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Sample records for wild animals electronic

  1. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  2. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  3. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  4. [Wild animals and law and ethics in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouët, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Legal systems applying to wild animals are very different depending on whether the animals are in captivity or under human control, or whether they are in the wild. Animals in captivity, like domesticated animals, are covered by protective measures for the welfare of the individual animal, but wild animals are not considered as individuals but only as members of a species, their numbers being controlled by humans and determined by human interests. In the light of contemporary scientific knowledge, such legal approaches are now inappropriate and can no longer be accepted for ethical reasons. The legal systems need to develop and must include a definition of the animal as an individual and as a sentient being.

  5. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  6. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  7. Parasites of wild animals as a potential source of hazard to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Koziatek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The decline in wild animal habitats and the uncontrolled growth of their population make these animals come closer to human settlements. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic infections in wild animals in the selected area, and to specify the hazards they create for humans. In more than 66% of the analysed faecal samples from wild boar, hares, roe deer, deer and fallow deer various developmental forms of parasites were found. These included parasites dangerous for humans: Toxocara canis, Capillaria hepatica, Capillaria bovis, Trichuris suis, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosus, Eimeria spp., and Trichostongylus spp. It is necessary to monitor parasitic diseases in wild animals as they can lead to the spread of parasites creating a hazard to humans, pets and livestock.

  8. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of wild animals browsing preferences in forage resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Argenti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Excessive presence of wild ungulates can produce negative effects on herbaceous crops or woody species, and to face this problem, habitat improvements are often performed to recreate suitable environments for a given animal species and to attract animals far from cultivated crops. A common example of these interventions is represented by grassland restoration and to evaluate the real animal preferences on restored forage resources a proper trial was established in a hilly area of Tuscany (central Italy, inside the historical Park of Pratolino, near Florence. The trial compared six different forage species or mixtures sown in plots: vegetal material was represented by two pure stands (Onobrychis viciifolia and Medicago sativa and four mixtures differing in number and kind of used species. Plots were utilised only by wild animals occurring in the area. Data collection consisted of botanical samples in each plot in different periods to obtain the percent presence of each species. At the same time, a visual estimation of animal intake on all occurring species was performed to obtain the browsing ratio of single species and overall defoliation rate for each species/mixture. Moreover, six camera traps were placed on the boundary of the experimental site to record videos of wild animals browsing in the area for identification of animals actually occurring on different plots and for comparison of these results with botanical data. Vegetation surveys permitted a proper evaluation of animals intake and of their feeding preferences. In general, sown species performed a major role in animal browsing, even if in some periods also a few native species (such as Plantago lanceolata or Cichorium intybus were utilised in a strong way, depending on vegetation context and existing biomass. Camera traps results permitted the identification of browsing animal species (mainly represented by roe deer and plots frequentation resulted to be highly related to animal

  10. Federal Measures Against the Abuse of Wild Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Nathaniel P.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the appalling conditions associated with many zoos and with the trafficking of exotic pets, and discusses recent federal and international measures designed to reduce the abuse of wild animals. (JR)

  11. Wild animals used as food medicine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Oliveira, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro; Rosa, Ierecê Lucena

    2013-01-01

    The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.

  12. Wild Animals Used as Food Medicine in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.

  13. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  14. Distribution of radionuclides by organs of wild animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.P.; Korol', R.A.; Bykovskij, V.V.; Bazhanov, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of radionuclides by organs of wild animals, are studied, for evacuation zone of Chernobyl NPP. The distribution of Cs 137 have a total character, Sr 90 are distributed on critical organs, us a rule. (authors)

  15. Principles and methods of using wild animals in bioindication of global radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.E.; Krivolutskij, D.A.; Fedorov, E.A.; Pokarzhevskij, A.D.; Ryabtsev, I.A.; Usachev, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    Wild animals (mammals), birds, reptiles, amphibians, land and soil invertebrates) in natural ecosystems accumulate the easily detected radionuclide quantities. The technique for estimation of radionuclide content in the organism of animals are considered. It is suggested to use wild animals for studying biogenic migration of radionuclides by food chains in ecosystems in global monitoring of medium contamination, particularly on biosphers preserves

  16. Towards informed metrics for examining the role of human-induced animal responses in tag studies on wild animals

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Rory P.; Holton, Mark; Wilson, Vianney L.; Gunner, Richard; Tysse, Brenda; Wilson, Gwendoline I; Quintana, Flavio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Scantlebury, D. Michael

    2018-01-01

    Two prime issues can detrimentally affect animals that have been equipped with tags; (i) the effect of the capture and restraint process and (ii) the effect of the tag itself. This work examines some of the issues surrounding quantification of tag effects on wild animals for both restrained and free-living animals. A new method to quantify stress effects based on monitoring ventilation rates in relation to activity is suggested for restrained animals which may help improve the practice of handling animals. It is also suggested that various metrics, many derived from accelerometers, can be examined in tagged wild animals to examine the change in behaviours over time with a view to having a better understanding of welfare issues, assuring the quality of recorded data and informing best practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Towards informed metrics for examining the role of human-induced animal responses in tag studies on wild animals

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Rory P.

    2018-05-31

    Two prime issues can detrimentally affect animals that have been equipped with tags; (i) the effect of the capture and restraint process and (ii) the effect of the tag itself. This work examines some of the issues surrounding quantification of tag effects on wild animals for both restrained and free-living animals. A new method to quantify stress effects based on monitoring ventilation rates in relation to activity is suggested for restrained animals which may help improve the practice of handling animals. It is also suggested that various metrics, many derived from accelerometers, can be examined in tagged wild animals to examine the change in behaviours over time with a view to having a better understanding of welfare issues, assuring the quality of recorded data and informing best practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. PBI creams: a spontaneously mutated mouse strain showing wild animal-type reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, C A; Van Driel, K S; Talling, J C; Inglis, I R

    2001-01-01

    PBI creams are mice derived from warfarin-resistant wild stock that has been maintained under laboratory conditions since the 1970s. This study compares their behaviour to that of laboratory mice and wild house and wood mice. Animals were tested in a black/white box and a 2.64x1.4 m runway. In the black/white box, the behaviour of PBI creams was not significantly different from that of house mice and differed most from that of laboratory mice. Notably, the PBI creams showed the greatest activity and escape-orientated behaviours. When animals were approached by the experimenter in the open runway test, the PBI creams had higher flight speeds than both house and wood mice, whilst laboratory mice failed to respond. In the closed runway test where the animals could not escape, the PBI creams, house mice and wood mice all turned and attempted to run past the approaching experimenter, whilst the laboratory mice again failed to react. At the end of this test session, the time taken to catch each animal was recorded. It took less than 5 s to catch laboratory mice but significantly longer to catch the wild strains and the PBI creams (90-100 s for the latter). In these tests, the PBI creams showed wild animal-type reactivity, and as this behaviour has been retained in the laboratory colony for over 30 years, these animals may be useful in the study of the physiological and genetic basis of fear/anxiety in mice.

  19. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915) and semi-structured interviews (n=78) to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported co...

  20. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying for the conservation of wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Kaneko

    Full Text Available Sperm preservation is a useful technique for the maintenance of biological resources in experimental and domestic animals, and in wild animals. A new preservation method has been developed that enables sperm to be stored for a long time in a refrigerator at 4 °C. Sperm are freeze-dried in a solution containing 10 mM Tris and 1 mM EDTA. Using this method, liquid nitrogen is not required for the storage and transportation of sperm. We demonstrate that chimpanzee, giraffe, jaguar, weasel and the long-haired rat sperm remain viable after freeze-drying. In all species, pronuclei were formed after the injection of freeze-dried sperm into the mouse oocytes. Although preliminary, these results may be useful for the future establishment of "freeze-drying zoo" to conserve wild animals.

  1. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Populations of Wild Animals in Comparison with Animals Bred in Game Enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubankova, Monika; Kralik, Petr; Lamka, Jiri; Zakovcik, Vladimir; Dolanský, Marek; Vasickova, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is now accepted as a zoonotic virus, and domestic pigs, wild boars and deer are recognised as natural reservoirs of the pathogen. In this study, 762 animals (wild boars, fallow deer, red deer, sika deer, roe deer and mouflons) originating from the wild and from game enclosures were tested for the presence of HEV RNA by qRT-PCR. HEV RNA was detected in wild boars (96/450), red deer (2/169), roe deer (1/30) and mouflons (5/39). The sequence relationship between HEV isolates from wild boars and domestic pigs or humans indicate a circulation of HEV in the Czech Republic.

  2. Toxicological significance of soil ingestion by wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Fries, George F.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Most wild and domestic animals ingest some soil or sediment, and some species may routinely, or under special circumstances, ingest considerable amounts. Ingested soil supplies nutrients, exposes animals to parasites and pathogens, and may play a role in developing immune systems.1 Soil ingestion is also sometimes the principal route of exposure to various environmental contaminants.2-7 Ingestion of soil and earthy material is defined as geophagy and may be either intentional or unintentional, occurring as an animal eats or grooms.

  3. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms—particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals’ knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or “conservation consciousness” was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species

  4. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    Full Text Available A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners. In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM, and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs derived from well

  5. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species, such

  6. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  7. An outbreak of canine distemper virus in tigers (Panthera tigris): possible transmission from wild animals to zoo animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shiomoda, Hiroshi; Tamaru, Seiji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Goto, Megumi; Une, Yumi; Sato, Azusa; Ikebe, Yusuke; Maeda, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a morbillivirus that causes one of the most contagious and lethal viral diseases known in canids, has an expanding host range, including wild animals. Since December 2009, several dead or dying wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) were found in and around one safari-style zoo in Japan, and CDV was isolated from four of these animals. In the subsequent months (January to February 2010), 12 tigers (Panthera tigris) in the zoo developed respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, and CDV RNA was detected in fecal samples of the examined tigers. In March 2010, one of the tigers developed a neurological disorder and died; CDV was isolated from the lung of this animal. Sequence analysis of the complete hemagglutinin (H) gene and the signal peptide region of the fusion (F) gene showed high homology among these isolates (99.8-100%), indicating that CDV might have been transmitted from raccoon dog to tiger. In addition, these isolates belonged to genotype Asia-1 and had lower homology (<90%) to the vaccine strain (Onderstepoort). Seropositivity of lions (Panthera leo) in the zoo and wild bears (Ursus thibetanus) captured around this area supported the theory that a CDV epidemic had occurred in many mammal species in and around the zoo. These results indicate a risk of CDV transmission among many animal species, including large felids and endangered species.

  8. The peculiarity of dynamic of helminth community of wild ungulate animals in the condition of Poles'e reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odintsova, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    It was analysed the dynamic of helminth community of wild animals in the condition of Poles'e reserve and it was shown that radiation contamination had great influence at the settled community of parasite worms resulting in disappearance or sharp diminution of species quantity that were common for wild ungulate animals and domestics cattle. It was concluded that stabilisation of helminth community of wild ungulate animals had not yet achieved

  9. The diagnostic activity on wild animals through the description of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnostic activity on wild animals through the description of a model case report (caseous lymphadenitis by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis associated with Pasteurella spp and parasites infection in an alpine ibex – Capra ibex )

  10. Leptospirosis on captive wild animals in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Anahi S; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide bacterial infection, being more prevalent in tropical regions. Human beings, domestic animals and wildlife species are susceptible to a wide variety of serovars. Zoos have a great importance in keeping endangered species, increasing populations and accumulating knowledge on these species. Although some studies describe the occurrence of leptospirosis in captivity animals, a systematic review regarding the infection in these animals in tropical areas has never been conducted. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically gather and analyze data regarding leptospirosis among captive wild animals in Latin America. A total of 141 species were studied, 93 genus, 44 families and 15 orders from three classes. Median seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 52% and predominant serogroups were Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae for mammalian, and Sejroe for reptiles. One important outcome is that, when kept on zoos, wildlife is more frequently infected by incidental strains instead of adapted strains. Preventive measures should consider periodic serosurvey of all animal species in captivity, as well as the use of commercial vaccines to reduce leptospiral infection and its hazards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Spengler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. This review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology.

  12. Wild Origins: The Evolving Nature of Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ifigenia

    For billions of years, evolution has been the driving force behind the incredible range of biodiversity on our planet. Wild Origins is a concept plan for an exhibition at the National Zoo that uses case studies of animal behavior to explain the theory of evolution. Behaviors evolve, just as physical forms do. Understanding natural selection can help us interpret animal behavior and vice-versa. A living collection, digital media, interactives, fossils, and photographs will relay stories of social behavior, sex, navigation and migration, foraging, domestication, and relationships between different species. The informal learning opportunities visitors are offered at the zoo will create a connection with the exhibition's teaching points. Visitors will leave with an understanding and sense of wonder at the evolutionary view of life.

  13. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915 and semi-structured interviews (n=78 to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported consumed-predominantly by successful, high-income, high-status males of all ages and educational levels-and is used as a medium to communicate prestige and obtain social leverage. As Vietnam′s economy grows and its population ages, demand for wildmeat and medicinal products is likely to rise. Given the difficulties of acting on personal rather than collective interests and the symbolic role of wildmeat in an extremely status-conscious society, reducing demand is challenging. Influencing consumer behaviour over the long term requires social marketing expertise and has to be informed by an in-depth understanding, achieved using appropriate methods, of the social drivers of consumer demand for wild animal products. In the meantime, strengthened enforcement is needed to prevent the demand being met from consumers prepared to pay the rising costs of finding the last individuals of a species.

  14. Detection of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus from Wild Animals and Ixodidae Ticks in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sung-Suck; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Hur, Moon-Suk; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Jeong, Soo-Myoung; Shin, Nam-Shik; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel bunyavirus reported to be endemic to central-northeastern China, southern Japan, and the Republic of Korea (ROK). To investigate SFTSV infections, we collected serum samples and ticks from wild animals. Using serum samples and ticks, SFTSV-specific genes were amplified by one-step RT-PCR and nested PCR and sequenced. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to analyze virus-specific antibody levels in wild animals. Serum samples were collected from a total of 91 animals: 21 Korean water deer (KWD), 3 Siberian roe deer, 5 gorals, 7 raccoon dogs, 54 wild boars (WBs), and 1 carrion crow. The SFTSV infection rate in wild animals was 3.30% (3 of 91 animals: 1 KWD and 2 WBs). The seropositive rate was 6.59% (6 of 91 animals: 5 KWD and 1 WB). A total of 891 ticks (3 species) were collected from 65 wild animals (9 species). Of the attached tick species, Haemaphysalis longicornis (74.86%) was the most abundant, followed by Haemaphysalis flava (20.20%) and Ixodes nipponensis (4.94%). The average minimum infection rate (MIR) of SFTSV in ticks was 4.98%. The MIRs of H. longicornis, H. flava, and I. nipponensis were 4.51%, 2.22%, and 22.73%, respectively. The MIRs of larvae, nymphs, and adult ticks were 0.68%, 6.88%, and 5.53%, respectively. In addition, the MIRs of fed and unfed ticks were 4.67% and 4.96%, respectively. We detected a low SFTSV infection rate in wild animals, no differences in SFTSV infection rate with respect to bloodsucking in ticks, and SFTSV infection for all developmental stages of ticks. This is the first report describing the detection of SFTSV in wild animals in the ROK.

  15. Cs-137 in the Hungarian environment, especially in the meat of wild animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarjam, S.; Varga, B.

    2006-01-01

    The difference of the eating habits of the examined three types of animals determines the radionuclide content of the meat. The highest radiocaesium-contamination in the meat of wild hogs was observed. Mushrooms play an important role in the food chain regarding the radionuclides. They have higher specific activity mainly one order of magnitude comparing with the plant samples in the environment. Regarding the spatial distribution the meat of wild animals shot in Zala and Somogy counties (south-west part of the country) contain more 137 Cs than the others. A correlation was observed, because these two counties have such a climate, which is favourable for mushrooms, so the possibility of the consumption by the animals is higher here. Generally, the animals living in the parts of the forest from where they have access to the arable lands were less contaminated. The specific activity of the meat also depends on the amount and seasonal distribution of precipitation of their living area. (LN)

  16. Challenges and Possibilities for Accommodating Wild Animals in the Realm of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Björnegran, Amalia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This research seeks to investigate the possibilities and inadequacies of including wild animals within the justice realm. It bases this research on the reasons and rationales of representatives within environmental non- governmental organizations (ENGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and public agency working with animal- rights and welfare or environmental protection. These representatives reason from a personal and organizational perspective concerning justice, ethics and...

  17. Tracking animals in freshwater with electronic tags: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Thiem, Jason D.; Klimley, Peter; Lucas, Martyn C.; Thorstad, Eva B.; Eiler, John; Holbrook, Chris; Ebner, Brendan C.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable technical developments over the past half century have enabled widespread application of electronic tags to the study of animals in the wild, including in freshwater environments. We review the constraints associated with freshwater telemetry and biologging and the technical developments relevant to their use. Technical constraints for tracking animals are often influenced by the characteristics of the animals being studied and the environment they inhabit. Collectively, they influence which and how technologies can be used and their relative effectiveness. Although radio telemetry has historically been the most commonly used technology in freshwater, passive integrated transponder (PIT) technology, acoustic telemetry and biologgers are becoming more popular. Most telemetry studies have focused on fish, although an increasing number have focused on other taxa, such as turtles, crustaceans and molluscs. Key technical developments for freshwater systems include: miniaturization of tags for tracking small-size life stages and species, fixed stations and coded tags for tracking large samples of animals over long distances and large temporal scales, inexpensive PIT systems that enable mass tagging to yield population- and community-level relevant sample sizes, incorporation of sensors into electronic tags, validation of tag attachment procedures with a focus on maintaining animal welfare, incorporation of different techniques (for example, genetics, stable isotopes) and peripheral technologies (for example, geographic information systems, hydroacoustics), development of novel analytical techniques, and extensive international collaboration. Innovations are still needed in tag miniaturization, data analysis and visualization, and in tracking animals over larger spatial scales (for example, pelagic areas of lakes) and in challenging environments (for example, large dynamic floodplain systems, under ice). There seems to be a particular need for adapting

  18. Electronic Animal Drug Product Listing Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Electronic Animal Drug Product Listing Directory is a directory of all animal drug products that have been listed electronically since June 1, 2009, to comply...

  19. Similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from humans and captive wild animals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony M; Ismail, Husna; Henton, Maryke M; Keddy, Karen H

    2014-12-15

    Salmonella is well recognized as an aetiological agent of gastrointestinal and diarrhoeal disease. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is one of the commonest serotypes associated with foodborne illness. In South Africa, we compared Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans with gastroenteritis and strains isolated from captive wild animals, between June 2011 and July 2012. Bacteria were phenotypically characterized using standard microbiological techniques. Genotypic relatedness of isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. a diversity of 27 PFGE patterns amongst 196 human non-invasive isolates was shown; two PFGE patterns predominated and accounted for 74% of all human isolates. Human isolates showed a 12% prevalence rate for nalidixic acid resistance. Animal isolates from 5 different sources were investigated. With the exception of an isolate from a ground hornbill, all animal isolates (jaguar, crocodile, lion and poultry) showed PFGE pattern matches to a human isolate. Animal isolates showed susceptibility to all antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of nalidixic acid resistance in isolates from the lion and poultry source. Our data showed similarities between Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from humans and captive wild animals, suggesting a probable common source for strains from humans and animals.

  20. Book review: Fowler's zoo and wild animal medicine (volume 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the eighth volume of Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, the editors have returned to the original, comprehensive, taxa-based format last used in the fifth volume that was released in 2003. The book consists of 82 chapters, divided into taxonomic classes that include amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, and a general topics section. The editors deliberately selected new senior authors who are expert veterinary advisors for the various taxa. This international assemblage of authors is impressive, although the book would have benefited from a greater diversity of disciplinary expertise. Synthesis of the large and expanding body of knowledge about zoo and wild animal medicine is a Sisyphean task, but one that the editors have accomplished well. The chapters were well written and are beautifully illustrated with high-quality images and generally well referenced. Much of the information is summarized in tabular format, which I found both a blessing and a curse. Tabulation of hematologic variables and anesthetic doses is helpful; however, tabulation of information regarding infectious and parasitic diseases results in a loss of detail. For example, methods of diagnosis for some diseases are omitted from some tables. The need for succinctness results in trade-offs, and statements such as “Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis … is one of the most well described pathogens of anurans” with no further information leaves readers unsated. In addition, the book does not have any chapters on fish or invertebrates, which are notable omissions given the importance of these species. Those quibbles aside, this is a must-have book for all zoo and wild animal medicine students and practitioners. However, perhaps it is time to recognize that, during the 36 years since the first volume was published, this discipline has become too large to be contained in 1 book. This is largely because of the success of this book series, and it is a nice problem to have.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Members Adapted to Wild and Domestic Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kerri M; Gordon, Stephen V

    2017-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is composed of several highly genetically related species that can be broadly classified into those that are human-host adapted and those that possess the ability to propagate and transmit in a variety of wild and domesticated animals. Since the initial description of the bovine tubercle bacillus, now known as Mycobacterium bovis, by Theobald Smith in the late 1800's, isolates originating from a wide range of animal hosts have been identified and characterized as M. microti, M. pinnipedii, the Dassie bacillus, M. mungi, M. caprae, M. orygis and M. suricattae. This chapter outlines the events resulting in the identification of each of these animal-adapted species, their close genetic relationships, and how genome-based phylogenetic analyses of species-specific variation amongst MTBC members is beginning to unravel the events that resulted in the evolution of the MTBC and the observed host tropism between the human- and animal-adapted member species.

  2. Challenges and solutions for studying collective animal behaviour in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Lacey F; Hein, Andrew M; Strandburg-Peshkin, Ariana; Jensen, Frants H

    2018-05-19

    Mobile animal groups provide some of the most compelling examples of self-organization in the natural world. While field observations of songbird flocks wheeling in the sky or anchovy schools fleeing from predators have inspired considerable interest in the mechanics of collective motion, the challenge of simultaneously monitoring multiple animals in the field has historically limited our capacity to study collective behaviour of wild animal groups with precision. However, recent technological advancements now present exciting opportunities to overcome many of these limitations. Here we review existing methods used to collect data on the movements and interactions of multiple animals in a natural setting. We then survey emerging technologies that are poised to revolutionize the study of collective animal behaviour by extending the spatial and temporal scales of inquiry, increasing data volume and quality, and expediting the post-processing of raw data.This article is part of the theme issue 'Collective movement ecology'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. The Birth of a research animal. Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  4. Wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration distributions in bacteria of animal origin in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia L Pantozzi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of indicator bacteria isolated from domestic animal feces. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined by agar dilution. Interpretative criteria on the basis of wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFF or ECV were used according to the 'European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing' (EUCAST data. Results from 237 isolates of Escherichia coli showed reduced susceptibility for ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, the antimicrobials commonly used in intensive breeding of pigs and hens. Regarding all the species of the genus Enterococcus spp., there are only ECOFF or ECV for vancomycin. Of the 173 Enterococcus spp. isolated, only one showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and was classified as 'non-wild-type' (NWT population. This is the first report in Argentina showing data of epidemiological cutoff values in animal bacteria.

  5. Detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in Peridomestic and Wild Animals and Ticks in an Endemic Region (Canary Islands, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Noe F; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2017-09-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of human Q fever, can infect mammals, birds, and arthropods. The Canary Islands (Spain) are considered an endemic territory, with a high prevalence in both humans and livestock. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological information about the wild and peridomestic cycles of C. burnetii. Tissue samples from rodents on farms (100) and wild rabbits (129) were collected and assessed by PCR to detect C. burnetii DNA. In parallel, ticks were also collected from vegetation (1169), livestock (335), domestic dogs (169), and wild animals (65). Globally, eight rodents (8%) and two rabbits (1.5%) were found to be positive, with the spleen being the most affected organ. Tick species identified were Hyalomma lusitanicum, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus pusillus. Hyalomma lusitanicum (80%) was the main species identified in vegetation, livestock, and wild animals, whereas Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most prevalent in domestic dogs. Overall, C. burnetii DNA was detected in 6.1% of the processed ticks, distributed between those removed from livestock (11.3%), domestic dogs (6.9%), and from wild animals (6%). Ticks from vegetation were all negative. Results suggest that, in the Canary Islands, C. burnetii develops in a peridomestic rather than a wild cycle.

  6. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Global impact of Torque teno virus infection in wild and domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzin, Aldo; Mallus, Francesca; Macera, Lisa; Maggi, Fabrizio; Blois, Sylvain

    2015-07-04

    Infection with Torque teno viruses (TTVs) is not restricted to humans. Different domestic and wild animal species are naturally infected with species-specific TTVs worldwide. Due to the global spread of the infection, it is likely that essentially all animals are naturally infected with species-specific TTVs, and that co-evolution of TTVs with their hosts probably occurred. Although TTVs are potentially related to many diseases, the evidence of the widespread infection in healthy human and nonhuman hosts raised doubts about their pathogenic potential. Nonetheless, their role as superimposed agents of other diseases or as triggers for impairment of immune surveillance is currently under debate. The possible contribution of animal TT viruses to interspecies transmission and their role as zoonotic agents are currently topics of discussion.

  8. Microwave sensors for detection of wild animals during pasture mowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Patrovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 400000 wild animals are killed or severely injured every year during spring time pasture mowing. Conventional methods for detection and removal or expulsion of animals before mowing are either inefficient or very time-consuming. The first really working method is based on a pyro-detector which senses the temperature contrast between the animals body and the surrounding pasture. Unfortunately, the detection reliability of this sensor decreases with increasing ambient temperature and strong sunlight, i.e. for typical weather conditions, when pasture is mowed, especially around noon. In this paper, a detector is presented that exhibits complementary behaviour. It works best during dry conditions (i.e. around noon, but has a tendency to false alarms when dew is present (i.e. morning and evening. The sensor is based on a commercial, low-cost Doppler module at 24GHz. It senses the difference of radar cross section between the animals body (high water content, specular reflection and the pasture (low water content, diffuse reflection. The signal is analysed by means of a non-linear Wigner time-frequency transformation. Experimental results are presented for a laboratory setup as well as for measurement in actual spring-time pasture. The results prove that a microwave sensor is capable of reliably detecting animals of the size of a fawn even if it is covered by a layer of pasture.

  9. [Applications of DNA identification technology in protection of wild animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ping-Ya; Pei, Li; Ge, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Xue-Ying; Xu, Xiao-Yu; Tu, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    With the development of biotechnology, forensic DNA identification technology in protection of wild animals has been used more and more widely. This review introduces the global status of wildlife crime and the relevant protection to wildlife, outlines the practical applications of forensic DNA identification technology with regard to species identification, determination of geographic origin, individual identification and paternity identification. It focus on the techniques commonly used in DNA typing and their merits and demerits, as well as the problems and prospects of forensic DNA technology for wildlife conservation.

  10. Efficacy of parasitological diagnosis methods in wild animals kept in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Aline Feola; Barnabe, Anderson Sena; Federsoni, Igor Popovic; Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Marco, Rogerio Milton De; Garcia, Isabel Priscilla

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Parasitic diseases are common in wild animals kept in captivity, and the research of these parasites is a tool used in wildlife management actions. Once the method most used in the practice of veterinary laboratories is the direct examination, it was considered appropriate to report the parasitism in captivity wildlife comparing this technique with modified methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer (HPJ) and Willis. Fresh feces were surveyed in eleven precincts with specimens of the class ...

  11. Radionuclides distribution in internal organs of wild animals in alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatova, T.A.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Activities of caesium 137, strontium 90, plutonium isotopes and americium 241 are experimentally defined in the internal organs of bearer and wolf alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP. Radionuclides distribution in the internal organs of wild animals is defined by destruction of nuclear fuel particles

  12. A Genetic Study of Wild Populations and Evolution A Genetic Study of Wild Populations and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovanitz William

    1944-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the scientific basis of heredity within the last two decades and the verification of the principal conclusions in many different plants and animals has made possible the application of analytical methods in the study of variations in wild populations. As with the physical and chemical sciences, genetics has been enabled to make use of mathematics to compound (often theoretically out of simple units, the genes, the complexity known as an organism, much in the same way as a chemist compounds molecules with atoms and the physicist compounds atoms with protons and electrons. The determination of the scientific basis of heredity within the last two decades and the verification of the principal conclusions in many different plants and animals has made possible the application of analytical methods in the study of variations in wild populations. As with the physical and chemical sciences, genetics has been enabled to make use of mathematics to compound (often theoretically out of simple units, the genes, the complexity known as an organism, much in the same way as a chemist compounds molecules with atoms and the physicist compounds atoms with protons and electrons.

  13. Peculiarities of absorbed dose forming in some wild animals in Chornobyl exclusion zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaychenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on field researches conducted in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the years after the accident, the peculiarities are identified of formation of absorbed doses in animals of different taxonomic and ecological groups that live in conditions of radioactive contamination of ecosystems. It was shown importance of consideration of radiation features on wild animals according to their life cycle, conditions and ways of life. Data were displayed about the importance of different types of irradiation according to the period of stay of the animals in the ground, in burrows and nests. The questions were reviewed about value of external and internal radiation in absorbed dose of different types of wildlife. Results of the calculation of the absorbed dose of bird embryos from egg shell were shown.

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Staphylococcus spp. from domestic and wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela de Godoy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of veterinary clinical isolates of Staphylococcus and analyze their antimicrobial susceptibility. One hundred Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates from domestic and wild animals were subjected to partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to species determination. Antimicrobial susceptibility was obtained by a disk diffusion test against six antibiotics: amoxicillin (AMX, cephalexin (LEX, ciprofloxacin (CIP, erythromycin (ERY, gentamicin (GEN and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT. The most common specie was S. pseudintermedius (61%, 61/100 and resistance to ERY (57%, 57/100, SXT (50%, 50/100 and AMX (46%, 46/100 was detected most frequently. In total, 40% (40/100 of Staphylococcus spp. exhibited a multidrug-resistant (MDR phenotype. Results of this study emphasize that animals are reservoir of MDR Staphylococcus spp.

  15. Identification of trypanosomes in wild animals from Southern Cameroon using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herder S.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available One possible explanation of the maintenance of many historical foci of sleeping sickness in Central Africa could be the existence of a wild animal reservoir. In this study, PCR was used to detect the different trypanosome species present in wild animal captured by hunters in the southern forest belt of Cameroon (Bipindi. Trypanosomes were also detected by a parasitological method (Quantitative buffy coat : QBC. Parasite could not be isolated in culture medium (Kit for in vitro isolation : KIVI. Specific primers of T. brucei s.l., T. congolense forest type, T. congolense savannah type, T. vivax, T. simiae and T. b. gambiense group 1 were used to identify parasites in the blood of 164 animals belonging to 24 different species including ungulates, rodents, pangolins, carnivores, reptiles and primates. Of the 24 studied species, eight were carrying T. b. gambiense group 1. Those parasites pathogenic to man were found in monkeys (Cercocebus torquatus and Cercopithecus nictitans, in ungulates (Cephalophus dorsalis and C. monticola, in carnivores (Nandinia binotata and Genetta servalina and in rodents (Cricetomys gambianus and Atherurus africanus. 13 species (54 % were carrying T. brucei s.l. identified as non-gambiense group 1.

  16. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited and endangered and threatened species; designated ports of..., Birds, and Insects § 12.26 Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and... crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or the offspring or eggs of any of the foregoing which the Secretary of...

  17. Soil- to-Whole Body Transfer Factors of Radionuclides for Terrestrial Wild Animals Living around the Gyeongju Nuclear Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the Gyeongju nuclear site, a low and medium level radioactive waste repository and five nuclear reactors are currently operating. The IAEA and ICRP consider it necessary to demonstrate that not only men but also wild organisms are protected from ionizing radiations. Therefore, it may not be long before the dose assessment for wildlife should be carried out in Korea. The transfer factor (TF) defined as the concentration ratio between an organism and an environmental medium is a key parameter in assessing the radiation dose to wildlife. For eight animal species inhabiting mountainous areas around the Gyeongju nuclear site, the TF values of 22 stable elements were measured. The acquired values varied considerably with the elements and animal species. Further TF data need to be produced for various Korean wild animal and plant species in preparation for future governmental regulations of wildlife exposure to ionizing radiations.

  18. Wild and domestic animals likely involved in rickettsial endemic zones of Northwestern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Andrés F; Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Leidy Y; Marín, Diana; Contreras, Verónica; Díaz, Francisco J; Valbuena, Gustavo; Labruna, Marcelo B; Hidalgo, Marylin; Arboleda, Margarita; Mattar, Salim; Solari, Sergio; Rodas, Juan D

    2017-10-01

    Between 2006 and 2008, three outbreaks of human rickettsiosis occurred in Northwestern Colombia (municipalities of Necoclí, Los Córdobas and Turbo), with case fatality rates between 27% and 54%. The aim of this study was to determine previous exposure of wild and domestic animals to spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae through serological tests, to detect rickettsial evidence in their ectoparasites, and to analyze their possible role in the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases in this zone of the country. A cross-sectional association study was performed from 2010 to 2011. Blood and ectoparasite samples were collected from domestic animals and small mammals. A statistically significant association (panimals and the study zones was observed. A total of 2937 ticks, 672 fleas and 74 lice were collected and tested in pools by PCR. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of the positive pools was 5% in ticks, 4% in fleas, and 0% in lice. Phylogenetic analyses showed circulation of three 4.Rickettsia species: R. felis in fleas, and R. bellii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, both in Amblyomma ovale ticks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the occurrence of SFG rickettsiae in domestic, synanthropic and wild animals, and suggests the use of equines and canines as good sentinels of infection, in the study zone. We speculate that a transmission cycle exist involving rodents in the areas where these outbreaks have occurred. Tomes' spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus) and common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis) could be good candidates as amplifier hosts for SFG rickettsiae in enzootic/endemic zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Peculiarities of absorbed dose forming in some wild animals in Chornobyl,y exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaychenko, V.A.; Krainiuk, O.Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Based on field researches conducted in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the years after the accident, identified the peculiarities of formation absorbed doses in animals of different taxonomic and ecological groups that live in conditions of radioactive contamination of ecosystems. Was shown importance of consideration of radiation features on wild animals according to their life cycle, conditions and ways of life. Was displayed data about the importance of different types of irradiation according to the period of stay the animals in the ground, in burrows and nests. Was reviewed the questions about value of external and internal radiation in absorbed dose of different types of wildlife. Was shown the results of the calculation of the absorbed dose of bird embryos from egg shell

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animal species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Júnior

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a microorganism commonly found in the microbiota of humans and animals and a potential cause of enteric, muscle or nervous diseases. The treatment of these diseases is based on antimicrobial therapy and it is extremely important to know the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the strains present in the region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of C. perfringens isolated from domestic and wild animals in Brazil against seven different antimicrobials. Forty-one strains from the stool samples of cattle (n = 12, buffalo (n = 2, goat (n = 3, dogs (n = 12 and wild carnivores (n = 12 were examined. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method using Brucella agar supplemented with 5% of sheep blood, 0.1% of vitamin K, 0.1% of hemin and concentrations ranging from 0,25 to 256,0 mg L-1 of the following antibiotics: erythromycin, florfenicol, metronidazole, oxytetracycline, penicillin, tylosin, and vancomycin. All C. perfringens strains were susceptible to florfenicol, metronidazole, penicillin and vancomycin. Two strains (4.9% were resistant to erythromycin and tylosin, while five (12.2% were resistant to oxytetracycline, one of which (2.4% from an ocelot.

  1. Identification of toxigenic microcystis strains after incidents of wild animal mortalities in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available characterised by an increase in the growth of primary producers (Microcystis aeruginosa). This increase in M. aeruginosa biomass was followed by bio-intoxication incidents in wild animals...

  2. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sachser Norbert; Pickel Thorsten; Lewejohann Lars; Kaiser Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less i...

  3. Seasonal variation of the Cs137 contamination of the tree forage of wild hoofed animals of the Pripyat National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uglyanets, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus there were presented the results of studies of the 137Cs contamination of the tree forage of wild hoofed animals in the Pripyat national park. The parameters of this radioisotope accumulation in the shoots of different trees, shrubs, dwarf shrubs and bushes were studied in the seasonal and edaphic aspects, and their influencing factors were specified. The 137Cs contamination of the tree forage of wild hoofed animals was determined to be dependent on the soil pollution degree, growth conditions and species composition of plants and their proportion in the phytocenosis, as well as on the edaphic conditions and a season of the year

  4. Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Ingram

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

  5. Animal welfare impact assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Gamborg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    aimed at dealing with wild animals. McCulloch and Reiss argue that this could be remedied by means of a “mandatory application of formal and systematic Animal Welfare Impact Assessment (AWIA)”. Optimistically, they consider that an AWIA could help to resolve controversies involving wild animals. The aim...... is a welfare issue. Furthermore, we argue that AWIA is unlikely to prevent serious moral disagreements over how to weigh concerns about wild animals against priorities in human health, the health of domestic and farm animals, and biodiversity, but that it may nonetheless serve to limit harms imposed......Control of wild animals may give rise to controversy, as is seen in the case of badger control to manage TB in cattle in the UK. However, it is striking that concerns about the potential suffering of the affected animals themselves are often given little attention or completely ignored in policies...

  6. Trap gun: an unusual firearm, aimed at wild animals but causing a silent epidemic of human fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Kudagama, Muditha

    2014-03-01

    Among a variety of uncommon firearms of different origin used worldwide, the trap gun used in Sri Lanka is underreported. This is an illegal, locally made, smooth-bore, long-barreled, muzzle-loading firearm with a victim-activated simple trigger mechanism. It is mainly used to protect crops and livestock from the potential harm by wild animals. Trap gun is mounted horizontally on pegs of sticks fixed to the ground. Miscellaneous metal pieces are used as ammunition. A small metal container filled with powdered matchstick heads/firecrackers covered by the striker surface of the matchstick box is used as the percussion cap. A metal hammer is set to hit the percussion cap. Through a lever mechanism, the hammer is kept under tension. The lever mechanism is connected to a trigger cord, which runs across the animal path. The first passerby, a human being or a wild animal, who accidentally trips the trigger cord and activates the trigger mechanism is critically injured. This characteristically damages the lower limbs of the human being. This communication highlights a death due to trap gun injury. The injury pattern caused by trap gun could overlap with that of shotgun and rifled firearm. A meticulous autopsy could sort it out.

  7. Tick fauna of wild animals received and attended at the Santarém Zoological Park, western Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Karoline Gomes do Nascimento

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ticks are known worldwide for parasitizing a number of wild hosts. However, few studies have been conducted on ticks in zoos in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to collect, identify, and report the parasitic tick fauna found on wild Amazon animals received and attended at the Santarém Zoological Park from September 2004 to September 2013. In all, 56 animals, including 26 mammals and 30 reptiles, were sampled, from which 1172 ticks were collected and identified, comprising 862 adults, 284 nymphs, and 26 larvae. Nymphs of Amblyomma geayi on three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus, adults of Amblyomma longirostre on black dwarf porcupine (Coendou nycthemera, and nymphs of Amblyomma naponense on southern tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla were identified for the first time in the country in the present study. Although, the North region is the largest among the five Brazilian regions, this is the first study conducted with ticks and animals attended in a zoo in the Brazilian Amazon.

  8. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Martinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.

  9. Plutonium and other alpha-emitters in bones of wild, herbivorous animals from north-eastern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, J.W. E-mail: mietelsk@alf.ifj.edu.pl; Gaca, P.; Jasinska, M

    2000-07-15

    The results of the investigation of {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am and thorium isotope activity concentrations in bones of wild herbivorous animals (deer, roe-deer, boars, elks) from north-eastern Poland are presented. The area on which the animals were living had relatively high Chernobyl plutonium fallout. Possible traces of plutonium were seen only in four samples, but only for one it was it 3{sigma} above background, at 6.2 {+-} 2.4 mBq/kg (ash). The {sup 241}Am activity concentration was below the detection limits in all samples. The maximum {sup 228}Th concentration in the samples was 7.81 {+-} 0.44 Bq/kg (ash), calculated under the assumption of 100% thorium recovery. This isotope seems to originate in bones not from direct incorporation but from the decay of {sup 228}Ra. Large variations in activity concentration was observed, as well as some differences between boars and the chewing animals.

  10. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  11. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  12. Comparative occurrence of diabetes in canine, feline, and few wild animals and their association with pancreatic diseases and ketoacidosis with therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Kamal; Maqbool, Faheem; Khan, Fazlullah; Hassan, Fatima Ismail; Momtaz, Saeideh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which blood glucose level raises that can result in severe complications. However, the incidence increased mostly by obesity, pregnancy, persistent corpus luteum, and diestrus phase in humans and animals. This review has focused on addressing the possible understanding and pathogenesis of spontaneous DM in canine, feline, and few wild animals. Furthermore, pancreatic associated disorders, diabetic ketoacidosis, hormonal and drug interaction with diabetes, and herbal remedies associated with DM are elucidated. Bibliographic search for the present review was done using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles on concurrent DM in small and wild animals. Persistent corpus luteal and pseudopregnancy in female dogs generate gestational DM (GDM). GDM can also be caused by extensive use of drugs/hormones such as glucocorticosteroids. Although many similarities are present between diabetic cats and diabetic humans which present islet amyloidosis, there was a progressive loss of β- and α-cells and the normal number of δ-cells. The most prominent similarity is the occurrence of islet amyloidosis in all cases of diabetic cat and over 90% of human non-insulin dependent DM Type-2. Acute pancreatic necrosis (APN) occurs due to predisposing factors such as insulin antagonism, insulin resistance, alteration in glucose tolerance, obesity, hyperadrenocorticism, and persistent usage of glucocorticoids, as these play a vital role in the progression of APN. To manage such conditions, it is important to deal with the etiological agent, risk factors, diagnosis of diabetes, and hormonal and drug interaction along with its termination with suitable therapy (herbal) protocols. It should be noted that the protocols used for the diagnosis and treatment of human DM are not appropriate for animals. Further investigations regarding diabetic conditions of pets and wild animals are required, which will benefit the health status of

  13. Comparative occurrence of diabetes in canine, feline, and few wild animals and their association with pancreatic diseases and ketoacidosis with therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Niaz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder in which blood glucose level raises that can result in severe complications. However, the incidence increased mostly by obesity, pregnancy, persistent corpus luteum, and diestrus phase in humans and animals. This review has focused on addressing the possible understanding and pathogenesis of spontaneous DM in canine, feline, and few wild animals. Furthermore, pancreatic associated disorders, diabetic ketoacidosis, hormonal and drug interaction with diabetes, and herbal remedies associated with DM are elucidated. Bibliographic search for the present review was done using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for articles on concurrent DM in small and wild animals. Persistent corpus luteal and pseudopregnancy in female dogs generate gestational DM (GDM. GDM can also be caused by extensive use of drugs/hormones such as glucocorticosteroids. Although many similarities are present between diabetic cats and diabetic humans which present islet amyloidosis, there was a progressive loss of β- and α-cells and the normal number of δ-cells. The most prominent similarity is the occurrence of islet amyloidosis in all cases of diabetic cat and over 90% of human non-insulin dependent DM Type-2. Acute pancreatic necrosis (APN occurs due to predisposing factors such as insulin antagonism, insulin resistance, alteration in glucose tolerance, obesity, hyperadrenocorticism, and persistent usage of glucocorticoids, as these play a vital role in the progression of APN. To manage such conditions, it is important to deal with the etiological agent, risk factors, diagnosis of diabetes, and hormonal and drug interaction along with its termination with suitable therapy (herbal protocols. It should be noted that the protocols used for the diagnosis and treatment of human DM are not appropriate for animals. Further investigations regarding diabetic conditions of pets and wild animals are required, which will benefit the

  14. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild animals in State of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Lew K; Yoshitani, Ursula Y; Buzatti, Andreia; Molento, Marcelo B

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from wild birds and mammals from the State of Paraná. In total, 220 stool samples were sent to Parasitic Diseases Laboratory of the Federal University of Paraná during 13 months (Jan/2013-Jan/2014). A total of 52.7% (116/220) of the animals were positive for cysts, oocysts, eggs and/or trophozoites. In birds, the positivity rate was 37.9% (25/66) and mammals was 59.1% (91/154). Strongyloidea superfamily eggs were observed in 37.3% (82/220) of the samples, Eimeria spp. in 10% (22/220), and Trichuris spp. in 4.5% (10/220). The most frequent mammal species were llamas (Lama glama), and dromedaries (Camelus bactrianus) with infection rate of 70.1% (54/77) and 60.8% (14/23), respectively. In other hand, cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and ring necks (Psittacula krameri), were the most researched birds, with infection rate of 20% (40/50) and 100% (6/6), respectively. A high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was observed in most of wildlife animals. Further investigations should be conducted focusing on parasite control strategies and the conservation measurements for harmonizing the human-animal interaction on the long-term, reducing associated health risks.

  15. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloteau, Paul; Vitari, Francesca; Metzinger-Le Meuth, Valérie; Le Normand, Laurence; Romé, Véronique; Savary, Gérard; Delaby, Luc; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Morisset, Jean

    2012-05-28

    Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric) or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150 days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva) which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins) compared with Roe deer species. CCK and gastrin could play

  16. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilloteau Paul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into 2 groups of animals either fed exclusively with a milk formula (monogastric or fed a dry feed which allowed for rumen function to develop, they were slaughtered at 150 days of age. The 35 Roe deer were wild animals living in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, shot during the hunting season and classified in two groups adult and young. Immediately after death, the pancreas was removed for tissue sample collection and then analyzed. When expressed in relation to body weight, pancreas, pancreatic protein weights and enzyme activities measured were higher in Roe deer than in calf. The 1st original feature is that in Roe deer, the very high content in pancreatic enzymes seems to be related to specific digestive products observed (proline-rich proteins largely secreted in saliva which bind tannins, reducing their deleterious effects on protein digestion. The high chymotrypsin and elastase II quantities could allow recycling of proline-rich proteins. In contrast, domestication and rearing cattle resulted in simplified diet with well digestible components. The 2nd feature is that in wild animal, both receptor subtypes of the CCK/gastrin family peptides were present in the pancreas as in calf, although CCK-2 receptor subtype was previously identified in higher mammals. Conclusions Bovine species could have lost some digestive capabilities (no ingestion of great amounts of tannin-rich plants, capabilities to secrete high amounts of proline-rich proteins

  17. Increasing incidence of injuries and fatalities inflicted by wild animals in Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Dar G; Tak, Shafaat Rashid; Kangoo, K A; Halwai, Manzoor A

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the causes of the increased incidence of injuries inflicted by wild animals in Kashmir, and to suggest preventive measures. A retrospective study reviewed records of these injuries. Data were collected from the hospital in Srinagar and from the Wildlife Protection Department of Kashmir. A total of 203 attacks (26 deaths and 177 near-fatal injuries) were recorded from January 2005 to October 2007, involving 145 (71.5%) male and 58 (28.5%) female victims. The attacking animal was a black bear in 104 (51.2%), a leopard in 18 (8.8%), a wolf in 7 (3.4%) and unidentified in 74 (36.4%) cases; 130 (64%) of these attacks occurred in southern Kashmir. The steady increase in human population in areas close to jungle results in deforestation and destruction of wildlife habitat. The reduction in monkeys and deer (the staple food of leopards) causes these dangerous predators to search for food in the areas occupied by humans, who may then be attacked. Treatment of these cases requires a multidisciplinary approach, including an orthopaedic surgeon, plastic surgeon, microbiologist and psychiatrist, to achieve best cosmetic and functional results.

