalis, and one white fronted goose (A. albifrons. These genomes share 83–95% nucleotide pairwise identities with previously identified GoCV genomes, most are recombinants with exchanged fragment sizes up to 50% of the genome. Higher diversity levels can be seen within the genomes from domestic geese compared with those from wild geese. In the GoCV capsid protein (cp and replication associated protein (rep gene sequences we found that episodic positive selection appears to largely mirror those of beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus. Analysis of the secondary structure of the ssDNA genome revealed a conserved stem-loop structure with the G-C rich stem having a high degree of negative selection on these nucleotides.

  9. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Six Rehmannia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyun Zeng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rehmannia is a non-parasitic genus in Orobanchaceae including six species mainly distributed in central and north China. Its phylogenetic position and infrageneric relationships remain uncertain due to potential hybridization and polyploidization. In this study, we sequenced and compared the complete chloroplast genomes of six Rehmannia species using Illumina sequencing technology to elucidate the interspecific variations. Rehmannia plastomes exhibited typical quadripartite and circular structures with good synteny of gene order. The complete genomes ranged from 153,622 bp to 154,055 bp in length, including 133 genes encoding 88 proteins, 37 tRNAs, and 8 rRNAs. Three genes (rpoA, rpoC2, accD have potentially experienced positive selection. Plastome size variation of Rehmannia was mainly ascribed to the expansion and contraction of the border regions between the inverted repeat (IR region and the single-copy (SC regions. Despite of the conserved structure in Rehmannia plastomes, sequence variations provide useful phylogenetic information. Phylogenetic trees of 23 Lamiales species reconstructed with the complete plastomes suggested that Rehmannia was monophyletic and sister to the clade of Lindenbergia and the parasitic taxa in Orobanchaceae. The interspecific relationships within Rehmannia were completely different with the previous studies. In future, population phylogenomic works based on plastomes are urgently needed to clarify the evolutionary history of Rehmannia.

  10. Genome-wide analysis of allele frequency change in sunflower crop-wild hybrid populations evolving under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybridization is known to occur between cultivated and wild populations of numerous plant species. This represents a major mechanism by which a wild population’s genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics could be altered. Studying crop-derived alleles in wild populations is also relevant to assess...

  11. Detection of cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, A.F.; Jensen, T.; Seawright, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author)

  12. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplement to IUCN Bulletin, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the endangered species of wild animals and plants of the world prompted the drafting of this international convention regulating the import, export, and re-export of such species. Nations signing this document are required to impose strict controls on the international trade of these plants and animals or their recognizable parts. The…

  13. Determination of seed viability of eight wild Saudi Arabian species by germination and X-ray tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turki, Turki A; Baskin, Carol C

    2017-05-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the usefulness of the germination vs. the X-ray test in determining the initial viability of seeds of eight wild species ( Salvia spinosa , Salvia aegyptiaca , Ochradenus baccatus , Ochradenus arabicus , Suaeda aegyptiaca , Suaeda vermiculata , Prosopisfarcta and Panicumturgidum ) from Saudi Arabia. Several days were required to determine viability of all eight species via germination tests, while immediate results on filled/viable seeds were obtained with the X-ray test. Seeds of all the species, except Sa.aegyptiaca , showed high viability in both the germination (98-70% at 25/15 °C, 93-66% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (100-75%) test. Furthermore, there was general agreement between the germination (10% at 25/15 °C and 8% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (5%) tests that seed viability of Sa.aegyptiaca was very low, and X-ray analysis revealed that this was due to poor embryo development. Seeds of P.farcta have physical dormancy, which was broken by scarification in concentrated sulfuric acid (10 min), and they exhibited high viability in both the germination (98% at 25/15 °C and 93% at 35/25 °C) and X-ray (98%) test. Most of the nongerminated seeds of the eight species except those of Sa.aegyptiaca were alive as judged by the tetrazolium test (TZ). Thus, for the eight species examined, the X-ray test was a good and rapid predictor of seed viability.

  14. Pairagon: a highly accurate, HMM-based cDNA-to-genome aligner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, David V; Brown, Randall H; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Brent, Michael R

    2009-07-01

    The most accurate way to determine the intron-exon structures in a genome is to align spliced cDNA sequences to the genome. Thus, cDNA-to-genome alignment programs are a key component of most annotation pipelines. The scoring system used to choose the best alignment is a primary determinant of alignment accuracy, while heuristics that prevent consideration of certain alignments are a primary determinant of runtime and memory usage. Both accuracy and speed are important considerations in choosing an alignment algorithm, but scoring systems have received much less attention than heuristics. We present Pairagon, a pair hidden Markov model based cDNA-to-genome alignment program, as the most accurate aligner for sequences with high- and low-identity levels. We conducted a series of experiments testing alignment accuracy with varying sequence identity. We first created 'perfect' simulated cDNA sequences by splicing the sequences of exons in the reference genome sequences of fly and human. The complete reference genome sequences were then mutated to various degrees using a realistic mutation simulator and the perfect cDNAs were aligned to them using Pairagon and 12 other aligners. To validate these results with natural sequences, we performed cross-species alignment using orthologous transcripts from human, mouse and rat. We found that aligner accuracy is heavily dependent on sequence identity. For sequences with 100% identity, Pairagon achieved accuracy levels of >99.6%, with one quarter of the errors of any other aligner. Furthermore, for human/mouse alignments, which are only 85% identical, Pairagon achieved 87% accuracy, higher than any other aligner. Pairagon source and executables are freely available at http://mblab.wustl.edu/software/pairagon/

  15. Chemical, Bioactive, and Antioxidant Potential of Twenty Wild Culinary Mushroom Species

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S. K.; Gautam, N.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Nutrients analyzed include protein, crude fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and monosaccharides. Besides, preliminary study on the detection of toxic compounds was done on these species. Bioactive compounds evaluated are fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherol content, carotenoids (β-carotene, ...

  16. Genomic identification of founding haplotypes reveals the history of the selfing species Capsella rubella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Brandvain

    Full Text Available The shift from outcrossing to self-fertilization is among the most common evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. Until recently, however, a genome-wide view of this transition has been obscured by both a dearth of appropriate data and the lack of appropriate population genomic methods to interpret such data. Here, we present a novel population genomic analysis detailing the origin of the selfing species, Capsella rubella, which recently split from its outcrossing sister, Capsella grandiflora. Due to the recency of the split, much of the variation within C. rubella is also found within C. grandiflora. We can therefore identify genomic regions where two C. rubella individuals have inherited the same or different segments of ancestral diversity (i.e. founding haplotypes present in C. rubella's founder(s. Based on this analysis, we show that C. rubella was founded by multiple individuals drawn from a diverse ancestral population closely related to extant C. grandiflora, that drift and selection have rapidly homogenized most of this ancestral variation since C. rubella's founding, and that little novel variation has accumulated within this time. Despite the extensive loss of ancestral variation, the approximately 25% of the genome for which two C. rubella individuals have inherited different founding haplotypes makes up roughly 90% of the genetic variation between them. To extend these findings, we develop a coalescent model that utilizes the inferred frequency of founding haplotypes and variation within founding haplotypes to estimate that C. rubella was founded by a potentially large number of individuals between 50 and 100 kya, and has subsequently experienced a twenty-fold reduction in its effective population size. As population genomic data from an increasing number of outcrossing/selfing pairs are generated, analyses like the one developed here will facilitate a fine-scaled view of the evolutionary and demographic impact of the

  17. Genomic dissection of variation in clutch size and egg mass in a wild great tit (Parus major) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santure, Anna W; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Robinson, Matthew R; Poissant, Jocelyn; Sheldon, Ben C; Slate, Jon

    2013-08-01

    Clutch size and egg mass are life history traits that have been extensively studied in wild bird populations, as life history theory predicts a negative trade-off between them, either at the phenotypic or at the genetic level. Here, we analyse the genomic architecture of these heritable traits in a wild great tit (Parus major) population, using three marker-based approaches - chromosome partitioning, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The variance explained by each great tit chromosome scales with predicted chromosome size, no location in the genome contains genome-wide significant QTL, and no individual SNPs are associated with a large proportion of phenotypic variation, all of which may suggest that variation in both traits is due to many loci of small effect, located across the genome. There is no evidence that any regions of the genome contribute significantly to both traits, which combined with a small, nonsignificant negative genetic covariance between the traits, suggests the absence of genetic constraints on the independent evolution of these traits. Our findings support the hypothesis that variation in life history traits in natural populations is likely to be determined by many loci of small effect spread throughout the genome, which are subject to continued input of variation by mutation and migration, although we cannot exclude the possibility of an additional input of major effect genes influencing either trait. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genomic diversity and differentiation of a managed island wild boar population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Scandura, Massimo; J. Goedbloed, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of island populations in natural systems is driven by local adaptation and genetic drift. However, evolutionary pathways may be altered by humans in several ways. The wild boar (WB) (Sus scrofa) is an iconic game species occurring in several islands, where it has been strongly manag...

  19. Genomic diversity in two related plant species with and without sex chromosomes--Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Cegan

    Full Text Available Genome size evolution is a complex process influenced by polyploidization, satellite DNA accumulation, and expansion of retroelements. How this process could be affected by different reproductive strategies is still poorly understood.We analyzed differences in the number and distribution of major repetitive DNA elements in two closely related species, Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris. Both species are diploid and possess the same chromosome number (2n = 24, but differ in their genome size and mode of reproduction. The dioecious S. latifolia (1C = 2.70 pg DNA possesses sex chromosomes and its genome is 2.5× larger than that of the gynodioecious S. vulgaris (1C = 1.13 pg DNA, which does not possess sex chromosomes. We discovered that the genome of S. latifolia is larger mainly due to the expansion of Ogre retrotransposons. Surprisingly, the centromeric STAR-C and TR1 tandem repeats were found to be more abundant in S. vulgaris, the species with the smaller genome. We further examined the distribution of major repetitive sequences in related species in the Caryophyllaceae family. The results of FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization on mitotic chromosomes with the Retand element indicate that large rearrangements occurred during the evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family.Our data demonstrate that the evolution of genome size in the genus Silene is accompanied by the expansion of different repetitive elements with specific patterns in the dioecious species possessing the sex chromosomes.

  20. The Recombination Landscape in Wild House Mice Inferred Using Population Genomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Tom R; Ness, Rob W; Keightley, Peter D

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing variation in the rate of recombination across the genome is important for understanding several evolutionary processes. Previous analysis of the recombination landscape in laboratory mice has revealed that the different subspecies have different suites of recombination hotspots. It is unknown, however, whether hotspots identified in laboratory strains reflect the hotspot diversity of natural populations or whether broad-scale variation in the rate of recombination is conserved between subspecies. In this study, we constructed fine-scale recombination rate maps for a natural population of the Eastern house mouse, Mus musculus castaneus We performed simulations to assess the accuracy of recombination rate inference in the presence of phase errors, and we used a novel approach to quantify phase error. The spatial distribution of recombination events is strongly positively correlated between our castaneus map, and a map constructed using inbred lines derived predominantly from M. m. domesticus Recombination hotspots in wild castaneus show little overlap, however, with the locations of double-strand breaks in wild-derived house mouse strains. Finally, we also find that genetic diversity in M. m. castaneus is positively correlated with the rate of recombination, consistent with pervasive natural selection operating in the genome. Our study suggests that recombination rate variation is conserved at broad scales between house mouse subspecies, but it is not strongly conserved at fine scales. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Revisiting the classification of curtoviruses based on genome-wide pairwise identity

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind; Martin, Darren Patrick; Navas-Castillo, Jesú s; Moriones, Enrique; Herná ndez-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali; Murilo Zerbini, F.; Brown, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Curtovirus (family Geminiviridae) are important pathogens of many wild and cultivated plant species. Until recently, relatively few full curtovirus genomes have been characterised. However, with the 19 full genome sequences now available in public databases, we revisit the proposed curtovirus species and strain classification criteria. Using pairwise identities coupled with phylogenetic evidence, revised species and strain demarcation guidelines have been instituted. Specifically, we have established 77% genome-wide pairwise identity as a species demarcation threshold and 94% genome-wide pairwise identity as a strain demarcation threshold. Hence, whereas curtovirus sequences with >77% genome-wide pairwise identity would be classified as belonging to the same species, those sharing >94% identity would be classified as belonging to the same strain. We provide step-by-step guidelines to facilitate the classification of newly discovered curtovirus full genome sequences and a set of defined criteria for naming new species and strains. The revision yields three curtovirus species: Beet curly top virus (BCTV), Spinach severe surly top virus (SpSCTV) and Horseradish curly top virus (HrCTV). © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  2. Revisiting the classification of curtoviruses based on genome-wide pairwise identity

    KAUST Repository

    Varsani, Arvind

    2014-01-25

    Members of the genus Curtovirus (family Geminiviridae) are important pathogens of many wild and cultivated plant species. Until recently, relatively few full curtovirus genomes have been characterised. However, with the 19 full genome sequences now available in public databases, we revisit the proposed curtovirus species and strain classification criteria. Using pairwise identities coupled with phylogenetic evidence, revised species and strain demarcation guidelines have been instituted. Specifically, we have established 77% genome-wide pairwise identity as a species demarcation threshold and 94% genome-wide pairwise identity as a strain demarcation threshold. Hence, whereas curtovirus sequences with >77% genome-wide pairwise identity would be classified as belonging to the same species, those sharing >94% identity would be classified as belonging to the same strain. We provide step-by-step guidelines to facilitate the classification of newly discovered curtovirus full genome sequences and a set of defined criteria for naming new species and strains. The revision yields three curtovirus species: Beet curly top virus (BCTV), Spinach severe surly top virus (SpSCTV) and Horseradish curly top virus (HrCTV). © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien.

  3. Lactobacillus paracasei comparative genomics: towards species pan-genome definition and exploitation of diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Smokvina

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus paracasei is a member of the normal human and animal gut microbiota and is used extensively in the food industry in starter cultures for dairy products or as probiotics. With the development of low-cost, high-throughput sequencing techniques it has become feasible to sequence many different strains of one species and to determine its "pan-genome". We have sequenced the genomes of 34 different L. paracasei strains, and performed a comparative genomics analysis. We analysed genome synteny and content, focussing on the pan-genome, core genome and variable genome. Each genome was shown to contain around 2800-3100 protein-coding genes, and comparative analysis identified over 4200 ortholog groups that comprise the pan-genome of this species, of which about 1800 ortholog groups make up the conserved core. Several factors previously associated with host-microbe interactions such as pili, cell-envelope proteinase, hydrolases p40 and p75 or the capacity to produce short branched-chain fatty acids (bkd operon are part of the L. paracasei core genome present in all analysed strains. The variome consists mainly of hypothetical proteins, phages, plasmids, transposon/conjugative elements, and known functions such as sugar metabolism, cell-surface proteins, transporters, CRISPR-associated proteins, and EPS biosynthesis proteins. An enormous variety and variability of sugar utilization gene cassettes were identified, with each strain harbouring between 25-53 cassettes, reflecting the high adaptability of L. paracasei to different niches. A phylogenomic tree was constructed based on total genome contents, and together with an analysis of horizontal gene transfer events we conclude that evolution of these L. paracasei strains is complex and not always related to niche adaptation. The results of this genome content comparison was used, together with high-throughput growth experiments on various carbohydrates, to perform gene-trait matching analysis

  4. Species diversity and richness of wild birds in Dagona-Waterfowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of bird species diversity and richness in Dagona-Waterfowl Sanctuary was carried out during the midst of both early wet and late dry seasons, to provide comprehensive data on wild birds. Dagona Sanctuary is located within the Bade-Nguru Wetland sector. It is one of the important bird areas marked for the ...

  5. Draft genome of the emerging pathogen, Kocuria marina, isolated from a wild urban rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Keng Loong

    Full Text Available Kocuria marina has recently emerged as a cause for catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with underlying health complications. One K. marina strain was recently isolated from the lung tissues of a wild urban rat (Rattus rattus diardii caught during rodent surveillance. Here, we present the draft genome of the first K. marina animal isolate, K. marina TRE150902.

  6. Advances in Setaria genomics for genetic improvement of cereals and bioenergy grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in Setaria genomics appear promising for genetic improvement of cereals and biofuel crops towards providing multiple securities to the steadily increasing global population. The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica, cultivated) and green foxtail (S. viridis, wild) including small genome size, short life-cycle, in-breeding nature, genetic close-relatedness to several cereals, millets and bioenergy grasses, and potential abiotic stress tolerance have accentuated these two Setaria species as novel model system for studying C4 photosynthesis, stress biology and biofuel traits. Considering this, studies have been performed on structural and functional genomics of these plants to develop genetic and genomic resources, and to delineate the physiology and molecular biology of stress tolerance, for the improvement of millets, cereals and bioenergy grasses. The release of foxtail millet genome sequence has provided a new dimension to Setaria genomics, resulting in large-scale development of genetic and genomic tools, construction of informative databases, and genome-wide association and functional genomic studies. In this context, this review discusses the advancements made in Setaria genomics, which have generated a considerable knowledge that could be used for the improvement of millets, cereals and biofuel crops. Further, this review also shows the nutritional potential of foxtail millet in providing health benefits to global population and provides a preliminary information on introgressing the nutritional properties in graminaceous species through molecular breeding and transgene-based approaches.

  7. First isolation and characterization of Brucella microti from wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Dán, Ádám; Drees, Kevin; Foster, Jeffrey T; Bányai, Krisztián; Marton, Szilvia; Szeredi, Levente; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2015-07-11

    Brucella microti was first isolated from common vole (Microtus arvalis) in the Czech Republic in Central Europe in 2007. As B. microti is the only Brucella species known to live in soil, its distribution, ecology, zoonotic potential, and genomic organization is of particular interest. The present paper is the first to report the isolation of B. microti from a wild boar (Sus scrofa), which is also the first isolation of this bacterial species in Hungary. The B. microti isolate was cultured, after enrichment in Brucella-selective broth, from the submandibular lymph node of a female wild boar that was taken by hunters in Hungary near the Austrian border in September 2014. Histological and immunohistological examinations of the lymph node sections with B. abortus-, B. suis- and B. canis-specific sera gave negative results. The isolate did not require CO2 for growth, was oxidase, catalase, and urease positive, H2S negative, grew well in the presence of 20 μg/ml basic fuchsin and thionin, and had brownish pigmentation after three days of incubation. It gave strong positive agglutination with anti-A and anti-M but had a negative reaction with anti-R monospecific sera. The API 20 NE test identified it as Ochrobactrum anthropi with 99.9% identity, and it showed B. microti-specific banding pattern in the Bruce- and Suis-ladder multiplex PCR systems. Whole genome re-sequencing identified 30 SNPs in orthologous loci when compared to the B. microti reference genome available in GenBank, and the MLVA analysis yielded a unique profile. Given that the female wild boar did not develop any clinical disease, we hypothesize that this host species only harboured the bacterium, serving as a possible reservoir capable of maintaining and spreading this pathogen. The infectious source could have been either a rodent, a carcass that had been eaten or infection occurred via the boar rooting in soil. The low number of discovered SNPs suggests an unexpectedly high level of genetic homogeneity

  8. A Thousand Fly Genomes: An Expanded Drosophila Genome Nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Justin B; Lange, Jeremy D; Tang, Alison D; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Pool, John E

    2016-12-01

    The Drosophila Genome Nexus is a population genomic resource that provides D. melanogaster genomes from multiple sources. To facilitate comparisons across data sets, genomes are aligned using a common reference alignment pipeline which involves two rounds of mapping. Regions of residual heterozygosity, identity-by-descent, and recent population admixture are annotated to enable data filtering based on the user's needs. Here, we present a significant expansion of the Drosophila Genome Nexus, which brings the current data object to a total of 1,121 wild-derived genomes. New additions include 305 previously unpublished genomes from inbred lines representing six population samples in Egypt, Ethiopia, France, and South Africa, along with another 193 genomes added from recently-published data sets. We also provide an aligned D. simulans genome to facilitate divergence comparisons. This improved resource will broaden the range of population genomic questions that can addressed from multi-population allele frequencies and haplotypes in this model species. The larger set of genomes will also enhance the discovery of functionally relevant natural variation that exists within and between populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Newly Identified Wild Rice Accessions Conferring High Salt Tolerance Might Use a Tissue Tolerance Mechanism in Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusty, Manas R.; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Vinarao, Ricky; Entila, Frederickson; Egdane, James; Diaz, Maria G. Q.; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2018-01-01

    Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) is very sensitive to salt stress. So far a few rice landraces have been identified as a source of salt tolerance and utilized in rice improvement. These tolerant lines primarily use Na+ exclusion mechanism in root which removes Na+ from the xylem stream by membrane Na+ and K+ transporters, and resulted in low Na+ accumulation in shoot. Identification of a new donor source conferring high salt tolerance is imperative. Wild relatives of rice having wide genetic diversity are regarded as a potential source for crop improvement. However, they have been less exploited against salt stress. Here, we simultaneously evaluated all 22 wild Oryza species along with the cultivated tolerant lines including Pokkali, Nona Bokra, and FL478, and sensitive check varieties under high salinity (240 mM NaCl). Based on the visual salt injury score, three species (O. alta, O. latifolia, and O. coarctata) and four species (O. rhizomatis, O. eichingeri, O. minuta, and O. grandiglumis) showed higher and similar level of tolerance compared to the tolerant checks, respectively. All three CCDD genome species exhibited salt tolerance, suggesting that the CCDD genome might possess the common genetic factors for salt tolerance. Physiological and biochemical experiments were conducted using the newly isolated tolerant species together with checks under 180 mM NaCl. Interestingly, all wild species showed high Na+ concentration in shoot and low concentration in root unlike the tolerant checks. In addition, the wild-tolerant accessions showed a tendency of a high tissue tolerance in leaf, low malondialdehyde level in shoot, and high retention of chlorophyll in the young leaves. These results suggest that the wild species employ tissue tolerance mechanism to manage salt stress. Gene expression analyses of the key salt tolerance-related genes suggested that high Na+ in leaf of wild species might be affected by OsHKT1;4-mediated Na+ exclusion in leaf and the following Na

  10. The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren H. Rieseberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp. and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis, with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi. We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the

  11. Genomics of Compositae crops: reference transcriptome assemblies and evidence of hybridization with wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Still, David W; Scascitelli, Moira; Barker, Michael S; Kane, Nolan C; Dempewolf, Hannes; Kozik, Alex; Kesseli, Richard V; Burke, John M; Michelmore, Richard W; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-01-01

    Although the Compositae harbours only two major food crops, sunflower and lettuce, many other species in this family are utilized by humans and have experienced various levels of domestication. Here, we have used next-generation sequencing technology to develop 15 reference transcriptome assemblies for Compositae crops or their wild relatives. These data allow us to gain insight into the evolutionary and genomic consequences of plant domestication. Specifically, we performed Illumina sequencing of Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Echinacea angustifolia, Iva annua, Helianthus tuberosus, Dahlia hybrida, Leontodon taraxacoides and Glebionis segetum, as well 454 sequencing of Guizotia scabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Parthenium argentatum and Smallanthus sonchifolius. Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity, and 454 reads were assembled using MIRA and CAP3. We evaluated the coverage of the transcriptomes using BLASTX analysis of a set of ultra-conserved orthologs (UCOs) and recovered most of these genes (88-98%). We found a correlation between contig length and read length for the 454 assemblies, and greater contig lengths for the 454 compared with the Illumina assemblies. This suggests that longer reads can aid in the assembly of more complete transcripts. Finally, we compared the divergence of orthologs at synonymous sites (Ks) between Compositae crops and their wild relatives and found greater divergence when the progenitors were self-incompatible. We also found greater divergence between pairs of taxa that had some evidence of postzygotic isolation. For several more distantly related congeners, such as chicory and endive, we identified a signature of introgression in the distribution of Ks values. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The genome sequence of Caenorhabditis briggsae: a platform for comparative genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln D Stein

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The soil nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis elegans diverged from a common ancestor roughly 100 million years ago and yet are almost indistinguishable by eye. They have the same chromosome number and genome sizes, and they occupy the same ecological niche. To explore the basis for this striking conservation of structure and function, we have sequenced the C. briggsae genome to a high-quality draft stage and compared it to the finished C. elegans sequence. We predict approximately 19,500 protein-coding genes in the C. briggsae genome, roughly the same as in C. elegans. Of these, 12,200 have clear C. elegans orthologs, a further 6,500 have one or more clearly detectable C. elegans homologs, and approximately 800 C. briggsae genes have no detectable matches in C. elegans. Almost all of the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs known are shared between the two species. The two genomes exhibit extensive colinearity, and the rate of divergence appears to be higher in the chromosomal arms than in the centers. Operons, a distinctive feature of C. elegans, are highly conserved in C. briggsae, with the arrangement of genes being preserved in 96% of cases. The difference in size between the C. briggsae (estimated at approximately 104 Mbp and C. elegans (100.3 Mbp genomes is almost entirely due to repetitive sequence, which accounts for 22.4% of the C. briggsae genome in contrast to 16.5% of the C. elegans genome. Few, if any, repeat families are shared, suggesting that most were acquired after the two species diverged or are undergoing rapid evolution. Coclustering the C. elegans and C. briggsae proteins reveals 2,169 protein families of two or more members. Most of these are shared between the two species, but some appear to be expanding or contracting, and there seem to be as many as several hundred novel C. briggsae gene families. The C. briggsae draft sequence will greatly improve the annotation of the C. elegans genome. Based on similarity to C

  13. Comparative Genomics of the Bacterial Genus Streptococcus Illuminates Evolutionary Implications of Species Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Yang; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hong-Wei; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Streptococcus within the phylum Firmicutes are among the most diverse and significant zoonotic pathogens. This genus has gone through considerable taxonomic revision due to increasing improvements of chemotaxonomic approaches, DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It is proposed to place the majority of streptococci into “species groups”. However, the evolutionary implications of species groups are not clear presently. We use comparative genomic approaches to yield a better understanding of the evolution of Streptococcus through genome dynamics, population structure, phylogenies and virulence factor distribution of species groups. Genome dynamics analyses indicate that the pan-genome size increases with the addition of newly sequenced strains, while the core genome size decreases with sequential addition at the genus level and species group level. Population structure analysis reveals two distinct lineages, one including Pyogenic, Bovis, Mutans and Salivarius groups, and the other including Mitis, Anginosus and Unknown groups. Phylogenetic dendrograms show that species within the same species group cluster together, and infer two main clades in accordance with population structure analysis. Distribution of streptococcal virulence factors has no obvious patterns among the species groups; however, the evolution of some common virulence factors is congruous with the evolution of species groups, according to phylogenetic inference. We suggest that the proposed streptococcal species groups are reasonable from the viewpoints of comparative genomics; evolution of the genus is congruent with the individual evolutionary trajectories of different species groups. PMID:24977706

  14. High resolution linkage maps of the model organism Petunia reveal substantial synteny decay with the related genome of tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Bossolini, Eligio; Klahre, Ulrich; Brandenburg, Anna; Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2011-01-01

    Two linkage maps were constructed for the model plant Petunia. Mapping populations were obtained by crossing the wild species Petunia axillaris subsp. axillaris with Petunia inflata, and Petunia axillaris subsp. parodii with Petunia exserta. Both maps cover the seven chromosomes of Petunia, and span 970 centimorgans (cM) and 700 cM of the genomes, respectively. In total, 207 markers were mapped. Of these, 28 are multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 179 are gene...

