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Sample records for wild ancestors chinese

  1. Hybrid origin of the Pliocene ancestor of wild goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropiquet, Anne; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2006-11-01

    Recent theories on speciation suggest that interspecific hybridization is an important mechanism for explaining adaptive radiation. According to this view, hybridization can promote the rapid transfer of adaptations between different species; the hybrid population thus invades new habitats and diversifies into a variety of new species. Although hybridization is well accepted as a fairly common mechanism for diversification in plants, its role in the evolution of animals is more controversial, because reduced fitness would typically condemn animal hybrids to an evolutionary dead-end. Here, we examine DNA sequences of four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes selected for resolving phylogenetic relationships between goats, sheep, and their allies. Our analyses provide evidence of strong discordance for the position of Capra between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. We suggest that the common ancestor of wild goats arose from interspecific hybridization, and that the mitochondrial genome of a species better adapted to life at high altitudes was transferred via this route into the common ancestor of Capra. We propose that the acquisition of more efficient mitochondria has conferred a selective advantage on goats, allowing their rapid adaptive radiation during the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. Our study therefore agrees with theories that predict an important role for interspecific hybridization in the evolution and diversification of animal species.

  2. Population genetics of foxtail millet and its wild ancestor

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    Wang Yongfang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv., one of the most ancient domesticated crops, is becoming a model system for studying biofuel crops and comparative genomics in the grasses. However, knowledge on the level of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD is very limited in this crop and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L. P. Beauv.. Such information would help us to understand the domestication process of cultivated species and will allow further research in these species, including association mapping and identification of agricultural significant genes involved in domestication. Results In this study, we surveyed DNA sequence for nine loci across 50 accessions of cultivated foxtail millet and 34 of its wild progenitor. We found a low level of genetic diversity in wild green foxtail (θ = 0.0059, θ means Watterson's estimator of θ. Despite of a 55% loss of its wild diversity, foxtail millet still harbored a considerable level of diversity (θ = 0.0027 when compared to rice and sorghum (θ = 0.0024 and 0.0034, respectively. The level of LD in the domesticated foxtail millet extends to 1 kb, while it decayed rapidly to a negligible level within 150 bp in wild green foxtail. Using coalescent simulation, we estimated the bottleneck severity at k = 0.6095 when ρ/θ = 1. These results indicated that the domestication bottleneck of foxtail millet was more severe than that of maize but slightly less pronounced than that of rice. Conclusions The results in this study establish a general framework for the domestication history of foxtail millet. The low level of genetic diversity and the increased level of LD in foxtail millet are mainly caused by a population bottleneck, although gene flow from foxtail millet to green foxtail is another factor that may have shaped the pattern of genetic diversity of these two related gene pools. The knowledge provided in this study will benefit future population

  3. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

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    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  4. Wild Mallards Have More “Goose-Like” Bills Than Their Ancestors: A Case of Anthropogenic Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderquist, Pär; Norrström, Joanna; Elmberg, Johan; Guillemain, Matthieu; Gunnarsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Wild populations of the world’s most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started), present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males). Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more “goose-like” bills (wider, higher, and shorter) than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with ‘alien genes’ may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds. PMID:25514789

  5. Genetic diversity in morphological characters and phenolic acids content resulting from an interspecific cross between eggplant, Solanum melongena, and its wild ancestor (S. incanum)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prohens, J; Whitaker, B.D; Plazas, M; Vilanova, S; Hurtado, M; Blasco, M; Gramazio, P; Stommel, J.R

    2013-01-01

    Solanum incanum , the wild ancestor of eggplant, Solanum melongena , has been considered as a source of variation for high content of phenolic acid conjugates in breeding programmes aimed at improving...

  6. Identification, genealogical structure and population genetics of S-alleles in Malus sieversii, the wild ancestor of domesticated apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Cai, Z; Liu, W; Ge, S; Tang, L

    2017-09-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) gene that is specifically expressed in pistils encodes the SI-associated ribonuclease (S-RNase), functioning as the female-specificity determinant of a gametophytic SI system. Despite extensive surveys in Malus domestica, the S-alleles have not been fully investigated for Malus sieversii, the primary wild ancestor of the domesticated apple. Here we screened the M. sieversii S-alleles via PCR amplification and sequencing, and identified 14 distinct alleles in this species. By contrast, nearly 40 are present in its close wild relative, Malus sylvestris. We further sequenced 8 nuclear genes to provide a neutral reference, and investigated the evolution of S-alleles via genealogical and population genetic analyses. Both shared ancestral polymorphism and an excess of non-synonymous substitution were detected in the S-RNases of the tribe Maleae in Rosaceae, indicating the action of long-term balancing selection. Approximate Bayesian Computations based on the reference neutral loci revealed a severe bottleneck in four of the six studied M. sieversii populations, suggesting that the low number of S-alleles found in this species is mainly the result of diversity loss due to a drastic population contraction. Such a bottleneck may lead to ambiguous footprints of ongoing balancing selection detected at the S-locus. This study not only elucidates the constituents and number of S-alleles in M. sieversii but also illustrates the potential utility of S-allele number shifts in demographic inference for self-incompatible plant species.

  7. Megabase-scale inversion polymorphism in the wild ancestor of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Pyhäjärvi, Tanja; Weber, Allison L; Dawe, R Kelly; Glaubitz, Jeffrey C; González, José de Jesus Sánchez; Ross-Ibarra, Claudia; Doebley, John; Morrell, Peter L; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    Chromosomal inversions are thought to play a special role in local adaptation, through dramatic suppression of recombination, which favors the maintenance of locally adapted alleles. However, relatively few inversions have been characterized in population genomic data. On the basis of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping across a large panel of Zea mays, we have identified an ∼50-Mb region on the short arm of chromosome 1 where patterns of polymorphism are highly consistent with a polymorphic paracentric inversion that captures >700 genes. Comparison to other taxa in Zea and Tripsacum suggests that the derived, inverted state is present only in the wild Z. mays subspecies parviglumis and mexicana and is completely absent in domesticated maize. Patterns of polymorphism suggest that the inversion is ancient and geographically widespread in parviglumis. Cytological screens find little evidence for inversion loops, suggesting that inversion heterozygotes may suffer few crossover-induced fitness consequences. The inversion polymorphism shows evidence of adaptive evolution, including a strong altitudinal cline, a statistical association with environmental variables and phenotypic traits, and a skewed haplotype frequency spectrum for inverted alleles.

  8. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

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    Dhingra Amit

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic

  9. Comparative chloroplast genomics and phylogenetics of Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale – A wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logacheva, Maria D; Samigullin, Tahir H; Dhingra, Amit; Penin, Aleksey A

    2008-01-01

    Background Chloroplast genome sequences are extremely informative about species-interrelationships owing to its non-meiotic and often uniparental inheritance over generations. The subject of our study, Fagopyrum esculentum, is a member of the family Polygonaceae belonging to the order Caryophyllales. An uncertainty remains regarding the affinity of Caryophyllales and the asterids that could be due to undersampling of the taxa. With that background, having access to the complete chloroplast genome sequence for Fagopyrum becomes quite pertinent. Results We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of a wild ancestor of cultivated buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. ancestrale. The sequence was rapidly determined using a previously described approach that utilized a PCR-based method and employed universal primers, designed on the scaffold of multiple sequence alignment of chloroplast genomes. The gene content and order in buckwheat chloroplast genome is similar to Spinacia oleracea. However, some unique structural differences exist: the presence of an intron in the rpl2 gene, a frameshift mutation in the rpl23 gene and extension of the inverted repeat region to include the ycf1 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of 61 protein-coding gene sequences from 44 complete plastid genomes provided strong support for the sister relationships of Caryophyllales (including Polygonaceae) to asterids. Further, our analysis also provided support for Amborella as sister to all other angiosperms, but interestingly, in the bayesian phylogeny inference based on first two codon positions Amborella united with Nymphaeales. Conclusion Comparative genomics analyses revealed that the Fagopyrum chloroplast genome harbors the characteristic gene content and organization as has been described for several other chloroplast genomes. However, it has some unique structural features distinct from previously reported complete chloroplast genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the dataset

  10. Unruly grandmothers, ghosts and ancestors: Chinese elders and the importance of culture in dementia evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kathryn S; Di Minno, Mariann

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the cultural clashes that occurred when Chinese patients at an Alzheimer's center in California were evaluated for dementia. Lack of familiarity with Chinese culture made the culturally mainstream American clinicians at this center more likely to misinterpret the behavior of elderly Chinese-speaking patients and their families and, thereby, more likely to misdiagnose such patients and suggest culturally inappropriate recommendations. This tendency was reduced when relevant cultural knowledge was incorporated into the clinical evaluation. The evaluation process at this clinic and two patient examples are discussed to illustrate that familiarity with a patient's cultural background is essential for accurate diagnosis and referral. This ethnographic case study places the evaluation process in one particular clinic in cultural context and is suggestive in the way that exploratory qualitative research is meant to be, rather than broadly representative of dementia clinics or clinicians as a whole. However, problems created by cultural clashes at this clinic do suggest that what may be happening at other dementia clinics as they encounter increasingly more patients from diverse cultural backgrounds is an important empirical question worthy of further research, using both qualitative and quantitative methods.

  11. [Investigation on Wild Original Plant Species of Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province].

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    Huang, Xiu-zhen; Zou, Xiu-hong

    2014-12-01

    To explore the original plants of wild medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province and find out the species of these plants. Based on the field investigation, specimen collection and literature reference, inductive analysis of the wild original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City had been carried out. After investigation, it was discovered that there were 84 families 155 genera 184 species of original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, of which 6 families 7 genera 9 species belonged to pteridophytes; 2 families 2 genera 2 species belonged to gymnosperms; and the rest were angio-sperms. Among the angiosperms, dicotyledons accounted for 62 families 117 genera 139 species; monocotyledons took up 14 families 29 genera 34 species. The plants mentioned above were the original plants of the 186 Chinese medicinal herbs and decoction pieces in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). This paper has explored the wild original plant species of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province to provide not only the basis for the local government's development and utilization of wild Chinese medicinal herbs but also the data for the fourth national survey of Chinese medicinal herb resources.

  12. The tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares common ancestors with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from wild tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A; Peever, Tobin L; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity.

  13. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile.

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    Adam J Dutton

    Full Text Available Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.

  14. A Stated Preference Investigation into the Chinese Demand for Farmed vs. Wild Bear Bile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Adam J.; Hepburn, Cameron; Macdonald, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product. PMID:21799733

  15. A stated preference investigation into the Chinese demand for farmed vs. wild bear bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Adam J; Hepburn, Cameron; Macdonald, David W

    2011-01-01

    Farming of animals and plants has recently been considered not merely as a more efficient and plentiful supply of their products but also as a means of protecting wild populations from that trade. Amongst these nascent farming products might be listed bear bile. Bear bile has been exploited by traditional Chinese medicinalists for millennia. Since the 1980s consumers have had the options of: illegal wild gall bladders, bile extracted from caged live bears or the acid synthesised chemically. Despite these alternatives bears continue to be harvested from the wild. In this paper we use stated preference techniques using a random sample of the Chinese population to estimate demand functions for wild bear bile with and without competition from farmed bear bile. We find a willingness to pay considerably more for wild bear bile than farmed. Wild bear bile has low own price elasticity and cross price elasticity with farmed bear bile. The ability of farmed bear bile to reduce demand for wild bear bile is at best limited and, at prevailing prices, may be close to zero or have the opposite effect. The demand functions estimated suggest that the own price elasticity of wild bear bile is lower when competing with farmed bear bile than when it is the only option available. This means that the incumbent product may actually sell more items at a higher price when competing than when alone in the market. This finding may be of broader interest to behavioural economists as we argue that one explanation may be that as product choice increases price has less impact on decision making. For the wildlife farming debate this indicates that at some prices the introduction of farmed competition might increase the demand for the wild product.

  16. Hunt the Ancestors

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    Richard Osgood

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Anyone familiar with the BBC's long-running television series 'Meet the Ancestors' will recognise much of the format for the online game 'Hunt the Ancestor'. The site is based around a fictional rescue excavation in Greenshire; its aims are to recover a prehistoric burial under threat of destruction by a quarry. Despite the fact that the intention is to excavate human remains and produce the eponymous reconstructed human face at the end (and is it just me or do these always look just about the same?, it introduces the user to some important archaeological concepts.

  17. The galaxy ancestor problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.

    2012-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  18. Characterization of Erysiphe necator-Responsive Genes in Chinese Wild Vitis quinquangularis

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    Min Gao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by fungus Erysiphe necator, is one of the most devastating diseases of grapevine. To better understand grapevine-PM interaction and provide candidate resources for grapevine breeding, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library was constructed from E. necator-infected leaves of a resistant Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis clone “Shang-24”. A total of 492 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were obtained and assembled into 266 unigenes. Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that 188 unigenes could be assigned with at least one GO term in the biological process category, and 176 in the molecular function category. Sequence analysis showed that a large number of these genes were homologous to those involved in defense responses. Genes involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction were also enriched in the library. Expression analysis of 13 selected genes by qRT-PCR revealed that most were induced more quickly and intensely in the resistant material “Shang-24” than in the sensitive V. pseudoreticulata clone “Hunan-1” by E. necator infection. The ESTs reported here provide new clues to understand the disease-resistance mechanism in Chinese wild grapevine species and may enable us to investigate E. necator-responsive genes involved in PM resistance in grapevine germplasm.

  19. Ancestor worship - is it Biblical?

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    Choon Sup Bae

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancestor worship is practiced in different forms around the world today, even in societies participating in the modern global economy. Ancestral beliefs are deeply dependent on the premise that the souls of the dead may return to the living and influence their lives; that it is possible and acceptable for the living to communicate with the dead and lastly that the living are able to exert an effect on the destiny of deceased ancestors. The following issues are most relevant to ancestor worship: 1 death and the afterlife, 2 possibility of communication between the living and the dead, and 3 the destiny of believers who die. The article looks at these issues from a Biblical perspective, offers Biblical guidelines in assessing ancestor worship and its cosmology and interprets ancestor worship theologically. The conclusion is that ancestor worship is incompatible with Christian faith.

  20. Expression and Functional Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors in Chinese Wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jin; Liang, Li-Song; Ma, Qing-Hua; Chen, Xin; Zong, Jian-Wei; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Plant WRKY transcription factors are known to regulate various biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study we identified a total of 30 putative WRKY unigenes in a transcriptome dataset of the Chinese wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla, a species that is noted for its cold tolerance. Thirteen full-length of these ChWRKY genes were cloned and found to encode complete protein sequences, and they were divided into three groups, based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Representatives of each of the groups, Unigene25835 (group I), Unigene37641 (group II) and Unigene20441 (group III), were transiently expressed as fusion proteins with yellow fluorescent fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, where they were observed to accumulate in the nucleus, in accordance with their predicted roles as transcriptional activators. An analysis of the expression patterns of all 30 WRKY genes revealed differences in transcript abundance profiles following exposure to cold, drought and high salinity conditions. Among the stress-inducible genes, 23 were up-regulated by all three abiotic stresses and the WRKY genes collectively exhibited four different patterns of expression in flower buds during the overwintering period from November to April. The organ/tissue related expression analysis showed that 18 WRKY genes were highly expressed in stem but only 2 (Unigene9262 and Unigene43101) were greatest in male anthotaxies. The expression of Unigene37641, a member of the group II WRKY genes, was substantially up-regulated by cold, drought and salinity treatments, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in better seedling growth, compared with wild type plants, under cold treatment conditions. The transgenic lines also had exhibited higher soluble protein content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activiety and lower levels of malondialdehyde, which collectively suggets that Unigene37641 expression promotes cold tolerance.

  1. Expression and Functional Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors in Chinese Wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla Fisch.

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    Tian-Tian Zhao

    Full Text Available Plant WRKY transcription factors are known to regulate various biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study we identified a total of 30 putative WRKY unigenes in a transcriptome dataset of the Chinese wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla, a species that is noted for its cold tolerance. Thirteen full-length of these ChWRKY genes were cloned and found to encode complete protein sequences, and they were divided into three groups, based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Representatives of each of the groups, Unigene25835 (group I, Unigene37641 (group II and Unigene20441 (group III, were transiently expressed as fusion proteins with yellow fluorescent fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, where they were observed to accumulate in the nucleus, in accordance with their predicted roles as transcriptional activators. An analysis of the expression patterns of all 30 WRKY genes revealed differences in transcript abundance profiles following exposure to cold, drought and high salinity conditions. Among the stress-inducible genes, 23 were up-regulated by all three abiotic stresses and the WRKY genes collectively exhibited four different patterns of expression in flower buds during the overwintering period from November to April. The organ/tissue related expression analysis showed that 18 WRKY genes were highly expressed in stem but only 2 (Unigene9262 and Unigene43101 were greatest in male anthotaxies. The expression of Unigene37641, a member of the group II WRKY genes, was substantially up-regulated by cold, drought and salinity treatments, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in better seedling growth, compared with wild type plants, under cold treatment conditions. The transgenic lines also had exhibited higher soluble protein content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activiety and lower levels of malondialdehyde, which collectively suggets that Unigene37641 expression promotes cold

  2. Expression and Functional Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors in Chinese Wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla Fisch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Song; Ma, Qing-Hua; Chen, Xin; Zong, Jian-Wei; Wang, Gui-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Plant WRKY transcription factors are known to regulate various biotic and abiotic stress responses. In this study we identified a total of 30 putative WRKY unigenes in a transcriptome dataset of the Chinese wild Hazel, Corylus heterophylla, a species that is noted for its cold tolerance. Thirteen full-length of these ChWRKY genes were cloned and found to encode complete protein sequences, and they were divided into three groups, based on the number of WRKY domains and the pattern of zinc finger structures. Representatives of each of the groups, Unigene25835 (group I), Unigene37641 (group II) and Unigene20441 (group III), were transiently expressed as fusion proteins with yellow fluorescent fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana, where they were observed to accumulate in the nucleus, in accordance with their predicted roles as transcriptional activators. An analysis of the expression patterns of all 30 WRKY genes revealed differences in transcript abundance profiles following exposure to cold, drought and high salinity conditions. Among the stress-inducible genes, 23 were up-regulated by all three abiotic stresses and the WRKY genes collectively exhibited four different patterns of expression in flower buds during the overwintering period from November to April. The organ/tissue related expression analysis showed that 18 WRKY genes were highly expressed in stem but only 2 (Unigene9262 and Unigene43101) were greatest in male anthotaxies. The expression of Unigene37641, a member of the group II WRKY genes, was substantially up-regulated by cold, drought and salinity treatments, and its overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in better seedling growth, compared with wild type plants, under cold treatment conditions. The transgenic lines also had exhibited higher soluble protein content, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activiety and lower levels of malondialdehyde, which collectively suggets that Unigene37641 expression promotes cold tolerance. PMID

  3. Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Properties of the Fruits of a Chinese Wild Passiflora foetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Song

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the main nutrients and their antioxidant properties of a Chinese wild edible fruit, Passiflora foetida, collected from the ecoregion of Hainan province, China. The analytical results revealed that P. foetida fruits were rich in amino acids (1097 mg/100 g in total, minerals (595.75 mg/100 g in total, and unsaturated fatty acids (74.18 g/100 g in total fat. The lyophilized powder of edible portion contained the higher polyphenols content than the inedible portion powder. The UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE analysis of the extractable and non-extractable phenolics indicated the presence of 65 compounds including 39 free phenolics, 14 insoluble-glycoside-phenolics, and 22 insoluble-ester-phenolics. In addition, the non-extractable phenolics obtained by alkali hydrolysis showed significant antioxidant activities by/through DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging. These findings of P. foetida fruits, for the first time, suggest that these polyphenol-rich fruits may have potential nutraceutical efficacies.

  4. Sundials: Ancestors of Our Clocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The earliest of the sundials dates back to 5000 BC. But it is reasonable to assume that our ancestors used 'something like a sundial' for timekeeping even before. Cavemen, who noticed the way in which the shadows of tall trees varied with the daily movement of the Sun, would have been tempted to use it as a time keeper.

  5. Ancestor worship – is it Biblical?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    worship and its cosmology and interprets ancestor worship theologically. The conclusion is that ancestor worship is incompatible with Christian faith. 1. INTRODUCTION. Although ancestor worship is a phenomenon which most people associate with primitive civilizations, it is still prevalent in many countries around the.

  6. Assessing genetic diversity of wild and hatchery samples of the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) by the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiayun; Wu, Bo; Hou, Feixia; Chen, Yongbai; Li, Chong; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    To restore the natural populations of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), a hatchery release program has been underway for nearly 10 years. Using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic structure among samples collected from three sites of the wild population as well as from three hatcheries. The haplotype diversity of the wild samples (h = 0.899-0.975) was significantly higher than that of the hatchery ones (h = 0.296-0.666), but the nucleotide diversity was almost identical between them (π = 0.0170-0.0280). Relatively high gene flow was detected between the hatchery and wild samples. Analysis of effective population size indicated that M. asiaticus living in the Yangtze River has been expanding following a bottleneck in the recent past. Our results suggest the hatchery release programs for M. asiaticus have not reduced the genetic diversity, but have influenced the genetic structure of the species in the upper Yangtze River.