  18. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in the wild boar (Sus scrofa: a comparison of methods applicable to hunter-harvested animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harvested wild boar. Compared to bacteriological culture, estimates of sensitivity of histopathology was 77.8%, gross pathology 72.2%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 66.7%, detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in tissue contact smears 55.6% and in histopathology slides 16.7% (estimated specificity was 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 94.4% and 100%, respectively. Combining gross pathology with stained smears in parallel increased estimated sensitivity to 94.4% (94.4% specificity. Four probable bacteriological culture false-negative animals were identified by Discriminant Function Analysis. Recalculating the parameters considering these animals as infected generated estimated values for sensitivity of bacteriology and histopathology of 81.8%, gross pathology 72.7%, PCR for the MPB70 gene 63.6%, detection of AFB in tissue contact smears 54.5% and in histopathology slides 13.6% (estimated specificity was 100% for gross pathology, PCR, bacteriology and detection of AFB in histopathology slides, 96.7% for histopathology and 94.4% for stained smears. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that surveys for TB in wild boar based exclusively on gross pathology considerably underestimate prevalence, while combination of tests in parallel much improves sensitivity and negative predictive values. This finding should thus be considered when planning future surveys and game meat inspection schemes. Although bacteriological culture is the reference test for TB diagnosis, it can generate false

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

    2007-05-23

    Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

  20. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild animals in State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEW K. SPRENGER

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from wild birds and mammals from the State of Paraná. In total, 220 stool samples were sent to Parasitic Diseases Laboratory of the Federal University of Paraná during 13 months (Jan/2013-Jan/2014. A total of 52.7% (116/220 of the animals were positive for cysts, oocysts, eggs and/or trophozoites. In birds, the positivity rate was 37.9% (25/66 and mammals was 59.1% (91/154. Strongyloidea superfamily eggs were observed in 37.3% (82/220 of the samples, Eimeria spp. in 10% (22/220, and Trichuris spp. in 4.5% (10/220. The most frequent mammal species were llamas (Lama glama, and dromedaries (Camelus bactrianus with infection rate of 70.1% (54/77 and 60.8% (14/23, respectively. In other hand, cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus and ring necks (Psittacula krameri, were the most researched birds, with infection rate of 20% (40/50 and 100% (6/6, respectively. A high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was observed in most of wildlife animals. Further investigations should be conducted focusing on parasite control strategies and the conservation measurements for harmonizing the human-animal interaction on the long-term, reducing associated health risks.

  1. ADVANCES IN ANIMAL WELFARE FOR FREE-LIVING ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals. But it is the appreciation by the biologists and veterinarians working on wild animals, in which the quality of their results is largely controlled by the quality of the animals they use in their studies, which has resulted in increased attention to the well-being or welfare of the animals that they use. Other important influences driving the recognition of wildlife welfare have been changes in the public's expectations of how wild animals are dealt with, a shift in focus of wildlife professionals from managing animals that can be hunted or angled to include nongame species, the decrease in participation in hunting and fishing by members of the public, and the entry of large numbers of women into fish and wildlife agencies and departments and into veterinary medicine. Technical improvements have allowed the safe capture and handling of large or dangerous animals as immobilization drugs and equipment have been developed. The increasing use of sedating drugs allows for handling of animals with reduced stress and other impacts. A number of topics, such as toe-clipping, branding, defining which taxa can or cannot feel pain, catch-and-release fishing, and more, remain controversial within wildlife science. How we treat the wild animals that we deal with defines who we are as wildlife professionals, and animal welfare concerns and techniques for free-ranging animals will continue to develop and evolve.

  2. Wild reindeer of Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Safronov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Three major herds of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., totaling over 200,000 animals, occur in the tundra and taiga of northern Yakutia. These herds have been expanding since the late 1950s and now occupy most of their historic range. In addition, several thousand wild reindeer occupy the New Siberian Islands and adjacent coastal mainland tundra, and there are about 60,000 largely sedentary forest reindeer in mountainous areas of the southern two-thirds of the province. Wild reindeer are commercially hunted throughout the mainland, and the production of wild meat is an important part of the economy of the province and of individual reindeer enterprises which produce both wild and domestic meat.

  3. Partially dissecting the steady-state electron fluxes in Photosystem I in wild-type and pgr5 and ndh mutants of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancun eKou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic electron flux (CEF around Photosystem I (PS I is difficult to quantify. We obtained the linear electron flux (LEFO2 through both photosystems and the total electron flux through PS I (ETR1 in Arabidopsis in CO2-enriched air. DeltaFlux = ETR1 – LEFO2 is an upper estimate of CEF, which consists of two components, an antimycin A-sensitive, PGR5 (proton gradient regulation 5 protein-dependent component and an insensitive component facilitated by a chloroplastic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase-like complex (NDH. Using wild type as well as pgr5 and ndh mutants, we observed that (1 40% of the absorbed light was partitioned to PS I; (2 at high irradiance a substantial antimycin A-sensitive CEF occurred in the wild type and the ndh mutant; (3 at low irradiance a sizable antimycin A-sensitive CEF occurred in the wild type but not in the ndh mutant, suggesting an enhancing effect of NDH in low light; and (4 in the pgr5 mutant, and the wild type and ndh mutant treated with antimycin A, a residual DeltaFlux existed at high irradiance, attributable to charge recombination and/or pseudo-cyclic electron flow. Therefore, in low-light-acclimated plants exposed to high light, DeltaFlux has contributions from various paths of electron flow through PS I.

  4. Use of aspiration method for collecting brain samples for rabies diagnosis in small wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamamoto, K; Quadros, J; Queiroz, L H

    2011-02-01

    In developing countries such as Brazil, where canine rabies is still a considerable problem, samples from wildlife species are infrequently collected and submitted for screening for rabies. A collaborative study was established involving environmental biologists and veterinarians for rabies epidemiological research in a specific ecological area located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The wild animals' brains are required to be collected without skull damage because the skull's measurements are important in the identification of the captured animal species. For this purpose, samples from bats and small mammals were collected using an aspiration method by inserting a plastic pipette into the brain through the magnum foramen. While there is a progressive increase in the use of the plastic pipette technique in various studies undertaken, it is also appreciated that this method could foster collaborative research between wildlife scientists and rabies epidemiologists thus improving rabies surveillance. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Occurrence of Listeria species in different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.N. Sarangi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria species were isolated from faecal samples collected from different captive wild animals of Nandankanan Zoo, Baranga, Odisha, using selective enrichment medium. The isolates were characterized based on their cell morphology, biochemical and sugar fermentation characteristics as well as culture morphology. Further, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests were carried out to assess the pathogenic potential of the isolates. Listeria were found in 24 (23.07% of the total 104 faecal samples. Listeria were isolated from the samples of tiger, bear, hyena, leopard, zebra, elephant, jackal, lion, barking deer, porcupine, chital, monkey and wild boar. Out of the 24 Listeria isolates 11 were confirmed as L. monocytogenes. The other 13 isolates included L. innocua, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri and L. ivanovii. The pathogenicity study revealed that only four isolates were pathogenic. Three of these were L. monocytogenes isolated from tiger, hyena and elephant and one was L. ivanovii isolated from leopard. Antibiotic sensitivity of the 24 isolates was high towards ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, azithromycin and enrofloxacin. The isolates showed resistance towards oxytetracyclin, gentamicin, cephadroxil, penicillin- G and nalidixic acid.

  6. Comparative occurrence of diabetes in canine, feline, and few wild animals and their association with pancreatic diseases and ketoacidosis with therapeutic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Niaz; Faheem Maqbool; Fazlullah Khan; Fatima Ismail Hassan; Saeideh Momtaz; Mohammad Abdollahi

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which blood glucose level raises that can result in severe complications. However, the incidence increased mostly by obesity, pregnancy, persistent corpus luteum, and diestrus phase in humans and animals. This review has focused on addressing the possible understanding and pathogenesis of spontaneous DM in canine, feline, and few wild animals. Furthermore, pancreatic associated disorders, diabetic ketoacidosis, hormonal and drug intera...

  7. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  8. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic measurements of the wild animals hunted by the Norse and the Neo-Eskimo people of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, D. Erle; Møhl, Jeppe; Heinemeier, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Isotopic measurements of the terrestrial and marine wild animal species of greatest importance to Greenlandic Norse and Neo-Eskimo people were obtained to provide a solid basis for undertaking isotopic dietary analyses of these two human groups. The samples studied were animal bones from...... archaeological excavations of Norse and Neo-Eskimo middens. As expected, the values for the terrestrial and marine species were found to have characteristic isotopic composition, but there is sufficient variation within each group to require detailed consideration in interpreting isotopic information...

  9. Using Adobe Flash animations of electron transport chain to teach and learn biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the electron transport chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the electron transport chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Animal bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  11. Commentary: Wild psychometrics: Evidence for ‘general’ cognitive performance in wild New Zealand robins, Petroica longipes

    OpenAIRE

    Hackett, Paul M. W.

    2017-01-01

    A commentary on\\ud Wild psychometrics: Evidence for ‘general’ cognitive performance in wild New Zealand robins, Petroica longipes\\ud \\ud by Shaw, R. C., Boogert, N. J., Clayton, N. S., and Burns, K. C. (2015). Anim. Behav. 109, 101–111. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.08.001

  12. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct ...

  13. Serologic survey for hantavirus infections among wild animals in rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANO-LIEBER Nicolina Silvana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey was conducted in wild animals captured close to two areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples from a total of 43 mammals were tested for antibodies reactive with Sin Nombre (SN hantavirus using a strip immunoblot assay. RNAs from the blood clots of the positive samples were submitted to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Two rodents of the genus Oligoryzomys were positive for hantavirus antibodies. These animals were captured in the Iguape region and represented 16.7% (2/12 of the sera from rodents and 100.0% (2/2 of the Oligoryzomys captured in that area. RT-PCR failed to amplify any viral cDNA. These results are in agreement with other data that suggest that members of this genus are important reservoirs of hantaviruses in Brazil.

  14. Care for the wild : An integrative view on wild and domesticated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    Environmental ethics has to deal with the challenge of reconciling contrasting ecocentric and animal-centric perspectives. Two classic attempts at this reconciliation, which both adopted the metaphor of concentric circles, are discussed. It is concluded that the relationship between the animal and

  15. Zoonotic pathogens isolated from wild animals and environmental samples at two California wildlife hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siembieda, Jennifer L; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Ziccardi, Michael H; Anderson, Nancy; Chouicha, Nadira; Sandrock, Christian E; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-03-15

    To determine types and estimate prevalence of potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens shed by wild animals admitted to either of 2 wildlife hospitals and to characterize distribution of these pathogens and of aerobic bacteria in a hospital environment. Cross-sectional study. Fecal samples from 338 animals in 2 wildlife hospitals and environmental samples from 1 wildlife hospital. Fecal samples were collected within 24 hours of hospital admission. Environmental samples were collected from air and surfaces. Samples were tested for zoonotic pathogens via culture techniques and biochemical analyses. Prevalence of pathogen shedding was compared among species groups, ages, sexes, and seasons. Bacterial counts were determined for environmental samples. Campylobacter spp, Vibrio spp, Salmonella spp, Giardia spp, and Cryptosporidium spp (alone or in combination) were detected in 105 of 338 (31%) fecal samples. Campylobacter spp were isolated only from birds. Juvenile passerines were more likely to shed Campylobacter spp than were adults; prevalence increased among juvenile passerines during summer. Non-O1 serotypes of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from birds; during an oil-spill response, 9 of 10 seabirds screened were shedding this pathogen, which was also detected in environmental samples. Salmonella spp and Giardia spp were isolated from birds and mammals; Cryptosporidium spp were isolated from mammals only. Floors of animal rooms had higher bacterial counts than did floors with only human traffic. Potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens were identified in samples from several species admitted to wildlife hospitals, indicating potential for transmission if prevention is not practiced.

  16. ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry application to Chernobyl case: individual retrospective dosimetry of the liquidators and wild animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugai, A.; Baryakchtar, V.G.; Baran, N.

    1996-01-01

    ESR/tooth enamel dosimetry technique was used for individual retrospective dosimetry of the servicemen who had worked in 1986-1987 at the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. For 18 investigated cases, the values varied from 0,10 (sensitivity limit) to 1,75 Gy. The same technique was used for individual dosimetry of wild animals boars, red deers, elks) hunted at contaminated 30-km area around the Chernobyl Power Plant. Measured values varied from 0,20 to 5,0 Gy/year and were compared with calculated for external and internal irradiation

  17. Bovine tuberculosis in livestock and wild boar on the Mediterranean island, Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richomme, Céline; Boschiroli, María Laura; Hars, Jean; Casabianca, François; Ducrot, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The zoonotic agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), Mycobacterium bovis, can be transmitted between domestic and wild animals, threatening wildlife populations and control programs for bTB in cattle. In Corsica, a French Mediterranean island where domestic and wild species have close interactions, bTB cases have been reported in cattle, pigs, and wild boar. Moreover, genotypes of M. bovis found in wild and domestic animals from the same area were identical. These data strongly suggest that wild and domestic animals are associated in an epidemiologic bTB-transmission cycle. More investigations are needed, not only to understand the role played by each species in order to implement appropriate control measures, but also to assess the risk of transmission to humans.

  18. Electronic Communication in Africa--the Promotion of Animal Health Information Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Erica E.; Miller, E. Stan

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how the Veterinary Science Library at the University of Pretoria (South Africa) promotes electronic communication through various Internet and other network links. Provides a sample of online information sources available to veterinary teams and animal health workers, and a list of electronic addresses for South African libraries and…

  19. Natural infection by endoparasites among free-living wild animals Infecção natural por endoparasitas em animais silvestres de vida-livre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Holsback

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence and variety of intestinal parasites among free-living wild animals. Fecal samples from wild mammals and birds at rehabilitation centers in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and São Paulo were analyzed by sedimentation and flotation-centrifugation methods. Parasite eggs, oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites were found in 71% of the samples. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were detected in fecal samples from oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus and scaly-headed parrots (Pionus maximiliani. Giardia cysts were identified in the feces of a gray brocket (Mazama gouazoubira. Among the most common parasites found, there were eggs from Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina and Ancylostoma tubaeforme, and from Cestoda. Several Enterobius sp. eggs were found in the feces of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus. It can be concluded from this study that despite the small number of samples, the diversity of parasites found was noteworthy. Additional information about parasite endofauna in wild animals is needed, since their presence might suggest that there could be proximity to and interactions with domestic animals and/or humans. In addition, further studies on parasites from free-living wild animals are of prime importance for understanding the intensity of anthropic changes in wild environments.O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a frequência de ocorrência e a variedade de parasitas intestinais de animais silvestres de vida livre. Amostras de fezes de mamíferos e aves silvestres de centros de reabilitação dos Estados do Mato Grosso do Sul e São Paulo, foram analisadas pelos métodos de sedimentação e de centrífugo-flutuação. Foram encontrados ovos, oocistos, cistos e/ou trofozoítos de parasitas em 71% das amostras. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. foram detectados em amostras de fezes de gato-do-mato-pequeno (Leopardus tigrinus e maritacas (Pionus maximiliani. Cistos de Giardia

  20. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Mateja; Zajc, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Žele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd; Pirš, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2016-02-01

    Wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Slovenia is officially free of bTB, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. In this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in Slovenia belonging to the families Cervidae, Suidae, Canidae, Mustelidae and Bovidae. Mycobacteria were isolated from 36/306 (11.8%) animals (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar and jackal) and identified by PCR, commercial diagnostic kits and sequencing. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria identified in five species were Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Immunology of Wild Rodents: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Viney, M; Riley, EM

    2017-01-01

    Wild animals' immune responses contribute to their evolutionary fitness. These responses are moulded by selection to be appropriate to the actual antigenic environment in which the animals live, but without imposing an excessive energetic demand which compromises other component of fitness. But, exactly what these responses are, and how they compare with those of laboratory animals, has been little studied. Here, we review the very small number of published studies of immune responses of wild...

  2. Detection of Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus infesting wild and domestic animals and in a botfly larva (Cephenemyia stimulator) infesting roe deer in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Patrick; Speck, Stephanie; Schwarzenberger, Rafael; Litzinger, Mark; Balczun, Carsten; Dobler, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus is a well-known vector of different human pathogens including Rickettsia helvetica. The role of wild mammals in the distribution and probable maintenance of Rickettsia in nature is still to be determined. We therefore investigated various parasites from different wild mammals as well as companion animals for the presence of Rickettsia. A total of 606 I. ricinus, 38 Cephenemyia stimulator (botfly larvae), one Dermacentor reticulatus, 24 Haematopinus suis (hog lice) and 30 Lipoptena cervi (deer flies) were collected from free-ranging animals during seasonal hunting, and from companion animals. Sample sites included hunting leases at three main sampling areas and five additional areas in West and Central Germany. All collected parasites were screened for Rickettsia spp. and I. ricinus were investigated for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in addition. While no TBEV was detected, the minimum infection rate (MIR) of I. ricinus with Rickettsia was 4.1% referring to all sampling sites and up to 6.9% at the main sampling site in Koblenz area. Sequencing of a fragment of the ompB gene identified R. helvetica. Approximately one third (29.5%) of the animals carried Rickettsia-positive ticks and the MIR in ticks infesting wild mammals ranged from 4.1% (roe deer) to 9.5%. These data affirm the widespread distribution of R. helvetica in Germany. One botfly larva from roe deer also harboured R. helvetica. Botfly larvae are obligate parasites of the nasal cavity, pharynx and throat of cervids and feed on cell fragments and blood. Based on this one might hypothesise that R. helvetica likely induces rickettsemia in cervids thus possibly contributing to maintenance and distribution of this rickettsia in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Olifiers

    Full Text Available Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This

  4. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  5. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  6. Accumulation of main radionuclides that participate in exposure dose formation in liver of wild ungulate animals on the territory of the Palesse state radioecological reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol', R.A.; Nikitin, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    The dose of internal exposure of liver of wild ungulate animals (deer, elk, boar) mainly determined by Cs 137 at present time. The dose from Cs 137 is decrease in line wild boar - deer - elk and variate from 0.3 to 104.8 mSv/y. Other 'Chernobyl' radionuclides about equally contribute in the dose. The relative role of transuranium elements are increasing and will be equal to Cs 137 after about 250 years. The role of Sr 90 will minor all time. (authors)

  7. How do HIV and AIDS impact the use of natural resources by poor rural populations? The case of wild animal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Shackleton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of heightened financial and food insecurity, populations adversely affected by HIV and/or AIDS may be more likely to utilise wild natural resources to supplement their diet and livelihoods. Should this effect be pronounced, HIV and AIDS may pose a serious environmental threat. We explored the hypothesis that the presence of factors in the household, such as chronic illness in and recent mortality of individuals in a high HIV-risk age group, as well as the fostering of orphans, are associated with increased utilisation of wild animal products (WAPs at the household level. We randomly surveyed 519 households from four sites in rural South Africa, recording household socio-economic status, the utilisation of wild animal products and health and demographic factors attributed to HIV or AIDS. Binary logistic regressions were used to test if households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction were more likely to have a higher incidence and frequency of WAP utilisation relative to non-afflicted households, after adjusting for socio-economic and demographic variables. We found that, although households with markers of HIV and/or AIDS were generally poorer and had higher dependency ratios, there was no evidence to support the hypothesis that WAP harvesting was associated with either poverty, or markers of HIV and/or AIDS affliction. Our findings suggest that generalisations about a possible interaction between HIV and/or AIDS and the environment may not uniformly apply to all categories of natural resources or to all user groups.

  8. Parasite spread at the domestic animal - wildlife interface: anthropogenic habitat use, phylogeny and body mass drive risk of cat and dog flea (Ctenocephalides spp.) infestation in wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nicholas J; Seddon, Jennifer M; Šlapeta, Jan; Wells, Konstans

    2018-01-08

    Spillover of parasites at the domestic animal - wildlife interface is a pervasive threat to animal health. Cat and dog fleas (Ctenocephalides felis and C. canis) are among the world's most invasive and economically important ectoparasites. Although both species are presumed to infest a diversity of host species across the globe, knowledge on their distributions in wildlife is poor. We built a global dataset of wild mammal host associations for cat and dog fleas, and used Bayesian hierarchical models to identify traits that predict wildlife infestation probability. We complemented this by calculating functional-phylogenetic host specificity to assess whether fleas are restricted to hosts with similar evolutionary histories, diet or habitat niches. Over 130 wildlife species have been found to harbour cat fleas, representing nearly 20% of all mammal species sampled for fleas. Phylogenetic models indicate cat fleas are capable of infesting a broad diversity of wild mammal species through ecological fitting. Those that use anthropogenic habitats are at highest risk. Dog fleas, by contrast, have been recorded in 31 mammal species that are primarily restricted to certain phylogenetic clades, including canids, felids and murids. Both flea species are commonly reported infesting mammals that are feral (free-roaming cats and dogs) or introduced (red foxes, black rats and brown rats), suggesting the breakdown of barriers between wildlife and invasive reservoir species will increase spillover at the domestic animal - wildlife interface. Our empirical evidence shows that cat fleas are incredibly host-generalist, likely exhibiting a host range that is among the broadest of all ectoparasites. Reducing wild species' contact rates with domestic animals across natural and anthropogenic habitats, together with mitigating impacts of invasive reservoir hosts, will be crucial for reducing invasive flea infestations in wild mammals.

  9. Content of 137Cs in organism of commercial wild ungulate animals procured on the alienation area of Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gulakov

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Data of 14-years research of the content and distribution of radionuclide 137Cs in wild animals in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear power-station are presented. Essential fluctuations of the 137Cs content in the muscle tissue for the period of supervision are noted. Results of the research have the great practical value for the hunting facilities on the radioactively polluted territories.

  10. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta : Siphonaptera : Pulicidae collected from 15 carnivore species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fleas were collected from 61 wild carnivores belonging to 13 species in various nature reserves and on farms, two feral domestic cats in a nature reserve and a domestic dog in the city of Johannesburg. Eleven flea species, including two subspecies of one of these, belonging to six genera were recovered. Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores.

  11. Tuberculosis in Southern Brazilian wild boars (Sus scrofa): First epidemiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, A L G; Loiko, M R; Bueno, T S; Moreira, J G; Coppola, M; Dalla Costa, E R; Schmid, K B; Rodrigues, R O; Cibulski, S P; Bertagnolli, A C; Mayer, F Q

    2018-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonosis caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis that affects domestic and wild animals. In Brazil, there are no epidemiological studies on tuberculosis in wild animal populations and their possible role in the disease maintenance in cattle herds; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of tuberculosis in wild boars in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Tissue samples of animals hunted under government consent were submitted to histopathology and M. bovis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as screening tests; the positive samples were subsequently submitted to bacterial isolation, the gold standard diagnosis. Eighty animals were evaluated, of which 27.9% and 31.3% showed histopathological changes and M. bovis genome presence, respectively. Moreover, 23.8% of the animals had at least one organ with isolates classified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Three hunting points were risk factors for positive results on screening tests. This study shows the occurrence of tuberculosis in a wild boars' population, and raise the possibility of these animals to play a role as disease reservoirs in southern Brazil. These results may help to improve the Brazilian tuberculosis control programme, as well as elucidate the circulation of mycobacteria in this country. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  13. Risk assessment of the presence of lead in hunted wild boar meat

    OpenAIRE

    National Committee for Food Safety

    2017-01-01

    Italian National Committee for Food Safety (CNSA) opinion No. 18 of 8 marzo 2017 on the Risk assessment of the presence of lead in hunted wild boar meat Wild game meat may have a higher content in lead than farmed animal meat, both due to the living and dietary habits of such animals and, especially, to the use of lead-based ammunition. The impact of wild game meat on the overall exposure of general consumers is negligible. However, the category of hunters eating meat of wild game sho...

  14. Trichinella spp. imported with live animals and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-09-30

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are widely distributed throughout the world in omnivorous and carnivorous animals (mammals, birds, and reptiles) and in incidental hosts. To prevent the transmission of these zoonotic parasites to humans, meat samples from Trichinella spp. susceptible animals are tested at the slaughterhouse or in game processing plants. The aim of the present review was to collect documented cases on Trichinella infected animals, meat, or meat derived products which reached the international trade or were illegally introduced from one to another country in personal baggage. In the course of the last 60 years in the international literature, there have been 43 reports of importation of Trichinella spp. infected animals or meat, most of which (60%, 26/43) related to live horses or their meat. Meat or meat derived products from pigs, wild boar and bears, account only for 18.6% (8/43), 4.7% (3/43), and 14.3% (6/43), respectively. However, only live horses or their meat intended for human consumption, meat from a single wild boar, and live polar bears caught in the wild for zoos, were imported through the international market; whereas, meat from pigs, wild boars and bears were illegally introduced in a country in personal baggage. Trichinella infected animals or meat which were officially or illegally introduced in a country were the source of 3443 Trichinella infections in humans in a 40-year period (1975-2014). Most of these infections (96.8%) have been linked to horsemeat consumption, whereas meat from pigs, wild boars and bears accounted only for 2.2%, 0.7% and 0.3% of cases, respectively. This review shows the Trichinella spp. risk in the international animal and meat trade has been linked mainly to horses and only one time to wild boar, if they carcasses are not adequately tested, whereas pigs and other wild animals or their derived products infected with Trichinella spp. are unlikely to reach the international market by the official animal and

  15. Wild sheep and deer in Hawai'i: a threat to fragile ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.

    2008-01-01

    The unique native flora of the Hawaiian Islands, which evolved in the absence of ungulates (grazing animals), is highly vulnerable to damage by trampling and browsing. Wild ungulates introduced into Hawai'i in the past 150 years, including mouflon, axis deer, and mule deer, have severely harmed the native flora. Control measures used against feral animals do not work as well against these wild animals. Trophy hunting tends to alter sex ratios and increase population growth. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are studying these wild ungulates in order to develop more effective control measures that help protect Hawai'i's endemic flora.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalyses of the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeGeros, R.Z.; Orly, I.; LeGeros, J.P.; Gomez, C.; Kazimiroff, J.; Tarpley, T.; Kerebel, B.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalyses in the study of dental calculus showed that such studies provided confirmatory and supplementary data on the morphological features of human dental calculi but gave only limited information on the identity of the crystalline or inorganic components. This study aimed to explore the potential of combined SEM and microanalyses in the identification of the crystalline components of the human and animal dental calculi. Human and animal calculi were analyzed. Identification of the crystalline components were made based on the combined information of the morphology (SEM) and Ca/P molar ratios of the crystals with the morphology and Ca/P molar ratio of synthetic calcium phosphates (brushite or DCPD; octacalcium phosphate, OCP; Mg-substituted whitlockite, beta-TCMP; CO 3 -substituted apatite, (CHA); and calcite. SEM showed similarities in morphological features of human and animal dental calculi but differences in the forms of crystals present. Microanalyses and crystal morphology data suggested the presence of CaCO 3 (calcite) and CHA in the animal (cat, dog, tiger) and of OCP, beta-TCMP and CHA in human dental calculi. X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) absorption analyses confirmed these results. This exploratory study demonstrated that by taking into consideration what is known about the crystalline components of human and animal dental calculi, combined SEM and microanalyses can provide qualitative identification

  17. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A

    2002-12-01

    From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  18. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachubik J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008–2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  19. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  20. Understanding Adolescents’ Categorisation of Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Melanie; Lawrence, Alistair B.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary When people try to make sense of the world they often use categorisations, which are seen as a basic function of human cognition. People use specific attributes to categorise animals with young children using mostly visual cues like number of legs, whereas adults use more comprehensive attributes such as the habitat that the animal lives in. The aim of the present study was to investigate how adolescents categorise different types of animals. A card sorting exercise in combination with a survey questionnaire was implemented. Adolescents were asked to group images of a variety of common British farm, pet, and wild animals that were printed on cards. Furthermore, adolescents were asked to rate a number of animals regarding their utility, likability, and fear, which served as affective responses. Results show that adolescents primarily use an animal’s perceived utility as a means for their categorisation along with their affective feelings towards those animals. In other words, adolescents group animals into farm, pet, and wild animals with one exception, birds. Birds, regardless of their role in society (pet, farm, or wild animal), were mostly grouped together. The results are important to understand adolescents’ perception of animals, which may explain the different attitudes and behaviours towards animals. Abstract Categorisations are a means of investigating cognitive maps. The present study, for the first time, investigates adolescents’ spontaneous categorisation of 34 animal species. Furthermore, explicit evaluations of 16 selected animals in terms of their perceived utility and likeability were analysed. 105 British adolescents, 54% female, mean age 14.5 (SD = 1.6) participated in the study. Results of multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques indicate 3-dimensional data representation regardless of gender or age. Property fittings show that affect and perceived utility of animals explain two of the MDS dimensions, and hence partly explain

  1. Zoonotic tick-borne bacteria among wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to estimate the occurrence of infections by the three zoonotic bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l. and Coxiella burnetii in wild boars (Sus scrofa in Central Italy. The spleen samples from 100 hunted wild boars were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR assays were carried out to detect the three agents. One (1% animal was positive for A. phagocytophilum, and three (3% for B. burgdorferi s.l. No positive reactions were observed for Coxiella burnetii. Wild boars did not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of the three investigated agents. However, the detection of A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. in the spleen of the tested animals showed that wild boars can harbor these pathogens, thus ticked that feeding on infected wild boars are likely to become infected, too, which represents a source of infection for other animals and humans. This is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in wild boars in Italy.

  2. Wildlife trade in Brazil: a closer look at wild pets welfare issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, V V; Kanaan, V T

    2014-02-01

    Wild animals have been kept as pets for centuries, in Brazil companionship is one of the main reasons why wild species are legally bred and traded. This paper is an attempt to call the attention for problems concerning the welfare of wild pets involved in the trading system in Brazil. Some issues presented are: a) the significant increase in the number of wildlife breeders and traders and the difficulties faced by of the Brazilian government in controlling this activity; b) the main welfare issues faced by breeders and owners of wild pets; and c) the destination of wild pets no longer wanted. Finally, some recommendations are made having the welfare of the animals as a priority.

  3. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR: A Serious Threat for Wild Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is the most contagious and extremely infectious respiratory diseases in goats and sheep and is most common in West and Central Africa, Middle East and Southern Asia; it spreads rapidly regardless of country borders (1. A serological and virological outbreak of PPR was identified in Ilam province, Iran near the Iraqi border in 1995. Since then, despite all control measures, numerous incidents of the disease have been reported throughout the country (2. Between 1995 and 2004, vaccination of sheep and goats was performed by cell cultured rinderpest (RP vaccine; the small ruminants started to be vaccinated from early 2005 (2. In spite of vaccination of susceptible animals and application of some containment measures, PPR spread through the whole country, infecting every province with fluctuating prevalence and continuity. The cause of this failure might be related to the fact that well-designed control program in the country was not carried out appropriately and vaccination schedule was not covered abundantly. For instance in 2011, just over 3.5 million small ruminants received vaccine from an estimated National population of just fewer than 80 million animals (3. Some species of animal , e.g. such as gazelles, goats and sheep, that are relatively prevalent in Middle Eastern countries especially in Iran are believed to be immune to PPR infection (4. The wildlife in Iran consists of several animal species that include bears, gazelles, foxes, and also domestic animals including sheep, goats, cattle, and camels. It is believed that PPR virus circulates in domestic ruminants and acts as a potential source of virus for wild animal species in wildlife and the role of domestic small ruminants in the spread of the disease to wild ruminants is clear. It is quite possible that in cases of pastures exchange between domestic and wild animals, the spread of PPR is facilitated between the two populations (5. In Iran

  4. Wild ideas in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münke, Christopher; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Foraging for all manner of wild plants, animals and fungi and their products makes up part of the traditional diets of approximately 300 million worldwide (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Furthermore, their relevance in the global food supply is often underestimated, as policies and statistics...

  5. Epizootic canine distemper virus infection among wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameo, Yuki; Nagao, Yumiko; Nishio, Yohei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Une, Yumi; Sato, Hiroshi; Shimojima, Masayuki; Maeda, Ken

    2012-01-27

    In the spring of 2007, seven raccoon dogs and a weasel were captured near the city of Tanabe in Wakayama prefecture, Japan. The causative agent of the animals' death 1-2 days after capture was identified as canine distemper virus (CDV) by virus isolation, immunostaining with an anti-CDV polyclonal antibody, and a commercially available CDV antigen-detection kit. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated the isolated viruses belong to genotype Asia-1 and possess the substitution from tyrosine (Y) to histidine (H) at position 549 that is associated with the spread of CDV to non-canine hosts. A serosurvey for CDV was then conducted among wild animals in the region. The animals assayed consisted of 104 raccoons, 41 wild boars, 19 raccoon dogs, five Sika deer, two badgers, one weasel, one marten, one Siberian weasel and one fox. Virus-neutralization (VN) tests showed that, except for fox and weasel, all of the species assayed had VN antibodies to CDV. Interestingly, 11 of the 41 wild boars (27%) and two of the five Sika deer assayed possessed VN antibodies to CDV. These findings indicate that CDV infection was widespread among wild mammals during this epizootic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  7. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  8. First reports of ectoparasites collected from wild-caught exotic reptiles in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Joseph L; Mertins, James W; Hanson, Britta; Snow, Skip

    2011-01-01

    We collected ectoparasites from 27 of 51 wild-caught, free-ranging exotic reptiles examined in Florida from 2003 to 2008. Sampled animals represented eight species, five of which yielded ectoparasites. Reported new parasite distribution records for the United States include the following: the first collection of the African tick Amblyomma latum (Koch) from a wild-caught animal [ball python, Python regius (Shaw)] in the United States; the first collection of the lizard scale mite Hirstiella stamii (Jack) from any wild-caught animal [green iguana, Iguana iguana (L.)]; and the first collection of the lizard scale mite Geckobia hemidactyli (Lawrence) in the continental United States from a wild-caught tropical house gecko, Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès). We also report the first collections of the Neotropical ticks Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch) and Amblyomma dissimile (Koch) from wild-caught Burmese pythons, Python molurus bivittatus (Kuhl); the first collections of A. dissimile from a wild-caught African savannah monitor, Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc); and from wild-caught green iguanas in the United States; and the first collections of the native chiggers Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing) and Eutrombicula cinnabaris (Ewing) from wild-caught Burmese pythons. These reports may only suggest the diversity of reptile ectoparasites introduced and established in Florida and the new host-parasite relationships that have developed among exotic and native ectoparasites and established exotic reptiles.

  9. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild birds and rodents in close proximity to farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Skov, Marianne; Madsen, Jesper J.

    2004-01-01

    Wild animals living close to cattle and pig farms (four each) were examined for verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC; also known as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli). The prevalence of VTEC among the 260 samples from wild animals was generally low. However, VTEC isolates from a starling...... (Sturnus vulgaris) and a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) were identical to cattle isolates from the corresponding farms with respect to serotype, virulence profile, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type. This study shows that wild birds and rodents may become infected from farm animals or vice versa...

  10. 9 CFR 2.131 - Handling of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling of animals. 2.131 Section 2.131 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.131 Handling of animals. (a) All licensees who maintain wild...

  11. 19 CFR 12.29 - Plumage and eggs of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plumage and eggs of wild birds. 12.29 Section 12... THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.29 Plumage and eggs of wild birds. (a) The provisions of Chapter 5, Additional U.S. Note 1, relating to the plumage of...

  12. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. in Brazilian and exotic wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M R; Adania, C H; Teixeira, R H F; Vargas, G H; Falcade, M; Sousa, L; Salles, A R; Allegretti, S M; Felippe, P A N; Machado, R Z

    2010-10-11

    Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a wide variety of animals. The infection occurs through the ingestion of a hematophagous arthropod definitive host. Herein, we assessed the presence of Hepatozoon spp. in 165 captive wild felids and 100 captive wild canids using molecular techniques. We found that 6 felids (4 little spotted cats, 1 jaguarondi, and 1 puma) and 5 canids (2 bush dogs, 1 fox, 1 crab-eating fox, and 1 maned wolf) were positive for Hepatozoon spp. Hepatozoon spp. may be a potential pathogen and an opportunistic parasite in immunocompromised animals or if occurring in concomitant infections. Because most Brazilian wild felids and canids are endangered, knowing whether Hepatozoon infection represents a threat for these animals is crucial. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular characterization of Hepatozoon spp. infection in endangered Indian wild felids and canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Poornachandar, Anantula; Srinivas, Pasham; Rao, Kancharapu Ramachandra; Lakshmikantan, Uthandaraman; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2012-05-25

    Hepatozoon species are parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic and wild animals. The objective of this study was to perform the molecular detection and characterization of Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Indian tiger, Indian leopard, Indian wild dog, Indian domestic dog and cat based on partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from Hepatozoon spp. in the naturally infected animals. Hepatozoon spp. could be detected in blood samples of 5 out of 9 Asiatic lions, 2 out of 5 Indian tigers, 2 out of 4 Indian leopards and 2 out of 2 Indian wild dogs and, 2 out of 4 domestic cats and 2 out of 3 domestic dog samples by PCR. Sequencing of PCR amplicon and BLAST analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Hepatozoon spp. in Asiatic lion, Bengal tiger, Indian leopard and domestic cat was Hepatozoon felis (98-99% similarity) and in the Indian wild and domestic dog the phylogenetic neighbour was Hepatozoon canis (97-100% similarity). Presence of H. felis and H. canis in both domestic and wild animals suggested that they are not host specific and the same parasite causes infection in domestic and wild felids and canids in India and from different parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection and molecular characterization of H. felis infection in Asiatic lions, Indian tigers, Indian leopards and H. canis in Indian wild dog. Hepatozoon spp. may be a potential pathogen and an opportunistic parasite in immuno-compromised animals and could thus represent a threat to endangered Indian wild felids and canids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of the number of wild pigs found in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    Based on a compilation of three estimation approaches, the total nationwide population of wild pigs in the United States numbers approximately 6.3 million animals, with that total estimate ranging from 4.4 up to 11.3 million animals. The majority of these numbers (99 percent), which were encompassed by ten states (i.e., Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Texas), were based on defined estimation methodologies (e.g., density estimates correlated to the total potential suitable wild pig habitat statewide, statewide harvest percentages, statewide agency surveys regarding wild pig distribution and numbers). In contrast to the pre-1990 estimates, none of these more recent efforts, collectively encompassing 99 percent of the total, were based solely on anecdotal information or speculation. To that end, one can defensibly state that the wild pigs found in the United States number in the millions of animals, with the nationwide population estimated to arguably vary from about four million up to about eleven million individuals.

  15. Using Adobe Flash Animations of Electron Transport Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Teaching the subject of the electron transport chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "Electron Transport Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…

  16. Potential Application of Electronic Olfaction Systems in Feedstuffs Analysis and Animal Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell'Orto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Olfaction Systems (EOSs based on a variety of gas-sensing technologies have been developed to simulate in a simplified manner animal olfactory sensing systems. EOSs have been successfully applied to many applications and fields, including food technology and agriculture. Less information is available for EOS applications in the feed technology and animal nutrition sectors. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, which are derived from both forages and concentrate ingredients of farm animal rations, are considered and described in this review as olfactory markers for feedstock quality and safety evaluation. EOS applications to detect VOCs from feedstuffs (as analytical matrices are described, and some future scenarios are hypothesised. Furthermore, some EOS applications in animal feeding behaviour and organoleptic feed assessment are also described.

  17. Ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Débora R A; de Melo, Louise M; Lima, Polly-Ana C P; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; de Melo, Adriana V; Ramos, Janaina A C

    2010-02-01

    From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. The following tick-host associations were recorded: Amblyomma fuscum Neumann on Boa constrictor L.; Amblyomma longirostre Koch on Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors and Coendou prehensilis (L.); Amblyomma varium Koch on Bradypus variegates Schinz; Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Chelonoidis denticulata (L.), Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem), Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, Iguana iguana (L.) and B. variegatus; Amblyomma nodosum Neumann on Myrmecophaga tridactyla L. and Tamandua tetradactyla (L.); and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Nasua nasua (L.). The ticks found on the veterinarians were identified as nine Amblyomma larvae. The presence of Am. nodosum in Pernambuco and Am. rotundatum and Am. varium in Paraíba is recorded for the first time and the occurrence of Am. longirostre in Pernambuco is confirmed. Ramphastos vitellinus ariel is a new host record for Am. longirostre whereas M. ibiboboca and B. variegatus are new host records for Am. rotundatum. Finally, the human parasitism by Amblyomma ticks is reported for the first time in Pernambuco, highlighting the potential of tick-borne pathogen transmission in this state.

  18. Effect of vehicular traffic on wild animals in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a road, directly and indirectly, impacts on the ecosystems where the road is built.  Highways passing through national reserves/wildlife sanctuaries have an adverse impact on wild animals.  The present survey was conducted to estimate the road kills on the state highways passing through the Nilgiri north territorial forest division (19km and Mudumalai Tiger Reserve (15km in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu, India.  The road kills were monitored three times a month between July 2013 and December 2013 (six months and a total of 176 road kills belonging to 30 species were recorded.  Reptiles were the most affected taxa (39%, followed by mammals (33% and birds (21%.  Amphibians were least affected by vehicular traffic and comprised 7% of the total kills.  According to road stretch category, the overall road kill was N=135 in the forested area and N=41 in human habitations.  A total of 812 food materials were encounterd  612km with average of  1.32 food materials / km. Conservation and management implications are essential to prevent the local extinction of wildlife. 

  19. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVIII . Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting domestic cats and wild felids in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks collected from domestic cats (Felis catus, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus,caracals (Caracal caracal, African wild cats (Felis lybica, black-footed cats (Felis nigripes, a serval (Leptailurus serval, lions(Panthera leo, and leopards (Panthera pardus were identified and counted. Thirteen species of ixodid ticks and one argasid tick were identified from domestic cats and 17 species of ixodid ticks from wild felids. The domestic cats and wild felids harboured 11 ixodid species in common. The adults of Haemaphysalis elliptica, the most abundant tick species infesting cats and wild felids, were most numerous on a domestic cat in late winter and in mid-summer, during 2 consecutive years. The recorded geographic distribution of the recently described Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, a parasite of cats and caracals, was extended by 2 new locality records in the Northern Cape Province,South Africa.

  20. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  1. DETERMINANTS OF VISITORS' PREFERENCE FOR WILD ANIMAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omotesho

    Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, University of Ilorin, Ilorin,. Nigeria, PMB ... Key words: Determinants, wildlife preference, University of Ilorin, Zoo. INTRODUCTION ..... (1996).Regarding animals. Philadelphia: Temple University. Press. Bart, W.M. (1972). ... National Parks and Protected. Areas ...

  2. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis.

  3. 36 CFR 10.1 - Animals available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Animals available. 10.1 Section 10.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DISPOSAL OF CERTAIN WILD ANIMALS § 10.1 Animals available. From time to time there are surplus live elk...

  4. A survey of the transmission of infectious diseases/infections between wild and domestic ungulates in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The domestic animals/wildlife interface is becoming a global issue of growing interest. However, despite studies on wildlife diseases being in expansion, the epidemiological role of wild animals in the transmission of infectious diseases remains unclear most of the time. Multiple diseases affecting livestock have already been identified in wildlife, especially in wild ungulates. The first objective of this paper was to establish a list of infections already reported in European wild ungulates. For each disease/infection, three additional materials develop examples already published, specifying the epidemiological role of the species as assigned by the authors. Furthermore, risk factors associated with interactions between wild and domestic animals and regarding emerging infectious diseases are summarized. Finally, the wildlife surveillance measures implemented in different European countries are presented. New research areas are proposed in order to provide efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. PMID:21635726

  5. Energy Harvesting from the Animal/Human Body for Self-Powered Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdeviren, Canan; Li, Zhou; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-06-21

    Living subjects (i.e., humans and animals) have abundant sources of energy in chemical, thermal, and mechanical forms. The use of these energies presents a viable way to overcome the battery capacity limitation that constrains the long-term operation of wearable/implantable devices. The intersection of novel materials and fabrication techniques offers boundless possibilities for the benefit of human health and well-being via various types of energy harvesters. This review summarizes the existing approaches that have been demonstrated to harvest energy from the bodies of living subjects for self-powered electronics. We present material choices, device layouts, and operation principles of these energy harvesters with a focus on in vivo applications. We discuss a broad range of energy harvesters placed in or on various body parts of human and animal models. We conclude with an outlook of future research in which the integration of various energy harvesters with advanced electronics can provide a new platform for the development of novel technologies for disease diagnostics, treatment, and prevention.

  6. Wild Justice: Honor and Fairness among Beasts at Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoff, Marc; Pierce, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This essay challenges science's traditional taboo against anthropomorphizing animals or considering their behavior as indicative of feelings similar to human emotions. In their new book "Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals," the authors argue that anthropomorphism is alive and well, as it should be. Here they describe some…

  7. Q-fever in wild animals in Europe, a concern for hunters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotterdam, van B.; Langelaar, M.; Giessen, van der J.; Roest, H.I.J.; Grone, A.

    2010-01-01

    Het is onbekend of, hoe en in welke mate Coxiella burnetii circuleert onder wild in Nederland. In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de literatuur over de circulatie van Coxiella burnetii onder niet gedomesticeerde diersoorten in Europa.

  8. Wild steelhead studies. 1993 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holubetz, T.B.

    1995-11-01

    Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs

  9. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  10. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunocontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials I with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of I PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to begin using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a I means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption process.

  11. Tracking by flow cytometry antigen-specific follicular helper T cells in wild-type animals after protein vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakarov, Svetoslav; Fazilleau, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a valuable technology used in immunology to characterize and enumerate the different cell subpopulations specific for a nonself-antigen in the context of an ongoing immune response. Among them, follicular helper T cells are the cognate regulators of B cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Thus, tracking them is of high interest especially in the context of protein vaccination. For this purpose, transgenic antigen-receptor mouse models have been largely used. It is now clear that transgenic models are not always the best means to study the dynamics of the immune response since they can modify the response. In this chapter, we describe how to track endogenous antigen-specific follicular helper T cells by flow cytometry after protein vaccination in nonmodified wild-type animals, which ultimately provides a comprehensive way to enumerate, characterize, and isolate these particular cells in vivo.

  12. Lightning safety of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  13. Cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfillan, Geoffrey; Vitale, Jessica; McNutt, John Weldon; McComb, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Individual recognition is considered to have been fundamental in the evolution of complex social systems and is thought to be a widespread ability throughout the animal kingdom. Although robust evidence for individual recognition remains limited, recent experimental paradigms that examine cross-modal processing have demonstrated individual recognition in a range of captive non-human animals. It is now highly relevant to test whether cross-modal individual recognition exists within wild populations and thus examine how it is employed during natural social interactions. We address this question by testing audio-visual cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions (Panthera leo) using an expectancy-violation paradigm. When presented with a scenario where the playback of a loud-call (roaring) broadcast from behind a visual block is incongruent with the conspecific previously seen there, subjects responded more strongly than during the congruent scenario where the call and individual matched. These findings suggest that lions are capable of audio-visual cross-modal individual recognition and provide a useful method for studying this ability in wild populations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

    2002-07-01

    During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals.