  15. Screening wild oat accessions from Morocco for resistance to Puccinia coronata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report the screening of 338 new accessions of 11 different wild oat species (Avena) from the USDA Small Grains Collection for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata). Wild oat species were originally collected in Morocco by C. Al Faiz, INRAT Rabat: Avena agadiriana, A. atlantica, A. bar...

  16. Detection of cryptic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, A F; Jensen, T; Seawright, J A [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Medical and Veterinary Entomology Research Lab., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Footprints of selection in wild populations of Bicyclus anynana along a latitudinal cline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.A.; Collins, S.; Beldade, P.; Brakefield, P.M.; Zwaan, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions in ecology and evolutionary biology is how variation in the genome enables species to adapt to divergent environments. Here, we study footprints of thermal selection in candidate genes in six wild populations of the afrotropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana sampled along a

  18. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-10-27

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Flexibility and symmetry of prokaryotic genome rearrangement reveal lineage-associated core-gene-defined genome organizational frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu; Gu, Chaohao; Yuan, Lina; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Yanmin; Li, Xinna; Luo, Qibin; Xiao, Jingfa; Jiang, Daquan; Qian, Minping; Ahmed Khan, Aftab; Chen, Fei; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun

    2014-11-25

    The prokaryotic pangenome partitions genes into core and dispensable genes. The order of core genes, albeit assumed to be stable under selection in general, is frequently interrupted by horizontal gene transfer and rearrangement, but how a core-gene-defined genome maintains its stability or flexibility remains to be investigated. Based on data from 30 species, including 425 genomes from six phyla, we grouped core genes into syntenic blocks in the context of a pangenome according to their stability across multiple isolates. A subset of the core genes, often species specific and lineage associated, formed a core-gene-defined genome organizational framework (cGOF). Such cGOFs are either single segmental (one-third of the species analyzed) or multisegmental (the rest). Multisegment cGOFs were further classified into symmetric or asymmetric according to segment orientations toward the origin-terminus axis. The cGOFs in Gram-positive species are exclusively symmetric and often reversible in orientation, as opposed to those of the Gram-negative bacteria, which are all asymmetric and irreversible. Meanwhile, all species showing strong strand-biased gene distribution contain symmetric cGOFs and often specific DnaE (α subunit of DNA polymerase III) isoforms. Furthermore, functional evaluations revealed that cGOF genes are hub associated with regard to cellular activities, and the stability of cGOF provides efficient indexes for scaffold orientation as demonstrated by assembling virtual and empirical genome drafts. cGOFs show species specificity, and the symmetry of multisegmental cGOFs is conserved among taxa and constrained by DNA polymerase-centric strand-biased gene distribution. The definition of species-specific cGOFs provides powerful guidance for genome assembly and other structure-based analysis. Prokaryotic genomes are frequently interrupted by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and rearrangement. To know whether there is a set of genes not only conserved in position

  20. LRR-RLK family from two Citrus species: genome-wide identification and evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Diogo M; Scholte, Larissa L S; Silva, Nicholas V; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Zipfel, Cyril; Takita, Marco A; De Souza, Alessandra A

    2016-08-12

    Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) represent the largest subfamily of plant RLKs. The functions of most LRR-RLKs have remained undiscovered, and a few that have been experimentally characterized have been shown to have important roles in growth and development as well as in defense responses. Although RLK subfamilies have been previously studied in many plants, no comprehensive study has been performed on this gene family in Citrus species, which have high economic importance and are frequent targets for emerging pathogens. In this study, we performed in silico analysis to identify and classify LRR-RLK homologues in the predicted proteomes of Citrus clementina (clementine) and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange). In addition, we used large-scale phylogenetic approaches to elucidate the evolutionary relationships of the LRR-RLKs and further narrowed the analysis to the LRR-XII group, which contains several previously described cell surface immune receptors. We built integrative protein signature databases for Citrus clementina and Citrus sinensis using all predicted protein sequences obtained from whole genomes. A total of 300 and 297 proteins were identified as LRR-RLKs in C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were estimated using Arabidopsis LRR-RLK as a template and they allowed us to classify Citrus LRR-RLKs into 16 groups. The LRR-XII group showed a remarkable expansion, containing approximately 150 paralogs encoded in each Citrus genome. Phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated the existence of two distinct LRR-XII clades, each one constituted mainly by RD and non-RD kinases. We identified 68 orthologous pairs from the C. clementina and C. sinensis LRR-XII genes. In addition, among the paralogs, we identified a subset of 78 and 62 clustered genes probably derived from tandem duplication events in the genomes of C. clementina and C. sinensis, respectively. This work provided the first comprehensive

  1. Comparative Genetic Analyses of Human Rhinovirus C (HRV-C) Complete Genome from Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, Yam Sim; Chan, Yoke Fun; Jafar, Faizatul Lela; Othman, Norlijah; Chee, Hui Yee

    2016-01-01

    Human rhinovirus-C (HRV-C) has been implicated in more severe illnesses than HRV-A and HRV-B, however, the limited number of HRV-C complete genomes (complete 5′ and 3′ non-coding region and open reading frame sequences) has hindered the in-depth genetic study of this virus. This study aimed to sequence seven complete HRV-C genomes from Malaysia and compare their genetic characteristics with the 18 published HRV-Cs. Seven Malaysian HRV-C complete genomes were obtained with newly redesigned primers. The seven genomes were classified as HRV-C6, C12, C22, C23, C26, C42, and pat16 based on the VP4/VP2 and VP1 pairwise distance threshold classification. Five of the seven Malaysian isolates, namely, 3430-MY-10/C22, 8713-MY-10/C23, 8097-MY-11/C26, 1570-MY-10/C42, and 7383-MY-10/pat16 are the first newly sequenced complete HRV-C genomes. All seven Malaysian isolates genomes displayed nucleotide similarity of 63–81% among themselves and 63–96% with other HRV-Cs. Malaysian HRV-Cs had similar putative immunogenic sites, putative receptor utilization and potential antiviral sites as other HRV-Cs. The genomic features of Malaysian isolates were similar to those of other HRV-Cs. Negative selections were frequently detected in HRV-Cs complete coding sequences indicating that these sequences were under functional constraint. The present study showed that HRV-Cs from Malaysia have diverse genetic sequences but share conserved genomic features with other HRV-Cs. This genetic information could provide further aid in the understanding of HRV-C infection. PMID:27199901

  2. Mycobacterial species as case-study of comparative genome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakham, F.; Belayachi, L.; Ussery, David

    2011-01-01

    . Pasteur 1173P2, M. leprae Br4923, M. marinum M, M. sp. KMS, M. sp. MCS, M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis F11, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis KZN 1435 , M. ulcerans Agy99,and M. vanbaalenii PYR—1, For this purpose a comparison has been done based on their length...... defined for twelve Mycobacterial species. We have also introduced the genome atlas of the reference strain M. tuberculosis H37Rv which can give a good overview of this genome. And for examining the phylogenetic relationships among these bacteria, a phylogenic tree has been constructed from 16S rRNA gene...... the evolutionary events of these species and improving drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics tools for controlling Mycobacterial diseases. In this present study we aim to outline a comparative genome analysis of fourteen Mycobacterial genomes: M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis K—10, M. bovis AF2122/97, M. bovis BCG str...

  3. The Jujube Genome Provides Insights into Genome Evolution and the Domestication of Sweetness/Acidity Taste in Fruit Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhao, Xing; Fei, Zhangjun; Wan, KangKang; Zhang, Zhong; Pang, Xiaoming; Yin, Xiao; Bai, Yang; Sun, Xiaoqing; Gao, Lizhi; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Jinbo; Li, Xingang

    2016-12-01

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) belongs to the Rhamnaceae family and is a popular fruit tree species with immense economic and nutritional value. Here, we report a draft genome of the dry jujube cultivar 'Junzao' and the genome resequencing of 31 geographically diverse accessions of cultivated and wild jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa). Comparative analysis revealed that the genome of 'Dongzao', a fresh jujube, was ~86.5 Mb larger than that of the 'Junzao', partially due to the recent insertions of transposable elements in the 'Dongzao' genome. We constructed eight proto-chromosomes of the common ancestor of Rhamnaceae and Rosaceae, two sister families in the order Rosales, and elucidated the evolutionary processes that have shaped the genome structures of modern jujubes. Population structure analysis revealed the complex genetic background of jujubes resulting from extensive hybridizations between jujube and its wild relatives. Notably, several key genes that control fruit organic acid metabolism and sugar content were identified in the selective sweep regions. We also identified S-locus genes controlling gametophytic self-incompatibility and investigated haplotype patterns of the S locus in the jujube genomes, which would provide a guideline for parent selection for jujube crossbreeding. This study provides valuable genomic resources for jujube improvement, and offers insights into jujube genome evolution and its population structure and domestication.

  4. EVALUATION OF THREE WILD SPECIES OF ALMOND ON THE BASIS OF THEIR MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BANINASAB

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the suitable climatic conditions, Iran is one of the most important growing centre for wild and domesticated species/varieties of almond. Because of the adaptability of wild almond species to severe environmental conditions and resistance to drought, salinity and some pest and diseases, these can be used as rootstock for almond cultivars and in breeding programs for rootstock improvement in Iran. In this study, seeds of Amygdalous scoparia, A.webbii and A. orientalis were planted. The analysis of variance showed a significant difference between species. However, A. scoparia had highest stem height and leaf length. At the end of the experiment, the thickest stems were developed by A. scoparia, whereas the thinnest stems by A. orientalis. A. webbii produced more number and longer roots per seedling than the other two species. The correlation between various morphological traits showed that a few shoot characters were significantly correlated with root traits. However, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, root number and root diameter for P. webbii, and leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, petiole length and root number characters for P.scoparia, and stem height, leaf number, leaf length, petiole length, internode length and root number for P. orientalis were found to be important morphological traits to evaluate seedling charactristics of wild almond genotypes before their nursery test.

  5. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  6. A survey of wild plant species for food use in Sicily (Italy) - results of a 3-year study in four Regional Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Mario; Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Leto, Claudio; Virga, Giuseppe; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Cammalleri, Ignazio; Gennaro, Maria Cristina; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-02-09

    This paper illustrates the results of a study carried out in four Regional Parks of Sicily (Italy), concerning traditional knowledge on food use of wild plant species. The main aims of the paper were: (i) to verify which wild plant species are used for food purpose in the local culture based on information provided by elderly inhabitants (ii) to verify the presence of wild plant species which have not been cited for food use in previous studies in the Mediterranean area (iii) to determine how many of the most frequently cited wild plant species are cultivated by the local population in the four Sicilian Parks. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in the local communities of the four Regional Parks between 2007 and 2010. A total of 802 people over the age of 60 were interviewed. Cultural Importance Index was used to evaluate the level of importance given to any wild plant species as a food in the local culture. The level of appreciation of the wild plant species and the possible effects of wild plants on human health were also investigated. Local communities currently use a total number of 119 wild species for food purposes. Asteraceae and Brassicaceae were the most represented botanical families. In each of the four Sicilian Parks, Cichorium intybus L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. obtained the highest Cultural Importance Index values. Sixty-four species were indicated as also having medicinal properties. Leaves and other aerial plant parts were the parts most-used for the preparation of traditional recipes. The research shows that the level of traditional knowledge on the food uses of wild plant species in the study area is poor. The food uses of plants which are most likely to survive over time are those at the interface of food and medicine. Further agronomic studies are needed for a number of species with a view to introducing them as a crop into non-intensive agricultural systems.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  8. Cryptic Plutella species show deep divergence despite the capacity to hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kym D; Baker, Gregory J; Powis, Kevin J; Kent, Joanne K; Ward, Christopher M; Baxter, Simon W

    2018-05-29

    Understanding genomic and phenotypic diversity among cryptic pest taxa has important implications for the management of pests and diseases. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., has been intensively studied due to its ability to evolve insecticide resistance and status as the world's most destructive pest of brassicaceous crops. The surprise discovery of a cryptic species endemic to Australia, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, raised questions regarding the distribution, ecological traits and pest status of the two species, the capacity for gene flow and whether specific management was required. Here, we collected Plutella from wild and cultivated brassicaceous plants from 75 locations throughout Australia and screened 1447 individuals to identify mtDNA lineages and Wolbachia infections. We genotyped genome-wide SNP markers using RADseq in coexisting populations of each species. In addition, we assessed reproductive compatibility in crossing experiments and insecticide susceptibility phenotypes using bioassays. The two Plutella species coexisted on wild brassicas and canola crops, but only 10% of Plutella individuals were P. australiana. This species was not found on commercial Brassica vegetable crops, which are routinely sprayed with insecticides. Bioassays found that P. australiana was 19-306 fold more susceptible to four commonly-used insecticides than P. xylostella. Laboratory crosses revealed that reproductive isolation was incomplete but directionally asymmetric between the species. However, genome-wide nuclear SNPs revealed striking differences in genetic diversity and strong population structure between coexisting wild populations of each species. Nuclear diversity was 1.5-fold higher in P. australiana, yet both species showed limited variation in mtDNA. Infection with a single Wolbachia subgroup B strain was fixed in P. australiana, suggesting that a selective sweep contributed to low mtDNA diversity, while a subgroup A strain infected just 1

  9. Community and species-specific responses of wild bees to insect pest control programs applied to a pollinator-dependent crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-06-01

    Wild bee conservation is regarded as essential for sustainable production of pollinator-dependent crops, yet little is known about the effects on wild bee communities of typical insect pest management programs used postbloom. We developed an insecticide program risk (IPR) index to quantify the relative risk to wild bees of insecticide programs applied to blueberry fields. This was used to determine the relationship between IPR and the abundance, diversity, and richness of wild bee communities sampled during three successive flowering seasons. In 2 of 3 yr, bee abundance and species richness declined with increasing IPR. Bee diversity declined with IPR in one of 3 yr. These results indicate that wild bee communities are negatively affected by increasingly intensive chemical pest management activities in crop fields and that interyear variability in bee populations has the potential to mask such effects in short-term studies. When several wild bee species were analyzed separately, two of three solitary and one of three social blueberry-foraging species declined with increasing IPR values, suggesting that different life histories and nesting habits may help some bee populations escape the negative effects of insecticides applied after bloom. Pollinator conservation programs aimed strictly at reducing insecticide use may have varying success, depending on the biology of the target bee species. The IPR index provides a standard method to compare pest management programs for their potential effect on wild bee communities, with broad application for use in other agricultural systems.

  10. Chemical, Bioactive, and Antioxidant Potential of Twenty Wild Culinary Mushroom Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.; Gautam, N.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Nutrients analyzed include protein, crude fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and monosaccharides. Besides, preliminary study on the detection of toxic compounds was done on these species. Bioactive compounds evaluated are fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherol content, carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene), flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanidins. Fruitbodies extract of all the species was tested for different types of antioxidant assays. Although differences were observed in the net values of individual species all the species were found to be rich in protein, and carbohydrates and low in fat. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide. Predominance of UFA (65–70%) over SFA (30–35%) was observed in all the species with considerable amounts of other bioactive compounds. All the species showed higher effectiveness for antioxidant capacities. PMID:26199938

  11. Chemical, Bioactive, and Antioxidant Potential of Twenty Wild Culinary Mushroom Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Nutrients analyzed include protein, crude fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and monosaccharides. Besides, preliminary study on the detection of toxic compounds was done on these species. Bioactive compounds evaluated are fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherol content, carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanidins. Fruitbodies extract of all the species was tested for different types of antioxidant assays. Although differences were observed in the net values of individual species all the species were found to be rich in protein, and carbohydrates and low in fat. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide. Predominance of UFA (65–70% over SFA (30–35% was observed in all the species with considerable amounts of other bioactive compounds. All the species showed higher effectiveness for antioxidant capacities.

  12. Chemical, Bioactive, and Antioxidant Potential of Twenty Wild Culinary Mushroom Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S K; Gautam, N

    2015-01-01

    The chemical, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being consumed by the people of northern Himalayan regions has been evaluated for the first time in the present study. Nutrients analyzed include protein, crude fat, fibres, carbohydrates, and monosaccharides. Besides, preliminary study on the detection of toxic compounds was done on these species. Bioactive compounds evaluated are fatty acids, amino acids, tocopherol content, carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene), flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanidins. Fruitbodies extract of all the species was tested for different types of antioxidant assays. Although differences were observed in the net values of individual species all the species were found to be rich in protein, and carbohydrates and low in fat. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide. Predominance of UFA (65-70%) over SFA (30-35%) was observed in all the species with considerable amounts of other bioactive compounds. All the species showed higher effectiveness for antioxidant capacities.

  13. Detection and molecular characterization of feline hemoplasmas in wild felid species in Iran in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazisaeedi, Fereshteh; Atyabi, Nahid; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi; Tabatabaei, Saeid; Ashrafi Tamai, Iraj; Memarian, Iman; Tasker, Séverine

    2017-10-01

    Three feline hemoplasma species exist in felids: Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. The aims of the study were to determine the presence of, and molecularly characterize, any hemoplasmas in wild felids, including the endangered Persian leopard in Iran, the Middle East. Blood samples were collected from 19 wild felids, including three Persian leopards. Using species-specific hemoplasma PCRs and ELISA serological testing for feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), two Persian leopards were found to be infected with 'Ca. M. haemominutum' and were seropositive for FIV. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were generated for these 'Ca. M. haemominutum' species and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed 97.70% to 99.45% sequence identity with those found in domestic cats from Iran and other countries. This study confirms the presence of 'Ca. M. haemominutum' and concurrent FIV antibody in wild felids in Iran. This represents the first report of hemoplasma in wild felids in the Middle East as well as the first report of infection in Persian leopards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Complete chloroplast genome of Prunus yedoensis Matsum.(Rosaceae), wild and endemic flowering cherry on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myong-Suk; Hyun Cho, Chung; Yeon Kim, Su; Su Yoon, Hwan; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the wild flowering cherry, Prunus yedoensis Matsum., which is native and endemic to Jeju Island, Korea, is reported in this study. The genome size is 157 786 bp in length with 36.7% GC content, which is composed of LSC region of 85 908 bp, SSC region of 19 120 bp and two IR copies of 26 379 bp each. The cp genome contains 131 genes, including 86 coding genes, 8 rRNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. The maximum likelihood analysis was conducted to verify a phylogenetic position of the newly sequenced cp genome of P. yedoensis using 11 representatives of complete cp genome sequences within the family Rosaceae. The genus Prunus exhibited monophyly and the result of the phylogenetic relationship agreed with the previous phylogenetic analyses within Rosaceae.

  15. The evolution of microbial species - a view through the genomic lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Neha; Mukherjee, Supratim; ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos; Kyrpides, Nikos; Pati, Amrita

    2014-03-17

    For a long time prokaryotic species definition has been under debate and a constant source of turmoil in microbiology. This has recently prompted the ASM to call for a scalable and reproducible technique, which uses meaningful commonalities to cluster microorganisms into groups corresponding to prokaryotic species. Whole-genome Average Nucleotide Identity (gANI) was previously suggested as a measure of genetic distance that generally agrees with prokaryotic species assignments based on the accepted best practices (DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rDNA similarity). In this work, we prove that gANI is indeed the meaningful commonality based on which microorganisms can be grouped into the aforementioned clusters. By analyzing 1.76 million pairs of genomes we find that identification of the closest relatives of an organism via gANI is precise, scalable, reproducible, and reflects the evolutionary dynamics of microbes. We model the previously unexplored statistical properties of gANI using 6,000 microbial genomes and apply species-specific gANI cutoffs to reveal anomalies in the current taxonomic species definitions for almost 50percent of the species with multiple genome sequences. We also provide evidence of speciation events and genetic continuums in 17.8percent of those species. We consider disagreements between gANI-based groupings and named species and demonstrate that the former have all the desired features to serve as the much-needed natural groups for moving forward with taxonomy. Further, the groupings identified are presented in detail at http://ani.jgi-psf.org to facilitate comprehensive downstream analysis for researchers across different disciplines

  16. Differential iridoid production as revealed by a diversity panel of 84 cultivated and wild blueberry species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney P Leisner

    Full Text Available Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. While the antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry has been well studied, surveys of iridoid production in blueberry have been restricted to fruit of a very limited number of accessions of V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium and V. virgatum; none of these analyses have detected iridoids. To provide a broader survey of iridoid biosynthesis in cultivated blueberry, we constructed a panel of 84 accessions representing a wide range of cultivated market classes, as well as wild blueberry species, and surveyed these for the presence of iridoids. We identified the iridoid glycoside monotropein in fruits and leaves of all 13 wild Vaccinium species, yet only five of the 71 cultivars. Monotropein positive cultivars all had recent introgressions from wild species, suggesting that iridoid production can be targeted through breeding efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. A series of diverse developmental tissues was also surveyed in the diversity panel, demonstrating a wide range in iridoid content across tissues. Taken together, this data provides the foundation to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of iridoid production in blueberry.