  7. Development of Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Chloroplast Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill. and Wild Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Mill..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    Full Text Available Ziziphus is an important genus within the family Rhamnaceae. This genus includes several important fruit tree species that are widely planted in China and India, such as the Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill., the wild jujube (Z. acidojujuba, and the Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana. However, information about their domestication based on the chlorotype diversity of Chinese jujube population is lacking. In this study, chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR markers were developed and used to investigate the genetic relationships between and domestication of jujube cultivars and wild jujube populations. Primer sets flanking each of the 46 cpSSR loci in non-coding regions of the chloroplast genome sequence of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. 'Junzao' were designed. In total, 10 markers showed polymorphisms from 15 samples (9 jujube cultivars and 6 wild jujube individuals, of which 8 loci were due to variations in the number of mononucleotide (A/T repeats and 2 were due to indels. Six cpSSR markers were used in further analyses of 81 additional samples (63 jujube cultivars, 17 wild jujube samples, and 1 Indian jujube. Using these cpSSR markers, the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four. In general, the Shannon Index (I for each cpSSR ranged from 0.159 to 0.1747, and the diversity indices (h and uh were 0.061 to 0.435 and 0.062 to 0.439, respectively. Seven chlorotypes were found; the Indian jujube showed distinct chlorotypes, and both the Chinese and wild jujube had four chlorotypes and shared two chlorotypes. A dominant chlorotype (G accounted for 53 of 72 jujube cultivars and 13 of 23 wild jujube individuals. All chlorotypes were highly localized along the Yellow River, from the mid- to the lower reaches, suggesting a wide origin of jujube. These cpSSR markers can be applied to population and evolution studies of Chinese jujube and wild jujube.

  8. Development of Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Chloroplast Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and Wild Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Chunmei; Yin, Xiao; Liu, Shipeng; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus is an important genus within the family Rhamnaceae. This genus includes several important fruit tree species that are widely planted in China and India, such as the Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), the wild jujube (Z. acidojujuba), and the Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana). However, information about their domestication based on the chlorotype diversity of Chinese jujube population is lacking. In this study, chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and used to investigate the genetic relationships between and domestication of jujube cultivars and wild jujube populations. Primer sets flanking each of the 46 cpSSR loci in non-coding regions of the chloroplast genome sequence of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. 'Junzao' were designed. In total, 10 markers showed polymorphisms from 15 samples (9 jujube cultivars and 6 wild jujube individuals), of which 8 loci were due to variations in the number of mononucleotide (A/T) repeats and 2 were due to indels. Six cpSSR markers were used in further analyses of 81 additional samples (63 jujube cultivars, 17 wild jujube samples, and 1 Indian jujube). Using these cpSSR markers, the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four. In general, the Shannon Index (I) for each cpSSR ranged from 0.159 to 0.1747, and the diversity indices (h) and uh were 0.061 to 0.435 and 0.062 to 0.439, respectively. Seven chlorotypes were found; the Indian jujube showed distinct chlorotypes, and both the Chinese and wild jujube had four chlorotypes and shared two chlorotypes. A dominant chlorotype (G) accounted for 53 of 72 jujube cultivars and 13 of 23 wild jujube individuals. All chlorotypes were highly localized along the Yellow River, from the mid- to the lower reaches, suggesting a wide origin of jujube. These cpSSR markers can be applied to population and evolution studies of Chinese jujube and wild jujube.

  9. Three ERF transcription factors from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata participate in different biotic and abiotic stress-responsive pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziguo; Shi, Jiangli; Xu, Weirong; Li, Huie; He, Mingyang; Xu, Yan; Xu, Tengfei; Yang, Yazhou; Cao, Jiangling; Wang, Yuejin

    2013-07-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) functions as an important plant-specific transcription factor in regulating biotic and abiotic stress response through interaction with various stress pathways. We previously obtained three ERF members, VpERF1, VpERF2, and VpERF3 from a highly powdery mildew (PM)-resistant Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata cDNA full-length library. To explore their functions associated with plant disease resistance or biotic stress, we report here to characterize three ERF members from this library. PM-inoculation analysis on three different resistant grapevine genotypes revealed that three VpERFs displayed significant responses, but a different expression pattern. Over-expression of VpERF1, VpERF2, and VpERF3 in transgenic tobacco plants demonstrated that VpERF2 and VpERF3 enhanced resistance to both bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and fungal pathogen Phytophtora parasitica var. nicotianae Tucker. Importantly, VpERF1-overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis plants increased susceptibility toward these pathogens. Investigation on drought, cold, and heat treatments suggested, VpERF2 was distinctly induced, whereas VpERF3 displayed a very weak response and VpERF1 was distinctly induced by drought and heat. Concurrently, VpERF3 was significantly induced by salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ET. Our results showed that the three VpERFs from Chinese wild V. pseudoreticulata play different roles in either preventing disease progression via regulating the expression of relevant defense genes, or directly involving abiotic stress responsive pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective Effects of Cultivated Ginseng, Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese Against CCl4 and t-BHP Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity in ICR Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Young-Jin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was aimed at investigating live protection mechanism of Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese by inducing liver toxicity through and t-BHP in mice and evaluated serological findings. Methods : Experiment groups was categorized into untreated normal group, treated control group, and orally administered Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese experimental groups. At the termination of experiment, gross examination of the liver as well as Total bilirubin, AST, and ALT contents in the serum were evaluated. Results : 1. In the induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. 2. In the t-BHP induced acute hepatotoxicity test, total bilirubin, AST and ALT didn't show significant differences between the control and experimental groups. Conclusion : Taken together, Cultivated Ginseng and Cultivated Wild Ginseng of Korean and Chinese cannot be effectively used for recovering the liver functions in acute hepatotoxicity tests using and t-BHP. Further researches, for example treated long period, must be tried to verify the efficacies.

  11. The Five Ancestors--Book 1: Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Losing a job is an awfully low point--until it turns into the opportunity to pursue writing full time, and a book like "The Five Ancestors: Tiger" results. Jeff Stone looks back to his own experience as a young reader and taps that experience to help frame his own writing. An intriguing snapshot of his new book follows.

  12. Resistance evaluation of Chinese wild Vitis genotypes against Botrytis cinerea and different responses of resistant and susceptible hosts to the infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ran; Hou, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xianhang; Qu, Jingwu; Singer, Stacy D.; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    The necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea is a major threat to grapevine cultivation worldwide. A screen of 41 Vitis genotypes for leaf resistance to B. cinerea suggested species independent variation and revealed 18 resistant Chinese wild Vitis genotypes, while most investigated V. vinifera, or its hybrids, were susceptible. A particularly resistant Chinese wild Vitis, “Pingli-5” (V. sp. [Qinling grape]) and a very susceptible V. vinifera cultivar, “Red Globe” were selected for further study. Microscopic analysis demonstrated that B. cinerea growth was limited during early infection on “Pingli-5” before 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) but not on Red Globe. It was found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidative system were associated with fungal growth. O2- accumulated similarly in B. cinerea 4 hpi on both Vitis genotypes. Lower levels of O2- (not H2O2) were detected 4 hpi and ROS (H2O2 and O2-) accumulation from 8 hpi onwards was also lower in “Pingli-5” leaves than in “Red Globe” leaves. B. cinerea triggered sustained ROS production in “Red Globe” but not in “Pingli-5” with subsequent infection progresses. Red Globe displayed little change in antioxidative activities in response to B. cinerea infection, instead, antioxidative activities were highly and timely elevated in resistant “Pingli-5” which correlated with its minimal ROS increases and its high resistance. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the resistance of Chinese wild Vitis species to B. cinerea, but also lay the foundation for breeding B. cinerea resistant grapes in the future. PMID:26579134

  13. Mexican papita viroid: putative ancestor of crop viroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soriano, J P; Galindo-Alonso, J; Maroon, C J; Yucel, I; Smith, D R; Diener, T O

    1996-09-03

    The potato spindle tuber disease was first observed early in the 20th century in the northeastern United States and shown, in 1971, to be incited by a viroid, potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). No wild-plant PSTVd reservoirs have been identified; thus, the initial source of PSTVd infecting potatoes has remained a mystery. Several variants of a novel viroid, designated Mexican papita viroid (MPVd), have now been isolated from Solanum cardiophyllum Lindl. (papita güera, cimantli) plants growing wild in the Mexican state of Aguascalientes. MPVd's nucleotide sequence is most closely related to those of the tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd) and PSTVd. From TPMVd, MPVd may be distinguished on the basis of biological properties, such as replication and symptom formation in certain differential hosts. Phylogenetic and ecological data indicate that MPVd and certain viroids now affecting crop plants, such as TPMVd, PSTVd, and possibly others, have a common ancestor. We hypothesize that commercial potatoes grown in the United States have become viroid-infected by chance transfer of MPVd or a similar viroid from endemically infected wild solanaceous plants imported from Mexico as germplasm, conceivably from plants known to have been introduced from Mexico to the United States late in the 19th century in efforts to identify genetic resistance to the potato late blight fungus, Phytophthora infestans.

  14. Ancestor worship – is it Biblical?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    ancestors. This synergy is also based on the underlying beliefs about death and the afterlife. In all three cases, death is not considered to be a barrier between ...... death, “And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell” (Mt 10:28; Lk 12:4-5;. RSV).

  15. A potential cyanobacterial ancestor of Viridiplantae chloroplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Wriddhiman Ghosh; Prabir Haldar; Sabyasachi Bhattacharya; Jaideb Chatterjee; Prosenjit Pyne; Masrure Alam

    2011-01-01

    The theory envisaging the origin of plastids from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria is well-established but it is difficult to explain the evolution (spread) of plastids in phylogenetically diverse plant groups. It is widely believed that primordial endosymbiosis occurred in the last common ancestor of all algae^1^, which then diverged into the three primary photosynthetic eukaryotic lineages, viz. the Rhodophyta (red algae), Glaucocystophyta (cyanelle-containing algae) and Viridiplantae (green alg...

  16. Replacing alfalfa hay with dry corn gluten feed and Chinese wild rye grass: Effects on rumen fermentation, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X Y; Gao, H; Wang, X Y; Zhang, G N; Zhang, Y G

    2017-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance when a portion of alfalfa was replaced with combinations of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF) and Chinese wild rye grass in the diet of lactating cows. Six multiparous and 3 primiparous Chinese Holsteins were arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment for 21-d periods. The animals were fed 1 of 3 treatment diets during each period: (1) 0% DCGF (0DCGF); (2) 6.5% DCGF (7DCGF); and (3) 11% DCGF (11DCGF). Diets were isonitrogenous, and a portion of alfalfa hay was replaced with DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass, with similar concentrate mixtures and corn silage contents. The dry matter intake was greater for 11DCGF (21.9 kg/d) than for 0DCGF (20.7 kg/d) or 7DCGF (21.2 kg/d). The treatment diets did not result in difference in milk production, fat and lactose concentration, or yield. Compared with 0DCGF, the ration containing 11% DCGF improved the milk protein concentration. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility was greater for 7DCGF (62.7% and 45.6%) and 11DCGF (63.1% and 47.2%) than for 0DCGF (59.4% and 42.3%), and the nitrogen digestibility was similar for the 3 treatments. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in cows fed the 11DCGF diet than in those fed the 0DCGF diet, with no difference between the 7DCGF and 11DCGF diets. The estimated microbial crude protein yield was greater for the 11DCGF diet (1985.1 g/d) than for the 0DCGF diet (1745.0 g/d), with no difference between the 0DCGF and 7DCGF diets. Thus, it appears that feeding DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass in combination can effectively replace a portion of alfalfa hay in the rations of lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A stilbene synthase allele from a Chinese wild grapevine confers resistance to powdery mildew by recruiting salicylic acid signalling for efficient defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yuntong; Xu, Weirong; Duan, Dong; Wang, Yuejin; Nick, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Stilbenes are central phytoalexins in Vitis, and induction of the key enzyme stilbene synthase (STS) is pivotal for disease resistance. Here, we address the potential for breeding resistance using an STS allele isolated from Chinese wild grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata (VpSTS) by comparison with its homologue from Vitis vinifera cv. 'Carigane' (VvSTS). Although the coding regions of both alleles are very similar (>99% identity on the amino acid level), the promoter regions are significantly different. By expression in Arabidopsis as a heterologous system, we show that the allele from the wild Chinese grapevine can confer accumulation of stilbenes and resistance against the powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, whereas the allele from the vinifera cultivar cannot. To dissect the upstream signalling driving the activation of this promoter, we used a dual-luciferase reporter system in a grapevine cell culture. We show elevated responsiveness of the promoter from the wild grape to salicylic acid (SA) and to the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22, equal induction of both alleles by jasmonic acid (JA), and a lack of response to the cell death-inducing elicitor Harpin. This elevated SA response of the VpSTS promoter depends on calcium influx, oxidative burst by RboH, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, and JA synthesis. We integrate the data in the context of a model where the resistance of V. pseudoreticulata is linked to a more efficient recruitment of SA signalling for phytoalexin synthesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. MC1R, KIT, IGF2, and NR6A1 as markers for genetic differentiation in Thai native, wild boars, and Duroc and Chinese Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomtong, P; Chaweewan, K; Phasuk, Y; Duangjinda, M

    2015-10-19

    Mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene and v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) gene have been shown to affect coat color patterns in pigs. Additional functional marker genes, such as insulin like growth factor-2 (IGF2) and orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor (NR6A1), have been described for variations in factors such as fat deposition, litter size, and vertebra number in pigs. In this study, we investigated 129 pigs representing 4 breeds: Thai indigenous, classified into black (similar to Raad or Ka done pig) and black and white (similar to the Hailum and Kwai pig) coat color types; wild boar; Duroc; and Chinese Meishan. Mutations of MC1R, KIT, IGF2, and NR6A1 were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotypes variation in MC1R and KIT genes could be used to differentiate four groups of coat color: solid black, black and white, red, and wild type. For IGF2, the GG genotype was present in wild boar only; for NR6A1 the TT genotype was found only in Duroc pigs. We identified novel 14-bp deletions in KIT that were associated with black and white coat color in Thai indigenous pigs. Insights into variations in genes presented in this study will be useful in future developmental breeding programs for the Thai native pig.

  19. Ancestor worship – is it Biblical? | Sup Bae | HTS Teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article looks at these issues from a Biblical perspective, offers Biblical guidelines in assessing ancestor worship and its cosmology and interprets ancestor worship theologically. The conclusion is that ancestor worship is incompatible with Christian faith. HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies Vol. 64 (3) 2008: pp.

  20. Dreaming Ancestors Among African American: A Challenge to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the ancestral dream, an element of ancestor veneration that has persisted, in African religious life since the arrival of their enslaved ancestors in this country. Although changes have occurred in ancestor veneration, this study demonstrates its continued importance in maintaining harmonious family ...

  1. Virtual ancestor reconstruction: Revealing the ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Aurélien; Mirazón Lahr, Marta

    2016-02-01

    The timing and geographic origin of the common ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals remain controversial. A poor Pleistocene hominin fossil record and the evolutionary complexities introduced by dispersals and regionalisation of lineages have fuelled taxonomic uncertainty, while new ancient genomic data have raised completely new questions. Here, we use maximum likelihood and 3D geometric morphometric methods to predict possible morphologies of the last common ancestor of modern humans and Neandertals from a simplified, fully resolved phylogeny. We describe the fully rendered 3D shapes of the predicted ancestors of humans and Neandertals, and assess their similarity to individual fossils or populations of fossils of Pleistocene age. Our results support models of an Afro-European ancestral population in the Middle Pleistocene (Homo heidelbergensis sensu lato) and further predict an African origin for this ancestral population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Information-Theoretic Inference of Common Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Steudel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A directed acyclic graph (DAG partially represents the conditional independence structure among observations of a system if the local Markov condition holds, that is if every variable is independent of its non-descendants given its parents. In general, there is a whole class of DAGs that represents a given set of conditional independence relations. We are interested in properties of this class that can be derived from observations of a subsystem only. To this end, we prove an information-theoretic inequality that allows for the inference of common ancestors of observed parts in any DAG representing some unknown larger system. More explicitly, we show that a large amount of dependence in terms of mutual information among the observations implies the existence of a common ancestor that distributes this information. Within the causal interpretation of DAGs, our result can be seen as a quantitative extension of Reichenbach’s principle of common cause to more than two variables. Our conclusions are valid also for non-probabilistic observations, such as binary strings, since we state the proof for an axiomatized notion of “mutual information” that includes the stochastic as well as the algorithmic version.

  3. Windmills: Ancestors of the wind power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Cesare; Russo, Flavio; Savino, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    A brief description of the windmills from the second millennium BC to the Renaissance is presented. This survey is a part of several studies conducted by the authors on technology in the ancient world. The windmills are the first motor, other than human muscles, and are the ancestors of the modern wind turbines. Some authors' virtual reconstructions of old windmills are also presented. The paper shows that the operating principle of many modern machines had already been conceived in the ancient times by using a technology that was more advanced than expected, but with two main differences, as follows: Similar tasks were accomplished by using much less energy; and the environmental impact was nil or very low. Modern designers should sometimes consider simplicity rather than the use of a large amount of energy.

  4. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  5. Identification of novel insertion–deletion markers for Dongxiang wild ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) is considered to be the ancestor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) (Ishii et al. 2011). During the domestication process from wild rice to cultivated rice, many genes of the wild rice were fil- tered either by drift or naturally and human selection or both, resulting in a significant reduction ...

  6. Chinese wild-growing Vitis amurensis ICE1 and ICE2 encode MYC-type bHLH transcription activators that regulate cold tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Xu

    Full Text Available Winter hardiness is an important trait for grapevine breeders and producers, so identification of the regulatory mechanisms involved in cold acclimation is of great potential value. The work presented here involves the identification of two grapevine ICE gene homologs, VaICE1 and VaICE2, from an extremely cold-tolerant accession of Chinese wild-growing Vitis amurnensis, which are phylogenetically related to other plant ICE1 genes. These two structurally different ICE proteins contain previously reported ICE-specific amino acid motifs, the bHLH-ZIP domain and the S-rich motif. Expression analysis revealed that VaICE1 is constitutively expressed but affected by cold stress, unlike VaICE2 that shows not such changed expression as a consequence of cold treatment. Both genes serve as transcription factors, potentiating the transactivation activities in yeasts and the corresponding proteins localized to the nucleus following transient expression in onion epidermal cells. Overexpression of either VaICE1 or VaICE2 in Arabidopsis increase freezing tolerance in nonacclimated plants. Moreover, we show that they result in multiple biochemical changes that were associated with cold acclimation: VaICE1/2-overexpressing plants had evaluated levels of proline, reduced contents of malondialdehyde (MDA and decreased levels of electrolyte leakage. The expression of downstream cold responsive genes of CBF1, COR15A, and COR47 were significantly induced in Arabidopsis transgenically overexpressing VaICE1 or VaICE2 upon cold stress. VaICE2, but not VaICE1 overexpression induced KIN1 expression under cold-acclimation conditions. Our results suggest that VaICE1 and VaICE2 act as key regulators at an early step in the transcriptional cascade controlling freezing tolerance, and modulate the expression levels of various low-temperature associated genes involved in the C-repeat binding factor (CBF pathway.

  7. Genome Sequencing of Chromosome 1 Substitution Lines Derived from Chinese Wild Mice Revealed a Unique Resource for Genetic Studies of Complex Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mouse resources such as Collaborative Cross, outbred stocks, Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel, and chromosome substitution strains have been instrumental to many progresses in the studies of complex traits genetics. We have established a population of chromosome 1 (Chr 1 substitution lines (C1SLs in which donor chromosomes were derived from Chinese wild mice. Genome sequencing of 18 lines of this population showed that Chr 1 had been replaced by the donor chromosome. About 4.5 million unique single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were discovered on Chr 1, of which 1.3 million were novel. Compared with sequenced classical inbred strains, Chr 1 of each C1SL had fivefold more variants, and more loss of function and potentially regulatory variants. Further haplotype analysis showed that the donor chromosome accumulated more historical recombination events, with the largest haplotype block being only 100 kb, and about 57% of the blocks were <1 kb. Subspecies origin analysis showed that these chromosomes had a mosaic genome structure that dominantly originated from Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus subspecies, except for the C57BL/6J-Chr1KM line from M. m. domesticus. In addition, phenotyping four of these lines on blood biochemistry suggested that there were substantial phenotypic variations among our lines, especially line C57BL/6J-Chr1HZ and donor strain C57BL/6J. Further gene ontology enrichment revealed that the differentially expressed genes among liver-expressed genes between C57BL/6J and C57BL/6J-Chr1HZ were enriched in lipid metabolism biological processes. All these characteristics enable C1SLs to be a unique resource for identifying and fine mapping quantitative trait loci on mouse Chr 1, and carrying out systems genetics studies of complex traits.