  15. An approach to the statistics of wild lagomorph captive rearing for releasing purposes in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sánchez García-Abad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of rearing wild lagomorphs in captivity for hunting and predator conservation in Spain, little is known about this production sector.  Taking official data into account, in this work the number and distribution of farms in Spain and the possible number of animals produced were analysed during the period 2005-2010.  In 2010, 114 wild rabbit farms were widely distributed throughout the country (especially Catalonia, Galicia, Andalusia and Castile-La Mancha regions, while 21 hare farms were registered, the majority in Extremadura, Castile-La Mancha and Andalusia.  A possible production figure of 225000-265000 rabbits and 1034 hares was estimated in 2010.  Game farms of wild lagomorphs are established in Spain and placement would be related to a high demand for hunting and predator conservation in certain regions. Although more research is needed, the number of animals produced would be an important part of the total animals released to the wild.

  16. Foraging traces as an indicator to monitor wild boar impact on ground nesting birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Roda , Fabrice; Roda , Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    The successful management of large herbivores requires the monitoring of a set of indicators of ecological change describing animal performance, relative animal abundance, and ungulate impact on habitat. Wild boar populations increases have been spectacular in many countries including France. Wild boars can have a substantial environmental impact on many ecosystem components including birds, but indicators to monitor such impact are currently lacking. In this paper, we examined the usefulness...

  17. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from Mexico...

  18. 36 CFR 222.29 - Relocation and disposal of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... animals. 222.29 Section 222.29 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... disposal of animals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall, when he determines over-population of wild... animals from that particular territory. Such action shall be taken until all excess animals have been...

  19. Does the Animal Welfare Act apply to free-ranging animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the long-standing role that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) have played in reviewing and approving studies at academic institutions, compliance with the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) is not always complete for government natural resource agencies that use free-ranging animals in research and management studies. Even at universities, IACUCs face uncertainties about what activities are covered and about how to judge proposed research on free-ranging animals. One reason for much of the confusion is the AWA vaguely worded exemption for "field studies." In particular, fish are problematic because of the AWA exclusion of poikilothermic animals. However, most university IACUCs review studies on all animals, and the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) has published the "IRAC Principles," which extend coverage to all vertebrates used by federal researchers. Despite this extended coverage, many scientists working on wild animals continue to view compliance with the AWA with little enthusiasm. IACUCs, IACUC veterinarians, wildlife veterinarians, and fish and wildlife biologists must learn to work together to comply with the law and to protect the privilege of using free-ranging animals in research.

  20. Radiocesium Concentration Change in Game Animals: Use of Food Monitoring Data - 13168

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides were released into the environment in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Radiocesium (Cs-134+137) concentrations in most agricultural products became lower than the detection limit (∼10 Bq kg -1 ) from June 2011, and the concentrations have remained low. However, some wild food materials such as meat of game animals (e.g., bear and wild boar) caught in Fukushima and surrounding areas some times showed higher values than the detection limits. In this study, monitoring data on game animal meat were summarized to understand the amount of activities found in wild animals and the activity distribution in the contaminated areas. Concentration data are available from monthly reports issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data were collected on wild boar (Sus scrofa), deer (Cervus nippon), Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), Japanese pheasant (Phasianus versicolor), and duck (e.g. Anas poecilorhynch). There is a tendency that the concentration decreases with distance from the FDNPP; in order to compare the Cs-137 concentrations among animals, one collection site was selected. The results showed that the concentration was in the following order within one year: Asian black bear>wild boar> deer >duck and Japanese pheasant. Bear and boar are omnivorous animals and their feeding pattern would affect the concentrations in their meats. (authors)

  1. Radiocesium Concentration Change in Game Animals: Use of Food Monitoring Data - 13168

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides were released into the environment in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Radiocesium (Cs-134+137) concentrations in most agricultural products became lower than the detection limit (∼10 Bq kg{sup -1}) from June 2011, and the concentrations have remained low. However, some wild food materials such as meat of game animals (e.g., bear and wild boar) caught in Fukushima and surrounding areas some times showed higher values than the detection limits. In this study, monitoring data on game animal meat were summarized to understand the amount of activities found in wild animals and the activity distribution in the contaminated areas. Concentration data are available from monthly reports issued by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Data were collected on wild boar (Sus scrofa), deer (Cervus nippon), Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus), Japanese pheasant (Phasianus versicolor), and duck (e.g. Anas poecilorhynch). There is a tendency that the concentration decreases with distance from the FDNPP; in order to compare the Cs-137 concentrations among animals, one collection site was selected. The results showed that the concentration was in the following order within one year: Asian black bear>wild boar> deer >duck and Japanese pheasant. Bear and boar are omnivorous animals and their feeding pattern would affect the concentrations in their meats. (authors)

  2. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron... electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. This action... CFR part 579) to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of...

  3. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  4. Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

    2011-02-07

    The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour.

  5. A study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Y. enterocolitica is the causative agent of yersiniosis. The objective of the article was a study of single nucleotide polymorphism in the ystB gene of Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from various wild animal species. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was applied to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ystB gene fragments of 88 Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from wild boar, roe deer, red deer and wild ducks. HRM analysis revealed 14 different melting profiles - 4 of them were defined as regular genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4), whereas 10 as variations. 24 of the examined Y. enterocolitica strains were classified as G1, 18 strains as a G2, 21 strains as a G3, and 15 strains as a G4. Nucleotide sequences classified as G1 revealed 100% similarity with the Y. enterocolitica D88145.1 sequence (NCBI). Analysis of G2 revealed one point mutation - transition T111A. One mutation was also found in G3, but SNP was placed in a different gene region - transition G193A. Two SNPs - transitions G92C and T111A - were identified in G4. Direct sequencing of 10 variations revealed 5 new variants of the ystB nucleotide sequence: V1 - transition G129A (3 strains); V2 - transitions T111A and G193A (2 strains); V3 - transitions C118T and G193A (1 strain); V4 - transitions C141A and G193A (2 strains); and V5 characterized by 19 SNPs: G83A, T93A, A109G, G114T, C116T, A123G, T134C, T142G, T144C, A150C, G162A, T165G, T170G, T174A, T177G, G178A, A179G, A184G and G193A (2 strains). The predominant genotype in isolates from wild ducks was G1; in red deer G2; in wild boar G3; in roe deer G1 and G4. The proposed HRM method could be used to analyze Y. enterocolitica biotype 1A strains isolated from different sources, including humans.

  6. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-01-01

    . The farm environment provides attractive foraging and breeding habitats for some bird species reported to carry thermophilic Campylobacter spp. We investigated the Campylobacter spp. carriage rates in 52 wild bird species present on 12 Danish farms, sampled during a winter and a summer season, in order...... feeding on a diet of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin, foraging on the ground and vegetation in close proximity to livestock stables were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. in both summer (P birds foraging further away from the farm or in the air. Age...... food of animal or mixed animal and vegetable origin and foraging on the ground close to livestock were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. than those foraging further away or hunting in the air. These findings suggest that wild birds may play a role in sustaining the epidemiology of Campylobacter...

  7. Endoparasites of Wild Mammals Sheltered in Wildlife Hospitals and Rehabilitation Centres in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophanes K. Liatis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife parasitic diseases represent an important field of investigation as they may have a significant impact on wild animals’ health and fitness, and may also have zoonotic implications. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of endoparasites in wild mammals admitted to wildlife hospitals and rehabilitation centres in Greece. Sixty-five animals belonging to 17 species and originated from various areas of continental and insular Greece were included in the survey. The most numerous animal species examined were hedgehogs (n = 19, red foxes (n = 16, and European roe deer (n = 6. Faecal samples were collected individually and examined by floatation and sedimentation method. Parasites were found in 46 (70.7% of the animals. Most parasites found in canids, felids, and ruminants are of great relevance to the domestic animals’ health and some of them are also of zoonotic importance. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first report of endoparasites in hedgehogs, roe deers, fallow deers, badgers, and bats, and the first report of the pulmonary nematode Troglostrongylus brevior in a wild cat in Greece. The significance of the parasites found in each animal species in regard to their health and their relevance to domestic animals and human health is discussed.

  8. A systematic review of the epidemiology of echinococcosis in domestic and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Otero-Abad

    Full Text Available Human echinococcosis is a neglected zoonosis caused by parasites of the genus Echinococcus. The most frequent clinical forms of echinococcosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE and alveolar echinococcosis (AE, are responsible for a substantial health and economic burden, particularly to low-income societies. Quantitative epidemiology can provide important information to improve the understanding of parasite transmission and hence is an important part of efforts to control this disease. The purpose of this review is to give an insight on factors associated with echinococcosis in animal hosts by summarising significant results reported from epidemiological studies identified through a systematic search.The systematic search was conducted mainly in electronic databases but a few additional records were obtained from other sources. Retrieved entries were examined in order to identify available peer-reviewed epidemiological studies that found significant risk factors for infection using associative statistical methods. One hundred studies met the eligibility criteria and were suitable for data extraction. Epidemiological factors associated with increased risk of E. granulosus infection in dogs included feeding with raw viscera, possibility of scavenging dead animals, lack of anthelmintic treatment and owners' poor health education and indicators of poverty. Key factors associated with E. granulosus infection in intermediate hosts were related to the hosts' age and the intensity of environmental contamination with parasite eggs. E. multilocularis transmission dynamics in animal hosts depended on the interaction of several ecological factors, such as hosts' population densities, host-prey interactions, landscape characteristics, climate conditions and human-related activities.Results derived from epidemiological studies provide a better understanding of the behavioural, biological and ecological factors involved in the transmission of this parasite and hence

  9. The microbiological conditions of carcasses from large game animals in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagnina, A; Nucera, D; Grassi, M A; Ferroglio, E; Dalmasso, A; Civera, T

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates the microbiological conditions of large game animal carcasses following evisceration. Carcasses of animals (N=291) hunted in the Upper Susa Valley (Italian Alps) were analysed for pH, Aerobic Viable Count (AVC), Enterobacteriaceae, Yersinia spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. After shooting, evisceration occurred within 60 min in 90.7% of animals and sampling within 90 min in 88.3% of animals. Mean pH values (5.97: ruminants; 5.77: wild boar) were similar to those of regularly slaughtered domestic species. AVC values were highest in animals shot in the abdomen. Within species, AVC and Enterobacteriaceae values did not differ across different shooting-evisceration/sampling times. However, these counts exceeded 5 and 2.5 log, respectively, in 18% of wild boar and 39% of ruminants; the highest values were detected in wild boar. No pathogens were detected in any species. These results reveal inadequate hygiene in game meat handling/harvesting, implicating the need for improved practices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. World Organisation for Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Simulation Exercises Info list & RSS National Disease Contingency Plans WAHIS-Wild Interface World Animal Health Official ... FOOD SAFETY ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE STANDARDS AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE View more themes The OIE in brief PRESS ROOM ...

  11. Immunocontraception for Animals: Current Status and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rajesh K; Saver, Ashley E

    2016-04-01

    An alternative to surgical sterilization for fertility control of animals (wild, zoo, farm, and domestic) is needed to prevent problems related to overpopulation, including culling and relocation. A PubMed and Google Scholar database search was conducted using the keywords 'contraceptive vaccine animals,' 'immunocontraception animals,' 'non-surgical sterilization animals,' 'PZP vaccine,' and 'GnRH vaccine.' The searches from 1972 to 2015 yielded over 1500 publications. These articles were read, and 375 were selected for detailed analysis. Articles referenced in these publications were also thoroughly examined. PZP and GnRH contraceptive vaccines (CVs) have been extensively investigated for fertility control of wild, zoo, farm, and domestic animal populations. Both vaccines have shown tremendous success with PZP vaccines taking the lead. Novel technologies and targets are being developed to improve existing vaccines and generate second-generation CVs. Single-shot vaccines, which can be delivered remotely, will greatly advance the field of immunocontraception for animal use with potential human application. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Visualizing Morphological Changes of Abscission Zone Cells in Arabidopsis by Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chun-Lin; Butenko, Melinka A

    2018-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope which produces detailed images of surface structures. It has been widely used in plants and animals to study cellular structures. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to prepare samples of floral abscission zones (AZs) for SEM, as well as further image analysis. We show that it is a powerful tool to detect morphologic changes at the cellular level during the course of abscission in wild-type plants and to establish the details of phenotypic alteration in abscission mutants.

  13. Animated Powerpoint Presentations for Teaching Operations and Supply Chain Management: Perceived Value and Electronic Exchange of Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the innovation of sharing animated PowerPoint presentations used in teaching operations and supply chain management techniques and concepts through an international electronic exchange. The plan for the exchange is presented and discussed. The potential benefits to faculty and students of using PowerPoint animations in…

  14. Wildlife in U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidian, John

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Wild animals are increasingly adapting to living in urbanizing environments, even as urban living has become the dominant human life style. This leads to greater opportunities to experience and enjoy wildlife, but also to increases in the kind and frequency of human-wildlife conflicts. Conflicts occur not only with species deemed to be perennial pests or nuisances, but situationally and episodically with others that are valued and esteemed. Regardless of how we view wild animals with whom we have conflicts, all deserve moral consideration and humane treatment. Issues in coexisting with urban wildlife are reviewed here. Abstract Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in the United States with a focus on the moral concerns this raises. Much of the future for urban wildlife will depend on reform in governance, but much as well will depend on cultural changes that promote greater respect and understanding for wild animals and the biotic communities of which they and we are both a part. PMID:26569317

  15. Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Han

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed signs occurring among domestic and wild terrestrial animal species infected with raccoon rabies variant virus (RRV in Massachusetts, 1992–2010. The clinical sign of aggression was significantly associated with rabid stray cats (odds ratio, OR = 2.3 and RRV affected major wild terrestrial animal species individually, which included raccoons (OR = 2.8, skunks (OR = 8.0, gray foxes (OR = 21.3, red foxes (OR = 10.4, woodchucks (OR = 4.7 and coyotes (OR = 27.6. While aggression is a useful predictor of rabies among wild animals, combinations of other signs such as ataxia, disorientation, and salivation are useful predictors of rabies among domestic animals. Pets reported with multiple clinical signs had significantly higher rabies positive testing result than those reported with single clinical sign (p < 0.001. The result suggested the importance of avoiding aggressive terrestrial wild animals and giving additional attention to pets with multiple clinical signs.

  16. Wild rufous hummingbirds use local landmarks to return to rewarded locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David J; Scott, Renee D; Healy, Susan D; Hurly, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Animals may remember an important location with reference to one or more visual landmarks. In the laboratory, birds and mammals often preferentially use landmarks near a goal ("local landmarks") to return to that location at a later date. Although we know very little about how animals in the wild use landmarks to remember locations, mammals in the wild appear to prefer to use distant landmarks to return to rewarded locations. To examine what cues wild birds use when returning to a goal, we trained free-living hummingbirds to search for a reward at a location that was specified by three nearby visual landmarks. Following training we expanded the landmark array to test the extent that the birds relied on the local landmarks to return to the reward. During the test the hummingbirds' search was best explained by the birds having used the experimental landmarks to remember the reward location. How the birds used the landmarks was not clear and seemed to change over the course of each test. These wild hummingbirds, then, can learn locations in reference to nearby visual landmarks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. evaluation of wildlife hunting and species of animals marketed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHILIP

    2014-09-02

    Sep 2, 2014 ... killing and relying only on wild animals as bushmeat. Keyword: ... species that are sold or consumed include the size of the animal, appeal .... Religion. Frequency Percentage (%). Islamic. 22. 44%. Christianity. 28. 56%. Total.

  18. Vitamin D status of wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and captive and wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta) in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Jan C; Maria, Roberto; Reichard, Tim; Tolson, Peter J; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F

    2005-06-01

    Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 22 wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta). Calcitriol (1,25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 12 wild Ricord's iguanas and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas. These animals were captured as part of a larger health assessment study being conducted on Ricord's iguanas in Isla Cabritos National Park, Dominican Republic. A total of 13 captive rhinoceros iguanas held outdoors at Parque Zoológico Nacional were also sampled for comparison. Mean concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 554 nmol/L (222 ng/ml) with a range of 250-1,118 nmol/L (100-448 ng/ml) for wild Ricord's iguanas, 332 nmol/L (133 ng/ml) with a range of 260-369 nmol/L (104-148 ng/ml) for wild rhinoceros iguanas, and 317 nmol/L (127 ng/ml) with a range of 220-519 nmol/L (88-208 ng/ml) for captive rhinoceros iguanas. On the basis of these results, serum concentrations of at least 325 nmol/L (130 ng/ml) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be considered normal for healthy Ricord's and rhinoceros iguanas.

  19. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Investigation on the Presence of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) in Wild Game in North-Western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Mignone, Walter; Peletto, Simone; Boin, Claudia; Pistone, Giancarlo; Ercolini, Riccardo; Ercolini, Carlo

    2015-09-01

    Meat products from HEV-infected reservoir animal species are capable of transmitting HEV to humans and represent a public health concern. Human HEV cases have been linked to the consumption of raw or undercooked pig liver sausages, pork, and game meats, such as wild boars and deer worldwide. Direct exposure to swine or wild game species might also represent a source of HEV transmission especially for veterinarians, hunters, or butchers. A limited amount of data is available on HEV prevalence in wild boars in Italy and no data are available for other wild game species intended for human consumption. In this study, the circulation of HEV in four different animal species hunted in north-western Italy was evaluated to gain insight into the infection levels and the genetic diversity of the virus in such animal populations. Liver samples of 372 wild boars, 30 roe deer, 47 European hares and 38 coypus were analyzed for HEV RNA by real-time RT-PCR; positive samples were then sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. HEV RNA was detected in the livers of 7/372 (1.9%) wild boars tested, while no sample was positive for roe deer, European hare, and coypu. Phylogenetic analysis showed that wild boar HEV sequences belonged to HEV subtypes 3e, 3c, and 3f. Our results indicate that HEV is circulating only in wild boar among the considered game species in north-western Italy and suggest a potential zoonotic risk related to handling and/or consumption of raw or undercooked meat and products made of the liver from this species.

  1. Domestication effects on behavioural traits and learning performance: comparing wild cavies to guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, Vera; Guenther, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The domestication process leads to a change in behavioural traits, usually towards individuals that are less attentive to changes in their environment and less aggressive. Empirical evidence for a difference in cognitive performance, however, is scarce. Recently, a functional linkage between an individual's behaviour and cognitive performance has been proposed in the framework of animal personalities via a shared risk-reward trade-off. Following this assumption, bolder and more aggressive animals (usually the wild form) should learn faster. Differences in behaviour may arise during ontogeny due to individual experiences or represent adaptations that occurred over the course of evolution. Both might singly or taken together account for differences in cognitive performance between wild and domestic lineages. To test for such possible linkages, we compared wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs, both kept in a university stock for more than 30 years under highly comparable conditions. Animals were tested in three behavioural tests as well as for initial and reversal learning performance. Guinea pigs were less bold and aggressive than their wild congeners, but learnt an association faster. Additionally, the personality structure was altered during the domestication process. The most likely explanation for these findings is that a shift in behavioural traits and their connectivity led to an altered cognitive performance. A functional linkage between behavioural and cognitive traits seems to exist in the proposed way only under natural selection, but not in animals that have been selected artificially over centuries.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  3. Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasaad, Samer; Permunian, Roberto; Gakuya, Francis; Mutinda, Matthew; Soriguer, Ramón C; Rossi, Luca

    2012-07-09

    One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines' keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations.

  4. Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines’ keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. Results In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Conclusions Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations. PMID:22776804

  5. Novel Parvoviruses from Wild and Domestic Animals in Brazil Provide New Insights into Parvovirus Distribution and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Marciel de Souza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae are small, single-stranded DNA viruses. Many parvoviral pathogens of medical, veterinary and ecological importance have been identified. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing (HTS to investigate the diversity of parvoviruses infecting wild and domestic animals in Brazil. We identified 21 parvovirus sequences (including twelve nearly complete genomes and nine partial genomes in samples derived from rodents, bats, opossums, birds and cattle in Pernambuco, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states. These sequences were investigated using phylogenetic and distance-based approaches and were thereby classified into eight parvovirus species (six of which have not been described previously, representing six distinct genera in the subfamily Parvovirinae. Our findings extend the known biogeographic range of previously characterized parvovirus species and the known host range of three parvovirus genera (Dependovirus, Aveparvovirus and Tetraparvovirus. Moreover, our investigation provides a window into the ecological dynamics of parvovirus infections in vertebrates, revealing that many parvovirus genera contain well-defined sub-lineages that circulate widely throughout the world within particular taxonomic groups of hosts.

  6. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in greater rheas (Rhea americana) at the Reproduction Centre for Wild Animals in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    SOARES, H.S.; ALVES, N.D.; PEREIRA, R.H.M.A.; MATOS, S.M.; PENA, H.F.J.; GENNARI, S.M.; FEIJÓ, F.M.C.; AMÓRA, S.S.A.; PEIXOTO, G.C.X.

    2010-01-01

    Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were evaluated in greater rheas (Rhea americana) from the Reproduction Centre for Wild Animals located at the Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido in the city of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥25). It was verified that, from the 69 examined birds, 4.3% (three rheas) tested positive. The research about ratites toxoplasmoses are scarce, this way, the results showed the importance of the T. gondii diagnosis ...

  7. Alkanes as markers in nutritional studies with wild ruminant and non-ruminant animals Alcanos como indicadores em estudos nutricionais com ruminantes selvagens e animais não-ruminantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Estrasulas de Oliveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of information relative to the digestibility, intake and botanical and morphological composition of the diet is important in nutritional studies, since it provides the basis for understanding aspects related to the ingestive behavior and selectivity of animals. N-alkanes have been used successfully as markers in studies with many species of animals, particularly domesticated ruminants, most of the times as replacements for conventional markers as chromium oxide for example. However, for wild ruminants and non-ruminant animals information on this technique is still scarce and, as a consequence, its potential for use unknown. This review reports the use of this technique in studies of feed digestibility, intake and diet composition with wild ruminants and non-ruminant animals, summarizing results and inferring on the feasibility and applicability of the technique.O conhecimento de informações relativas à digestibilidade, consumo, composição botânica e morfológica da dieta é importante em estudos de nutrição, pois fornece a base para a compreensão de aspectos relativos ao comportamento ingestivo e a seletividade dos animais. N-alcanos têm sido usados com sucesso como indicadores em estudos com várias espécies de animais, particularmente ruminantes domésticos, muitas vezes como substitutos a marcadores convencionais como o cromo por exemplo. No entanto, no caso de ruminantes selvagens e animais não-ruminantes as informações sobre essa técnica são ainda escassas e, consequentemente, seu potencial de uso desconhecido. Esta revisão borda o uso dessa metodologia em estudos de digestibilidade, consumo e estimativa da composição da dieta em ruminantes selvagens e animais não-ruminantes, sumarizando resultados e inferindo sobre a viabilidade e aplicabilidade da técnica.

  8. Figurative and symbolic function of animal imagery in packaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper sets out to discuss how the Shona and Ndebele people of Zimbabwe make use of animal imagery to refer to human behaviour and habits in various situations. In this context, animal traits are drawn from both domestic and wild animals. A discussion of such a conception of human behaviour shall demonstrate ...

  9. The curse of the prey: Sarcoptes mite molecular analysis reveals potential prey-to-predator parasitic infestation in wild animals from Masai Mara, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriguer Ramón C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there have been attempts to understand the molecular epidemiology of Sarcoptes scabiei, to evaluate the gene flow between isolates of S. scabiei from different hosts and geographic regions. However, to our knowledge, a molecular study has not been carried out to assess the molecular diversity and gene flow of Sarcoptes mite in a predator/prey ecosystem. Results Our study revealed an absence of gene flow between the two herbivore (Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest- and between the two carnivore (lion and cheetah-derived Sarcoptes populations from Masai Mara (Kenya, which is in discrepancy with the host-taxon law described for wild animals in Europe. Lion- and wildebeest-derived Sarcoptes mite populations were similar yet different from the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes population. This could be attributed to Sarcoptes cross-infestation from wildebeest ("favourite prey" of the lion, but not from Thomson's gazelle. The cheetah-derived Sarcoptes population had different subpopulations: one is cheetah-private, one similar to the wildebeest- and lion-derived Sarcoptes populations, and another similar to the Thomson's gazelle-derived Sarcoptes mite population, where both wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle are "favourite preys" for the cheetah. Conclusions In a predator/prey ecosystem, like Masai Mara in Kenya, it seems that Sarcoptes infestation in wild animals is prey-to-predator-wise, depending on the predator's "favourite prey". More studies on the lion and cheetah diet and behaviour could be of great help to clarify the addressed hypotheses. This study could have further ramification in the epidemiological studies and the monitoring protocols of the neglected Sarcoptes mite in predator/prey ecosystems.

  10. Antibody Prevalence to Influenza Type A in Wild Boar of Northern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Ganna; Molozhanova, Alona; Halka, Ihor; Nychyk, Serhiy

    2017-12-01

    A preliminary serological survey was carried out to assess the likelihood of influenza A (IA) infection in wild boar and begin to characterize the role of wild boar in the epidemiology of the IA virus (IAV). Sera collected from 120 wild boar that were hunted in 2014 were tested. To detect antibodies to IA, a blocking the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Thirty boar were collected from each of four oblasts in the north central and northwestern regions of Ukraine. Antibodies against IAV were detected in 27 samples (22.5%; 95% confidence interval 16.0-30.8) and in at least some of the wild boar from all of the four oblasts. This preliminary survey of IA antibodies in wild boar populations of northern Ukraine indicates a substantial frequency of exposure to IAV throughout the region. Infection of wild boar populations could provide an alternative or additional route for spillover from wild populations to domestic animals and humans.

  11. Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); A. Ruiz-Gonzalez (Aritz); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); S.L. Smits (Saskia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies have clearly demonstrated the enormous virus diversity that exists among wild animals. This exemplifies the required expansion of our knowledge of the virus diversity present in wildlife, as well as the potential transmission of these viruses to domestic

  12. Salmonella spp. and antibiotic-resistant strains in wild mammals and birds in north-western Italy from 2002 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velca Botti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen of economic importance. In Europe, salmonellosis is the second food-borne infection, in Italy, Salmonella is still the major cause of food-borne outbreaks. In Europe, there are many Salmonella surveillance plans on farmed animals, while Salmonella survey of wild animals is occasionally performed. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella including the antibiotic-resistant strains in wild animals. Between 2002 and 2010, 2,713 wild animals (canids, mustelids, birds, rodents, ungulates, were collected in north-western Italy and tested for Salmonella by classical microbiological culture method followed by serological and biochemical typing. One hundred and seventeen wild animals (63 canids, 25 mustelids, 24 birds, 5 ungulates were found positive for Salmonella (4.3%. One hundred and thirty strains, belonging to several serotypes were isolated, and S. Typhimurium was the most common serotype found. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by disk-diffusion test on 88 strains. Almost all the analyzed strains (97.7% showed resistance/intermediate resistance to at least one class of antibiotics and the highest resistance values were observed for the tetracycline class. In conclusion, zoonotic and antibiotic-resistant serotypes were found in many species of wildlife.

  13. An Infectious Disease and Mortality Survey in a Population of Free-Ranging African Wild Dogs and Sympatric Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flacke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease can cause declines in wildlife populations and significantly threaten their survival. Recent expansion of human and domestic animal populations has made wildlife more susceptible to transmission of pathogens from domestic animal hosts. We conducted a pathogen surveillance and mortality survey for the population of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, from January 2006–February 2007. Samples were obtained from 24 wild dogs for canine distemper virus (CDV and canine parvovirus (CPV serological testing. Data were collected on the presence of CDV, CPV, and rabies virus in the KZN domestic dog (Canis familiaris population from 2004–06. The presence of these pathogens was confirmed in domestic dogs throughout KZN. Wild dogs exhibited 0% and 4.2% prevalence for CDV and CPV antibodies, respectively. In 2006 the largest wild dog pack in KZN was reduced from 26 individuals to a single animal; disease due to rabies virus was considered the most probable cause. This study provides evidence that CDV, CPV and rabies are potential threats to African wild dog conservation in KZN. The most economical and practical way to protect wild dogs from canine pathogens may be via vaccination of sympatric domestic dogs; however, such programmes are currently limited.

  14. [Surveillance on severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus in animals at a live animal market of Guangzhou in 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Jing, Huai-qi; Xu, Hui-fang; Jiang, Xiu-gao; Kan, Biao; Liu, Qi-yong; Wan, Kang-lin; Cui, Bu-yun; Zheng, Han; Cui, Zhi-gang; Yan, Mei-ying; Liang, Wei-li; Wang, Hong-xia; Qi, Xiao-bao; Li, Zhen-jun; Li, Ma-chao; Chen, Kai; Zhang, En-min; Zhang, Shou-yin; Hai, Rong; Yu, Dong-zheng; Xu, Jian-guo

    2005-02-01

    To study the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) like virus in animals at a live animal market of Guanzhou in 2004 before and after culling of wild animal action taken by the local authority, in order to predict the re-emerging of SARS from animal originals in this region. Animals at live animal market were sampled for rectal and throat swabs in triplicate. A single step realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) diagnostic kit was performed for screening SARS-CoV like virus, the manual nested RT- PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for confirmation. Only specimens which tested positive for both of the N and P genes by nested RT-PCR were scored as positive. In 31 animals sampled in January 5 2004 before culling of wild animals at Guangdong Province, including 20 cats (Felis catus), 5 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and 6 Lesser rice field rats (Rattus losea), 8 (25.8%) animals were tested positive for SARS-CoV like virus by RT-PCR methods, of which 4 cats, 3 red fox and one Lesser rice field rats were included. However, two weeks after culling of animals and disinfection of the market were implemented, in 119 animals sampled in January 20 2004, including 6 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), 13 cats, 46 red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), 13 spotbill duck (Anas platyrhynchos), 10 greylag goose (Anser anser), 31 Chinese francolin (Franclinus pintadeanus), only rectal swab from one greylag goose was tested positive for SARS-CoV like virus. Furthermore, in 102 animals that including 14 greylag gooses, 3 cats, 5 rabbits, 9 spotbill duck (Anaspoecilorhyncha), 2 Chinese francolin (Franclinus pintadeanus), 8 common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 6 pigeons, 9 Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi), 19 wild boar (Sus scrofa), 16 Lesser rice field rats, 5 dogs, 1 mink (Mustela vison), 3 goats, 2 green peafowl (Pavo muticus) sampled in April, May, June, July, August and November, only rectal swab from one pig was tested positive

  15. Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasaad Samer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines’ keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. Results In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Conclusions Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations.

  16. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplement to IUCN Bulletin, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Concern for the endangered species of wild animals and plants of the world prompted the drafting of this international convention regulating the import, export, and re-export of such species. Nations signing this document are required to impose strict controls on the international trade of these plants and animals or their recognizable parts. The…

  17. Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals from New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueplo C.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples (serum or meat juice collected from 205 animals in New Caledonia in April 2009 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA using the multi-species ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDVET, Montpellier. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 2% (1/49 of the pigs, in 3.3% (1/30 of the cattle, in 13.8% (4/29 of Rusa deers, in 16% (4/25 of the horses, in 32.8% (21/64 of the dogs, and in 50% (4/8 of cats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and age or sex. No survey on the prevalence of T. gondii in animals has ever been conducted in New Caledonia and this is the first serological evidence of T. gondii in Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa. These results indicate an important circulation of T. gondii exists in the animal populations of New Caledonia. In view of humans being exposed, it is advisable to insist on sanitary education and on respect for good hygienic and food practice.

  18. Electron microscopy of rapid identification of animal viruses in hematoxylin-eosin sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, R; Johnson, G R; Christian, R G

    1977-01-01

    Routine hematoxylin-eosin stained, paraffin sections were processed for electron microscopy, using a rapid method for localization of animal viruses. Formalin fixation was effective in preserving DNA as well as RNA viruses, however cellular fine structural details and organelles were not well preserved. The procedure is useful for morphological recognition of viral groups and as a rapid diagnostic aid for identifying viral disease. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:72592

  19. Characterisation of wild rabbit commercial game farms in Spain

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    Pedro González-Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterise the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus commercial game farms in Spain using variables related to structure, management and marketing. To this end, a structured survey was administered in 2009 to 21 privately-owned farms. This subsector was an average age of 13. The average size of the breeding stock of the farms was 431 does and 64 bucks. Eighty-five percent of the farms kept all or part of the breeding stock in cages and 38.1% used artificial insemination. All the farms carried out breeder self-replacement, 4.8% by buying wild rabbits from other farms, whereas 38.1% captured wild rabbits for this purpose. Nineteen percent of the wild rabbit game farms also produced other game species, mainly red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and quail (Coturnix coturnix. Fourteen percent of the farms supplied wild rabbits to be used as prey to be released in programmes for the conservation of endangered predators, and 38.1% supplied breeding rabbits to be used by other farms to replace culled animals. Eighty-six percent of the farms offered the service of transporting the animals from the farm to the hunting grounds to their clients, and 14.3% advised customers on how to successfully release and restock hunting grounds. Seventy-six percent of the farms marketed their products throughout Spain, and 38.1% exported wild rabbits to neighbouring countries, mainly Portugal and France. Forty-three percent of the farms advertised themselves in hunting magazines, 19.1% promoted themselves by attending livestock and game fairs, and 38.1% had their own websites. In conclusion, this alternative rabbit production system constitutes a well-established subsector in Spain, despite being only 2 decades old. It also seems that it has not yet reached its development maturity. It shows wide diversity in terms of farm size and structure, as well as marketing and promotional activities.

  20. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  1. The importance of wild meat in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin R.; Meilby, Henrik; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Information on the economic importance of wild meat to rural people is mainly based on small case studies conducted in limited geographical areas with high hunting intensities, which impede generalization of results. Through a one-year quarterly income survey of 7978 households in 24 countries...... is highest among the poorest households and inversely related to their reliance on domestic animal income. Seasonally, reliance on wild meat is inversely related to other incomes, suggesting a gap filling function. The fact that hunting is of low economic importance but widespread and mostly for subsistence...... suggests that wild meat is important in rural households’ diets. Through an approximated yield-effort curve estimation, we show that hunting appears economically sustainable in 78% of the observed communities although in most cases this might represent post-depletion sustainability. Our results imply...

  2. The control of classical swine fever in wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eMoennig

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a viral disease with severe economic consequences for domestic pigs. Natural hosts for the CSF virus (CSFV are members of the family Suidae, i.e. Eurasian wild boar (sus scrofa are also susceptible. CSF in wild boar poses a serious threat to domestic pigs. CSFV is an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. Transmission of the infection is usually by direct contact or by feeding of contaminated meat products. In recent decades CSF has been successfully eradicated from Australia, North America, and the European Union. In areas with dense wild boar populations CSF tends to become endemic whereas it is often self-limiting in small, less dense populations. In recent decades eradication strategies of CSF in wild boar have been improved considerably. The reduction of the number of susceptible animals to a threshold level where the basic reproductive number is R0<1 is the major goal of all control efforts. Depending on the epidemiological situation, hunting measures combined with strict hygiene may be effective in areas with a relatively low density of wild boar. Oral immunization was shown to be highly effective in endemic situations in areas with a high density of wild boar.

  3. Automated interactive video playback for studies of animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkowski, Trisha; Yan, Wei; Gray, Aaron M; Cui, Rongfeng; Verzijden, Machteld N; Rosenthal, Gil G

    2011-02-09

    Video playback is a widely-used technique for the controlled manipulation and presentation of visual signals in animal communication. In particular, parameter-based computer animation offers the opportunity to independently manipulate any number of behavioral, morphological, or spectral characteristics in the context of realistic, moving images of animals on screen. A major limitation of conventional playback, however, is that the visual stimulus lacks the ability to interact with the live animal. Borrowing from video-game technology, we have created an automated, interactive system for video playback that controls animations in response to real-time signals from a video tracking system. We demonstrated this method by conducting mate-choice trials on female swordtail fish, Xiphophorus birchmanni. Females were given a simultaneous choice between a courting male conspecific and a courting male heterospecific (X. malinche) on opposite sides of an aquarium. The virtual male stimulus was programmed to track the horizontal position of the female, as courting males do in the wild. Mate-choice trials on wild-caught X. birchmanni females were used to validate the prototype's ability to effectively generate a realistic visual stimulus.

  4. Serological survey for Leishmania sp. infection in wild animals from the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EM Voltarelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania sp. infection was investigated in wild animals from the Ingá Park, in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná state, Brazil, where American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease. Sixty-five mammals, comprising Didelphis albiventris, Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua, were captured. Blood samples were collected for parasite cultivation. Antibodies were investigated by direct agglutination test (DAT using Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis as antigen. Flagellates were observed in blood cultures of 14 (35.9% Didelphis albiventris. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected in 31 (51.6% specimens of Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Cebus apella, Dasyprocta azarae, Procyon cancrivorus and Nasua nasua. These results suggest that Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex vetulus (crab-eating fox, Cebus apella (capuchin monkey, Dasyprocta azarae (agouti, Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon and Nasua nasua (coati play an important role in the ACL transmission cycle in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

  5. Factors influencing interactions in zoos: animal-keeper relationship, animal-public interactions and solitary animals groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interactions that animals experience can have a significant influence on their health and welfare. These interactions can occur between animals themselves, but also between animals and keepers, and animals and the public. Human and non-human animals come into contact with each other in a variety of settings, and wherever there is contact there is the opportunity for interaction to take place. Interaction with companion animals are well known, but human–animal interaction (HAR (Hosey, 2008 also occurs in the context of farms (Hemsworth and Gonyou, 1997; Hemsworth, 2003, laboratories (Chang and Hart, 2002, zoos (Kreger and Mench, 1995 and even the wild (e.g. Cassini, 2001. This project proposes a permanent monitoring scheme to record animal-human interactions and animal-animal interactions in zoos. This will be accompanied by a survey of animal personality for welfare, husbandry, breeding programs and reintroduction purposes. The pilot project is currently based on direct monitoring of animal behaviour, use of time lapse cameras and animal personality questionnaires completed by experienced keepers. The goal of this project is to create a network between zoos to explore the aforementioned interactions to produce husbandry protocols and explore personality and behavioural traits in multiple species. We present provisional data regarding polar bear (Fasano Zoosafari, Italy, Sumatran tigers, Amur tigers and Asiatic lion (ZSL London and Whipsnade zoo interactions with humans and conspecifics. This data is collected across a broad range of environmental conditions and outlines the monitoring protocols developed to collect this data. The first year data show the great adaptability of these species to ex situ environments, low or absent negative impact of visitors’ presence and the relevance of individual personality in these interactions.

  6. Isolation and characterization of a novel Rhabdovirus from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kouji; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Hamasaki, Chinami; Kuwata, Ryusei; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kazuo; Endoh, Daiji; Nagata, Noriyo; Nagai, Makoto; Katayama, Yukie; Oba, Mami; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Morikawa, Shigeru; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Maeda, Ken

    2015-09-30

    A novel rhabdovirus was isolated from the serum of a healthy Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) and identified using the rapid determination system for viral nucleic acid sequences (RDV), next-generation sequencing, and electron microscopy. The virus was tentatively named wild boar rhabdovirus 1 (WBRV1). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire genome sequence indicated that WBRV1 is closely related to Tupaia rhabdovirus (TRV), which was isolated from cultured cells of hepatocellular carcinoma tissue of tree shrew. TRV has not been assigned to any genus of Rhabdoviridae till date. Analysis of the L gene indicated that WBRV1 belongs to the genus Vesiculovirus. These observations suggest that both TRV and WBRV1 belong to a new genus of Rhabdoviridae. Next-generation genome sequencing of WBRV1 revealed 5 open reading frames of 1329, 765, 627, 1629, and 6336 bases in length. The WBRV1 gene sequences are similar to those of other rhabdoviruses. Epizootiological analysis of a population of wild boars in Wakayama prefecture in Japan indicated that 6.5% were positive for the WBRV1 gene and 52% were positive for WBRV1-neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, such viral neutralizing antibodies were found in domestic pigs in another prefecture. WBRV1 was inoculated intranasally and intraperitoneally into SCID and BALB/c mice and viral RNA was detected in SCID mice, suggesting that WBRV1 can replicate in immunocompromised mice. These results indicate this novel virus is endemic in wild animals and livestock in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Carotenoid coloration is related to fat digestion efficiency in a wild bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Christina; Hutton, Pierce; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Sepp, Tuul

    2017-12-01

    Some of the most spectacular visual signals found in the animal kingdom are based on dietarily derived carotenoid pigments (which cannot be produced de novo), with a general assumption that carotenoids are limited resources for wild organisms, causing trade-offs in allocation of carotenoids to different physiological functions and ornamentation. This resource trade-off view has been recently questioned, since the efficiency of carotenoid processing may relax the trade-off between allocation toward condition or ornamentation. This hypothesis has so far received little exploratory support, since studies of digestive efficiency of wild animals are limited due to methodological difficulties. Recently, a method for quantifying the percentage of fat in fecal samples to measure digestive efficiency has been developed in birds. Here, we use this method to test if the intensity of the carotenoid-based coloration predicts digestive efficiency in a wild bird, the house finch ( Haemorhous mexicanus). The redness of carotenoid feather coloration (hue) positively predicted digestion efficiency, with redder birds being more efficient at absorbing fats from seeds. We show for the first time in a wild species that digestive efficiency predicts ornamental coloration. Though not conclusive due to the correlative nature of our study, these results strongly suggest that fat extraction might be a crucial but overlooked process behind many ornamental traits.

  8. Personalities influence spatial responses to environmental fluctuations in wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Ríos, David; Réale, Denis; Freitas, Carla; Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben M

    2018-06-11

    1.Although growing evidence supports the idea that animal personality can explain plasticity in response to changes in the social environment, it remains to be tested whether it can explain spatial responses of individuals in the face of natural environmental fluctuations. This is a major challenge in ecology and evolution as spatial dynamics link individual- and population-level processes. 2.In this study we investigated the potential of individual personalities to predict differences in fish behaviour in the wild. Specifically, our goal was to answer if individual differences in plasticity of space use to sea surface temperature could be explained by differences in personality along the reactive-proactive axis. 3.To address this question we first conducted repeated standard laboratory assays (i.e. open-field test, novel object test and mirror-stimulation test) to assess the personality type of 76 wild-caught Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Next, we released the fish back into the sea and monitored their spatial behaviour over large temporal (16 months) and spatial (a whole fjord) scales, using high-resolution acoustic tracking. 4. We demonstrate that 1) cod personality traits are structured into a proactive-reactive syndrome (proactive fish being more bold, exploratory and aggressive), 2) mean depth use of individuals is mainly driven by sea temperature and 3) personality is a significant predictor of home range changes in the wild, where reactive, but not proactive, individuals reduced their home range as sea temperature increased. 5. These findings expand our understanding of the ecological consequences of animal personality and the mechanisms shaping spatial dynamics of animals in nature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  9. Isolation of Ovicidal Fungi from Fecal Samples of Captive Animals Maintained in a Zoological Park

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, José A.; Vázquez-Ruiz, Rosa A.; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F.; Valderrábano, Esther; Arroyo, Fabián L.; Francisco, Iván; Miguélez, Silvia; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Arias, María S.

    2017-01-01

    There are certain saprophytic fungi in the soil able to develop an antagonistic effect against eggs of parasites. Some of these fungal species are ingested by animals during grazing, and survive in their feces after passing through the digestive tract. To identify and isolate ovicidal fungi in the feces of wild captive animals, a total of 60 fecal samples were taken from different wild animals kept captive in the Marcelle Natureza Zoological Park (Lugo, Spain). After the serial culture of the...

  10. RAPD-based genotyping of Malassezia pachydermatis from Domestic and wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Cristina Kagueyama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia pachydermatis (M. pachydermatis is a fungus of importance in human and veterinary medicine. Although a part of the normal microbiota, it can sometimes be present in its pathogenic form, particularly causing otitis and dermatitis in animals. Among human beings, it mainly affects immune compromised patients and newborns, causing simple pustulosis, seborrheic dermatitis, tinea versicolor or fungemia. This study aimed to analyze the genomic polymorphism in M. pachydermatis samples isolated from Canis familiaris (domestic dog, Felis catus (domestic cat, and Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater. Two hundred and fourteen samples were collected and cultured in Sabouraud agar with chloranphenicol (100mg L-1 and incubated at 37 °C for a period of 7 to 10 days. One hundred and sixty six samples that appeared morphologically comparable to yeast cultures were processed for DNA extraction and PCR was performed for a specific region in the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS of M. pachydermatis. Among these, seven (4.21% were negative and 159 (95.79% were positive. Of the 159 positive samples, 102 (64.15% were from animals with clinical signs and 57 (35.85% without clinical signs. Fifty-seven samples were selected at random for RAPD-PCR based genotyping and distributed into four genetic groups. Types I and II were more frequent in animals with clinical signs while type III was frequent in healthy animals. Type IV occurred evenly across animals with or without clinical signs. These results indicate differences in pathogenicity of the fungus based on the genotype.

  11. Blood meal sources of wild and domestic Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Bolivia: connectivity between cycles of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Rosio; Bosseno, Marie-France; Depickère, Stéphanie; Waleckx, Etienne; Salas, Renata; Aliaga, Claudia; Barnabé, Christian; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2016-04-18

    Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Latin America. Its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is mainly transmitted through the contaminated faeces of blood-sucking insects called triatomines. Triatoma infestans is the main vector in various countries in South America and recently, several foci of wild populations of this species have been described in Bolivia and other countries. These wild populations are suspected of affecting the success of insecticide control campaigns being carried out in South America. To assess the risk that these T. infestans populations pose to human health, it is helpful to determine blood meal sources. In the present work, blood meals were identified in various Bolivian wild T. infestans populations and in three specific areas, in both wild and intra-peridomestic populations to assess the links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. PCR-HDA and sequencing of Cytb gene were used to identify these blood meal sources. Fourteen vertebrate species were identified as wild blood meal sources. Of those, the most prevalent species were two Andean endemic rodents, Octodontomys gliroides (36%) and Galea musteloides (30%), while humans were the third most prevalent source (18.7%). Of 163 blood meals from peridomestic areas, more than half were chickens, and the others were generally domestic animals or humans. Interestingly, blood from wild animals was identified in triatomines captured in the peridomestic and domestic environment, and blood from domestic animals was found in triatomines captured in the wild, revealing links between wild and domestic cycles of T. cruzi transmission. The current study suggests that wild T. infestans attack humans in the wild, but is also able to bite humans in domestic settings before going back to its natural environment. These results support the risk to human health posed by wild populations of T. infestans.

  12. Evidence for Chlamydiaceae and Parachlamydiaceae in a wild boar (Sus scrofa population in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Di Francesco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival swabs from 44 free-living wild boars culled during a demographic control programme applied in a Regional Park located in the Northern Italy were examined by 16S rRNA encoding gene nested PCR. In total, 22 (50% wild boars were PCR positive. Sequencing of the amplicons identified Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia pecorum in 12 and 5 samples, respectively. For one sample found PCR positive, the nucleotide sequence could not be determined. Four conjunctival samples showed ≥ 92% sequence similarities to 16S rRNA sequences from Chlamydia-like organisms, as did large intestine, uterus, and vaginal swabs from the same four animals. Amoeba DNA was found in one Chlamydia-like organism positive conjunctival swab. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of members of the Parachlamydiaceae family in wild boars, confirming a large animal host range for Chlamydia-like organisms.