  17. Differential iridoid production as revealed by a diversity panel of 84 cultivated and wild blueberry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Kamileen, Mohamed O; Conway, Megan E; O'Connor, Sarah E; Buell, C Robin

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium darrowii, and Vaccinium virgatum) is an economically important fruit crop native to North America and a member of the Ericaceae family. Several species in the Ericaceae family including cranberry, lignonberry, bilberry, and neotropical blueberry species have been shown to produce iridoids, a class of pharmacologically important compounds present in over 15 plant families demonstrated to have a wide range of biological activities in humans including anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory. While the antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry has been well studied, surveys of iridoid production in blueberry have been restricted to fruit of a very limited number of accessions of V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium and V. virgatum; none of these analyses have detected iridoids. To provide a broader survey of iridoid biosynthesis in cultivated blueberry, we constructed a panel of 84 accessions representing a wide range of cultivated market classes, as well as wild blueberry species, and surveyed these for the presence of iridoids. We identified the iridoid glycoside monotropein in fruits and leaves of all 13 wild Vaccinium species, yet only five of the 71 cultivars. Monotropein positive cultivars all had recent introgressions from wild species, suggesting that iridoid production can be targeted through breeding efforts that incorporate wild germplasm. A series of diverse developmental tissues was also surveyed in the diversity panel, demonstrating a wide range in iridoid content across tissues. Taken together, this data provides the foundation to dissect the molecular and genetic basis of iridoid production in blueberry.

  18. The first genetic map of a synthesized allohexaploid Brassica with A, B and C genomes based on simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Chen, S; Geng, X X; Yan, G; Li, Z Y; Meng, J L; Cowling, W A; Zhou, W J

    2016-04-01

    We present the first genetic map of an allohexaploid Brassica species, based on segregating microsatellite markers in a doubled haploid mapping population generated from a hybrid between two hexaploid parents. This study reports the first genetic map of trigenomic Brassica. A doubled haploid mapping population consisting of 189 lines was obtained via microspore culture from a hybrid H16-1 derived from a cross between two allohexaploid Brassica lines (7H170-1 and Y54-2). Simple sequence repeat primer pairs specific to the A genome (107), B genome (44) and C genome (109) were used to construct a genetic linkage map of the population. Twenty-seven linkage groups were resolved from 274 polymorphic loci on the A genome (109), B genome (49) and C genome (116) covering a total genetic distance of 3178.8 cM with an average distance between markers of 11.60 cM. This is the first genetic framework map for the artificially synthesized Brassica allohexaploids. The linkage groups represent the expected complement of chromosomes in the A, B and C genomes from the original diploid and tetraploid parents. This framework linkage map will be valuable for QTL analysis and future genetic improvement of a new allohexaploid Brassica species, and in improving our understanding of the genetic control of meiosis in new polyploids.

  19. Widespread horizontal genomic exchange does not erode species barriers among sympatric ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, R.H.S.; Kerstens, H.H.D.; Hooft, van W.F.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Elmberg, J.; Tsvey, A.; Sartakov, D.; Soloviev, S.A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    The study of speciation and maintenance of species barriers is at the core of evolutionary biology. During speciation the genome of one population becomes separated from other populations of the same species, which may lead to genomic incompatibility with time. This separation is complete when no

  20. Qualitative characterisation of cultivated and wild edible plants: Mineral elements, phenols content and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Disciglio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the qualitative characteristics of several edible wild herbaceous species, including those most consumed in Foggia Province (southern Italy. Analysis of qualitative characteristics was performed for the edible parts of 11 wild species (Beta vulgaris L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Centaurea solstitialis L., Cichorium intybus L., Scolymus hispanicus L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Borago officinalis L., Diplotaxis erucoides L., Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L. DC, Sinapis arvensis L., Portulaca oleracea L. and three cultivated species (C. intybus, B. officinalis, D. tenuifolia. The plants were collected from areas in the Foggia countryside, and the edible part of each species was analysed for dry matter, protein, cation and anion contents as well as total phenols and antioxidant activities. Among the cations, calcium was the most differentiated among species, ranging 784 mg kg–1 fresh weight (Fw for B. vulgaris to 5886 mg kg–1 Fw for S. hispanicus. The nitrate contents were also highly variable, from 75 mg kg–1 Fw for C. intybus to 3874 mg kg–1 Fw for D. tenuifolia. Total polyphenols ranged from 1054 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg kg–1 Fw for C. solstitialis to 3664 mg GAE mg kg–1 Fw for S. arvensis. Antioxidant activities ranged from 839 mg Trolox equivalents (TE kg–1 Fw for B. vulgaris to 5658 mg TE kg–1 Fw for C. intybus. Significant differences were also noted between wild and cultivated plants in the qualitative parameters. Total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were higher in wild C. intybus and B. officinalis than in their cultivated counterparts. Multivariate analysis (cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis allowed integration of the ANOVA data to determine the qualitative characteristics of the wild species that contribute most to group differences. The results of the present study aims to improve current knowledge about edible wild species as vegetable sources in the Mediterranean diet.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of three bats species and whole genome mitochondrial analyses reveal patterns of codon bias and lend support to a basal split in Chiroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganathan, P R; Pagan, Heidi J T; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2012-01-15

    Order Chiroptera is a unique group of mammals whose members have attained self-powered flight as their main mode of locomotion. Much speculation persists regarding bat evolution; however, lack of sufficient molecular data hampers evolutionary and conservation studies. Of ~1200 species, complete mitochondrial genome sequences are available for only eleven. Additional sequences should be generated if we are to resolve many questions concerning these fascinating mammals. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of three bats: Corynorhinus rafinesquii, Lasiurus borealis and Artibeus lituratus. We also compare the currently available mitochondrial genomes and analyze codon usage in Chiroptera. C. rafinesquii, L. borealis and A. lituratus mitochondrial genomes are 16438 bp, 17048 bp and 16709 bp, respectively. Genome organization and gene arrangements are similar to other bats. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitochondrial genome sequences support previously established phylogenetic relationships and suggest utility in future studies focusing on the evolutionary aspects of these species. Comprehensive analyses of available bat mitochondrial genomes reveal distinct nucleotide patterns and synonymous codon preferences corresponding to different chiropteran families. These patterns suggest that mutational and selection forces are acting to different extents within Chiroptera and shape their mitochondrial genomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Common Midwife Toad Virus-Like Ranavirus Associated with Mass Mortalities in Wild Amphibians in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Saucedo, Bernardo; Rijks, Jolianne; Kik, Marja; Haenen, Olga L. M.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M. Helene; Wilkie, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    A ranavirus associated with mass mortalities in wild water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) and other amphibians in the Netherlands since 2010 was isolated, and its complete genome sequence was determined. The virus has a genome of 107,772 bp and shows 96.5% sequence identity with the common midwife toad virus from Spain. PMID:25540340

  4. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  5. Characterization of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in Mongolia 2005 through 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodnomdarjaa Ruuragchaa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the emergence of H5N1 high pathogenicity (HP avian influenza virus (AIV in Asia, numerous efforts worldwide have focused on elucidating the relative roles of wild birds and domestic poultry movement in virus dissemination. In accordance with this a surveillance program for AIV in wild birds was conducted in Mongolia from 2005-2007. An important feature of Mongolia is that there is little domestic poultry production in the country, therefore AIV detection in wild birds would not likely be from spill-over from domestic poultry. Results During 2005-2007 2,139 specimens representing 4,077 individual birds of 45 species were tested for AIV by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR and/or virus isolation. Bird age and health status were recorded. Ninety rRT-PCR AIV positive samples representing 89 individual birds of 19 species including 9 low pathogenicity (LP AIVs were isolated from 6 species. A Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus, a Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus and 2 Ruddy shelducks (Tadorna ferruginea were positive for H12N3 LP AIV. H16N3 and H13N6 viruses were isolated from Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus. A Red-crested pochard (Rhodonessa rufina and 2 Mongolian gulls (Larus vagae mongolicus were positive for H3N6 and H16N6 LP AIV, respectively. Full genomes of each virus isolate were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically and were most closely related to recent European and Asian wild bird lineage AIVs and individual genes loosely grouped by year. Reassortment occurred within and among different years and subtypes. Conclusion Detection and/or isolation of AIV infection in numerous wild bird species, including 2 which have not been previously described as hosts, reinforces the wide host range of AIV within avian species. Reassortment complexity within the genomes indicate the introduction of new AIV strains into wild bird populations annually, however there is enough over-lap of infection for reassortment to occur. Further work is

  6. Rubisco activity is associated with photosynthetic thermotolerance in a wild rice (Oryza meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafaro, Andrew P; Yamori, Wataru; Carmo-Silva, A Elizabete; Salvucci, Michael E; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Atwell, Brian J

    2012-09-01

    Oryza meridionalis is a wild species of rice, endemic to tropical Australia. It shares a significant genome homology with the common domesticated rice Oryza sativa. Exploiting the fact that the two species are highly related but O. meridionalis has superior heat tolerance, experiments were undertaken to identify the impact of temperature on key events in photosynthesis. At an ambient CO(2) partial pressure of 38 Pa and irradiance of 1500 µmol quanta m(-2) s(-1), the temperature optimum of photosynthesis was 33.7 ± 0.8°C for O. meridionalis, significantly higher than the 30.6 ± 0.7°C temperature optimum of O. sativa. To understand the basis for this difference, we measured gas exchange and rubisco activation state between 20 and 42°C and modeled the response to determine the rate-limiting steps of photosynthesis. The temperature response of light respiration (R(light)) and the CO(2) compensation point in the absence of respiration (Γ(*)) were determined and found to be similar for the two species. C3 photosynthesis modeling showed that despite the difference in susceptibility to high temperature, both species had a similar temperature-dependent limitation to photosynthesis. Both rice species were limited by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration at temperatures of 25 and 30°C but became RuBP carboxylation limited at 35 and 40°C. The activation state of rubisco in O. meridionalis was more stable at higher temperatures, explaining its greater heat tolerance compared with O. sativa. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  7. Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenen, Martien A. M.; Archibald, Alan L.; Uenishi, Hirohide; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Rothschild, Max F.; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Park, Chankyu; Milan, Denis; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Li, Shengting; Larkin, Denis M.; Kim, Heebal; Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Caccamo, Mario; Ahn, Hyeonju; Aken, Bronwen L.; Anselmo, Anna; Anthon, Christian; Auvil, Loretta; Badaoui, Bouabid; Beattie, Craig W.; Bendixen, Christian; Berman, Daniel; Blecha, Frank; Blomberg, Jonas; Bolund, Lars; Bosse, Mirte; Botti, Sara; Bujie, Zhan; Bystrom, Megan; Capitanu, Boris; Silva, Denise Carvalho; Chardon, Patrick; Chen, Celine; Cheng, Ryan; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Chow, William; Clark, Richard C.; Clee, Christopher; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Dawson, Harry D.; Dehais, Patrice; De Sapio, Fioravante; Dibbits, Bert; Drou, Nizar; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Eversole, Kellye; Fadista, João; Fairley, Susan; Faraut, Thomas; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Fowler, Katie E.; Fredholm, Merete; Fritz, Eric; Gilbert, James G. R.; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Gorodkin, Jan; Griffin, Darren K.; Harrow, Jennifer L.; Hayward, Alexander; Howe, Kerstin; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Humphray, Sean J.; Hunt, Toby; Hornshøj, Henrik; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Jern, Patric; Jones, Matthew; Jurka, Jerzy; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Larson, Greger; Lee, Kyooyeol; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Leggett, Richard; Lewin, Harris A.; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Wansheng; Loveland, Jane E.; Lu, Yao; Lunney, Joan K.; Ma, Jian; Madsen, Ole; Mann, Katherine; Matthews, Lucy; McLaren, Stuart; Morozumi, Takeya; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Narayan, Jitendra; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Ni, Peixiang; Oh, Song-Jung; Onteru, Suneel; Panitz, Frank; Park, Eung-Woo; Park, Hong-Seog; Pascal, Geraldine; Paudel, Yogesh; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Reecy, James M.; Zas, Sandra Rodriguez; Rohrer, Gary A.; Rund, Lauretta; Sang, Yongming; Schachtschneider, Kyle; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Schwartz, John; Scobie, Linda; Scott, Carol; Searle, Stephen; Servin, Bertrand; Southey, Bruce R.; Sperber, Goran; Stadler, Peter; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Tafer, Hakim; Thomsen, Bo; Wali, Rashmi; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; White, Simon; Xu, Xun; Yerle, Martine; Zhang, Guojie; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Shuhong; Rogers, Jane; Churcher, Carol; Schook, Lawrence B.

    2013-01-01

    For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ~1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model. PMID:23151582

  8. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis LM2303, a biocontrol strain isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang

    2017-06-10

    Bacillus velezensis LM2303 is a biocontrol strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against plant pathogens, isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. Here we present its complete genome sequence, which consists of a single, circular chromosome of 3,989,393bp with a 46.68% G+C content. Genome analysis revealed genes encoding specialized functions for the biosynthesis of antifungal metabolites and antibacterial metabolites, the promotion of plant growth, the alleviation of oxidative stress and nutrient utilization. And the biosynthesis of antimicrobial metabolites in strain LM2303 was confirmed by biochemical analysis, while its plant growth promoting traits were confirmed by inoculation tests. Our results will establish a better foundation for further studies and biocontrol application of B. velezensis LM2303. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The comparison of phenotypic characteristics of current varieties and wild species of Fragaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skender Azra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the major pomological and antioxidant properties of fruits which are comparatively studied in wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L., taken from natural habitats and commercially important varieties that are grown in the Una - Sana Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina: Marmolada, Clery, Maya, Arosa and Elsanta. The aim was also to point out the potential superiority of the wild forms, how rich they are in vitamin C, phenol and anthocyanin, in order to be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The results of analyzing the contents of vitamin C and the total phenols of fruit indicate that a wild strawberry has significantly higher antioxidant content of these components than all the commercial varieties tested. The content of vitamin C in fruits of a wild strawberry was 72 mg/100g and the phenol content 94.8 mg/100g. Their inclusion in breeding programs can provide significant potential to create varieties which will possess a better fruit quality with a higher content of antioxidant components. A wild strawberry is a significant genetic potential of particular importance for conservation and biodiversity of certain areas, as well as for the selection and breeding of cultivated fruit trees. The highest content of the total anthocyanin of fruit is registered in Marmolada (134.7 mg/100g.

  10. Sex chromosome turnover contributes to genomic divergence between incipient stickleback species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Yoshida

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sex chromosomes turn over rapidly in some taxonomic groups, where closely related species have different sex chromosomes. Although there are many examples of sex chromosome turnover, we know little about the functional roles of sex chromosome turnover in phenotypic diversification and genomic evolution. The sympatric pair of Japanese threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus provides an excellent system to address these questions: the Japan Sea species has a neo-sex chromosome system resulting from a fusion between an ancestral Y chromosome and an autosome, while the sympatric Pacific Ocean species has a simple XY sex chromosome system. Furthermore, previous quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping demonstrated that the Japan Sea neo-X chromosome contributes to phenotypic divergence and reproductive isolation between these sympatric species. To investigate the genomic basis for the accumulation of genes important for speciation on the neo-X chromosome, we conducted whole genome sequencing of males and females of both the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean species. No substantial degeneration has yet occurred on the neo-Y chromosome, but the nucleotide sequence of the neo-X and the neo-Y has started to diverge, particularly at regions near the fusion. The neo-sex chromosomes also harbor an excess of genes with sex-biased expression. Furthermore, genes on the neo-X chromosome showed higher non-synonymous substitution rates than autosomal genes in the Japan Sea lineage. Genomic regions of higher sequence divergence between species, genes with divergent expression between species, and QTL for inter-species phenotypic differences were found not only at the regions near the fusion site, but also at other regions along the neo-X chromosome. Neo-sex chromosomes can therefore accumulate substitutions causing species differences even in the absence of substantial neo-Y degeneration.

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of Type VI System Clusters and Effectors in Burkholderia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type VI secretion system (T6SS has been discovered in a variety of gram-negative bacteria as a versatile weapon to stimulate the killing of eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic competitors. Type VI secretion effectors (T6SEs are well known as key virulence factors for important pathogenic bacteria. In many Burkholderia species, T6SS has evolved as the most complicated secretion pathway with distinguished types to translocate diverse T6SEs, suggesting their essential roles in this genus. Here we attempted to detect and characterize T6SSs and potential T6SEs in target genomes of plant-associated and environmental Burkholderia species based on computational analyses. In total, 66 potential functional T6SS clusters were found in 30 target Burkholderia bacterial genomes, of which 33% possess three or four clusters. The core proteins in each cluster were specified and phylogenetic trees of three components (i.e., TssC, TssD, TssL were constructed to elucidate the relationship among the identified T6SS clusters. Next, we identified 322 potential T6SEs in the target genomes based on homology searches and explored the important domains conserved in effector candidates. In addition, using the screening approach based on the profile hidden Markov model (pHMM of T6SEs that possess markers for type VI effectors (MIX motif (MIX T6SEs, 57 revealed proteins that were not included in training datasets were recognized as novel MIX T6SE candidates from the Burkholderia species. This approach could be useful to identify potential T6SEs from other bacterial genomes.

  12. GAAP: Genome-organization-framework-Assisted Assembly Pipeline for prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Yanmin; Li, Yulai; Li, Changqing; Li, Rujiao; Ma, Qin; Siu, Gilman Kit-Hang; Yu, Jun; Jiang, Taijiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Kang, Yu

    2017-01-25

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have greatly promoted the genomic study of prokaryotes. However, highly fragmented assemblies due to short reads from NGS are still a limiting factor in gaining insights into the genome biology. Reference-assisted tools are promising in genome assembly, but tend to result in false assembly when the assigned reference has extensive rearrangements. Herein, we present GAAP, a genome assembly pipeline for scaffolding based on core-gene-defined Genome Organizational Framework (cGOF) described in our previous study. Instead of assigning references, we use the multiple-reference-derived cGOFs as indexes to assist in order and orientation of the scaffolds and build a skeleton structure, and then use read pairs to extend scaffolds, called local scaffolding, and distinguish between true and chimeric adjacencies in the scaffolds. In our performance tests using both empirical and simulated data of 15 genomes in six species with diverse genome size, complexity, and all three categories of cGOFs, GAAP outcompetes or achieves comparable results when compared to three other reference-assisted programs, AlignGraph, Ragout and MeDuSa. GAAP uses both cGOF and pair-end reads to create assemblies in genomic scale, and performs better than the currently available reference-assisted assembly tools as it recovers more assemblies and makes fewer false locations, especially for species with extensive rearranged genomes. Our method is a promising solution for reconstruction of genome sequence from short reads of NGS.

  13. The Jujube Genome Provides Insights into Genome Evolution and the Domestication of Sweetness/Acidity Taste in Fruit Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. belongs to the Rhamnaceae family and is a popular fruit tree species with immense economic and nutritional value. Here, we report a draft genome of the dry jujube cultivar 'Junzao' and the genome resequencing of 31 geographically diverse accessions of cultivated and wild jujubes (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa. Comparative analysis revealed that the genome of 'Dongzao', a fresh jujube, was ~86.5 Mb larger than that of the 'Junzao', partially due to the recent insertions of transposable elements in the 'Dongzao' genome. We constructed eight proto-chromosomes of the common ancestor of Rhamnaceae and Rosaceae, two sister families in the order Rosales, and elucidated the evolutionary processes that have shaped the genome structures of modern jujubes. Population structure analysis revealed the complex genetic background of jujubes resulting from extensive hybridizations between jujube and its wild relatives. Notably, several key genes that control fruit organic acid metabolism and sugar content were identified in the selective sweep regions. We also identified S-locus genes controlling gametophytic self-incompatibility and investigated haplotype patterns of the S locus in the jujube genomes, which would provide a guideline for parent selection for jujube crossbreeding. This study provides valuable genomic resources for jujube improvement, and offers insights into jujube genome evolution and its population structure and domestication.

  14. Sequence analysis of chromosome 1 revealed different selection patterns between Chinese wild mice and laboratory strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuyi; Hu, Shixian; Chao, Tianzhu; Wang, Maochun; Li, Kai; Zhou, Yuxun; Xu, Hongyan; Xiao, Junhua

    2017-10-01

    Both natural and artificial selection play a critical role in animals' adaptation to the environment. Detection of the signature of selection in genomic regions can provide insights for understanding the function of specific phenotypes. It is generally assumed that laboratory mice may experience intense artificial selection while wild mice more natural selection. However, the differences of selection signature in the mouse genome and underlying genes between wild and laboratory mice remain unclear. In this study, we used two mouse populations: chromosome 1 (Chr 1) substitution lines (C1SLs) derived from Chinese wild mice and mouse genome project (MGP) sequenced inbred strains and two selection detection statistics: Fst and Tajima's D to identify the signature of selection footprint on Chr 1. For the differentiation between the C1SLs and MGP, 110 candidate selection regions containing 47 protein coding genes were detected. A total of 149 selection regions which encompass 7.215 Mb were identified in the C1SLs by Tajima's D approach. While for the MGP, we identified nearly twice selection regions (243) compared with the C1SLs which accounted for 13.27 Mb Chr 1 sequence. Through functional annotation, we identified several biological processes with significant enrichment including seven genes in the olfactory transduction pathway. In addition, we searched the phenotypes associated with the 47 candidate selection genes identified by Fst. These genes were involved in behavior, growth or body weight, mortality or aging, and immune systems which align well with the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice. Therefore, the findings would be helpful for our understanding of the phenotypic differences between wild and laboratory mice and applications for using this new mouse resource (C1SLs) for further genetics studies.

  15. Microarray-based whole-genome hybridization as a tool for determining procaryotic species relatedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, L.; Liu, X.; Fields, M.W.; Thompson, D.K.; Bagwell, C.E.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2008-01-15

    The definition and delineation of microbial species are of great importance and challenge due to the extent of evolution and diversity. Whole-genome DNA-DNA hybridization is the cornerstone for defining procaryotic species relatedness, but obtaining pairwise DNA-DNA reassociation values for a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of procaryotes is tedious and time consuming. A previously described microarray format containing whole-genomic DNA (the community genome array or CGA) was rigorously evaluated as a high-throughput alternative to the traditional DNA-DNA reassociation approach for delineating procaryotic species relationships. DNA similarities for multiple bacterial strains obtained with the CGA-based hybridization were comparable to those obtained with various traditional whole-genome hybridization methods (r=0.87, P<0.01). Significant linear relationships were also observed between the CGA-based genome similarities and those derived from small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences (r=0.79, P<0.0001), gyrB sequences (r=0.95, P<0.0001) or REP- and BOX-PCR fingerprinting profiles (r=0.82, P<0.0001). The CGA hybridization-revealed species relationships in several representative genera, including Pseudomonas, Azoarcus and Shewanella, were largely congruent with previous classifications based on various conventional whole-genome DNA-DNA reassociation, SSU rRNA and/or gyrB analyses. These results suggest that CGA-based DNA-DNA hybridization could serve as a powerful, high-throughput format for determining species relatedness among microorganisms.

  16. Comparative analyses of plastid genomes from fourteen Cornales species: inferences for phylogenetic relationships and genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chao-Nan; Li, Hong-Tao; Milne, Richard; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Peng-Fei; Yang, Jing; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2017-12-08

    The Cornales is the basal lineage of the asterids, the largest angiosperm clade. Phylogenetic relationships within the order were previously not fully resolved. Fifteen plastid genomes representing 14 species, ten genera and seven families of Cornales were newly sequenced for comparative analyses of genome features, evolution, and phylogenomics based on different partitioning schemes and filtering strategies. All plastomes of the 14 Cornales species had the typical quadripartite structure with a genome size ranging from 156,567 bp to 158,715 bp, which included two inverted repeats (25,859-26,451 bp) separated by a large single-copy region (86,089-87,835 bp) and a small single-copy region (18,250-18,856 bp) region. These plastomes encoded the same set of 114 unique genes including 31 transfer RNA, 4 ribosomal RNA and 79 coding genes, with an identical gene order across all examined Cornales species. Two genes (rpl22 and ycf15) contained premature stop codons in seven and five species respectively. The phylogenetic relationships among all sampled species were fully resolved with maximum support. Different filtering strategies (none, light and strict) of sequence alignment did not have an effect on these relationships. The topology recovered from coding and noncoding data sets was the same as for the whole plastome, regardless of filtering strategy. Moreover, mutational hotspots and highly informative regions were identified. Phylogenetic relationships among families and intergeneric relationships within family of Cornales were well resolved. Different filtering strategies and partitioning schemes do not influence the relationships. Plastid genomes have great potential to resolve deep phylogenetic relationships of plants.