  8. Proposed Ancestors of Phage Nucleic Acid Packaging Motors (and Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serwer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available I present a hypothesis that begins with the proposal that abiotic ancestors of phage RNA and DNA packaging systems (and cells include mobile shells with an internal, molecule-transporting cavity. The foundations of this hypothesis include the conjecture that current nucleic acid packaging systems have imprints from abiotic ancestors. The abiotic shells (1 initially imbibe and later also bind and transport organic molecules, thereby providing a means for producing molecular interactions that are links in the chain of events that produces ancestors to the first molecules that are both information carrying and enzymatically active, and (2 are subsequently scaffolds on which proteins assemble to form ancestors common to both shells of viral capsids and cell membranes. Emergence of cells occurs via aggregation and merger of shells and internal contents. The hypothesis continues by using proposed imprints of abiotic and biotic ancestors to deduce an ancestral thermal ratchet-based DNA packaging motor that subsequently evolves to integrate a DNA packaging ATPase that provides a power stroke.

  9. Did the last common ancestor have a biological membrane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jékely Gáspár

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All theories about the origin and evolution of membrane bound cells necessarily have to cope with the nature of the last common ancestor of cellular life. One of the most important aspect of this ancestor, whether it had a closed biological membrane or not, has recently been intensely debated. Having a consensus about it would be an important step towards an eventual (though probably still remote synthesis of the best elements of the current multitude of cell evolution models. Here I analyse the structural and functional conservation of the few universally distributed proteins that were undoubtedly present in the last common ancestor and that carry out membrane-associated functions. These include the SecY subunit of the protein-conducting channel, the signal recognition particle, the signal recognition particle receptor, the signal peptidase, and the proton ATPase. The conserved structural and functional aspects of these proteins indicate that the last common ancestor was associated with a hydrophobic layer with two hydrophilic sides (an inside and an outside that had a full-fledged and asymmetric protein insertion and translocation machinery and served as a permeability barrier for protons and other small molecules. It is difficult to escape the conclusion that the last common ancestor had a closed biological membrane from which all cellular membranes evolved.

  10. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  11. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    and Korman (STOC'10) established that labels in ancestor labeling schemes have size log n + Θ(log log n), our new lower bound separates ancestor and NCA labeling schemes. Our upper bound improves the 10 log n upper bound by Alstrup, Gavoille, Kaplan and Rauhe (TOCS'04), and our theoretical result even......We consider NCA labeling schemes: given a rooted tree T, label the nodes of T with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the label of their nearest common ancestor. For trees with n nodes we present upper and lower bounds...... establishing that labels of size (2 ± ε)log n, ε schemes have labels of size log n + Ω(log log n). Our lower bound increases this to log n + Ω(log n) for NCA labeling schemes. Since Fraigniaud...

  12. Family myth, the symbolic realm and the ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytovaara, Marica

    2012-11-01

    This paper takes the shape of a diptych. The first part explores the ancestors as embodied ghosts, internal objects or as mediated through ancestral heritage, as these aspects intertwine in a Möbius strip. The second part looks at ancestral heritage and the different ways in which 'family myth' appears in a Jungian context and in Systemic Psychotherapy (family therapy). Both share an interface through the current paradigm shifts towards mutual reflexivity in patient and therapist and a focus on the interpersonal space. The ancestors give substance to the eternal riddle: 'from whence do we come, who are we and where do we go', which connects past, present and future. Our ancestors are part of our minds, perhaps in the way Damasio (2010) postulates that ancestral experiences mediated through culture shape our brains. The leitmotiv of individuation through mimesis (sameness) and alterity (difference) runs through both parts. © 2012, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  13. The Ancestor Project: Aboriginal Computer Education through Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla; Biin, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the ANCESTOR program is to use digital storytelling as a means of promoting an interest in technology careers for Aboriginal learners, as well as increasing cultural literacy. A curriculum was developed and first tested with Aboriginal students at the LÁU,WELNEW Tribal School near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Based on feedback…

  14. Phylogenomic Reconstruction Indicates Mitochondrial Ancestor Was an Energy Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhang; Wu, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of mitochondrial ancestor has great impact on our understanding of the origin of mitochondria. Previous studies have largely focused on reconstructing the last common ancestor of all contemporary mitochondria (proto-mitochondria), but not on the more informative pre-mitochondria (the last common ancestor of mitochondria and their alphaproteobacterial sister clade). Using a phylogenomic approach and leveraging on the increased taxonomic sampling of alphaproteobacterial and eukaryotic genomes, we reconstructed the metabolisms of both proto-mitochondria and pre-mitochondria. Our reconstruction depicts a more streamlined proto-mitochondrion than these predicted by previous studies, and revealed several novel insights into the mitochondria-derived eukaryotic metabolisms including the lipid metabolism. Most strikingly, pre-mitochondrion was predicted to possess a plastid/parasite type of ATP/ADP translocase that imports ATP from the host, which posits pre-mitochondrion as an energy parasite that directly contrasts with the current role of mitochondria as the cell’s energy producer. In addition, pre-mitochondrion was predicted to encode a large number of flagellar genes and several cytochrome oxidases functioning under low oxygen level, strongly supporting the previous finding that the mitochondrial ancestor was likely motile and capable of oxidative phosphorylation under microoxic condition. PMID:25333787

  15. Phylogenomic reconstruction indicates mitochondrial ancestor was an energy parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wang

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of mitochondrial ancestor has great impact on our understanding of the origin of mitochondria. Previous studies have largely focused on reconstructing the last common ancestor of all contemporary mitochondria (proto-mitochondria, but not on the more informative pre-mitochondria (the last common ancestor of mitochondria and their alphaproteobacterial sister clade. Using a phylogenomic approach and leveraging on the increased taxonomic sampling of alphaproteobacterial and eukaryotic genomes, we reconstructed the metabolisms of both proto-mitochondria and pre-mitochondria. Our reconstruction depicts a more streamlined proto-mitochondrion than these predicted by previous studies, and revealed several novel insights into the mitochondria-derived eukaryotic metabolisms including the lipid metabolism. Most strikingly, pre-mitochondrion was predicted to possess a plastid/parasite type of ATP/ADP translocase that imports ATP from the host, which posits pre-mitochondrion as an energy parasite that directly contrasts with the current role of mitochondria as the cell's energy producer. In addition, pre-mitochondrion was predicted to encode a large number of flagellar genes and several cytochrome oxidases functioning under low oxygen level, strongly supporting the previous finding that the mitochondrial ancestor was likely motile and capable of oxidative phosphorylation under microoxic condition.

  16. The mitochondrial ancestor of bonobos and the origin of their major haplogroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Takemoto

    Full Text Available We report here where the most recent common ancestor (MRCA of bonobos (Pan paniscus ranged and how they dispersed throughout their current habitat. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA molecular dating to analyze the time to MRCA (TMRCA and the major mtDNA haplogroups of wild bonobos were performed using new estimations of divergence time of bonobos from other Pan species to investigate the dispersal routes of bonobos over the forest area of the Congo River's left bank. The TMRCA of bonobos was estimated to be 0.64 or 0.95 million years ago (Ma. Six major haplogroups had very old origins of 0.38 Ma or older. The reconstruction of the ancestral area revealed the mitochondrial ancestor of the bonobo populations ranged in the eastern area of the current bonobos' habitat. The haplogroups may have been formed from either the riparian forests along the Congo River or the center of the southern Congo Basin. Fragmentation of the forest refugia during the cooler periods may have greatly affected the formation of the genetic structure of bonobo populations.

  17. Fine-scale phylogenetic structure and major events in the history of the current wild soybean (Glycine soja) and taxonomic assignment of semi-wild type (Glycine gracilis Skvortz.) within the Chinese subgenus Soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Jing; Li, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Wild and cultivated species of soybeans have coexisted for 5000 years in China. Despite this long history, there is very little information on the genetic relationship of Glycine soja and G. max. To gain insight into the major events in the history of the subgenus Soja, we examined 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers of a large number of accessions (910). The results showed no significant differences between wild and semi-wild soybeans in genetic diversity but significant differences between G. soja and G. max. Ancestry and cluster analyses revealed that semi-wild soybeans should belong to the wild category and not to G. max. Our results also showed that differentiation had occurred not only among G. soja, G. gracilis, and G. max but also within G. soja and within G. gracilis. Glycine soja had 3 clear genetic categories: typical small-seeded (≤2.0 g 100-seed weight), dual-origin middle-seeded (2.0-2.5 g), and large-seeded plants (2.51-3.0 g). These last were genetically close to G. gracilis, their defining some traits having been acquired mainly by introgression from soybeans. Small-seeded G. gracilis (3.01-3.5 g) were genetically different from larger seeded ones (from 3.51 to 4.0 to over 10 g). Seed size predominated over seed coat color in evolutionary degree. Typical and large-seeded G. soja were found to have 0.7% and 12% introgressive cultivar genes, respectively. The genetic boundary of G. gracilis was at the range of 2.51-3.0 g of G. soja. In the great majority of wild accessions, traits such as white flowers, gray pubescences, no-seed bloom, and colored seed coats were likely introgressive from domesticated soybeans.

  18. Ancestor worship in Korea and Africa: Social function or religious phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Sup Bae

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ancestor worship is a dilemma for Christian communities� in Korea and Africa, who have difficulty adapting Western theology to their Third World cultures. Allan Culpepper calls� ancestor worship a cultural phenomenon, not a hindrance to the Gospel message, which this article refutes. Ancestor worship is religious rather� than social in function. Common features of ancestor worship in Africa and Korea are 1 conventional� superstition (shamanism in Korea, animism in Africa, 2 belief in immortality, and� 3 ancestor veneration/filial piety. Theological assessment reveals the incompatibility of ancestor worship with Christianity. 1� Fear of ancestors is replaced by liberation� in Christ. 2 The dead exist in a mode completely different to earthly existence and have no power in the world. 3 Ancestors cannot fulfil the intermediary role reserved for the Holy Spirit. Ancestor worship should� be viewed as idol worship. Contextualisation of kerygma becomes distorted when religious pluralism is tolerated.

  19. Deciding Termination for Ancestor Match- Bounded String Rewriting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geser, Alfons; Hofbauer, Dieter; Waldmann, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Termination of a string rewriting system can be characterized by termination on suitable recursively defined languages. This kind of termination criteria has been criticized for its lack of automation. In an earlier paper we have shown how to construct an automated termination criterion if the recursion is aligned with the rewrite relation. We have demonstrated the technique with Dershowitz's forward closure criterion. In this paper we show that a different approach is suitable when the recursion is aligned with the inverse of the rewrite relation. We apply this idea to Kurth's ancestor graphs and obtain ancestor match-bounded string rewriting systems. Termination is shown to be decidable for this class. The resulting method improves upon those based on match-boundedness or inverse match-boundedness.

  20. Aplacophoran mollusks evolved from ancestors with polyplacophoran-like features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherholz, Maik; Redl, Emanuel; Wollesen, Tim; Todt, Christiane; Wanninger, Andreas

    2013-11-04

    Mollusca is an animal phylum with vast morphological diversity and includes worm-shaped aplacophorans, snails, bivalves, and the complex cephalopods. The interrelationships of these class-level taxa are still contentious, but recent phylogenomic analyses suggest a dichotomy at the base of Mollusca, resulting in a monophyletic Aculifera (comprising the shell-less, sclerite-bearing aplacophorans and the eight-shelled polyplacophorans) and Conchifera (all other, primarily univalved groups). The Aculifera concept has recently gained support via description of the fossil Kulindroplax, which shows both aplacophoran- and polyplacophoran-like features and suggests that the aplacophorans originated from a shelled ancestor, but the overall morphology of the last common aculiferan ancestor remains obscure. Here we show that larvae of the aplacophoran Wirenia argentea have several sets of muscles previously known only from polyplacophoran mollusks. Most of these are lost during metamorphosis, and we interpret them as ontogenetic remnants of an ancestor with a complex, polyplacophoran-like musculature. Moreover, we find that the first seven pairs of dorsoventral muscles develop synchronously in Wirenia, similar to juvenile polyplacophorans, which supports the conclusions based on the seven-shelled Kulindroplax. Accordingly, we argue that the simple body plan of recent aplacophorans is the result of simplification and does not represent a basal molluscan condition. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Have somatic parameters of wild Equidae in captivity been changing?

    OpenAIRE

    NOVOTNÁ, Adéla

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, physiological, and morphological changes commonly occurred to animals under domestication distinguish domestic animals from their wild ancestors. Similar changes on some wild animals kept in captivity (zoological gardens) can also be observed. This diploma thesis concerns these morphological changes on a skeleton of Equidae. For several species and subspecies of this family some osteometric data received from those kept in captivity are compared to those from the wild. A more deta...

  2. node.dating: dating ancestors in phylogenetic trees in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bradley R; Poon, Art F Y

    2017-03-15

    Phylogenetic trees encode the evolutionary distances between species or populations. With sufficient information, these evolutionary distances can be rescaled over time to provide estimates of the dates of the most recent ancestors of the species. Here we present the R program node.dating, divergence-time analysis software, which uses a maximum-likelihood method to estimate the dates of the internal nodes of a phylogenetic tree. node.dating is available as a part of the R v3.30 package ape v4.0 (cran.r-project.org). node.dating is also available in the GitHub repository: https://github.com/brj1/node.dating , along with supplementary software and tests. brj1@sfu.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Ontogeny of the maxilla in Neanderthals and their ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Stringer, Chris; Godinho, Ricardo Miguel; Warshaw, Johanna; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Tellez, Ana; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-12-07

    Neanderthals had large and projecting (prognathic) faces similar to those of their putative ancestors from Sima de los Huesos (SH) and different from the retracted modern human face. When such differences arose during development and the morphogenetic modifications involved are unknown. We show that maxillary growth remodelling (bone formation and resorption) of the Devil's Tower (Gibraltar 2) and La Quina 18 Neanderthals and four SH hominins, all sub-adults, show extensive bone deposition, whereas in modern humans extensive osteoclastic bone resorption is found in the same regions. This morphogenetic difference is evident by ∼5 years of age. Modern human faces are distinct from those of the Neanderthal and SH fossils in part because their postnatal growth processes differ markedly. The growth remodelling identified in these fossil hominins is shared with Australopithecus and early Homo but not with modern humans suggesting that the modern human face is developmentally derived.

  4. Before the dawn recovering the lost history of our ancestors

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Nicholas Wade’s articles are a major reason why the science section has become the most popular, nationwide, in the New York Times. In his groundbreaking Before the Dawn, Wade reveals humanity’s origins as never before—a journey made possible only recently by genetic science, whose incredible findings have answered such questions as: What was the first human language like? How large were the first societies, and how warlike were they? When did our ancestors first leave Africa, and by what route did they leave? By eloquently solving these and numerous other mysteries, Wade offers nothing less than a uniquely complete retelling of a story that began 500 centuries ago.

  5. Ontogeny of the maxilla in Neanderthals and their ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Bromage, Timothy G.; O'Higgins, Paul; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Stringer, Chris; Godinho, Ricardo Miguel; Warshaw, Johanna; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Tellez, Ana; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Neanderthals had large and projecting (prognathic) faces similar to those of their putative ancestors from Sima de los Huesos (SH) and different from the retracted modern human face. When such differences arose during development and the morphogenetic modifications involved are unknown. We show that maxillary growth remodelling (bone formation and resorption) of the Devil's Tower (Gibraltar 2) and La Quina 18 Neanderthals and four SH hominins, all sub-adults, show extensive bone deposition, whereas in modern humans extensive osteoclastic bone resorption is found in the same regions. This morphogenetic difference is evident by ∼5 years of age. Modern human faces are distinct from those of the Neanderthal and SH fossils in part because their postnatal growth processes differ markedly. The growth remodelling identified in these fossil hominins is shared with Australopithecus and early Homo but not with modern humans suggesting that the modern human face is developmentally derived. PMID:26639346

  6. Wild harvest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  7. The changing moral economy of ancestor worship in a Chinese emigrant district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, K K

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes the reciprocal influences between Anxi County Fujianese, whose families and clans have migrated to Singapore, and their ancestral villages in Fujian, China. The Singaporeans bring wealth and cultural capital to their poor relations in rural China. Their participation is crucial for local socioeconomic development. Besides bringing material support and globalizing values and lifestyles, they also reinvigorate and transform the local religious tradition. They, in turn, reaffirm and even remake their own ethnic and regional identity. The complex outcome illustrates the fact that China's social change under economic reforms and global influence is, in its huge rural core, not merely a matter of infrastructural, market, and social welfare improvements, but involves exchange and transformation in meanings of rituals and experiences. We can see that kinship and religion are not unchanging aspects of the cultural tradition that are separate from programs of modernity. Indeed, modernity and tradition appear to be inseparable, and they may reveal that the recipe for effective community projects requires a vital tie between cultural, social, and interpersonal processes.

  8. Extensive intron gain in the ancestor of placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide studies of intron dynamics in mammalian orthologous genes have found convincing evidence for loss of introns but very little for intron turnover. Similarly, large-scale analysis of intron dynamics in a few vertebrate genomes has identified only intron losses and no gains, indicating that intron gain is an extremely rare event in vertebrate evolution. These studies suggest that the intron-rich genomes of vertebrates do not allow intron gain. The aim of this study was to search for evidence of de novo intron gain in domesticated genes from an analysis of their exon/intron structures. Results A phylogenomic approach has been used to analyse all domesticated genes in mammals and chordates that originated from the coding parts of transposable elements. Gain of introns in domesticated genes has been reconstructed on well established mammalian, vertebrate and chordate phylogenies, and examined as to where and when the gain events occurred. The locations, sizes and amounts of de novo introns gained in the domesticated genes during the evolution of mammals and chordates has been analyzed. A significant amount of intron gain was found only in domesticated genes of placental mammals, where more than 70 cases were identified. De novo gained introns show clear positional bias, since they are distributed mainly in 5' UTR and coding regions, while 3' UTR introns are very rare. In the coding regions of some domesticated genes up to 8 de novo gained introns have been found. Intron densities in Eutheria-specific domesticated genes and in older domesticated genes that originated early in vertebrates are lower than those for normal mammalian and vertebrate genes. Surprisingly, the majority of intron gains have occurred in the ancestor of placentals. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence for numerous intron gains in the ancestor of placental mammals and demonstrates that adequate taxon sampling is crucial for reconstructing intron evolution. The

  9. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  10. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzoni, F; Pagel, M; Reeb, V

    2001-06-21

    About one-fifth of all known extant fungal species form obligate symbiotic associations with green algae, cyanobacteria or with both photobionts. These symbioses, known as lichens, are one way for fungi to meet their requirement for carbohydrates. Lichens are widely believed to have arisen independently on several occasions, accounting for the high diversity and mixed occurrence of lichenized and non-lichenized (42 and 58%, respectively) fungal species within the Ascomycota. Depending on the taxonomic classification chosen, 15-18 orders of the Ascomycota include lichen-forming taxa, and 8-11 of these orders (representing about 60% of the Ascomycota species) contain both lichenized and non-lichenized species. Here we report a phylogenetic comparative analysis of the Ascomycota, a phylum that includes greater than 98% of known lichenized fungal species. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic tree sampling methodology combined with a statistical model of trait evolution, we take into account uncertainty about the phylogenetic tree and ancestral state reconstructions. Our results show that lichens evolved earlier than believed, and that gains of lichenization have been infrequent during Ascomycota evolution, but have been followed by multiple independent losses of the lichen symbiosis. As a consequence, major Ascomycota lineages of exclusively non-lichen-forming species are derived from lichen-forming ancestors. These species include taxa with important benefits and detriments to humans, such as Penicillium and Aspergillus.

  11. Wild Yam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laboratory into various steroids, such as estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). The root and the bulb of the plant ... wild yam and diosgenin promoted as a “natural DHEA.” This is because in the laboratory DHEA is ...

  12. Bayesian inference of sampled ancestor trees for epidemiology and fossil calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavryushkina, Alexandra; Welch, David; Stadler, Tanja; Drummond, Alexei J

    2014-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses which include fossils or molecular sequences that are sampled through time require models that allow one sample to be a direct ancestor of another sample. As previously available phylogenetic inference tools assume that all samples are tips, they do not allow for this possibility. We have developed and implemented a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm to infer what we call sampled ancestor trees, that is, trees in which sampled individuals can be direct ancestors of other sampled individuals. We use a family of birth-death models where individuals may remain in the tree process after sampling, in particular we extend the birth-death skyline model [Stadler et al., 2013] to sampled ancestor trees. This method allows the detection of sampled ancestors as well as estimation of the probability that an individual will be removed from the process when it is sampled. We show that even if sampled ancestors are not of specific interest in an analysis, failing to account for them leads to significant bias in parameter estimates. We also show that sampled ancestor birth-death models where every sample comes from a different time point are non-identifiable and thus require one parameter to be known in order to infer other parameters. We apply our phylogenetic inference accounting for sampled ancestors to epidemiological data, where the possibility of sampled ancestors enables us to identify individuals that infected other individuals after being sampled and to infer fundamental epidemiological parameters. We also apply the method to infer divergence times and diversification rates when fossils are included along with extant species samples, so that fossilisation events are modelled as a part of the tree branching process. Such modelling has many advantages as argued in the literature. The sampler is available as an open-source BEAST2 package (https://github.com/CompEvol/sampled-ancestors).