  13. Understanding Adolescents' Categorisation of Animal Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Melanie; Lawrence, Alistair B

    2017-08-30

    Categorisations are a means of investigating cognitive maps. The present study, for the first time, investigates adolescents' spontaneous categorisation of 34 animal species. Furthermore, explicit evaluations of 16 selected animals in terms of their perceived utility and likeability were analysed. 105 British adolescents, 54% female, mean age 14.5 (SD = 1.6) participated in the study. Results of multidimensional scaling (MDS) techniques indicate 3-dimensional data representation regardless of gender or age. Property fittings show that affect and perceived utility of animals explain two of the MDS dimensions, and hence partly explain adolescents' categorisation. Additionally, hierarchical cluster analyses show a differentiation between farm animals, birds, pet animals, and wild animals possibly explaining MDS dimension 3. The results suggest that utility perceptions predominantly underlie adolescents' categorisations and become even more dominant in older adolescents, which potentially has an influence on attitudes to animals with implications for animal welfare, conservation, and education.

  14. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations

  15. Phaeohyphomycoses, emerging opportunistic diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations

  16. Animator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  17. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potentially zoonotic helminths in wild boars (Sus scrofa hunted in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Amerigo Papini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the risk of human toxoplasmosis via meat consumption from wild boars by estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in animals hunted in central Italy. Using a modified agglutination test, 213 sera from wild boars were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Diaphragm samples (n=65 from seropositive and seronegative animals were tested by nested-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. Toxoplasma DNA from diaphragms was genotyped by PCR-RFLP using 12 genetic markers. Moreover, the aim of the study was also to identify helminth infections of wild boars in the selected area and to evaluate their hazard for humans. Examination of sera revealed a seroprevalence of 12.2%. Only one T. gondii strain could be genotyped from a seropositive animal and PCR-RFLP revealed that it belonged to type II. Analysis of 50 samples of faeces and 32 small intestines revealed that 78% and 15.6% of the samples harboured parasites, respectively, with the occurrence of parasites potentially dangerous for humans. These latter included Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Trichuris suis, and Metastrongylus spp. A significant association was found between coprological positivity and male sex. These results indicate that T. gondii infection may be present in wild boar tissues and consumption of undercooked or raw wild boar meat may expose humans to risk of toxoplasmosis in the study area. Furthermore, the study highlights that wild boars are hosts of helminths of veterinary and medical importance transmissible to pigs and humans.

  18. Assessing landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs and support for control options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplenor, Carlotta A; Poudyal, Neelam C; Muller, Lisa I; Yoest, Chuck

    2017-10-01

    Wild hogs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species with destructive habits, particularly rooting and wallowing, which can directly impact agricultural crops, pasture land, and water quality. Considering wild hogs are widely dispersed across the landscape, they are extremely difficult to control. Disagreements can arise among different stakeholders over whether and how their populations should be managed. The purpose of this article was to examine Tennessee, United States landowners' attitudes toward wild hogs, to compare acceptability of control methods, and to evaluate factors significantly influencing public support for regulations to control wild hogs. Logistic regression was employed to analyze data collected from a statewide survey of rural landowners in the fall of 2015. Landowners had overwhelmingly negative attitudes towards wild hogs, and were concerned about their impact on the natural environment and rural economy. Although landowners showed support for controlling wild hogs, levels of acceptability for management options varied. Respondents favored active management and supported education and incentive-based control programs to control wild hogs. Cognitive concepts such as social and personal norms and awareness of consequences, as well as demographic characteristics, significantly predicted landowners' support for state regulations to control wild hogs in Tennessee. Findings increase our understanding of the human dimensions of wild hog management and that of other similarly invasive animals, and may guide resource managers in designing effective and socially acceptable management strategies to control wild hog populations in Tennessee and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Importance of Wild Canids in the Epidemiology of Rabies in Northeast Brazil: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, R de A; Duarte, N F H; Rolim, B N; Soares Júnior, F A; Franco, I C F; Ferrer, L L; Almeida, C P; Duarte, B H; de Araújo, D B; Rocha, M F G; Brilhante, R S N; Favoretto, S R; Sidrim, J J C

    2016-09-01

    Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health. From January 2003 to December 2013, a total of 11 931 animal samples were examined for rabies. Positivity were detected in 438 samples (3.67%), of which 229 (52.28%) were domestic animals, 105 (23.97%) wild canids and 104 (23.74%) other wild animals (bats, marmosets and raccoons). Approximately 33% of wild canids surveyed (n = 317) were positive for rabies. During the studied period, a total of 1923 attacks on humans by wild canids were registered. Males (n = 1405) were more affected than females (n = 520; 72.98% versus 27.01%), and the median age of all cases was 36.5 years. Injuries to individuals up to 19 years old corresponded to approximately 30% (n = 565) of all cases. Most of the victims lived in rural areas (72.46%; n = 1395), and the majority showed bites (81.13%; n = 1677) or scratches (12.23%; n = 253). Injuries were considered profound (52.1%; n = 1003), superficial (40.91; n = 788) or multiple with severe laceration (6.98%; n = 134). Only 1300 (67.53%) victims were enrolled for the complete rabies post-exposure prophylaxis scheme. Data from the present study confirm that wild canids are important hosts of rabies virus in northeastern Brazil and jeopardize rabies control in this area. Local authorities should focus their efforts in education of health professionals. In addition, strategies should be formulated to preserve wildlife. © 2016 Blackwell

  20. Can interbreeding of wild and artificially propagated animals be prevented by using broodstock selected for a divergent life history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamons, Todd R; Hauser, Lorenz; Naish, Kerry A; Quinn, Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    Two strategies have been proposed to avoid negative genetic effects of artificially propagated individuals on wild populations: (i) integration of wild and captive populations to minimize domestication selection and (ii) segregation of released individuals from the wild population to minimize interbreeding. We tested the efficacy of the strategy of segregation by divergent life history in a steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, system, where hatchery fish were selected to spawn months earlier than the indigenous wild population. The proportion of wild ancestry smolts and adults declined by 10–20% over the three generations since the hatchery program began. Up to 80% of the naturally produced steelhead in any given year were hatchery/wild hybrids. Regression model selection analysis showed that the proportion of hatchery ancestry smolts was lower in years when stream discharge was high, suggesting a negative effect of flow on reproductive success of early-spawning hatchery fish. Furthermore, proportions of hybrid smolts and adults were higher in years when the number of naturally spawning hatchery-produced adults was higher. Divergent life history failed to prevent interbreeding when physical isolation was ineffective, an inadequacy that is likely to prevail in many other situations. PMID:23144657

  1. 14C and tritium dynamics in wild mammals: a metabolic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Beresford, N.A.; Melintescu, A.; Crout, N.M.J.; Takeda, H.

    2004-01-01

    The protection of biota from ionising radiations needs reliable predictions of radionuclide dynamics in wild animals. Data specific for many wild animals radionuclide combinations is lacking and a number of approaches including allometry have been proposed to address this. However, for 14 C and tritium, which are integral components of animals tissues and their diets, a different approach is needed in the absence of experimental data. Here we propose a metabolically based model which can be parameterized predominantly on the basis of published metabolic data. We begin with a metabolic definition of the 14 C and OBT loss rate (assumed to be the same) from the whole body and also specific organs, using available information on field metabolic rate and body composition. The mammalian body is conceptually partitioned into compartments (body water, viscera, adipose, muscle, blood and remainder) and a simple model defined using net maintenance and growth needs of mammals. Intake and excretion, and transfer to body water are modelled using basic metabolic knowledge and published relationships. The model is tested with data from studies using rats and sheep. It provides a reliable prediction for whole body and muscle activity concentrations without the requirement for any calibration specific to 3 H and 14 C. Predictions from the model for representative wild mammals (as selected to be reference organisms within international programmes) are presented. Potential developments of a metabolic model for birds and the application of our work to human food chain modelling are also discussed. (author)

  2. Distribution of 137Cs in Meat and Internal Organs of Wild Boar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, D.; Marovic, G.; Skoko, B.; Vickovic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most common species of game on the territory of Croatia. Similarly to other game, it can accumulate fission products more effectively than domestic animals. Therefore, it is a good biondicator for radioactive contamination of ecosystems. The purpose of our research has been to investigate current radioactive contamination of wild boars by 137Cs and its distribution inside the animal body. Therefore, during the winter of 2009 and summer of 2010, we collected samples of meat, internal organs (heart, lungs, spleen, kidney and liver) and bones from 11 animals. All the animals were from the area of the research locality S umbar . The average activity concentration of 137Cs found in meat samples was (1.47 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , and in bones (0.12 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 . Activity concentration found in organs was (in ascending order): lungs (1.63 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , spleen (2.29 ± 0.04) Bqkg -1 , liver (2.54 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , heart (2.70 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , and kidney (3.18 ± 0.06) Bqkg -1 . We also calculated the values of the ratio of activity concentrations in internal organs and meat. Comparison of the obtained values with those for samples collected after the Chernobyl accident shows that the present ones are higher for liver and kidney, while those for heart are almost the same. Since vital organs of wild boars are more loaded than meat and bones, the impact of radioactive contamination on health of these animals should be more closely investigated. Also, these results imply that kidney is the most accumulating organ for 137Cs.(author)

  3. Distemper outbreak and its effect on African wild dog conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.M. Visee; S. Lema; A.R. Fitzjohn; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn December 2000, an infectious disease spread through a captive breeding group of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Tanzania, killing 49 of 52 animals within 2 months. The causative agent was identified as Canine distemper virus (CDV) by means of histologic examination, virus

  4. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Wild, Semi-Wild and Captive Orangutans (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus) on Sumatra and Borneo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynářová, Anna; Foitová, Ivona; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Rost, Michael; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Nguyen, Cathleen; Supriyadi, Supriyadi; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Orangutans are critically endangered primarily due to loss and fragmentation of their natural habitat. This could bring them into closer contact with humans and increase the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. To describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium spp., microsporidia and Giardia intestinalis in orangutans at seven sites on Sumatra and Kalimantan, and to evaluate the impact of orangutans' habituation and location on the occurrence of these zoonotic protists. The overall prevalence of parasites in 298 examined animals was 11.1%. The most prevalent microsporidia was Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II, found in 21 animals (7.0%). Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D (n = 5) and novel genotype Pongo 2 were detected only in six individuals (2.0%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these parasites in orangutans. Eight animals were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. (2.7%), including C. parvum (n = 2) and C. muris (n = 6). Giardia intestinalis assemblage B, subtype MB6, was identified in a single individual. While no significant differences between the different human contact level groups (p = 0.479-0.670) or between the different islands (p = 0.992) were reported in case of E. bieneusi or E. cuniculi, Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly less frequently detected in wild individuals (p < 2×10-16) and was significantly more prevalent in orangutans on Kalimantan than on Sumatra (p < 2×10-16). Our results revealed that wild orangutans are significantly less frequently infected by Cryptosporidium spp. than captive and semi-wild animals. In addition, this parasite was more frequently detected at localities on Kalimantan. In contrast, we did not detect any significant difference in the prevalence of microsporidia between the studied groups of animals. The sources and transmission modes of infections were not determined, as this would require repeated sampling of individuals, examination of water sources, and sampling of humans

  5. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Wild, Semi-Wild and Captive Orangutans (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus on Sumatra and Borneo, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mynářová

    Full Text Available Orangutans are critically endangered primarily due to loss and fragmentation of their natural habitat. This could bring them into closer contact with humans and increase the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission.To describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium spp., microsporidia and Giardia intestinalis in orangutans at seven sites on Sumatra and Kalimantan, and to evaluate the impact of orangutans' habituation and location on the occurrence of these zoonotic protists.The overall prevalence of parasites in 298 examined animals was 11.1%. The most prevalent microsporidia was Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II, found in 21 animals (7.0%. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D (n = 5 and novel genotype Pongo 2 were detected only in six individuals (2.0%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these parasites in orangutans. Eight animals were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. (2.7%, including C. parvum (n = 2 and C. muris (n = 6. Giardia intestinalis assemblage B, subtype MB6, was identified in a single individual. While no significant differences between the different human contact level groups (p = 0.479-0.670 or between the different islands (p = 0.992 were reported in case of E. bieneusi or E. cuniculi, Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly less frequently detected in wild individuals (p < 2×10-16 and was significantly more prevalent in orangutans on Kalimantan than on Sumatra (p < 2×10-16.Our results revealed that wild orangutans are significantly less frequently infected by Cryptosporidium spp. than captive and semi-wild animals. In addition, this parasite was more frequently detected at localities on Kalimantan. In contrast, we did not detect any significant difference in the prevalence of microsporidia between the studied groups of animals. The sources and transmission modes of infections were not determined, as this would require repeated sampling of individuals, examination of water sources, and sampling of

  6. Assessing the Impact of Capture on Wild Animals: The Case Study of Chemical Immobilisation on Alpine Ibex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Brivio

    Full Text Available The importance of capturing wild animals for research and conservation projects is widely shared. As this activity continues to become more common, the need to assess its negative effects increases so as to ensure ethical standards and the validity of research results. Increasing evidence has revealed that indirect (physiological and behavioural effects of capture are as important as direct risks (death or injury and that different capture methodologies can cause heterogeneous effects. We investigated the influence of chemical immobilisation on Alpine ibex (Capra ibex: during the days following the capture we collected data on spatial behaviour, activity levels of both males and females, and male hormone levels. Moreover, we recorded the reproductive status of each marked female during the breeding seasons of 15 years. Then, by several a priori models we investigated the effects of the capture taking into account biological factors and changes in environmental conditions. Our results showed that chemical immobilisation did not affect either spatial behaviour (for both males and females or male hormone levels, though both sexes showed reduced activity levels up to two days after the capture. The capture did not significantly affect the likelihood for a female to give birth in the following summer. Our findings highlighted the scarce impact of chemical immobilisation on ibex biology, as we detected alteration of activity levels only immediately after the capture if compared to the following days (i.e., baseline situation. Hence, the comparison of our findings with previous research showed that our methodology is one of the less invasive procedures to capture large mammals. Nonetheless, in areas characterised by high predator density, we suggest that animals released be carefully monitored for some hours after the capture. Moreover, researchers should avoid considering data collected during the first days after the manipulation in order to avoid

  7. Seroprevalence of tick-borne-encephalitis virus in wild game in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (north-eastern Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, Silvius; Leister, Matthias; Löbermann, Micha; Feldhusen, Frerk; Seelmann, Matthias; Süss, Jochen; Reisinger, Emil Christian

    2016-10-01

    Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, a federal state in the north east of Germany, has never been a risk area for TBEV infection, but a few autochthonous cases, along with TBEV-RNA detection in ticks, have shown a low level of activity in natural foci of the virus in the past. As wild game and domestic animals have been shown to be useful sentinels for TBEV we examined sera from wild game shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania for the prevalence of TBEV antibodies. A total of 359 sera from wild game were investigated. All animals were shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 2012. Thirteen of 359 sera tested positive or borderline for anti-TBEV-IgG with ELISA and four samples tested positive using NT. The four TBEV-positive sera confirmed by NT constitute the first detection of TBEV-antibodies in sera of wild game in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania since 1986-1989. This underlines that the serological examination of wild game can be a useful tool in defining areas of possible TBEV infection, especially in areas of low TBEV-endemicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Lawsonia intracellularis in the feces of wild rodents and stray cats captured around equine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong-Min; Seo, Myung-Ji; Yeh, Jung-Yong

    2017-08-11

    Proliferative enteropathy is a global enteric disease of particular importance in pigs. The causative bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis, has a wide range of susceptible host species. Recently, L. intracellularis has been recognized as an etiologic agent of an emerging enteric disease in foals called equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). The presence of L. intracellularis in nonruminant wildlife has raised questions regarding the role of these species in EPE transmission. This study investigated exposure to L. intracellularis in wild rodents and feral cats from eight farms with confirmed EPE. Serum (42) and fecal (40) samples from resident foals and fecal samples (131), intestinal mucosa tissues (14), and mesenteric lymph nodes (14) from wild and feral animals were collected for the evaluation of the farm status and the molecular detection of L. intracellularis following the diagnosis of EPE in index cases. Fresh feces from wild rodents and feral cats were collected from the ground while walking the premises or after trapping the animals using live traps. A total of 3 brown rats, 7 house mice, 1 striped field mouse, 2 grey red-backed voles, and 3 feral cats showed evidence of prior exposure to L. intracellularis. Our data add to increasing evidence demonstrating the potential for L. intracellularis transmission and infection in wild rodents and feral cats and provide possible evidence of interspecies transmission. The exposure of wild rodents and feral cats provides potential evidence for the spillover of L. intracellularis to wildlife species and raises the question of spillback to horses. Additionally, these animals may represent an indicator of environmental exposure or may be actively involved in the transmission of L. intracellularis to foals by acting as potential reservoir/amplifier hosts. This study is the first to demonstrate the magnitude of L. intracellularis shedding in the feces of wild rodents and feral cats and to indicate the significant

  9. Avian Influenza H5N1 and the Wild Bird Trade in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Brooks-Moizer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife trade and emerging infectious diseases pose significant threats to human and animal health and global biodiversity. Legal and illegal trade in domestic and wild birds has played a significant role in the global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, which has killed more than 240 people, many millions of poultry, and an unknown number of wild birds and mammals, including endangered species, since 2003. This 2007 study provides evidence for a significant decline in the scale of the wild bird trade in Hanoi since previous surveys in 2000 (39.7% decline and 2003 (74.1% decline. We attribute this to the enforcement of Vietnam's Law 169/2005/QD UBND, introduced in 2005, which prohibits the movement and sale of wild and ornamental birds in cities. Nevertheless, 91.3% (21/23 of bird vendors perceived no risk of H5N1 infection from their birds, and the trade continues, albeit at reduced levels, in open market shops. These findings highlight the importance of continued law enforcement to maintain this trade reduction and the associated benefits to human and animal health and biodiversity conservation.

  10. Selection signature in domesticated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhang-yuan; He, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiang-yu; Guo, Xiao-fei; Cao, Xiao-han; Hu, Wen-ping; Di, Ran; Liu, Qiu-yue; Chu, Ming-xing

    2016-12-20

    Domesticated animals play an important role in the life of humanity. All these domesticated animals undergo same process, first domesticated from wild animals, then after long time natural and artificial selection, formed various breeds that adapted to the local environment and human needs. In this process, domestication, natural and artificial selection will leave the selection signal in the genome. The research on these selection signals can find functional genes directly, is one of the most important strategies in screening functional genes. The current studies of selection signal have been performed in pigs, chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and other domestic animals, and found a great deal of functional genes. This paper provided an overview of the types and the detected methods of selection signal, and outlined researches of selection signal in domestic animals, and discussed the key issues in selection signal analysis and its prospects.

  11. Activity of Cs-137 in red deer and wild boar in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missik, J [Agricultural Univ. Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology; Puskeiler, L; Miklas, P [Inst. of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, Nitra (Slovakia). Lab. of Radiometry and Radioecology

    1996-12-31

    Results of monitoring the activity of radiocesium in game animals from various parts of Slovakia are presented. Samples of game flesh were collected by veterinary officials during hunting seasons 1988-1994. More than 80 % of samples came from following districts of Slovakia: Ziar nad Hronom, Prievidza, Martin, Rimavska Sobota, Senica, Banska Bystrica, Roznava, Poprad and Spisska Nova Ves. All measurements were carried out using gamma spectrometric system equipped with 4 high purity germanium detectors. Presented results were obtained using statistical evaluation for left-censored log-normal distribution of data sets. Overall activities of Cs-137 found in red deer and wild boards in Slovakia are considerably lower, than activities reported in game animals from some parts of Northern Moravia, Southern Bohemia and Austria. While the mean activities in red deer show a decreasing tendency, mean activities of wild boar are low, but with higher occurrence of extreme values, and hence, higher variance. The observed difference could be explained by the feeding habits of wild boar: grubbing in the ground for worms, larvae, roots, etc. can lead to presence of up to 20 % of contaminated soil in their stomach. At the same time wild boars often graze farmlands, where the activity of the Cs-137 in the top soil layer is reduced by ploughing and radiocesium on clay particles. Fraction of farmlands in the home range of the wild boars and the time of shooting could contribute to observed variations in radiocesium activity. (J.K.) 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  12. A Concise Review of Amyloidosis in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Woldemeskel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis refers to a group of protein misfolding diseases characterized by deposition of a particular amyloid protein in various organs and tissues of animals and humans. Various types and clinical forms of amyloidosis, in which the pathology and pathogenesis is diverse depending upon the underlying causes and species affected, are reported in domestic and wild animals. The clinical findings are also quite variable consequent to the variation of the tissues and organs involved and the extent of functional disruption of the affected organs in various animal species. The affected organs may be enlarged and exhibit variable pallor grossly, or the amyloid deposit may be discernible only after microscopic examination of the affected tissues. Amyloid appears as a pale eosinophilic homogenous extracellular deposit in tissues. However, microscopic examination and Congo red staining with green birefringence under polarized light are needed to confirm amyloid and differentiate it from other apparently similar extracellular deposits such as collagen and fibrin. Identifying the type of amyloid deposit needs immunohistochemical staining, ultrastructural characterization of the amyloid fibril, and if feasible also genetic studies of the involved species for clinical and prognostic purposes. This paper provides a concise review of the occurrence of amyloidosis in domestic and wild animals.

  13. Investigation of Nematode Diversity using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fluorescent Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacor, Taylor; Howell, Carina

    2013-03-01

    Nematode worms account for the vast majority of the animals in the biosphere. They are colossally important to global public health as parasites, and to agriculture both as pests and as beneficial inhabitants of healthy soil. Amphid neurons are the anterior chemosensory neurons in nematodes, mediating critical behaviors including chemotaxis and mating. We are examining the cellular morphology and external anatomy of amphid neurons, using fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively, of a wide range of soil nematodes isolated in the wild. We use both classical systematics (e.g. diagnostic keys) and molecular markers (e.g. ribosomal RNA) to classify these wild isolates. Our ultimate aim is to build a detailed anatomical database in order to dissect genetic pathways of neuronal development and function across phylogeny and ecology. Research supported by NSF grants 092304, 0806660, 1058829 and Lock Haven University FPDC grants

  14. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Houston

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Avian influenza virus (AIV infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human activities are thought to spread the virus into domestic populations. Consequently, biosecurity measures have been implemented to limit human-facilitated outbreaks. The 2015 avian influenza outbreak in the United States, which occurred among poultry operations with strict biosecurity controls, suggests that alternative routes of virus infiltration may exist, including bridge hosts: wild animals that transfer virus from areas of high waterfowl and shorebird densities. Methods Here, we examined small, wild birds (songbirds, woodpeckers, etc. and mammals in Iowa, one of the regions hit hardest by the 2015 avian influenza epizootic, to determine whether these animals carry AIV. To assess whether influenza A virus was present in other species in Iowa during our sampling period, we also present results from surveillance of waterfowl by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and Unites Stated Department of Agriculture. Results Capturing animals at wetlands and near poultry facilities, we swabbed 449 individuals, internally and externally, for the presence of influenza A virus and no samples tested positive by qPCR. Similarly, serology from 402 animals showed no antibodies against influenza A. Although several species were captured at both wetland and poultry sites, the overall community structure of wild species differed significantly between these types of sites. In contrast, 83 out of 527 sampled waterfowl tested positive for influenza A via qPCR. Discussion

  15. Evaluating the role of wild songbirds or rodents in spreading avian influenza virus across an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Derek D; Azeem, Shahan; Lundy, Coady W; Sato, Yuko; Guo, Baoqing; Blanchong, Julie A; Gauger, Phillip C; Marks, David R; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Adelman, James S

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections occur naturally in wild bird populations and can cross the wildlife-domestic animal interface, often with devastating impacts on commercial poultry. Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are natural AIV reservoirs and can carry the virus along migratory pathways, often without exhibiting clinical signs. However, these species rarely inhabit poultry farms, so transmission into domestic birds likely occurs through other means. In many cases, human activities are thought to spread the virus into domestic populations. Consequently, biosecurity measures have been implemented to limit human-facilitated outbreaks. The 2015 avian influenza outbreak in the United States, which occurred among poultry operations with strict biosecurity controls, suggests that alternative routes of virus infiltration may exist, including bridge hosts: wild animals that transfer virus from areas of high waterfowl and shorebird densities. Here, we examined small, wild birds (songbirds, woodpeckers, etc.) and mammals in Iowa, one of the regions hit hardest by the 2015 avian influenza epizootic, to determine whether these animals carry AIV. To assess whether influenza A virus was present in other species in Iowa during our sampling period, we also present results from surveillance of waterfowl by the Iowa Department of Natural Resources and Unites Stated Department of Agriculture. Capturing animals at wetlands and near poultry facilities, we swabbed 449 individuals, internally and externally, for the presence of influenza A virus and no samples tested positive by qPCR. Similarly, serology from 402 animals showed no antibodies against influenza A. Although several species were captured at both wetland and poultry sites, the overall community structure of wild species differed significantly between these types of sites. In contrast, 83 out of 527 sampled waterfowl tested positive for influenza A via qPCR. These results suggest that even though influenza A viruses

  16. Animal Welfare: Could Adult Play be a False Friend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Blois-Heulin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus regarding the functions of play. As play behavior is a characteristic of young stages of development, it has been suggested that the higher prevalence of adult play observed in domestic animals could be the result of their “neotenic retardation.” Functional hypotheses have dealt with the long term benefits, such as “rehearsal,” “motor training” for future adult competencies or “training for the unexpected.” However, there is little consistent experimental evidence favoring a particular hypothesis. The present study aimed to test the functional significance of adult play as a potential reliable indicator of good welfare, a by-product of domestication or a tool for social cohesion. Observations of both a domestic species (the horse and wild/captive animals (cercopithecids confirm the literature data that show the greater prevalence of adult play in the domestic/captive situations. This convergence between a domestic and a wild species argue against the idea that adult play may be a mere product of domestication. Moreover, animals living in naturalistic situations had the same low level of adult play as observed in wild animals suggesting that captive/domestic animals do not play only because they are stress free or well fed. Play is not a reliable indicator of welfare: Horses and adult macaques that played the most were also those that exhibited the greatest signals of poor welfare as stereotypic behaviors. Furthermore, adult play was more frequent at times of social disturbances and instability. Adult play is a sign showing that the adult organism needs to evacuate stress.

  17. Use-Wear Patterns on Wild Macaque Stone Tools Reveal Their Behavioural History

    OpenAIRE

    Haslam, Michael; Gumert, Michael D.; Biro, Dora; Carvalho, Susana; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda

    2013-01-01

    Burmese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis aurea) are one of a limited number of wild animal species to use stone tools, with their tool use focused on pounding shelled marine invertebrates foraged from intertidal habitats. These monkeys exhibit two main styles of tool use: axe hammering of oysters, and pound hammering of unattached encased foods. In this study, we examined macroscopic use-wear patterns on a sample of 60 wild macaque stone tools from Piak Nam Yai Island, Thailand, that...

  18. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Diego Silva; Müller, Gertrud

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  19. Hematological profile as a crude oil exposure-related marker in wild rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Muccillo-Baisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of petroleum components is well described in the literature, especially with regard to mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In some groups of animals, such as birds, oil exposure seems to alter blood parameters, while this relationship is poorly understood in rodents. The study aimed to investigate alterations in hematological profile in the wild rodent Calomys laucha exposed to crude oil contaminated soils. In this study, males specimens of Calomys laucha were exposed for 14 days to two soils contaminated by petroleum: (I landfarming soil, coming from a bioremediation area of contaminated soil from a Petrochemical Complex through landfarming technique and (II soil of a simulated oil spill in laboratory conditions. The animals were exposed individually in cages containing 1 kg soil with free access to food and water. Control animals were exposed to an artificial uncontaminated soil. At the end of the experiment, animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for hematological profile. The animals exposed to soil landfarming had significant reduction in the number of bands, segmented, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and increased red cell distribution width (RDW, while animals exposed to simulated soil spillage in laboratory had decreased number of bands, but an increase in the number of lymphocytes and platelets. These changes in hemostasis may indicate an early stage of the development of associated pathologies, while the hematological profile can be used as a crude oil exposure-related marker in wild rodents.

  20. Provisioning the Ritual Neolithic Site of Kfar HaHoresh, Israel at the Dawn of Animal Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Jacqueline S; Goring-Morris, A Nigel; Munro, Natalie D

    2016-01-01

    It is widely agreed that a pivotal shift from wild animal hunting to herd animal management, at least of goats, began in the southern Levant by the Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period (10,000-9,500 cal. BP) when evidence of ritual activities flourished in the region. As our knowledge of this critical change grows, sites that represent different functions and multiple time periods are needed to refine the timing, pace and character of changing human-animal relationships within the geographically variable southern Levant. In particular, we investigate how a ritual site was provisioned with animals at the time when herd management first began in the region. We utilize fauna from the 2010-2012 excavations at the mortuary site of Kfar HaHoresh-the longest continuous Pre-Pottery Neolithic B faunal sequence in the south Levantine Mediterranean Hills (Early-Late periods, 10,600-8,700 cal. BP). We investigate the trade-off between wild and domestic progenitor taxa and classic demographic indicators of management to detect changes in hunted animal selection and control over herd animal movement and reproduction. We find that ungulate selection at Kfar HaHoresh differs from neighboring sites, although changes in dietary breadth, herd demographics and body-size data fit the regional pattern of emerging management. Notably, wild ungulates including aurochs and gazelle are preferentially selected to provision Kfar HaHoresh in the PPNB, despite evidence that goat management was underway in the Mediterranean Hills. The preference for wild animals at this important site likely reflects their symbolic significance in ritual and mortuary practice.

  1. Wild foods (plants and animals in the green famine belt of Ethiopia: Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daie Ferede Guyu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA, a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5 % and 9 % of, gross and, net food available from all sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2 = 0.467 was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r = 0.174. Wild vegetables were the most collected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4 % of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6 % reported "reduced source of wild foods" as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2 % than the non-indigenous (34.1 % ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion: From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and

  2. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  3. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Wild boars, Sus scrofa , are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin's solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli , 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki , 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  4. Evaluation of pathogenesis caused in cattle and guinea pig by a Mycobacterium bovis strain isolated from wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Rienzo Julio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many regions of the world, wild mammals act as reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis, a situation that prevents the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. In order to observe whether a strain isolated from a wild boar, previously tested as highly virulent in a mice model, is also virulent in cattle, we performed cattle experimental inoculation with this strain Results Groups of Friesian calves were either infected with the wild boar strain M. bovis 04-303 or with the bovine strain NCTC10772 as a control. We found that antigen-specific IFN-γ release in whole blood samples occurred earlier in animals infected with M. bovis 04-303. Both M. bovis strains resulted in a positive skin test, with animals infected with the wild boar isolate showing a stronger response. These results and the presence of more severe organ lesions, with granuloma and pneumonic areas in cattle demonstrate that the wild boar isolate is more virulent than the NCTC10772 strain. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of the M. bovis strains in guinea pigs and found that M. bovis 04-303 had the highest pathogenicity. Conclusions M. bovis strains isolated from wild boars may be pathogenic for cattle, producing TB lesions.

  5. Global Avian Influenza Surveillance in Wild Birds: A Strategy to Capture Viral Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalaba, Catherine C.; Elwood, Sarah E.; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M.; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B.; Swayne, David E.; Webby, Richard J.; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health–administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008–2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. PMID:25811221

  6. [Labeling, defects, possibilities--animal welfare in the identification of animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormuth, H J

    1991-09-01

    Marking is necessary not only for handling animals, but also because of animal welfare. The method itself, however, can sometimes reveal deficiencies concerning protection of animals. These deficiencies are presented and discussed. In this context, the new electronic identification system--based upon implantable microchips--is considered. It is judged upon as particularly positive compared to other methods. Ideas are presented regarding special fields of application.

  7. The spread of a novel behavior in wild chimpanzees: New insights into the ape cultural mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    For years, the animal culture debate has been dominated by the puzzling absence of direct evidence for social transmission of behavioral innovations in the flagship species of animal culture, the common chimpanzee. Although social learning of novel behaviors has been documented in captivity, critics argue that these findings lack ecological validity and therefore may not be relevant for understanding the evolution of culture. For the wild, it is possible that group-specific behavioral differences emerge because group members respond individually to unspecified environmental differences, rather than learning from each other. In a recent paper, we used social network analyses in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) to provide direct evidence for social transmission of a behavioral innovation, moss-sponging, to extract water from a tree hole. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings and how our new methodological approach could help future studies of social learning and culture in wild apes.

  8. Parasitic helminths of the digestive system of wild boars bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the parasites that inhabit the digestive system of Sus scrofa scrofa from a commercial breeding facility in southern Brazil, and reports the first occurrence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis in wild boars. The gastrointestinal tracts of 40 wild boars from a commercial breeding facility were collected and individualized during slaughter in a cold-storage slaughterhouse. Out of this total, 87.5% were parasitized by the helminths Ascaris suum,Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis. T. colubriformis presented a prevalence of 45%, mean intensity of 28.4 and mean abundance of 12.8. The data from this study showed that T. colubriformis not only has a capacity to develop in the small intestines of wild boars, but also adapts well to animals raised in captivity, thus representing a possible cause of economic loss in commercial wild boar farming.

  9. Liver steatosis study_PFAA treated Wild type and PPAR KO mouse data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data set 1 consists of the experimental data for the Wild Type and PPAR KO animal study and includes data used to prepare Figures 1-4 and Table 1 of the Das et al,...

  10. Wild foods (plants and animals) in the green famine belt of Ethiopia:Do they contribute to household resilience to seasonal food insecurity?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daie Ferede Guyu; Wolde-Tsadik Muluneh

    2016-01-01

    Background:The role of wild foods in combating problems of food shortage is paramount. However, existing approaches to combat food insecurity shock have generally focused on reducing vulnerability via increasing productivity of domesticated foods. In contrast, approaches that enhance resilience mainly through wild food sources have been less focused. This study examined the contribution of wild foods to household resilience to food insecurity in the green famine belt of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 220 households was conducted using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and semi-participant observations. Factor analysis was run using SPSS to analyze data. Correlation analysis was used to examine the direction and strength of association between wild foods and the income and food access (IFA), a latent proxy indicator of resilience. Cross-tabulation was also run to determine the proportion of households in each ethno-culture group under each resilience category. Results: The mean amount of wild foods obtained by households was 156.61 kg per household per annum. This was about 5%and 9%of, gross and, net food available from al sources respectively. Wild foods contributed well to household resilience as the factor loading (Factor2=0.467) was large enough and were significantly correlated with IFA (r=0.174). Wild vegetables were the most col ected and consumed type of wild foods constituting 52.4%of total amount of wild foods. The total amount of wild foods was smaller than that of domesticated sources of food. The majority of households (38.6%) reported"reduced source of wild foods"as a reason for this. Smaller proportion of the indigenous (11.2%) than the non-indigenous (34.1%) ethno-culture group reported one or more reasons for their lower level of dependence on wild foods. Conclusion:From the study we concluded that wild foods had important contribution to households' resilience to food shortages and are likely to continue to

  11. Recombinant Goose Circoviruses Circulating in Domesticated and Wild Geese in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stenzel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that infect a variety of animals, both domestic and wild. Circovirus infection in birds is associated with immunosuppression and this in turn predisposes the infected animals to secondary infections that can lead to mortality. Farmed geese (Anser anser in many parts of the world are infected with circoviruses. The majority of the current genomic information for goose circoviruses (GoCVs (n = 40 are from birds sampled in China and Taiwan, and only two genome sequences are available from Europe (Germany and Poland. In this study, we sampled 23 wild and 19 domestic geese from the Gopło Lake area in Poland. We determined the genomes of GoCV from 21 geese; 14 domestic Greylag geese (Anser anser, three wild Greylag geese (A. anser, three bean geese (A. fabalis, and one white fronted goose (A. albifrons. These genomes share 83–95% nucleotide pairwise identities with previously identified GoCV genomes, most are recombinants with exchanged fragment sizes up to 50% of the genome. Higher diversity levels can be seen within the genomes from domestic geese compared with those from wild geese. In the GoCV capsid protein (cp and replication associated protein (rep gene sequences we found that episodic positive selection appears to largely mirror those of beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus. Analysis of the secondary structure of the ssDNA genome revealed a conserved stem-loop structure with the G-C rich stem having a high degree of negative selection on these nucleotides.

  12. Digital Necrobacillosis in Norwegian Wild Tundra Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handeland, K.; Boye, Mette; Bergsjø, B.

    2010-01-01

    Outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis in Norwegian wild tundra reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) are described. The outbreaks occurred in late summer and autumn 2007 and 2008, subsequent to periods with an unusually high number of days with precipitation and high air temperature. Lesions were....... necrophorum was cultured from the foot lesions of six animals. Five of these isolates were examined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The sequences were identical and differed from all other strains listed in GenBank. These results are consistent with circulation of a reindeer-adapted pathogenic strain of F....... necrophorum in the wild reindeer population, causing outbreaks of digital necrobacillosis following warm and humid summers....

  13. Prevalence of Anti-Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies and First Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žele, Diana; Barry, Aline F; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate W; Vengušt, Gorazd; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this study, we investigated HEV presence in a wild boar (Sus scrofa) population of Slovenia. A total of 288 wild boar serum samples were collected throughout the country, and HEV infection was investigated by serology, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by HEV RNA detection using a real-time PCR assay. Antibodies against HEV were detected in 30.2% (87/288) of animals tested, whereas HEV RNA was detected in only one sample. This is the first evidence of HEV presence in the wild boar population in Slovenia, and these results suggest that these animals are part of the HEV epidemiological cycle in the country.

  14. Tick infestation on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare in Tamil Nadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Muthukrishnan, S; Arul Prakash, M

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of tick infestation and their predilection sites on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare were studied at various places of Tamil Nadu, India. The prevalence of tick infestation in Madras red sheep, Tellicherry goat and horse was 77.11, 78.21 and 13.33%, respectively. Sheep were heavily infested with Haemaphysalis bispinosa followed by Hyalomma isaaci , Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and H . anatolicum . The ticks from goats were identified as H . bispinosa , R . haemaphysaloides , H . isaaci and R . sanguineus . Horses were infested with Otobus megnini and R . sanguineus . The ticks on wild hare ( Lepus nigricollis ) were identified as R . haemaphysaloides and H . bispinosa . Wild hare acts as a source of infestation to the sheep and goats since these animals shared the same field.

  15. Effect of hunting awareness on wild game meat purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Marescotti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although wild game meat constitutes a sustainable and healthy alternative to conventional meat and hunting contributes to the control of game populations, international studies on consumer attitudes towards this type of meat are still limited and no previous research has been focused on the Italian population. For the development of successful marketing strategies and/or public policy intervention, the knowledge of consumers’ purchase behavior is a key factor. Among all the determinants that can influence the behavior of consumers of hunted wild game meat (i.e. animal welfare, sustainability, ecological food choice, product safety, nutritional quality, the consumers’ awareness of hunting activity and their perceptions of wild game meat assume a crucial role. Accordingly, in this paper an online survey on a sample of 741 Italian meat consumers has been conducted to investigate the relationship between consumers’ purchase behavior and their awareness of hunted game meat and hunting practices (chi-square test, F-test. Statistically significant differences were found among segments of consumers with different levels of wild game meat consumption frequency. The analysis shows that, as expected, the highest consumption level of wild game meat relates to the highest level of general awareness of wild game meat and hunting practices. Our findings are in line with previous literature, that links positive behaviors of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting to familiarity and experience with hunting and hunters. Nonetheless, the present study provides a deeper understanding of the Italian consumers’ attitudes and perceptions of wild game meat and could suggests policy guidelines for the development of future targeted marketing strategies.

  16. C. elegans ciliated sensory neurons release extracellular vesicles that function in animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Silva, Malan; Haas, Leonard A; Morsci, Natalia S; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Hall, David H; Barr, Maureen M

    2014-03-03

    Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that play important roles in intercellular communication and may mediate a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. Many fundamental aspects of ECV biogenesis and signaling have yet to be determined, with ECV detection being a challenge and obstacle due to the small size (100 nm) of the ECVs. We developed an in vivo system to visualize the dynamic release of GFP-labeled ECVs. We show here that specific Caenorhabdidits elegans ciliated sensory neurons shed and release ECVs containing GFP-tagged polycystins LOV-1 and PKD-2. These ECVs are also abundant in the lumen surrounding the cilium. Electron tomography and genetic analysis indicate that ECV biogenesis occurs via budding from the plasma membrane at the ciliary base and not via fusion of multivesicular bodies. Intraflagellar transport and kinesin-3 KLP-6 are required for environmental release of PKD-2::GFP-containing ECVs. ECVs isolated from wild-type animals induce male tail-chasing behavior, while ECVs isolated from klp-6 animals and lacking PKD-2::GFP do not. We conclude that environmentally released ECVs play a role in animal communication and mating-related behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali wild ass provides insights into donkey ancestry and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Birgitta; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Shanyuan; Rosenbom, Sónia; Moehlman, Patricia D; Tuross, Noreen; Sabin, Richard C; Peters, Joris; Barich, Barbara; Yohannes, Hagos; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Mulligan, Connie J

    2011-01-07

    Genetic data from extant donkeys (Equus asinus) have revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, suggestive of two separate domestication events in northeast Africa about 5000 years ago. Without distinct phylogeographic structure in domestic donkey haplogroups and with little information on the genetic makeup of the ancestral African wild ass, however, it has been difficult to identify wild ancestors and geographical origins for the domestic mitochondrial clades. Our analysis of ancient archaeological and historic museum samples provides the first genetic information on the historic Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus), Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) and ancient donkey. The results demonstrate that the Nubian wild ass was an ancestor of the first donkey haplogroup. In contrast, the Somali wild ass has considerable mitochondrial divergence from the Nubian wild ass and domestic donkeys. These findings resolve the long-standing issue of the role of the Nubian wild ass in the domestication of the donkey, but raise new questions regarding the second ancestor for the donkey. Our results illustrate the complexity of animal domestication, and have conservation implications for critically endangered Nubian and Somali wild ass.

  18. Pestiviruses infections at the wild and domestic ruminants interface in the French Southern Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Claire; Duquesne, Véronique; Adam, Gilbert; Belleau, Eric; Gauthier, Dominique; Champion, Jean-Luc; Saegerman, Claude; Thiéry, Richard; Dubois, Eric

    2015-02-25

    In alpine pasture, interspecies transmission has recently been incriminated in the epidemiology of pestivirus infection. The aim of this study was to investigate pestivirus infections in wild and domestic ruminants sharing pastures in the French Southern Alps. Animal sera were screened for pestivirus antibodies against the pestivirus NS3 protein by a commercial blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 38 domestic herds tested were positive for pestivirus-specific antibodies. Individual sero-prevalence reached 76.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: [74.2-78.8%]) of the 1383 sheep tested. For wild ruminants, 38.7% (95% CI: [33.8-43.9%]) of the 369 chamois tested, 28.7% (95% CI: [17.4-38.1%]) of the 72 roe deer, and 22.2% (95% CI: [6.5-37.9%]) of the 27 mouflons were seropositive. Virus screening was carried out on spleen samples from hunted wild animals (n=160) and from 15 domestic ruminants (clinically suspected to be persistently infected animals), by a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three pestivirus strains were isolated from the sheep samples positive by RT-PCR. The viruses were classified in the BDV-3, BDV-Tunisian and BDV-6 genotypes. For the first time, one strain (RUPI-05 strain) was isolated from an alpine chamois and clustered in the BDV-6 genotype, showing in the 5'-UTR region 92% of identity with the ovine isolate from the same area. Thus, an active circulation of pestiviruses was demonstrated in both wild and domestic ungulates from the French Southern Alps. The results suggest that interspecies transmission between sheep and chamois probably occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  20. Naturalness and Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, James

    2018-04-05

    Naturalness is considered important for animals, and is one criterion for assessing how we care for them. However, it is a vague and ambiguous term, which needs definition and assessments suitable for scientific and ethical questions. This paper makes a start on that aim. This paper differentiates the term from other related concepts, such as species-typical behaviour and wellbeing. It identifies contingent ways in which naturalness might be used, as: (i) prompts for further welfare assessment; (ii) a plausible hypothesis for what safeguards wellbeing; (iii) a threshold for what is acceptable; (iv) constraints on what improvements are unacceptable; and (v) demarcating what is not morally wrong, because of a lack of human agency. It then suggests an approach to evaluating animals' behaviour that is quantitative, is based on reality, and which assesses naturalness by degrees. It proposes classing unaffected wild populations as natural by definition. Where animals might have been affected by humans, they should be compared to the closest population(s) of unaffected animals. This approach could allow us both to assess naturalness scientifically, and to make practical decisions about the behaviour of domestic animals.

  1. Wild birds learn to eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; McLachlan, Jessica R; Igic, Branislav

    2015-08-03

    Many vertebrates gain critical information about danger by eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls [1], providing an excellent context in which to study information flow among species in animal communities [2-4]. A fundamental but unresolved question is how individuals recognize other species' alarm calls. Although individuals respond to heterospecific calls that are acoustically similar to their own, alarms vary greatly among species, and eavesdropping probably also requires learning [1]. Surprisingly, however, we lack studies demonstrating such learning. Here, we show experimentally that individual wild superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus, can learn to recognize previously unfamiliar alarm calls. We trained individuals by broadcasting unfamiliar sounds while simultaneously presenting gliding predatory birds. Fairy-wrens in the experiment originally ignored these sounds, but most fled in response to the sounds after two days' training. The learned response was not due to increased responsiveness in general or to sensitization following repeated exposure and was independent of sound structure. Learning can therefore help explain the taxonomic diversity of eavesdropping and the refining of behavior to suit the local community. In combination with previous work on unfamiliar predator recognition (e.g., [5]), our results imply rapid spread of anti-predator behavior within wild populations and suggest methods for training captive-bred animals before release into the wild [6]. A remaining challenge is to assess the importance and consequences of direct association of unfamiliar sounds with predators, compared with social learning-such as associating unfamiliar sounds with conspecific alarms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Marson, Pamela Merlo; Hayasaka, Enio Yoshinori; Victoria, Cassiano; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction.