  17. CrusView: a Java-based visualization platform for comparative genomics analyses in Brassicaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-09-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/.

  18. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

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    Cha Ra Mi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC and Canada geese (CG were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI, severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

  19. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ra Mi; Yu, Qingzhong; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-01-30

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC) and Canada geese (CG) were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF) turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI), severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

  20. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia.

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    Jens G Froese

    Full Text Available Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs' resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations.

  1. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

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    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  2. Genome sequencing of the extinct Eurasian wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, illuminates the phylogeography and evolution of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Stephen D E; Magee, David A; McGettigan, Paul A; Teasdale, Matthew D; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Lohan, Amanda J; Murphy, Alison; Braud, Martin; Donoghue, Mark T; Liu, Yuan; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Schroeder, Steven; Spillane, Charles; Tai, Shuaishuai; Bradley, Daniel G; Sonstegard, Tad S; Loftus, Brendan J; MacHugh, David E

    2015-10-26

    Domestication of the now-extinct wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, gave rise to the two major domestic extant cattle taxa, B. taurus and B. indicus. While previous genetic studies have shed some light on the evolutionary relationships between European aurochs and modern cattle, important questions remain unanswered, including the phylogenetic status of aurochs, whether gene flow from aurochs into early domestic populations occurred, and which genomic regions were subject to selection processes during and after domestication. Here, we address these questions using whole-genome sequencing data generated from an approximately 6,750-year-old British aurochs bone and genome sequence data from 81 additional cattle plus genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from a diverse panel of 1,225 modern animals. Phylogenomic analyses place the aurochs as a distinct outgroup to the domestic B. taurus lineage, supporting the predominant Near Eastern origin of European cattle. Conversely, traditional British and Irish breeds share more genetic variants with this aurochs specimen than other European populations, supporting localized gene flow from aurochs into the ancestors of modern British and Irish cattle, perhaps through purposeful restocking by early herders in Britain. Finally, the functions of genes showing evidence for positive selection in B. taurus are enriched for neurobiology, growth, metabolism and immunobiology, suggesting that these biological processes have been important in the domestication of cattle. This work provides important new information regarding the origins and functional evolution of modern cattle, revealing that the interface between early European domestic populations and wild aurochs was significantly more complex than previously thought.

  3. Genomic Resources of Three Pulsatilla Species Reveal Evolutionary Hotspots, Species-Specific Sites and Variable Plastid Structure in the Family Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sawicki, Jakub

    2015-09-15

    The European continent is presently colonized by nine species of the genus Pulsatilla, five of which are encountered only in mountainous regions of southwest and south-central Europe. The remaining four species inhabit lowlands in the north-central and eastern parts of the continent. Most plants of the genus Pulsatilla are rare and endangered, which is why most research efforts focused on their biology, ecology and hybridization. The objective of this study was to develop genomic resources, including complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters, for three sympatric Pulsatilla species that are most commonly found in Central Europe. The results will supply valuable information about genetic variation, which can be used in the process of designing primers for population studies and conservation genetics research. The complete plastid genomes together with the nuclear rRNA cluster can serve as a useful tool in hybridization studies. Six complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters were sequenced from three species of Pulsatilla using the Illumina sequencing technology. Four junctions between single copy regions and inverted repeats and junctions between the identified locally-collinear blocks (LCB) were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Pulsatilla genomes of 120 unique genes had a total length of approximately 161-162 kb, and 21 were duplicated in the inverted repeats (IR) region. Comparative plastid genomes of newly-sequenced Pulsatilla and the previously-identified plastomes of Aconitum and Ranunculus species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae revealed several variations in the structure of the genome, but the gene content remained constant. The nuclear rRNA cluster (18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-26S) of studied Pulsatilla species is 5795 bp long. Among five analyzed regions of the rRNA cluster, only Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) enabled the molecular delimitation of closely-related Pulsatilla patens and Pulsatilla vernalis. The determination of complete

  4. Wild Nicotiana Species as a Source of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Nicotianatabacum

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    Nikova V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of our experiments executed to obtain tobacco male sterile lines through interspecific hybridization are summarized. Ten wild species from the genus Nicotiana: N. excelsior (exc, N. amplexicaulis (amp, N. rustica (rus, Nicotianaglauca (gla, N. velutina (vel, N. benthamiana (ben, N. maritima (mar, N. paniculata (pan, N. longiflora (lon and N. africana (afr were used as cytoplasmic donors and N. tabacum, cv. HarmanliiskaBasma (HB as a donor of the nucleus. Genetic effects of cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction of the studied species are discussed. Our results suggested that cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS was expressed when the cytoplasms of the above mentioned wild Nicotiana species were combined with the nucleus of N. tabacum. The 10 sources of CMS obtained in tobacco were characterized by altered flower phenotypes. Flowers are classified into types according the stamen, pistil and corolla modification. All these CMS sources were backcrossed to Oriental tobaccos, cvs. Tekne, Nevrokop B-12, Kroumovgrad 90 and Djebel 576, to develop corresponding CMS lines. The investigated cytoplasms produced compete male sterility in all those cultivars. The CMS lines preserved flower types, specific for every “sterile” cytoplasm. The extent of male organ modifications varied from apparently normal (but pollenless stamens in CMS (pan, (afr, some plants of (vel (mar through different degrees of malformations (shriveled anther on shortened filaments (lon, pinnate-like anthers on filaments of normal length (amp, petal - (ben, pistil- or stigma-like structures (rus, (gla to lack of male reproductive organs in (exc and in some plants of (vel, (mar, (rus and (gla. Most of the above mentioned cytoplasms had normal female gametophyte and good seed productivity. Alterations of the pistils were observed in CMS (rus, (exc and (ben causing reduction of the seed set. Electrophoresis of seed proteins of the tobacco cultivars and their CMS lines also suggested that

  5. High altitude species, high profits: can the trade in wild harvested Fritillaria cirrhosa (Liliaceae) be sustained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Pei, S-J; Luo, P; Schippmann, U; Long, X; Bi, Y-F

    2018-05-08

    Fritillaria cirrhosa D. Don bulbs contain alkaloids and are one of the most intensively exploited alpine Himalayan medicinal species. In terms of proprietary medicines, our study shows that 210 F. cirrhosa products are offered by 46 suppliers, most of which (44) are situated in China and two in Nepal. A widepread commercial use is as one of the main ingredients in cough syrups. A well known example is "Nin Jiom Pei Pa Koa Herbal Cough & Throat Syrup", which typically contains more F. cirrhosa than any other herbal ingredient in the formulation. The biggest market for F. cirrhosa bulbs is China, where demand exceeds supply of this wild harvested species for use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Cross-border trade from Nepal to China occurs in significant quantities. Bhutan also imports F. cirrhosa bulbs from Nepal. In addition, F. cirrhosa is registered as an active ingredient in traditional herbal medicinal preparations in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong SAR, Malaysia, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Taiwan. There is also an export trade in F. cirrhosa to Europe. Assessing how much F. cirrhosa is traded is complex, however, due to a "look-alike" challenge, as nine Chinese Fritillaria species are traded in Europe (Fritillaria cirrhosa, F. delavayi, F. hupehensis, F. pallidiflora, F. przewalskii, F. thunbergii, F. unibracteata, F. ussuriensis and F. walujewii). The aims of this review were to assess the scale of the global trade in F. cirrhosa, and to synthesise studies of the impacts of wild harvest on F. cirrhosa populations and on the extent of emerging cultivation initiatives as an alternative to wild harvest. Firstly, we reviewed published information on studies on impacts of wild F. cirrhosa harvest from across the geographic range of this species. Secondly, global trade data for F. cirrhosa were analysed. The principal demand for F. cirrhosa bulbs is in China, where hundreds of different companies produce Fritillaria preparations. Trade data also show that

  6. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  7. Variation in susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among wild and domesticated wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Nygren

    Full Text Available We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp. and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp. and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV. The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i continuous reduction in growth over time, ii weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in

  8. Investigation of wild species potential to increase genetic diversity useful for apple breeding

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    Dan Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of testing new apple cultivars and the possibility to induce valuable traits is directly dependent on the availability of sufficient genetic diversity, while apple breeding has narrowed the genetic ground of commercial cultivars. Wild species were studied in regard to their influence upon progenies and their capacity to enlarge apple genetic diversity. The interspecific seedlings were framed in five biparental mating (paired crosses, in which Malus species were crossed with different cultivars, obtaining half-sib families. The number of F1 progenies per combination varied from 31 (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda up to 142 (Reinette Baumann × M. floribunda, with a total of 1650 hybrids F1. The influences upon vigour and juvenile period and possible correlation among fruit size and taste were analyzed. Juvenile period varied from 6.00 (M. zumi × Jonathan to 9.31 years (Cluj 218/2 × M. floribunda. Data based on correlation coefficient illustrated that the fructification year was not influenced by the vigour of trees. The highest value of correlation for fruit’s size and taste was obtained among M. coronaria hybrids. This result might suggest that once the fruit are larger, there is a high chance the taste is also more appreciative and fruit quality for mouth feels increase. Depending on the parental formula, additive effects may be inferior compared to genetic effects of dominance and epistasis. Although M. zumi and M. floribunda achieved the same genetic gain (0.31, M. zumi had a higher expected selection response for fruit size. The difficulty of obtaining seedlings with tasty and large fruit when wild Malus species are used as genitors is resulting from the values of expected selection response data, but in the same time results confirm that wild Malus species are suitable resources for genetic variability, both for dessert and ornamental apple cultivars.

  9. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  10. Karyotype and genome size analyses in species of Helichrysum (Asteraceae

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    Narjes Azizi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotype studies were performed in 18 populations of eight Helichrysum species in Iran. Those species showed chromosome numbers of 2n = 2x = 14; 2n = 4x = 24, 28 and 32; 2n = 6x = 36; 2n = 7x = 42; 2n = 8x = 48; 2n = 9x = 54; and 2n = 10x = 60. The chromosome numbers of H. davisianum, H. globiferum, H. leucocephalum and H. oocephalum are reported here for the first time. New ploidy levels are reported for H. oligocephalum (2n = 4x = 24 and H. plicatum (2n = 4x = 32. The chromosomes were metacentric and submetacentric. An ANOVA among H. globiferum and H. leucocephalum populations showed significant differences for the coefficient of variation for chromosome size, total form percentage and the asymmetry indices, indicating that changes in the chromosome structure of Helichrysum species occurred during their diversification. Significant positive correlations among the species and populations studied, in terms of the total chromosome length, lengths of the short arms and lengths of the long arms, indicate that these karyotypic features change simultaneously during speciation events. The genome sizes of Helichrysum species are reported here for first time. The 2C DNA content ranged from 8.13 pg (in H. rubicundum to 18.4 pg (in H. leucocephalum and H. davisianum. We found that C-value correlated significantly with ploidy level, total chromosome length, lengths of the long arms and lengths of the short arms (p<0.05, indicating that changes in chromosome structure are accompanied by changes in DNA content.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Four Aconitum Medicinal Species

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    Jing Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum (Ranunculaceae consists of approximately 400 species distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Many species are well-known herbs, mainly used for analgesia and anti-inflammatory purposes. This genus is well represented in China and has gained widespread attention for its toxicity and detoxification properties. In southwestern China, several Aconitum species, called ‘Dula’ in the Yi Nationality, were often used to control the poisonous effects of other Aconitum plants. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp genomes of these species were determined for the first time through Illumina paired-end sequencing. Our results indicate that their cp genomes ranged from 151,214 bp (A. episcopale to 155,769 bp (A. delavayi in length. A total of 111–112 unique genes were identified, including 85 protein-coding genes, 36–37 tRNA genes and eight ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA. We also analyzed codon usage, IR expansion or contraction and simple sequence repeats in the cp genomes. Eight variable regions were identified and these may potentially be useful as specific DNA barcodes for species identification of Aconitum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all five studied species formed a new clade and were resolved with 100% bootstrap support. This study will provide genomic resources and potential plastid markers for DNA barcoding, further taxonomy and germplasm exploration of Aconitum.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Four Aconitum Medicinal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Li, Xuepei; Li, Hongtao; Yang, Junbo; Wang, Hong; He, Jun

    2018-04-26

    Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) consists of approximately 400 species distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Many species are well-known herbs, mainly used for analgesia and anti-inflammatory purposes. This genus is well represented in China and has gained widespread attention for its toxicity and detoxification properties. In southwestern China, several Aconitum species, called ‘Dula’ in the Yi Nationality, were often used to control the poisonous effects of other Aconitum plants. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of these species were determined for the first time through Illumina paired-end sequencing. Our results indicate that their cp genomes ranged from 151,214 bp ( A. episcopale ) to 155,769 bp ( A. delavayi ) in length. A total of 111⁻112 unique genes were identified, including 85 protein-coding genes, 36⁻37 tRNA genes and eight ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA). We also analyzed codon usage, IR expansion or contraction and simple sequence repeats in the cp genomes. Eight variable regions were identified and these may potentially be useful as specific DNA barcodes for species identification of Aconitum . Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all five studied species formed a new clade and were resolved with 100% bootstrap support. This study will provide genomic resources and potential plastid markers for DNA barcoding, further taxonomy and germplasm exploration of Aconitum .

  13. Comparative chloroplast genomes of eleven Schima (Theaceae) species: Insights into DNA barcoding and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Qin; Drew, Bryan T; Yang, Jun-Bo; Gao, Lian-Ming; Li, De-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Schima is an ecologically and economically important woody genus in tea family (Theaceae). Unresolved species delimitations and phylogenetic relationships within Schima limit our understanding of the genus and hinder utilization of the genus for economic purposes. In the present study, we conducted comparative analysis among the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of 11 Schima species. Our results indicate that Schima cp genomes possess a typical quadripartite structure, with conserved genomic structure and gene order. The size of the Schima cp genome is about 157 kilo base pairs (kb). They consistently encode 114 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs, with 17 duplicated in the inverted repeat (IR). These cp genomes are highly conserved and do not show obvious expansion or contraction of the IR region. The percent variability of the 68 coding and 93 noncoding (>150 bp) fragments is consistently less than 3%. The seven most widely touted DNA barcode regions as well as one promising barcode candidate showed low sequence divergence. Eight mutational hotspots were identified from the 11 cp genomes. These hotspots may potentially be useful as specific DNA barcodes for species identification of Schima. The 58 cpSSR loci reported here are complementary to the microsatellite markers identified from the nuclear genome, and will be leveraged for further population-level studies. Phylogenetic relationships among the 11 Schima species were resolved with strong support based on the cp genome data set, which corresponds well with the species distribution pattern. The data presented here will serve as a foundation to facilitate species identification, DNA barcoding and phylogenetic reconstructions for future exploration of Schima.

  14. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong; Han, Haige; Bai, Haitang; Bao, Yanqing; Zhao, Lele; Zhai, Zhengxiao; Zhao, Wenjing; Sun, Zikui; Zhang, Yan; Meng, He; Dugarjaviin, Manglai

    2014-05-14

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsonian translocation event through the wild horse's chromosomes 23 and 24, which contained sequences that were highly homologous with those on the domestic horse's chromosome 5. The four main types of rearrangement, insertion of unknown origin, inserted duplication, inversion, and relocation, are not evenly distributed on all the chromosomes, and some chromosomes, such as the X chromosome, contain more rearrangements than others, and the number of inversions is far less than the number of insertions and relocations in the horse genome. Furthermore, we discovered the percentages of LINE_L1 and LTR_ERV1 are significantly increased in rearrangement regions. The analysis results of the two representative Equus species genomes improved our knowledge of Equus chromosome rearrangement and karyotype evolution.

  15. Evidence of long-term gene flow and selection during domestication from analyses of Eurasian wild and domestic pig genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantz, L.A.F.; Schraiber, J.G.; Madsen, O.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Cagan, A.; Bosse, M.; Paudel, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Larson, G.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, the process of domestication is assumed to be initiated by humans, involve few individuals and rely on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. We analyzed pig domestication using over 100 genome sequences and tested whether pig domestication followed a traditional

  16. What can comparative genomics tell us about species concepts in the genus Aspergillus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rokas, Antonis; payne, gary; Federova, Natalie D.; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa; yu, Jiujiang; georgianna, D. R.; Dean, Ralph A.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, T. E.; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Maiti, R.; Joardar, V.; Amedeo, Paolo; Denning, David W.; Nierman, William C.

    2007-12-15

    Understanding the nature of species" boundaries is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. The availability of genomes from several species of the genus Aspergillus allows us for the first time to examine the demarcation of fungal species at the whole-genome level. Here, we examine four case studies, two of which involve intraspecific comparisons, whereas the other two deal with interspecific genomic comparisons between closely related species. These four comparisons reveal significant variation in the nature of species boundaries across Aspergillus. For example, comparisons between A. fumigatus and Neosartorya fischeri (the teleomorph of A. fischerianus) and between A. oryzae and A. flavus suggest that measures of sequence similarity and species-specific genes are significantly higher for the A. fumigatus - N. fischeri pair. Importantly, the values obtained from the comparison between A. oryzae and A. flavus are remarkably similar to those obtained from an intra-specific comparison of A. fumigatus strains, giving support to the proposal that A. oryzae represents a distinct ecotype of A. flavus and not a distinct species. We argue that genomic data can aid Aspergillus taxonomy by serving as a source of novel and unprecedented amounts of comparative data, as a resource for the development of additional diagnostic tools, and finally as a knowledge database about the biological differences between strains and species.

  17. Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy in groupers (Epinephelus spp. in southern Italy: a threat for wild endangered species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendramin Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy (VER. To date, more than 50 species have proved to be susceptible and among them, those found in genus Epinephelus are highly represented. Clinical disease outbreaks are generally characterized by typical nervous signs and significant mortalities mainly associated with aquaculture activities, although some concerns for the impact of this infection in wild fish have been raised. In this study, the authors present the first documented report describing an outbreak of VER in wild species in the Mediterranean basin. Case presentation In late summer - early winter 2011 (September-December, significant mortalities affecting wild Dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus, Golden grouper (Epinephelus costae and European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reported in the municipality of Santa Maria di Leuca (Northern Ionian Sea, Italy. The affected fish showed an abnormal swimming behavior and swollen abdomens. During this epizootic, five moribund fish showing clear neurological signs were captured and underwent laboratory investigations. Analytical results confirmed the diagnosis of VER in all the specimens. Genetic characterization classified all betanodavirus isolates as belonging to the RGNNV genotype, revealing a close genetic relationship with viral sequences obtained from diseased farmed fish reared in the same area in previous years. Conclusion The close relationship of the viral sequences between the isolates collected in wild affected fish and those isolated during clinical disease outbreaks in farmed fish in the same area in previous years suggests a persistent circulation of betanodaviruses and transmission between wild and farmed stocks. Further investigations are necessary to assess the risk of viral transmission between wild and farmed fish populations, particularly in marine protected areas where endangered species are present.

  18. The genomic impact of 100 million years of social evolution in seven ant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadau, Jürgen; Helmkampf, Martin; Nygaard, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) represent one of the most successful eusocial taxa in terms of both their geographic distribution and species number. The publication of seven ant genomes within the past year was a quantum leap for socio- and ant genomics. The diversity of social organization in ants...... between social and solitary insects, as well as among ant species. Altogether, these seven ant genomes open exciting new research avenues and opportunities for understanding the genetic basis and regulation of social species, and adaptive complex systems in general....... makes them excellent model organisms to study the evolution of social systems. Comparing the ant genomes with those of the honeybee, a lineage that evolved eusociality independently from ants, and solitary insects suggests that there are significant differences in key aspects of genome organization...

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of a stonefly species, Togoperla sp. (Plecoptera: Perlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Yuyu; Yang, Ding

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a stonefly species, Togoperla sp. (Plecoptera: Perlidae), was sequenced. The 15,723 bp long genome has the standard metazoan complement of 37 genes and an A+T-rich region, which is the same as the insect ancestral genome arrangement.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences from five Eimeria species (Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Eimeriidae) infecting domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Mosun E; El-Sherry, Shiem; Whale, Julia; Barta, John R

    2014-07-17

    Clinical and subclinical coccidiosis is cosmopolitan and inflicts significant losses to the poultry industry globally. Seven named Eimeria species are responsible for coccidiosis in turkeys: Eimeria dispersa; Eimeria meleagrimitis; Eimeria gallopavonis; Eimeria meleagridis; Eimeria adenoeides; Eimeria innocua; and, Eimeria subrotunda. Although attempts have been made to characterize these parasites molecularly at the nuclear 18S rDNA and ITS loci, the maternally-derived and mitotically replicating mitochondrial genome may be more suited for species level molecular work; however, only limited sequence data are available for Eimeria spp. infecting turkeys. The purpose of this study was to sequence and annotate the complete mitochondrial genomes from 5 Eimeria species that commonly infect the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). Six single-oocyst derived cultures of five Eimeria species infecting turkeys were PCR-amplified and sequenced completely prior to detailed annotation. Resulting sequences were aligned and used in phylogenetic analyses (BI, ML, and MP) that included complete mitochondrial genomes from 16 Eimeria species or concatenated CDS sequences from each genome. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences were obtained for Eimeria adenoeides Guelph, 6211 bp; Eimeria dispersa Briston, 6238 bp; Eimeria meleagridis USAR97-01, 6212 bp; Eimeria meleagrimitis USMN08-01, 6165 bp; Eimeria gallopavonis Weybridge, 6215 bp; and Eimeria gallopavonis USKS06-01, 6215 bp). The order, orientation and CDS lengths of the three protein coding genes (COI, COIII and CytB) as well as rDNA fragments encoding ribosomal large and small subunit rRNA were conserved among all sequences. Pairwise sequence identities between species ranged from 88.1% to 98.2%; sequence variability was concentrated within CDS or between rDNA fragments (where indels were common). No phylogenetic reconstruction supported monophyly of Eimeria species infecting turkeys; Eimeria dispersa may have arisen

  1. Genomic resources for wild populations of the house mouse, Mus musculus and its close relative Mus spretus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Bettina; Karakoc, Emre; Neme, Rafik; Teschke, Meike; Pfeifle, Christine; Pezer, Željka; Babiker, Hiba; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Montero, Inka; Scavetta, Rick; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Molins, Marta Puente; Schlegel, Mathias; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Altmüller, Janine; Franitza, Marek; Büntge, Anna; Künzel, Sven; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory. PMID:27622383

  2. Genomic characterization of Ensifer aridi, a proposed new species of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium recovered from Asian, African and American deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Antoine; Tak, Nisha; Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Lavire, Celine; Meyer, Thibault; Chapulliot, David; Rathi, Sonam; Sakrouhi, Ilham; Rocha, Guadalupe; Rohmer, Marine; Severac, Dany; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Munive, Jose-Antonio

    2017-01-14

    Nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from hot arid areas in Asia, Africa and America but from diverse leguminous plants have been recently identified as belonging to a possible new species of Ensifer (Sinorhizobium). In this study, 6 strains belonging to this new clade were compared with Ensifer species at the genome-wide level. Their capacities to utilize various carbon sources and to establish a symbiotic interaction with several leguminous plants were examined. Draft genomes of selected strains isolated from Morocco (Merzouga desert), Mexico (Baja California) as well as from India (Thar desert) were produced. Genome based species delineation tools demonstrated that they belong to a new species of Ensifer. Comparison of its core genome with those of E. meliloti, E. medicae and E. fredii enabled the identification of a species conserved gene set. Predicted functions of associated proteins and pathway reconstruction revealed notably the presence of transport systems for octopine/nopaline and inositol phosphates. Phenotypic characterization of this new desert rhizobium species showed that it was capable to utilize malonate, to grow at 48 °C or under high pH while NaCl tolerance levels were comparable to other Ensifer species. Analysis of accessory genomes and plasmid profiling demonstrated the presence of large plasmids that varied in size from strain to strain. As symbiotic functions were found in the accessory genomes, the differences in symbiotic interactions between strains may be well related to the difference in plasmid content that could explain the different legumes with which they can develop the symbiosis. The genomic analysis performed here confirms that the selected rhizobial strains isolated from desert regions in three continents belong to a new species. As until now only recovered from such harsh environment, we propose to name it Ensifer aridi. The presented genomic data offers a good basis to explore adaptations and functionalities that enable them