  13. Constitutive heterologous overexpression of a TIR-NB-ARC-LRR gene encoding a putative disease resistance protein from wild Chinese Vitis pseudoreticulata in Arabidopsis and tobacco enhances resistance to phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifeng; Yao, Liping; Singer, Stacy D; Muhammad, Hanif; Li, Zhi; Wang, Xiping

    2017-03-01

    Plants use resistance (R) proteins to detect pathogen effector proteins and activate their innate immune response against the pathogen. The majority of these proteins contain an NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R proteins, and CED-4) domain along with a leucine-rich repeat (LRR), and some also bear a toll interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a TIR-NB-ARC-LRR R protein (VpTNL1) (GenBank accession number KX649890) from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession "Baihe-35-1", which was identified previously from a transcriptomic analysis of leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (PM; Erysiphe necator (Schw.)). The VpTNL1 transcript was found to be highly induced in V. pseudoreticulata following inoculation with E. necator, as well as treatment with salicylic acid (SA). Sequence analysis demonstrated that the deduced amino acid sequence contained a TIR domain at the N-terminus, along with an NB-ARC and four LRRs domains within the C-terminus. Constitutive expression of VpTNL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type or dwarf phenotype. Intriguingly, the phenotypically normal transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to Arabidopsis PM, Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Similarly, constitutive expression of VpTNL1 in Nicotiana tabacum was found to confer enhanced resistance to tobacco PM, Erysiphe cichoacearum DC. Subsequent isolation of the VpTNL1 promoter and deletion analysis indicated that TC-rich repeats and TCA elements likely play an important role in its response to E. necator and SA treatment, respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that VpTNL1 contributes to PM resistance in grapevine and provide an interesting gene target for the future amelioration of grape via breeding and/or biotechnology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A new theory for the distribution of ancestors in biparental reproduction species

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, M

    2011-01-01

    To calculate the number of ancestor of one individual from any biparental reproduction specie is necessary to use an statistical approach. It's not possible to build the progenitor's tree only assuming that the spice has a sexual biparental reproduction. In particular it not true that the simple progression of $2^{t+1}$ describes in a realistic way the number of ancestors after a few generations. The reason is that when we go back in generations the probability of some ancestors been relatives has an increase. This implies a restriction in the ancestor's mean number respect of $2^{t+1}$. Although this number correspond to the maximum ancestor's number in the $t$-generation. Considering the possibility of blood relationship between the ancestors, we show how to re-build the progenitor's tree by modeling our problem with a Markov's Chain. First we work in a continuous time variable and then by doing a discretization process we obteined the ancestor's distribution. Using covariant derivative in a proper way we n...

  15. Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali wild ass provides insights into donkey ancestry and domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Birgitta; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Shanyuan; Rosenbom, Sónia; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Tuross, Noreen; Sabin, Richard C.; Peters, Joris; Barich, Barbara; Yohannes, Hagos; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data from extant donkeys (Equus asinus) have revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, suggestive of two separate domestication events in northeast Africa about 5000 years ago. Without distinct phylogeographic structure in domestic donkey haplogroups and with little information on the genetic makeup of the ancestral African wild ass, however, it has been difficult to identify wild ancestors and geographical origins for the domestic mitochondrial clades. Our analysis of ancient archaeological and historic museum samples provides the first genetic information on the historic Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus), Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) and ancient donkey. The results demonstrate that the Nubian wild ass was an ancestor of the first donkey haplogroup. In contrast, the Somali wild ass has considerable mitochondrial divergence from the Nubian wild ass and domestic donkeys. These findings resolve the long-standing issue of the role of the Nubian wild ass in the domestication of the donkey, but raise new questions regarding the second ancestor for the donkey. Our results illustrate the complexity of animal domestication, and have conservation implications for critically endangered Nubian and Somali wild ass. PMID:20667880

  16. Wild immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Amy B; Babayan, Simon A

    2011-03-01

    In wild populations, individuals are regularly exposed to a wide range of pathogens. In this context, organisms must elicit and regulate effective immune responses to protect their health while avoiding immunopathology. However, most of our knowledge about the function and dynamics of immune responses comes from laboratory studies performed on inbred mice in highly controlled environments with limited exposure to infection. Natural populations, on the other hand, exhibit wide genetic and environmental diversity. We argue that now is the time for immunology to be taken into the wild. The goal of 'wild immunology' is to link immune phenotype with host fitness in natural environments. To achieve this requires relevant measures of immune responsiveness that are both applicable to the host-parasite interaction under study and robustly associated with measures of host and parasite fitness. Bringing immunology to nonmodel organisms and linking that knowledge host fitness, and ultimately population dynamics, will face difficult challenges, both technical (lack of reagents and annotated genomes) and statistical (variation among individuals and populations). However, the affordability of new genomic technologies will help immunologists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists work together to translate and test our current knowledge of immune mechanisms in natural systems. From this approach, ecologists will gain new insight into mechanisms relevant to host health and fitness, while immunologists will be given a measure of the real-world health impacts of the immune factors they study. Thus, wild immunology can be the missing link between laboratory-based immunology and human, wildlife and domesticated animal health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Ancestors 1.0: a web server for ancestral sequence reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Abdoulaye Banire; Makarenkov, Vladimir; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    The computational inference of ancestral genomes consists of five difficult steps: identifying syntenic regions, inferring ancestral arrangement of syntenic regions, aligning multiple sequences, reconstructing the insertion and deletion history and finally inferring substitutions. Each of these steps have received lot of attention in the past years. However, there currently exists no framework that integrates all of the different steps in an easy workflow. Here, we introduce Ancestors 1.0, a web server allowing one to easily and quickly perform the last three steps of the ancestral genome reconstruction procedure. It implements several alignment algorithms, an indel maximum likelihood solver and a context-dependent maximum likelihood substitution inference algorithm. The results presented by the server include the posterior probabilities for the last two steps of the ancestral genome reconstruction and the expected error rate of each ancestral base prediction. The Ancestors 1.0 is available at http://ancestors.bioinfo.uqam.ca/ancestorWeb/.

  18. Ancestors in Borneo Societies. Death, Transformation and Social Immortality, Pascal Couderc & Kenneth Sillander, ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guerreiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The volume Ancestors in Borneo Societies, edited by P. Couderc and K. Sillander assembles a series of ethnographically grounded studies. This book, stemming for a panel organized at the 8th Borneo Research Council Biennal Conference in Kuching, Sarawak (July 2006, adresses important questions relating to the ancestor cult and generally the conceptualization of ancestry on the island. As the subtitle to the book indicates (Death, Transformation and Social Immortality, the contributions explo...

  19. Ancestors in Borneo Societies. Death, Transformation and Social Immortality, Pascal Couderc & Kenneth Sillander, ed.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Guerreiro

    2013-01-01

    The volume Ancestors in Borneo Societies, edited by P. Couderc and K. Sillander assembles a series of ethnographically grounded studies. This book, stemming for a panel organized at the 8th Borneo Research Council Biennal Conference in Kuching, Sarawak (July 2006), adresses important questions relating to the ancestor cult and generally the conceptualization of ancestry on the island. As the subtitle to the book indicates (Death, Transformation and Social Immortality), the contributions explo...

  20. Identification of key ancestors of modern germplasm in a breeding program of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, F; Schrag, T A; Schipprack, W; Melchinger, A E

    2014-12-01

    Probabilities of gene origin computed from the genomic kinships matrix can accurately identify key ancestors of modern germplasms Identifying the key ancestors of modern plant breeding populations can provide valuable insights into the history of a breeding program and provide reference genomes for next generation whole genome sequencing. In an animal breeding context, a method was developed that employs probabilities of gene origin, computed from the pedigree-based additive kinship matrix, for identifying key ancestors. Because reliable and complete pedigree information is often not available in plant breeding, we replaced the additive kinship matrix with the genomic kinship matrix. As a proof-of-concept, we applied this approach to simulated data sets with known ancestries. The relative contribution of the ancestral lines to later generations could be determined with high accuracy, with and without selection. Our method was subsequently used for identifying the key ancestors of the modern Dent germplasm of the public maize breeding program of the University of Hohenheim. We found that the modern germplasm can be traced back to six or seven key ancestors, with one or two of them having a disproportionately large contribution. These results largely corroborated conjectures based on early records of the breeding program. We conclude that probabilities of gene origin computed from the genomic kinships matrix can be used for identifying key ancestors in breeding programs and estimating the proportion of genes contributed by them.

  1. Lack of polymorphism at MC1R wild-type allele and evidence of domestic allele introgression across European wild boar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canu, Antonio; Vilaça, Sibelle T.; Iacolina, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Domestication promotes the emergence of novel phenotypic and behavioural traits in domesticated animals compared to their wild ancestors. We analysed variation at the melanocortin receptor I (MC1R) and nuclear receptor subfamily 6, group A, member 1 (NR6A1) genes in European wild boar populations...... of hybridization between wild and domestic forms. Most of the wild boars (94%) were homozygous for the European wild-type (E+) MC1R allele. We did not observe any synonymous substitution in the European E+ allele, confirming its monomorphism even in areas known to be hotspots of wild boar genetic diversity....... The remaining wild boars (6%) showed genetic introgression of three different European domestic alleles. No Asian MC1R allele was found in our sample. Furthermore, domestic NR6A1 alleles were observed in 6% of wild boars. Considering jointly the two loci analyzed, 11% of boars, sampled all over Europe, showed...

  2. On the tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee last common ancestor, and the origins of hominine stone tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Michael

    2014-10-01

    The last common ancestor (LCA) shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus) was an Early Pleistocene African ape, which, based on the behavior of modern chimpanzees, may be assumed to be a tool-using animal. However, the character of tool use in the Pan lineage prior to the 20th century is largely unknown. Here, I use available data on wild bonobo tool use and emerging molecular estimates of demography during Pan evolution to hypothesise the plausible tool use behavior of the bonobo-chimpanzee LCA (or "Pancestor") at the start of the Pleistocene, over 2 million years ago. This method indicates that the common ancestor of living Pan apes likely used plant tools for probing, sponging, and display, but it did not use stone tools. Instead, stone tool use appears to have been independently invented by Western African chimpanzees (P. t. verus) during the Middle Pleistocene in the region of modern Liberia-Ivory Coast-Guinea, possibly as recently as 200,000-150,000 years ago. If this is the case, then the LCA of humans and chimpanzees likely also did not use stone tools, and this trait probably first emerged among hominins in Pliocene East Africa. This review also suggests that the consistently higher population sizes of Central African chimpanzees (P. t. troglodytes) over the past million years may have contributed to the increased complexity of wild tool use seen in this sub-species today. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mind your elders: wild soybean’s contribution to soybean aphid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, biotype 4 soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsamura, SBA) is the most virulent SBA biotype. Overcoming the most aphid resistant genes, SBA biotype 4 has become the greatest challenge in utilizing plant resistance in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Soybean’s wild ancestor Glycine soja (Sie...

  4. Traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions in delusions and hallucinations of Chinese schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kam-Shing

    2003-06-01

    Religious beliefs and superstitions have an important impact on the psychopathology of psychiatric patients. Traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions, such as fortune telling, Buddhist gods, Taoist gods, historical heroic gods and ancestor worship, have important influence on subjective psychotic experiences, in particular delusions and hallucinations. By means of empirical phenomenological case narration, the writer shows that all these traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitions tend to affect the contents, manifestation and meaningfulness of delusion and hallucination. They also serve as a means to replace clients' self-identity. They appear in the form of a supernatural force to resolve all difficulties, cause of troubles and misfortune, stress and coping mechanisms.

  5. The Cult of Ancestors: A Focal Point for Prayers in African Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    The Cult of Ancestors: A Focal Point for Prayers in African. Traditional Communities. Ezenweke, Elizabeth Onyedinma. Religion & Human Relations. Faculty of Arts,. Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Introduction. The spiritual world of Africa peoples is very densely populated with spiritual beings; spirits and the living- dead ...

  6. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Cornelisse, D.; Zhang, Y.; Li, H.; Bruning, B.; Katschnig, D.; Broekman, R.A.; Ji, B.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and

  7. Re-imagining family and gender roles in Aminatta Forna's Ancestor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aminatta Forna's Ancestor Stones (2006) is read in order to explore how the institution of polygyny changes over time and how it influences gender role negotiation. Using an African feminist approach, the paper juxtaposes the historical and contemporary institution of polygyny in relation to gender role negotiation and how ...

  8. The Waikato river: Changing properties of a living Māori ancestor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van

    2015-01-01

    In Māori cosmology, rivers and other waterways are conceptualised as living ancestors, who have their own life force and spiritual strength. The special status of rivers in Māori society also explains why they are sometimes separated from other Māori claims to natural resources of which they were

  9. The evolutionary history of protein fold families and proteomes confirms that the archaeal ancestor is more ancient than the ancestors of other superkingdoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung Mo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entire evolutionary history of life can be studied using myriad sequences generated by genomic research. This includes the appearance of the first cells and of superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. However, the use of molecular sequence information for deep phylogenetic analyses is limited by mutational saturation, differential evolutionary rates, lack of sequence site independence, and other biological and technical constraints. In contrast, protein structures are evolutionary modules that are highly conserved and diverse enough to enable deep historical exploration. Results Here we build phylogenies that describe the evolution of proteins and proteomes. These phylogenetic trees are derived from a genomic census of protein domains defined at the fold family (FF level of structural classification. Phylogenomic trees of FF structures were reconstructed from genomic abundance levels of 2,397 FFs in 420 proteomes of free-living organisms. These trees defined timelines of domain appearance, with time spanning from the origin of proteins to the present. Timelines are divided into five different evolutionary phases according to patterns of sharing of FFs among superkingdoms: (1 a primordial protein world, (2 reductive evolution and the rise of Archaea, (3 the rise of Bacteria from the common ancestor of Bacteria and Eukarya and early development of the three superkingdoms, (4 the rise of Eukarya and widespread organismal diversification, and (5 eukaryal diversification. The relative ancestry of the FFs shows that reductive evolution by domain loss is dominant in the first three phases and is responsible for both the diversification of life from a universal cellular ancestor and the appearance of superkingdoms. On the other hand, domain gains are predominant in the last two phases and are responsible for organismal diversification, especially in Bacteria and Eukarya. Conclusions The evolution of functions that are

  10. The evolutionary history of the hominin hand since the last common ancestor of Pan and Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocheri, Matthew W; Orr, Caley M; Jacofsky, Marc C; Marzke, Mary W

    2008-01-01

    Molecular evidence indicates that the last common ancestor of the genus Pan and the hominin clade existed between 8 and 4 million years ago (Ma). The current fossil record indicates the Pan-Homo last common ancestor existed at least 5 Ma and most likely between 6 and 7 Ma. Together, the molecular and fossil evidence has important consequences for interpreting the evolutionary history of the hand within the tribe Hominini (hominins). Firstly, parsimony supports the hypothesis that the hand of the last common ancestor most likely resembled that of an extant great ape overall (Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo), and that of an African ape in particular. Second, it provides a context for interpreting the derived changes to the hand that have evolved in various hominins. For example, the Australopithecus afarensis hand is likely derived in comparison with that of the Pan–Homo last common ancestor in having shorter fingers relative to thumb length and more proximo-distally oriented joints between its capitate, second metacarpal, and trapezium. This evidence suggests that these derived features evolved prior to the intensification of stone tool-related hominin behaviors beginning around 2.5 Ma. However, a majority of primitive features most likely present in the Pan-Homo last common ancestor are retained in the hands of Australopithecus, Paranthropus/early Homo, and Homo floresiensis. This evidence suggests that further derived changes to the hands of other hominins such as modern humans and Neandertals did not evolve until after 2.5 Ma and possibly even later than 1.5 Ma, which is currently the earliest evidence of Acheulian technology. The derived hands of modern humans and Neandertals may indicate a morphological commitment to tool-related manipulative behaviors beyond that observed in other hominins, including those (e.g. H. floresiensis) which may be descended from earlier tool-making species. PMID:18380869

  11. Wilde?s worlds: Sir William Wilde in Victorian Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    McGeachie, J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Other contributors to this collection have evoked the disparate worlds inhabited by Sir William Wilde. Aims To provide an overall assessment of his career. Materials and methods Looking at the historical conditions that made possible such a career spanning such disparate worlds. Deploying methodologies developed by historians of medicine and sociologists of science, the article brings together Wilde the nineteenth century clinician and Dublin man of science, the Wilde of the Cens...

  12. Identifying and Tracing the Stellar Mass Growth of Brightest Cluster Galaxy Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Kevin C.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Tyler, Krystal; COSMOS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The most massive galaxies in the present-day universe are the Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs), which formed through a complex process of mergers and star formation episodes yet to be fully understood. The age and high total mass of their stellar populations hint toward intense star formation episodes long ago, with the further delivery of additional stars through galaxy mergers. To investigate when this high redshift in-situ mass growth occurs, I use the constant and evolving number density methods to identify progenitors of low redshift BCGs. I use publically available multiwavelength observations from the COSMOS survey to construct a SED for each ancestor candidate, which is then fit to stellar, dust, and AGN models when appropriate. By tracing the specific star formation and stellar mass of BCG ancestors in the early universe, we gain a new understanding of when the largest individual structures in the universe formed their stars.

  13. RNase MRP and the RNA processing cascade in the eukaryotic ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Michael D; Stadler, Peter F; Penny, David; Collins, Lesley J

    2007-02-08

    Within eukaryotes there is a complex cascade of RNA-based macromolecules that process other RNA molecules, especially mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. An example is RNase MRP processing ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in ribosome biogenesis. One hypothesis is that this complexity was present early in eukaryotic evolution; an alternative is that an initial simpler network later gained complexity by gene duplication in lineages that led to animals, fungi and plants. Recently there has been a rapid increase in support for the complexity-early theory because the vast majority of these RNA-processing reactions are found throughout eukaryotes, and thus were likely to be present in the last common ancestor of living eukaryotes, herein called the Eukaryotic Ancestor. We present an overview of the RNA processing cascade in the Eukaryotic Ancestor and investigate in particular, RNase MRP which was previously thought to have evolved later in eukaryotes due to its apparent limited distribution in fungi and animals and plants. Recent publications, as well as our own genomic searches, find previously unknown RNase MRP RNAs, indicating that RNase MRP has a wide distribution in eukaryotes. Combining secondary structure and promoter region analysis of RNAs for RNase MRP, along with analysis of the target substrate (rRNA), allows us to discuss this distribution in the light of eukaryotic evolution. We conclude that RNase MRP can now be placed in the RNA-processing cascade of the Eukaryotic Ancestor, highlighting the complexity of RNA-processing in early eukaryotes. Promoter analyses of MRP-RNA suggest that regulation of the critical processes of rRNA cleavage can vary, showing that even these key cellular processes (for which we expect high conservation) show some species-specific variability. We present our consensus MRP-RNA secondary structure as a useful model for further searches.

  14. The great divides: Ardipithecus ramidus reveals the postcrania of our last common ancestors with African apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, C Owen; Suwa, Gen; Simpson, Scott W; Matternes, Jay H; White, Tim D

    2009-10-02

    Genomic comparisons have established the chimpanzee and bonobo as our closest living relatives. However, the intricacies of gene regulation and expression caution against the use of these extant apes in deducing the anatomical structure of the last common ancestor that we shared with them. Evidence for this structure must therefore be sought from the fossil record. Until now, that record has provided few relevant data because available fossils were too recent or too incomplete. Evidence from Ardipithecus ramidus now suggests that the last common ancestor lacked the hand, foot, pelvic, vertebral, and limb structures and proportions specialized for suspension, vertical climbing, and knuckle-walking among extant African apes. If this hypothesis is correct, each extant African ape genus must have independently acquired these specializations from more generalized ancestors who still practiced careful arboreal climbing and bridging. African apes and hominids acquired advanced orthogrady in parallel. Hominoid spinal invagination is an embryogenetic mechanism that reoriented the shoulder girdle more laterally. It was unaccompanied by substantial lumbar spine abbreviation, an adaptation restricted to vertical climbing and/or suspension. The specialized locomotor anatomies and behaviors of chimpanzees and gorillas therefore constitute poor models for the origin and evolution of human bipedality.