  3. Controlling of CSFV in European wild boar using oral vaccination: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eRossi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is among the most detrimental diseases for the swine industry worldwide. Infected wild boar populations can play a crucial role in CSF epidemiology and controlling wild reservoirs is of utmost importance for preventing domestic outbreaks. Oral mass vaccination (OMV has been implemented to control CSF in wild boars and limit the spill over to domestic pigs. This retrospective overview of vaccination experiences illustrates the potential for that option. The C-strain live vaccine was confirmed to be highly efficacious and palatable baits were developed for oral delivery in free ranging wild boars. The first field trials were performed in Germany in the 1990’s and allowed deploying oral baits at a large scale. The delivery process was further improved during the 2000’s among different European countries. Optimal deployment has to be early regarding disease emergence and correctly designed regarding the landscape structure and the natural food sources that can compete with oral baits. OMV deployment is also highly dependent on a local veterinary support working closely with hunters, wildlife and forestry agencies. Vaccination has been the most efficient strategy for CSF control in free ranging wild boar when vaccination is wide spread and lasting for a sufficient period of time. Alternative disease control strategies such as intensified hunting or creating physical boundaries such as fences have been, in contrast, seldom satisfactory and reliable. However, monitoring outbreaks has been challenging during and after vaccination deployment since OMV results in a low probability to detect virus-positive animals and the live-vaccine currently available does not allow serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals. The development of a new marker vaccine and companion test is thus a promising option for better monitoring outbreaks during OMV deployment as well as help to better determine when to stop

  4. Assessing the Risk of African Swine Fever Introduction into the European Union by Wild Boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, A; Bosch, J; Iglesias, I; Muñoz, M J; Mur, L; Martínez-López, B; Martínez, M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2015-06-01

    The presence of African swine fever (ASF) in the Caucasus region and Russian Federation has increased concerns that wild boars may introduce the ASF virus into the European Union (EU). This study describes a semi-quantitative approach for evaluating the risk of ASF introduction into the EU by wild boar movements based on the following risk estimators: the susceptible population of (1) wild boars and (2) domestic pigs in the country of origin; the outbreak density in (3) wild boars and (4) domestic pigs in the countries of origin, the (5) suitable habitat for wild boars along the EU border; and the distance between the EU border and the nearest ASF outbreak in (6) wild boars or (7) domestic pigs. Sensitivity analysis was performed to identify the most influential risk estimators. The highest risk was found to be concentrated in Finland, Romania, Latvia and Poland, and wild boar habitat and outbreak density were the two most important risk estimators. Animal health authorities in at-risk countries should be aware of these risk estimators and should communicate closely with wild boar hunters and pig farmers to rapidly detect and control ASF. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Comparison of Ehrlichia muris strains isolated from wild mice and ticks and serologic survey of humans and animals with E. muris as antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, M; Ito, T; Suto, C; Shibata, S; Rikihisa, Y; Hata, K; Hirai, K

    1999-04-01

    In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan.

  6. Domestication and cereal feeding developed domestic pig-type intestinal microbiota in animals of suidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Maruyama, Fumito

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal microbiota are characterized by host-specific microorganisms, which have been selected through host-microbe interactions under phylogenetic evolution and transition of feeding behavior by the host. Although many studies have focused on disease-related intestinal microbiota, the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota have not been well elucidated. Pig is the ideal mammal model to reveal the origin and evolution of host-specific intestinal microbiota because their direct wild ancestor and close phylogenetic neighbors are available for comparison. The pig has been recognized as a Lactobacillus-type animal. We analyzed the intestinal microbiota of various animals in Suidae: domestic pigs, wild boars and Red river hogs to survey the origin and evolution of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota by metagenomic approach and following quantitative PCR confirmation. The metagenomic datasets were separated in two clusters; the wild animal cluster being characterized by a high abundance of Bifidobacterium, whereas the domesticated (or captured) animal cluster by Lactobacillus. In addition, Enterobacteriaceae were harbored as the major family only in domestic Sus scrofa. We conclude that domestication may have induced a larger Enterobacteriaceae population in pigs, and the introduction of modern feeding system further caused the development of Lactobacillus-dominated intestinal microbiota, with genetic and geographical factors possibly having a minor impact. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in wild small mammals in ecotourism area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Tanure, Aline; Rego, Felipe Dutra; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Stumpp, Rodolfo; Ássimos, Gabriela Ribeiro; Campos, Aldenise Martins; Lima, Ana Cristina Viana Mariano da Rocha; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Paz, Gustavo Fontes; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are parasitic diseases transmitted to mammalian hosts by sand fly vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae). Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in urban centers, their transmission still occur primarily in wild environments and may be associated with professional activities and recreation, such as ecotourism. The Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC) is one of the largest ecotourism attractions in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and comprises an area of environmental preservation with 11,233 hectares presenting a transitional vegetation between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest. The present study describes the abundance of small mammals in RPPNSC, the isolation and identification of Leishmania in five wild animals. Small mammals were bimonthly trapped along 6 trails within the RPPNSC with 10 Tomahawk traps each. Two trails were located in peridomiciliary areas near tourist lodging facilities, and four trails were located at sites visited by tourists in forest areas. The most prevalent species were Akodon cursor, Cerradomys subflavus and Oligoryzomys nigripes. Six isolates of Leishmania were obtained from these animals and identified as Leishmania braziliensis through HSP70-PCR RFLP method. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected by kDNA-PCR method and isolated by biphasic culture. Studies point to some of the captured species as potential wild reservoirs of Leishmania, suggesting they may be involved in the transmission cycle in these wild environments.

  8. Study on the macrometry of gastrointestinal tract of wild west African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and those in domestication end up in animal units of schools and houses of the wealthy individuals. The wild African Senegal parrot population is at risk of extinction due to its high popularity with urban dweller. Despite their high popularity, there is scanty documentation of the anatomical features of its gastrointestinal tract ...

  9. Wild Maid, Wild Soul, A Wild Wild Weed: Niki de Saint Phalle’s Fierce Femininities, c. 1960-66

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Jones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-described as “wild maid,” “wild soul,” “a wild wild weed,” Niki de Saint Phalle narrated herself as artistic subject in a concerted way that stands out in the history of art: as both creatively driven and emotionally renegade and excessive, as both definitively woman and definitively artist. In this essay I take this special case of self-narration, and the particular power of St. Phalle’s work, as an opportunity to explore the relationship between.(auto-biography and artistic practice. The case of St. Phalle, a radical sculptor, performance artist, writer, and filmmaker, allows us to understand the exaggerated way in which women artists were until very recently forced to adopt “fierce femininities” to make a place for themselves as artists. In this way, I suggest that St. Phalle represents a key inspirational force opening the door for second wave feminism and the feminist art movement.

  10. Helminth burden and ecological factors associated with alterations in wild host gastrointestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newbold, Lindsay K.; Burthe, Sarah J.; Oliver, Anna E.

    2017-01-01

    Infection by gastrointestinal helminths of humans, livestock and wild animals is common, but the impact of such endoparasites on wild hosts and their gut microbiota represents an important overlooked component of population dynamics. Wild host gut microbiota and endoparasites occupy the same...... to quantify helminth infection in situ. Microbiota from the significantly distinct proventriculus (site of infection), cloacal and faecal gastrointestinal tract microbiomes were characterised using 16S rRNA gene-targeted high-throughput sequencing. We found increasingly strong associations between helminth...... infection and microbiota composition progressing away from the site of infection, observing a pronounced dysbiosis in microbiota when samples were partitioned into high- and low-burden groups. We posit this dysbiosis is predominately explained by helminths inducing an anti-inflammatory environment...

  11. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendonça Bezerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53, while in pigs it was 6% (2/34. The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112 and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112. Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749 were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369. In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  12. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-07-19

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution.

  13. Occurrence and distribution of Giardia species in wild rodents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Yosra A; Spierling, Nastasja G; Schmidt, Sabrina; Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Reil, Daniela; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer G; Aebischer, Toni; Klotz, Christian

    2018-03-27

    Giardiasis is an important gastrointestinal parasitic disease in humans and other mammals caused by the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. This species complex is represented by genetically distinct groups (assemblages A-H) with varying zoonotic potential and host preferences. Wild rodents can harbor potentially zoonotic assemblages A and B, and the rodent-specific assemblage G. Other Giardia spp. found in these animals are Giardia muris and Giardia microti. For the latter, only limited information on genetic typing is available. It has been speculated that wild rodents might represent an important reservoir for parasites causing human giardiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Giardia spp. and assemblage types in wild rodents from different study sites in Germany. Screening of 577 wild rodents of the genera Apodemus, Microtus and Myodes, sampled at eleven study sites in Germany, revealed a high overall Giardia prevalence. Giardia species determination at the SSU rDNA gene locus revealed that Apodemus mice, depending on species, were predominantly infected with one of two distinct G. muris sequence types. Giardia microti was the predominant parasite species found in voles of the genera Microtus and Myodes. Only a few animals were positive for potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis. Subtyping at the beta-giardin (bg) and glutamine dehydrogenase (gdh) genes strongly supported the existence of different phylogenetic subgroups of G. microti that are preferentially harbored by distinct host species. The present study highlights the preference of G. muris for Apodemus, and G. microti for Microtus and Myodes hosts and argues for a very low prevalence of zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in wild rodents in Germany. It also provides evidence that G. muris and G. microti subdivide into several phylogenetically distinguishable subgroups, each of which appears to be preferentially harbored by species of a particular rodent host genus

  14. Potential application of electronic nose in processed animal proteins (PAP detection in feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Orto V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic nose and olfactometry techniques represent a modern analytical approach in food industry since they could potentially improve quality and safety of food processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible application of electronic nose in PA P detection and recognition in feed. For this purpose 6 reference feedstuffs (CRA-W / UE STRAT F E E D Project were used. The basis of the test samples was a compound feed for bovine fortified with processed animal proteins ( PAP consisting of meat and bone meal (MBM and/or fish meal at different concentrations. Each feed sample was tested in glass vials and the odour profile was determined by the ten MOS (metal oxide semi-conductor sensors of the electronic nose. Ten different descriptors, representing each ten sensors of electronic nose, were used to characterise the odour of each sample. In the present study, electronic nose was able to discriminate the blank sample from all other samples containing PA P ( M B M , fish meal or both. Samples containing either 0.5% of MBM or 5% of fish meal were identified, while samples containing a high fish meal content (5% associated with a low MBM content (0.5% were not discriminated from samples containing solely fish meal at that same high level (5%. This latter indicates that probably the high fish meal level, in samples containing both MBM and fish meal, tended to mask MBM odour. It was also evident that two odour descriptors were enough to explain 72.12% of total variability in odour pattern. In view of these results, it could be suggested that electronic nose and olfactometry techniques can provide an interesting approach for screening raw materials in feed industry, even though further studies using a wider set of samples are needed.

  15. Assessing welfare of individual sirenians in the wild and in captivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Bonde, Robert K.

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the welfare of wild populations of sirenians has required a “generalist” approach. The outcome has been a subjective decision as to whether what the observers are witnessing in an individual or group of animals is normal and whether that has positive or negative consequences. The understanding of sirenian welfare requirements, and a decision process for whether to support and maintain their natural habitats or to try to replicate it in a meaningful way in an artificial captive setting, is still in its early developmental stages and has dynamic qualities that are in need of urgent attention. In this chapter we use the knowledge and observations presented throughout the chapters on sirenians to outline a proposed standard approach for assessing welfare in individuals in wild populations, as well as guidelines for assessing captive groups of dugongs and manatees. In the wild, the suitability of the habitat and human impact on it, the limitations of carrying capacity, the dynamics of ecosystems, and the effects that the immediate environment will have on the known resident populations are examined. In captivity, we use the foundation of the Five Freedoms, based on experience derived from other captive species, and we combine this with experience from rehabilitating manatees in Europe and the United States and, more recently, dugongs in the Indo-Pacific, to identify requirements and to help us to assess the unique needs of these species when held in facilities. We present considerations and approaches to (1) holistically assess captive facilities and to assess the well-being of the individuals held in the facility, (2) derive a guideline for standard captive assessment, (3) determine if adequate welfare needs for the animals are being met, and (4) help to provide guidance on whether an animal is suitable for release after rehabilitation.

  16. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in european wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gortázar Christian

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB remains a significant problem in some parts of Spain largely because of contacts between cattle and wildlife reservoirs in extensive grazing systems. European Wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of the species involved in the transmission of the disease to other species. Fast and simple detection methods would be critical for assessing infection prevalence, study the mechanisms of pathogen transmission and monitoring the effects of TB control measures. Results An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium bovis in wild boar serum was developed and validated on 185 sera from TB positive and negative wild boar. Based on antigen inoculation of captive animals as well as tuberculosis compatible lesions, culture results and molecular analysis of hunted individuals, animals were allocated into two groups: tuberculosis positive group and tuberculosis negative group. After optimization of the positive to negative ratio using different combinations of serum dilutions and conjugate concentrations, the test yielded a sensitivity of 72.60% and a specificity of 96.43% for the best cut-off. Conclusion Although some negative group animals showed an ELISA positive reaction (

  17. The African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal

    OpenAIRE

    G. de Graaff

    1992-01-01

    The Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA) was constituted in the beginning of the 1970s by a number of persons interested in theoretical and practical aspects of wildlife {sensu lato), wildlife diseases, and the handling of game and wild animals {^ensit stricto}.

  18. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Yaghoobi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  19. Wildlife in U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hadidian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in the United States with a focus on the moral concerns this raises. Much of the future for urban wildlife will depend on reform in governance, but much as well will depend on cultural changes that promote greater respect and understanding for wild animals and the biotic communities of which they and we are both a part.

  20. Wildlife in U.S. Cities: Managing Unwanted Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidian, John

    2015-11-11

    Conflicts between people and wild animals in cities are undoubtedly as old as urban living itself. In the United States it is only of late, however, that many of the species now found in cities have come to live there. The increasing kind and number of human-wildlife conflicts in urbanizing environments makes it a priority that effective and humane means of conflict resolution be found. The urban public wants conflicts with wildlife resolved humanely, but needs to know what the alternative management approaches are, and what ethical standards should guide their use. This paper examines contemporary urban wildlife control in the United States with a focus on the moral concerns this raises. Much of the future for urban wildlife will depend on reform in governance, but much as well will depend on cultural changes that promote greater respect and understanding for wild animals and the biotic communities of which they and we are both a part.

  1. Dioxins and PCBs in game animals: Interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Strucinski, Pawel; Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCB) are ubiquitous, persistent toxic compounds that are highly bioaccumulative in nature. Wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity. Dioxins and PCBs enter the animal organisms through foraging. Due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the dioxin contamination status of three game animal species (red deer, roe deer, and wild boar) and compare the PCDD/F and PCB congener bioaccumulation in the muscles, abdominal fat and liver. The chemical analysis was performed by the isotope dilution technique (IDMS) with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Dioxins and PCBs were found in specimens collected from all studied species, suggesting the presence of the test compounds in the environment of the animals. The highest concentrations were found in the livers of all animals. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels in the muscles, adipose tissue and liver were in the order red deer > roe deer > wild boar. PCDD/Fs were the dominant congeners in TEQ value. For all tested species, the dominant contributors to the total WHO-TEQ were PCB-126, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD. Among the PCDD/F congeners in the deer tissues, OCDD, OCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were dominant, while in wild boar, OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCF occurred in the highest amounts. Among PCBs, PCB-105, 118, 156, 138, 153 and 180 were dominant in all species, but with different levels. The regular consumption of muscle meat from game animals should not cause unacceptable dioxin intake above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value for children and adults. However, liver consumption should be avoided, especially by children and pregnant or lactating

  2. Animal models of nicotine exposure: relevance to second-hand smoking, electronic cigarette use and compulsive smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami eCohen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Much evidence indicates that individuals use tobacco primarily to experience the psychopharmacological properties of nicotine and that a large proportion of smokers eventually become dependent on nicotine. In humans, nicotine acutely produces positive reinforcing effects, including mild euphoria, whereas a nicotine abstinence syndrome with both somatic and affective components is observed after chronic nicotine exposure. Animal models of nicotine self-administration and chronic exposure to nicotine have been critical in unveiling the neurobiological substrates that mediate the acute reinforcing effects of nicotine and emergence of a withdrawal syndrome during abstinence. However, important aspects of the transition from nicotine abuse to nicotine dependence, such as the emergence of increased motivation and compulsive nicotine intake following repeated exposure to the drug, have only recently begun to be modeled in animals. Thus, the neurobiological mechanisms that are involved in these important aspects of nicotine addiction remain largely unknown. In this review, we describe the different animal models available to date and discuss recent advances in animal models of nicotine exposure and nicotine dependence. This review demonstrates that novel animal models of nicotine vapor exposure and escalation of nicotine intake provide a unique opportunity to investigate the neurobiological effects of second-hand nicotine exposure, electronic cigarette use and the mechanisms that underlie the transition from nicotine use to compulsive nicotine intake.

  3. Taimyr Reindeer and Environmental Change: Monitoring Wild Reindeer Migration in Changing Natural and Social Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    The Taimyr Reindeer Herd (TRH) is both the largest and the longest monitored wild reindeer herd in Eurasia. An important part of Arctic ecosystems and Indigenous livelihood, wild reindeer have been continuously monitored for almost 50 years. During this time, herds have exhibited large changes in size and these changes have been recorded in almost all herds across the animal's range. An increasing number of wild reindeer in the Soviet times was followed by a significant population loss in the last decade. In addition, recent monitoring revealed substantial shifts in the distribution of wild populations. The decline in wild reindeer is likely related to natural cycles and changes in the Arctic environment caused by climate variability and anthropogenic activity. This study investigates patterns and possible drives of reindeer population dynamics in space and time. We identify key climatic factors, possible relationships with biomass dynamics, as well as with hunting practices and other human impacts.

  4. Assessment of antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli isolates and screening of Salmonella spp. in wild ungulates from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Diana; Torres, Rita T; Kronvall, Göran; Fonseca, Carlos; Mendo, Sónia; Caetano, Tânia

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging global problem. Wild animals are rarely exposed to antibiotics and therefore low levels of antibiotic resistance are expected. However, the growing interactions of these animals with humans and livestock may have a huge impact on their bacterial flora. This study aimed to assess the levels of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from widespread wild ungulates in Portugal. The interpretation of inhibition zone diameters was performed according to clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cut-offs, determined with the normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method. For clinical breakpoints, 16% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic, including ampicillin (10%), tetracycline (9%), streptomycin (5%) co-trimoxazole (4%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%) and cefoxitin (1%). The levels of resistance detected in E. coli strains isolated from wild boar were statistically different for ampicillin and co-trimoxasol. According to NRI cut-offs, 10% of the population showed a non-wild-type phenotype against at least one antibiotic, also including tetracycline (9%), co-trimoxazole (6%), streptomycin (4%), ampicillin (2%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1%). Considering this parameter of comparison, no statistically different levels of resistance were identified between E. coli recovered from the three wild ungulates. Screening of Salmonella spp., which can be potentially pathogenic, was also performed, revealing that its prevalence was very low (1.5%). The study demonstrated that wild ungulates from Portugal are also reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L Doty

    Full Text Available The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  6. Histopathological changes in kidneys of free ranging animals in relation to lead and cadmium residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiglboeck, C.

    2000-05-01

    Kidney samples of 234 roe deer and 45 wild boars were collected in Lower Austria and Vienna, and were analyzed for lead and cadmium contents. Samples of the organs were examined histologically, considering 12 different morphological parameters. Influences of age, sex and origin of the animals on heavy metal burdens were assessed, and the possible correlation between histopathological changes and age, sex, origin and heavy metal concentrations in the kidneys was tested. Lead concentrations were low with medians (mg/kg wet tissue) being 0,062 in roe deer and 0,044 in wild boars. Neither age nor sex nor origin influenced the lead contents of the kidneys. Cadmium burden was fairly high, both in roe deer (median: 0,954) and wild boars (median: 3,009). It increased with age in both species, while female roe deer showed higher contents as well. No influence of the animals' origin was found. The correlation between histopathological changes and age, sex, origin and heavy metal concentrations in the kidneys was tested in 208 roe deer and 44 wild boars which showed no signs of kidney related diseases. In roe deer, the frequency of vacuolic degeneration, pycnotic nuclei, caryolysis and necrosis was related with increased cadmium concentrations. Increasing age correlated with lymphohistiocytic infiltration, interstitial fibrosis and swelling of glomeruli. Pigment deposits and thickening of the Bowman's capsule could be related to both cadmium and age. Furthermore, roe deer from Vienna more frequently showed alterations as observed in animals from Lower Austria. No correlation existed between morphological changes and lead concentrations or sex. In wild boars, there was no obvious relationship between all parameters tested and the frequency of histopathologic changes, except changes in pigmentation. Possible nephrotoxic agents in free ranging animals and the demonstrated influence of cadmium on severe kidney damage are discussed. (author)

  7. Right to Place: A Political Theory of Animal Rights in Harmony with Environmental and Ecological Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Panagiotarakou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the “right to place” as a political theory of wild animal rights. Out of the debate between terrestrial cosmopolitans inspired by Kant and Arendt and rooted cosmopolitan animal right theorists, the right to place emerges from the fold of rooted cosmopolitanism in tandem with environmental and ecological principles. Contrary to terrestrial cosmopolitans—who favour extending citizenship rights to wild animals and advocate at the same time large-scale humanitarian interventions and unrestricted geographical mobility—I argue that the well-being of wild animals is best served by the right to place theory on account of its sovereignty model. The right to place theory advocates human non-interference in wildlife communities, opposing even humanitarian interventions, which carry the risk of unintended consequences. The right to place theory, with its emphasis on territorial sovereignty, bases its opposition to unrestricted geographical mobility on two considerations: (a the non-generalist nature of many species and (b the potential for abuse via human encroachment. In a broader context, the advantage of the right to place theory lies in its implicit environmental demands: human population control and sustainable lifestyles.

  8. Severe inbreeding depression in a wild wolf (Canis lupus) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberg, Olof; Andrén, Henrik; Pedersen, Hans-Christian; Sand, Håkan; Sejberg, Douglas; Wabakken, Petter; Kesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan

    2005-03-22

    The difficulty of obtaining pedigrees for wild populations has hampered the possibility of demonstrating inbreeding depression in nature. In a small, naturally restored, wild population of grey wolves in Scandinavia, founded in 1983, we constructed a pedigree for 24 of the 28 breeding pairs established in the period 1983-2002. Ancestry for the breeding animals was determined through a combination of field data (snow tracking and radio telemetry) and DNA microsatellite analysis. The population was founded by only three individuals. The inbreeding coefficient F varied between 0.00 and 0.41 for wolves born during the study period. The number of surviving pups per litter during their first winter after birth was strongly correlated with inbreeding coefficients of pups (R2=0.39, pwolf population.

  9. The African Elephant as a Game Ranch Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Graaff

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wildlife Group of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA was constituted in the beginning of the 1970s by a number of persons interested in theoretical and practical aspects of wildlife {sensu lato, wildlife diseases, and the handling of game and wild animals {^ensit stricto}.

  10. Results of the 2000 census of wild reindeer on the Taimyr Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Kolpashchikov

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a census of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus on the Taimyr Peninsula during 21-25 July 2000. This was the eighteenth aerial population census of wild reindeer on the Taimyr since counts began in 1959. Prior to the census, we conducted reconnaissance flights to identify areas of reindeer concentration. After the reindeer became aggregated, we estimated group size both visually and by photographing the larger groups. Unusually hot and dry weather (temperatures of 25-30 °C and a high density of mosquitoes during the census likely forced the reindeer to group into unusually large concentrations. In late July most of the reindeer in the Taimyr population were distributed in two groupings that contained at least 450 000 animals, and one area that contained about 110 000. Smaller groups found during the census and the estimated 43 000 resident wild reindeer that were not counted during the census brought the total minimum population estimate to about 1 040 000. The maximum number of wild reindeer present could have been as high as about 1 100 000.

  11. Molecular evidence for piroplasms in wild Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-fei; Li, You-quan; Liu, Zhi-jie; Liu, Jun-long; Guan, Gui-quan; Chen, Ze; Luo, Jian-xun; Wang, Xiao-long; Yin, Hong

    2014-10-01

    DNA from liver samples of 17 free-ranging wild Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) was used for PCR amplification of piropalsm 18S rRNA gene. Of 17 samples, 14 (82.4%) showed a specific PCR product which were cloned and sequenced. BLAST analysis of the sequences obtained showed similarities to Babesia sp., Theileria capreoli, Theileria uilenbergi and Theileria sp. BO302-SE. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Babesia sp. detected in the present study was distantly separated from known Babesia species of wild and domestic animals. Six sequences showed 100% similarity to T. capreoli while five sequences were separated from all known Theileria species and constituted an independent clade with Theileria sp. BO302-SE derived from roe deer in Italy; two sequences were close to T. uilenbergi with 97% similarity. This is the first description of hemoparasite infection in free-ranging wild Reeves' muntjac in China. Our results indicate that wild Reeves' muntjac may play an important reservoir role for hemoparasites. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of small field electron beams for small animal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung-Chi; Chen, Ai-Mei; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Chao, Tsi-Chian

    2011-01-01

    The volume effect of detectors in the dosimetry of small fields for photon beams has been well studied due to interests in radiosurgery and small beamlets used in IMRT treatments; but there is still an unexplored research field for small electron beams used in small animal irradiation. This study proposes to use the BEAM Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to assess characteristics of small electron beams (4, 6, 14, 30 mm in diameter) with the kinetic energies of 6 and 18 MeV. Three factors influencing beam characteristics were studied (1) AE and ECUT settings, (2) photon jaw settings and (3) simulation pixel sizes. Study results reveal that AE/ECUT settings at 0.7 MeV are adequate for linear accelerator treatment head simulation, while 0.521 MeV is more favorable to be used for the phantom study. It is also demonstrated that voxel size setting at 1/4 of the simulation field width in all directions is sufficient to achieve accurate results. As for the photon jaw setting, it has great impact on the absolute output of different field size setting (i.e. output factor) but with minimum effect on the relative lateral distribution.

  13. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Effects of diet composition on intake by adult wild European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, K A

    1989-12-01

    The voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) of several grass and legume diets, and the amount of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, fibre, and energy assimilated from each diet (i.e. the digestibility coefficients) are presented for the wild European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. The DMI may be predicted from DM% and percentage of total nitrogen (on a DM basis) for a high DM diet (90-95%) but the general relationship may stand for fresh forage also. The metabolizable energy of a diet is correlated with DMI through the DM% and the percentage of nitrogen and fibre in the diet on a DM basis. The DM digestibility coefficient is correlated with fibre content. The wild rabbit's high efficiency of protein digestibility and low fibre digestibility compared with ruminants is also a characteristic of the domestic rabbit. It is suggested that the proportions of different nutrients required by wild rabbits are similar to those required by domestic animals.

  15. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs and wild mammals in southern Pantanal, Brazil with implications in the transmission route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; Fernandes, Marina Pugnaghi; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Santos, Filipe Martins; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Campos, João Bosco; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; de Andrade Pinto, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela; Battesti, Darci Barros; Piranda, Eliane Mattos; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2017-04-15

    Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated. DNA samples were submitted to PCR assays for Hepatozoon spp. targeting 18S rRNA gene. Purified amplicons were directly sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A high prevalence of Hepatozoon among carnivores (C. thous [91.02%], dogs [45.23%], N. nasua [41.9%] and L. pardalis [71.4%]) was found. However, ticks and fleas were negative to Hepatozoon PCR assays. By phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA sequences, Hepatozoon sequences amplified from crab-eating foxes, dogs, coatis and ocelots clustered with sequences of H. canis, H. americanum and H. felis. The closely related positioning of Hepatozoon sequences amplified from wild rodents and T. macrurus marsupial to Hepatozoon from reptiles and amphibians suggest a possible transmission of those Hepatozoon species between hosts by ectoparasites or by predation. Hepatozoon haplotypes found circulating in wild rodents seem to present a higher degree of polymorphism when compared to those found in other groups of animals. Although rodents seem not to participate as source of Hepatozoon infection to wild carnivores and domestic dogs, they may play an important role in the transmission of Hepatozoon to reptiles

  16. Do wild chimpanzee populations develop diverse cultures? [Latest Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Humans pride themselves on having extensive and diverse cultures. However, cultures can also be observed in animals. The research presented in this video aims at understanding the cultures of wild chimpanzee populations in several African countries and how they differ from each other. As chimpanzees avoid human contact, CHRISTOPHE BOESCH explains, the research team conducted the study by setting up camera traps to catch chimpanzee behavior on video. Forty locations were carefully selected to ...

  17. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in wild game in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Križman, M.; Kirbiš, A.; Jamnikar-Ciglenečki, U.

    2017-09-01

    Wildlife is usually not exposed to clinically-used antimicrobial agents but can acquire antimicrobial resistance throughout contact with humans, domesticated animals and environments. Samples of faeces from intestines (80 in total) were collected from roe deer (52), wild boars (11), chamois (10) red deer (6) and moufflon (1). After culture on ChromID extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) plates to select for growth of ESBL-producing bacteria, 25 samples produced bacterial colonies for further study. Six species of bacteria were identified from the 25 samples: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia fonticola, Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Two ESBL enzymes were amplified from group TEM and three from group CTX-M-1. Undercooked game meat and salami can be a source of resistant bacteria when animals are not eviscerated properly.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  20. Female reproductive system morphology of crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and cryopreservation of genetic material for animal germplasm bank enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, L C; Roballo, K C S; Cury, F S; Ambrósio, C E

    2017-12-01

    The sprawl of the urbanization and road network process without building ecological corridors contributes to the high mortality rates and a threat to the population decline of wild species such as the crab-eating fox. A strategy for the ex situ conservation is the study of the reproductive biology of the species and cryopreservation of their genetic heritage through the formation of an animal germplasm bank. This research is in accordance with the principles adopted by Brazilian College of Animal Experimentation. Reproductive systems of Cerdocyon thous females (n = 7) were examined macroscopically and microscopically by histological techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Gross features showed the shape of the ovaries was similar to a bean, and the elongated oviducts lengths were between 5 and 8 cm, with body of the uterus (3 cm) with long and narrow uterine horns (9-11 cm). The cervix was as a single annular conformation carrying out communication between the uterus and the vagina. The vagina has lengthened and circular muscle and the vulva with dense anatomical conformation with a quite pronounced clitoris. In addition, with regard to the establishment of a cell line (fibroblasts) for the gene bank enrichment, cells showed a low clonogenic capacity, especially when compared to domestic dogs, which can be explained by "in vitro" environment, age and diet of the animal. However, it was possible to create a bank of limited cell number. This study had morphological and preservationist character and aimed to help at long term in the conservation of wild animal's genetic resources. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Fear and exploration in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris: a comparison of hand-reared and wild-caught birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Feenders

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The revision of EU legislation will ban the use of wild-caught animals in scientific procedures. This change is partially predicated on the assumption that captive-rearing produces animals with reduced fearfulness. Previously, we have shown that hand-reared starlings (Sturnus vulgaris indeed exhibit reduced fear of humans compared to wild-caught conspecifics. Here, we asked whether this reduction in fear in hand-reared birds is limited to fear of humans or extends more generally to fear of novel environments and novel objects. Comparing 6-8 month old birds hand-reared in the lab with age-matched birds caught from the wild as fledged juveniles a minimum of 1 month previously, we examined the birds' initial reactions in a novel environment (a small cage and found that wild-caught starlings were faster to initiate movement compared to the hand-reared birds. We interpret this difference as evidence for greater escape motivation in the wild-caught birds. In contrast, we found no differences between hand-reared and wild-caught birds when tested in novel object tests assumed to measure neophobia and exploratory behaviour. Moreover, we found no correlations between individual bird's responses in the different tests, supporting the idea that these measure different traits (e.g. fear and exploration. In summary, our data show that developmental origin affects one measure of response to novelty in young starlings, indicative of a difference in either fear or coping style in a stressful situation. Our data contribute to a growing literature demonstrating effects of early-life experience on later behaviour in a range of species. However, since we did not find consistent evidence for reduced fearfulness in hand-reared birds, we remain agnostic about the welfare benefits of hand-rearing as a method for sourcing wild birds for behavioural and physiological research.

  2. Blood values in wild and captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Don; Frye, Frederic L.; Stockham, Steven L.; Fredeking, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard and occupies a range smaller than that of any other large carnivore in the world. Samples from 33 free-ranging animals at five localities in Komodo National Park, Indonesia were evaluated to assess underlying health problems. To build a comparative database, samples from 44 Komodo dragons in both Indonesian and U.S. zoos were also analyzed. Tests performed included complete blood counts, clinical chemistry profiles, vitamin A, D(3), and E analyses, mineral levels, and screening for chlorinated pesticides or other toxins in wild specimens. Blood samples from wild dragons were positive for hemogregarines, whereas captive specimens were all negative. Total white blood cell counts were consistently higher in captive Komodo dragons than in wild specimens. Reference intervals were established for some chemistry analytes, and values obtained from different groups were compared. Vitamin A and E ranges were established. Vitamin D(3) levels were significantly different in Komodo dragons kept in captive, indoor exhibits versus those with daily ultraviolet-B exposure, whether captive or wild specimens. Corrective measures such as ultraviolet-permeable skylights, direct sunlight exposure, and self-ballasted mercury vapor ultraviolet lamps increased vitamin D(3) concentrations in four dragons to levels comparable with wild specimens. Toxicology results were negative except for background-level chlorinated pesticide residues. The results indicate no notable medical, nutritional, or toxic problems in the wild Komodo dragon population. Problems in captive specimens may relate to, and can be corrected by, husbandry measures such as regular ultraviolet-B exposure. Zoo Biol 19:495-509, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-02

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Biblical Word of Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Wajda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous references to animals in the Bible show that biblical authors had a broad knowledge of nature. According to the current classification of living organisms and method of research used by modern zoology, it is stated that these observations do not have the characteristics of scientific research. In spite of this, they are the evidence of the clear-sighted observation of animals, which is reflected not only in the knowledge of the appearance of individual species, but also of specific behaviours related to their way of life. It concerns not only domestic animals, raised for the purpose of gaining meat, fur, hide and labour, but also wild representatives of the fauna. Bible references concerning the latter apply to the species perceived as highly dangerous to man and domestic animals, i.e.: lions, wolves, bears, leopards or snakes. Amongst the Bible animals one can distinguish these which aroused admiration because of their appearance, such as gazelle, deer, ibex or dove. At the same time, it is essential to emphasise the fact that this rich animal world is just a vivid background of the biblical story of Salvation and a tool used to translate God’s address into human language. For this reason, the knowledge of animal symbolism in the Sacred Scripture makes more accurate understanding of the pericopes possible.

  5. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  6. Revealing spatio-temporal patterns of rabies spread among various categories of animals in the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K; Beisembayev, Kanatzhan K; Кorennoy, Fedor I; Yessembekova, Gulzhan N; Кushubaev, Dosym B; Кadyrov, Ablaikhan S

    2016-05-31

    This study estimated the basic reproductive ratio of rabies at the population level in wild animals (foxes), farm animals (cattle, camels, horses, sheep) and what we classified as domestic animals (cats, dogs) in the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK). It also aimed at forecasting the possible number of new outbreaks in case of emergence of the disease in new territories. We considered cases of rabies in animals in RK from 2010 to 2013, recorded by regional veterinary services. Statistically significant space-time clusters of outbreaks in three subpopulations were detected by means of Kulldorff Scan statistics. Theoretical curves were then fitted to epidemiological data within each cluster assuming exponential initial growth, which was followed up by calculation of the basic reproductive ratio R0. For farm animals, the value of R0 was 1.62 (1.11-2.26) and for wild animals 1.84 (1.08- 3.13), while it was close to 1 for domestic animals. Using the values obtained, an initial phase of possible epidemic was simulated in order to predict the expected number of secondary cases if the disease were introduced into a new area. The possible number of new cases for 20 weeks was estimated at 5 (1-16) for farm animals, 17 (1-113) for wild animals and about 1 in the category of domestic animals. These results have been used to produce set of recommendations for organising of preventive and contra-epizootic measures against rabies expected to be applied by state veterinarian services.

  7. First report of wild boar susceptibility to Porcine circovirus type 3: High prevalence in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Italy) in the absence of clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Drigo, Michele; Cecchinato, Mattia; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Menandro, Maria Luisa

    2018-05-18

    The genus Circovirus includes one of the most relevant infectious agents affecting domestic pigs, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). The wild boar susceptibility to this pathogen has also been demonstrated although the actual epidemiological role of wild populations is still debated. In recent times, a new circovirus, Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV-3), has been discovered and reported in the presence of several clinical conditions. However, no information is currently available about PCV-3 circulation and prevalence in wild boar. To fill this gap, 187 wild boar serum samples were collected in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Northern Italy) and screened for PCV-3, demonstrating a high viral prevalence (approximately 30%). No gender differences were demonstrated while a lower infection prevalence was observed in animals younger than 12 months compared to older ones, differently from what described in commercial pigs. Almost all sampled animals were in good health conditions and no association was proven between PCV-3 status and clinical syndromes in wild animals. The genetic characterization of selected strains enlightened a relevant variability and the absence of closely related strains originating from domestic pigs. Therefore, the observed scenario is suggestive of multiple introductions from other wild or domestic swine populations followed by prolonged circulation and independent evolution. Worldwide, this study reports for the first time the high susceptibility of the wild boar to PCV-3 infection. The high prevalence and the absence of association with clinical signs support the marginal role of this virus in the wild boar population ecology. However, its epidemiological role as reservoir endangering commercial swine cannot be excluded and will require further investigations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Seropositivity and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds from Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cabezón

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution that infects many species of warm-blooded animals, including birds. To date, there is scant information about the seropositivity of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in wild bird populations. In the present study, T. gondii infection was evaluated on sera obtained from 1079 wild birds belonging to 56 species (including Falconiformes (n=610, Strigiformes (n=260, Ciconiiformes (n=156, Gruiformes (n=21, and other orders (n=32, from different areas of Spain. Antibodies to T. gondii (modified agglutination test, MAT titer ≥1:25 were found in 282 (26.1%, IC(95%:23.5-28.7 of the 1079 birds. This study constitute the first extensive survey in wild birds species in Spain and reports for the first time T. gondii antibodies in the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus, short-toed snake-eagle (Circaetus gallicus, Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata, golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus, osprey (Pandion haliaetus, Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus, Western marsh-harrier (Circus aeruginosus, peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus, long-eared owl (Asio otus, common scops owl (Otus scops, Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia, white stork (Ciconia ciconia, grey heron (Ardea cinerea, common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus; in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN "vulnerable" Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti, lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni and great bustard (Otis tarda; and in the IUCN "near threatened" red kite (Milvus milvus. The highest seropositivity by species was observed in the Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo (68.1%, 98 of 144. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii seropositivity in wild birds were age and diet, with the highest exposure in older animals and in carnivorous wild birds. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread and can be at a high level in many wild

  9. Rural and urban differences in the commission of animal cruelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallichet, Suzanne E; Hensley, Christopher

    2005-12-01

    Despite the recent surge in society's interest in human violence, relatively few studies have been conducted examining the closely related phenomenon of animal cruelty. Although several researchers have begun to identify some of the correlates of animal cruelty, few have attempted to understand how differences in the backgrounds of rural and urban residents have led to their abuse of animals. Using survey data from 261 inmates, the authors investigate how demographic, familial differences and species type have contributed to the frequency of acts of animal cruelty. In general, early exposure to animal abuse is a strong predictor of the subsequent behavior. However, rural inmates learned to be cruel by watching family members exclusively, whereas urban inmates learned from family members and friends. Moreover, urban inmates chose dogs, cats, and wild animals as their target animals; however, rural inmates chose only cats.

  10. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    E.D. Karimuribo; B. Jones; M.I. Matee; D.M. Kambarage; S. Mounier-Jack; M.M. Rweyemamu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam) while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency pre...

  11. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in the Basque Country, northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrausi-Subiza, Maialen; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Alvarez, Vega; Ibabe, Jose Carlos; Barral, Marta

    2016-01-20

    Yersiniosis is a zoonosis widely distributed in Europe and swine carry different serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in wild boars in northern Spain. The blood of wild boars (n = 505) was sampled between 2001 and 2012. Seroprevalence was determined in 490 serum samples with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seventy-two of the animals were also examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica or Y. pseudotuberculosis in the tonsils with real-time polymerase chain reaction. All the tonsils were analysed twice, directly and after cold enrichment in phosphate-buffered saline supplemented with 1 % mannitol and 0.15 % bile salts. Antibodies directed against Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis were detected in 52.5 % of the animals. Yersinia enterocolitica was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction in 33.3 % of the wild boars and Y. pseudotuberculosis in 25 %. Significant differences were observed according to the sampling year, and the highest prevalence was during winter and spring. The highest antibody levels and Y. enterocolitica prevalence were observed in mountainous areas at altitudes higher than 600 m, with very cold winters, and with the highest annual rainfall for each dominant climate. Areas with low and medium livestock populations were associated with the highest seroprevalence of Yersinia spp. in wild boars, whereas areas with high ovine populations had the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica. This study shows that Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis are highly prevalent among wild boars in the Basque country, with Y. enterocolitica most prevalent. The risk of infection among wild boars is influenced by the season and the area in which they live.

  12. Birth origin differentially affects depressive-like behaviours: are captive-born cynomolgus monkeys more vulnerable to depression than their wild-born counterparts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine M J Camus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse early-life experience might lead to the expression of abnormal behaviours in animals and the predisposition to psychiatric disorder (e.g. major depressive disorder in Humans. Common breeding processes employ weaning and housing conditions different from what happens in the wild. METHODS: The present study, therefore, investigated whether birth origin impacts the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 captive-born and 40 wild-born socially-housed cynomolgus macaques in farming conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses. RESULTS: We identified 10 distinct profiles (groups A to J that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, distances between individuals and locations in the cage. Data suggest that 4 captive-born and 1 wild-born animals (groups G and J present depressive-like symptoms, unnatural early life events thereby increasing the risk of developing pathological symptoms. General differences were also highlighted between the captive- and wild-born populations, implying the expression of differential coping mechanisms in response to the same captive environment. CONCLUSIONS: Birth origin thus impacts the development of atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups.

  13. In pursuit of peak animal welfare; the need to prioritize the meaningful over the measurable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Jake S

    2017-12-01

    Despite the diversity of animal welfare definitions, most recognise the centrality of the feelings of animals which are currently impossible to measure directly. As a result, animal welfare assessment is heavily reliant upon the indirect measurement of factors that either affect what animals feel, or are effected by how they feel. Physiological and health orientated measures have emerged as popular metrics for assessing welfare because they are quantifiable, can effect and be affected by how animals feel and have merits regardless of their relationship to the feelings of animals. However, their popularity in animal welfare assessment has led to them having a disproportionate influence on animal management to the detriment of animal welfare in numerous instances. Here, the case is made that a tension exists between management that prioritizes aspects of care reflecting popular animal welfare metrics such as those relating to physical health, and management that emphasizes psychological wellbeing. By re-examining the relative merits of physical and psychological priorities in animal management, an alternate animal welfare paradigm emerges less tied to traditional welfare metrics. This paradigm theorizes about the possibility for an optimal animal welfare state to exist where managed animal populations provided essential psychological outlets but protected from key physical stressors routinely experienced in the wild, might experience higher levels of welfare than wild populations would routinely experience. The proposition that optimal animal welfare could theoretically be achieved in well managed and well designed captive environments challenges a widely held ethical perspective that captivity is inherently bad for animal welfare. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Farmer–African wild dog (Lycaon pictus relations in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valli-Laurente Fraser-Celin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are the most endangered large carnivores in southern Africa. Direct and indirect persecution by farmers causes significant conservation challenges. Farmer– wild dog conflict in Botswana commonly occurs as a result of cattle and stocked game depredation by wild dogs, affecting farmer livelihood and causing economic and emotional distress. Although wild dogs predate livestock at lower levels than other carnivores, they continue to be killed both indiscriminately and in retaliation for incidents of depredation. Investigating farmer–wild dog conflict is a necessary step towards establishing appropriate conflict mitigation strategies. Eighty livestock and game farmers were interviewed in order to examine farmers’ value of, perceptions of and experiences with wild dogs as well as their insights on wild dog impacts and conservation in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana. Interviews were semi-structured and used open-ended questions to capture complexities surrounding farmer–wild dog relations. This research contributes baseline data on wild dogs in understudied tribal land and commercial livestock and game farms in eastern Kalahari. It confirms the presence of wild dogs, livestock and stocked game depredation by wild dogs and negative perspectives amongst farmers towards wild dogs and their conservation. Mean losses were 0.85 livestock per subsistence farmer, 1.25 livestock per commercial livestock farmer, while game farmers lost 95.88 game animals per farmer during January 2012 through June 2013. Proportionally, more subsistence farmers than commercial livestock farmers and game farmers held negative perspectives of wild dogs (χ ² = 9.63, df = 2, p < 0.05. Farmer type, education level, socioeconomic status and land tenure, as well as positive wild dog characteristics should be considered when planning and operationalising conflict mitigation strategies. As such, conservation approaches should focus on

  15. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 61, January 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Genetic characterization of indigenous livestock breeds; Genetic relationship of domestic sheep breeds with primitive Asian wild Urial sheep; Using irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; Peste des petits ruminants (PPR); Technical visit to the Central Veterinary Laboratory, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo; Fellows/interns/consultants

  16. On Safari: Animals and Their Habitats. Grades 2/3. Tapestries for Learning Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Heather

    This thematic unit involves 2nd and 3rd grade students in an in-depth study of wild animals and their habitats. The interdisciplinary unit connects knowledge related to art, language arts, applied mathematics, social studies, and science. Students think about different types of animals from around the world and consider how they are alike and…

  17. Behavioral and neurogenomic transcriptome changes in wild-derived zebrafish with fluoxetine treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress and anxiety-related behaviors are seen in many organisms. Studies have shown that in humans and other animals, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g. fluoxetine) can reduce anxiety and anxiety-related behaviors. The efficacies and side effects, however, can vary between individuals. Fluoxetine can modulate anxiety in a stereospecific manner or with equal efficacy regardless of stereoisomer depending on the mechanism of action (e.g. serotonergic or GABAergic effects). Zebrafish are an emerging and valuable translational model for understanding human health related issues such as anxiety. In this study we present data showing the behavioral and whole brain transcriptome changes with fluoxetine treatment in wild-derived zebrafish and suggest additional molecular mechanisms of this widely-prescribed drug. Results We used automated behavioral analyses to assess the effects of racemic and stereoisomeric fluoxetine on male wild-derived zebrafish. Both racemic and the individual isomers of fluoxetine reduced anxiety-related behaviors relative to controls and we did not observe stereospecific fluoxetine effects. Using RNA-sequencing of the whole brain, we identified 411 genes showing differential expression with racemic fluoxetine treatment. Several neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, isotocin, urocortin 3, prolactin) showed consistent expression patterns with the alleviation of stress and anxiety when anxiety-related behavior was reduced with fluoxetine treatment. With gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses, we identified lipid and amino acid metabolic processes, and steroid biosynthesis among other terms to be over-enriched. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that fluoxetine reduces anxiety-related behaviors in wild-derived zebrafish and alters their neurogenomic state. We identify two biological processes, lipid and amino acid metabolic synthesis that characterize differences in the fluoxetine treated fish. Fluoxetine may be acting on

  18. May we eat our fellow creatures? Virtues and animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    for veganism holds that industrial meat production is by necessity cruel and partaking in it is not virtuous. Diamond agrees that fellow creatures should not be regarded as stages in the production of a meat product but she admits that this attitude to animals as worthy of respect and compassion does...... not necessarily lead to veganism. We suggest that one possible case of virtuous non-veganism is eating domestic animals that lead good lives and are humanely slaughtered. Another could be eating wild animals that could be worse off unless some of them are killed through humane hunting practices...