  3. Genomic Resources of Three Pulsatilla Species Reveal Evolutionary Hotspots, Species-Specific Sites and Variable Plastid Structure in the Family Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szczecińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The European continent is presently colonized by nine species of the genus Pulsatilla, five of which are encountered only in mountainous regions of southwest and south-central Europe. The remaining four species inhabit lowlands in the north-central and eastern parts of the continent. Most plants of the genus Pulsatilla are rare and endangered, which is why most research efforts focused on their biology, ecology and hybridization. The objective of this study was to develop genomic resources, including complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters, for three sympatric Pulsatilla species that are most commonly found in Central Europe. The results will supply valuable information about genetic variation, which can be used in the process of designing primers for population studies and conservation genetics research. The complete plastid genomes together with the nuclear rRNA cluster can serve as a useful tool in hybridization studies. Methodology/principal findings: Six complete plastid genomes and nuclear rRNA clusters were sequenced from three species of Pulsatilla using the Illumina sequencing technology. Four junctions between single copy regions and inverted repeats and junctions between the identified locally-collinear blocks (LCB were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Pulsatilla genomes of 120 unique genes had a total length of approximately 161–162 kb, and 21 were duplicated in the inverted repeats (IR region. Comparative plastid genomes of newly-sequenced Pulsatilla and the previously-identified plastomes of Aconitum and Ranunculus species belonging to the family Ranunculaceae revealed several variations in the structure of the genome, but the gene content remained constant. The nuclear rRNA cluster (18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-26S of studied Pulsatilla species is 5795 bp long. Among five analyzed regions of the rRNA cluster, only Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2 enabled the molecular delimitation of closely-related Pulsatilla

  4. The genome sequence of the outbreeding globe artichoke constructed de novo incorporating a phase-aware low-pass sequencing strategy of F1 progeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Davide; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Acquadro, Alberto; Froenicke, Lutz; Portis, Ezio; Beitel, Christopher; Tirone, Matteo; Mauro, Rosario; Lo Monaco, Antonino; Mauromicale, Giovanni; Faccioli, Primetta; Cattivelli, Luigi; Rieseberg, Loren; Michelmore, Richard; Lanteri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus) is an out-crossing, perennial, multi-use crop species that is grown worldwide and belongs to the Compositae, one of the most successful Angiosperm families. We describe the first genome sequence of globe artichoke. The assembly, comprising of 13,588 scaffolds covering 725 of the 1,084 Mb genome, was generated using ~133-fold Illumina sequencing data and encodes 26,889 predicted genes. Re-sequencing (30×) of globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis) parental genotypes and low-coverage (0.5 to 1×) genotyping-by-sequencing of 163 F1 individuals resulted in 73% of the assembled genome being anchored in 2,178 genetic bins ordered along 17 chromosomal pseudomolecules. This was achieved using a novel pipeline, SOILoCo (Scaffold Ordering by Imputation with Low Coverage), to detect heterozygous regions and assign parental haplotypes with low sequencing read depth and of unknown phase. SOILoCo provides a powerful tool for de novo genome analysis of outcrossing species. Our data will enable genome-scale analyses of evolutionary processes among crops, weeds, and wild species within and beyond the Compositae, and will facilitate the identification of economically important genes from related species. PMID:26786968

  5. Molecular prevalence and genotyping of Chlamydia spp. in wild birds from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; An, Injung; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Youngsik; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-07-07

    Wild birds are reservoirs for Chlamydia spp. Of the total 225 samples from wild birds during January to September 2016 in Korea, 4 (1.8%) and 2 (0.9%) showed positive for Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of sequence identities for outer-membrane protein A (ompA) revealed that Korean C. psittaci fall into three previously known genotypes; genotype E, 1V and 6N, whereas the Korean C. gallinacea were classified as new variants of C. gallinacea. Our study demonstrates that wild birds in South Korea carry at least two Chlamydia species: C. psittaci and C. gallinacea, and provides new information on the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis in wild birds.

  6. Comparative shotgun proteomic analysis of wild and domesticated Opuntia spp. species shows a metabolic adaptation through domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichereaux, Carole; Hernández-Domínguez, Eric E; Santos-Diaz, Maria Del Socorro; Reyes-Agüero, Antonio; Astello-García, Marizel; Guéraud, Françoise; Negre-Salvayre, Anne; Schiltz, Odile; Rossignol, Michel; Barba de la Rosa, Ana Paulina

    2016-06-30

    The Opuntia genus is widely distributed in America, but the highest richness of wild species are found in Mexico, as well as the most domesticated Opuntia ficus-indica, which is the most domesticated species and an important crop in agricultural economies of arid and semiarid areas worldwide. During domestication process, the Opuntia morphological characteristics were favored, such as less and smaller spines in cladodes and less seeds in fruits, but changes at molecular level are almost unknown. To obtain more insights about the Opuntia molecular changes through domestication, a shotgun proteomic analysis and database-dependent searches by homology was carried out. >1000 protein species were identified and by using a label-free quantitation method, the Opuntia proteomes were compared in order to identify differentially accumulated proteins among wild and domesticated species. Most of the changes were observed in glucose, secondary, and 1C metabolism, which correlate with the observed protein, fiber and phenolic compounds accumulation in Opuntia cladodes. Regulatory proteins, ribosomal proteins, and proteins related with response to stress were also observed in differential accumulation. These results provide new valuable data that will help to the understanding of the molecular changes of Opuntia species through domestication. Opuntia species are well adapted to dry and warm conditions in arid and semiarid regions worldwide, and they are highly productive plants showing considerable promises as an alternative food source. However, there is a gap regarding Opuntia molecular mechanisms that enable them to grow in extreme environmental conditions and how the domestication processes has changed them. In the present study, a shotgun analysis was carried out to characterize the proteomes of five Opuntia species selected by its domestication degree. Our results will help to a better understanding of proteomic features underlying the selection and specialization under

  7. Molecular characterization of Babesia and Cytauxzoon species in wild South-African meerkats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Menard, Sandie; Berry, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    Piroplasms, including Babesia, Cytauxzoon and Theileria species, frequently infect domestic and wild mammals. At present, there is no information on the occurrence and molecular identity of these tick-borne blood parasites in the meerkat, one of South Africa's most endearing wildlife celebrities. Meerkats live in territorial groups, which may occur on ranchland in close proximity to humans, pets and livestock. Blood collected from 46 healthy meerkats living in the South-African Kalahari desert was screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of 18S rRNA and ITS1 genes. We found that meerkats were infected by 2 species: one species related to Babesia sp. and one species related to Cytauxzoon sp. Ninety one percent of the meerkats were infected by the Cytauxzoon and/or the Babesia species. Co-infection occurred in 46% of meerkats. The pathogenicity and vectors of these two piroplasm species remains to be determined.

  8. A study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Y. enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis. The objective of the article was a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ystB gene fragments of 88 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wild ducks. HRM analysis revealed 14 different melting profiles - 4 of them were defined as regular genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4), whereas 10 as variations. 24 of the examined Y. enterocolitica strains were classified as G1, 18 strains as a G2, 21 strains as a G3, and 15 strains as a G4. Nucleotide sequences classified as G1 revealed 100% similarity with the Y. enterocolitica D88145.1 sequence (NCBI). Analysis of G2 revealed one point mutation - transition T111A. One mutation was also found in G3, but SNP was placed in a different gene region - transition G193A. Two SNPs - transitions G92C and T111A - were identified in G4. Direct sequencing of 10 variations revealed 5 new variants of the ystB nucleotide sequence: V1 - transition G129A (3 strains); V2 - transitions T111A and G193A (2 strains); V3 - transitions C118T and G193A (1 strain); V4 - transitions C141A and G193A (2 strains); and V5 characterized by 19 SNPs: G83A, T93A, A109G, G114T, C116T, A123G, T134C, T142G, T144C, A150C, G162A, T165G, T170G, T174A, T177G, G178A, A179G, A184G and G193A (2 strains). The predominant genotype in isolates from wild ducks was G1; in red deer G2; in wild boar G3; in roe deer G1 and G4. The proposed HRM method could be used to analyze Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from different sources, including humans.

  9. CrusView: A Java-Based Visualization Platform for Comparative Genomics Analyses in Brassicaceae Species[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    In plants and animals, chromosomal breakage and fusion events based on conserved syntenic genomic blocks lead to conserved patterns of karyotype evolution among species of the same family. However, karyotype information has not been well utilized in genomic comparison studies. We present CrusView, a Java-based bioinformatic application utilizing Standard Widget Toolkit/Swing graphics libraries and a SQLite database for performing visualized analyses of comparative genomics data in Brassicaceae (crucifer) plants. Compared with similar software and databases, one of the unique features of CrusView is its integration of karyotype information when comparing two genomes. This feature allows users to perform karyotype-based genome assembly and karyotype-assisted genome synteny analyses with preset karyotype patterns of the Brassicaceae genomes. Additionally, CrusView is a local program, which gives its users high flexibility when analyzing unpublished genomes and allows users to upload self-defined genomic information so that they can visually study the associations between genome structural variations and genetic elements, including chromosomal rearrangements, genomic macrosynteny, gene families, high-frequency recombination sites, and tandem and segmental duplications between related species. This tool will greatly facilitate karyotype, chromosome, and genome evolution studies using visualized comparative genomics approaches in Brassicaceae species. CrusView is freely available at http://www.cmbb.arizona.edu/CrusView/. PMID:23898041

  10. Genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics: enabling insights into social evolution and disease challenges for managed and wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Judith; McAfee, Alison; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-02-01

    Globally, there are over 20 000 bee species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) with a host of biologically fascinating characteristics. Although they have long been studied as models for social evolution, recent challenges to bee health (mainly diseases and pesticides) have gathered the attention of both public and research communities. Genome sequences of twelve bee species are now complete or under progress, facilitating the application of additional 'omic technologies. Here, we review recent developments in honey bee and native bee research in the genomic era. We discuss the progress in genome sequencing and functional annotation, followed by the enabled comparative genomics, proteomics and transcriptomics applications regarding social evolution and health. Finally, we end with comments on future challenges in the postgenomic era. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparative Genomics of Burkholderia singularis sp. nov., a Low G+C Content, Free-Living Bacterium That Defies Taxonomic Dissection of the Genus Burkholderia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vandamme

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Four Burkholderia pseudomallei-like isolates of human clinical origin were examined by a polyphasic taxonomic approach that included comparative whole genome analyses. The results demonstrated that these isolates represent a rare and unusual, novel Burkholderia species for which we propose the name B. singularis. The type strain is LMG 28154T (=CCUG 65685T. Its genome sequence has an average mol% G+C content of 64.34%, which is considerably lower than that of other Burkholderia species. The reduced G+C content of strain LMG 28154T was characterized by a genome wide AT bias that was not due to reduced GC-biased gene conversion or reductive genome evolution, but might have been caused by an altered DNA base excision repair pathway. B. singularis can be differentiated from other Burkholderia species by multilocus sequence analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and a distinctive biochemical profile that includes the absence of nitrate reduction, a mucoid appearance on Columbia sheep blood agar, and a slowly positive oxidase reaction. Comparisons with publicly available whole genome sequences demonstrated that strain TSV85, an Australian water isolate, also represents the same species and therefore, to date, B. singularis has been recovered from human or environmental samples on three continents.

  12. Comparative Genomics of Burkholderia singularis sp. nov., a Low G+C Content, Free-Living Bacterium That Defies Taxonomic Dissection of the Genus Burkholderia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Peter; Peeters, Charlotte; De Smet, Birgit; Price, Erin P.; Sarovich, Derek S.; Henry, Deborah A.; Hird, Trevor J.; Zlosnik, James E. A.; Mayo, Mark; Warner, Jeffrey; Baker, Anthony; Currie, Bart J.; Carlier, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    Four Burkholderia pseudomallei-like isolates of human clinical origin were examined by a polyphasic taxonomic approach that included comparative whole genome analyses. The results demonstrated that these isolates represent a rare and unusual, novel Burkholderia species for which we propose the name B. singularis. The type strain is LMG 28154T (=CCUG 65685T). Its genome sequence has an average mol% G+C content of 64.34%, which is considerably lower than that of other Burkholderia species. The reduced G+C content of strain LMG 28154T was characterized by a genome wide AT bias that was not due to reduced GC-biased gene conversion or reductive genome evolution, but might have been caused by an altered DNA base excision repair pathway. B. singularis can be differentiated from other Burkholderia species by multilocus sequence analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and a distinctive biochemical profile that includes the absence of nitrate reduction, a mucoid appearance on Columbia sheep blood agar, and a slowly positive oxidase reaction. Comparisons with publicly available whole genome sequences demonstrated that strain TSV85, an Australian water isolate, also represents the same species and therefore, to date, B. singularis has been recovered from human or environmental samples on three continents. PMID:28932212

  13. M-GCAT: interactively and efficiently constructing large-scale multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messeguer Xavier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to recent advances in whole genome shotgun sequencing and assembly technologies, the financial cost of decoding an organism's DNA has been drastically reduced, resulting in a recent explosion of genomic sequencing projects. This increase in related genomic data will allow for in depth studies of evolution in closely related species through multiple whole genome comparisons. Results To facilitate such comparisons, we present an interactive multiple genome comparison and alignment tool, M-GCAT, that can efficiently construct multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species. M-GCAT is able to compare and identify highly conserved regions in up to 20 closely related bacterial species in minutes on a standard computer, and as many as 90 (containing 75 cloned genomes from a set of 15 published enterobacterial genomes in an hour. M-GCAT also incorporates a novel comparative genomics data visualization interface allowing the user to globally and locally examine and inspect the conserved regions and gene annotations. Conclusion M-GCAT is an interactive comparative genomics tool well suited for quickly generating multiple genome comparisons frameworks and alignments among closely related species. M-GCAT is freely available for download for academic and non-commercial use at: http://alggen.lsi.upc.es/recerca/align/mgcat/intro-mgcat.html.

  14. Search for Mycobacterium leprae in wild mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Barboza Pedrini

    Full Text Available Leprosy is still a worldwide public health problem. Brazil and India show the highest prevalence rates of the disease. Natural infection of armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus with Mycobacterium leprae has been reported in some regions of the United States. Identification of bacilli is difficult, particularly due to its inability to grow in vitro. The use of molecular tools represents a fast and sensitive alternative method for diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. In the present study, the diagnostic methods used were bacilloscopy, histopathology, microbiology, and PCR using specific primers for M. leprae repetitive sequences. PCR were performed using genomic DNA extracted from 138 samples of liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin of 44 D. novemcinctus, Euphractus sexcinctus, Cabassous unicinctus, and C. tatouay armadillos from the Middle Western region of the state of São Paulo and from the experimental station of Embrapa Pantanal, located in Pantanal da Nhecolândia of Mato Grosso do Sul state. Also, the molecular analysis of 19 samples from internal organs of other road killed species of wild animals, such as Nasua nasua (ring-tailed coati, Procyon cancrivoros (hand-skinned, Cerdocyon thous (dog-pity-bush, Cavia aperea (restless cavy, Didelphis albiventris (skunk, Sphigurrus spinosus (hedgehog, and Gallictis vittata (ferret showed PCR negative data. None of the 157 analyzed samples had shown natural mycobacterial infection. Only the armadillo inoculated with material collected from untreated multibacillary leprosy patient presented PCR positive and its genomic sequencing revealed 100% identity with M. leprae. According to these preliminary studies, based on the used methodology, it is possible to conclude that wild mammals seem not to play an important role in the epidemiology of leprosy in the Middle Western region of the São Paulo state and in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state.

  15. Insights into the Musa genome: Syntenic relationships to rice and between Musa species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althoff Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musa species (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales including bananas and plantains are collectively the fourth most important crop in developing countries. Knowledge concerning Musa genome structure and the origin of distinct cultivars has greatly increased over the last few years. Until now, however, no large-scale analyses of Musa genomic sequence have been conducted. This study compares genomic sequence in two Musa species with orthologous regions in the rice genome. Results We produced 1.4 Mb of Musa sequence from 13 BAC clones, annotated and analyzed them along with 4 previously sequenced BACs. The 443 predicted genes revealed that Zingiberales genes share GC content and distribution characteristics with eudicot and Poaceae genomes. Comparison with rice revealed microsynteny regions that have persisted since the divergence of the Commelinid orders Poales and Zingiberales at least 117 Mya. The previously hypothesized large-scale duplication event in the common ancestor of major cereal lineages within the Poaceae was verified. The divergence time distributions for Musa-Zingiber (Zingiberaceae, Zingiberales orthologs and paralogs provide strong evidence for a large-scale duplication event in the Musa lineage after its divergence from the Zingiberaceae approximately 61 Mya. Comparisons of genomic regions from M. acuminata and M. balbisiana revealed highly conserved genome structure, and indicated that these genomes diverged circa 4.6 Mya. Conclusion These results point to the utility of comparative analyses between distantly-related monocot species such as rice and Musa for improving our understanding of monocot genome evolution. Sequencing the genome of M. acuminata would provide a strong foundation for comparative genomics in the monocots. In addition a genome sequence would aid genomic and genetic analyses of cultivated Musa polyploid genotypes in research aimed at localizing and cloning genes controlling important agronomic

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME WILD AND CULTIVATED ISATIS SPECIES

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    Süleyman KIZIL

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated Isatis tinctoria, I. constricta, I. glauca, I. cochlearis, I. aucheri and I. demiriziana during 2002-03 and 2003-04 growing seasons for different agronomic characteristics affecting the percentage of dye in them. The results showed wide variations in the agronomic characteristics of Isatis constricta, Isatis cochlearis, Isatis aucheri, Isatis demiriziana collected from wild; compared to culture Isatis tinctoria and Isatis glauca. I. tinctoria showed early emergence (36 day compared to other species, and I. glauca was determined as late fl owering (512 day species. Among Isatis species, I. glauca showed the maximum plant height (113.4 cm, stem diameter (10.84 mm seed yield per plant (103.0 g . Whereas, I. tinctoria produced the largest number of branches per plant (16.8 plant-1 and the maximum number of seeds (17918 per plant.

  17. Genome-wide comparative analysis of NBS-encoding genes between Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingyin; Tehrim, Sadia; Zhang, Fengqi; Tong, Chaobo; Huang, Junyan; Cheng, Xiaohui; Dong, Caihua; Zhou, Yanqiu; Qin, Rui; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi

    2014-01-03

    Plant disease resistance (R) genes with the nucleotide binding site (NBS) play an important role in offering resistance to pathogens. The availability of complete genome sequences of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa provides an important opportunity for researchers to identify and characterize NBS-encoding R genes in Brassica species and to compare with analogues in Arabidopsis thaliana based on a comparative genomics approach. However, little is known about the evolutionary fate of NBS-encoding genes in the Brassica lineage after split from A. thaliana. Here we present genome-wide analysis of NBS-encoding genes in B. oleracea, B. rapa and A. thaliana. Through the employment of HMM search and manual curation, we identified 157, 206 and 167 NBS-encoding genes in B. oleracea, B. rapa and A. thaliana genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis among 3 species classified NBS-encoding genes into 6 subgroups. Tandem duplication and whole genome triplication (WGT) analyses revealed that after WGT of the Brassica ancestor, NBS-encoding homologous gene pairs on triplicated regions in Brassica ancestor were deleted or lost quickly, but NBS-encoding genes in Brassica species experienced species-specific gene amplification by tandem duplication after divergence of B. rapa and B. oleracea. Expression profiling of NBS-encoding orthologous gene pairs indicated the differential expression pattern of retained orthologous gene copies in B. oleracea and B. rapa. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis of CNL type NBS-encoding orthologous gene pairs among 3 species suggested that orthologous genes in B. rapa species have undergone stronger negative selection than those in B .oleracea species. But for TNL type, there are no significant differences in the orthologous gene pairs between the two species. This study is first identification and characterization of NBS-encoding genes in B. rapa and B. oleracea based on whole genome sequences. Through tandem duplication and whole genome

  18. Characterization of genome in tetraploid StY species of Elymus (Triticeae: Poaceae) using sequential FISH and GISH.

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    Liu, Ruijuan; Wang, Richard R-C; Yu, Feng; Lu, Xingwang; Dou, Quanwen

    2017-08-01

    Genomes of ten species of Elymus, either presumed or known as tetraploid StY, were characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). These tetraploid species could be grouped into three categories. Type I included StY genome reported species-Roegneria pendulina, R. nutans, R. glaberrima, R. ciliaris, and Elymus nevskii, and StY genome presumed species-R. sinica, R. breviglumis, and R. dura, whose genome could be separated into two sets based on different GISH intensities. Type I genome constitution was deemed as putative StY. The St genome were mainly characterized with intense hybridization with pAs1, fewer AAG sites, and linked distribution of 5S rDNA and 18S-26S rDNA, while the Y genome with less intense hybridization with pAs1, more varied AAG sites, and isolated distribution of 5S rDNA and 18S-26S rDNA. Nevertheless, further genomic variations were detected among the different StY species. Type II included E. alashanicus, whose genome could be easily separated based on GISH pattern. FISH and GISH patterns suggested that E. alashanicus comprised a modified St genome and an unknown genome. Type III included E. longearistatus, whose genome could not be separated by GISH and was designated as St l Y l . Notably, a close relationship between S l and Y l genomes was observed.

  19. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Angela M.; King, Adrienne L.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Finley, Rachel D.; Oliva, Claudia R.; Crowe, David Ralph; Ballinger, Scott W.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involves significant changes in liver metabolism characterized by oxidative stress, lipid accumulation, and fibrogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects also contribute to NAFLD. Herein, we examined whether differences in mtDNA influence NAFLD. To determine the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in NAFLD, Mitochondrial-Nuclear eXchange (MNX) mice were fed an atherogenic diet. MNX mice have mtDNA from C57BL/6J mice on a C3H/HeN nuclear background and vice versa. Results from MNX mice were compared to wild-type C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice fed a control or atherogenic diet. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome developed more macrosteatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis compared with mice containing the C3H/HeN nuclear genome when fed the atherogenic diet. These changes were associated with parallel alterations in inflammation and fibrosis gene expression in wild-type mice, with intermediate responses in MNX mice. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome had increased State 4 respiration, whereas MNX mice had decreased State 3 respiration and RCR when fed the atherogenic diet. Complex IV activity and most mitochondrial biogenesis genes were increased in mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear or mitochondrial genome, or both fed the atherogenic diet. These results reveal new interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and support the concept that mtDNA influences mitochondrial function and metabolic pathways implicated in NAFLD. PMID:24758559

  20. Systematic determination of the mosaic structure of bacterial genomes: species backbone versus strain-specific loops

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    Gendrault-Jacquemard A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public databases now contain multitude of complete bacterial genomes, including several genomes of the same species. The available data offers new opportunities to address questions about bacterial genome evolution, a task that requires reliable fine comparison data of closely related genomes. Recent analyses have shown, using pairwise whole genome alignments, that it is possible to segment bacterial genomes into a common conserved backbone and strain-specific sequences called loops. Results Here, we generalize this approach and propose a strategy that allows systematic and non-biased genome segmentation based on multiple genome alignments. Segmentation analyses, as applied to 13 different bacterial species, confirmed the feasibility of our approach to discern the 'mosaic' organization of bacterial genomes. Segmentation results are available through a Web interface permitting functional analysis, extraction and visualization of the backbone/loops structure of documented genomes. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we performed a precise analysis of the mosaic organization of three E. coli strains and functional characterization of the loops. Conclusion The segmentation results including the backbone/loops structure of 13 bacterial species genomes are new and available for use by the scientific community at the URL: http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/mosaic.