  15. The vampire: Thwarted mythical ancestor and symbol of the thwarted male sexual potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Radulović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnographic literature from the late eighteenth and during the course of nineteenth and twentieth century, presents us with a diverse but insufficiently conceptualized notions based on which vampire could be discussed in the context of aberrant life, untypical death, or inadequate burial practice. The structure of ancestral cult, containing among other things ideas of the "nature" of interrelationships between the living and the dead, is only one of the constructions imitating the ideological discourse of old-fashioned cultural pattern, certain relations in the society and structural order. Relations between the living and the dead are limited to ones on the male side, implying the reciprocal obligation: on one hand, respect of the burial rituals and mourning determine the "posthumous destiny", as well as the obligation of sacrificial offerings to godly ancestors, on the other the requirement of ancestors to protect and watch over their descendants in return. In order to be able to reproduce at all a community must mind the deceased’s soul, i.e. prevent the possible demonization by properly observing the rituals. In that sense, notions of vampires and the devil are emblematic warnings of the fact that each deceased, necessarily, is not an ancestor, and that the ideal model of generational hierarchy and of awe sustained by the proclaimed old-fashioned relations is actually relative, that is to say the notions of vampires and the devil point to the split in generations and to the governing relations in an old-fashioned society. Directly dependant on the male descendents, aberrant life as well as the aberrant "posthumous destiny" are mechanisms for excluding from the social relations with the dead the ones that can not be given the status of ancestors, so we can conceive them as thwarted mythical ancestors. In the second part of the paper, I endeavored to demonstrate that the conceptions of masculinity could also be deconstructed through

  16. Responses to advanced cancer: Chinese-Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ying-Yu; Donoghue, Judith; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2005-12-01

    This paper describes a study identifying the impact of key aspects of Chinese culture on the responses of mid-aged Chinese-Australians to their advanced cancer in order to make recommendations about their care within the health system. Studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s focused on understanding people's psychological responses to their experiences of terminal illness, but the issue of culture was not addressed. In recent years, a few studies have been conducted with Chinese-Australians, but were limited to issues related to their information needs and the disclosure of a cancer diagnosis. There is a lack of understanding of the impact of Chinese culture on the experiences of these patients. A grounded theory approach was used to generate a substantive theory to explain how mid-aged Chinese-Australians respond to advancing cancer. Eleven participants were recruited and data were collected from face-to-face interviews, telephone contacts, observation and researcher field notes. Data generation occurred between 1997 and 1999. Four modes of response to advanced cancer were identified: acute crisis, combat, despondency and waiting for death. This paper deals particularly with the combat mode which incorporated five culturally specific strategies used by participants in their struggle against advanced cancer. These were traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese beliefs on the use of food for health maintenance, qi gong (a form of exercise), feng shui (which involves paying attention to spatial organization) and the worship of ancestors and gods. Deeply entrenched within these responses is the influence of Chinese culture, rooted in the beliefs and practices of traditional Chinese medicine and the philosophy of harmony and balance of yin and yang and qi. Health care professionals need to be aware of the cultural practices and beliefs of the different ethnic groups for whom they care, and of the importance of accommodation to and negotiation about these

  17. Unraveling Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Robert; McIntosh, Iweeta

    1979-01-01

    Presents a brief discussion of the Chinese language, its relevance to social studies students in the United States, methods of teaching and learning Chinese, romanization systems developed to help westerners pronounce and read phonetically, picture writing, and a directory of resource agencies and materials. (Author/DB)

  18. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  19. Transmission between Archaic and Modern Human Ancestors during the Evolution of the Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenoff, Ville N; de Oliveira, Cristina Mendes; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2017-01-01

    Every human suffers through life a number of papillomaviruses (PVs) infections, most of them asymptomatic. A notable exception are persistent infections by Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16), the most oncogenic infectious agent for humans and responsible for most infection-driven anogenital cancers. Oncogenic potential is not homogeneous among HPV16 lineages, and genetic variation within HPV16 exhibits some geographic structure. However, an in-depth analysis of the HPV16 evolutionary history was still wanting. We have analyzed extant HPV16 diversity and compared the evolutionary and phylogeographical patterns of humans and of HPV16. We show that codivergence with modern humans explains at most 30% of the present viral geographical distribution. The most explanatory scenario suggests that ancestral HPV16 already infected ancestral human populations and that viral lineages co-diverged with the hosts in parallel with the split between archaic Neanderthal-Denisovans and ancestral modern human populations, generating the ancestral HPV16A and HPV16BCD viral lineages, respectively. We propose that after out-of-Africa migration of modern human ancestors, sexual transmission between human populations introduced HPV16A into modern human ancestor populations. We hypothesize that differential coevolution of HPV16 lineages with different but closely related ancestral human populations and subsequent host-switch events in parallel with introgression of archaic alleles into the genomes of modern human ancestors may be largely responsible for the present-day differential prevalence and association with cancers for HPV16 variants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. The Potential for pathogenicity was present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete subphylum Pezizomycotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelen Kristof

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies in Ascomycetes have shown that the function of gene families of which the size is considerably larger in extant pathogens than in non-pathogens could be related to pathogenicity traits. However, by only comparing gene inventories in extant species, no insights can be gained into the evolutionary process that gave rise to these larger family sizes in pathogens. Moreover, most studies which consider gene families in extant species only tend to explain observed differences in gene family sizes by gains rather than by losses, hereby largely underestimating the impact of gene loss during genome evolution. Results In our study we used a selection of recently published genomes of Ascomycetes to analyze how gene family gains, duplications and losses have affected the origin of pathogenic traits. By analyzing the evolutionary history of gene families we found that most gene families with an enlarged size in pathogens were present in an ancestor common to both pathogens and non-pathogens. The majority of these families were selectively maintained in pathogenic lineages, but disappeared in non-pathogens. Non-pathogen-specific losses largely outnumbered pathogen-specific losses. Conclusions We conclude that most of the proteins for pathogenicity were already present in the ancestor of the Ascomycete lineages we used in our study. Species that did not develop pathogenicity seemed to have reduced their genetic complexity compared to their ancestors. We further show that expansion of gained or already existing families in a species-specific way is important to fine-tune the specificities of the pathogenic host-fungus interaction.

  1. Life cycle evolution: was the eumetazoan ancestor a holopelagic, planktotrophic gastraea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Claus

    2013-08-16

    Two theories for the origin of animal life cycles with planktotrophic larvae are now discussed seriously: The terminal addition theory proposes a holopelagic, planktotrophic gastraea as the ancestor of the eumetazoans with addition of benthic adult stages and retention of the planktotrophic stages as larvae, i.e. the ancestral life cycles were indirect. The intercalation theory now proposes a benthic, deposit-feeding gastraea as the bilaterian ancestor with a direct development, and with planktotrophic larvae evolving independently in numerous lineages through specializations of juveniles. Information from the fossil record, from mapping of developmental types onto known phylogenies, from occurrence of apical organs, and from genetics gives no direct information about the ancestral eumetazoan life cycle; however, there are plenty of examples of evolution from an indirect development to direct development, and no unequivocal example of evolution in the opposite direction. Analyses of scenarios for the two types of evolution are highly informative. The evolution of the indirect spiralian life cycle with a trochophora larva from a planktotrophic gastraea is explained by the trochophora theory as a continuous series of ancestors, where each evolutionary step had an adaptational advantage. The loss of ciliated larvae in the ecdysozoans is associated with the loss of outer ciliated epithelia. A scenario for the intercalation theory shows the origin of the planktotrophic larvae of the spiralians through a series of specializations of the general ciliation of the juvenile. The early steps associated with the enhancement of swimming seem probable, but the following steps which should lead to the complicated downstream-collecting ciliary system are without any advantage, or even seem disadvantageous, until the whole structure is functional. None of the theories account for the origin of the ancestral deuterostome (ambulacrarian) life cycle. All the available information is

  2. [The archaic pronunciation of materia medica from Central Plains in the Han dynasty retained in Chinese medicinal business in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Zhe; Cai, Gui-Hua

    2004-10-01

    Chinese traditional medicine took its root in Taiwan together with the culture of Central Plains since our ancestors traveled to Taiwan during the turn of the Ming-Qing dynasties. For 400 years, the profession of Chinese medicine continues to develop through the transmission from fathers to sons, from tutors to disciples. During our contacts with Chinese medicinal businessmen, we found that this routinely closed and time-honored profession retained the archaic pronunciation of materia medica from Central Plains in the Han dynasty. This is a living database for studying ancient Chinese language.

  3. Pseudogenization of the tooth gene enamelysin (MMP20) in the common ancestor of extant baleen whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Robert W.; Gatesy, John; Cheng, Joyce; Springer, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Whales in the suborder Mysticeti are filter feeders that use baleen to sift zooplankton and small fish from ocean waters. Adult mysticetes lack teeth, although tooth buds are present in foetal stages. Cladistic analyses suggest that functional teeth were lost in the common ancestor of crown-group Mysticeti. DNA sequences for the tooth-specific genes, ameloblastin (AMBN), enamelin (ENAM) and amelogenin (AMEL), have frameshift mutations and/or stop codons in this taxon, but none of these molecular cavities are shared by all extant mysticetes. Here, we provide the first evidence for pseudogenization of a tooth gene, enamelysin (MMP20), in the common ancestor of living baleen whales. Specifically, pseudogenization resulted from the insertion of a CHR-2 SINE retroposon in exon 2 of MMP20. Genomic and palaeontological data now provide congruent support for the loss of enamel-capped teeth on the common ancestral branch of crown-group mysticetes. The new data for MMP20 also document a polymorphic stop codon in exon 2 of the pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), which has enamel-less teeth. These results, in conjunction with the evidence for pseudogenization of MMP20 in Hoffmann's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni), another enamel-less species, support the hypothesis that the only unique, non-overlapping function of the MMP20 gene is in enamel formation. PMID:20861053

  4. Analyzing the rate at which languages lose the influence of a common ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Klein, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the rate at which languages change can clarify whether similarities across languages are solely the result of cognitive biases or might be partially due to descent from a common ancestor. To demonstrate this approach, we use a simple model of language evolution to mathematically determine how long it should take for the distribution over languages to lose the influence of a common ancestor and converge to a form that is determined by constraints on language learning. We show that modeling language learning as Bayesian inference of n binary parameters or the ordering of n constraints results in convergence in a number of generations that is on the order of n log n. We relax some of the simplifying assumptions of this model to explore how different assumptions about language evolution affect predictions about the time to convergence; in general, convergence time increases as the model becomes more realistic. This allows us to characterize the assumptions about language learning (given the models that we consider) that are sufficient for convergence to have taken place on a timescale that is consistent with the origin of human languages. These results clearly identify the consequences of a set of simple models of language evolution and show how analysis of convergence rates provides a tool that can be used to explore questions about the relationship between accounts of language learning and the origins of similarities across languages. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Turkish and Japanese Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineages share a remote common ancestor

    KAUST Repository

    Refregier, Guislaine

    2016-10-14

    Two geographically distant M. tuberculosis sublineages, Tur from Turkey and T3-Osaka from Japan, exhibit partially identical genotypic signatures (identical 12-loci MIRU-VNTR profiles, distinct spoligotyping patterns). We investigated T3-Osaka and Tur sublineages characteristics and potential genetic relatedness, first using MIRU-VNTR locus analysis on 21 and 25 samples of each sublineage respectively, and second comparing Whole Genome Sequences of 8 new samples to public data from 45 samples uncovering human tuberculosis diversity. We then tried to date their Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) using three calibrations of SNP accumulation rate (long-term = 0.03 SNP/genome/year, derived from a tuberculosis ancestor of around 70,000 years old; intermediate = 0.2 SNP/genome/year derived from a Peruvian mummy; short-term = 0.5 SNP/genome/year). To disentangle between these scenarios, we confronted the corresponding divergence times with major human history events and knowledge on human genetic divergence. We identified relatively high intrasublineage diversity for both T3-Osaka and Tur. We definitively proved their monophyly; the corresponding super-sublineage (referred to as “T3-Osa-Tur”) shares a common ancestor with T3-Ethiopia and Ural sublineages but is only remotely related to other Euro-American sublineages such as X, LAM, Haarlem and S. The evolutionary scenario based on long-term evolution rate being valid until T3-Osa-Tur MRCA was not supported by Japanese fossil data. The evolutionary scenario relying on short-term evolution rate since T3-Osa-Tur MRCA was contradicted by human history and potential traces of past epidemics. T3-Osaka and Tur sublineages were found likely to have diverged between 800 y and 2000 years ago, potentially at the time of Mongol Empire. Altogether, this study definitively proves a strong genetic link between Turkish and Japanese tuberculosis. It provides a first hypothesis for calibrating TB Euro-American lineage molecular clock

  6. Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min,Ahn

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to verify anti-cancer and anti-oxidant efficacies of Korean wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng of Korea and China. Methods : For the measurement of anti-oxidation, SOD-like activity was evaluated using xanthine oxidase reduction method under in vitro environment. Subcutaneous and abdominal cancer were induced using CT-26 human colon cancer cells for the measurement of growth inhibition of cancer cells and differences in survival rate. Results : 1. Measurement of anti-oxidant activity of ginseng, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng samples showed concentration dependent anti-oxidant activity in HX/XOD system. Anti-oxidant activity showed drastic increase at 1mg/ml in all samples. 2. For the evaluation of growth inhibition of cancer cells after hypodermic implantation of CT-26 cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice, Chinese and Korean cultivated wild ginseng and natural wild ginseng groups showed significant inhibition of tumor growth from the 12th day compared to the control group. Similar inhibitory effects were also shown on the 15th and 18th days. But there was no significant difference between the experiment groups. 3. For the observation of increase in survival rate of the natural wild ginseng group, CT-26 cancer cells were implanted in the peritoneal cavity of mice.

  7. Molecular differentiation of Russian wild ginseng using mitochondrial nad7 intron 3 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisheng Li

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: An effective DNA method for molecular discrimination of Russian wild ginseng from Chinese and Korean cultivated ginseng was developed. The established real-time allele-specific PCR was simple and reliable, and the present method should be a crucial complement of chemical analysis for authentication of Russian wild ginseng.

  8. Large number of ultraconserved elements were already present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor.

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianli

    2009-03-01

    Stephen (2008) identified 13,736 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in placental mammals and investigated their evolution in opossum, chicken, frog, and fugu. They found that there was a massive expansion of UCEs during tetrapod evolution and the substitution rate in UCEs showed a significant decline in tetrapods compared with fugu, suggesting they were exapted in tetrapods. They considered it unlikely that these elements are ancient but evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes. In this study, we investigated the evolution of UCEs in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark and show that nearly half the UCEs were present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The substitution rate in UCEs is higher in fugu than in elephant shark, and approximately one-third of ancient UCEs have diverged beyond recognition in teleost fishes. These data indicate that UCEs have evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes, which may have implications for their vast diversity and evolutionary success.

  9. Environmental Adaptation from the Origin of Life to the Last Universal Common Ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Marjorie D; Fournier, Gregory P

    2018-03-01

    Extensive fundamental molecular and biological evolution took place between the prebiotic origins of life and the state of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Considering the evolutionary innovations between these two endpoints from the perspective of environmental adaptation, we explore the hypothesis that LUCA was temporally, spatially, and environmentally distinct from life's earliest origins in an RNA world. Using this lens, we interpret several molecular biological features as indicating an environmental transition between a cold, radiation-shielded origin of life and a mesophilic, surface-dwelling LUCA. Cellularity provides motility and permits Darwinian evolution by connecting genetic material and its products, and thus establishing heredity and lineage. Considering the importance of compartmentalization and motility, we propose that the early emergence of cellularity is required for environmental dispersal and diversification during these transitions. Early diversification and the emergence of ecology before LUCA could be an important pre-adaptation for life's persistence on a changing planet.

  10. Environmental Adaptation from the Origin of Life to the Last Universal Common Ancestor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Marjorie D.; Fournier, Gregory P.

    2018-03-01

    Extensive fundamental molecular and biological evolution took place between the prebiotic origins of life and the state of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Considering the evolutionary innovations between these two endpoints from the perspective of environmental adaptation, we explore the hypothesis that LUCA was temporally, spatially, and environmentally distinct from life's earliest origins in an RNA world. Using this lens, we interpret several molecular biological features as indicating an environmental transition between a cold, radiation-shielded origin of life and a mesophilic, surface-dwelling LUCA. Cellularity provides motility and permits Darwinian evolution by connecting genetic material and its products, and thus establishing heredity and lineage. Considering the importance of compartmentalization and motility, we propose that the early emergence of cellularity is required for environmental dispersal and diversification during these transitions. Early diversification and the emergence of ecology before LUCA could be an important pre-adaptation for life's persistence on a changing planet.

  11. Ancestor-descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental Adaptation from the Origin of Life to the Last Universal Common Ancestor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Marjorie D.; Fournier, Gregory P.

    2017-07-01

    Extensive fundamental molecular and biological evolution took place between the prebiotic origins of life and the state of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Considering the evolutionary innovations between these two endpoints from the perspective of environmental adaptation, we explore the hypothesis that LUCA was temporally, spatially, and environmentally distinct from life's earliest origins in an RNA world. Using this lens, we interpret several molecular biological features as indicating an environmental transition between a cold, radiation-shielded origin of life and a mesophilic, surface-dwelling LUCA. Cellularity provides motility and permits Darwinian evolution by connecting genetic material and its products, and thus establishing heredity and lineage. Considering the importance of compartmentalization and motility, we propose that the early emergence of cellularity is required for environmental dispersal and diversification during these transitions. Early diversification and the emergence of ecology before LUCA could be an important pre-adaptation for life's persistence on a changing planet.

  13. The ancestors of diatoms evolved a unique mitochondrial dehydrogenase to oxidize photorespiratory glycolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Jessica; Srikanth, Nishtala V; Hüdig, Meike; Poschmann, Gereon; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2017-05-01

    Like other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, diatoms produce glycolate, a toxic intermediate, as a consequence of the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Diatoms can remove glycolate through excretion and through oxidation as part of the photorespiratory pathway. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum encodes two proteins suggested to be involved in glycolate metabolism: PtGO1 and PtGO2. We found that these proteins differ substantially from the sequences of experimentally characterized proteins responsible for glycolate oxidation in other species, glycolate oxidase (GOX) and glycolate dehydrogenase. We show that PtGO1 and PtGO2 are the only sequences of P. tricornutum homologous to GOX. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the ancestors of diatoms acquired PtGO1 during the proposed first secondary endosymbiosis with a chlorophyte alga, which may have previously obtained this gene from proteobacteria. In contrast, PtGO2 is orthologous to an uncharacterized protein in Galdieria sulphuraria, consistent with its acquisition during the secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga that gave rise to the current plastid. The analysis of amino acid residues at conserved positions suggests that PtGO2, which localizes to peroxisomes, may use substrates other than glycolate, explaining the lack of GOX activity we observe in vitro. Instead, PtGO1, while only very distantly related to previously characterized GOX proteins, evolved glycolate-oxidizing activity, as demonstrated by in gel activity assays and mass spectrometry analysis. PtGO1 localizes to mitochondria, consistent with previous suggestions that photorespiration in diatoms proceeds in these organelles. We conclude that the ancestors of diatoms evolved a unique alternative to oxidize photorespiratory glycolate: a mitochondrial dehydrogenase homologous to GOX able to use electron acceptors other than O 2 .

  14. Quantification of Inbreeding Due to Distant Ancestors and Its Detection Using Dense Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew C.; Visscher, Peter M.; Goddard, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Inbreeding depression, which refers to reduced fitness among offspring of related parents, has traditionally been studied using pedigrees. In practice, pedigree information is difficult to obtain, potentially unreliable, and rarely assessed for inbreeding arising from common ancestors who lived more than a few generations ago. Recently, there has been excitement about using SNP data to estimate inbreeding (F) arising from distant common ancestors in apparently “outbred” populations. Statistical power to detect inbreeding depression using SNP data depends on the actual variation in inbreeding in a population, the accuracy of detecting that with marker data, the effect size, and the sample size. No one has yet investigated what variation in F is expected in SNP data as a function of population size, and it is unclear which estimate of F is optimal for detecting inbreeding depression. In the present study, we use theory, simulated genetic data, and real genetic data to find the optimal estimate of F, to quantify the likely variation in F in populations of various sizes, and to estimate the power to detect inbreeding depression. We find that F estimated from runs of homozygosity (Froh), which reflects shared ancestry of genetic haplotypes, retains variation in even large populations (e.g., SD = 0.5% when Ne = 10,000) and is likely to be the most powerful method of detecting inbreeding effects from among several alternative estimates of F. However, large samples (e.g., 12,000–65,000) will be required to detect inbreeding depression for likely effect sizes, and so studies using Froh to date have probably been underpowered. PMID:21705750

  15. Locomotion and posture from the common hominoid ancestor to fully modern hominins, with special reference to the last common panin/hominin ancestor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, R H; Vereecke, E E; Thorpe, S K S

    2008-01-01

    Based on our knowledge of locomotor biomechanics and ecology we predict the locomotion and posture of the last common ancestors of (a) great and lesser apes and their close fossil relatives (hominoids); (b) chimpanzees, bonobos and modern humans (hominines); and (c) modern humans and their fossil relatives (hominins). We evaluate our propositions against the fossil record in the context of a broader review of evolution of the locomotor system from the earliest hominoids of modern aspect (crown hominoids) to early modern Homo sapiens. While some early East African stem hominoids were pronograde, it appears that the adaptations which best characterize the crown hominoids are orthogrady and an ability to abduct the arm above the shoulder – rather than, as is often thought, manual suspension sensu stricto. At 7–9 Ma (not much earlier than the likely 4–8 Ma divergence date for panins and hominins, see Bradley, 2008) there were crown hominoids in southern Europe which were adapted to moving in an orthograde posture, supported primarily on the hindlimb, in an arboreal, and possibly for Oreopithecus, a terrestrial context. By 7 Ma, Sahelanthropus provides evidence of a Central African hominin, panin or possibly gorilline adapted to orthogrady, and both orthogrady and habitually highly extended postures of the hip are evident in the arboreal East African protohominin Orrorin at 6 Ma. If the traditional idea that hominins passed through a terrestrial ‘knuckle-walking’ phase is correct, not only does it have to be explained how a quadrupedal gait typified by flexed postures of the hindlimb could have preadapted the body for the hominin acquisition of straight-legged erect bipedality, but we would have to accept a transition from stem-hominoid pronogrady to crown hominoid orthogrady, back again to pronogrady in the African apes and then back to orthogrady in hominins. Hand-assisted arboreal bipedality, which is part of a continuum of orthograde behaviours, is used by

  16. Wild blijft je bezighouden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van C.A.P.; Harmont, van J.

    2010-01-01

    Wild kan zorgen voor fikse productie- en kwaliteitschade én een hoop ergernis. Als de schade al te verhalen is, dan houdt de afhandeling van een schadeclaim veel rompslomp in. Neem daarom tijdig voorzorgsmaatregelen. Maar hoe je het ook wendt of keert, wild blijft je bezighouden.