  19. Using tri-axial accelerometers to identify wild polar bear behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Anthony M.; Rode, Karyn D.; Cutting, A.; Owen, M.A.; Jensen, S.; Ware, J.V.; Robbins, C.T.; Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Obbard, M.E.; Middel, K.R.; Thiemann, G.W.; Williams, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Tri-axial accelerometers have been used to remotely identify the behaviors of a wide range of taxa. Assigning behaviors to accelerometer data often involves the use of captive animals or surrogate species, as their accelerometer signatures are generally assumed to be similar to those of their wild counterparts. However, this has rarely been tested. Validated accelerometer data are needed for polar bears Ursus maritimus to understand how habitat conditions may influence behavior and energy demands. We used accelerometer and water conductivity data to remotely distinguish 10 polar bear behaviors. We calibrated accelerometer and conductivity data collected from collars with behaviors observed from video-recorded captive polar bears and brown bears U. arctos, and with video from camera collars deployed on free-ranging polar bears on sea ice and on land. We used random forest models to predict behaviors and found strong ability to discriminate the most common wild polar bear behaviors using a combination of accelerometer and conductivity sensor data from captive or wild polar bears. In contrast, models using data from captive brown bears failed to reliably distinguish most active behaviors in wild polar bears. Our ability to discriminate behavior was greatest when species- and habitat-specific data from wild individuals were used to train models. Data from captive individuals may be suitable for calibrating accelerometers, but may provide reduced ability to discriminate some behaviors. The accelerometer calibrations developed here provide a method to quantify polar bear behaviors to evaluate the impacts of declines in Arctic sea ice.

  20. Moellerella wisconsensis isolated from the oral cavity of a wild raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Rebecca F; Murray, William; Janda, J Michael

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from the oral secretions of a wild raccoon in Northern California. Human enteric disease has previously been associated with this organism. This represents the first isolation of this rare enterobacterial species from a non-captive animal and only the third from a non-human source.

  1. DNA extraction from hair shafts of wild Brazilian felids and canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B

    2010-12-21

    Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the São Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme.

  2. First time identification of Acanthamoeba genotypes in the cornea samples of wild birds; Is Acanthamoeba keratitis making the predatory birds a target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakavuk, Muhammet; Aykur, Mehmet; Şahar, Esra Atalay; Karakuş, Mehmet; Aldemir, Duygu; Döndüren, Ömer; Özdemir, Hüseyin Gökhan; Can, Hüseyin; Gürüz, Adnan Yüksel; Dağcı, Hande; Döşkaya, Mert

    2017-12-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba which can be isolated from environment and among others well known as an opportunist protozoan parasite causing infections in humans and animals. Eyes are extremely important for the wild birds and losing sight ability due to Acanthamoeba can be dangerous. The studies on Acanthamoeba infection in wild birds is very few in world and Turkey therefore we aimed to screen deceased wild birds found in İzmir and Manisa provinces located in western Turkey using PCR and non-nutrition agar (NNA) plate method. Cornea samples were obtained from 18 deceased wild birds. During the external examination, signs of keratitis were observed in two Eurasian sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus). All of the corneal samples were analyzed by two PCR methods and NNA plate. According to results, the Acanthamoeba positivity in corneal samples was 16.6% and 5.5% by PCR and plate method, respectively. According to sequencing data, two of isolates belonged to genotype T5 and one was genotype T4. In conclusion, Acanthamoeba infection was detected in wild bird cornea samples with/without keratitis for the first time in the world. The result of this study also show that Acanthamoeba can be a cause of keratitis in wild birds of Turkey and thus these predator birds can be a target of other wild animals due to loss of sight ability. In terms of public health, these results show the importance of wild birds as a source of Acanthamoeba infection in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 77 FR 12226 - Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 579 [Docket No. FDA-2012-F-0178] Sadex Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Electron Beam and X-Ray... Sadex Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for...

  4. Zoning the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan as to the risk of rabies among various categories of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K; Sultanov, Akhmetzhan A; Beisembayev, Kanatzhan K; Korennoy, Fedor I; Кushubaev, Dosym B; Каdyrov, Ablaikhan S

    2016-05-31

    This paper presents the zoning of the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan with respect to the risk of rabies outbreaks in domestic and wild animals considering environmental and climatic conditions. The national database of rabies outbreaks in Kazakhstan in the period 2003-2014 has been accessed in order to find which zones are consistently most exposed to the risk of rabies in animals. The database contains information on the cases in demes of farm livestock, domestic animals and wild animals. To identify the areas with the highest risk of outbreaks, we applied the maximum entropy modelling method. Designated outbreaks were used as input presence data, while the bioclim set of ecological and climatic variables, together with some geographic factors, were used as explanatory variables. The model demonstrated a high predictive ability. The area under the curve for farm livestock was 0.782, for domestic animals -0.859 and for wild animals - 0.809. Based on the model, the map of integral risk was designed by following four categories: negligible risk (disease-free or favourable zone), low risk (surveillance zone), medium risk (vaccination zone), and high risk (unfavourable zone). The map was produced to allow developing a set of preventive measures and is expected to contribute to a better distribution of supervisory efforts from the veterinary service of the country.

  5. A Pathfinder for Animal Research and Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David C.

    1992-01-01

    This pathfinder was originally prepared for "Biomedical Research and Animal Rights," a session sponsored by the Veterinary Medical Libraries and Research Libraries Sections of the Medical Library Association. Current resources are described, from bibliographies to electronic bulletin boards, which relate to the issue of laboratory animal…

  6. Occurrence and distribution of Staphylococcus aureus lineages among zoo animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Chrobak, Dorota; Moodley, Arshnee

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge of the occurrence and diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in animals is largely biased in favour MRSA and domestic animals. In order to generate novel information on the ecology and population structure of this bacterial species in the animal kingdom, we investigated...... the occurrence and genotypic diversity of S. aureus in a range of animal species kept at the Copenhagen Zoo. We sampled 146 animals belonging to 25 mammalian species and 21 reptiles belonging to six species. A total of 59 S. aureus isolates were found in 10 of the 25 mammalian species tested. All isolates were...... MSSA belonging to fourteen spa types, including three novel spa types. MLST revealed the occurrence of seven STs. The study of the ecology of commensal S. aureus in captive wild animals revealed that ST133 has a broader host range than previously thought....

  7. Hepatitis E Virus and Related Viruses in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, D; Mauroy, A; Pavio, N; Purdy, M A; Rose, N; Thiry, E; de Oliveira-Filho, E F

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute human liver disease in healthy individuals which may eventually become chronic. It is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV) and can have a zoonotic origin. Nearly 57,000 people die yearly from hepatitis E-related conditions. The disease is endemic in both developing and developed countries with distinct epidemiologic profiles. In developing countries, the disease is associated with inadequate water treatment, while in developed countries, transmission is associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. All human HEV are grouped into at least four genotypes, while HEV or HEV-related viruses have been identified in an increasing number of domestic and wild animal species. Despite a high genetic diversity, only one single HEV serotype has been described to date for HEV genotypes 1-4. The discovery of new HEV or HEV-related viruses leads to a continuing increase in the number of genotypes. In addition, the genome organization of all these viruses is variable with overlapping open reading frames (ORF) and differences in the location of ORF3. In spite of the role of some domestic and wild animals as reservoir, the origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in humans and animals is still unclear. This review discusses aspects of the detection, molecular virology, zoonotic transmission and origin of HEV and HEV-related viruses in the context of 'One Health' and establishes a link between the previous and the new taxonomy of this growing virus family. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Relationship between uterine morphology and peripheral concentrations of sex steroid hormone in wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Masako; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Osawa, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Developing a better understanding of the reproductive physiology and breeding condition peculiar to wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) is crucial for estimation of their habitat distribution. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in morphology of the genital organs, cellular proliferation in the endometrium and sex steroid hormone concentrations along with the reproductive cycle in Japanese black bears. Samples were collected from a total of 24 female Japanese black bears (1-15 presumptive years old) that were caught in the wild in Iwate prefecture during the period between August 1999 and September 2005. Twenty-two out of the 24 animals were hunted from May to October. The ovaries from the 24 animals and the uteri from 23 animals were observed macroscopically and histologically to examine the relationship between morphology of the genital organs and the month of the year the animal was caught. The staining pattern of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the endometrium was characterised. Peripheral concentrations of oestradiol-17beta and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. All the animals that had a corpus luteum (n=12) were captured from August to October. The thickness of the endometrium in the animals captured from August to October (n=16) was significantly greater than those in animals captured from May to July (n=5) (Pblack bears.

  9. Wild reindeer in Norway – population ecology, management and harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild reindeer in Norway, presently (winter 2005-06 numbering some 25 000 animals, are found in 23 more or less separated areas in the mountainous southern part of the country (see map in appendix. All herds are hunted and management is organized in close cooperation between owner organizations and state agencies. I will provide a historical review of the wild reindeer management and research in Norway and conclude with the present situation. We identify 3 types of wild reindeer on basis of their origin: (1 the original wild reindeer with minor influence from previous domestic reindeer herding activities (Snøhetta, Rondane and Sølenkletten, (2 wild reindeer with some influx of animals from past domestic reindeer herding in the area (Nordfjella, Hardangervidda, Setesdal-Ryfylke and (3 feral reindeer with a domesticated origin (reindeer released or escaped from past reindeer husbandry units; Forolhogna, Ottadalen North and Ottadalen South, Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell and several smaller areas. In Norway, genetic origin (wild or domesticated, body size and reproductive performance of reindeer differ among areas. Feral reindeer have higher body weights and enjoy higher reproductive rates than their originally wild counterparts. These differences may partially be explained by differences in food quality and availability among the populations. However, there is a growing suspicion that other explanatory factors are also involved. Wild reindeer are more vigilant and show longer fright and flight distances than feral reindeer. Number of animals harvested was 4817, or ca. 20% of the total population in 2005, but varies between 40% in feral reindeer areas to below 20% in some of the "wild" reindeer areas. Causal factors behind this variation include differences in age at maturation, postnatal calf mortality and herd structure. The Norwegian Institute for nature research (NINA in cooperation with the Directorate for nature management (DN allocate considerable

  10. Effects of animal type (wild vs. domestic) and diet alfalfa level on intake and digestibility of European adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinheiro, Victor; Outor-Monteiro, D.; Mourão, J.L.; Cone, J.W.; Guimaraes Dias Lourenco, Ana

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of alfalfa in the diet on feed intake and digestibility of two types of rabbits, wild (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) vs. domestic (O. cuniculus cuniculus). Ten wild (W; mean LW = 927 g) and 10 domestic (D; mean LW = 4,645 g) adult rabbit

  11. Enriching the captive elephant population genetic pool through artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen collected in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, T B; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J; Potier, R; Schwammer, H M; Balfanz, F; Vielgrader, H; Baker, B; Bartels, P; Göritz, F

    2012-10-01

    The first successful AI in an elephant was reported in 1998, using fresh semen. Since then almost 40 calves have been produced through AI in both Asian and African elephants worldwide. Following these successes, with the objective of enriching the captive population with genetic material from the wild, we evaluated the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen collected from wild bulls for AI in captivity. Semen, collected from a 36-yr-old wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) in South Africa was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen-thawed semen was used for four inseminations over two consecutive days, two before and two after ovulation, in a 26-yr-old female African savanna elephant in Austria. Insemination dose of 1200 × 10(6) cells per AI with 61% motility resulted in pregnancy, which was confirmed through ultrasound examination 75, 110 and 141 days after the AI procedure. This represents the first successful AI using wild bull frozen-thawed semen in elephants. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or, as was done in this study, between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease-carrying animals or to remove animals from the wild. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for genetic diversity management and phenotype selection in these endangered mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resource base influences genome-wide DNA methylation levels in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Amanda J.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.; Tung, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Variation in resource availability commonly exerts strong effects on fitness-related traits in wild animals. However, we know little about the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, or about their persistence over time. To address these questions, we profiled genome-wide whole blood DNA methylation levels in two sets of wild baboons: (i) ‘wild-feeding’ baboons that foraged naturally in a savanna environment and (ii) ‘Lodge’ baboons that had ready access to spatially concentrated human food scraps, resulting in high feeding efficiency and low daily travel distances. We identified 1,014 sites (0.20% of sites tested) that were differentially methylated between wild-feeding and Lodge baboons, providing the first evidence that resource availability shapes the epigenome in a wild mammal. Differentially methylated sites tended to occur in contiguous stretches (i.e., in differentially methylated regions or DMRs), in promoters and enhancers, and near metabolism-related genes, supporting their functional importance in gene regulation. In agreement, reporter assay experiments confirmed that methylation at the largest identified DMR, located in the promoter of a key glycolysis-related gene, was sufficient to causally drive changes in gene expression. Intriguingly, all dispersing males carried a consistent epigenetic signature of their membership in a wild-feeding group, regardless of whether males dispersed into or out of this group as adults. Together, our findings support a role for DNA methylation in mediating ecological effects on phenotypic traits in the wild, and emphasize the dynamic environmental sensitivity of DNA methylation levels across the life course. PMID:26508127

  13. The first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) and Ochotona curzoniae (wild plateau pika) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueyong; Jian, Yingna; Li, Xiuping; Ma, Liqing; Karanis, Gabriele; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2018-05-01

    Cryptosporidium is one of the most important genera of intestinal zoonotic pathogens, which can infect various hosts and cause diarrhoea. There is little available information about the molecular characterisation and epidemiological prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) and Ochotona curzoniae (wild plateau pika) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area of Qinghai Province, Northwest China. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine Cryptosporidium species/genotypes and epidemiological prevalence in these mammals by detecting the SSU rRNA gene by PCR amplification. The Cryptosporidium spp. infection rate was 8.9% (8/90) in Qinghai voles and 6.25% (4/64) in wild plateau pikas. Positive samples were successfully sequenced, and the following Cryptosporidium species were found: C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, C. canis and a novel genotype in Qinghai voles and C. parvum and a novel genotype in wild plateau pikas. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium infections in M. fuscus and wild O. curzoniae in Northwest China. The results suggest the possibility of Cryptosporidium species transmission among these two hosts, the environment, other animals and humans and provide useful molecular epidemiological data for the prevention and control of Cryptosporidium infections in wild animals and the surrounding environments. The results of the present study indicate the existence of Cryptosporidium species infections that have potential public health significance. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium multi-species infections in these animal hosts.

  14. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  15. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  16. Transmission of Salmonella between wildlife and meat-production animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Madsen, J. J.; Rahbek, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the transmission of Salmonella spp. between production animals (pigs and cattle) and wildlife on production animal farms in Denmark. Methods and Results: In the winter and summer of 2001 and 2002, 3622 samples were collected from Salmonella-infected and noninfected herds...... of pigs and cattle and surrounding wildlife. Salmonella was detected in wildlife on farms carrying Salmonella-positive production animals and only during the periods when Salmonella was detected in the production animals. The presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in wild birds significantly correlated...... to their migration pattern and food preference. Conclusions: Salmonella was transmitted from infected herds of production animals (cattle and pigs) to wildlife that lived amongst or in close proximity to them. Significance and Impact of the Study: Salmonella in animal food products is associated with the occurrence...

  17. Epidemiological study of the intestinal helminths of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon) in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M; Bertani, M; Dell'Omodarme, M; Prati, M C

    2002-12-01

    Since 1995 the population of wild ungulates increased significantly in the "Parco provinciale dei Monti Livornesi" (Livorno, Tuscany, Central Italy). We studied the intestinal macroparasites of two hosts, the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and the mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon). In the case of wild boars we found a dominant parasite species, Globocephalus urosubulatus. For this parasite the frequency distribution of the number of parasites per host agrees with a negative binomial distribution. There is not a significant correlation between the age of the animals and the parasitosis. Furthermore the mean parasite burden of male and female wild boars does not differ significantly. In the case of mouflons we found a dominant parasite species Nematodirus filicollis with Trichuris ovis as codominant species.

  18. Animal models for testing anti-prion drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Elezgarai, Saioa R; Eraña, Hasier; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases belong to a group of fatal infectious diseases with no effective therapies available. Throughout the last 35 years, less than 50 different drugs have been tested in different experimental animal models without hopeful results. An important limitation when searching for new drugs is the existence of appropriate models of the disease. The three different possible origins of prion diseases require the existence of different animal models for testing anti-prion compounds. Wild type, over-expressing transgenic mice and other more sophisticated animal models have been used to evaluate a diversity of compounds which some of them were previously tested in different in vitro experimental models. The complexity of prion diseases will require more pre-screening studies, reliable sporadic (or spontaneous) animal models and accurate chemical modifications of the selected compounds before having an effective therapy against human prion diseases. This review is intended to put on display the more relevant animal models that have been used in the search of new antiprion therapies and describe some possible procedures when handling chemical compounds presumed to have anti-prion activity prior to testing them in animal models.

  19. Conservation of Salmonella infection mechanisms in plants and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schikora

    Full Text Available Salmonella virulence in animals depends on effectors injected by Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs. In this report we demonstrate that Salmonella mutants that are unable to deliver effectors are also compromised in infection of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in contrast to wild type bacteria, T3SS mutants of Salmonella are compromised in suppressing highly conserved Arabidopsis genes that play a prominent role during Salmonella infection of animals. We also found that Salmonella originating from infected plants are equally virulent for human cells and mice. These results indicate a high degree of conservation in the defense and infection mechanism of animal and plant hosts during Salmonella infection.

  20. Isolation of Microsporum gypseum from the haircoat of health wild felids kept in captivity in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentubo Henri Donnarumma Levy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytes are fungi that cause superficial mycoses in animals and humans. While studies have shown that domestic cats (Felis catus are often asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes, and thus a significant source of infection, this aspect has not been studied in relation to their wild relatives. The present study was aimed at determining the presence of dermatophytes on the haircoat of healthy wild felids, kept in captivity at "Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo". Samples were taken from 130 adult animals of both sexes: 25 lions (Panthera leo, 12 tigers (Panthera tigris, 6 jaguars (Panthera onca, 4 leopards (Panthera pardus, 2 snow leopards (Panthera uncia, 2 pumas (Puma concolor, 2 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, 1 ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, 28 tiger cats (Leopardus tigrinus, 10 margays (Leopardus wiedii, 8 geoffroy's cats (Leopardus geoffroyi, 22 jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi and 8 pampas cats (Oncifelis colocolo. The samples were obtained by rubbing the haircoat of the animals with squares of sterile carpet, and then seeded onto Petri dishes containing Mycobiotic agar (Difco(TM. The plates were incubated at 25°C for 4 weeks. The isolates were subcultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (100mg/L and cultured on slides for posterior identification by their macro- and microscopic characteristics. Microsporum gypseum was isolated from two apparently healthy lionesses (1.6%, both kept in terrariums. The most prevalent contaminants were of the genera Penicillium (27.9%; Cladosporium (24.5%; Acremonium (12.1%; Scopulariopsis and Chrysosporium (9.8%; and Aspergillus (5.3%. The occurrence of dermatophytes in the haircoat of healthy wild felids, maintained in captivity, confirms their status as asymptomatic carriers and characterizes them as sources of infection for other animals and for humans.

  1. Dietary values of wild and semi-wild edible plants in Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, traditional processing methods lower most of the anti-nutritionals and their respective risks. New food composition tables that integrate indigenous knowledge and nutritional content of the semi-wild and wild edibles are recommended. Wild edibles can be considered to improve livelihood security and reduce ...

  2. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS......-polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis. Sections through pellets of isolated protein bodies from both the mutant and the wild type revealed protein body structures corresponding with those observed in sections through the intact starchy endosperms. The majority of the wild-type protein bodies was homogeneous spheres accompanied...... that the wild-type protein bodies contained large amounts of prolamines (the storage protein group which is soluble in 55 % isopropanol) and some glutelins (the storage proteins soluble in dilute alkali), whereas the mutant protein bodies have glutelin as the major component and little prolamines...

  3. Senescence or selective disappearance? Age trajectories of body mass in wild and captive populations of a small-bodied primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Anni; Dammhahn, Melanie; Aujard, Fabienne; Eberle, Manfred; Hardy, Isabelle; Kappeler, Peter M; Perret, Martine; Schliehe-Diecks, Susanne; Kraus, Cornelia

    2014-09-22

    Classic theories of ageing consider extrinsic mortality (EM) a major factor in shaping longevity and ageing, yet most studies of functional ageing focus on species with low EM. This bias may cause overestimation of the influence of senescent declines in performance over condition-dependent mortality on demographic processes across taxa. To simultaneously investigate the roles of functional senescence (FS) and intrinsic, extrinsic and condition-dependent mortality in a species with a high predation risk in nature, we compared age trajectories of body mass (BM) in wild and captive grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) using longitudinal data (853 individuals followed through adulthood). We found evidence of non-random mortality in both settings. In captivity, the oldest animals showed senescence in their ability to regain lost BM, whereas no evidence of FS was found in the wild. Overall, captive animals lived longer, but a reversed sex bias in lifespan was observed between wild and captive populations. We suggest that even moderately condition-dependent EM may lead to negligible FS in the wild. While high EM may act to reduce the average lifespan, this evolutionary process may be counteracted by the increased fitness of the long-lived, high-quality individuals. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Distemper Outbreak and Its Effect on African Wild Dog Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bildt, Marco W.G.; Kuiken, Thijs; Visee, Aart M.; Lema, Sangito; Fitzjohn, Tony R.

    2002-01-01

    In December 2000, an infectious disease spread through a captive breeding group of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Tanzania, killing 49 of 52 animals within 2 months. The causative agent was identified as Canine distemper virus (CDV) by means of histologic examination, virus isolation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, and nucleotide sequencing. This report emphasizes the importance of adequate protection against infectious diseases for the successful outcome of captive breeding programs of endangered species. PMID:11897078

  5. Non-human C. difficile Reservoirs and Sources: Animals, Food, Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina; Seyboldt, Christian; Rupnik, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous and is found in humans, animals and in variety of environments. The substantial overlap of ribotypes between all three main reservoirs suggests the extensive transmissions. Here we give the overview of European studies investigating farm, companion and wild animals, food and environments including water, soil, sediment, waste water treatment plants, biogas plants, air and households. Studies in Europe are more numerous especially in last couple of years, but are still fragmented in terms of countries, animal species or type of environment covered. Soil seem to be the habitat of divergent unusual lineages of C. difficile. But the most important aspect of animals and environment is their role in C. difficile transmissions and their potential as a source for human infection is discussed.

  6. Imitation explains the propagation, not the stability of animal culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claidière, Nicolas; Sperber, Dan

    2010-02-22

    For acquired behaviour to count as cultural, two conditions must be met: it must propagate in a social group, and it must remain stable across generations in the process of propagation. It is commonly assumed that imitation is the mechanism that explains both the spread of animal culture and its stability. We review the literature on transmission chain studies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and other animals, and we use a formal model to argue that imitation, which may well play a major role in the propagation of animal culture, cannot be considered faithful enough to explain its stability. We consider the contribution that other psychological and ecological factors might make to the stability of animal culture observed in the wild.

  7. Filarioid infections in wild carnivores: a multispecies survey in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Ababii, Jana; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Sándor, Attila D; Enache, Dorin Valter; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-07-13

    Filarioids are vector-borne parasitic nematodes of vertebrates. In Europe, eight species of filarioids, including zoonotic species, have been reported mainly in domestic dogs, and occasionally in wild carnivores. In Romania, infections with Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum are endemic in domestic dogs. Despite the abundant populations of wild carnivores in the country, their role in the epidemiology of filarioid parasites remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the host range, prevalence and distribution of filarioid infections in wild carnivores present in Romania. Between May 2014 and February 2016, 432 spleen samples originating from 14 species of wild carnivores have been tested for the presence of DNA of three species of filarioids (D. immitis, D. repens and A. reconditum). Overall 14 samples (3.24%) were molecularly positive. The most prevalent species was D. immitis (1.62%), accounting for 50% (n = 7) of the positive animals. The prevalence of D. repens was 1.39%, while that of A. reconditum was 0.23%. No co-infections were detected. Dirofilaria immitis DNA was detected in five golden jackals, Canis aureus (7.58%), one red fox, Vulpes vulpes (0.33%), and one wildcat, Felis silvestris (10%). The presence of D. repens DNA was detected in two red foxes (0.66%), two golden jackals (3.03%), one grey wolf (7.14%), and one least weasel, Mustela nivalis (33.33%). Acanthocheilonema reconditum DNA was found only in one red fox (0.33%). The present study provides molecular evidence of filarial infections in wild carnivore species in Romania, suggesting their potential epidemiological role and reports a new host species for D. repens.

  8. Creating animated GIF files for electronic presentations using Photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Chun-Shan; Kruskal, Jonathan; Larson, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Our objective is to present a simple method for converting movie clips to animated GIFs (graphics interchange format) using Photoshop. Although animated GIF is a more reliable format than movie clips (e.g., AVI and QuickTime) for presenting dynamic data sets in PowerPoint presentations, this output format is not available on most radiology workstations. Therefore, many academic radiologists still experience the problem of incompatible codecs and missing file links when trying to show movie clips in their PowerPoint presentations. One way to resolve this issue is to convert the movie clips to animated GIFs. In this article, we provide a simple method for this conversion using Photoshop--a common software application used by radiologists.

  9. Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis Infection: the Badger Model As a Paradigm for Understanding Tuberculosis in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn Gormley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis in animals is caused principally by infection with Mycobacterium bovis and the potential for transmission of infection to humans is often the fundamental driver for surveillance of disease in livestock and wild animals. However, with such a vast array of species susceptible to infection, it is often extremely difficult to gain a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of infection––a key component of the epidemiology in all affected species. This is important because the development of disease control strategies in animals is determined chiefly by an understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. The most revealing data from which to formulate theories on pathogenesis are that observed in susceptible hosts infected by natural transmission. These data are gathered from detailed studies of the distribution of gross and histological lesions, and the presence and distribution of infection as determined by highly sensitive bacteriology procedures. The information can also be used to establish the baseline for evaluating experimental model systems. The European badger (Meles meles is one of a very small number of wild animal hosts where detailed knowledge of the pathogenesis of M. bovis infection has been generated from observations in natural-infected animals. By drawing parallels from other animal species, an experimental badger infection model has also been established where infection of the lower respiratory tract mimics infection and the disease observed in natural-infected badgers. This has facilitated the development of diagnostic tests and testing of vaccines that have the potential to control the disease in badgers. In this review, we highlight the fundamental principles of how detailed knowledge of pathogenesis can be used to evaluate specific intervention strategies, and how the badger model may be a paradigm for understanding pathogenesis of tuberculosis in any affected wild animal species.

  10. Phenotypic variation in metabolism and morphology correlating with animal swimming activity in the wild: relevance for the OCLTT (oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance), allocation and performance models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders; Jepsen, Niels; Berg, Søren; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Svendsen, Jon C

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is affecting animal physiology in many parts of the world. Using metabolism, the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) hypothesis provides a tool to predict the responses of ectothermic animals to variation in temperature, oxygen availability and pH in the aquatic environment. The hypothesis remains controversial, however, and has been questioned in several studies. A positive relationship between aerobic metabolic scope and animal activity would be consistent with the OCLTT but has rarely been tested. Moreover, the performance model and the allocation model predict positive and negative relationships, respectively, between standard metabolic rate and activity. Finally, animal activity could be affected by individual morphology because of covariation with cost of transport. Therefore, we hypothesized that individual variation in activity is correlated with variation in metabolism and morphology. To test this prediction, we captured 23 wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) in a lake, tagged them with telemetry transmitters, measured standard and maximal metabolic rates, aerobic metabolic scope and fineness ratio and returned the fish to the lake to quantify individual in situ activity levels. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, whereas the activity assay involved high-resolution telemetry providing positions every 30 s over 12 days. We found no correlation between individual metabolic traits and activity, whereas individual fineness ratio correlated with activity. Independent of body length, and consistent with physics theory, slender fish maintained faster mean and maximal swimming speeds, but this variation did not result in a larger area (in square metres) explored per 24 h. Testing assumptions and predictions of recent conceptual models, our study indicates that individual metabolism is not a strong determinant of animal activity, in contrast to individual morphology, which is

  11. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  12. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee McMichael

    Full Text Available This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  13. Zoonotic pathogens in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil: Bartonella and Coxiella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Tatiana; Ferreira, Michelle Santos; Guterres, Alexandro; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Gonçalves, Jonathan; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2017-04-01

    Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1.5% (2/131) of rodents. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 4.6% (6/131) of the wild animals, 17.6% of the rodents harbored Bartonella spp. No cases of Rickettsia were identified. Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella vinsonii were the species found on the wild mammals. This report is the first to note C. burnetii, B. doshiae and B. vinsonii natural infections in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil. Our work highlights the potential risk of transmission to humans, since most of the infected specimens belong to generalist species that live near human dwellings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in road-killed wild mammals from the Central Western Region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Marson, Pâmela Merlo; Silva, Rodrigo Costa da; Langoni, Helio

    2016-01-01

    Road-killed wild animals host zoonotic pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, offering a new opportunity for the epidemiological study of these infectious organisms. This investigation aimed to determine the presence of T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites in tissue samples of 64 road-killed wild animals, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples were then typed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using 7 markers: SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c29-6, PK1, and Apico. PCR-RFLP targeting 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was also performed on all samples to detect other apicomplexan parasites. T. gondii DNA was detected in 16 tissue samples from 8 individual animals, as follows: 1 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 1 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata (lutrine opossum), 2 Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), 1 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (Paraguay hairy dwarf porcupine). Seven different T. gondii genotypes were identified, 6 of which were novel. Typing by 18S rRNA verified these 16 T. gondii-infected samples, and identified 1 Sarcocystis spp.-infected animal [Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo)]. The amplified T. gondii (GenBank accession No. L37415.1) and Sarcocystis spp. 18S rRNA products were confirmed by sequencing. Our results indicate that T. gondii is commonly present in wild mammals, which act as sources of infection for humans and animals, including other wild species. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in the environment and identifying their natural reservoirs, contributing to our understanding of host-parasite interactions.

  15. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in road-killed wild mammals from the Central Western Region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Road-killed wild animals host zoonotic pathogens such as Toxoplasma gondii, offering a new opportunity for the epidemiological study of these infectious organisms. METHODS This investigation aimed to determine the presence of T. gondii and other apicomplexan parasites in tissue samples of 64 road-killed wild animals, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were then typed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using 7 markers: SAG1, 5′-3′SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c29-6, PK1, and Apico. PCR-RFLP targeting 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes was also performed on all samples to detect other apicomplexan parasites. RESULTS T. gondii DNA was detected in 16 tissue samples from 8 individual animals, as follows: 1 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox, 1 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum, 1 Lutreolina crassicaudata (lutrine opossum, 2 Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater, 1 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon, and 2 Sphiggurus spinosus (Paraguay hairy dwarf porcupine. Seven different T. gondii genotypes were identified, 6 of which were novel. Typing by 18S rRNA verified these 16 T. gondii-infected samples, and identified 1 Sarcocystis spp.-infected animal [Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-banded armadillo]. The amplified T. gondii (GenBank accession No. L37415.1 and Sarcocystis spp. 18S rRNA products were confirmed by sequencing. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that T. gondii is commonly present in wild mammals, which act as sources of infection for humans and animals, including other wild species. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in the environment and identifying their natural reservoirs, contributing to our understanding of host-parasite interactions.

  16. Wild dogma II: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Allen (2011 and Allen et al. (2011 recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6: 737–740, 2011].

  17. Two outbreaks of classical swine fever in wild boar in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, F; Rossi, S; Mesplède, A; Kuntz-Simon, G; Le Potier, M-F

    2008-06-21

    In 2002 and 2003, two successive outbreaks of classical swine fever were declared in wild boar in northern France. The first was in Moselle, near the town of Thionville and the border with Luxembourg, and the second was in the northern Vosges area, near the German border. The outbreaks were investigated by serological and virological diagnosis of dead or shot animals. Hunting restrictions were applied to limit the spread of the outbreaks. The virus was detected eight times between April and July 2002 in the Thionville area, an area well delimited by natural or artificial barriers such as rivers or highways. Cooperation between the authorities concerned was good, and hunting restrictions were applied for one year. No virus was detected after July 2002 and the Thionville outbreak was officially considered over in March 2005. In the northern Vosges the situation was different, with no barriers to animal movements, continuous forest, difficulties in establishing hunting restrictions in this huge area, and the circulation of the virus in Germany close to the frontier. Virus of a different strain from that isolated in the Thionville outbreak was still being isolated in the northern Vosges in 2004, and owing to the failure of the hunting restrictions, the French health authorities decided to vaccinate wild boar.

  18. A maximum entropy model for predicting wild boar distribution in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bosch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar (Sus scrofa populations in many areas of the Palearctic including the Iberian Peninsula have grown continuously over the last century. This increase has led to numerous different types of conflicts due to the damage these mammals can cause to agriculture, the problems they create in the conservation of natural areas, and the threat they pose to animal health. In the context of both wildlife management and the design of health programs for disease control, it is essential to know how wild boar are distributed on a large spatial scale. Given that the quantifying of the distribution of wild species using census techniques is virtually impossible in the case of large-scale studies, modeling techniques have thus to be used instead to estimate animals’ distributions, densities, and abundances. In this study, the potential distribution of wild boar in Spain was predicted by integrating data of presence and environmental variables into a MaxEnt approach. We built and tested models using 100 bootstrapped replicates. For each replicate or simulation, presence data was divided into two subsets that were used for model fitting (60% of the data and cross-validation (40% of the data. The final model was found to be accurate with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC value of 0.79. Six explanatory variables for predicting wild boar distribution were identified on the basis of the percentage of their contribution to the model. The model exhibited a high degree of predictive accuracy, which has been confirmed by its agreement with satellite images and field surveys.

  19. Identification of learning mechanisms in a wild meerkat population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Hoppitt

    Full Text Available Vigorous debates as to the evolutionary origins of culture remain unresolved due to an absence of methods for identifying learning mechanisms in natural populations. While laboratory experiments on captive animals have revealed evidence for a number of mechanisms, these may not necessarily reflect the processes typically operating in nature. We developed a novel method that allows social and asocial learning mechanisms to be determined in animal groups from the patterns of interaction with, and solving of, a task. We deployed it to analyse learning in groups of wild meerkats (Suricata suricatta presented with a novel foraging apparatus. We identify nine separate learning processes underlying the meerkats' foraging behaviour, in each case precisely quantifying their strength and duration, including local enhancement, emulation, and a hitherto unrecognized form of social learning, which we term 'observational perseverance'. Our analysis suggests a key factor underlying the stability of behavioural traditions is a high ratio of specific to generalized social learning effects. The approach has widespread potential as an ecologically valid tool to investigate learning mechanisms in natural groups of animals, including humans.

  20. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Dutton

    Full Text Available Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.

  1. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Adam J; Hepburn, Cameron; Macdonald, David W

    2011-01-01

    Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.

  2. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan.

  4. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  5. Local knowledge and perceptions of animal population abundances by communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandiwa, E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding animal abundances and population trends is a fundamental goal of ecology. The aim of this study was to examine local ecological knowledge (LEK) held by local people bordering the northern Gonarezhou National Park (GNP), Zimbabwe, concerning domestic and wild animal species abundances

  6. Spontaneous ejaculation in a wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadamichi Morisaka

    Full Text Available Spontaneous ejaculation, which is defined as the release of seminal fluids without apparent sexual stimulation, has been documented in boreoeutherian mammals. Here we report spontaneous ejaculation in a wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus, and present a video of this rare behavior. This is the first report of spontaneous ejaculation by an aquatic mammal, and the first video of this behavior in animals to be published in a scientific journal.

  7. Monitoring for environmental mutagenesis in wild animals - lessons from human studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawn, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    The increasing realisation that environmental monitoring practices need to demonstrate radiological protection of the whole ecosystem has led to suggestions that genotoxic techniques derived from human monitoring of radiation exposure could be applied to other animal species. Human studies have highlighted the need to establish the relationship between exposure, genetic effect and biological consequence so that different study objectives, e.g. hazard identification, dose estimation, risk evaluation, can be addressed by the application of the most appropriate and informative assay. (author)

  8. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  9. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  10. Reproduction in the endangered African wild dog: basic physiology, reproductive suppression and possible benefits of artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berghe, F; Paris, D B B P; Van Soom, A; Rijsselaere, T; Van der Weyde, L; Bertschinger, H J; Paris, M C J

    2012-07-01

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered exotic canid with less than 5500 animals remaining in the wild. Despite numerous strategies to conserve this species, numbers of free-living animals are in decline. It is a highly social species with a complex pack structure: separate male and female dominant hierarchies with, typically, participation of subdominant adults in the rearing of the dominant breeding pairs' pups. Basic reproductive knowledge is largely missing in this species, with only limited information available on the profile of reproductive hormones, based on non-invasive endocrine monitoring. The dominant or alpha male and female are reproductively active and the subdominants are generally reproductively suppressed. However, the occasional production of litters by subdominant females and evidence of multiple paternity within litters suggests that fertility of subordinates is not completely inhibited. In this respect, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms governing reproduction and reproductive suppression in African wild dogs, particularly the influence of dominance and pack structure on both male and female fertility. Given concerns over the long-term survival of this species, further research in this area is essential to provide valuable information for their captive breeding and conservation. Reproductive information can also be applied to the development of Assisted Reproductive Techniques for this species; the utility of which in African wild dog conservation is also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Serologic evidence of Leishmania infection in free-ranging wild and domestic canids around a Brazilian National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Henrique de Almeida Curi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of disease between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans is of great concern to conservation issues and public health. Here we report on the prevalence of anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies in 21 wild canids (7 Chrysocyon brachyurus, 12 Cerdocyon thous, and 2 Lycalopex vetulus and 74 free domestic dogs (Canis familiaris sampled around the Serra do Cipó National Park. In dogs, the apparent prevalence was 8.1% and in wild canids it was 19% (2 crab-eating foxes, C. thous, and 2 maned wolves, C. brachyurus. Management of the domestic dog population with evaluation of incidence changes in humans and wildlife, and enlightenment on the role of wild reservoirs are essential issues for future action and research.

  12. Using informatics and the electronic medical record to describe antimicrobial use in the clinical management of diarrhea cases at 12 companion animal practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Michele Anholt

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial drugs may be used to treat diarrheal illness in companion animals. It is important to monitor antimicrobial use to better understand trends and patterns in antimicrobial resistance. There is no monitoring of antimicrobial use in companion animals in Canada. To explore how the use of electronic medical records could contribute to the ongoing, systematic collection of antimicrobial use data in companion animals, anonymized electronic medical records were extracted from 12 participating companion animal practices and warehoused at the University of Calgary. We used the pre-diagnostic, clinical features of diarrhea as the case definition in this study. Using text-mining technologies, cases of diarrhea were described by each of the following variables: diagnostic laboratory tests performed, the etiological diagnosis and antimicrobial therapies. The ability of the text miner to accurately describe the cases for each of the variables was evaluated. It could not reliably classify cases in terms of diagnostic tests or etiological diagnosis; a manual review of a random sample of 500 diarrhea cases determined that 88/500 (17.6% of the target cases underwent diagnostic testing of which 36/88 (40.9% had an etiological diagnosis. Text mining, compared to a human reviewer, could accurately identify cases that had been treated with antimicrobials with high sensitivity (92%, 95% confidence interval, 88.1%-95.4% and specificity (85%, 95% confidence interval, 80.2%-89.1%. Overall, 7400/15,928 (46.5% of pets presenting with diarrhea were treated with antimicrobials. Some temporal trends and patterns of the antimicrobial use are described. The results from this study suggest that informatics and the electronic medical records could be useful for monitoring trends in antimicrobial use.

  13. Involvement of two genetic lineages of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in a local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makouloutou, Patrice; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Masahiko; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of Japan. We collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (Procyon lotor), six Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), one Japanese marten (Martes melampus), one stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and one Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), mainly in an area where mangy wild animals have been increasingly noted in the past 4 yr. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA gene and the partial 16S and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were characterized in these skin samples. The ITS2 sequencing (404 base pairs [bp]) identified the causative mite for mangy skin lesions of 128 animals as S. scabiei, regardless of host origin. The cat mite (Notoedres cati) was the cause in one raccoon dog and one raccoon. Most mites had almost identical ITS2 nucleotide sequences to those recorded in a variety of mammals worldwide. Partial 16S and cox-1 fragments of mtDNA amplified and sequenced successfully (331 bp and 410 bp, respectively) showed an identical nucleotide sequence except for one site (C vs. T) for the former and four sites (G, C, C, C vs. A, T, T, T, respectively) for the latter fragment. These substitutions were always synchronized, with the two mitochondrial DNA haplotypes (i.e., C/GCCC and T/ATTT) appearing to separately colonize in geographic units. The T/ATTT haplotype fell into a clade where animal-derived mites worldwide dominated, whereas the C/GCCC haplotype formed a geographic branch unique to Japanese isolates. These results suggest that heterologous populations of monospecific S. scabiei are expanding their populations and distributions regardless of host species in an apparently local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan.

  14. Niche conservatism and the invasive potential of the wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Ribeiro, Bruno R; Hayward, Matt Warrington; Paglia, Adriano; Passamani, Marcelo; Loyola, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    Niche conservatism, i.e. the retention of a species' fundamental niche through evolutionary time, is cornerstone for biological invasion assessments. The fact that species tend to maintain their original climate niche allows predictive maps of invasion risk to anticipate potential invadable areas. Unravelling the mechanisms driving niche shifts can shed light on the management of invasive species. Here, we assessed niche shifts in one of the world's worst invasive species: the wild boar Sus scrofa. We also predicted potential invadable areas based on an ensemble of three ecological niche modelling methods, and evaluated the performance of models calibrated with native vs. pooled (native plus invaded) species records. By disentangling the drivers of change on the exotic wild boar population's niches, we found strong evidence for niche conservatism during biological invasion. Ecological niche models calibrated with both native and pooled range records predicted convergent areas. Also, observed niche shifts are mostly explained by niche unfilling, i.e. there are unoccupied areas in the exotic range where climate is analogous to the native range. Niche unfilling is expected as result of recent colonization and ongoing dispersal, and was potentially stronger for the Neotropics, where a recent wave of introductions for pig-farming and game-hunting has led to high wild boar population growth rates. The invasive potential of wild boar in the Neotropics is probably higher than in other regions, which has profound management implications if we are to prevent their invasion into species-rich areas, such as Amazonia, coupled with expansion of African swine fever and possibly great economic losses. Although the originally Eurasian-wide distribution suggests a pre-adaptation to a wide array of climates, the wild boar world-wide invasion does not exhibit evidence of niche evolution. The invasive potential of the wild boar therefore probably lies on the reproductive, dietary and

  15. Small Animal Models for Evaluating Filovirus Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banadyga, Logan; Wong, Gary; Qiu, Xiangguo

    2018-05-11

    The development of novel therapeutics and vaccines to treat or prevent disease caused by filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, depends on the availability of animal models that faithfully recapitulate clinical hallmarks of disease as it is observed in humans. In particular, small animal models (such as mice and guinea pigs) are historically and frequently used for the primary evaluation of antiviral countermeasures, prior to testing in nonhuman primates, which represent the gold-standard filovirus animal model. In the past several years, however, the filovirus field has witnessed the continued refinement of the mouse and guinea pig models of disease, as well as the introduction of the hamster and ferret models. We now have small animal models for most human-pathogenic filoviruses, many of which are susceptible to wild type virus and demonstrate key features of disease, including robust virus replication, coagulopathy, and immune system dysfunction. Although none of these small animal model systems perfectly recapitulates Ebola virus disease or Marburg virus disease on its own, collectively they offer a nearly complete set of tools in which to carry out the preclinical development of novel antiviral drugs.

  16. Serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds and mammals from southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Pena, Hilda Fáitima de Jesus; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2014-03-01

    In this study, serum samples of 53 wild animals from two different states from the southeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off of 1: 5 for birds and of 1: 25 for mammals. Out of the sampled animals, 27 were birds and 26 were mammals, and from this total, 83% (n = 44) were free-living animals. Antibodies were found in 13 mammals, from which 11 were free-living animals, and in five birds, all of which were free-living. In this study, T. gondii antibodies were detected in four bird species (crested seriema, Cariama cristata; buff-necked ibis, Theristicus caudatus; picazuro pigeon, Patagioenas picazuro; and burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia) and in a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) for the first time.

  17. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Ayala

    Full Text Available Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23, followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13. Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47 and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7. The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28 and Hitchner B1 (n = 19. Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife.

  18. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272

  19. [Reduction of 137caesium contamination in wild boars by supplementing offered food with ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, P; Reddemann, J; Schungel, P; Kienzle, E

    2014-01-01

    This replication study investigated whether the 137caesium (137Cs) contamination of wild boars could be relevantly reduced under field conditions by adding ammonium-iron-hexa-cyanoferrate (AFCF; Prussian blue) to the food. In 285 wild boars that had been shot in six Bavarian hunting territories during the season (November until May) between 01 November 2010 and 10 December 2011 137Cs contamination was analysed. Thirty-five animals originated from two hunting territories in which offered food had been supplemented with 1250 mg AFCF per kilogram food. The control animals showed a mean 137Cs contamination of 522 Bq/kg lean skeletal muscle meat. Direct (univariable) comparisons of the two experimental territories with the four control territories yielded a mean reduction in 137Cs contamination due to Prussian bluefeeding by -211 Bq/kg (p contamination by -380 Bq/kg due to the feeding of Prussian blue in other territories.

  20. Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, D N; Leggat, P A

    1999-09-01

    One of South Africa's principal tourist attractions is the opportunity to encounter Africa's large mammals in the wild. Attacks by these mammals can be exceptionally newsworthy with potentially deleterious effects on tourism. Little is known about the risk of injury and death caused by wild mammals to visitors to South Africa's nature reserves. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of fatal and nonfatal attacks on tourists by wild mammals in South Africa and to ascertain avoidable factors, if any. Commercial press records covering all South African Newspapers archived at the Independent Newspapers' central library were systematically reviewed for a 10-year period, January 1988 to December 1997 inclusive, to identify all deaths and injuries to domestic and international tourists resulting from encounters with wild mammals in South Africa. All of these incidents were analyzed to ascertain avoidable factors. During the review period seven tourists, including two students from Thailand and a German traveler, were killed by wild mammals in South Africa. Three of the four deaths ascribed to lions resulted from tourists carelessly approaching prides on foot in lion reserves. A judicial inquiry found that the management of a KwaZulu-Natal Reserve was culpable for the remaining death. Tourist ignorance of animal behavior and flagrant disregard of rules contributed to the two fatalities involving hippopotami. The unusual behavior manifested by the bull elephant responsible for the final death, resulted from discomfort caused by a dental problem to this pachyderm. During the same period there were 14 nonfatal attacks on tourists, including five by hippo, three by buffalo, two by rhino, and one each by a lion, leopard, zebra and musth elephant. Only the latter occurred while the visitor was in a motor vehicle. Tourist ethological naivete and failure to determine the experience of trail guides prior to travel, resulted in inadvertent agonistic behavior

  1. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  2. Field experimental vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and their effectiveness in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Catarina; Ramírez, Esther; Castro, Francisca; Ferreras, Pablo; Alves, Paulo Célio; Redpath, Steve; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2009-11-23

    We conducted a field experiment in SW Spain to test the efficacy of a myxomatosis vaccine, a viral disease strongly affecting wild rabbit populations, by assessing individual survival and antibody seroprevalence of monthly live-trapped, vaccinated (N=466) and unvaccinated (N=558) juvenile wild rabbits, between April and October 2007. Eight percent of all juveniles caught from April to June showed maternal antibodies against myxomatosis, whereas all animals were seropositive to the disease after the outbreak. Juveniles vaccinated before the outbreak showed 17% higher survival (31% vs. 14%) and an increased mortality probability of 8% after the outbreak. Results suggest that only a costly and systematic vaccination performed before the annual myxomatosis outbreak, would improve the survival of juvenile rabbits, a premise not always accomplished that compromises its efficacy in the field.