  1. Conservation genomics of the endangered Burmese roofed turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çilingir, F Gözde; Rheindt, Frank E; Garg, Kritika M; Platt, Kalyar; Platt, Steven G; Bickford, David P

    2017-12-01

    The Burmese roofed turtle (Batagur trivittata) is one of the world's most endangered turtles. Only one wild population remains in Myanmar. There are thought to be 12 breeding turtles in the wild. Conservation efforts for the species have raised >700 captive turtles since 2002, predominantly from eggs collected in the wild. We collected tissue samples from 445 individuals (approximately 40% of the turtles' remaining global population), applied double-digest restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-Seq), and obtained approximately 1500 unlinked genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms. Individuals fell into 5 distinct genetic clusters, 4 of which represented full-sib families. We inferred a low effective population size (≤10 individuals) but did not detect signs of severe inbreeding, possibly because the population bottleneck occurred recently. Two groups of 30 individuals from the captive pool that were the most genetically diverse were reintroduced to the wild, leading to an increase in the number of fertile eggs (n = 27) in the wild. Another 25 individuals, selected based on the same criteria, were transferred to the Singapore Zoo as an assurance colony. Our study demonstrates that the research-to-application gap in conservation can be bridged through application of cutting-edge genomic methods. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Nucleotide diversity maps reveal variation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes

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    McGuire Patrick E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome-wide assessment of nucleotide diversity in a polyploid species must minimize the inclusion of homoeologous sequences into diversity estimates and reliably allocate individual haplotypes into their respective genomes. The same requirements complicate the development and deployment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers in polyploid species. We report here a strategy that satisfies these requirements and deploy it in the sequencing of genes in cultivated hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD and wild tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genomes AABB from the putative site of wheat domestication in Turkey. Data are used to assess the distribution of diversity among and within wheat genomes and to develop a panel of SNP markers for polyploid wheat. Results Nucleotide diversity was estimated in 2114 wheat genes and was similar between the A and B genomes and reduced in the D genome. Within a genome, diversity was diminished on some chromosomes. Low diversity was always accompanied by an excess of rare alleles. A total of 5,471 SNPs was discovered in 1791 wheat genes. Totals of 1,271, 1,218, and 2,203 SNPs were discovered in 488, 463, and 641 genes of wheat putative diploid ancestors, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides, and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A public database containing genome-specific primers, SNPs, and other information was constructed. A total of 987 genes with nucleotide diversity estimated in one or more of the wheat genomes was placed on an Ae. tauschii genetic map, and the map was superimposed on wheat deletion-bin maps. The agreement between the maps was assessed. Conclusions In a young polyploid, exemplified by T. aestivum, ancestral species are the primary source of genetic diversity. Low effective recombination due to self-pollination and a genetic mechanism precluding homoeologous chromosome pairing during polyploid meiosis can lead to the loss of diversity from large

  3. Genetic diversity in Oryza glumaepatula wild rice populations in Costa Rica and possible gene flow from O. sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Eric J; Meneses Martínez, Allan; Calvo, Amanda; Muñoz, Melania; Arrieta-Espinoza, Griselda

    2016-01-01

    Wild crop relatives are an important source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Diversity estimates are generally lacking for many wild crop relatives. The objective of the present study was to analyze how genetic diversity is distributed within and among populations of the wild rice species Oryza glumaepatula in Costa Rica. We also evaluated the likelihood of gene flow between wild and commercial rice species because the latter is commonly sympatric with wild rice populations. Introgression may change wild species by incorporating alleles from domesticated species, increasing the risk of losing original variation. Specimens from all known O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica were analyzed with 444 AFLP markers to characterize genetic diversity and structure. We also compared genetic diversity estimates between O. glumaepatula specimens and O. sativa commercial rice. Our results showed that O. glumaepatula populations in Costa Rica have moderately high levels of genetic diversity, comparable to those found in South American populations. Despite the restricted distribution of this species in Costa Rica, populations are fairly large, reducing the effects of drift on genetic diversity. We found a dismissible but significant structure (θ = 0.02 ± 0.001) among populations. A Bayesian structure analysis suggested that some individuals share a significant proportion of their genomes with O. sativa. These results suggest that gene flow from cultivated O. sativa populations may have occurred in the recent past. These results expose an important biohazard: recurrent hybridization may reduce the genetic diversity of this wild rice species. Introgression may transfer commercial traits into O. glumaepatula, which in turn could alter genetic diversity and increase the likelihood of local extinction. These results have important implications for in situ conservation strategies of the only wild populations of O. glumaepatula in Costa Rica.

  4. The complete chloroplast genomes of two Wisteria species, W. floribunda and W. sinensis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Cho, Seong-Hyun; Yu, Yeisoo; Kim, Young-Dong; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Wisteria floribunda and Wisteria sinensis are ornamental woody vines in the Fabaceae. The complete chloroplast genome sequences of the two species were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of W. floribunda and W. sinensis were 130 960 bp and 130 561 bp long, respectively, and showed inverted repeat (IR)-lacking structures as those reported in IRLC in the Fabaceae. The chloroplast genomes of both species contained same number of protein-coding sequences (77), tRNA genes (30), and rRNA genes (4). The phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes confirmed close taxonomical relationship of W. floribunda and W. sinensis.

  5. Rapid and reliable extraction of genomic DNA from various wild-type and transgenic plants

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    Yang Moon-Sik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA extraction methods for PCR-quality DNA from calluses and plants are not time efficient, since they require that the tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by precipitation of the DNA pellet in ethanol, washing and drying the pellet, etc. The need for a rapid and simple procedure is urgent, especially when hundreds of samples need to be analyzed. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method of isolating high-quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification and enzyme digestion from calluses, various wild-type and transgenic plants. Results We developed new rapid and reliable genomic DNA extraction method. With our developed method, plant genomic DNA extraction could be performed within 30 min. The method was as follows. Plant tissue was homogenized with salt DNA extraction buffer using hand-operated homogenizer and extracted by phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1. After centrifugation, the supernatant was directly used for DNA template for PCR, resulting in successful amplification for RAPD from various sources of plants and specific foreign genes from transgenic plants. After precipitating the supernatant, the DNA was completely digested by restriction enzymes. Conclusion This DNA extraction procedure promises simplicity, speed, and efficiency, both in terms of time and the amount of plant sample required. In addition, this method does not require expensive facilities for plant genomic DNA extraction.

  6. Genetic Competence Drives Genome Diversity in Bacillus subtilis

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    Chevreux, Bastien; Serra, Cláudia R; Schyns, Ghislain; Henriques, Adriano O

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Prokaryote genomes are the result of a dynamic flux of genes, with increases achieved via horizontal gene transfer and reductions occurring through gene loss. The ecological and selective forces that drive this genomic flexibility vary across species. Bacillus subtilis is a naturally competent bacterium that occupies various environments, including plant-associated, soil, and marine niches, and the gut of both invertebrates and vertebrates. Here, we quantify the genomic diversity of B. subtilis and infer the genome dynamics that explain the high genetic and phenotypic diversity observed. Phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses of 42 B. subtilis genomes uncover a remarkable genome diversity that translates into a core genome of 1,659 genes and an asymptotic pangenome growth rate of 57 new genes per new genome added. This diversity is due to a large proportion of low-frequency genes that are acquired from closely related species. We find no gene-loss bias among wild isolates, which explains why the cloud genome, 43% of the species pangenome, represents only a small proportion of each genome. We show that B. subtilis can acquire xenologous copies of core genes that propagate laterally among strains within a niche. While not excluding the contributions of other mechanisms, our results strongly suggest a process of gene acquisition that is largely driven by competence, where the long-term maintenance of acquired genes depends on local and global fitness effects. This competence-driven genomic diversity provides B. subtilis with its generalist character, enabling it to occupy a wide range of ecological niches and cycle through them. PMID:29272410

  7. Recombination-Driven Genome Evolution and Stability of Bacterial Species.

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    Dixit, Purushottam D; Pang, Tin Yau; Maslov, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    While bacteria divide clonally, horizontal gene transfer followed by homologous recombination is now recognized as an important contributor to their evolution. However, the details of how the competition between clonality and recombination shapes genome diversity remains poorly understood. Using a computational model, we find two principal regimes in bacterial evolution and identify two composite parameters that dictate the evolutionary fate of bacterial species. In the divergent regime, characterized by either a low recombination frequency or strict barriers to recombination, cohesion due to recombination is not sufficient to overcome the mutational drift. As a consequence, the divergence between pairs of genomes in the population steadily increases in the course of their evolution. The species lacks genetic coherence with sexually isolated clonal subpopulations continuously formed and dissolved. In contrast, in the metastable regime, characterized by a high recombination frequency combined with low barriers to recombination, genomes continuously recombine with the rest of the population. The population remains genetically cohesive and temporally stable. Notably, the transition between these two regimes can be affected by relatively small changes in evolutionary parameters. Using the Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) data, we classify a number of bacterial species to be either the divergent or the metastable type. Generalizations of our framework to include selection, ecologically structured populations, and horizontal gene transfer of nonhomologous regions are discussed as well. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Mitochondrial introgression suggests extensive ancestral hybridization events among Saccharomyces species.

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    Peris, David; Arias, Armando; Orlić, Sandi; Belloch, Carmela; Pérez-Través, Laura; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio

    2017-03-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in eukaryotic plastids and mitochondrial genomes is common, and plays an important role in organism evolution. In yeasts, recent mitochondrial HGT has been suggested between S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus. However, few strains have been explored given the lack of accurate mitochondrial genome annotations. Mitochondrial genome sequences are important to understand how frequent these introgressions occur, and their role in cytonuclear incompatibilities and fitness. Indeed, most of the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller genetic incompatibilities described in yeasts are driven by cytonuclear incompatibilities. We herein explored the mitochondrial inheritance of several worldwide distributed wild Saccharomyces species and their hybrids isolated from different sources and geographic origins. We demonstrated the existence of several recombination points in mitochondrial region COX2-ORF1, likely mediated by either the activity of the protein encoded by the ORF1 (F-SceIII) gene, a free-standing homing endonuclease, or mostly facilitated by A+T tandem repeats and regions of integration of GC clusters. These introgressions were shown to occur among strains of the same species and among strains of different species, which suggests a complex model of Saccharomyces evolution that involves several ancestral hybridization events in wild environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A salmonid EST genomic study: genes, duplications, phylogeny and microarrays

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    Brahmbhatt Sonal

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonids are of interest because of their relatively recent genome duplication, and their extensive use in wild fisheries and aquaculture. A comprehensive gene list and a comparison of genes in some of the different species provide valuable genomic information for one of the most widely studied groups of fish. Results 298,304 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from Atlantic salmon (69% of the total, 11,664 chinook, 10,813 sockeye, 10,051 brook trout, 10,975 grayling, 8,630 lake whitefish, and 3,624 northern pike ESTs were obtained in this study and have been deposited into the public databases. Contigs were built and putative full-length Atlantic salmon clones have been identified. A database containing ESTs, assemblies, consensus sequences, open reading frames, gene predictions and putative annotation is available. The overall similarity between Atlantic salmon ESTs and those of rainbow trout, chinook, sockeye, brook trout, grayling, lake whitefish, northern pike and rainbow smelt is 93.4, 94.2, 94.6, 94.4, 92.5, 91.7, 89.6, and 86.2% respectively. An analysis of 78 transcript sets show Salmo as a sister group to Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus within Salmoninae, and Thymallinae as a sister group to Salmoninae and Coregoninae within Salmonidae. Extensive gene duplication is consistent with a genome duplication in the common ancestor of salmonids. Using all of the available EST data, a new expanded salmonid cDNA microarray of 32,000 features was created. Cross-species hybridizations to this cDNA microarray indicate that this resource will be useful for studies of all 68 salmonid species. Conclusion An extensive collection and analysis of salmonid RNA putative transcripts indicate that Pacific salmon, Atlantic salmon and charr are 94–96% similar while the more distant whitefish, grayling, pike and smelt are 93, 92, 89 and 86% similar to salmon. The salmonid transcriptome reveals a complex history of gene duplication that is

  10. De novo assembly of the zucchini genome reveals a whole-genome duplication associated with the origin of the Cucurbita genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pau, Javier; Blanca, José; Bombarely, Aureliano; Ziarsolo, Peio; Esteras, Cristina; Martí-Gómez, Carlos; Ferriol, María; Gómez, Pedro; Jamilena, Manuel; Mueller, Lukas; Picó, Belén; Cañizares, Joaquín

    2017-11-07

    The Cucurbita genus (squashes, pumpkins and gourds) includes important domesticated species such as C. pepo, C. maxima and C. moschata. In this study, we present a high-quality draft of the zucchini (C. pepo) genome. The assembly has a size of 263 Mb, a scaffold N50 of 1.8 Mb and 34 240 gene models. It includes 92% of the conserved BUSCO core gene set, and it is estimated to cover 93.0% of the genome. The genome is organized in 20 pseudomolecules that represent 81.4% of the assembly, and it is integrated with a genetic map of 7718 SNPs. Despite the small genome size, three independent lines of evidence support that the C. pepo genome is the result of a whole-genome duplication: the topology of the gene family phylogenies, the karyotype organization and the distribution of 4DTv distances. Additionally, 40 transcriptomes of 12 species of the genus were assembled and analysed together with all the other published genomes of the Cucurbitaceae family. The duplication was detected in all the Cucurbita species analysed, including C. maxima and C. moschata, but not in the more distant cucurbits belonging to the Cucumis and Citrullus genera, and it is likely to have occurred 30 ± 4 Mya in the ancestral species that gave rise to the genus. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

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    Moisés Gallas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n3p117 This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/ host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  12. Ribosomal DNA sequence heterogeneity reflects intraspecies phylogenies and predicts genome structure in two contrasting yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Claire; James, Stephen A; Davey, Robert P; Dicks, Jo; Roberts, Ian N

    2014-07-01

    The ribosomal RNA encapsulates a wealth of evolutionary information, including genetic variation that can be used to discriminate between organisms at a wide range of taxonomic levels. For example, the prokaryotic 16S rDNA sequence is very widely used both in phylogenetic studies and as a marker in metagenomic surveys and the internal transcribed spacer region, frequently used in plant phylogenetics, is now recognized as a fungal DNA barcode. However, this widespread use does not escape criticism, principally due to issues such as difficulties in classification of paralogous versus orthologous rDNA units and intragenomic variation, both of which may be significant barriers to accurate phylogenetic inference. We recently analyzed data sets from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project, characterizing rDNA sequence variation within multiple strains of the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its nearest wild relative Saccharomyces paradoxus in unprecedented detail. Notably, both species possess single locus rDNA systems. Here, we use these new variation datasets to assess whether a more detailed characterization of the rDNA locus can alleviate the second of these phylogenetic issues, sequence heterogeneity, while controlling for the first. We demonstrate that a strong phylogenetic signal exists within both datasets and illustrate how they can be used, with existing methodology, to estimate intraspecies phylogenies of yeast strains consistent with those derived from whole-genome approaches. We also describe the use of partial Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, a type of sequence variation found only in repetitive genomic regions, in identifying key evolutionary features such as genome hybridization events and show their consistency with whole-genome Structure analyses. We conclude that our approach can transform rDNA sequence heterogeneity from a problem to a useful source of evolutionary information, enabling the estimation of highly accurate phylogenies of

  13. Sequencing, de novo assembling, and annotating the genome of the endangered Chinese crocodile lizard Shinisaurus crocodilurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Li, Qiye; Wang, Zongji; Zhou, Yang; Martelli, Paolo; Li, Fang; Xiong, Zijun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Guojie

    2017-07-01

    The Chinese crocodile lizard, Shinisaurus crocodilurus, is the only living representative of the monotypic family Shinisauridae under the order Squamata. It is an obligate semi-aquatic, viviparous, diurnal species restricted to specific portions of mountainous locations in southwestern China and northeastern Vietnam. However, in the past several decades, this species has undergone a rapid decrease in population size due to illegal poaching and habitat disruption, making this unique reptile species endangered and listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Appendix II since 1990. A proposal to uplist it to Appendix I was passed at the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Seventeenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties in 2016. To promote the conservation of this species, we sequenced the genome of a male Chinese crocodile lizard using a whole-genome shotgun strategy on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. In total, we generated ∼291 Gb of raw sequencing data (×149 depth) from 13 libraries with insert sizes ranging from 250 bp to 40 kb. After filtering for polymerase chain reaction-duplicated and low-quality reads, ∼137 Gb of clean data (×70 depth) were obtained for genome assembly. We yielded a draft genome assembly with a total length of 2.24 Gb and an N50 scaffold size of 1.47 Mb. The assembled genome was predicted to contain 20 150 protein-coding genes and up to 1114 Mb (49.6%) of repetitive elements. The genomic resource of the Chinese crocodile lizard will contribute to deciphering the biology of this organism and provides an essential tool for conservation efforts. It also provides a valuable resource for future study of squamate evolution. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. The catfish genome database cBARBEL: an informatic platform for genome biology of ictalurid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Peatman, Eric; Yang, Qing; Wang, Shaolin; Hu, Zhiliang; Reecy, James; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2011-01-01

    The catfish genome database, cBARBEL (abbreviated from catfish Breeder And Researcher Bioinformatics Entry Location) is an online open-access database for genome biology of ictalurid catfish (Ictalurus spp.). It serves as a comprehensive, integrative platform for all aspects of catfish genetics, genomics and related data resources. cBARBEL provides BLAST-based, fuzzy and specific search functions, visualization of catfish linkage, physical and integrated maps, a catfish EST contig viewer with SNP information overlay, and GBrowse-based organization of catfish genomic data based on sequence similarity with zebrafish chromosomes. Subsections of the database are tightly related, allowing a user with a sequence or search string of interest to navigate seamlessly from one area to another. As catfish genome sequencing proceeds and ongoing quantitative trait loci (QTL) projects bear fruit, cBARBEL will allow rapid data integration and dissemination within the catfish research community and to interested stakeholders. cBARBEL can be accessed at http://catfishgenome.org.

  15. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics reveal a repertoire of putative pathogenicity genes in chilli anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum truncatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Soumya; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2017-01-01

    Colletotrichum truncatum, a major fungal phytopathogen, causes the anthracnose disease on an economically important spice crop chilli (Capsicum annuum), resulting in huge economic losses in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It follows a subcuticular intramural infection strategy on chilli with a short, asymptomatic, endophytic phase, which contrasts with the intracellular hemibiotrophic lifestyle adopted by most of the Colletotrichum species. However, little is known about the molecular determinants and the mechanism of pathogenicity in this fungus. A high quality whole genome sequence and gene annotation based on transcriptome data of an Indian isolate of C. truncatum from chilli has been obtained. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed a rich repertoire of pathogenicity genes in C. truncatum encoding secreted proteins, effectors, plant cell wall degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism associated proteins, with potential roles in the host-specific infection strategy, placing it next only to the Fusarium species. The size of genome assembly, number of predicted genes and some of the functional categories were similar to other sequenced Colletotrichum species. The comparative genomic analyses with other species and related fungi identified some unique genes and certain highly expanded gene families of CAZymes, proteases and secondary metabolism associated genes in the genome of C. truncatum. The draft genome assembly and functional annotation of potential pathogenicity genes of C. truncatum provide an important genomic resource for understanding the biology and lifestyle of this important phytopathogen and will pave the way for designing efficient disease control regimens.

  16. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J. L. Irizarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  17. Integrating Genomic Data Sets for Knowledge Discovery: An Informed Approach to Management of Captive Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Kristopher J L; Bryant, Doug; Kalish, Jordan; Eng, Curtis; Schmidt, Peggy L; Barrett, Gini; Barr, Margaret C

    2016-01-01

    Many endangered captive populations exhibit reduced genetic diversity resulting in health issues that impact reproductive fitness and quality of life. Numerous cost effective genomic sequencing and genotyping technologies provide unparalleled opportunity for incorporating genomics knowledge in management of endangered species. Genomic data, such as sequence data, transcriptome data, and genotyping data, provide critical information about a captive population that, when leveraged correctly, can be utilized to maximize population genetic variation while simultaneously reducing unintended introduction or propagation of undesirable phenotypes. Current approaches aimed at managing endangered captive populations utilize species survival plans (SSPs) that rely upon mean kinship estimates to maximize genetic diversity while simultaneously avoiding artificial selection in the breeding program. However, as genomic resources increase for each endangered species, the potential knowledge available for management also increases. Unlike model organisms in which considerable scientific resources are used to experimentally validate genotype-phenotype relationships, endangered species typically lack the necessary sample sizes and economic resources required for such studies. Even so, in the absence of experimentally verified genetic discoveries, genomics data still provides value. In fact, bioinformatics and comparative genomics approaches offer mechanisms for translating these raw genomics data sets into integrated knowledge that enable an informed approach to endangered species management.

  18. Mitochondrial genome diversity in dagger and needle nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, J E; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C; Archidona-Yuste, A; Blok, V C; Castillo, P

    2017-02-02

    Dagger and needle nematodes included in the family Longidoridae (viz. Longidorus, Paralongidorus, and Xiphinema) are highly polyphagous plant-parasitic nematodes in wild and cultivated plants and some of them are plant-virus vectors (nepovirus). The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the dagger and needle nematodes, Xiphinema rivesi, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Longidorus vineacola and Paralongidorus litoralis were sequenced in this study. The four circular mt genomes have an estimated size of 12.6, 12.5, 13.5 and 12.7 kb, respectively. Up to date, the mt genome of X. pachtaicum is the smallest genome found in Nematoda. The four mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes (viz. cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cob) and two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), but the atp8 gene was not detected. These mt genomes showed a gene arrangement very different within the Longidoridae species sequenced, with the exception of very closely related species (X. americanum and X. rivesi). The sizes of non-coding regions in the Longidoridae nematodes were very small and were present in a few places in the mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis of all coding genes showed a closer relationship between Longidorus and Paralongidorus and different phylogenetic possibilities for the three Xiphinema species.

  19. Cross-species genome-wide identification of evolutionary conserved microproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straub, Daniel; Wenkel, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Protein concept beyond transcription factors to other protein families. Here, we reveal potential microProtein candidates in several plant and animal reference genomes. A large number of these microProteins are species-specific while others evolved early and are evolutionary highly conserved. Most known micro...... act in plant transcriptional regulation, signal transduction and anatomical structure development. MiPFinder is freely available to find microProteins in any genome and will aid in the identification of novel microProteins in plants and animals....

  20. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Angela M; King, Adrienne L; Fetterman, Jessica L; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Finley, Rachel D; Oliva, Claudia R; Crowe, David R; Ballinger, Scott W; Bailey, Shannon M

    2014-07-15

    NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) involves significant changes in liver metabolism characterized by oxidative stress, lipid accumulation and fibrogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects also contribute to NAFLD. In the present study, we examined whether differences in mtDNA influence NAFLD. To determine the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in NAFLD, MNX (mitochondrial-nuclear exchange) mice were fed an atherogenic diet. MNX mice have mtDNA from C57BL/6J mice on a C3H/HeN nuclear background and vice versa. Results from MNX mice were compared with wild-type C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice fed a control or atherogenic diet. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome developed more macrosteatosis, inflammation and fibrosis compared with mice containing the C3H/HeN nuclear genome when fed the atherogenic diet. These changes were associated with parallel alterations in inflammation and fibrosis gene expression in wild-type mice, with intermediate responses in MNX mice. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome had increased State 4 respiration, whereas MNX mice had decreased State 3 respiration and RCR (respiratory control ratio) when fed the atherogenic diet. Complex IV activity and most mitochondrial biogenesis genes were increased in mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear or mitochondrial genome, or both fed the atherogenic diet. These results reveal new interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and support the concept that mtDNA influences mitochondrial function and metabolic pathways implicated in NAFLD.

  1. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  2. Polyphenol composition, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of seeds from two underexploited wild Licania species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessoa, Igor Parra; Neto, José Joaquim Lopes; Almeida, De Thiago Silva; Farias, Davi Felipe; Vieira, Leonardo Rogério; Medeiros, De Jackeline Lima; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Peijnenburg, Ad; Castelar, Ivan; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown the benefit of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of human diseases and promoted a growing interest in new sources of plant antioxidants for pharmacological use. This study aimed to add value to two underexploited wild plant species (Licania rigida) and L. tomentosa) from

  3. The Agassiz's desert tortoise genome provides a resource for the conservation of a threatened species.

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    Marc Tollis

    Full Text Available Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii is a long-lived species native to the Mojave Desert and is listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. To aid conservation efforts for preserving the genetic diversity of this species, we generated a whole genome reference sequence with an annotation based on deep transcriptome sequences of adult skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and blood. The draft genome assembly for G. agassizii has a scaffold N50 length of 252 kbp and a total length of 2.4 Gbp. Genome annotation reveals 20,172 protein-coding genes in the G. agassizii assembly, and that gene structure is more similar to chicken than other turtles. We provide a series of comparative analyses demonstrating (1 that turtles are among the slowest-evolving genome-enabled reptiles, (2 amino acid changes in genes controlling desert tortoise traits such as shell development, longevity and osmoregulation, and (3 fixed variants across the Gopherus species complex in genes related to desert adaptations, including circadian rhythm and innate immune response. This G. agassizii genome reference and annotation is the first such resource for any tortoise, and will serve as a foundation for future analysis of the genetic basis of adaptations to the desert environment, allow for investigation into genomic factors affecting tortoise health, disease and longevity, and serve as a valuable resource for additional studies in this species complex.