  17. An Analysis of Chinese Buzzwords in the Snake’s Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie CHANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The past Chinese Snake’s year witnesses the wild spread of hundreds of Chinese hot words throughout the country. Chinese internet users are the main contributors to the creation and broadcasting of these hot words. In this short article, the authors will try to bring together the hottest words in 2013, explaining the meaning of them and analyzing the culture behind them. Finally, we shall discuss Chinese buzzwords’ way into English.

  18. Wild reindeer of Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Safronov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Three major herds of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., totaling over 200,000 animals, occur in the tundra and taiga of northern Yakutia. These herds have been expanding since the late 1950s and now occupy most of their historic range. In addition, several thousand wild reindeer occupy the New Siberian Islands and adjacent coastal mainland tundra, and there are about 60,000 largely sedentary forest reindeer in mountainous areas of the southern two-thirds of the province. Wild reindeer are commercially hunted throughout the mainland, and the production of wild meat is an important part of the economy of the province and of individual reindeer enterprises which produce both wild and domestic meat.

  19. Envelope deglycosylation enhances antigenicity of HIV-1 gp41 epitopes for both broad neutralizing antibodies and their unmutated ancestor antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Jiang Ma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env membrane proximal external region (MPER is an important vaccine target that in rare subjects can elicit neutralizing antibodies. One mechanism proposed for rarity of MPER neutralizing antibody generation is lack of reverted unmutated ancestor (putative naive B cell receptor antibody reactivity with HIV-1 envelope. We have studied the effect of partial deglycosylation under non-denaturing (native conditions on gp140 Env antigenicity for MPER neutralizing antibodies and their reverted unmutated ancestor antibodies. We found that native deglycosylation of clade B JRFL gp140 as well as group M consensus gp140 Env CON-S selectively increased the reactivity of Env with the broad neutralizing human mAbs, 2F5 and 4E10. Whereas fully glycosylated gp140 Env either did not bind (JRFL, or weakly bound (CON-S, 2F5 and 4E10 reverted unmutated ancestors, natively deglycosylated JRFL and CON-S gp140 Envs did bind well to these putative mimics of naive B cell receptors. These data predict that partially deglycoslated Env would bind better than fully glycosylated Env to gp41-specific naïve B cells with improved immunogenicity. In this regard, immunization of rhesus macaques demonstrated enhanced immunogenicity of the 2F5 MPER epitope on deglyosylated JRFL gp140 compared to glycosylated JRFL gp140. Thus, the lack of 2F5 and 4E10 reverted unmutated ancestor binding to gp140 Env may not always be due to lack of unmutated ancestor antibody reactivity with gp41 peptide epitopes, but rather, may be due to glycan interference of binding of unmutated ancestor antibodies of broad neutralizing mAb to Env gp41.

  20. Identification of cytoplasmic ancestor gene-pools of Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla and their hybrids by chloroplast and mitochondrial haplotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonruangrod, R; Desai, D; Fluch, S; Berenyi, M; Burg, K

    2008-12-01

    Cytoplasmically inherited characters such as resistance to viral and fungal diseases, determination of starch types, crop yield, resistance to low or high temperature often contribute to the advantageous phenotypic traits of plants. In the present study, our goal was to elucidate the genealogy of cytoplasmic genomes chloroplast and mitochondria in banana. Banana breeding is rather complicated because of the low fertility and mostly unknown origin of the edible cultivars, therefore, knowledge on the putative fertile ancestors of cytoplasmic genomes chloroplast and mitochondria would be beneficial for breeding programmes. Based on the established marker systems distinct species specific gene-pools could be identified for both chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes for Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana wild types, respectively. Detailed analysis of the species specific chloroplast and mitochondrial gene-pools of M. acuminata and M. balbisiana revealed six chloroplast and seven mitochondrial gene-pools in the analysed accessions. Comparative analysis of the haplotypes revealed the presence of Primary Centers of origin for both chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of both species supporting the idea of common origin of these genomes. Cytotypes representing combinations of M. acuminata chloroplast and mitochondrial gene-pools were identified in majority of the analysed hybrid cultivars. A single M. acuminata cytotype was present in the majority of the analysed cultivars, which combination was not detected in any of the wild types. On the other part a single balbisiana cytotype was identified participating in the formation of interspecies hybrids. The strong preference for the presence of certain cytoplasmic gene-pools in cultivars may indicate hundreds of years of natural as well as of farmers' selection supplementing the phenotypic traits provided by the nuclear genome. Based on the present results the present day subspecies classification of M. acuminata is also

  1. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  2. Wild Poliovirus List

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio + Prevention The Virus Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses The Vaccines IPV OPV The Communities History of Polio Polio Now This Week Wild poliovirus list Public Health Emergency status Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus Surveillance Indicators The Global Polio Laboratory ...

  3. The evolution of air resonance power efficiency in the violin and its ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Hadi T; Jain, Ankita D; Liu, Yuming; Alam, Mohammad-Reza; Barnas, Roman; Makris, Nicholas C

    2015-03-08

    The fact that acoustic radiation from a violin at air-cavity resonance is monopolar and can be determined by pure volume change is used to help explain related aspects of violin design evolution. By determining the acoustic conductance of arbitrarily shaped sound holes, it is found that air flow at the perimeter rather than the broader sound-hole area dominates acoustic conductance, and coupling between compressible air within the violin and its elastic structure lowers the Helmholtz resonance frequency from that found for a corresponding rigid instrument by roughly a semitone. As a result of the former, it is found that as sound-hole geometry of the violin's ancestors slowly evolved over centuries from simple circles to complex f-holes, the ratio of inefficient, acoustically inactive to total sound-hole area was decimated, roughly doubling air-resonance power efficiency. F-hole length then slowly increased by roughly 30% across two centuries in the renowned workshops of Amati, Stradivari and Guarneri, favouring instruments with higher air-resonance power, through a corresponding power increase of roughly 60%. By evolution-rate analysis, these changes are found to be consistent with mutations arising within the range of accidental replication fluctuations from craftsmanship limitations with subsequent selection favouring instruments with higher air-resonance power.

  4. From Offshore to Onshore: Multiple Origins of Shallow-Water Corals from Deep-Sea Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Alberto; Cairns, Stephen D.; Cunningham, Clifford W.

    2008-01-01

    Shallow-water tropical reefs and the deep sea represent the two most diverse marine environments. Understanding the origin and diversification of this biodiversity is a major quest in ecology and evolution. The most prominent and well-supported explanation, articulated since the first explorations of the deep sea, holds that benthic marine fauna originated in shallow, onshore environments, and diversified into deeper waters. In contrast, evidence that groups of marine organisms originated in the deep sea is limited, and the possibility that deep-water taxa have contributed to the formation of shallow-water communities remains untested with phylogenetic methods. Here we show that stylasterid corals (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae)—the second most diverse group of hard corals—originated and diversified extensively in the deep sea, and subsequently invaded shallow waters. Our phylogenetic results show that deep-water stylasterid corals have invaded the shallow-water tropics three times, with one additional invasion of the shallow-water temperate zone. Our results also show that anti-predatory innovations arose in the deep sea, but were not involved in the shallow-water invasions. These findings are the first robust evidence that an important group of tropical shallow-water marine animals evolved from deep-water ancestors. PMID:18560569

  5. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Constantin, Silviu; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Lazaridis, Iosif; Nickel, Birgit; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Neanderthals are thought to have disappeared in Europe ~39,000–41,000 years ago but they have contributed one to three percent of the DNA of present-day people in Eurasia1. Here, we analyze DNA from a 37,000–42,000-year-old2 modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human DNA, we use an enrichment strategy to isolate sites that are informative about its relationship to Neanderthals and present-day humans. We find that on the order of six to nine percent of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date. Three chromosomal segments of Neanderthal ancestry are over 50 centimorgans in size, indicating that this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back. However, the Oase individual does not share more alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians, suggesting that the Oase population did not contribute substantially to later humans in Europe. PMID:26098372

  6. Punctuated emergences of genetic and phenotypic innovations in eumetazoan, bilaterian, euteleostome, and hominidae ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Yvan; Galliot, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic traits derive from the selective recruitment of genetic materials over macroevolutionary times, and protein-coding genes constitute an essential component of these materials. We took advantage of the recent production of genomic scale data from sponges and cnidarians, sister groups from eumetazoans and bilaterians, respectively, to date the emergence of human proteins and to infer the timing of acquisition of novel traits through metazoan evolution. Comparing the proteomes of 23 eukaryotes, we find that 33% human proteins have an ortholog in nonmetazoan species. This premetazoan proteome associates with 43% of all annotated human biological processes. Subsequently, four major waves of innovations can be inferred in the last common ancestors of eumetazoans, bilaterians, euteleostomi (bony vertebrates), and hominidae, largely specific to each epoch, whereas early branching deuterostome and chordate phyla show very few innovations. Interestingly, groups of proteins that act together in their modern human functions often originated concomitantly, although the corresponding human phenotypes frequently emerged later. For example, the three cnidarians Acropora, Nematostella, and Hydra express a highly similar protein inventory, and their protein innovations can be affiliated either to traits shared by all eumetazoans (gut differentiation, neurogenesis); or to bilaterian traits present in only some cnidarians (eyes, striated muscle); or to traits not identified yet in this phylum (mesodermal layer, endocrine glands). The variable correspondence between phenotypes predicted from protein enrichments and observed phenotypes suggests that a parallel mechanism repeatedly produce similar phenotypes, thanks to novel regulatory events that independently tie preexisting conserved genetic modules.

  7. Aberrant Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor as a Signature of Natural Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Zinck, Haley; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Natural selection inference methods often target one mode of selection of a particular age and strength. However, detecting multiple modes simultaneously, or with atypical representations, would be advantageous for understanding a population's evolutionary history. We have developed an anomaly detection algorithm using distributions of pairwise time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) to simultaneously detect multiple modes of natural selection in whole-genome sequences. As natural selection distorts local genealogies in distinct ways, the method uses pairwise TMRCA distributions, which approximate genealogies at a nonrecombining locus, to detect distortions without targeting a specific mode of selection. We evaluate the performance of our method, TSel, for both positive and balancing selection over different time-scales and selection strengths and compare TSel's performance with that of other methods. We then apply TSel to the Complete Genomics diversity panel, a set of human whole-genome sequences, and recover loci previously inferred to be under positive or balancing selection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiaomei; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Constantin, Silviu; Mallick, Swapan; Skoglund, Pontus; Patterson, Nick; Rohland, Nadin; Lazaridis, Iosif; Nickel, Birgit; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Meyer, Matthias; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Pääbo, Svante

    2015-08-13

    Neanderthals are thought to have disappeared in Europe approximately 39,000-41,000 years ago but they have contributed 1-3% of the DNA of present-day people in Eurasia. Here we analyse DNA from a 37,000-42,000-year-old modern human from Peştera cu Oase, Romania. Although the specimen contains small amounts of human DNA, we use an enrichment strategy to isolate sites that are informative about its relationship to Neanderthals and present-day humans. We find that on the order of 6-9% of the genome of the Oase individual is derived from Neanderthals, more than any other modern human sequenced to date. Three chromosomal segments of Neanderthal ancestry are over 50 centimorgans in size, indicating that this individual had a Neanderthal ancestor as recently as four to six generations back. However, the Oase individual does not share more alleles with later Europeans than with East Asians, suggesting that the Oase population did not contribute substantially to later humans in Europe.

  9. Fossil hominin shoulders support an African ape-like last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan M; Capellini, Terence D; Roach, Neil T; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-09-22

    Reconstructing the behavioral shifts that drove hominin evolution requires knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and direction of anatomical changes over the past ∼6-7 million years. These reconstructions depend on assumptions regarding the morphotype of the Homo-Pan last common ancestor (LCA). However, there is little consensus for the LCA, with proposed models ranging from African ape to orangutan or generalized Miocene ape-like. The ancestral state of the shoulder is of particular interest because it is functionally associated with important behavioral shifts in hominins, such as reduced arboreality, high-speed throwing, and tool use. However, previous morphometric analyses of both living and fossil taxa have yielded contradictory results. Here, we generated a 3D morphospace of ape and human scapular shape to plot evolutionary trajectories, predict ancestral morphologies, and directly test alternative evolutionary hypotheses using the hominin fossil evidence. We show that the most parsimonious model for the evolution of hominin shoulder shape starts with an African ape-like ancestral state. We propose that the shoulder evolved gradually along a single morphocline, achieving modern human-like configuration and function within the genus Homo. These data are consistent with a slow, progressive loss of arboreality and increased tool use throughout human evolution.

  10. CloudLCA: finding the lowest common ancestor in metagenome analysis using cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoguang; Bu, Dechao; Liu, Changning; Li, Jing; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yi; Chen, Runsheng

    2012-02-01

    Estimating taxonomic content constitutes a key problem in metagenomic sequencing data analysis. However, extracting such content from high-throughput data of next-generation sequencing is very time-consuming with the currently available software. Here, we present CloudLCA, a parallel LCA algorithm that significantly improves the efficiency of determining taxonomic composition in metagenomic data analysis. Results show that CloudLCA (1) has a running time nearly linear with the increase of dataset magnitude, (2) displays linear speedup as the number of processors grows, especially for large datasets, and (3) reaches a speed of nearly 215 million reads each minute on a cluster with ten thin nodes. In comparison with MEGAN, a well-known metagenome analyzer, the speed of CloudLCA is up to 5 more times faster, and its peak memory usage is approximately 18.5% that of MEGAN, running on a fat node. CloudLCA can be run on one multiprocessor node or a cluster. It is expected to be part of MEGAN to accelerate analyzing reads, with the same output generated as MEGAN, which can be import into MEGAN in a direct way to finish the following analysis. Moreover, CloudLCA is a universal solution for finding the lowest common ancestor, and it can be applied in other fields requiring an LCA algorithm.

  11. The Distribution and Most Recent Common Ancestor of the 17q21 Inversion in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Michael P.; Paschou, Peristera; Grigorenko, Elena; Gurwitz, David; Mehdi, Syed Qasim; Kajuna, Sylvester L.B.; Barta, Csaba; Kungulilo, Selemani; Karoma, N.J.; Lu, Ru-Band; Zhukova, Olga V.; Kim, Jong-Jin; Comas, David; Siniscalco, Marcello; New, Maria; Li, Peining; Li, Hui; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Speed, William C.; Rajeevan, Haseena; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Kidd, Judith R.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2010-01-01

    The polymorphic inversion on 17q21, sometimes called the microtubular associated protein tau (MAPT) inversion, is an ∼900 kb inversion found primarily in Europeans and Southwest Asians. We have identified 21 SNPs that act as markers of the inverted, i.e., H2, haplotype. The inversion is found at the highest frequencies in Southwest Asia and Southern Europe (frequencies of ∼30%); elsewhere in Europe, frequencies vary from inversion haplotype also occurs at low frequencies in Africa, Central Asia, East Asia, and the Americas, though the East Asian and Amerindian alleles may be due to recent gene flow from Europe. Molecular evolution analyses indicate that the H2 haplotype originally arose in Africa or Southwest Asia. Though the H2 inversion has many fixed differences across the ∼900 kb, short tandem repeat polymorphism data indicate a very recent date for the most recent common ancestor, with dates ranging from 13,600 to 108,400 years, depending on assumptions and estimation methods. This estimate range is much more recent than the 3 million year age estimated by Stefansson et al. in 2005.1 PMID:20116045

  12. Tracing ancestor rice of Suriname Maroons back to its African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde R; Meyer, Rachel S; Aflitos, Saulo A; Carney, Judith A; Veltman, Margaretha A; Copetti, Dario; Flowers, Jonathan M; Havinga, Reinout M; Maat, Harro; Purugganan, Michael D; Wing, Rod A; Schranz, M Eric

    2016-10-03

    African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and African cultivation practices are said to have influenced emerging colonial plantation economies in the Americas(1,2). However, the level of impact of African rice practices is difficult to establish because of limited written or botanical records(2,3). Recent findings of O. glaberrima in rice fields of Suriname Maroons bear evidence of the high level of knowledge about rice among African slaves and their descendants, who consecrate it in ancestor rituals(4,5). Here we establish the strong similarity, and hence likely origin, of the first extant New World landrace of O. glaberrima to landraces from the Upper Guinean forests in West Africa. We collected African rice from a Maroon market in Paramaribo, Suriname, propagated it, sequenced its genome(6) and compared it with genomes of 109 accessions representing O. glaberrima diversity across West Africa. By analysing 1,649,769 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in clustering analyses, the Suriname sample appears sister to an Ivory Coast landrace, and shows no evidence of introgression from Asian rice. Whereas the Dutch took most slaves from Ghana, Benin and Central Africa(7), the diaries of slave ship captains record the purchase of food for provisions when sailing along the West African Coast(8), offering one possible explanation for the patterns of genetic similarity. This study demonstrates the utility of genomics in understanding the largely unwritten histories of crop cultures of diaspora communities.

  13. Looking In, Looking Out: The Chinese-Caribbean Diaspora through Literature—Meiling Jin, Patricia Powell, Jan Lowe Shinebourne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Misrahi-Barak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Few scholars have focused on the Chinese diaspora in the Caribbean, and it is only fairly recently that the literature written by Caribbean writers of Chinese origin has aroused interest. This essay interrogates the lack of visibility of Chinese-Caribbean writers, like Meiling Jin and Jan Shinebourne, whose ancestors arrived in Guyana in the nineteenth century as indentured workers, and are now considered to be Caribbean writers of Guyanese origin living in the UK, with the Chinese element being (almost erased (but not quite. This essay also considers Patricia Powell since she focuses on the Chinese diaspora in the Caribbean, even though she is not of Chinese origin but a Jamaican American writer.

  14. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  15. Chinese Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomy has been a subject of interest to Chinese people since ancient times. As early as the sixteenth century BC, a supernova was recorded on an animal bone used in divination. In ancient China, the main mission for astronomers was to determine the farming seasons and to predict important events for the future according to the phenomena that appeared in the sky. In the minds of rulers in anci...

  16. Locomotor and postural development of wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarringhaus, L A; MacLatchy, L M; Mitani, J C

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees are our closest living relatives and their positional repertoire likely includes elements shared with our common ancestor. Currently, limitations exist in our ability to correlate locomotor anatomy with behavioral function in the wild. Here we provide a detailed description of developmental changes in chimpanzee locomotion and posture. Fieldwork was conducted on wild chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. The large size of the Ngogo chimpanzee community permitted cross-sectional analysis of locomotor and postural changes across many individuals. Chimpanzee positional behavior proceeds developmentally through a number of distinct stages, each characterized by its own loading regime. Infants principally used their upper limbs while moving; the loading environment changed to more hindlimb dominated locomotion as infants aged. Infants displayed more diversity in their forms of positional behavior than members of any other age-sex class, engaging in behaviors not habitually exhibited by adults. While the most common locomotor mode for infants was torso-orthograde suspensory locomotion, a large shift toward quadrupedal locomotion during infancy occurred at three years of age, when rates of this behavior increased. Overall, the most dramatic transition in positional behavior occurred during juvenility (at approximately five years), with the advent of complete independent locomotion. Juveniles decreased the amount of time they spent clinging and in torso-orthograde suspensory locomotion and increased their time spent sitting and walking and running quadrupedally compared with younger individuals. Juvenility marked the age at which quadrupedal walking became the most frequent locomotor behavior, but quadrupedal walking did not encompass the majority of locomotor time until individuals reached adolescence. Relative to all younger individuals, adolescent chimpanzees (10-13 years) experienced a further increase in the amount of time they walked

  17. Comparative analysis of the root transcriptomes of cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) and its wild ancestor (Ipomoea trifida [Kunth] G. Don).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Sathish K; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki; Kalavacharla, Venu Kal; Manoharan, Muthusamy

    2017-01-13

    The complex process of formation of storage roots (SRs) from adventitious roots affects sweetpotato yield. Identifying the genes that are uniquely expressed in the SR forming cultivated species, Ipomoea batatas (Ib), and its immediate ancestral species, Ipomoea trifida (It), which does not form SRs, may provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying SR formation in sweetpotato. Illumina paired-end sequencing generated ~208 and ~200 million reads for Ib and It, respectively. Trinity assembly of the reads resulted in 98,317 transcripts for Ib and 275,044 for It, after post-assembly removal of trans-chimeras. From these sequences, we identified 4,865 orthologous genes in both Ib and It, 60 paralogous genes in Ib and 2,286 paralogous genes in It. Among paralogous gene sets, transcripts encoding the transcription factor RKD, which may have a role in nitrogen regulation and starch formation, and rhamnogalacturonate lyase (RGL) family proteins, which produce the precursors of cell wall polysaccharides, were found only in Ib. In addition, transcripts encoding a K+ efflux antiporter (KEA5) and the ERECTA protein kinase, which function in phytohormonal regulation and root proliferation, respectively, were also found only in Ib. qRT-PCR indicated that starch and sucrose metabolism genes, such as those encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and beta-amylase, showed lower expression in It than Ib, whereas lignin genes such as caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CoMT) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) showed higher expression in It than Ib. A total of 7,067 and 9,650 unique microsatellite markers, 1,037,396 and 495,931 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 103,439 and 69,194 InDels in Ib and It, respectively, were also identified from this study. The detection of genes involved in the biosynthesis of RGL family proteins, the transcription factor RKD, and genes encoding a K+ efflux antiporter (KEA5) and the ERECTA protein kinase only in I. batatas indicate that these genes may have important functions in SR formation in sweetpotato. Potential molecular markers (SNPs, simple sequence repeats and InDels) and sequences identified in this study may represent a valuable resource for sweetpotato gene annotation and may serve as important tools for improving SR formation in sweetpotato through breeding.