  3. To tag or not to tag: animal welfare, conservation and stakeholder considerations in fish tracking studies that use electronic tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Murchie, Karen J.; Thiem, Jason D.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Hinch, Scott G.; Brown, Richard S.; Fisk, Aaron

    2013-11-01

    The advent and widespread adoption of electronic tags (including biotelemetry and biologging devices) for tracking animals has provided unprecedented information on the biology, management, and conservation of fish in the world’s oceans and inland waters. However, use of these tools is not without controversy. Even when scientific and management objectives may best be achieved using electronic tags, it is increasingly important to further consider other factors such as the welfare of tagged animals (i.e., the role of training and science-based surgical guidelines, anesthetic use, inability to maintain sterile conditions in field environments), the ethics of tagging threatened species vs. using surrogates, stakeholder perspectives on tagging (including aboriginals), as well as use of data emanating from such studies (e.g., by fishers to facilitate exploitation). Failure to do so will have the potential to create conflict and undermine scientific, management and public confidence in the use of this powerful tool. Indeed, there are already a number of examples of where tracking studies using electronic tags have been halted based on concerns raised by researchers, authorities, or stakeholders. Here we present a candid evaluation of several factors that should be considered when determining when to tag or not to tag fish with electronic devices. It is not our objective to judge the merit of previous studies. Rather, we hope to stimulate debate and discussion regarding the use of electronic tags to study fish. Relatedly, there is a need for more research to address these questions (e.g., what level of cleanliness is needed when conducting surgeries, what type of training should be required for fish surgery) including human dimensions studies to understand perspectives of different actors including society as a whole with respect to tagging and tracking studies.

  4. A Review of Zoonotic Infection Risks Associated with the Wild Meat Trade in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlay, Jennifer Caroline; Ingram, Daniel J; Meredith, Anna L

    2017-06-01

    The overhunting of wildlife for food and commercial gain presents a major threat to biodiversity in tropical forests and poses health risks to humans from contact with wild animals. Using a recent survey of wildlife offered at wild meat markets in Malaysia as a basis, we review the literature to determine the potential zoonotic infection risks from hunting, butchering and consuming the species offered. We also determine which taxa potentially host the highest number of pathogens and discuss the significant disease risks from traded wildlife, considering how cultural practices influence zoonotic transmission. We identify 51 zoonotic pathogens (16 viruses, 19 bacteria and 16 parasites) potentially hosted by wildlife and describe the human health risks. The Suidae and the Cervidae families potentially host the highest number of pathogens. We conclude that there are substantial gaps in our knowledge of zoonotic pathogens and recommend performing microbial food safety risk assessments to assess the hazards of wild meat consumption. Overall, there may be considerable zoonotic risks to people involved in the hunting, butchering or consumption of wild meat in Southeast Asia, and these should be considered in public health strategies.

  5. Isotopic anomalies in organic nanoglobules from Comet 81P/Wild 2: Comparison to Murchison nanoglobules and isotopic anomalies induced in terrestrial organics by electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Zega, Thomas J.

    2010-08-01

    Nanoglobules are a form of organic matter found in interplanetary dust particles and primitive meteorites and are commonly associated with 15N and D isotopic anomalies that are suggestive of interstellar processes. We report the discovery of two isotopically-anomalous organic globules from the Stardust collection of particles from Comet 81P/Wild 2 and compare them with nanoglobules from the Murchison CM2 meteorite. One globule from Stardust Cometary Track 80 contains highly aromatic organic matter and a large 15N anomaly (δ 15N = 1120‰). Associated, non-globular, organic matter from this track is less enriched in 15N and contains a mixture of aromatic and oxidized carbon similar to bulk insoluble organic material (IOM) from primitive meteorites. The second globule, from Cometary Track 2, contains non-aromatic organic matter with abundant nitrile ( sbnd C tbnd N) and carboxyl ( sbnd COOH) functional groups. It is significantly enriched in D (δD = 1000‰) but has a terrestrial 15N/ 14N ratio. Experiments indicate that similar D enrichments, unaccompanied by 15N fractionation, can be reproduced in the laboratory by electron irradiation of epoxy or cyanoacrylate. Thus, a terrestrial origin for this globule cannot be ruled out, and, conversely, exposure to high-energy electron irradiation in space may be an important factor in producing D anomalies in organic materials. For comparison, we report two Murchison globules: one with a large 15N enrichment and highly aromatic chemistry analogous to the Track 80 globule and the other only moderately enriched in 15N with IOM-like chemistry. The observation of organic globules in Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicates that comets likely sampled the same reservoirs of organic matter as did the chondrite parent bodies. The observed isotopic anomalies in the globules are most likely preserved signatures of low temperature (<10 K) chemistry in the interstellar medium or perhaps the outer regions of the solar nebula. In other

  6. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (n=204, mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded.

  7. Sarcoptic mange in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Shin, Nam-Shik; Shin, Taekyun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2008-12-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei was diagnosed from four wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) accidentally captured and presented to the Animal Health Center in Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Korea. Diagnosis was done by microscopic and histologic examination from skin lesions. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only species detected from the lesions and characterized by dorsoventrally flattened and round bodies, sucker-like pulvilli borne on long nonjointed pretarsi, triangular scales and spinelike setae on the dorsum, and three epimeres that are chitinous extensions of the coxae of the legs. In addition, infiltration of mast cells in the dermis was associated with infestation of the burrowing mite. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs in Korea. Because heavy infestation with S. scabiei was found in all of the captured wild raccoon dogs, further work is necessary to develop prophylactic interventions to prevent the spread of sarcoptic mange in free-living raccoon dogs in Korea.

  8. Management of Animal Botulism Outbreaks: From Clinical Suspicion to Practical Countermeasures to Prevent or Minimize Outbreaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina; Löfström, Charlotta

    2013-01-01

    and economic concern because of its high mortality rate. Moreover, meat or other products from affected animals entering the food chain may result in a public health problem. To this end, early diagnosis is crucial to define and apply appropriate veterinary public health measures. Clinical diagnosis is based...... outbreaks. In this article we outline all phases of management of animal botulism outbreaks occurring in wet wild birds, poultry, cattle, horses, and fur farm animals....

  9. Edible wild plant use in the Faroe Islands and Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the use of wild edible plants in the Faroe Islands and Iceland from the times of the first settlement of Norse people in the Viking age until today, with a special emphasis on the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Animal products have been an important source of nutrients for the islanders of northern Atlantic. Cultivation of cereals on the other hand has played a minor role, and had already been abandoned by late medieval times in Iceland and by the early 20th century on the Faroes. Crops such as potatoes, turnips and other roots were only grown in the small patches of cultivated soil. Wild plants have therefore been of some importance for the Faroese people and the Icelanders; in the last centuries especially for the rural poor and during times of recessions. The native Angelica archangelica L. was gathered in the wild and also cultivated in gardens for centuries. A few species have been part of the regular food staple. Some plants are still gathered and made into food products by small companies, especially in Iceland. In the Faroes, the economic aspect of edible wild plant taxa is mostly of historical interest, although a few products of A. archangelica are sometimes available. Two taxa have been exploited as regular food exclusively in Iceland: Cetraria islandica (L. Arch. and Elymus arenarius L. Icelanders have used C. islandica from the early settlement days and continue to do so today, E. arenarius became obsolete as a food plant a century ago.

  10. 2016 Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Guidelines for use of wild mammal species in research are updated from Sikes et al. (2011) . These guidelines cover current professional techniques and regulations involving the use of mammals in research and teaching; they also incorporate new resources, procedural summaries, and reporting requirements. Included are details on capturing, marking, housing, and humanely killing wild mammals. It is recommended that Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), regulatory agencies, and investigators use these guidelines as a resource for protocols involving wild mammals, whether studied in the field or in captivity. These guidelines were prepared and approved by the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM), in consultation with professional veterinarians experienced in wildlife research and IACUCs, whose collective expertise provides a broad and comprehensive understanding of the biology of nondomesticated mammals. The current version of these guidelines and any subsequent modifications are available online on the Animal Care and Use Committee page of the ASM website ( http://mammalogy.org/uploads/committee_files/CurrentGuidelines.pdf ). Additional resources pertaining to the use of wild animals in research are available at: http://www.mammalsociety.org/committees/animal-care-and-use#tab3 . R esumen Los lineamientos para el uso de especies de mamíferos de vida silvestre en la investigación con base en Sikes et al. (2011) se actualizaron. Dichos lineamientos cubren técnicas y regulaciones profesionales actuales que involucran el uso de mamíferos en la investigación y enseñanza; también incorporan recursos nuevos, resúmenes de procedimientos y requisitos para reportes. Se incluyen detalles acerca de captura, marcaje, manutención en cautiverio y eutanasia de mamíferos de vida silvestre. Se recomienda que los comités institucionales de uso y cuidado animal (cifras en inglés: IACUCs), las agencias reguladoras y los investigadores se adhieran a

  11. 2016 Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the use of wild mammals in research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Robert S

    2016-06-09

    Guidelines for use of wild mammal species in research are updated from Sikes et al. (2011) . These guidelines cover current professional techniques and regulations involving the use of mammals in research and teaching; they also incorporate new resources, procedural summaries, and reporting requirements. Included are details on capturing, marking, housing, and humanely killing wild mammals. It is recommended that Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), regulatory agencies, and investigators use these guidelines as a resource for protocols involving wild mammals, whether studied in the field or in captivity. These guidelines were prepared and approved by the American Society of Mammalogists (ASM), in consultation with professional veterinarians experienced in wildlife research and IACUCs, whose collective expertise provides a broad and comprehensive understanding of the biology of nondomesticated mammals. The current version of these guidelines and any subsequent modifications are available online on the Animal Care and Use Committee page of the ASM website ( http://mammalogy.org/uploads/committee_files/CurrentGuidelines.pdf ). Additional resources pertaining to the use of wild animals in research are available at: http://www.mammalsociety.org/committees/animal-care-and-use#tab3 . Los lineamientos para el uso de especies de mamíferos de vida silvestre en la investigación con base en Sikes et al. (2011) se actualizaron. Dichos lineamientos cubren técnicas y regulaciones profesionales actuales que involucran el uso de mamíferos en la investigación y enseñanza; también incorporan recursos nuevos, resúmenes de procedimientos y requisitos para reportes. Se incluyen detalles acerca de captura, marcaje, manutención en cautiverio y eutanasia de mamíferos de vida silvestre. Se recomienda que los comités institucionales de uso y cuidado animal (cifras en inglés: IACUCs), las agencias reguladoras y los investigadores se adhieran a dichos lineamientos

  12. Caries, Periodontal Disease, Supernumerary Teeth and Other Dental Disorders in Swedish Wild Boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, A; Dalin, A-M; Pettersson, A

    2015-07-01

    Between January and December 2013, the dental and periodontal health of 99 Swedish wild boars (Sus scrofa) was investigated. Sampling occurred in conjunction with routine hunting at six large estates in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. All six of the estates use supplemental feeding. The weight of the animals, their sex and their dates of death were noted. Age was estimated using tooth eruption and tooth replacement patterns. The oral cavity was inspected and abnormalities were recorded on a dental chart modified for wild boars. The findings included supernumerary teeth, absence of teeth, mild class II malocclusion, severe tooth wear, periodontitis, calculus, caries, tooth fractures and the presence of enamel defects. Swedish wild boars suffer from different dental lesions and the impact of supplemental feeding on dental and periodontal health is still to be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Caesium concentration factors in wild herbivores and the fox (Vulpes vulpes L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, V.P.W.; Horrill, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selection of wild animals was sampled in the winter of 1986/87. The sites chosen for sampling were based on information obtained from surveys carried out by The Institute of Terrestrial Ecology in the spring and autumn of 1986. Animals included deer, grouse, hares and rabbits, and foxes which were collected as a top carnivore in the food chain. Variation in concentration of caesium between species from the same area was unpredictable; rabbits never exceeded 200 Bq kg -1 (fresh wt) of 137 Cs in their flesh, even when adjacent to deer forests with over 1000 Bq kg -1 in the venison. The greatest complication arose from areas of peaty uplands where the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs from weapons-testing was much higher than expected. This pre-Chernobyl contribution amounted to 630 Bq kg -1 in a red grouse from the Pennines, and 650 Bq kg -1 in a roe deer from near the Borders, being c. 60% of the total. Significant differences in concentration factors were found depending on species, food, sex, breeding condition and age. Contrasting the decrease of the two caesium isotopes in roe deer from forestry on peat with those from woodlands on mineral soils, it appeared that after an initial fall in concentration, the only decrease thereafter occurred on the mineral soils. Nowhere were radiocaesium concentrations high enough to cause concern amongst consumers of game and other wild animals, even when levels exceed 3000 Bq kg -1 (fresh wt) as they did in red deer, red grouse and the blue hare. (author)

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Gut Microbiota Composition between Captive and Wild Forest Musk Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimeng Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The large and complex gut microbiota in animals has profound effects on feed utilization and metabolism. Currently, gastrointestinal diseases due to dysregulated gut microbiota are considered important factors that limit growth of the captive forest musk deer population. Compared with captive forest musk deer, wild forest musk deer have a wider feeding range with no dietary limitations, and their gut microbiota are in a relatively natural state. However, no reports have compared the gut microbiota between wild and captive forest musk deer. To gain insight into the composition of gut microbiota in forest musk deer under different food-source conditions, we employed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing technology to investigate differences in the gut microbiota occurring between captive and wild forest musk deer. Both captive and wild forest musk deer showed similar microbiota at the phylum level, which consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, although significant differences were found in their relative abundances between both groups. α-Diversity results showed that no significant differences occurred in the microbiota between both groups, while β-diversity results showed that significant differences did occur in their microbiota compositions. In summary, our results provide important information for improving feed preparation for captive forest musk deer and implementing projects where captive forest musk deer are released into the wild.

  15. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild commodities. 780.114 Section 780.114 Labor Regulations...

  16. Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2009-03-26

    The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several

  17. Biometry, histology, and morphometry of the digestive system of wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreíza Ramos Heleno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous is found throughout Brazil. It has a nocturnal habit and can be seen on roadsides, where it looks for remains of run over animals and, therefore, it is also a victim of roadkill. This study aimed to characterize the macro and microscopic anatomy of the digestive system of the crab-eating fox. It helps to carry out medical and surgical procedures, besides important information on the feeding strategies, especially for wild individuals needing veterinary care after rescue in cases of running over, burnings, and floods caused by the filling of hydroelectric reservoir lakes or even in projects on captive breeding and restocking. Samples were collected from the digestive system of three wild animals in the region of Guarapuava-PR region. The crab-eating foxes under study were longer than the average reported for the species, had a shorter intestine, and a lower small intestine/body length ratio than other carnivores, besides other anatomical and histological characteristics different from those found in the literature on carnivores.

  18. Wild Rodents as Experimental Intermediate Hosts of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Machado Paçô

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 specimens of Cavia porcellus (guinea pig, 5 Dasyprocta agouti (agouti, and 22 Calomys callosus (vesper mice were inoculated with infective eggs of Lagochilascaris minor. The inoculum was prepared with embryonated eggs and orally administered to each individual animal through an esophagus probe. In parallel, 100 specimens of Felis catus domesticus were individually fed with 55-70 nodules containing 3rd-stage larvae encysted in tissues of infected rodents. Animals were examined and necropsied at different time intervals. The migration and encystment of L3 larva was observed in viscera, skeletal muscle, adipose and subcutaneous tissues from all rodents. Adult worms localized at abscesses in the cervical region, rhino, and oropharynx were recovered from domestic cats inoculated with infected rodent tissues. Through this study we can conclude that: (1 wild rodents act as intermediate hosts, characterizing this ascarid heteroxenic cycle; (2 in natural conditions rodents could possibly act as either intermediate hosts or paratenic hosts of Lagochilascaris minor; (3 despite the occurrence of an auto-infecting cycle, in prime-infection of felines (definite hosts the cycle is only completed when intermediate hosts are provided; and (4 in the wild, rodents could serve as a source of infection for humans as they are frequently used as food in regions with the highest incidence of human lagochilascariasis.

  19. Evidence for social learning in wild lemurs (Lemur catta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel L; Custance, Deborah M; Kendal, Jeremy R; Vale, Gillian; Stoinski, Tara S; Rakotomalala, Nirina Lalaina; Rasamimanana, Hantanirina

    2010-08-01

    Interest in social learning has been fueled by claims of culture in wild animals. These remain controversial because alternative explanations to social learning, such as asocial learning or ecological differences, remain difficult to refute. Compared with laboratory-based research, the study of social learning in natural contexts is in its infancy. Here, for the first time, we apply two new statistical methods, option-bias analysis and network-based diffusion analysis, to data from the wild, complemented by standard inferential statistics. Contrary to common thought regarding the cognitive abilities of prosimian primates, our evidence is consistent with social learning within subgroups in the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), supporting the theory of directed social learning (Coussi-Korbel & Fragaszy, 1995). We also caution that, as the toolbox for capturing social learning in natural contexts grows, care is required in ensuring that the methods employed are appropriate-in particular, regarding social dynamics among study subjects. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  20. Social and behavioral barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.S.

    1988-12-31

    Disease and pathogens have been studied as regulators of animal populations but not really as selective forces. The authors propose that pathogens can be major selective forces influencing social behaviors when these are successful at reducing disease transmission. The behaviors whose evolution could have been influenced by pathogen effects include group size, group isolation, mixed species flocking, migration, seasonal sociality, social avoidance, and dominance behaviors. Mate choice, mating system, and sexual selection are put in a new light when examined in terms of disease transmission. It is concluded that pathogen avoidance is a more powerful selective force than has heretofore been recognized.

  1. Capture and Anaesthesia of Wild Mongolian Equids – the Przewalski’s Horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii and Khulan ( E. hemionus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Walzer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Science-based conservation efforts in general, and wide-ranging equid conservation speci fi cally, of- ten require capture and subsequent handling of the subject animal. Safe and animal-welfare appropriate wild equid capture and anaesthesia is a complex operation necessitating a multitude of skills that require appropriate veterinary training. The agent of choice for wild equid capture and anaesthesia is the potent opiate ethorphine in combination with speci fi c opiate antagonists that allow for the complete reversal of the anaesthetic effects. The recommended dosage for a healthy, wild adult Przewalski’s horse is 2.5- 3.0 mg ethorphine, 10 mg of the alpha2-agonist detomidine and 10 mg of the opioid agonist-antagonist butorphanol. In Przewalski’s horses ethorphine is reversed with the opioid antagonist naltrexone (200 mg. In khulan procedures anaesthesia was induced with a combination of 4.4 mg Ethorphine, 10 mg Detomidine and 10 mg Buthorphanol. Anaesthesia was reversed with the opioid antagonist-agonist di- prenorphine or a combination of 200 mg naltrexone and the alpha2-antagonist 20 mg atipamezole. All equids were standing and alert approximately two minutes following administration of the antagonists.

  2. Draft genome of the emerging pathogen, Kocuria marina, isolated from a wild urban rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih Keng Loong

    Full Text Available Kocuria marina has recently emerged as a cause for catheter-related bloodstream infections in patients with underlying health complications. One K. marina strain was recently isolated from the lung tissues of a wild urban rat (Rattus rattus diardii caught during rodent surveillance. Here, we present the draft genome of the first K. marina animal isolate, K. marina TRE150902.

  3. Ancylostoma ailuropodae sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae), a new hookworm parasite isolated from wild giant pandas in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworms belonging to the genus Ancylostoma cause ancylostomiasis, a disease of considerable concern in humans and domestic and wild animals. Molecular and epidemiological data support evidence for the zoonotic potential among species of Ancylostoma where transmission to humans is facilitated by ra...

  4. Wild hummingbirds can use the geometry of a flower array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Mark A W; Healy, Susan D; Hurly, T Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Animals use cues from their environment to orient in space and to navigate their surroundings. Geometry is a cue whose informational content may originate from the metric properties of a given environment, and its use has been demonstrated in the laboratory in nearly every species of animal tested. However, it is not clear whether geometric information, used by animals typically tested in small, rectangular boxes, is directly relevant to animals in their natural environment. Here we present the first data that confirm the use of geometric cues by a free-living animal in the wild. We trained rufous hummingbirds to visit a rectangular array of four artificial flowers, one of which was rewarded. In some trials a conspicuous landmark cued the reward. Following array translocation and rotation, we presented hummingbirds with three tests. When trained and tested with the landmark, or when trained and tested without it, hummingbirds failed to show geometric learning. However, when trained with a landmark but tested without it, hummingbirds produced the classic geometric response, showing that they had learned the geometric relationships (distance and direction) of several non-reward visual elements of the environment. While it remains that the use of geometry to relocate a reward may be an experimental artefact, its use is not confined to the laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing Fatty Acid Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an Animal Feed Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Seung Kyou; Joo, Young-Chul; Kang, Dae Hee; Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Woo, Han Min; Um, Youngsoon; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2017-12-20

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for edible purposes, such as human food or as an animal feed supplement. Fatty acids are also beneficial as feed supplements, but S. cerevisiae produces small amounts of fatty acids. In this study, we enhanced fatty acid production of S. cerevisiae by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase, thioesterase, and malic enzyme associated with fatty acid metabolism. The enhanced strain pAMT showed 2.4-fold higher fatty acids than the wild-type strain. To further increase the fatty acids, various nitrogen sources were analyzed and calcium nitrate was selected as an optimal nitrogen source for fatty acid production. By concentration optimization, 672 mg/L of fatty acids was produced, which was 4.7-fold higher than wild-type strain. These results complement the low level fatty acid production and make it possible to obtain the benefits of fatty acids as an animal feed supplement while, simultaneously, maintaining the advantages of S. cerevisiae.

  6. Differentiation between probiotic and wild-type Bacillus cereus isolates by antibiotic susceptibility test and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietke, Henriette; Beer, W; Schleif, Julia; Schabert, G; Reissbrodt, R

    2010-05-30

    Animal feed often contains probiotic Bacillus strains used as feed additives. Spores of the non-pathogenic B. cereus var. toyoi (product name Toyocerin) are used. Distinguishing between toxic wild-type Bacillus cereus strains and this probiotic strain is essential for evaluating the quality and risk of feed. Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 (product name Paciflor was used as probiotic strain until 2001. The properties of the two probiotic strains are quite similar. Differentiating between probiotic strains and wild-type B. cereus strains is not easy. ss-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cefamandole exhibit an inhibition zone in the agar diffusion test of probiotic B. cereus strains which are not seen for wild-type strains. Therefore, performing the agar diffusion test first may make sense before FT-IR testing. When randomly checking these strains by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the probiotic B. cereus strains were separated from wild-type B. cereus/B. thuringiensis/B. mycoides/B. weihenstephanensis strains by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The discriminatory information was contained in the spectral windows 3000-2800 cm(-1) ("fatty acid region"), 1200-900 cm(-1) ("carbohydrate region") and 900-700 cm(-1) ("fingerprint region"). It is concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid quality control and risk analysis of animal feed containing probiotic B. cereus strains. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary studies on environmental pollutants in chamois and wild boar from Eastern Piedmont, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ceriani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are synthetic chlorinated compounds classified as POPs whereas only the penta e tetra-brominated polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs are so defined by the Stockolm Convention (Stockholm Convention, 2005 in order to elimitate or restrict the use of POPs. Organophosphorus insecticides (OCPs represent important environmental and food contamination sources, widely used in agriculture. Among polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzo[a]pirene is classified by IARC in Group 1, as cancerogen  and Benzo[a]fluoranthene as a Group 2B, as possible cancerogen (IARC, 2012; IARC, 2010.  EFSA (European Food Safety Authority has released a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of brominated flame retardants in food (EFSA, 2011 and in 2014 European commission has asked Member States to monitor the presence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs in food over the next two years (EC, 2014. Due to their heir n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow, they accumulate in fat tissue, bioconcentrate and biomagnify in the animals at the higher trophic levels, possibly causing, through chronic exposure, endocrine disruption and cancer (Wania et al., 1995; Vallack et al., 1998. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of OCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and PAHs in chamois and wild boar from Eastern Piedmont, Italy. A total of 20 chamois and 20 wild boar muscle samples were collected during the hunting season 2017, from Verbania Cusio Ossola (VCO (Fig 1. The chemical analysis for the detection of OCPs, PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs   was performed by GC-MS/MS on muscle samples purified and extracted using a QuEChERS technique, validated according to SANTE 2017 (SANTE/11183/2017. These preliminary results show the ubiquitary presence of the studied contaminants. PCBs have been found more in chamois (45% than in wild boar (35%. No PBDEs were detected in wild boar but in chamois

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in domestic pig and the role of wild boar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnert, Peter; Overesch, Gudrun

    2014-11-07

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the major cause of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in domestic pigs, a disease with low mortality but high morbidity, having a great economic impact for producers. In Switzerland EP has been successfully eradicated, however, sporadic outbreaks are observed with no obvious source. Besides the possibility of recurrent outbreaks due to persisting M. hyopneumoniae strains within the pig population, there is suspicion that wild boars might introduce M. hyopneumoniae into swine herds. To elucidate possible links between domestic pig and wild boar, epidemiological investigations of recent EP outbreaks were initiated and lung samples of pig and wild boar were tested for the presence of specific genotypes by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Despite generally different genotypes in wild boar, outbreak strains could be found in geographically linked wild boar lungs after, but so far not before the outbreak. Recurrent outbreaks in a farm were due to the same strain, indicating unsuccessful sanitation rather than reintroduction by wild boar. In another case outbreaks in six different farms were caused by the same strain never found in wild boar, confirming spread between farms due to hypothesized animal transport. Results indicate the presence of identical lineages of wild boar and domestic pig strains, and possible transmission of M. hyopneumoniae between wild boar and pig. However, the role of wild boar might be rather one as a recipient than a transmitter. More important than contact to wild boar for sporadic outbreaks in Switzerland is apparently persistence of M. hyopneumoniae within a farm as well as transmission between farms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  10. Animal investigation program 1980 annual report: Nevada Test Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Giles, K.R.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the data collected through the Animal Investigation Program during 1980. A major goal of the Program is to assess the radionuclide burden in the tissues of wild and domesticated animals around the Nevada Test Site and to detect pathological effects resulting from the burdens. Other than naturally occurring potassium-40, gamma emitting radionuclides were detected infrequently. Strontium-90 and plutonium concentrations in tissues from deer, cattle, and desert bighorn sheep were similar to those found in samples collected during recent years. Lesions found in necropsied animals were similar to those found in animals from other areas of the U.S. and would not be attributable to ionizing radiation exposure. The report also describes other activities of the program, including the deer migration study and census

  11. How Big Data Fast Tracked Human Mobility Research and the Lessons for Animal Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Thums, Michele; Ferná ndez-Gracia, Juan; Sequeira, Ana M. M.; Eguí luz, Ví ctor M.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data) on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress toward a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.

  12. How Big Data Fast Tracked Human Mobility Research and the Lessons for Animal Movement Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Thums

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress toward a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.

  13. How Big Data Fast Tracked Human Mobility Research and the Lessons for Animal Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Thums, Michele

    2018-02-13

    The rise of the internet coupled with technological innovations such as smartphones have generated massive volumes of geo-referenced data (big data) on human mobility. This has allowed the number of studies of human mobility to rapidly overtake those of animal movement. Today, telemetry studies of animals are also approaching big data status. Here, we review recent advances in studies of human mobility and identify the opportunities they present for advancing our understanding of animal movement. We describe key analytical techniques, potential bottlenecks and a roadmap for progress toward a synthesis of movement patterns of wild animals.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus in Animals and Food: Methicillin Resistance, Prevalence and Population Structure. A Review in the African Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lozano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest about Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA in livestock, and domestic and wild animals has significantly increased. The spread of different clonal complexes related to livestock animals, mainly CC398, and the recent description of the new mecC gene, make it necessary to know more about the epidemiology and population structure of this microorganism all over the world. Nowadays, there are several descriptions about the presence of S. aureus and/or MRSA in different animal species (dogs, sheep, donkeys, bats, pigs, and monkeys, and in food of animal origin in African countries. In this continent, there is a high diversity of ethnicities, cultures or religions, as well as a high number of wild animal species and close contact between humans and animals, which can have a relevant impact in the epidemiology of this microorganism. This review shows that some clonal lineages associated with humans (CC1, CC15, CC72, CC80, CC101, and CC152 and animals (CC398, CC130 and CC133 are present in this continent in animal isolates, although the mecC gene has not been detected yet. However, available studies are limited to a few countries, very often with incomplete information, and many more studies are necessary to cover a larger number of African countries.

  15. Crippling ratio: A novel approach to assess hunting-induced wounding of wild animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin; Holm, Thomas Eske; Haugaard, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In order to use recreational hunting as a socially acceptable management tool, the practice of this activity should adhere strictly to the ethical standards of animal welfare and the conservation guidelines on sustainable harvest. A key measure in this regard is monitoring the negative side effects...

  16. Wild Animals and Justice : The Case of the Dead Elephant in the Room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopnina, H.N.

    2016-01-01

    Elephants, the largest terrestrial representatives of the animal kingdom, are highorder mammals with complex ethology and social dynamics, looming large both in natural landscapes and cultural settings in diverse locations.1 Elephants are “wonderful or terrible, depending on where or who you are.”2

  17. [Diversity and bioactivity of culturable actinobacteria from animal feces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Cao, Yanru; Han, Li; Jin, Rongxian; Zheng, Dan; He, Wenxiang; Li, Youlong; Huang, Xueshi

    2012-10-04

    In order to provide new source for discovering new lead compounds of drugs and other products, the diversity and some bioactivities of culturable actinobacteria in animal feces were studied. Five animals' fecal samples were collected from Yunnan Wild Animal Park. The pure cultures of actinobacteria were isolated from these samples by using 5 different media. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of 119 selected strains were determined; the phylogenetic analysis was carried out; and antimicrobial and anti-tumor activities were determined by using agar diffusion method, tumor cell lines k562and HL60 respectively. In total 20 genera of actinobacteria from the 5 animals' feces were identified. Many strains inhibited Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus lentus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Some strains presented antitumor activities. Some known secondary metabolites and Sannastatin, a novel macrolactam polyketide glycoside with bioactivities, were isolated and identified. Fecal actinobacteria are a new potential source for discovering drug lead and other industry products.

  18. Molecular and serological detection of Leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil Detecção sorológica e molecular de Leishmania spp. em animais selvagens do zoológico de Ilha Solteira, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mariza Gomes Jusi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that affects 12 million people worldwide. Several mammalian species can serve as a reservoir for this disease. Dogs are the main reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas, which has become a serious public health concern in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. in captive wild animals from Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil. Blood and various tissues samples were collected from animals of five different species: Speothos venaticus, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Cerdocyon thous, Pseudalopex vetulus, and Procyon cancrivorus. Antibodies against Leishmania spp. were detected in three wild canids by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. PCR analyses of blood and bone marrow from all animals were negative, but Leishmania DNA was found in the tissues and skin of seropositive animals. Positive PCR samples were also positive for Leishmania donovani complex. Analysis of sequenced PCR products showed similarities with different regions of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi kinetoplastids. Measures to control visceral leishmaniasis in wild animals kept in Brazilian zoos should be established, as no disease control programs are currently available.Leishmaniose é uma doença zoonótica que afeta cerca de 12 milhões de pessoas no mundo todo. Várias espécies mamíferas podem servir de reservatório para a doença. Os cães são considerados os principais reservatórios para a leishmaniose visceral em áreas urbanas, o que tem se tornado um sério problema de saúde pública no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de Leishmania spp. em animais selvagens mantidos no zoológico de Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brasil. Foram coletados amostras de sangue e tecidos de cinco espécies diferentes: Speothos venaticus, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Cerdocyon thous, Pseudalopex vetulus, e Procyon

  19. Enhanced immunosurveillance for animal morbilliviruses using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nicola; Dundon, William G; Diallo, Adama; Baron, Michael D; James Nyarobi, M; Cleaveland, Sarah; Keyyu, Julius; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hosie, Margaret J; Willett, Brian J

    2016-11-11

    The measurement of virus-specific neutralising antibodies represents the "gold-standard" for diagnostic serology. For animal morbilliviruses, such as peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) or rinderpest virus (RPV), live virus-based neutralisation tests require high-level biocontainment to prevent the accidental escape of the infectious agents. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of neutralising antibodies against animal morbilliviruses. By expressing the haemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of PPRV on VSVΔG pseudotypes bearing a luciferase marker gene, neutralising antibody titres could be measured rapidly and with high sensitivity. Serological responses against the four distinct lineages of PPRV could be measured simultaneously and cross-neutralising responses against other morbilliviruses compared. Using this approach, we observed that titres of neutralising antibodies induced by vaccination with live attenuated PPRV were lower than those induced by wild type virus infection and the level of cross-lineage neutralisation varied between vaccinates. By comparing neutralising responses from animals infected with either PPRV or RPV, we found that responses were highest against the homologous virus, indicating that retrospective analyses of serum samples could be used to confirm the nature of the original pathogen to which an animal had been exposed. Accordingly, when screening sera from domestic livestock and wild ruminants in Tanzania, we detected evidence of cross-species infection with PPRV, canine distemper virus (CDV) and a RPV-related bovine morbillivirus, suggesting that exposure to animal morbilliviruses may be more widespread than indicated previously using existing diagnostic techniques. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The prevalence and transmission to exotic equids (Equus quagga antiquorum, Equus przewalskii, Equus africanus) of intestinal nematodes in contaminated pasture in two wild animal parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, C; Kings, M; Stoye, M; Böer, M

    2001-06-01

    Wild equids maintained in large enclosures may suffer from helminth diseases because common hygiene practices have only limited effects on parasite populations. Weekly monitoring of helminth prevalences and pasture infestation was performed for 1 yr in several extensive maintenance systems of two wildlife parks with similar climates to determine when veterinary intervention to control parasites would be useful. We also sought evidence of natural immunogenic reactions among herds of Chapman zebras (Equus quagga antiquorum), Przewalski's horses (Equus przewalskii) and dwarf donkeys (Equus asinus africanus). Fecal and vegetation samples and cultures for third-stage larvae revealed permanent egg shedding in the three species and pasture infestation during the warm, moist periods (July-September) in all enclosures. Stable social structure and low equid population density may be sufficient to make prophylaxis unnecessary in adults, whereas biotic and abiotic environmental factors such as crowding, animal transfers, social integration of subadults, and weaning stress may facilitate temporary severe infections of individuals. Biweekly helminth monitoring is a useful diagnostic tool for extensive management of exotic equids.

  1. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Schmalhausen Inst. of Zoology; Goshchak, S. [RIA Pripyat, Chernobyl (Ukraine). Restoration Dept.; Jones, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Geography; Shcherbatchenko, A. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Nuclear Research

    1996-12-31

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995. 18 refs, 8 figs.

  2. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W.; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G.; Goshchak, S.; Jones, B.; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V.; Shcherbatchenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995

  3. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of 137 Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone – 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone – 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of 137 Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The 137 Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg – animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3–10.6 kBq/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of 137 Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of 90 Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that 90 Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of 90 Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg – animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained 90 Sr – 30.0–110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0–30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone

  4. Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koene, Paul; Ipema, Bert

    2014-03-17

    It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

  5. Wild boar mapping using population-density statistics: From polygons to high resolution raster maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiglio, Claudia; Khomenko, Sergei; Beltran-Alcrudo, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The wild boar is an important crop raider as well as a reservoir and agent of spread of swine diseases. Due to increasing densities and expanding ranges worldwide, the related economic losses in livestock and agricultural sectors are significant and on the rise. Its management and control would strongly benefit from accurate and detailed spatial information on species distribution and abundance, which are often available only for small areas. Data are commonly available at aggregated administrative units with little or no information about the distribution of the species within the unit. In this paper, a four-step geostatistical downscaling approach is presented and used to disaggregate wild boar population density statistics from administrative units of different shape and size (polygons) to 5 km resolution raster maps by incorporating auxiliary fine scale environmental variables. 1) First a stratification method was used to define homogeneous bioclimatic regions for the analysis; 2) Under a geostatistical framework, the wild boar densities at administrative units, i.e. subnational areas, were decomposed into trend and residual components for each bioclimatic region. Quantitative relationships between wild boar data and environmental variables were estimated through multiple regression and used to derive trend components at 5 km spatial resolution. Next, the residual components (i.e., the differences between the trend components and the original wild boar data at administrative units) were downscaled at 5 km resolution using area-to-point kriging. The trend and residual components obtained at 5 km resolution were finally added to generate fine scale wild boar estimates for each bioclimatic region. 3) These maps were then mosaicked to produce a final output map of predicted wild boar densities across most of Eurasia. 4) Model accuracy was assessed at each different step using input as well as independent data. We discuss advantages and limits of the method and its

  6. South African Journal of Animal Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal of Animal Science is a peer-reviewed journal for publication of original scientific research articles and reviews in the field of animal science. The journal is published both electronically and in paper format. The scope of the journal includes reports of research dealing with farm livestock species ...

  7. Senescence in the wild: Insights from a long-term study on Seychelles warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Martijn; Kingma, Sjouke A; Bebbington, Kat; van de Crommenacker, Janske; Spurgin, Lewis G; Richardson, David S; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L; Komdeur, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Senescence--the progressive age-dependent decline in performance--occurs in most organisms. There is considerable variation in the onset and rate of senescence between and within species. Yet the causes of this variation are still poorly understood, despite being central to understanding the evolution of senescence. Long-term longitudinal studies on wild animals are extremely well-suited to studying the impact of environmental and individual characteristics (and the interaction between the two) on senescence, and can help us to understand the mechanisms that shape the evolution of senescence. In this review, we summarize and discuss the insights gained from our comprehensive long-term individual-based study of the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This species provides an excellent model system in which to investigate the evolution of senescence in the wild. We found that Seychelles warblers show senescent declines in survival and reproduction, and discuss how individual characteristics (body condition, body size) and environmental effects (low- versus high-quality environments) may affect the onset and rate of senescence. Further, we highlight the evidence for trade-offs between early-life investment and senescence. We describe how key cellular and physiological processes (oxidative stress and telomere shortening) underpinning senescence are affected by individual and environmental characteristics in the Seychelles warbler (e.g. food availability, reproductive investment, disease) and we discuss how such physiological variation may mediate the relationship between environmental characteristics and senescence. Based on our work using Seychelles warblers as a model system, we show how insights from long-term studies of wild animals may help unravel the causes of the remarkable variation in senescence observed in natural systems, and highlight areas for promising future research.

  8. Assessment of mammal reproduction for hunting sustainability through community-based sampling of species in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Pedro; El Bizri, Hani; Bodmer, Richard E; Bowler, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase. (r max ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, so these assessments often rely on classic reproductive rates calculated mostly from studies of captive animals conducted 30 years ago. The result is a flaw in almost 50% of studies, which hampers management decision making. We conducted a 15-year study in the Amazon in which we used reproductive data from the genitalia of 950 hunted female mammals. Genitalia were collected by local hunters. We examined tissue from these samples to estimate birthrates for wild populations of the 10 most hunted mammals. We compared our estimates with classic measures and considered the utility of the use of r max in sustainability assessments. For woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii) and tapir (Tapirus terrestris), wild birthrates were similar to those from captive populations, whereas birthrates for other ungulates and lowland-paca (Cuniculus paca) were significantly lower than previous estimates. Conversely, for capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus), agoutis (Dasyprocta sp.), and coatis (Nasua nasua), our calculated reproductive rates greatly exceeded often-used values. Researchers could keep applying classic measures compatible with our estimates, but for other species previous estimates of r max may not be appropriate. We suggest that data from local studies be used to set hunting quotas. Our maximum rates of population growth in the wild correlated with body weight, which suggests that our method is consistent and reliable. Integration of this method into community-based wildlife management and the training of local hunters to record pregnancies in hunted animals could efficiently generate useful information of life

  9. Biochemical and hematologic reference values for free-ranging, chemically immobilized wild norwegian reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) during early winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrea L; Evans, Alina L; Os, Øystein; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemistry values were evaluated in free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) as part of a reintroduction program in southwestern Norway in November 1995 and 1996. Animals were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine by dart from a helicopter. Blood was drawn for serum chemistry from 31 adults (nine males and 22 females) and for hematology from 29 adults (eight males and 21 females). Significant differences (Ppaper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry reference ranges for free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer during early winter.

  10. The anatomic surgical arterial segmentation of the kidney in wild boar (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Falcão Vale

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty pairs of kidneys of wild boar (Sus scrofa were studied from adult males, with permission from the Brazilian Institute of the Environment (Process nº 02001.003237/05, aiming to characterize the vasculature and anatomic surgical segmentation. The arteries of these kidneys were injected with red pigment and subsequently submitted to acid corrosion in order to identify the renal arterial vascular pattern, particularly its divisions and distribution. The results reveal the sectorial branches of the renal arteries, two in number (cranial and caudal; the sectorial arteries provide the segmentary branches to the dorsal and ventral portions of the kidney; in the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 2-6 in the cranial sector and 3-7 in the caudal sector. In the right kidney, the segmentary branches are 3-7 and 2-7 in the same respective sectors; the vascular arterial symmetry (25% between the right and left kidney in the animals is evident. There are 3 arterial anatomic surgical segments on both kidneys. On the basis of the distribution of the sectorial and segmentary arteries, it is possible to accomplish setorectomy and segmentectomy on the kidneys of the wild boar, with functional aspects such as species preservation and animal experimental modeling.

  11. Wild hummingbirds rely on landmarks not geometry when learning an array of flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurly, T Andrew; Fox, Thomas A O; Zwueste, Danielle M; Healy, Susan D

    2014-09-01

    Rats, birds or fish trained to find a reward in one corner of a small enclosure tend to learn the location of the reward using both nearby visual features and the geometric relationships of corners and walls. Because these studies are conducted under laboratory and thereby unnatural conditions, we sought to determine whether wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus) learning a single reward location within a rectangular array of flowers would similarly employ both nearby visual landmarks and the geometric relationships of the array. Once subjects had learned the location of the reward, we used test probes in which one or two experimental landmarks were moved or removed in order to reveal how the birds remembered the reward location. The hummingbirds showed no evidence that they used the geometry of the rectangular array of flowers to remember the reward. Rather, they used our experimental landmarks, and possibly nearby, natural landmarks, to orient and navigate to the reward. We believe this to be the first test of the use of rectangular geometry by wild animals, and we recommend further studies be conducted in ecologically relevant conditions in order to help determine how and when animals form complex geometric representations of their local environments.

  12. EPINEPHRINE CONCENTRATION IN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA L. SERUM AFTER REPEATED ELISA TESTED FREEZE-THAWING CYCLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neška Vukšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples for determining of epinephrine concentration and biochemical parameters in the blood serum of wild boars were taken from 42 healthy wild boars, both sexes, during the hunting season. All animals in good condition, body weight 20 to 95 kg, were divided into two groups up to 50 kg (group A and up to 95 kg (Group B. Epinephrine concentration was determined by ELISA twice: one week after taking samples and a month after repeated freezing at -80°C. It was higher in relation to the reference value of domestic pigs and human (109.45 pg/ml in A and 119.54 pg/ml in B group. Repeated freezing and re-analysis after a month were resulted in lower concentrations of epinephrine (12% in young and 11.17% in adult animal, but without statistical significance (P>0.05. Biochemical analysis results’ show increased glucose and triglycerides concentrations compared to the reference values, while other indicators were observed within or slightly increased referring to the normal range. The correlation between glucose and epinephrine was not determined.

  13. Hepcidin regulation in wild-type and Hfe knockout mice in response to alcohol consumption: evidence for an alcohol-induced hypoxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, Mandy L; Murphy, Therese L; Bridle, Kim R; Anderson, Gregory J; Crawford, Darrell H G; Fletcher, Linda M

    2009-08-01

    Expression of Hamp1, the gene encoding the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin, is inappropriately low in HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis and Hfe knockout mice (Hfe(-/-)). Since chronic alcohol consumption is also associated with disturbances in iron metabolism, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on hepcidin mRNA expression in Hfe(-/-) mice. Hfe(-/-) and C57BL/6 (wild-type) mice were pair-fed either an alcohol liquid diet or control diet for up to 8 weeks. The mRNA levels of hepcidin and ferroportin were measured at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and protein expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) was measured by western blot. Hamp1 mRNA expression was significantly decreased and duodenal ferroportin expression was increased in alcohol-fed wild-type mice at 8 weeks. Time course experiments showed that the decrease in hepcidin mRNA was not immediate, but was significant by 4 weeks. Consistent with the genetic defect, Hamp1 mRNA was decreased and duodenal ferroportin mRNA expression was increased in Hfe(-/-) mice fed on the control diet compared with wild-type animals and alcohol further exacerbated these effects. HIF-1alpha protein levels were elevated in alcohol-fed wild-type animals compared with controls. Alcohol may decrease Hamp1 gene expression independently of the HFE pathway possibly via alcohol-induced hypoxia.

  14. Isolation of Ovicidal Fungi from Fecal Samples of Captive Animals Maintained in a Zoological Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, José A; Vázquez-Ruiz, Rosa A; Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F; Valderrábano, Esther; Arroyo, Fabián L; Francisco, Iván; Miguélez, Silvia; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Arias, María S

    2017-06-02

    Abstract : There are certain saprophytic fungi in the soil able to develop an antagonistic effect against eggs of parasites. Some of these fungal species are ingested by animals during grazing, and survive in their feces after passing through the digestive tract. To identify and isolate ovicidal fungi in the feces of wild captive animals, a total of 60 fecal samples were taken from different wild animals kept captive in the Marcelle Natureza Zoological Park (Lugo, Spain). After the serial culture of the feces onto Petri dishes with different media, their parasicitide activity was assayed against eggs of trematodes ( Calicophoron daubneyi ) and ascarids ( Parascaris equorum ). Seven fungal genera were identified in the feces. Isolates from Fusarium , Lecanicillium , Mucor , Trichoderma , and Verticillium showed an ovicidal effect classified as type 3, because of their ability to adhere to the eggshell, penetrate, and damage permanently the inner embryo. Penicillium and Gliocladium developed a type 1 effect (hyphae attach to the eggshell but morphological damage was not provoked). These results provide very interesting and useful information about fungi susceptible for being used in biological control procedures against parasites.

  15. Changing Perceptions of Unpopular Animals through Facts, Poetry, Crafts, and Puppet Plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Zhbanova, Ksenia S.

    2012-01-01

    Today's children are often separated from the natural world, developing fear and aversion to wild creatures. This humane education program used curriculum-blended science lessons that focused on eight generally disliked animals: bat, skunk, snake, mouse, spider, centipede, cockroach, and mosquito. First and second grade students participated in 6…

  16. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  17. The impact of climatic change on wild animals and plants: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Root; Jeff T. Price; Kimberly R. Hall; Stephen H. Schneider; Cynthia Rosenzweig; J. Alan Pounds

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 100 years, the global average temperature has increased approximately 0.6° C. Using information from the literature, we examine the extent to which animals and plants are already exhibiting a discernible change consistent with changing temperatures and predicted by our understanding of the species’ physiological constraints. The types of...

  18. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife.