  4. Characterization and genetic improvement of two wild species blueberry from Costa Rica (Vaccinium consanguineum y V. poasanum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Valverde, Rebeca de los Angeles

    2015-01-01

    Accessions of two wild species blueberry from Costa Rica were characterized for use in the genetic improvement of this crop. A collection of accessions of two wild species blueberry (Vaccinium consanguineum and V. poasanum) were georeferenced and collected in the highlands of the provinces of Alajuela, San Jose and Cartago. The bushes collected were transplanted in the subestacion Fraijanes of the Estacion Experimental Fabio Baudrit Moreno of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Quantitative and qualitative descriptors were evaluated to morphologically characterize in situ and ex situ the accessions collected from each of the two species. The effect of two antimitotic agents, colchicine and oryzalin was determined on the chromosomal duplication of accessions of V. consanguineum and V. poasanum established in vitro. The gibberellic acid was used to promote in vitro germination of the seeds of V. consanguineum and V. poasanum, but reduces the percentage of germination in the latter species if it is used in high doses. The effect of antimitotic agents on the ploidy of both species was determined by flow cytometry [es

  5. Selective whole genome amplification for resequencing target microbial species from complex natural samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichty, Aaron R; Brisson, Dustin

    2014-10-01

    Population genomic analyses have demonstrated power to address major questions in evolutionary and molecular microbiology. Collecting populations of genomes is hindered in many microbial species by the absence of a cost effective and practical method to collect ample quantities of sufficiently pure genomic DNA for next-generation sequencing. Here we present a simple method to amplify genomes of a target microbial species present in a complex, natural sample. The selective whole genome amplification (SWGA) technique amplifies target genomes using nucleotide sequence motifs that are common in the target microbe genome, but rare in the background genomes, to prime the highly processive phi29 polymerase. SWGA thus selectively amplifies the target genome from samples in which it originally represented a minor fraction of the total DNA. The post-SWGA samples are enriched in target genomic DNA, which are ideal for population resequencing. We demonstrate the efficacy of SWGA using both laboratory-prepared mixtures of cultured microbes as well as a natural host-microbe association. Targeted amplification of Borrelia burgdorferi mixed with Escherichia coli at genome ratios of 1:2000 resulted in >10(5)-fold amplification of the target genomes with genomic extracts from Wolbachia pipientis-infected Drosophila melanogaster resulted in up to 70% of high-throughput resequencing reads mapping to the W. pipientis genome. By contrast, 2-9% of sequencing reads were derived from W. pipientis without prior amplification. The SWGA technique results in high sequencing coverage at a fraction of the sequencing effort, thus allowing population genomic studies at affordable costs. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Genomic legacy of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, Pavel; Liu, Shiping; Tamazian, Gaik; Xiong, Zijun; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Krasheninnikova, Ksenia; Kliver, Sergey; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Johnson, Warren; Kuderna, Lukas F K; García-Pérez, Raquel; Manuel, Marc de; Godinez, Ricardo; Komissarov, Aleksey; Makunin, Alexey; Brukhin, Vladimir; Qiu, Weilin; Zhou, Long; Li, Fang; Yi, Jian; Driscoll, Carlos; Antunes, Agostinho; Oleksyk, Taras K; Eizirik, Eduardo; Perelman, Polina; Roelke, Melody; Wildt, David; Diekhans, Mark; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Marker, Laurie; Bhak, Jong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2015-12-10

    Patterns of genetic and genomic variance are informative in inferring population history for human, model species and endangered populations. Here the genome sequence of wild-born African cheetahs reveals extreme genomic depletion in SNV incidence, SNV density, SNVs of coding genes, MHC class I and II genes, and mitochondrial DNA SNVs. Cheetah genomes are on average 95 % homozygous compared to the genomes of the outbred domestic cat (24.08 % homozygous), Virunga Mountain Gorilla (78.12 %), inbred Abyssinian cat (62.63 %), Tasmanian devil, domestic dog and other mammalian species. Demographic estimators impute two ancestral population bottlenecks: one >100,000 years ago coincident with cheetah migrations out of the Americas and into Eurasia and Africa, and a second 11,084-12,589 years ago in Africa coincident with late Pleistocene large mammal extinctions. MHC class I gene loss and dramatic reduction in functional diversity of MHC genes would explain why cheetahs ablate skin graft rejection among unrelated individuals. Significant excess of non-synonymous mutations in AKAP4 (pcheetah fixation of five function-damaging amino acid variants distinct from AKAP4 homologues of other Felidae or mammals; AKAP4 dysfunction may cause the cheetah's extremely high (>80 %) pleiomorphic sperm. The study provides an unprecedented genomic perspective for the rare cheetah, with potential relevance to the species' natural history, physiological adaptations and unique reproductive disposition.

  7. Genome sequencing of the lizard parasite Leishmania tarentolae reveals loss of genes associated to the intracellular stage of human pathogenic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Frédéric; Boisvert, Sébastien; Roy, Gaétan; Ritt, Jean-François; Légaré, Danielle; Isnard, Amandine; Stanke, Mario; Olivier, Martin; Tremblay, Michel J.; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Ouellette, Marc; Corbeil, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The Leishmania tarentolae Parrot-TarII strain genome sequence was resolved to an average 16-fold mean coverage by next-generation DNA sequencing technologies. This is the first non-pathogenic to humans kinetoplastid protozoan genome to be described thus providing an opportunity for comparison with the completed genomes of pathogenic Leishmania species. A high synteny was observed between all sequenced Leishmania species. A limited number of chromosomal regions diverged between L. tarentolae and L. infantum, while remaining syntenic to L. major. Globally, >90% of the L. tarentolae gene content was shared with the other Leishmania species. We identified 95 predicted coding sequences unique to L. tarentolae and 250 genes that were absent from L. tarentolae. Interestingly, many of the latter genes were expressed in the intracellular amastigote stage of pathogenic species. In addition, genes coding for products involved in antioxidant defence or participating in vesicular-mediated protein transport were underrepresented in L. tarentolae. In contrast to other Leishmania genomes, two gene families were expanded in L. tarentolae, namely the zinc metallo-peptidase surface glycoprotein GP63 and the promastigote surface antigen PSA31C. Overall, L. tarentolae's gene content appears better adapted to the promastigote insect stage rather than the amastigote mammalian stage. PMID:21998295

  8. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  9. Effective identification of Lactobacillus casei group species: genome-based selection of the gene mutL as the target of a novel multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Benedetta; Felis, Giovanna E; Salvetti, Elisa; Castioni, Anna; Campedelli, Ilenia; Torriani, Sandra; Bernini, Valentina; Gatti, Monica

    2017-07-01

    Lactobacillus casei,Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillusrhamnosus form a closely related taxonomic group (the L. casei group) within the facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli. Strains of these species have been used for a long time as probiotics in a wide range of products, and they represent the dominant species of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in ripened cheeses, where they contribute to flavour development. The close genetic relationship among those species, as well as the similarity of biochemical properties of the strains, hinders the development of an adequate selective method to identify these bacteria. Despite this being a hot topic, as demonstrated by the large amount of literature about it, the results of different proposed identification methods are often ambiguous and unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to develop a more robust species-specific identification assay for differentiating the species of the L. casei group. A taxonomy-driven comparative genomic analysis was carried out to select the potential target genes whose similarity could better reflect genome-wide diversity. The gene mutL appeared to be the most promising one and, therefore, a novel species-specific multiplex PCR assay was developed to rapidly and effectively distinguish L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus strains. The analysis of a collection of 76 wild dairy isolates, previously identified as members of the L. casei group combining the results of multiple approaches, revealed that the novel designed primers, especially in combination with already existing ones, were able to improve the discrimination power at the species level and reveal previously undiscovered intraspecific biodiversity.

  10. Array-based assay detects genome-wide 5-mC and 5-hmC in the brains of humans, non-human primates, and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Pankaj; Papale, Ligia A; White, Andrew T J; Hatch, Andrea; Brown, Ryan M; Garthwaite, Mark A; Roseboom, Patrick H; Golos, Thaddeus G; Warren, Stephen T; Alisch, Reid S

    2014-02-13

    Methylation on the fifth position of cytosine (5-mC) is an essential epigenetic mark that is linked to both normal neurodevelopment and neurological diseases. The recent identification of another modified form of cytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), in both stem cells and post-mitotic neurons, raises new questions as to the role of this base in mediating epigenetic effects. Genomic studies of these marks using model systems are limited, particularly with array-based tools, because the standard method of detecting DNA methylation cannot distinguish between 5-mC and 5-hmC and most methods have been developed to only survey the human genome. We show that non-human data generated using the optimization of a widely used human DNA methylation array, designed only to detect 5-mC, reproducibly distinguishes tissue types within and between chimpanzee, rhesus, and mouse, with correlations near the human DNA level (R(2) > 0.99). Genome-wide methylation analysis, using this approach, reveals 6,102 differentially methylated loci between rhesus placental and fetal tissues with pathways analysis significantly overrepresented for developmental processes. Restricting the analysis to oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes finds 76 differentially methylated loci, suggesting that rhesus placental tissue carries a cancer epigenetic signature. Similarly, adapting the assay to detect 5-hmC finds highly reproducible 5-hmC levels within human, rhesus, and mouse brain tissue that is species-specific with a hierarchical abundance among the three species (human > rhesus > mouse). Annotation of 5-hmC with respect to gene structure reveals a significant prevalence in the 3'UTR and an association with chromatin-related ontological terms, suggesting an epigenetic feedback loop mechanism for 5-hmC. Together, these data show that this array-based methylation assay is generalizable to all mammals for the detection of both 5-mC and 5-hmC, greatly improving the utility of mammalian model systems

  11. Genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in the sequenced Brassica crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species.

  12. Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kwang-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs. One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a β subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.

  13. Wild Maid, Wild Soul, A Wild Wild Weed: Niki de Saint Phalle’s Fierce Femininities, c. 1960-66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Jones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-described as “wild maid,” “wild soul,” “a wild wild weed,” Niki de Saint Phalle narrated herself as artistic subject in a concerted way that stands out in the history of art: as both creatively driven and emotionally renegade and excessive, as both definitively woman and definitively artist. In this essay I take this special case of self-narration, and the particular power of St. Phalle’s work, as an opportunity to explore the relationship between.(auto-biography and artistic practice. The case of St. Phalle, a radical sculptor, performance artist, writer, and filmmaker, allows us to understand the exaggerated way in which women artists were until very recently forced to adopt “fierce femininities” to make a place for themselves as artists. In this way, I suggest that St. Phalle represents a key inspirational force opening the door for second wave feminism and the feminist art movement.

  14. Trans-sialidase inhibition assay detects Trypanosoma cruzi infection in different wild mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Paula A; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Orozco, Marcela M; Cardinal, Marta V; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Leguizamón, María S

    2013-08-01

    The detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mammals is crucial for understanding the eco-epidemiological role of the different species involved in parasite transmission cycles. Xenodiagnosis (XD) and hemoculture (HC) are routinely used to detect T. cruzi in wild mammals. Serological methods are much more limited because they require the use of specific antibodies to immunoglobulins of each mammalian species susceptible to T. cruzi. In this study we detected T. cruzi infection by trans-sialidase (TS) inhibition assay (TIA). TIA is based on the antibody neutralization of a recombinant TS that avoids the use of anti-immunoglobulins. TS activity is not detected in the co-endemic protozoan parasites Leishmania spp and T. rangeli. In the current study, serum samples from 158 individuals of nine wild mammalian species, previously tested by XD, were evaluated by TIA. They were collected from two endemic areas in northern Argentina. The overall TIA versus XD co-reactivity was 98.7% (156/158). All 18 samples from XD-positive mammals were TIA-positive (co-positivity, 100%) and co-negativity was 98.5% (138/140). Two XD-negative samples from a marsupial (Didelphis albiventris) and an edentate (Dasypus novemcinctus) were detected by TIA. TIA could be used as a novel tool for serological detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in a wide variety of sylvatic reservoir hosts.

  15. Engineering of red cells of Arabidopsis thaliana and comparative genome-wide gene expression analysis of red cells versus wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

    2011-04-01

    We report metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis red cells and genome-wide gene expression analysis associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis and other metabolic pathways between red cells and wild-type (WT) cells. Red cells of A. thaliana were engineered for the first time from the leaves of production of anthocyanin pigment 1-Dominant (pap1-D). These red cells produced seven anthocyanin molecules including a new one that was characterized by LC-MS analysis. Wild-type cells established as a control did not produce anthocyanins. A genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that nearly 66 and 65% of genes in the genome were expressed in the red cells and wild-type cells, respectively. In comparison with the WT cells, 3.2% of expressed genes in the red cells were differentially expressed. The expression levels of 14 genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanin were significantly higher in the red cells than in the WT cells. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the TTG1-GL3/TT8-PAP1 complex regulated the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Furthermore, most of the genes with significant differential expression levels in the red cells versus the WT cells were characterized with diverse biochemical functions, many of which were mapped to different metabolic pathways (e.g., ribosomal protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis, glycolysis, glyoxylate metabolism, and plant secondary metabolisms) or organelles (e.g., chloroplast). We suggest that the difference in gene expression profiles between the two cell lines likely results from cell types, the overexpression of PAP1, and the high metabolic flux toward anthocyanins.

  16. Genome-wide characterization of microsatellites in Cucumis hystrix and in silico identification of polymorphic SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, genome HH) is a wild relative of cucumber (C. sativus L., 2n = 2x = 14) that possesses multiple disease resistances and has a great potential for cucumber improvement. Despite its importance, there is no genomic resource currently available for C. hystrix. To expedite ...

  17. High resolution linkage maps of the model organism Petunia reveal substantial synteny decay with the related genome of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossolini, Eligio; Klahre, Ulrich; Brandenburg, Anna; Reinhardt, Didier; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2011-04-01

    Two linkage maps were constructed for the model plant Petunia. Mapping populations were obtained by crossing the wild species Petunia axillaris subsp. axillaris with Petunia inflata, and Petunia axillaris subsp. parodii with Petunia exserta. Both maps cover the seven chromosomes of Petunia, and span 970 centimorgans (cM) and 700 cM of the genomes, respectively. In total, 207 markers were mapped. Of these, 28 are multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 179 are gene-derived markers. For the first time we report on the development and mapping of 83 Petunia microsatellites. The two maps retain the same marker order, but display significant differences of recombination frequencies at orthologous mapping intervals. A complex pattern of genomic rearrangements was detected with the related genome of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicating that synteny between Petunia and other Solanaceae crops has been considerably disrupted. The newly developed markers will facilitate the genetic characterization of mutants and ecological studies on genetic diversity and speciation within the genus Petunia. The maps will provide a powerful tool to link genetic and genomic information and will be useful to support sequence assembly of the Petunia genome.

  18. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Five Epimedium Species: Lights into Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Du, Liuwen; Liu, Ao; Chen, Jianjun; Wu, Li; Hu, Weiming; Zhang, Wei; Kim, Kyunghee; Lee, Sang-Choon; Yang, Tae-Jin; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium L. is a phylogenetically and economically important genus in the family Berberidaceae. We here sequenced the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of four Epimedium species using Illumina sequencing technology via a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly, which was also the first comprehensive cp genome analysis on Epimedium combining the cp genome sequence of E. koreanum previously reported. The five Epimedium cp genomes exhibited typical quadripartite and circular structure that was rather conserved in genomic structure and the synteny of gene order. However, these cp genomes presented obvious variations at the boundaries of the four regions because of the expansion and contraction of the inverted repeat (IR) region and the single-copy (SC) boundary regions. The trnQ-UUG duplication occurred in the five Epimedium cp genomes, which was not found in the other basal eudicotyledons. The rapidly evolving cp genome regions were detected among the five cp genomes, as well as the difference of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and repeat sequence were identified. Phylogenetic relationships among the five Epimedium species based on their cp genomes showed accordance with the updated system of the genus on the whole, but reminded that the evolutionary relationships and the divisions of the genus need further investigation applying more evidences. The availability of these cp genomes provided valuable genetic information for accurately identifying species, taxonomy and phylogenetic resolution and evolution of Epimedium, and assist in exploration and utilization of Epimedium plants. PMID:27014326

  19. The complete chloroplast genome sequences of five Epimedium species: lights into phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses

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    Yanjun eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium L. is a phylogenetically and economically important genus in the family Berberidaceae. We here sequenced the complete chloroplast (cp genomes of four Epimedium species using Illumina sequencing technology via a combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly, which was also the first comprehensive cp genome analysis on Epimedium combining the cp genome sequence of E. koreanum previously reported. The five Epimedium cp genomes exhibited typical quadripartite and circular structure that was rather conserved in genomic structure and the synteny of gene order. However, these cp genomes presented obvious variations at the boundaries of the four regions because of the expansion and contraction of the inverted repeat (IR region and the single-copy (SC boundary regions. The trnQ-UUG duplication occurred in the five Epimedium cp genomes, which was not found in the other basal eudicotyledons. The rapidly evolving cp genome regions were detected among the five cp genomes, as well as the difference of simple sequence repeats (SSR and repeat sequence were identified. Phylogenetic relationships among the five Epimedium species based on their cp genomes showed accordance with the updated system of the genus on the whole, but reminded that the evolutionary relationships and the divisions of the genus need further investigation applying more evidences. The availability of these cp genomes provided valuable genetic information for accurately identifying species, taxonomy and phylogenetic resolution and evolution of Epimedium, and assist in exploration and utilization of Epimedium plants.

  20. Genome resource banking of biomedically important laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agca, Yuksel

    2012-11-01

    Genome resource banking is the systematic collection, storage, and redistribution of biomaterials in an organized, logistical, and secure manner. Genome cryobanks usually contain biomaterials and associated genomic information essential for progression of biomedicine, human health, and research. In that regard, appropriate genome cryobanks could provide essential biomaterials for both current and future research projects in the form of various cell types and tissues, including sperm, oocytes, embryos, embryonic or adult stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and gonadal tissues. In addition to cryobanked germplasm, cryobanking of DNA, serum, blood products, and tissues from scientifically, economically, and ecologically important species has become a common practice. For revitalization of the whole organism, cryopreserved germplasm in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies, offer a powerful approach for research model management, as well as assisting in animal production for agriculture, conservation, and human reproductive medicine. Recently, many developed and developing countries have allocated substantial resources to establish genome resources banks which are responsible for safeguarding scientifically, economically, and ecologically important wild type, mutant, and transgenic plants, fish, and local livestock breeds, as well as wildlife species. This review is dedicated to the memory of Dr. John K. Critser, who has made profound contributions to the science of cryobiology and establishment of genome research and resources centers for mice, rats, and swine. Emphasis will be given to application of genome resource banks to species with substantial contributions to the advancement of biomedicine and human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sampling wild species to conserve genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling seed from natural populations of crop wild relatives requires choice of the locations to sample from and the amount of seed to sample. While this may seem like a simple choice, in fact careful planning of a collector’s sampling strategy is needed to ensure that a crop wild collection will ...

  2. Constraints on genome dynamics revealed from gene distribution among the Ralstonia solanacearum species.

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    Pierre Lefeuvre

    Full Text Available Because it is suspected that gene content may partly explain host adaptation and ecology of pathogenic bacteria, it is important to study factors affecting genome composition and its evolution. While recent genomic advances have revealed extremely large pan-genomes for some bacterial species, it remains difficult to predict to what extent gene pool is accessible within or transferable between populations. As genomes bear imprints of the history of the organisms, gene distribution pattern analyses should provide insights into the forces and factors at play in the shaping and maintaining of bacterial genomes. In this study, we revisited the data obtained from a previous CGH microarrays analysis in order to assess the genomic plasticity of the R. solanacearum species complex. Gene distribution analyses demonstrated the remarkably dispersed genome of R. solanacearum with more than half of the genes being accessory. From the reconstruction of the ancestral genomes compositions, we were able to infer the number of gene gain and loss events along the phylogeny. Analyses of gene movement patterns reveal that factors associated with gene function, genomic localization and ecology delineate gene flow patterns. While the chromosome displayed lower rates of movement, the megaplasmid was clearly associated with hot-spots of gene gain and loss. Gene function was also confirmed to be an essential factor in gene gain and loss dynamics with significant differences in movement patterns between different COG categories. Finally, analyses of gene distribution highlighted possible highways of horizontal gene transfer. Due to sampling and design bias, we can only speculate on factors at play in this gene movement dynamic. Further studies examining precise conditions that favor gene transfer would provide invaluable insights in the fate of bacteria, species delineation and the emergence of successful pathogens.

  3. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

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    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  4. Comparative genome sequence analysis of Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman and C. rosaceana Harris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae alphabaculoviruses.

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    David K Thumbi

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequences of Choristoneura occidentalis and C. rosaceana nucleopolyhedroviruses (ChocNPV and ChroNPV, respectively (Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus were determined and compared with each other and with those of other baculoviruses, including the genome of the closely related C. fumiferana NPV (CfMNPV. The ChocNPV genome was 128,446 bp in length (1147 bp smaller than that of CfMNPV, had a G+C content of 50.1%, and contained 148 open reading frames (ORFs. In comparison, the ChroNPV genome was 129,052 bp in length, had a G+C content of 48.6% and contained 149 ORFs. ChocNPV and ChroNPV shared 144 ORFs in common, and had a 77% sequence identity with each other and 96.5% and 77.8% sequence identity, respectively, with CfMNPV. Five homologous regions (hrs, with sequence similarities to those of CfMNPV, were identified in ChocNPV, whereas the ChroNPV genome contained three hrs featuring up to 14 repeats. Both genomes encoded three inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP-1, IAP-2, and IAP-3, as reported for CfMNPV, and the ChocNPV IAP-3 gene represented the most divergent functional region of this genome relative to CfMNPV. Two ORFs were unique to ChocNPV, and four were unique to ChroNPV. ChroNPV ORF chronpv38 is a eukaryotic initiation factor 5 (eIF-5 homolog that has also been identified in the C. occidentalis granulovirus (ChocGV and is believed to be the product of horizontal gene transfer from the host. Based on levels of sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis, both ChocNPV and ChroNPV fall within group I alphabaculoviruses, where ChocNPV appears to be more closely related to CfMNPV than does ChroNPV. Our analyses suggest that it may be appropriate to consider ChocNPV and CfMNPV as variants of the same virus species.

  5. H2DB: a heritability database across multiple species by annotating trait-associated genomic loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminuma, Eli; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Naoko; Kurata, Nori; Shimizu, Tokurou; Nakamura, Yasukazu

    2013-01-01

    H2DB (http://tga.nig.ac.jp/h2db/), an annotation database of genetic heritability estimates for humans and other species, has been developed as a knowledge database to connect trait-associated genomic loci. Heritability estimates have been investigated for individual species, particularly in human twin studies and plant/animal breeding studies. However, there appears to be no comprehensive heritability database for both humans and other species. Here, we introduce an annotation database for genetic heritabilities of various species that was annotated by manually curating online public resources in PUBMED abstracts and journal contents. The proposed heritability database contains attribute information for trait descriptions, experimental conditions, trait-associated genomic loci and broad- and narrow-sense heritability specifications. Annotated trait-associated genomic loci, for which most are single-nucleotide polymorphisms derived from genome-wide association studies, may be valuable resources for experimental scientists. In addition, we assigned phenotype ontologies to the annotated traits for the purposes of discussing heritability distributions based on phenotypic classifications.