  18. Buds of the tree: the highway to the last universal common ancestor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias, Savio Torres; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    The last universal common ancestor (LUCA) has been considered as the branching point on which Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes have diverged. However, the increased information relating to viruses' genomes and the perception that many virus genes do not have homologs in other organisms opened a new discussion. Based on these facts, there has emerged the idea of an early LUCA that should be moved further into the past to include viruses, implicating that life should have originated before the appearance of cellular life forms. Another point of view from advocates of the RNA-world suggests that the origin of life happened a long time before organisms were capable of organizing themselves into cellular entities. Relevant data about the origin of ribosomes indicate that the catalytic unit of the large ribosomal subunit is what should actually be considered as the turning point that separated chemistry from biology. Other researchers seem to think that a tRNA was probably some sort of a strange attractor on which life has originated. Here we propose a theoretical synthesis that tries to provide a crosstalk among the theories and define important points on which the origin of life could have been originated and made more complex, taking into account gradualist assumptions. Thus, discussions involving the origin of biological activities in the RNA-world might lead into a world of progenotes on which viruses have been taken part until the appearance of the very first cells. Along this route of complexification, we identified some key points on which researchers may consider life as an emerging principle.

  19. Into the urban wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollee, Eefke Maria; Pouliot, Mariéve; McDonald, Morag A.

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many people depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. While urbanisation causes landscape changes, little is known of how this process affects the use of wild plant resources by urban populations. This study contributes to addressing this knowledge gap by exploring...... the prevalence and determinants of urban collectors of wild plants in Kampala, Uganda. During February to August 2015, 93 structured interviews were conducted in inner, outer, and peri-urban areas of the city. The findings in this study show that urban wild plants are used by almost half (47%) of the respondents......, mainly for medicinal purposes but also as a complement to diets. The findings further indicate that residents with lower income, of younger age (urban areas are more likely to be urban collectors. Seasonality appears to be of greater importance...

  20. Wild grapevine management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1989-01-01

    Wild grapevines are a problem for forest managers in many areas of the central hardwood forests. The vines grow on a wide range of soil and site conditions but usually are more concentrated on good sites (northern red oak site index 70 and above), on the faster growing more valuable timber. Presently there is more interest and concern in controlling grapevine for the...

  1. Evidence that CRABS CLAW and TOUSLED have conserved their roles in carpel development since the ancestor of the extant angiosperms

    OpenAIRE

    Fourquin, Chloé; Vinauger-Douard, Marion; Fogliani, Bruno; Dumas, Christian; Scutt, Charles P.

    2005-01-01

    The carpel is the female reproductive organ specific to flowering plants. We aim to define the genes that controlled carpel development in the common ancestor of this group as a step toward determining the molecular events that were responsible for the evolution of the carpel. CRABS CLAW (CRC) and TOUSLED (TSL) control important aspects of carpel development in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. The basal angiosperm species Amborella trichopoda and Cabomba aquatica very likely represent t...

  2. The proteomic complexity and rise of the primordial ancestor of diversified life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last universal common ancestor represents the primordial cellular organism from which diversified life was derived. This urancestor accumulated genetic information before the rise of organismal lineages and is considered to be either a simple 'progenote' organism with a rudimentary translational apparatus or a more complex 'cenancestor' with almost all essential biological processes. Recent comparative genomic studies support the latter model and propose that the urancestor was similar to modern organisms in terms of gene content. However, most of these studies were based on molecular sequences, which are fast evolving and of limited value for deep evolutionary explorations. Results Here we engage in a phylogenomic study of protein domain structure in the proteomes of 420 free-living fully sequenced organisms. Domains were defined at the highly conserved fold superfamily (FSF level of structural classification and an iterative phylogenomic approach was used to reconstruct max_set and min_set FSF repertoires as upper and lower bounds of the urancestral proteome. While the functional make up of the urancestral sets was complex, they represent only 5-11% of the 1,420 FSFs of extant proteomes and their make up and reuse was at least 5 and 3 times smaller than proteomes of free-living organisms, repectively. Trees of proteomes reconstructed directly from FSFs or from molecular functions, which included the max_set and min_set as articial taxa, showed that urancestors were always placed at their base and rooted the tree of life in Archaea. Finally, a molecular clock of FSFs suggests the min_set reflects urancestral genetic make up more reliably and confirms diversified life emerged about 2.9 billion years ago during the start of planet oxygenation. Conclusions The minimum urancestral FSF set reveals the urancestor had advanced metabolic capabilities, was especially rich in nucleotide metabolism enzymes, had pathways for the

  3. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde

  4. Signatures of Selection and Interspecies Introgression in the Genome of Chinese Domestic Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yaling; Li, Wanbo; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Zhiyan; Ai, Huashui; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chinese domestic pigs have experienced strong artificial selection for thousands of years. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the selection-causing phenotypic changes in Chinese domestic pigs are still largely unknown. Here we used whole-genome resequencing data of 54 pigs from 9 Chinese diverse breeds and 16 wild boars from 7 localities across China to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection in the process of domestication. A total of 14 candidate domestica...

  5. Wild ideas in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münke, Christopher; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Foraging for all manner of wild plants, animals and fungi and their products makes up part of the traditional diets of approximately 300 million worldwide (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Furthermore, their relevance in the global food supply is often underestimated, as policies and statistics...... at national and regional levels tend to neglect their importance for food sovereignty and food culture (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Foraged plants often grow spontaneously and many exist independent of human interaction (Heywood, 1999)...

  6. [Dispute for Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower based on supermolecular imprinting templates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fu-Yuan; He, Hong; Deng, Kai-Wen; Yang, Yan-Tao; Zhou, Yi-Qun; Shi, Ji-Lian; Liu, Weng-Long; Tang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    More and more disputes have happened to confront us continuously since the separation of Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower in Chinese Pharmacopoeia in 2005. The state pharmacopeia committee decided to separate Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower into two species for japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower, but didn't define their the convincing reasons still did not provide to us as a result that two medicines are not described the differences in natural properties, efficiency and indication, usage and dosage, as well as not given a resolving methodand specific solution. It was known for us that in the history of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the phenomenenphenomena of the "one drug from multi-species" and "one species for multi-drug" are very ordinary thingswere ubiquitous. Whether separation of the drug species are separated shall be decided to by clinical efficiency. Through Chinese pharmacopoeia (2015 edition) issue of Chinese Pharmacopoeia the 2015 issue of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, we still cannot find a scientific solution for the dispute of for Japanese (wild) honeysuckle flower, perhaps because of insufficient reorganization of TCM clinical medication regularities, such as "treatment of different diseases with same drug", " treatment of the same disease with different drugs" and "treatment of the same syndrome with multi-prescriptions", and "one prescription treating multiple syndromes"; lack of in-depth analysis for multi-component TCM compounds and autonomisation of "supermolecular template" for organs and meridians; less attention to the advance of efficacy and safety evaluation technologies for multi-component TCM compounds; impacts from the medication mode of "one ingredient-one composition-one effect"; as well as insufficient research methods for bioequivalent evaluation in preclinic and clinic studies . The dispute for species combination or separation for Japanese(wild) honeysuckle flower was apparently caused by regional economy, drug biological

  7. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  8. Antibiotic resistance in wild birds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonnedahl, Jonas; Järhult, Josef D

    2014-01-01

    .... Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have been isolated from a multitude of wild bird species. Several studies strongly indicate transmission of resistant bacteria from human rest products to wild birds...

  9. Going WILD for Drupal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Jennifer; Sandberg, Tami

    2014-06-01

    The Wind-Wildlife Impacts Literature Database (WILD), formerly known as the Avian Literature Database, was created in 1997. The goal of the database was to begin tracking the research that detailed the potential impact of wind energy development on birds. The Avian Literature Database was originally housed on a proprietary platform called Livelink ECM from Open- Text and maintained by in-house technical staff. The initial set of records was added by library staff. A vital part of the newly launched Drupal-based WILD database is the Bibliography module. Many of the resources included in the database have digital object identifiers (DOI). The bibliographic information for any item that has a DOI can be imported into the database using this module. This greatly reduces the amount of manual data entry required to add records to the database. The content available in WILD is international in scope, which can be easily discerned by looking at the tags available in the browse menu.

  10. An Evolutionary Network of Genes Present in the Eukaryote Common Ancestor Polls Genomes on Eukaryotic and Mitochondrial Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Schenk, Marc; Dagan, Tal; Martin, William F.

    2012-01-01

    To test the predictions of competing and mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes, we identified from a sample of 27 sequenced eukaryotic and 994 sequenced prokaryotic genomes 571 genes that were present in the eukaryote common ancestor and that have homologues among eubacterial and archaebacterial genomes. Maximum-likelihood trees identified the prokaryotic genomes that most frequently contained genes branching as the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear homologues. Among the archaebacteria, euryarchaeote genomes most frequently harbored the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear gene, whereas among eubacteria, the α-proteobacteria were most frequently represented within the sister group. Only 3 genes out of 571 gave a 3-domain tree. Homologues from α-proteobacterial genomes that branched as the sister to nuclear genes were found more frequently in genomes of facultatively anaerobic members of the rhiozobiales and rhodospirilliales than in obligate intracellular ricketttsial parasites. Following α-proteobacteria, the most frequent eubacterial sister lineages were γ-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, and firmicutes, which were also the prokaryote genomes least frequently found as monophyletic groups in our trees. Although all 22 higher prokaryotic taxa sampled (crenarchaeotes, γ-proteobacteria, spirochaetes, chlamydias, etc.) harbor genes that branch as the sister to homologues present in the eukaryotic common ancestor, that is not evidence of 22 different prokaryotic cells participating at eukaryote origins because prokaryotic “lineages” have laterally acquired genes for more than 1.5 billion years since eukaryote origins. The data underscore the archaebacterial (host) nature of the eukaryotic informational genes and the eubacterial (mitochondrial) nature of eukaryotic energy metabolism. The network linking genes of the eukaryote ancestor to contemporary homologues distributed across prokaryotic genomes elucidates eukaryote gene origins in a

  11. Ancestors We Didn’t Even Know We Had”: Alice Walker, Asian Religion, and Ethnic Authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Garton-Gundling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates about the ethics of identity in a global age have dealt with how to prioritize conflicting local and global allegiances. Guided by these concerns, the fiction of Alice Walker develops a distinctive view of how local cultures and global movements can fruitfully interact. This vision depends on concepts from Asian religions, a major influence that critics of Walker have largely overlooked. Walker promotes Hindu and Buddhist meditation in a context of widespread African American skepticism toward Asian religions. According to widespread notions of cultural authenticity, Asian religions cannot nourish an African American connection to ethnic roots. In response to this challenge, Alice Walker’s fiction portrays Hindu and Buddhist mystics as African Americans’ ancestors, thus positioning these faiths as authentically black. By creatively enfolding Asian religions into her sense of African American heritage, Walker builds a spiritual cosmopolitanism that relies on claims of ancestral affiliation even when these claims are not literal. This strategy is Walker’s effort to create a new paradigm of cultural authenticity, one that allows individuals and groups to choose their ancestors. Walker’s approach seeks to incorporate disparate global influences while still valorizing the figure of the ancestor. This innovative approach places Walker at the forefront of a growing number of African American artists and intellectuals who promote Asian religions to American minorities. Walker’s work vividly dramatizes larger concerns in transnational American Studies: Eastern philosophy’s relevance to identity politics, the tensions between universal ideals and cultural specifics, and the ethics of cross-cultural appropriation.

  12. Parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild ruminants and wild boar belong to the order Artiodactyla, the suborders Ruminantia and Nonruminantia and are classified as wild animals for big game hunting, whose breeding presents a very important branch of the hunting economy. Diseases caused by protozoa are rarely found in wild ruminants in nature. Causes of coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystiosis, giardiasis, babesiosis, and theileriosis have been diagnosed in deer. The most significant helminthoses in wild ruminants are fasciosis, dicrocoeliasis, paramphistomosis, fascioloidosis, cysticercosis, anoplocephalidosis, coenurosis, echinococcosis, pulmonary strongyloidiasis, parasitic gastroenteritis, strongyloidiasis and trichuriasis, with certain differences in the extent of prevalence of infection with certain species. The most frequent ectoparasitoses in wild deer and doe are diseases caused by ticks, mites, scabies mites, and hypoderma. The most represented endoparasitoses in wild boar throughout the world are coccidiosis, balantidiasis, metastrongyloidiasis, verminous gastritis, ascariasis, macracanthorhynchosis, trichinelosis, trichuriasis, cystecercosis, echinococcosis, and less frequently, there are also fasciolosis and dicrocoeliasis. The predominant ectoparasitoses in wild boar are ticks and scabies mites. Knowledge of the etiology and epizootiology of parasitic infections in wild ruminants and wild boar is of extreme importance for the process of promoting the health protection system for animals and humans, in particular when taking into account the biological and ecological hazard posed by zoonotic infections.

  13. Journeys of our ancestors: Conservation science approaches to the analysis of cultural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Caitlin Rose

    The application and use of non-destructive portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a critical tool in the preservation and interpretation of cultural material. Portable XRF instrumentation produce elemental compositional data that is used to reconstruct current artifact composition, which can be related to materials and methods of manufacture, technological practice, as well as object condition and presence of corrosion surfaces. Portable XRF analysis is used to assess a variety of material classes utilized in artifact manufacture. The dissertation research is based on a series of three case studies that represent typical groups of material culture commonly encountered in conservation and conservation science research. Conservators and conservation scientists frequently undertake analysis and interpretation of disparate groups of materials. Often, these objects are tied together by research questions or themes directed by outside influences including preservation issues requiring action; curatorial research interests; museum exhibition programs; as well as many other cultural heritage stakeholders. To this end, both non-destructive and destructive tools that provide measurements of interest play critical roles in analysis. The case studies have been designed to answer common compositional questions relating to (a) bulk analysis of Chinese coins, (b) characterization of Southwestern ceramic colorants, and, (c) chemical examination of post-depositional manganese dioxide accretions occurring on archaeological ceramic materials. They evaluate the value of data produced using effectiveness of non-destructive portable XRF analysis for the interpretation of archaeological materials. The case studies provide a template for the development of conservation science research, predicated on object preservation, which produce meaningful data for the interpretation and conservation of the analyzed archaeological artifacts. Portable XRF provides useful data that is used to

  14. Genetic diversity in Chinese natural zoysiagrass based on inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoysiagrass (Zoysia sp.) is extensively used in turf establishment and livestock herbage due to its many outstanding characters. Native Zoysia sp. are widely distributed in China. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic relationships of 81 Chinese wild ...

  15. The loss of genetic diversity in the Chinese paddlefish (Psephurus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The loss of genetic diversity in the Chinese paddlefish. (Psephurus gladius Martens) as revealed by DNA fingerprinting. XUE-CHANG WU*. College of Life Sciences and the Key Laboratory of Conservation Genetics and Reproductive Biology for Endangered. Wild Animals of the Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, ...

  16. Ancient wolf genome reveals an early divergence of domestic dog ancestors and admixture into high-latitude breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Pontus; Ersmark, Erik; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love

    2015-06-01

    The origin of domestic dogs is poorly understood [1-15], with suggested evidence of dog-like features in fossils that predate the Last Glacial Maximum [6, 9, 10, 14, 16] conflicting with genetic estimates of a more recent divergence between dogs and worldwide wolf populations [13, 15, 17-19]. Here, we present a draft genome sequence from a 35,000-year-old wolf from the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia. We find that this individual belonged to a population that diverged from the common ancestor of present-day wolves and dogs very close in time to the appearance of the domestic dog lineage. We use the directly dated ancient wolf genome to recalibrate the molecular timescale of wolves and dogs and find that the mutation rate is substantially slower than assumed by most previous studies, suggesting that the ancestors of dogs were separated from present-day wolves before the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find evidence of introgression from the archaic Taimyr wolf lineage into present-day dog breeds from northeast Siberia and Greenland, contributing between 1.4% and 27.3% of their ancestry. This demonstrates that the ancestry of present-day dogs is derived from multiple regional wolf populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence that CRABS CLAW and TOUSLED have conserved their roles in carpel development since the ancestor of the extant angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourquin, Chloé; Vinauger-Douard, Marion; Fogliani, Bruno; Dumas, Christian; Scutt, Charles P

    2005-03-22

    The carpel is the female reproductive organ specific to flowering plants. We aim to define the genes that controlled carpel development in the common ancestor of this group as a step toward determining the molecular events that were responsible for the evolution of the carpel. CRABS CLAW (CRC) and TOUSLED (TSL) control important aspects of carpel development in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. The basal angiosperm species Amborella trichopoda and Cabomba aquatica very likely represent the two most early diverging groups of flowering plants. We have identified putative orthologues of CRC and TSL from A. trichopoda and C. aquatica, respectively. We demonstrate the expression patterns of these genes in carpels to be very highly conserved, both spatially and temporally, with those of their Arabidopsis orthologues. We argue that CRC and TSL in Arabidopsis are likely to have conserved their respective roles in carpel development since the common ancestor of the living flowering plants. We conclude that a divergent role shown for the CRC orthologue in rice, DROOPING LEAF, most probably arose specifically in the monocot lineage. We show that, in addition to its expression in carpels, the TSL orthologue of C. aquatica is expressed in tissues that contribute to buoyancy and argue that its role in these tissues may have arisen later than its role in carpel development.

  18. Spatial and temporal arrival patterns of Madagascar's vertebrate fauna explained by distance, ocean currents, and ancestor type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

    2012-01-01

    How, when, and from where Madagascar's vertebrates arrived on the island is poorly known, and a comprehensive explanation for the distribution of its organisms has yet to emerge. We begin to break that impasse by analyzing vertebrate arrival patterns implied by currently existing taxa. For each of 81 clades, we compiled arrival date, source, and ancestor type (obligate freshwater, terrestrial, facultative swimmer, or volant). We analyzed changes in arrival rates, with and without adjusting for clade extinction. Probability of successful transoceanic dispersal is negatively correlated with distance traveled and influenced by ocean currents and ancestor type. Obligate rafters show a decrease in probability of successful transoceanic dispersal from the Paleocene onward, reaching the lowest levels after the mid-Miocene. This finding is consistent with a paleoceanographic model [Ali JR, Huber M (2010) Nature 463:653–656] that predicts Early Cenozoic surface currents periodically conducive to rafting or swimming from Africa, followed by a reconfiguration to present-day flow 15–20 million years ago that significantly diminished the ability for transoceanic dispersal to Madagascar from the adjacent mainland. PMID:22431643

  19. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  20. Exploring the genetic and adaptive diversity of a pan-Mediterranean crop wild relative: narrow-leafed lupin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi-Derazmahalleh, Mahsa; Bayer, Philipp E; Nevado, Bruno; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Filatov, Dmitry; Kilian, Andrzej; Kamphuis, Lars G; Singh, Karam B; Berger, Jens D; Hane, James K; Edwards, David; Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N

    2018-01-20

    This first pan-Mediterranean analysis of genetic diversity in wild narrow-leafed lupin revealed strong East-West genetic differentiation of populations, an historic eastward migration, and signatures of genetic adaptation to climatic variables. Most grain crops suffer from a narrow genetic base, which limits their potential for adapting to new challenges such as increased stresses associated with climate change. Plant breeders are returning to the wild ancestors of crops and their close relatives to broaden the genetic base of their crops. Understanding the genetic adaptation of these wild relatives will help plant breeders most effectively use available wild diversity. Here, we took narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) as a model to understand adaptation in a wild crop ancestor. A set of 142 wild accessions of narrow-leafed lupin from across the Mediterranean basin were subjected to genotyping-by-sequencing using Diversity Arrays Technology. Phylogenetic, linkage disequilibrium and demographic analyses were employed to explore the history of narrow-leafed lupin within the Mediterranean region. We found strong genetic differentiation between accessions from the western and eastern Mediterranean, evidence of an historic West to East migration, and that eastern Mediterranean narrow-leafed lupin experienced a severe and recent genetic bottleneck. We showed that these two populations differ for flowering time as a result of local adaptation, with the West flowering late while the East flowers early. A genome-wide association study identified single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with climatic adaptation. Resolving the origin of wild narrow-leafed lupin and how its migration has induced adaptation to specific regions of the Mediterranean serves as a useful resource not only for developing narrow-leafed lupin cultivars with greater resilience to a changing climate, but also as a model which can be applied to other legumes.