  19. Envisioning the Future of Aquatic Animal Tracking: Technology, Science, and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Aarestrup, Kim; Cooke, Steven J.; Cowley, Paul D.; Deng, Zhiqun D.; Fisk, Aaron T.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Heupel, Michelle; Hinch, Scott G.; Holland, Kim N.; Hussey, Nigel E.; Iverson, Sara J.; Kessel, Steven T.; Kocik, John F.; Lucas, Martyn C.; Flemming, Joanna Mills; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Vagle, Svein; VanderZwaag, David L.; Whoriskey, Frederick G.; Young, Nathan

    2017-09-13

    Electronic tags have proven to be extremely useful for broadening our understanding of aquatic animals by answering diverse questions about their behaviours, physiologies, and life histories fundamental to ecology. Simultaneously, many applied conservation and management efforts are informed by animals tagged with electronic tags. In spite of the many advances in tracking software and hardware, an uncertain future in the world’s aquatic ecosystems portends great challenges for science. Aquatic animal tracking with electronic tags represents both the present and future of integrative biology and ecology in aquatic ecosystems. Here we identify what we regard as the future of aquatic animal tracking in a horizon scanning exercise. We submit that the future of aquatic animal tracking will include opportunities for multi-platform tracking systems for simultaneously monitoring position, activity, physiology, and microhabitat of animals, improved data collection and accessibility with new infrastructure (e.g. tags, receivers) and cyberinfrastructure, and integrated tagging information with animal traits derived from biopsy during tagging. We discuss parallel needs and opportunities in areas related to the application of animal tracking in the future such as knowledge mobilization and governance.

  20. Radial Oxygen Loss in the Rhizosphere of Wild Rice as a Control On Root Surface Mineral Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K.; Trejo, B.; LaFond-Hudson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Wild rice (Zizania palustris) is an aquatic plant native to the Great Lakes region that is culturally and nutritionally significant for the Ojibwe people of Northern Minnesota. Concern for the future health of wild rice populations has increased amidst ongoing pressures from proposed mining projects that risk sulfate contamination to natural waters. Although sulfate itself is not toxic to wild rice, bacteria living in anoxic sediments use the sulfate as an electron acceptor, converting it to sulfide, which subsequently precipitates in the form of iron-sulfide on the root surface of wild rice. These precipitates are linked to lowered viability of wild rice. Most wetland plants are able to shield against the harmful accumulation of these precipitates through a process known as radial oxygen loss (ROL), in which oxygen leaches from roots into anoxic sediments to form protective iron-oxide plaques. This mechanism, however, had yet to be experimentally confirmed in wild rice. In this study, we eliminated the potential for ROL to occur in wild rice prior to the reproductive phase, and measured the rates of iron-sulfide accumulation on the roots and in associated sediments. We compared these data with the geochemical composition of roots and sediment from wild rice that accumulated iron-sulfide precipitate during the reproductive phase. In doing so, we demonstrate that ROL is indeed a mechanism by which wild rice protects itself against sulfide exposure, and examine the nuances of ROL as it relates to the life cycle of wild rice. The better we understand the vulnerability of wild rice across its life cycle and comparative rates of both toxic and protective precipitate accumulation, the better we can approach wild rice conservation.

  1. Environmental Assessment for Wild Horse Gathering Inside and Outside Wild Horse Herd Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed you will find the Environmental Assessment (EA) which describes the impacts of gathering wild horses in the Rock Springs Field Office area. Gathering wild horses would take place in the Great Divide Basin, White Mountain, Little Colorado, and Salt Wells Creek Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (HMA) and in an area known as the North Baxter/Jack Morrow area (outside the HMAs).

  2. Epidemiology of canine distemper virus in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Se-Yeoun; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kang, Min; Jang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Hae-Beom; Jang, Hyung-Kwan

    2012-09-01

    Raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) are widespread and common in South Korea. In 2011, we obtained serum samples from 102 wild raccoon dogs to survey their exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV). Forty-five of the 102 animals (44.1%) were seropositive. Field cases of canine distemper in wild raccoon dogs from 2010 to 2011 were investigated. Fourteen cases of CDV infection were identified by a commercially available CDV antigen detection kit. These cases were used for virus isolation and molecular analysis. Sequence analysis of hemagglutinin genes indicated that all viruses isolated belonged to the Asia-2 genotype. H protein residues which are related to the receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analyzed. A glutamic acid (E) residue is present at 530 in all isolates. At 549, a histidine (H) residue was found in five isolates and tyrosine (Y) residue was found in 6 isolates. Our study demonstrated that CDV infection was widespread in wild raccoon dogs in South Korea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Katrina B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is

  4. Anatomo-pathological aspects of parasitism by nematodes of the superfamily Metastrongyloidea in wild crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous in Midwestern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Alves Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Nematodes of the superfamily Metastrongyloidea affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, and nervous systems of domestic carnivores and are uncommonly detected in wild animals. This report describes the lesions associated with pulmonary parasitism by nematodes of the superfamily Metastrongyloidea in a wild crab-eating fox ( Cerdocyon thous in the Federal District, Brazil. Grossly, there was pulmonary hyperemia, edema, and emphysema. Microscopically, there was granulomatous arteritis associated with intravascular metastrongylid. The anatomical location, characteristic lesion, and histological features of the parasite suggested that the nematode involved in this case is Angiostrongylus vasorum . This worm is frequently reported parasitizing pulmonary arteries of domestic canids but is uncommonly described in wild canids in Midwestern Brazil.

  5. Male Violence and Sexual Intimidation in a Wild Primate Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniel, Alice; Cowlishaw, Guy; Huchard, Elise

    2017-07-24

    Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We found support for all three main predictions of the sexual coercion hypothesis [7]: male aggression (1) is greatest against cycling females, (2) is costly and represents the main source of injuries for cycling females, and (3) increases male mating success with their victims in the future. Detailed analysis of chronological sequences between aggression and matings ruled out other coercive mechanisms, such as short-term harassment and punishment, by showing that aggression and matings are temporally decoupled. This decoupling may explain why some forms of sexual violence have been largely overlooked in well-studied animal populations despite their likely impact on the fitness of both sexes. Finally, we found no support for alternative hypotheses such as a female preference for aggressive males [8, 9]. This new, detailed study of the forms and intensity of sexual intimidation in a wild primate suggests that it may be widespread across mammalian societies, with important implications for understanding the evolution of mate choice and sexual conflict in mammals, as well as the origins of human sexual violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential species distribution and richness of ixodidae ticks associated with wild vertebrates from Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Sandoval, Margarita; Priego-Santander, Angel G.; Larrazabal de la Via, Alejandra Patricia; Sosa-Gutiérrez, Carolina G.; Lara-Chávez, Blanca; Avila-Val, Teresita

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The diversity of Ixodidae is known for a very small number of genera. Ixodes are repre- sented by 26 species, and in 2007 the first reported ticks vectors in Mexico for the causal agent of Lyme

  7. The effect of age on the fatty acids composition in wild boar (Sus scrofa hunted in the southwest region of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Gálik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the fatty acid profile of wild boar (Sus scrofa meat. The samples were obtained from the mountain Tríbeč (southwest part of the Slovak Republic. A total of 36 samples in 3 age categories of meat were analysed. The effect of age on the intramuscular (IMF fat content was analysed. The highest (P < 0.05 IMF content was found in the samples from the youngest animals (18.07%, the lowest (P < 0.05 in the sub-adult animals. Significant (P < 0.05 differences were found in palmitic acid (C16:0. Significant decrease of heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 as an effect of age was analysed in the samples. Of the important fatty acids, the most abundant in all age categories of wild boar were oleic (C18:1 cis 9, palmitic (C16:0, and linolelaidic acid (C18:2 cis n6. Differences in the content of mentioned acids were significant (P < 0.05. In α-linolenic and γ-linoleic acids, non-significant (P > 0.05 differences were detected. Significant differences (P < 0.05 between age categories were found in cis-11-eicosenoic (C20:1 n9 and cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acids (C20:2 n6. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids, MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids, and SFA (saturated fatty acids concentrations. The highest PUFA content was typical for the samples from the oldest animals, MUFA from the sub-adults, and SFA from the youngest wild boar. More significant results were observed in the normalized data with the factor component scores. The wild boar fatty acid profile is significantly affected by age.

  8. Isotopic Anomalies in Organic Nanoglobules from Comet 81P/Wild 2: Comparison to Murchison Nanoglobules and Isotopic Anomalies Induced in Terrestrial Organics by Electron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gregorio, B.; Stroud, R; Nittler, L; Alexander, C; Kilcoyne, A; Zega, T

    2010-01-01

    Nanoglobules are a form of organic matter found in interplanetary dust particles and primitive meteorites and are commonly associated with {sup 15}N and D isotopic anomalies that are suggestive of interstellar processes. We report the discovery of two isotopically-anomalous organic globules from the Stardust collection of particles from Comet 81P/Wild 2 and compare them with nanoglobules from the Murchison CM2 meteorite. One globule from Stardust Cometary Track 80 contains highly aromatic organic matter and a large {sup 15}N anomaly ({delta}{sup 15}N = 1120{per_thousand}). Associated, non-globular, organic matter from this track is less enriched in {sup 15}N and contains a mixture of aromatic and oxidized carbon similar to bulk insoluble organic material (IOM) from primitive meteorites. The second globule, from Cometary Track 2, contains non-aromatic organic matter with abundant nitrile ({single_bond}C{triple_bond}N) and carboxyl ({single_bond}COOH) functional groups. It is significantly enriched in D ({delta}D = 1000{per_thousand}) but has a terrestrial {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratio. Experiments indicate that similar D enrichments, unaccompanied by {sup 15}N fractionation, can be reproduced in the laboratory by electron irradiation of epoxy or cyanoacrylate. Thus, a terrestrial origin for this globule cannot be ruled out, and, conversely, exposure to high-energy electron irradiation in space may be an important factor in producing D anomalies in organic materials. For comparison, we report two Murchison globules: one with a large {sup 15}N enrichment and highly aromatic chemistry analogous to the Track 80 globule and the other only moderately enriched in {sup 15}N with IOM-like chemistry. The observation of organic globules in Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicates that comets likely sampled the same reservoirs of organic matter as did the chondrite parent bodies. The observed isotopic anomalies in the globules are most likely preserved signatures of low temperature (<10 K

  9. Feeding of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) in the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident in the territory of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations of seasonal feed choice of a wild boar have been carried out during a 3-year period on the basis of the stomach content. Results of the investigations are given. A list of forage plants and forage animals is presented. Seasonal intensity of their consumption is evaluated. Main plant assemblages of the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl accident are analyzed for their significance in the diet of a wild boar. Special attention is paid to the role of underground forage (35% of average annual forage), and to consumption of Oenotera biennis roots comprising 26% of average annual forage. Recent state of the forage base and of the wild boar population is estimated. An attempt to predict its dynamics for the nearest 10-15 years is made

  10. Automatic detection of animals in mowing operations using thermal cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Kim Arild; Villa-Henriksen, Andrés; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Green, Ole

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix) or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus) and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus) and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future.

  11. Secrets of Success in a Landscape of Fear: Urban Wild Boar Adjust Risk Perception and Tolerate Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Stillfried

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas with a high level of human disturbance, wildlife has to adjust its behavior to deal with the so called “landscape of fear.” This can be studied in risk perception during movement in relation to specific habitat types, whereby individuals trade-off between foraging and disturbance. Due to its high behavioral plasticity and increasing occurrence in urban environments, wild boar (Sus scrofa is an excellent model organism to study adjustment to urbanization. With the help of GPS tracking, space use of 11 wild boar from Berlin's metropolitan region was analyzed: we aimed at understanding how animals adjust space use to deal with the landscape of fear in urban areas compared to rural areas. We compared use vs. availability with help of generalized linear mixed models. First, we studied landscape types selected by rural vs. urban wild boar, second, we analyzed distances of wild boar locations to each of the landscape types. Finally, we mapped the resulting habitat selection probability to predict hotspots of human-wildlife conflicts. A higher tolerance to disturbance in urban wild boar was shown by a one third shorter flight distance and by an increased re-use of areas close to the trap. Urban wild boar had a strong preference for natural landscapes such as swamp areas, green areas and deciduous forests, and areas with high primary productivity, as indicated by high NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index values. The areas selected by urban wild boar were often located closely to roads and houses. The spatial distribution maps show that a large area of Berlin would be suitable for urban wild boar but not their rural conspecifics, with the most likely reason being a different perception of anthropogenic disturbance. Wild boar therefore showed considerable behavioral plasticity suitable to adjust to human-dominated environments in a potentially evolutionarily adaptive manner.

  12. Assessing Effectiveness of a Nonhuman Animal Welfare Education Program for Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Roxanne D; Williams, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare education aims to promote positive relationships between children and animals and thus improve animal welfare, yet few scientific evaluations of these programs exist. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an education program developed by the Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) that included 4 interventions focusing on pets (companion animals), wild animals, farm animals, and general animal rescues. Knowledge, attachment to pets, and attitudes and beliefs about animal minds were assessed at pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest using a questionnaire administered to 1,217 Scottish children aged 7 to 13 years old. Results showed a significant positive impact of the program on knowledge about animals and the Scottish SPCA for all interventions. The pet and farming interventions significantly impacted children's beliefs about animal minds. There were trends toward improvements in a range of other measures. This study highlights the importance of teaching animal welfare education to children for early prevention of animal cruelty, discusses the need to base this education on theory and research to find effective change, and demonstrates how evidence-based practice can inform future education programs.

  13. Transfer of radionuclides to animal products following ingestion or inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Contamination of animal products forms an important pathway in the transfer of radionuclides from source to man. Simulation of radionuclide transfer via animal products requires an understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in absorption, distribution, turnover and excretion of radionuclides and related elements in animals as well as knowledge of animal grazing habits and husbandry. This paper provides a summary of the metabolism of important radionuclides in typical domestic animals and of the mathematical approaches that have been used to simulate transfer from diet to animal product. The equilibrium transfer factor approach has been used widely but suffers a number of disadvantages when releases or intakes are variable with time or when intakes are short relative to the lifetime of the animal of interest. Dynamic models, especially those of the compartmental type, have been developed and used widely. Both approaches have benefited from experiences obtained after the Chernobyl accident but a number of uncertainties still exist. Whereas there is now extensive knowledge on the behaviour of radiocaesium in both domestic and wild animals, knowledge of the behaviour of other potentially important radionuclides remains limited. Further experimental and metabolic studies will be required to reduce uncertainties associated with the transfer of radionuclides other than radiocaesium and thereby produce a sound basis for radiological assessments. (author)

  14. Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3-infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Josephine; Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Dremsek, Paul; Lange, Elke; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-11-26

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection in European wild boar and their role in HEV transmission to domestic pigs. To investigate the transmissibility and pathogenesis of wild boar-derived HEVgt3, we inoculated four wild boar and four miniature pigs intravenously. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR viral RNA was detected in serum, faeces and in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The antibody response evolved after fourteen days post inoculation. Histopathological findings included mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis which was more prominent in wild boar than in miniature pigs. By immunohistochemical methods, viral antigens were detected mainly in Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, partially associated with hepatic lesions, but also in spleen and lymph nodes. While clinical symptoms were subtle and gross pathology was inconspicuous, increased liver enzyme levels in serum indicated hepatocellular injury. As the faecal-oral route is supposed to be the most likely transmission route, we included four contact animals to prove horizontal transmission. Interestingly, HEVgt3-infection was also detected in wild boar and miniature pigs kept in contact to intravenously inoculated wild boar. Given the high virus loads and long duration of viral shedding, wild boar has to be considered as an important HEV reservoir and transmission host in Europe.

  15. Crop-to-wild gene flow and its fitness consequences for a wild fruit tree: Towards a comprehensive conservation strategy of the wild apple in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurtey, Alice; Cornille, Amandine; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Snirc, Alodie; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Crop-to-wild gene flow can reduce the fitness and genetic integrity of wild species. Malus sylvestris , the European crab-apple fruit tree in particular, is threatened by the disappearance of its habitat and by gene flow from its domesticated relative , Malus domestica . With the aims of evaluating threats for M. sylvestris and of formulating recommendations for its conservation, we studied here, using microsatellite markers and growth experiments: (i) hybridization rates in seeds and trees from a French forest and in seeds used for replanting crab apples in agrosystems and in forests, (ii) the impact of the level of M. domestica ancestry on individual tree fitness and (iii) pollen dispersal abilities in relation to crop-to-wild gene flow. We found substantial contemporary crop-to-wild gene flow in crab-apple tree populations and superior fitness of hybrids compared to wild seeds and seedlings. Using paternity analyses, we showed that pollen dispersal could occur up to 4 km and decreased with tree density. The seed network furnishing the wild apple reintroduction agroforestry programmes was found to suffer from poor genetic diversity, introgressions and species misidentification. Overall, our findings indicate supported threats for the European wild apple steering us to provide precise recommendations for its conservation.

  16. Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammadi, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83% in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27% in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos, así como tocoferoles, fenoles totales y pigmentos de aceites de almendras y pistachos silvestres prensados en frío. Triglicéridos (TAG, tocoferoles y pigmentos se analizaron mediante HPLC, los ácidos grasos y esteroles mediante cromatografía de gases, y los fenoles totales espectrofotométricamente. Los principales ácidos grasos de ambas especies fueron los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico. Las especies de TAG predominantes son SLL + OLP (21,83% en el pistacho silvestre y OOO (47,27% en almendras silvestre. Feofitina a es un pigmento importante en los aceites de pistacho silvestre. No se detectó pigmentos en los aceites de almendras silvestres. Los fenoles totales fueron 57,6 mg kg-1 y 45,3 mg kg-1 en los aceites de pistacho silvestre y de almendra silvestre respectivamente.

  17. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    animals often mask the signs of infection to avoid attracting predators (Wobeser 2006). Guidance specific to sterilization of electronic devices for implantation is limited in the wildlife record (Burger et al. 1994; Mulcahy 2003). Few biologists have been formally trained in aseptic technique, but most biologists know that electronic devices should be treated in some way to reduce the chance for infection of the host animal by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Most biologists (73%) who implant devices into fishes believe aseptic techniques are important (Wagner and Cooke 2005). However, I maintain that many biologists find it difficult to place the concept of asepsis into practice in their work because of confusion about what constitutes aseptic technique, a lack of surgical knowledge and training, the perception of increased costs, or the belief that aseptic surgeries are impractical or unnecessary for their application. Some have even argued that, while compromising surgical techniques in the field might result in complications or mortalities, the money saved would allow for a compensatory increase in sample size (Anderson and Talcott 2006). In this paper I define aseptic surgical techniques, document the legal and professional guidance for performing aseptic surgeries on wild animals, and present options for sterilizing electronic devices and surgical instruments for field use.

  18. Fatal H5N6 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in a Domestic Cat and Wild Birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhijun; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Yanbing; Li, Yongcheng; Xu, Yu; Chu, Dong; Sun, Heting; Wu, Changjiang; Li, Shengnan; Wang, Haijun; Li, Yuanguo; Xia, Zhiping; Lin, Weishi; Qian, Jun; Chen, Hualan; Xia, Xianzhu; Gao, Yuwei

    2015-06-02

    H5N6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) may pose a potential human risk as suggested by the first documented naturally-acquired human H5N6 virus infection in 2014. Here, we report the first cases of fatal H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in a domestic cat and wild birds. These cases followed human H5N6 infections in China and preceded an H5N6 outbreak in chickens. The extensive migration routes of wild birds may contribute to the geographic spread of H5N6 AIVs and pose a risk to humans and susceptible domesticated animals, and the H5N6 AIVs may spread from southern China to northern China by wild birds. Additional surveillance is required to better understand the threat of zoonotic transmission of AIVs.

  19. Using photogrammetry and color scoring to assess sexual dimorphism in wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Thomas; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Investigating sexual dimorphism is important for our understanding of its influence on reproductive strategies including male-male competition, mate choice, and sexual conflict. Measuring physical traits in wild animals can be logistically challenging and disruptive for the animals. Therefore body size and ornament variation in wild primates have rarely been quantified. Gorillas are amongst the most sexually dimorphic and dichromatic primates. Adult males (silverbacks) possess a prominent sagittal crest, a pad of fibrous and fatty tissue on top of the head, have red crest coloration, their saddle appears silver, and they possess a silverline along their stomach. Here we measure levels of sexual dimorphism and within-male variation of body length, head size, and sexual dichromatism in a population of wild western gorillas using photogrammetry. Digital photogrammetry is a useful and precise method to measure sexual dimorphism in physical traits yielding sexual dimorphism indices (ISD), similar to those derived from traditional measurements of skeletal remains. Silverbacks were on an average 1.23 times longer in body length than adult females. Sexual dimorphism of head size was highest in measures of crest size (max ISD: 60.4) compared with measures of facial height (max ISD: 24.7). The most sexually dimorphic head size measures also showed the highest within-sex variation. We found no clear sex differences in crest coloration but there was large sexual dichromatism with high within-male variation in saddle coloration and silverline size. Further studies should examine if these sexually dimorphic traits are honest signals of competitive ability and confer an advantage in reproductive success.

  20. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L; Emry, D Jason; Snow, Allison A; Kost, Matthew A; Pace, Brian A; Alexander, Helen M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  1. Fitness of crop-wild hybrid sunflower under competitive conditions: implications for crop-to-wild introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Mercer

    Full Text Available Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking

  2. Fitness of Crop-Wild Hybrid Sunflower under Competitive Conditions: Implications for Crop-to-Wild Introgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kristin L.; Emry, D. Jason; Snow, Allison A.; Kost, Matthew A.; Pace, Brian A.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the likelihood and extent of introgression of novel alleles in hybrid zones requires comparison of lifetime fitness of parents and hybrid progeny. However, fitness differences among cross types can vary depending on biotic conditions, thereby influencing introgression patterns. Based on past work, we predicted that increased competition would enhance introgression between cultivated and wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) by reducing fitness advantages of wild plants. To test this prediction, we established a factorial field experiment in Kansas, USA where we monitored the fitness of four cross types (Wild, F1, F2, and BCw hybrids) under different levels of interspecific and intraspecific competition. Intraspecific manipulations consisted both of density of competitors and of frequency of crop-wild hybrids. We recorded emergence of overwintered seeds, survival to reproduction, and numbers of seeds produced per reproductive plant. We also calculated two compound fitness measures: seeds produced per emerged seedling and seeds produced per planted seed. Cross type and intraspecific competition affected emergence and survival to reproduction, respectively. Further, cross type interacted with competitive treatments to influence all other fitness traits. More intense competition treatments, especially related to density of intraspecific competitors, repeatedly reduced the fitness advantage of wild plants when considering seeds produced per reproductive plant and per emerged seedling, and F2 plants often became indistinguishable from the wilds. Wild fitness remained superior when seedling emergence was also considered as part of fitness, but the fitness of F2 hybrids relative to wild plants more than quadrupled with the addition of interspecific competitors and high densities of intraspecific competitors. Meanwhile, contrary to prediction, lower hybrid frequency reduced wild fitness advantage. These results emphasize the importance of taking a full life cycle

  3. Single-base resolution maps of cultivated and wild rice methylomes and regulatory roles of DNA methylation in plant gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin; Zhu, Jingde; Hu, Fengyi

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation plays important biological roles in plants and animals. To examine the rice genomic methylation landscape and assess its functional significance, we generated single-base resolution DNA methylome maps for Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, indica and their wild rela...

  4. Occurrence and phylogenetic analysis of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in wild felines from Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mello Ribeiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemoplasma infections are emerging and wild fauna can represent an important reservoir of these pathogens. However, there are very few epidemiological studies about the occurrence of hemoplasmas in wild cats around the world. The purpose of this study is twofold: (1 evaluate the occurrence and phylogeny of hemoplasmas in captive wild felines at a zoo in the state of Paraná, Brazil, and (2 verify the correlation between subpopulations of these bacteria and the hematological and biochemical parameters of the animals. PCR was used to detect hemoplasmas in the blood of three cougars (Puma concolor, a jaguar (Panthera onca, a tiger (Panthera tigris and a lion (Panthera leo, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The cougars and jaguar were found to be hemoplasma-positive by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences enabled the identification of genotypes of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ circulating in this zoo. The identified sequences were closely related to hemoplasma sequences originating from domestic cats and other wild cats, but the infected cougars and jaguar were healthy and showed no hematological or biochemical changes. It was concluded that P. concolor and P. onca are exposed to ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in Paraná, but further research is suggested to assess the resistance of wild cats to different hemoplasma subpopulations.

  5. Prevalence of Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria in Wild Birds from Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobey, Britni; Kucknoor, Ashwini; Armacost, Jim

    2017-09-01

    Infectious diseases can be a major threat to wildlife populations, especially in human-modified habitats, but infection rates in populations of wild animals are often poorly studied. Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria are all pathogens known to infect birds, but their infection rates in wild bird populations are not well documented. This study documents infection rates of the three pathogens in wild bird populations inhabiting a suburban to rural gradient in Southeast Texas. Various species of wild birds were sampled at five sites in Southeastern Texas representing rural (Birds were captured in mist nets and samples were taken from the oral cavity, crop, and vent to detect the presence of pathogens. Samples were screened for Trichomonas by examining wet mounts under a light microscope, whereas samples were screened for Salmonella and Listeria by examining colonies grown on agar plates. Pathogens detected during the initial screening were further confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Infection rates for Trichomonas, Salmonella, and Listeria were 9%, 17%, and 5%, respectively. The distributions of infection rates across habitats (i.e., rural, exurban, rural) did not differ significantly from the expected null distributions for any of the three pathogens; however, the data suggested some interesting patterns that should be confirmed with a larger dataset. Infection rates for Trichomonas and Salmonella were highest at the suburban sites, whereas the infection rate for Listeria was highest at the rural site. Feeder birds were more likely to be infected by all three pathogens than non-feeder birds. Small sample sizes prevent definitive conclusions regarding variation in infection rates along the suburban to rural gradient, but the results suggest that pathogens followed the predicted patterns. For many of the bird species sampled, this study presents the first report of infection rates by these three pathogens in wild populations.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of adiposity in domestic ducks by transcriptomic comparison with their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Luo, J; Li, J X; Li, J J; Wang, D Q; Tian, Y; Lu, L Z

    2015-06-01

    Excessive adiposity is a major problem in the duck industry, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic comparisons between domestic and wild animals have contributed to the exploration of genetic mechanisms responsible for many phenotypic traits. Significant differences in body fat mass have been detected between domestic and wild ducks. In this study, we used the Peking duck and Anas platyrhynchos as the domestic breed and wild counterpart respectively and performed a transcriptomic comparison of abdominal fat between the two breeds to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome basis of adiposity in ducks. We obtained approximately 350 million clean reads; assembled 61 250 transcripts, including 23 699 novel ones; and identified alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, skipped exons and retained intron as the main alternative splicing events. A differential expression analysis between the two breeds showed that 753 genes exhibited differential expression. In Peking ducks, some lipid metabolism-related genes (IGF2, FABP5, BMP7, etc.) and oncogenes (RRM2, AURKA, CYR61, etc.) were upregulated, whereas genes related to tumor suppression and immunity (TNFRSF19, TNFAIP6, IGSF21, NCF1, etc.) were downregulated, suggesting adiposity might closely associate with tumorigenesis in ducks. Furthermore, 280 576 single-nucleotide variations were found differentiated between the two breeds, including 8641 non-synonymous ones, and some of the non-synonymous ones were found enriched in genes involved in lipid-associated and immune-associated pathways, suggesting abdominal fat of the duck undertakes both a metabolic function and immune-related function. These datasets enlarge our genetic information of ducks and provide valuable resources for analyzing mechanisms underlying adiposity in ducks. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Facilitating responsible gambling: the relative effectiveness of education-based animation and monetary limit setting pop-up messages among electronic gaming machine players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Michael J A; Gainsbury, Sally; Stewart, Melissa J; Sztainert, Travis

    2013-12-01

    Although most gamblers set a monetary limit on their play, many exceed this limit--an antecedent of problematic gambling. Responsible gambling tools may assist players to gamble within their means. Historically, however, the impact of such tools has been assessed in isolation. In the current research, two responsible gambling tools that target adherence to a monetary limit were assessed among 72 electronic gaming machine (EGM) players. Participants watched an educational animation explaining how EGMs work (or a neutral video) and then played an EGM in a virtual reality environment. All participants were asked to set a monetary limit on their play, but only half were reminded when that limit was reached. Results showed that both the animation and pop-up limit reminder helped gamblers stay within their preset monetary limit; however, an interaction qualified these main effects. Among participants who did not experience the pop-up reminder, those who watched the animation stayed within their preset monetary limits more than those who did not watch the animation. For those who were reminded of their limit, however, there was no difference in limit adherence between those who watched the animation and those who did not watch the animation. From a responsible gambling perspective, the current study suggests that there is no additive effect of exposure to both responsible gambling tools. Therefore, for minimal disruption in play, a pop-up message reminding gamblers of their preset monetary limit might be preferred over the lengthier educational animation.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni Colonization in Wild Birds: Results from an Infection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Jonas; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana; Olsen, Björn; Hasselquist, Dennis; Griekspoor, Petra; Jansson, Lena; Teneberg, Susann; Svensson, Lovisa; Ellström, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in most parts of the world. The bacterium has a broad host range and has been isolated from many animals and environments. To investigate shedding patterns and putative effects on an avian host, we developed a colonization model in which a wild bird species, the European Robin Erithacus rubecula, was inoculated orally with C. jejuni from either a human patient or from another wild bird species, the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos. These two isolates were genetically distinct from each other and provoked very different host responses. The Song Thrush isolate colonized all challenged birds and colonization lasted 6.8 days on average. Birds infected with this isolate also showed a transient but significant decrease in body mass. The human isolate did not colonize the birds and could be detected only in the feces of the birds shortly after inoculation. European Robins infected with the wild bird isolate generated a specific antibody response to C. jejuni membrane proteins from the avian isolate, which also was cross-reactive to membrane proteins of the human isolate. In contrast, European Robins infected with the human isolate did not mount a significant response to bacterial membrane proteins from either of the two isolates. The difference in colonization ability could indicate host adaptations. PMID:20140204

  9. Integument Mycobiota of Wild European Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, R A; Adelantado, C; Arosemena, E L; Obón, E; Darwich, L; Calvo, M A

    2012-01-01

    There are some reports about the risk of manipulating wild hedgehogs since they can be reservoirs of potential zoonotic agents like dermatophytes. The aim of this study was to describe the integument mycobiota, with special attention to dermatophytes of wild European hedgehogs. Samples from spines and fur were cultured separately in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with antibiotic and dermatophyte test medium (DTM) plates. Nineteen different fungal genera were isolated from 91 cultures of 102 hedgehogs. The most prevalent genera were Cladosporium (79.1%), Penicillium (74.7%), Alternaria (64.8%), and Rhizopus (63.7%). A lower prevalence of Aspergillus (P = 0,035; χ (2) = 8,633) and Arthrinium (P = 0,043; χ (2) = 8,173) was isolated during the spring time and higher frequencies of Fusarium (P = 0,015; χ (2) = 10,533) during the autumn. The prevalence of Acremonium was significantly higher in young animals (70%, 26/37) than in adults (30%, 11/37) (P = 0,019; χ (2) = 5,915). Moreover, the majority of the saprophytic species that grew at the SDA culture were also detected at the DTM. Finally, no cases of ringworm were diagnosed and no dermatophytes spp. were isolated. Concluding, this study provides the first description of fungal mycobiota of the integument of wild European hedgehogs in Spain, showing a large number of saprophytic species and the absence of dermatophytes.

  10. Helminthes and Coccidia Infection of Wild Sheep (Ovis Ammon Orintalis in Kabodan Island of National Park of Urmia Lake, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Khoshvaghti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one wild sheep (Ovis ammon orintalis from Kabodan Island of National Park of UrmiaLake (North-West of Iran, were examined during a period of six months from October 2002 toMarch 2003, for helminthes and coccidian infection. The numbers of oocyst and eggs per gram offaeces (OPG & EPG were determined by the centrifuge flotation technique using saturated sugarsolution. The rate of infection for Strongylid form, Marshalagia, Trichuris eggs, and lung wormlarvae were 8 (19.5%, 12 (29.5%, 17 (41.5% and 14 (34.1%, respectively. Thirty-three(80.48% of the examined wild animals were infected to one or more Eimeria species including E.parva, E. ahsata, E. ovinoidalis and E. faurei. This study suggested that the rate of parasiticinfection in wild sheep were very low but it would seem that in unsuitable condition such asdrought and starvation, parasitic infection can be cause a serious problem in wild sheep population.

  11. Contrasting mode of evolution at a coat color locus in wild and domestic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having only begun approximately 10,000 years ago, the process of domestication has resulted in a degree of phenotypic variation within individual species normally associated with much deeper evolutionary time scales. Though many variable traits found in domestic animals are the result of relatively recent human-mediated selection, uncertainty remains as to whether the modern ubiquity of long-standing variable traits such as coat color results from selection or drift, and whether the underlying alleles were present in the wild ancestor or appeared after domestication began. Here, through an investigation of sequence diversity at the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R locus, we provide evidence that wild and domestic pig (Sus scrofa haplotypes from China and Europe are the result of strikingly different selection pressures, and that coat color variation is the result of intentional selection for alleles that appeared after the advent of domestication. Asian and European wild boar (evolutionarily distinct subspecies differed only by synonymous substitutions, demonstrating that camouflage coat color is maintained by purifying selection. In domestic pigs, however, each of nine unique mutations altered the amino acid sequence thus generating coat color diversity. Most domestic MC1R alleles differed by more than one mutation from the wild-type, implying a long history of strong positive selection for coat color variants, during which time humans have cherry-picked rare mutations that would be quickly eliminated in wild contexts. This pattern demonstrates that coat color phenotypes result from direct human selection and not via a simple relaxation of natural selective pressures.

  12. New insights into the molecular epidemiology of Trichinella infection in domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina Dragoi; Ionita, Mariana; Ciupescu, Laurentiu; Buzatu, Cristian Vasile; Tanasuica, Rodica; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu

    2015-09-15

    Trichinellosis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the parasitic nematode Trichinella, characterized by an extremely wide host range and geographical distribution. In Romania, it is recognized as one of the most serious zoonotic diseases. A cross-sectional study, covering all regions of Romania, was conducted in 2014 to investigate and update the prevalence of Trichinella infection among domestic pigs, wild boars, and bears. Additional, molecular identification of Trichinella species circulating among these animals was performed in order to establish the biogeography of Trichinella species within the seven geographical regions of Romania. For this, a total of 113,383 pigs raised in non-controlled housing conditions (backyards), 5596 hunted wild boars and 147 hunted bears were subjected to Trichinella analysis. The highest prevalence of Trichinella infections was found in bears (12.93%), followed by wild boars (1.66%) and domestic pigs (0.20%). Of 294 Trichinella isolates that tested positive by multiplex PCR, 219 (74.49%) were identified as Trichinella spiralis, 66 (22.45%) as Trichinella britovi, and 9 isolates (3.06%) as mixed infections of T. spiralis and T. britovi. T. spiralis was more prevalent in domestic pigs (165/228; 72.37%) than in game (63/228; 27.63%), while T. britovi showed a higher prevalence in game (50/75; 66.66%) than in domestic pigs (25/75; 33.33%). Moreover, the present study revealed a significant host- and area- related distribution of Trichinella species within the seven regions of Romania. Therefore, these findings are of epidemiological relevance, updating data on the prevalence and distribution of Trichinella species circulating among domestic and wild animals in South-Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cheetahs and wild dogs show contrasting patterns of suppression by lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Alexandra; Caro, Tim; Davies-Mostert, Harriet; Mills, Michael G L; Macdonald, David W; Borner, Markus; Masenga, Emmanuel; Packer, Craig

    2014-11-01

    Top predators can dramatically suppress populations of smaller predators, with cascading effects throughout communities, and this pressure is often unquestioningly accepted as a constraint on mesopredator populations. In this study, we reassess whether African lions suppress populations of cheetahs and African wild dogs and examine possible mechanisms for coexistence between these species. Using long-term records from Serengeti National Park, we tested 30 years of population data for evidence of mesopredator suppression, and we examined six years of concurrent radio-telemetry data for evidence of large-scale spatial displacement. The Serengeti lion population nearly tripled between 1966 and 1998; during this time, wild dogs declined but cheetah numbers remained largely unchanged. Prior to their local extinction, wild dogs primarily occupied low lion density areas and apparently abandoned the long-term study area as the lion population 'saturated' the region. In contrast, cheetahs mostly utilized areas of high lion density, and the stability of the cheetah population indicates that neither high levels of lion-inflicted mortality nor behavioural avoidance inflict sufficient demographic consequences to translate into population-level effects. Population data from fenced reserves in southern Africa revealed a similar contrast between wild dogs and cheetahs in their ability to coexist with lions. These findings demonstrate differential responses of subordinate species within the same guild and challenge a widespread perception that lions undermine cheetah conservation efforts. Paired with several recent studies that document fine-scale lion-avoidance by cheetahs, this study further highlights fine-scale spatial avoidance as a possible mechanism for mitigating mesopredator suppression. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  14. Intertextuality and Intermediality in Oscar Wilde's Salome : How Oscar Wilde Become a Postmodernist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Kornelis; Bennett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper approaches Wilde's play from three separate directions: intertextual, visual and musical. Comparing ideas and techniques in the play to the positions of postmodern thinkers, this chapter argues that Wilde sought to incorporate literary and philosophical elements more common to the late

  15. Studies in iodine metabolism: monitoring of animal thyroids. Progress report, 1984-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1986-01-01

    This progress report briefly summarizes the counting and re-counting of domestic or wild animal thyroids from the United Kingdom, Federal Republic of Germany, the reservation of the Savannah River Plant, or from the DOE reservation at Oak Ridge. The possible effect that a mycotoxin may have an iodine deficiency was investigated. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  16. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  17. Immunizations, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and animal-induced injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sean R; Brennan, Beth; Bernstein, Henry H

    2007-08-01

    To report recent research findings and new recommendations on immunizations, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and animal-induced injuries. Vaccines against rotavirus and human papilloma virus have entered clinical use. Varicella outbreaks among previously vaccinated children have prompted the recommendation for a two-dose varicella vaccine series. Broader coverage for influenza vaccination is now recommended in the US and Canada. Diagnosis and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia uses population and hour-based norms for total serum bilirubin and assessment of risk factors. Delayed cord clamping is not apparently a risk factor for jaundice but warrants more study. Universal predischarge screening shows promise but is not yet officially recommended. New treatments for hyperbilirubinemia are being evaluated. Dogs are the chief cause of animal bites in children and the largest reservoir for rabies worldwide. In North America and Europe, cats and wild animals cause most human rabies. Postexposure prophylaxis should follow region-appropriate guidelines. New vaccines are available against rotavirus and human papilloma virus. Changes have been made to official immunization recommendations. Appropriate vaccine use can reduce the pediatric disease burden further. Hyperbilirubinemia is the subject of ongoing study, which may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment protocols and reduce the incidence of acute bilirubin encephalopathy. The best tool for rabies prevention after an animal bite is prompt postexposure prophylaxis.

  18. Human Hunting and Nascent Animal Management at Middle Pre-Pottery Neolithic Yiftah'el, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir-Hen, Lidar; Dayan, Tamar; Khalaily, Hamoudi; Munro, Natalie D

    2016-01-01

    The current view for the southern Levant is that wild game hunting was replaced by herd management over the course of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B period, but there is significant debate over the timing, scale and origin of this transition. To date, most relevant studies focus either on wild game exploitation in the periods prior to domestication or on classic markers of domestication of domestic progenitor species over the course of the PPNB. We studied the faunal remains from the 2007-2008 excavations of the Middle PPNB (MPPNB) site of Yiftah'el, Northern Israel. Our analysis included a close examination of the timing and impact of the trade-off between wild game and domestic progenitor taxa that reflects the very beginning of this critical transition in the Mediterranean zone of the southern Levant. Our results reveal a direct trade-off between the intensive hunting of wild ungulates that had been staples for millennia, and domestic progenitor taxa. We suggest that the changes in wild animal use are linked to a region-wide shift in the relationship between humans and domestic progenitor species including goat, pig and cattle.

  19. EvoWild: a demosimulator about wild life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Palacio Gayoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last years we can see how AI (Artificial Intelligence is reappearing because of technological improvements. These improvements make possible the management of large groups of information with acceptable reply times.On the other hand, cost reductions in technology make possible that an investigation field like AI becomes to an inversion field closer to scale economies, that’s why it’ll be economically profitable to invert in this type of applications.One of the fastest consequences is the AI implantation in a big amount of devices of our environment, cell telephones, palms and of course, in the video game industry.This is the reason that took us to develop EvoWild, a simulation about wild life that has video game format and tools but at the same time implements AI algorithms like genetic algorithms and reasoning based in cases.

  20. Is there adaptation of the exocrine pancreas in wild animal? The case of the Roe Deer

    OpenAIRE

    Guilloteau, Paul; Vitari, Francesca; Meuth, Valérie Metzinger-Le; Le Normand, Laurence; Romé, Véronique; Savary, Gérard; Delaby, Luc; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Morisset, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Physiology of the exocrine pancreas has been well studied in domestic and in laboratory animals as well as in humans. However, it remains quite unknown in wildlife mammals. Roe deer and cattle (including calf) belong to different families but have a common ancestor. This work aimed to evaluate in the Roe deer, the adaptation to diet of the exocrine pancreatic functions and regulations related to animal evolution and domestication. Results Forty bovine were distributed into...

  1. Molecular detection and characterization of potentially new Babesia and Theileria species/variants in wild felids from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githaka, Naftaly; Konnai, Satoru; Kariuki, Edward; Kanduma, Esther; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-01

    Piroplasms frequently infect domestic and wild carnivores. At present, there is limited information on the occurrence and molecular identity of these tick-borne parasites in wild felids in Kenya. In 2009, a pair of captive lions (Panthare leo) was diagnosed with suspected babesiosis and mineral deficiency at an animal orphanage on the outskirts of Nairobi, Kenya. Blood smears indicated presences of haemoparasites in the erythrocytes, however, no further investigations were conducted to identify the infecting agent. The animals recovered completely following diet supplementation and treatment with anti-parasite drug. In this report, we extracted and detected parasite DNA from the two lions and seven other asymptomatic feline samples; two leopards (Panthera pardus) and five cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Reverse line blot with probes specific for Babesia spp. of felines indicated the presence of new Babesia species or genotypes in the lions and leopards, and unknown Theileria sp. in the cheetahs. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene showed that the parasite infecting the lions belong to the Babesia canis complex, and the parasite variant detected in the leopards clusters in a clade bearing other Babesia spp. reported in wild felids from Africa. The cheetah isolates falls in the Theileria sensu stricto group. Our findings indicate the occurrence of potentially new species or genotypes of piroplams in all three feline species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  3. Molecular identification of Trichinella isolates from wildlife animals of the Russian Arctic territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goździk K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematodes of genus Trichinella are infective to a wide range of hosts, including humans, and have global distribution from tropic to arctic areas. Muscle samples from animals, collected in two areas of the Russian Federation, Chukotka Peninsula and Arkhangelsk Oblast, were tested for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae. Trichinella spp. larvae were recovered from tissues of eleven wild and domestic animals: 1 polar bear, 1 wolverine, 3 arctic foxes, 1 ringed seal, 1 brown bear, 1 cat, 1 sled dog, 1 domestic pig and 1 northern sea lion.

  4. Phylogenetic Backgrounds and Virulence-Associated Traits of Escherichia coli Isolates from Surface Waters and Diverse Animals in Minnesota and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian D; Delavari, Parissa; Thuras, Paul; Clabots, Connie; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2017-12-15

    Possible external reservoirs for extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains that cause infections in humans are poorly defined. Because of the tremendous human health importance of ExPEC infections, we assessed surface waters and domesticated and wild animals in Minnesota and Wisconsin as potential reservoirs of ExPEC of human health relevance. We characterized 595 E. coli isolates (obtained from 1999 to 2002; 280 from seven surface water sites, 315 from feces of 13 wild and domesticated animal species) for phylogroup and virulence genotype, including inferred ExPEC status, by using multiplex PCR-based methods. We also compared the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of the isolates with a large private PFGE profile library. We found a predominance of non-ExPEC strains (95% and 93% among water and animal isolates, respectively), which were mainly from phylogroups A and B1, plus a minority of ExPEC strains (5% and 7% among water isolates and animal isolates, respectively), predominantly from phylogroup B2. The ExPEC strains, although significantly associated with cats, dogs, and turkeys, occurred in several additional animal species (goat, horse, chicken, pig) and were distributed broadly across all surface water sites. Virulence gene content among the animal source ExPEC isolates segregated significantly in relation to host species, following established patterns. PFGE analysis indicated that 11 study isolates closely matched (94% to 100% profile similarity) reference human clinical and fecal isolates. These findings imply what probably is a low but non-zero risk to humans from environmental and animal source E. coli isolates, especially those from specific human-associated animal species. IMPORTANCE Our detection of potentially pathogenic strains that may pose a health threat to humans among E. coli isolates from surface waters and wild and domesticated animals suggests a need for heightened attention to these reservoirs as possible

  5. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

  6. Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P. A.; Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.

    2017-01-01

    Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre...... barrier to gene flow in the wild. Cyprinid fishes commonly produce fertile, viable hybrid offspring and therefore make excellent study organisms to investigate ecological costs to hybrids. We electronically tagged two freshwater cyprinid fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus and bream Abramis brama...... to directly test for a predation cost to hybrids in the wild. Hybrid individuals were found significantly more susceptible to cormorant predation than individuals from either parental species. Such ecological selection against hybrids contributes to species integrity, and can enhance species diversification....

  7. [Mercury in the environment and in the bodies of animals in the central chernozem region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiumikov, S F

    1999-01-01

    The data on the mercury levels in the organs of wild ungulates and agricultural animals and in the environmental objects of the central black earth region are presented. The biogeochemical parameters of organisms were calculated. Species- and organ-specific indicators of toxic elements were proposed.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in a Domesticated Korean Wild Boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Kim, Munki; Lee, Jienny; Kim, Young-Hoan; Do, Jae-Cheul; Kwak, Dongmi

    2017-06-01

    Tuberculosis, a chronic progressive disease, has been reported in bovine, swine, and primate species. Here, we report the first case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a Korean wild boar ( Sus scrofa coreanus). The owners this domesticated boar brought it to the Gyeongbuk Veterinary Service Laboratory in Korea after it was found dead and severely emaciated. Demarcated yellowish white nodules were found around the larynx and retropharyngeal lymph node during necropsy. The lungs had diffuse fibrinous pleuritis, severe congestion, and scattered nodules. More nodules were found in the spleen. Tuberculosis is characterized by massive macrophage infiltration and central caseous necrosis; both characteristics were found in the lungs. Histopathologic examination revealed that the alveolar lumen had marked fibrosis and exudates. Examination of the fluid revealed extensive macrophage permeation. To confirm a Mycobacterium infection, PCR was performed using two primer sets specific to the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium; Mycobacterium was detected in the lungs and spleen. To identify the species of Mycobacterium, immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis . The results revealed immunoreactivity against M. tuberculosis but not against M. bovis . The consumption of undercooked or raw meat from game animals may expose humans and other animals to syl