  6. Investigation of potential targets of Porphyromonas CRISPRs among the genomes of Porphyromonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takayasu; Shibasaki, Masaki; Maruyama, Fumito; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    The oral bacterial species Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen, has plastic genomes that may be driven by homologous recombination with exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is incorporated by natural transformation and conjugation. However, bacteriophages and plasmids, both of which are main resources of exogenous DNA, do not exist in the known P. gingivalis genomes. This could be associated with an adaptive immunity system conferred by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (cas) genes in P. gingivalis as well as innate immune systems such as a restriction-modification system. In a previous study, few immune targets were predicted for P. gingivalis CRISPR/Cas. In this paper, we analyzed 51 P. gingivalis genomes, which were newly sequenced, and publicly available genomes of 13 P. gingivalis and 46 other Porphyromonas species. We detected 6 CRISPR/Cas types (classified by sequence similarity of repeat) in P. gingivalis and 12 other types in the remaining species. The Porphyromonas CRISPR spacers with potential targets in the genus Porphyromonas were approximately 23 times more abundant than those with potential targets in other genus taxa (1,720/6,896 spacers vs. 74/6,896 spacers). Porphyromonas CRISPR/Cas may be involved in genome plasticity by exhibiting selective interference against intra- and interspecies nucleic acids.

  7. Sequencing of mitochondrial genomes of nine Aspergillus and Penicillium species identifies mobile introns and accessory genes as main sources of genome size variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardar, Vinita; Abrams, Natalie F; Hostetler, Jessica; Paukstelis, Paul J; Pakala, Suchitra; Pakala, Suman B; Zafar, Nikhat; Abolude, Olukemi O; Payne, Gary; Andrianopoulos, Alex; Denning, David W; Nierman, William C

    2012-12-12

    The genera Aspergillus and Penicillium include some of the most beneficial as well as the most harmful fungal species such as the penicillin-producer Penicillium chrysogenum and the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Their mitochondrial genomic sequences may hold vital clues into the mechanisms of their evolution, population genetics, and biology, yet only a handful of these genomes have been fully sequenced and annotated. Here we report the complete sequence and annotation of the mitochondrial genomes of six Aspergillus and three Penicillium species: A. fumigatus, A. clavatus, A. oryzae, A. flavus, Neosartorya fischeri (A. fischerianus), A. terreus, P. chrysogenum, P. marneffei, and Talaromyces stipitatus (P. stipitatum). The accompanying comparative analysis of these and related publicly available mitochondrial genomes reveals wide variation in size (25-36 Kb) among these closely related fungi. The sources of genome expansion include group I introns and accessory genes encoding putative homing endonucleases, DNA and RNA polymerases (presumed to be of plasmid origin) and hypothetical proteins. The two smallest sequenced genomes (A. terreus and P. chrysogenum) do not contain introns in protein-coding genes, whereas the largest genome (T. stipitatus), contains a total of eleven introns. All of the sequenced genomes have a group I intron in the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene, suggesting that this intron is fixed in these species. Subsequent analysis of several A. fumigatus strains showed low intraspecies variation. This study also includes a phylogenetic analysis based on 14 concatenated core mitochondrial proteins. The phylogenetic tree has a different topology from published multilocus trees, highlighting the challenges still facing the Aspergillus systematics. The study expands the genomic resources available to fungal biologists by providing mitochondrial genomes with consistent annotations for future genetic, evolutionary and population

  8. Development and validation of cross-transferable and polymorphic DNA markers for detecting alien genome introgression in Oryza sativa from Oryza brachyantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Soham; Bose, Lotan K; Ray, Joshitha; Ngangkham, Umakanta; Katara, Jawahar L; Samantaray, Sanghamitra; Behera, Lambodar; Anumalla, Mahender; Singh, Onkar N; Chen, Meingsheng; Wing, Rod A; Mohapatra, Trilochan

    2016-08-01

    African wild rice Oryza brachyantha (FF), a distant relative of cultivated rice Oryza sativa (AA), carries genes for pests and disease resistance. Molecular marker assisted alien gene introgression from this wild species to its domesticated counterpart is largely impeded due to the scarce availability of cross-transferable and polymorphic molecular markers that can clearly distinguish these two species. Availability of the whole genome sequence (WGS) of both the species provides a unique opportunity to develop markers, which are cross-transferable. We observed poor cross-transferability (~0.75 %) of O. sativa specific sequence tagged microsatellite (STMS) markers to O. brachyantha. By utilizing the genome sequence information, we developed a set of 45 low cost PCR based co-dominant polymorphic markers (STS and CAPS). These markers were found cross-transferrable (84.78 %) between the two species and could distinguish them from each other and thus allowed tracing alien genome introgression. Finally, we validated a Monosomic Alien Addition Line (MAAL) carrying chromosome 1 of O. brachyantha in O. sativa background using these markers, as a proof of concept. Hence, in this study, we have identified a set molecular marker (comprising of STMS, STS and CAPS) that are capable of detecting alien genome introgression from O. brachyantha to O. sativa.

  9. Comparative chromosomal localization of 45S and 5S rDNAs and implications for genome evolution in Cucumis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Tao; Yang, Shu-Qiong; Li, Zi-Ang; Zhang, Yun-Xia; Wang, Yun-Zhu; Cheng, Chun-Yan; Li, Ji; Chen, Jin-Feng; Lou, Qun-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal DNAs are useful cytogenetic markers for chromosome analysis. Studies investigating site numbers and distributions of rDNAs have provided important information for elucidating genome organization and chromosomal relationships of many species by fluorescence in situ hybridization. But relevant studies are scarce for species of the genus Cucumis, especially in wild species. In the present study, FISH was conducted to investigate the organization of 45S and 5S rDNA among 20 Cucumis accessions, including cultivars and wild accessions. Our results showed that the number of 45S rDNA sites varied from one to five pairs in different accessions, and most of these sites are located at the terminal regions of chromosomes. Interestingly, up to five pairs of 45S rDNA sites were observed in C. sativus var. sativus, the species which has the lowest chromosome number, i.e., 2n = 14. Only one pair of 5S rDNA sites was detected in all accessions, except for C. heptadactylus, C. sp, and C. spp that had two pairs of 5S rDNA sites. The distributions of 5S rDNA sites showed more variation than 45S rDNA sites. The phylogenetic analysis in this study showed that 45S and 5S rDNA have contrasting evolutionary patterns. We find that 5S rDNA has a polyploidization-related tendency towards the terminal location from an interstitial location but maintains a conserved site number, whereas the 45S rDNA showed a trend of increasing site number but a relatively conserved location.

  10. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  11. The other side of comparative genomics: genes with no orthologs between the cow and other mammalian species

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    Ajmone-Marsan Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid growth in the availability of genome sequence data, the automated identification of orthologous genes between species (orthologs is of fundamental importance to facilitate functional annotation and studies on comparative and evolutionary genomics. Genes with no apparent orthologs between the bovine and human genome may be responsible for major differences between the species, however, such genes are often neglected in functional genomics studies. Results A BLAST-based method was exploited to explore the current annotation and orthology predictions in Ensembl. Genes with no orthologs between the two genomes were classified into groups based on alignments, ontology, manual curation and publicly available information. Starting from a high quality and specific set of orthology predictions, as provided by Ensembl, hidden relationship between genes and genomes of different mammalian species were unveiled using a highly sensitive approach, based on sequence similarity and genomic comparison. Conclusions The analysis identified 3,801 bovine genes with no orthologs in human and 1010 human genes with no orthologs in cow, among which 411 and 43 genes, respectively, had no match at all in the other species. Most of the apparently non-orthologous genes may potentially have orthologs which were missed in the annotation process, despite having a high percentage of identity, because of differences in gene length and structure. The comparative analysis reported here identified gene variants, new genes and species-specific features and gave an overview of the other side of orthology which may help to improve the annotation of the bovine genome and the knowledge of structural differences between species.

  12. Investigating hookworm genomes by comparative analysis of two Ancylostoma species

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    Kapulkin Wadim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hookworms, infecting over one billion people, are the mostly closely related major human parasites to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum. Results Transcripts originated from libraries representing infective L3 larva, stimulated L3, arrested L3, and adults. Most genes are represented in single stages including abundant transcripts like hsp-20 in infective L3 and vit-3 in adults. Over 80% of the genes have homologs in C. elegans, and nearly 30% of these were with observable RNA interference phenotypes. Homologies were identified to nematode-specific and clade V specific gene families. To study the evolution of hookworm genes, 574 A. caninum / A. ceylanicum orthologs were identified, all of which were found to be under purifying selection with distribution ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous amino acid substitutions similar to that reported for C. elegans / C. briggsae orthologs. The phylogenetic distance between A. caninum and A. ceylanicum is almost identical to that for C. elegans / C. briggsae. Conclusion The genes discovered should substantially accelerate research toward better understanding of the parasites' basic biology as well as new therapies including vaccines and novel anthelmintics.

  13. The Drosophila genome nexus: a population genomic resource of 623 Drosophila melanogaster genomes, including 197 from a single ancestral range population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Justin B; Cardeno, Charis M; Crepeau, Marc W; Taylor, William; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Stevens, Kristian A; Langley, Charles H; Pool, John E

    2015-04-01

    Hundreds of wild-derived Drosophila melanogaster genomes have been published, but rigorous comparisons across data sets are precluded by differences in alignment methodology. The most common approach to reference-based genome assembly is a single round of alignment followed by quality filtering and variant detection. We evaluated variations and extensions of this approach and settled on an assembly strategy that utilizes two alignment programs and incorporates both substitutions and short indels to construct an updated reference for a second round of mapping prior to final variant detection. Utilizing this approach, we reassembled published D. melanogaster population genomic data sets and added unpublished genomes from several sub-Saharan populations. Most notably, we present aligned data from phase 3 of the Drosophila Population Genomics Project (DPGP3), which provides 197 genomes from a single ancestral range population of D. melanogaster (from Zambia). The large sample size, high genetic diversity, and potentially simpler demographic history of the DPGP3 sample will make this a highly valuable resource for fundamental population genetic research. The complete set of assemblies described here, termed the Drosophila Genome Nexus, presently comprises 623 consistently aligned genomes and is publicly available in multiple formats with supporting documentation and bioinformatic tools. This resource will greatly facilitate population genomic analysis in this model species by reducing the methodological differences between data sets. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Collinearity analysis of Brassica A and C genomes based on an updated inferred unigene order

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    Ian Bancroft

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article includes SNP scoring across lines of the Brassica napus TNDH population based on Illumina sequencing of mRNA, expanded to 75 lines. The 21, 323 mapped markers defined 887 recombination bins, representing an updated genetic linkage map for the species. Based on this new map, 5 genome sequence scaffolds were split and the order and orientation of scaffolds updated to establish a new pseudomolecule specification. The order of unigenes and SNP array probes within these pseudomolecules was determined. Unigenes were assessed for sequence similarity to the A and C genomes. The 57, 246 that mapped to both enabled the collinearity of the A and C genomes to be illustrated graphically. Although the great majority was in collinear positions, some were not. Analyses of 60 such instances are presented, suggesting that the breakdown in collinearity was largely due to either the absence of the homoeologue on one genome (resulting in sequence match to a paralogue or multiple similar sequences being present. The mRNAseq datasets for the TNDH lines are available from the SRA repository (ERA283648; the remaining datasets are supplied with this article.

  15. Natural Selection and Recombination Rate Variation Shape Nucleotide Polymorphism Across the Genomes of Three Related Populus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Street, Nathaniel R; Scofield, Douglas G; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2016-03-01

    A central aim of evolutionary genomics is to identify the relative roles that various evolutionary forces have played in generating and shaping genetic variation within and among species. Here we use whole-genome resequencing data to characterize and compare genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism, site frequency spectrum, and population-scaled recombination rates in three species of Populus: Populus tremula, P. tremuloides, and P. trichocarpa. We find that P. tremuloides has the highest level of genome-wide variation, skewed allele frequencies, and population-scaled recombination rates, whereas P. trichocarpa harbors the lowest. Our findings highlight multiple lines of evidence suggesting that natural selection, due to both purifying and positive selection, has widely shaped patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at linked neutral sites in all three species. Differences in effective population sizes and rates of recombination largely explain the disparate magnitudes and signatures of linked selection that we observe among species. The present work provides the first phylogenetic comparative study on a genome-wide scale in forest trees. This information will also improve our ability to understand how various evolutionary forces have interacted to influence genome evolution among related species. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Species delimitation and interspecific relationships of the genus Orychophragmus (Brassicaceae inferred from whole chloroplast genomes

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    Huan Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIt is rather difficult to delimit recently diverged species and construct their interspecific relationships because of insufficient informative variations of sampled DNA fragments (Schluter, 2000; Arnold, 2006. The genome-scale sequence variations were found to increase the phylogenetic resolutions of both high- and low-taxonomic groups (e.g., Yoder et al., 2013; Lamichhaney et al., 2015. It is still expensive to collect nuclear genome variations between species for most none-model genera without the reference genome. However, chloroplast genomes (plastome are relatively easy to be assembled to examine interspecific relationships for phylogenetic analyses, especially in addressing unresolved relationship at low taxonomic levels (Wu et al., 2010; Nock et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2013; Huang et al., 2014; Carbonell-Caballero et al., 2015. Plastomes are haploid with maternal inheritance in most angiosperms (Corriveau and Coleman, 1988; Zhang and Liu, 2003; Hagemann, 2004 and are highly conservative in gene order and genome structure with rare recombinations (Jansen et al., 2007; Moore et al., 2010. In this study, we aimed to examine species delimitation and interspecific relationships in Orychophragmus through assembling chloroplast genomes of multiple individuals of tentatively delimited species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is a small genus in the mustard family (Brassicaceae, Cruciferae distributed in northern, central, and southeastern China (Zhou et al., 2001. Its plants have been widely cultivated as ornamentals, vegetables, or source of seed oil (Sun et al., 2011. Despite controversial species delimitations in the genus (Zhou et al., 1987; Tan et al., 1998; Wu and Zhao, 2003; Al-Shehbaz and Yang, 2000; Zhou et al., 2001; Sun et al., 2012, our recent study based on nuclear (nr ITS sequence variations suggested the recognition of seven species (Hu et al., 2015a. Orychophragmus is sister to Sinalliaria, which is a genus endemic

  17. The viruses of wild pigeon droppings.

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    Tung Gia Phan

    Full Text Available Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads, as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact.

  18. Complete genome sequence of Leptotrichia buccalis type strain (C-1013-bT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Gronow, Sabine; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Chen, Feng; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Saunders, Liz; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Brettin, Thomas; Detter, John C.; Han, Cliff; Pitluck, Sam; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jefferies, Cynthia C.; Chain, Patrick; Rohde, Christine; Goker, Markus; Bristow, Jim; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2009-05-20

    Leptotrichia buccalis (Robin 1853) Trevisan 1879 is the type species of the genus, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its isolated location in the sparsely populated and neither taxonomically nor genomically adequately accessed family 'Leptotrichiaceae' within the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. Species of Leptotrichia are large fusiform non-motile, non-sporulating rods, which often populate the human oral flora. L. buccalis is anaerobic to aerotolerant, and saccharolytic. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the order 'Fusobacteriales' and no more than the second sequence from the phylum 'Fusobacteria'. The 2,465,610 bp long single replicon genome with its 2306 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  19. Permanent draft genomes of the two Rhodopirellula europaea strains 6C and SH398.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Heitmann, Tim; Richter, Michael; Klindworth, Anna; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Frank, Carsten S; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Harder, Jens

    2014-02-01

    The genomes of two Rhodopirellula europaea strains were sequenced as permanent drafts to study the genomic diversity within this genus, especially in comparison with the closed genome of the type strain Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T). The isolates are part of a larger study to infer the biogeography of Rhodopirellula species in European marine waters, as well as to amend the genus description of R. baltica. This genomics resource article is the second of a series of five publications describing a total of eight new permanent daft genomes of Rhodopirellula species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The genome structure of Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 and an induced Arachis allotetraploid revealed by molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza F. de M. B. do Nascimento

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peanut, Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 is an allotetraploid cultivated plant with two subgenomes derived from the hybridization between two diploid wild species, A. duranensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994 and A. ipaensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994, followed by spontaneous chromosomal duplication. To understand genome changes following polyploidy, the chromosomes of A. hypogaea, IpaDur1, an induced allotetraploid (A. ipaensis × A. duranensis4x and the diploid progenitor species were cytogenetically compared. The karyotypes of the allotetraploids share the number and general morphology of chromosomes; DAPI+ bands pattern and number of 5S rDNA loci. However, one 5S rDNA locus presents a heteromorphic FISH signal in both allotetraploids, relative to corresponding progenitor. Whilst for A. hypogaea the number of 45S rDNA loci was equivalent to the sum of those present in the diploid species, in IpaDur1, two loci have not been detected. Overall distribution of repetitive DNA sequences was similar in both allotetraploids, although A. hypogaea had additional CMA3+ bands and few slight differences in the LTR-retrotransposons distribution compared to IpaDur1. GISH showed that the chromosomes of both allotetraploids had preferential hybridization to their corresponding diploid genomes. Nevertheless, at least one pair of IpaDur1 chromosomes had a clear mosaic hybridization pattern indicating recombination between the subgenomes, clear evidence that the genome of IpaDur1 shows some instability comparing to the genome of A. hypogaea that shows no mosaic of subgenomes, although both allotetraploids derive from the same progenitor species. For some reasons, the chromosome structure of A. hypogaea is inherently more stable, or, it has been at least, partially stabilized through genetic changes and selection.

  1. Overview on the Role of Advance Genomics in Conservation Biology of Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Suliman; Nabi, Ghulam; Ullah, Muhammad Wajid; Yousaf, Muhammad; Manan, Sehrish; Siddique, Rabeea; Hou, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a "sixth" mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various ex situ and in situ measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for developing modern and fast monitoring tools for endangered biodiversity. This review article focuses on the applications of advanced genomics mainly demographic, adaptive genetic variations, inbreeding, hybridization and introgression, and disease susceptibilities, in the conservation of threatened biota. In short, it provides the fundamentals for novice readers and advancement in genomics for the experts working for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species.

  2. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Gallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  3. The rubber tree genome reveals new insights into rubber production and species adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chaorong; Yang, Meng; Fang, Yongjun; Luo, Yingfeng; Gao, Shenghan; Xiao, Xiaohu; An, Zewei; Zhou, Binhui; Zhang, Bing; Tan, Xinyu; Yeang, Hoong Yeet; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Lin, Qiang; Mei, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    The Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an economically important tropical tree species that produces natural rubber, an essential industrial raw material. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly of this species (1.37 Gb, scaffold N50 = 1.28 Mb) that covers 93.8% of the genome (1.47 Gb) and harbours 43,792 predicted protein-coding genes. A striking expansion of the REF/SRPP (rubber elongation factor/small rubber particle protein) gene family and its divergence into several laticif...

  4. Comparative study on free amino acid composition of wild edible mushroom species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bárbara; Andrade, Paula B; Silva, Branca M; Baptista, Paula; Seabra, Rosa M; Valentão, Patrícia

    2008-11-26

    A comparative study on the amino acid composition of 11 wild edible mushroom species (Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius) was developed. To define the qualitative and quantitative profiles, a derivatization procedure with dabsyl chloride was performed, followed by HPLC-UV-vis analysis. Twenty free amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, asparagine, glutamine, serine, threonine, glycine, alanine, valine, proline, arginine, isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, cysteine, ornithine, lysine, histidine, and tyrosine) were determined. B. edulis and T. equestre were revealed to be the most nutritional species, whereas F. hepatica was the poorest. The different species exhibited distinct free amino acid profiles. The quantification of the identified compounds indicated that, in a general way, alanine was the major amino acid. The results show that the analyzed mushroom species possess moderate amino acid contents, which may be relevant from a nutritional point of view because these compounds are indispensable for human health. A combination of different mushroom species in the diet would offer good amounts of amino acids and a great diversity of palatable sensations.

  5. Global transcriptome analysis of two wild relatives of peanut under drought and fungi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Patricia M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea is one of the most widely grown grain legumes in the world, being valued for its high protein and unsaturated oil contents. Worldwide, the major constraints to peanut production are drought and fungal diseases. Wild Arachis species, which are exclusively South American in origin, have high genetic diversity and have been selected during evolution in a range of environments and biotic stresses, constituting a rich source of allele diversity. Arachis stenosperma harbors resistances to a number of pests, including fungal diseases, whilst A. duranensis has shown improved tolerance to water limited stress. In this study, these species were used for the creation of an extensive databank of wild Arachis transcripts under stress which will constitute a rich source for gene discovery and molecular markers development. Results Transcriptome analysis of cDNA collections from A. stenosperma challenged with Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. and M.A. Curtis Deighton, and A. duranensis submitted to gradual water limited stress was conducted using 454 GS FLX Titanium generating a total of 7.4 x 105 raw sequence reads covering 211 Mbp of both genomes. High quality reads were assembled to 7,723 contigs for A. stenosperma and 12,792 for A. duranensis and functional annotation indicated that 95% of the contigs in both species could be appointed to GO annotation categories. A number of transcription factors families and defense related genes were identified in both species. Additionally, the expression of five A. stenosperma Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs and four retrotransposon (FIDEL-related sequences were analyzed by qRT-PCR. This data set was used to design a total of 2,325 EST-SSRs, of which a subset of 584 amplified in both species and 214 were shown to be polymorphic using ePCR. Conclusions This study comprises one of the largest unigene dataset for wild Arachis species and will help to elucidate genes

  6. Single-cell Hi-C for genome-wide detection of chromatin interactions that occur simultaneously in a single cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Takashi; Lubling, Yaniv; Yaffe, Eitan; Wingett, Steven W; Dean, Wendy; Tanay, Amos; Fraser, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Hi-C is a powerful method that provides pairwise information on genomic regions in spatial proximity in the nucleus. Hi-C requires millions of cells as input and, as genome organization varies from cell to cell, a limitation of Hi-C is that it only provides a population average of genome conformations. We developed single-cell Hi-C to create snapshots of thousands of chromatin interactions that occur simultaneously in a single cell. To adapt Hi-C to single-cell analysis, we modified the protocol to include in-nucleus ligation. This enables the isolation of single nuclei carrying Hi-C-ligated DNA into separate tubes, followed by reversal of cross-links, capture of biotinylated ligation junctions on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and PCR amplification of single-cell Hi-C libraries. The entire laboratory protocol can be carried out in 1 week, and although we have demonstrated its use in mouse T helper (TH1) cells, it should be applicable to any cell type or species for which standard Hi-C has been successful. We also developed an analysis pipeline to filter noise and assess the quality of data sets in a few hours. Although the interactome maps produced by single-cell Hi-C are sparse, the data provide useful information to understand cellular variability in nuclear genome organization and chromosome structure. Standard wet and dry laboratory skills in molecular biology and computational analysis are required.

  7. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J. L.; Zhao, Y. P.; Shiraigol, W.; Li, B.; Bai, D. Y.; Ye, W. X.; Daidiikhuu, D.; Yang, L. H.; Jin, Brqqg; Zhao, Q. A.; Gao, Y. H.; Wu, J.; Bao, Wydl; Li, A. A.; Zhang, Y. H. Percival

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  8. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Schmutz, Jeremy; Wang, Hao; Percifield, Ryan; Hawkins, Jennifer; Pontaroli, Ana C; Estep, Matt; Feng, Liang; Vaughn, Justin N; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; Hellsten, Uffe; Deshpande, Shweta; Wang, Xuewen; Wu, Xiaomei; Mitros, Therese; Triplett, Jimmy; Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chu-Yu; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Lin; Li, Pinghua; Sharma, Manoj; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela C; Panaud, Olivier; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Brutnell, Thomas P; Doust, Andrew N; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rokhsar, Daniel; Devos, Katrien M

    2012-05-13

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ∼400-Mb assembly covers ∼80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  9. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Schmutz, Jeremy [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Wang, Hao [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Percifield, Ryan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Hawkins, Jennifer [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Pontaroli, Ana C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Estep, Matt [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Feng, Liang [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Vaughn, Justin N [ORNL; Grimwood, Jane [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Jenkins, Jerry [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lindquist, Erika [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hellsten, Uffe [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wang, Xuewen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Wu, Xiaomei [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Mitros, Therese [University of California, Berkeley; Triplett, Jimmy [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita [Oklahoma State University; Wang, Lin [Cornell University; Li, Pinghua [Cornell University; Sharma, Manoj [University of California, Davis; Sharma, Rita [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Panaud, Olivier [Universite de Perpignan, Perpignan, France; Kellogg, Elizabeth A. [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Brutnell, Thomas P. [Cornell University; Doust, Andrew N. [Oklahoma State University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Devos, Katrien M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ~400-Mb assembly covers ~80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  10. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The {approx}400-Mb assembly covers {approx}80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diplo