  1. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  2. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  3. Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyma, Katie E; Saerens, Sofie M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Fay, Justin C

    2011-11-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea that wine making strains have been domesticated for wine production. In this study, we demonstrate that humans can distinguish between wines produced using wine strains and wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as its sibling species, Saccharomyces paradoxus. Wine strains produced wine with fruity and floral characteristics, whereas wild strains produced wine with earthy and sulfurous characteristics. The differences that we observe between wine and wild strains provides further evidence that wine strains have evolved phenotypes that are distinct from their wild ancestors and relevant to their use in wine production. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyma, Katie E; Saerens, Sofie M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Fay, Justin C

    2011-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea that wine making strains have been domesticated for wine production. In this study, we demonstrate that humans can distinguish between wines produced using wine strains and wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as its sibling species, Saccharomyces paradoxus. Wine strains produced wine with fruity and floral characteristics, whereas wild strains produced wine with earthy and sulfurous characteristics. The differences that we observe between wine and wild strains provides further evidence that wine strains have evolved phenotypes that are distinct from their wild ancestors and relevant to their use in wine production. PMID:22093681

  5. Wild McEliece Incognito

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Lange, Tanja; Peters, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    The wild McEliece cryptosystem uses wild Goppa codes over nite elds to achieve smaller public key sizes compared to the original McEliece cryptosystem at the same level of security against all attacks known. However, the cryptosystem drops one of the condence-inspiring shields built into the orig...

  6. Ancestors of two-spirits: Historical depictions of Native North American gender-crossing women through critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmilä, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Letters written by Christian men of European origin during the sixteenth-nineteenth centuries contain brief descriptions of gender-crossing individuals among indigenous Americans. Although now considered ethnocentrically biased because of the etic positioning of their authors, these historical sources are invaluable because they offer a glimpse of the ancestors of modern-day two-spirits. An application of critical discourse analysis to three depictions of gender-crossing females from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries demonstrates that such women were favorably portrayed. These results differ dramatically from those obtained from my similar analysis of depictions of gender-crossing males. It also became evident that the three descriptions of gender-crossing women were not based on actual observations, but only on hearsay, which makes their use as primary sources questionable.

  7. A molecular palaeobiological hypothesis for the origin of aplacophoran molluscs and their derivation from chiton-like ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Jakob; Sperling, Erik A; Briggs, Derek E G; Peterson, Kevin J

    2012-04-07

    Aplacophorans have long been argued to be basal molluscs. We present a molecular phylogeny, including the aplacophorans Neomeniomorpha (Solenogastres) and Chaetodermomorpha (Caudofoveata), which recovered instead the clade Aculifera (Aplacophora + Polyplacophora). Our relaxed Bayesian molecular clock estimates an Early Ordovician appearance of the aculiferan crown group consistent with the presence of chiton-like molluscs with seven or eight dorsal shell plates by the Late Cambrian (approx. 501-490 Ma). Molecular, embryological and palaeontological data indicate that aplacophorans, as well as chitons, evolved from a paraphyletic assemblage of chiton-like ancestors. The recovery of cephalopods as a sister group to aculiferans suggests that the plesiomorphic condition in molluscs might be a morphology similar to that found in monoplacophorans.

  8. "While we are questioning we are progressing"—A Reply to the Ancestors of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Götsch

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available REICHERTZ' reflections on the development of qualitative research during the Berlin Meeting on Qualitative Research Methods in 2009 (http://www.berliner-methodentreffen.de/ have led to the following central questions: Are we facing the end of critical social research? Is this possible end correlated with an uncritical mass of young scientists? In their reply to the ancestors of qualitative research the present authors advocate the abolition of a bipolar thinking about the issues and support a hybrid turn, standing the test through a fundamentally open-minded, reflexive, and deconstructive researcher`s attitude. Using the example of ethnography and gender studies we show that there are indeed opportunities for the future of critical social research: This approach would take place beyond the slaves of market-controlled contract research and ahead of the characters of the eternal hall of fame of social research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903306

  9. Newcastle disease virus in Madagascar: identification of an original genotype possibly deriving from a died out ancestor of genotype IV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier F Maminiaina

    Full Text Available In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence analyses, the NDV Malagasy isolates form a cluster distant enough to constitute a new genotype hereby proposed as genotype XI. This new genotype is presumably deriving from an ancestor close to genotype IV introduced in the island probably more than 50 years ago. Our data show also that all the previously described neutralising epitopes are conserved between Malagasy and vaccine strains. However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed.

  10. The Wilde analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) took on the challenge of teaching us how to live artfully. From the dynamic successes and tragedies of his own life Oscar knew that everything worthy of existence is worthy of art, including its ugliness and suffering. Oscar observed much about human nature, especially his own, in an era when convention was not challenged, knowledge was taught and appearances were everything. For him, "The supreme vice is shallowness."(1) Society and psychoanalysis can still be honored and shaken by his words. The paradoxical and complex nature of Oscar's insights was as good as any coming from a thoughtful psychoanalyst. After the first two attempts to write about Oscar fell flat, it became clear that I must engage with him and try to match the unsparing commitment to explore his unconscious and interior life. In the process of creating the array of sketches of my psychoanalytic encounters with Oscar, I also found the words to describe what drew me to the field some 20 years ago-the art of psychoanalysis.

  11. The last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA): acquisition of cytoskeletal motility from aerotolerant spirochetes in the Proterozoic Eon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Lynn; Chapman, Michael; Guerrero, Ricardo; Hall, John

    2006-08-29

    We develop a symbiogenetic concept of the origin of eukaryotic intracellular motility systems from anaerobic but aerotolerant spirochetes in sulfide-rich environments. The last eukaryotic common ancestors (LECAs) have extant archaeprotist descendants: motile nucleated cells with Embden-Meyerhof glycolysis and substrate-level phosphorylation that lack the alpha-proteobacterial symbiont that became the mitochondrion. Swimming and regulated O(2)-tolerance via sulfide oxidation already had been acquired by sulfidogenic wall-less archaebacteria (thermoplasmas) after aerotolerant cytoplasmic-tubule-containing spirochetes (eubacteria) attached to them. Increasing stability of sulfide-oxidizing/sulfur-reducing consortia analogous to extant sulfur syntrophies (Thiodendron) led to fusion. The eubacteria-archaebacteria symbiosis became permanent as the nucleus evolved by prokaryotic recombination with membrane hypertrophy, analogous to Gemmata obscuriglobus and other delta-proteobacteria with membrane-bounded nucleoids. Histone-coated DNA, protein-synthetic RNAs, amino-acylating, and other enzymes were contributed by the sulfidogen whereas most intracellular motility derives from the spirochete. From this redox syntrophy in anoxic and microoxic Proterozoic habitats LECA evolved. The nucleus originated by recombination of eu- and archaebacterial DNA that remained attached to eubacterial motility structures and became the microtubular cytoskeleton, including the mitotic apparatus. Direct LECA descendants include free-living archaeprotists in anoxic environments: archamoebae, metamonads, parabasalids, and some mammalian symbionts with mitosomes. LECA later acquired the fully aerobic Krebs cycle-oxidative phosphorylation-mitochondrial metabolism by integration of the protomitochondrion, a third alpha-proteobacterial symbiont from which the ancestors to most protoctists, all fungi, plants, and animals evolved. Secondarily anaerobic eukaryotes descended from LECA after integration

  12. The backbone of the post-synaptic density originated in a unicellular ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoans

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    Manuel Michaël

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics of the early diverging metazoan lineages and of their unicellular sister-groups opens new window to reconstructing the genetic changes which preceded or accompanied the evolution of multicellular body plans. A recent analysis found that the genome of the nerve-less sponges encodes the homologues of most vertebrate post-synaptic proteins. In vertebrate excitatory synapses, these proteins assemble to form the post-synaptic density, a complex molecular platform linking membrane receptors, components of their signalling pathways, and the cytoskeleton. Newly available genomes from Monosiga brevicollis (a member of Choanoflagellata, the closest unicellular relatives of animals and Trichoplax adhaerens (a member of Placozoa: besides sponges, the only nerve-less metazoans offer an opportunity to refine our understanding of post-synaptic protein evolution. Results Searches for orthologous proteins and reconstruction of gene gains/losses based on the taxon phylogeny indicate that post-synaptic proteins originated in two main steps. The backbone scaffold proteins (Shank, Homer, DLG and some of their partners were acquired in a unicellular ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoans. A substantial additional set appeared in an exclusive ancestor of the Metazoa. The placozoan genome contains most post-synaptic genes but lacks some of them. Notably, the master-scaffold protein Shank might have been lost secondarily in the placozoan lineage. Conclusions The time of origination of most post-synaptic proteins was not concomitant with the acquisition of synapses or neural-like cells. The backbone of the scaffold emerged in a unicellular context and was probably not involved in cell-cell communication. Based on the reconstructed protein composition and potential interactions, its ancestral function could have been to link calcium signalling and cytoskeleton regulation. The complex later became integrated into the evolving

  13. Chasing ghosts: allopolyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) from its only diploid congener and an unknown ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Hu, Quanjun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Qian; Abbott, Richard J; Liu, Jianquan

    2017-06-01

    Reconstructing the origin of a polyploid species is particularly challenging when an ancestor has become extinct. Under such circumstances, the extinct donor of a genome found in the polyploid may be treated as a 'ghost' species in that its prior existence is recognized through the presence of its genome in the polyploid. In this study, we aimed to determine the polyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (2n = 40) for which only one congeneric species is known, that is diploid O. digyna (2n = 14). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), transcriptome, phylogenetic and demographic analyses, and ecological niche modelling were conducted for this purpose. GISH revealed that O. sinensis comprised 14 chromosomes from O. digyna and 26 chromosomes from an unknown ancestor. Transcriptome analysis indicated that following divergence from O. digyna, involving genome duplication around 12 million years ago (Ma), a second genome duplication occurred approximately 6 Ma to give rise to O. sinensis. Oxyria sinensis was shown to contain homologous gene sequences divergent from those present in O. digyna in addition to a set that clustered with those in O. digyna. Coalescent simulations indicated that O. sinensis expanded its distribution approximately 6-7 Ma, possibly following the second polyploidization event, whereas O. digyna expanded its range much later. It was also indicated that the distributions of both species contracted and re-expanded during the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Ecological niche modelling similarly suggested that both species experienced changes in their distributional ranges in response to Quaternary climatic changes. The extinction of the unknown 'ghost' tetraploid species implicated in the origin of O. sinensis could have resulted from superior adaptation of O. sinensis to repeated climatic changes in the region where it now occurs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eZachow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8% than for sugar beet (≤57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  15. The Peoples of the Steppe Frontier in Early Chinese Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin G. Pulleyblank

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Nascent Chinese civilization once shared the north China plain and the surrounding uplands with various non-Chinese “barbarians”. The Chinese language itself is related to the Tibeto-Burman language family. Some of the “barbarians” to the west belonged to this group, especially the Qiang. Of the major non-Chinese groups, the Yi, along the eastern seaboard, probably spoke an Austroasiatic language. They can be identified with a series of coastal Neolithic cultures, elements of which contributed much to the formation of Chinese civilization in the Central Plain. It has often been assumed that the non-Chinese in the north uplands, the Di and Xiongnu – in Han times nomadic rulers of the steppes of Mongolia – spoke Altaic languages. Although there is good reason to think that the Hu did speak Altaic (i.e. Mongolic, the Xiongnu, first seen in the Ordos and linked to the earlier Yiqu, were linguistically quite different. Their language may have been Yeniseian or an aberrant form of Tibeto-Burman, or without living relatives. In Han times, when hu had become a general term for horse-riding nomads, applied especially to the Xiongnu, the original Hu became known as the Eastern Hu. They were differentiated in Han sources into the Xianbei (*Särbi, ancestors of the historical Mongols, and the Wuhuan (*Awar, a name recognizable as that of the Avars who invaded Europe in the sixth century. The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples that can be identified in Chinese sources are the Dingling, Gekun or Jiankun, and Xinli, located in South Siberia. The nomadic power immediately to the west of the Xiongnu in Han times were the Yuezhi. When the Xiongnu defeated them, their main body moved west, eventually to the Amu Darya, extinguishing the Greek kingdom in Bactria and later establishing the Kushan empire. It is argued that they were Indo-Europeans, speaking a Tocharian language of the type attested in later documents from the oasis states of the Tarim basin

  16. [Theory and practice of bionic cultivation of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dahui; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Lanping; Shao, Aijuan; Chen, Meilan

    2009-03-01

    The bionic cultivation of medicinal plant is an ecological cultivation pattern, which is adopting ecological engineering and modern agricultural techniques to simulate the natural ecosystem of wild medicinal plant community, and has been given greater attention on the agriculture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is also the cross subject that combines Chinese traditional medicine, agronomy, horticulture, ecology, agricultural engineering and management. Moreover, it has significant technology advantages of promoting the sustainable utilization of medicinal plant resources, improving the ecological environment and harmonizing man and nature. So it's important to develop the bionic cultivation of TCM.

  17. Wild dogma II: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Allen (2011 and Allen et al. (2011 recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6: 737–740, 2011].

  18. One ancestor for two codes viewed from the perspective of two complementary modes of tRNA aminoacylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szathmáry Eörs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic code is brought into action by 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes are evenly divided into two classes (I and II that recognize tRNAs from the minor and major groove sides of the acceptor stem, respectively. We have reported recently that: (1 ribozymic precursors of the synthetases seem to have used the same two sterically mirror modes of tRNA recognition, (2 having these two modes might have helped in preventing erroneous aminoacylation of ancestral tRNAs with complementary anticodons, yet (3 the risk of confusion for the presumably earliest pairs of complementarily encoded amino acids had little to do with anticodons. Accordingly, in this communication we focus on the acceptor stem. Results Our main result is the emergence of a palindrome structure for the acceptor stem's common ancestor, reconstructed from the phylogenetic trees of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. In parallel, for pairs of ancestral tRNAs with complementary anticodons, we present updated evidence of concerted complementarity of the second bases in the acceptor stems. These two results suggest that the first pairs of "complementary" amino acids that were engaged in primordial coding, such as Gly and Ala, could have avoided erroneous aminoacylation if and only if the acceptor stems of their adaptors were recognized from the same, major groove, side. The class II protein synthetases then inherited this "primary preference" from isofunctional ribozymes. Conclusion Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the genetic code per se (the one associated with the anticodons and the operational code of aminoacylation (associated with the acceptor diverged from a common ancestor that probably began developing before translation. The primordial advantage of linking some amino acids (most likely glycine and alanine to the ancestral acceptor stem may have been selective retention in a protocell surrounded by a leaky membrane for use in

  19. One ancestor for two codes viewed from the perspective of two complementary modes of tRNA aminoacylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Andrei S; Szathmáry, Eörs; Rodin, Sergei N

    2009-01-27

    The genetic code is brought into action by 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes are evenly divided into two classes (I and II) that recognize tRNAs from the minor and major groove sides of the acceptor stem, respectively. We have reported recently that: (1) ribozymic precursors of the synthetases seem to have used the same two sterically mirror modes of tRNA recognition, (2) having these two modes might have helped in preventing erroneous aminoacylation of ancestral tRNAs with complementary anticodons, yet (3) the risk of confusion for the presumably earliest pairs of complementarily encoded amino acids had little to do with anticodons. Accordingly, in this communication we focus on the acceptor stem. Our main result is the emergence of a palindrome structure for the acceptor stem's common ancestor, reconstructed from the phylogenetic trees of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. In parallel, for pairs of ancestral tRNAs with complementary anticodons, we present updated evidence of concerted complementarity of the second bases in the acceptor stems. These two results suggest that the first pairs of "complementary" amino acids that were engaged in primordial coding, such as Gly and Ala, could have avoided erroneous aminoacylation if and only if the acceptor stems of their adaptors were recognized from the same, major groove, side. The class II protein synthetases then inherited this "primary preference" from isofunctional ribozymes. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the genetic code per se (the one associated with the anticodons) and the operational code of aminoacylation (associated with the acceptor) diverged from a common ancestor that probably began developing before translation. The primordial advantage of linking some amino acids (most likely glycine and alanine) to the ancestral acceptor stem may have been selective retention in a protocell surrounded by a leaky membrane for use in nucleotide and coenzyme synthesis. Such acceptor stems

  20. Current distribution and characterization of the wild grapevine populations in Andalusia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantos, Manuel; Arroyo-García, Rosa; García, José Luis; Lara, Miguel; Morales, Ramón; López, María Ángeles; Gallardo, Antonio; Ocete, Carlos Alvar; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Valle, José Manuel; Vaca, Ramón; González-Maestro, Magdalena; Bánáti, Hajnalka; Ocete, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    For decades, human activities have gradually destroyed the natural habitats of wild grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi, and nowadays this species is endangered in southern Europe. In this paper, 94 populations of this species have been localized and characterized in the Andalusian region in the Iberian Peninsula between 1989 and 2013. Location, ecological aspects, and sanitary characteristics are described. Must properties and in vitro tolerance to calcareous conditions were also checked. The paper also contains a global description of female and male individuals. Two hundred individuals from six river basin populations have been sampled, and their genetic structure analyzed by using 25 nuclear microsatellites loci to investigate the gene diversity of wild grape populations in Andalusia at two levels: total individuals and at river basin populations. Also, the genetic relationship of wild and cultivated accessions has been tested. Wild grapevine is considered the ancestor of the cultivated varieties and should be preserved as this material could be used to start breeding programs of cultivated varieties and also to restore riverbank forests, which constitute one of the worst preserved ecosystems in the area. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Redefining Religious Nones: Lessons from Chinese and Japanese American Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Jeung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.

  2. Population structure of the wild soybean (Glycine soja) in China: implications from microsatellite analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Juan; Liu, Yifei; Wang, Yunsheng; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yinghui; Huang, Hongwen; Qiu, Lijuan; Wang, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja), a native species of East Asia, is the closest wild relative of the cultivated soybean (G. max) and supplies valuable genetic resources for cultivar breeding. Analyses of the genetic variation and population structure of wild soybean are fundamental for effective conservation studies and utilization of this valuable genetic resource. In this study, 40 wild soybean populations from China were genotyped with 20 microsatellites to investigate the natural population structure and genetic diversity. These results were integrated with previous microsatellite analyses for 231 representative individuals from East Asia to investigate the genetic relationships of wild soybeans from China. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 43·92 % of the molecular variance occurred within populations, although relatively low genetic diversity was detected for natural wild soybean populations. Most of the populations exhibited significant effects of a genetic bottleneck. Principal co-ordinate analysis, construction of a Neighbor-Joining tree and Bayesian clustering indicated two main genotypic clusters of wild soybean from China. The wild soybean populations, which are distributed in north-east and south China, separated by the Huang-Huai Valley, displayed similar genotypes, whereas those populations from the Huang-Huai Valley were different. The previously unknown population structure of the natural populations of wild soybean distributed throughout China was determined. Two evolutionarily significant units were defined and further analysed by combining genetic diversity and structure analyses from Chinese populations with representative samples from Eastern Asia. The study suggests that during the glacial period there may have been an expansion route between south-east and north-east China, via the temperate forests in the East China Sea Land Bridge, which resulted in similar genotypes of wild soybean populations from these regions. Genetic

  3. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges (Porifera): an ancestor cell-cell adhesion event based on the carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Eduardo; Coutinho, Cristiano C; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-08-01

    Marine sponges (Porifera) are ancient and simple eumetazoans. They constitute key organisms in the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals. We now demonstrated that pure sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges are responsible for the species-specific cell-cell interaction in these invertebrates. This conclusion was based on the following observations: (1) each species of marine sponge has a single population of sulfated polysaccharide, which differ among the species in their sugar composition and sulfate content; (2) sulfated polysaccharides from sponge interact with each other in a species-specific way, as indicated by an affinity chromatography assay, and this interaction requires calcium; (3) homologous, but not heterologous, sulfated polysaccharide inhibits aggregation of dissociated sponge cells; (4) we also observed a parallel between synthesis of the sulfated polysaccharide and formation of large aggregates of sponge cells, known as primmorphs. Once aggregation reached a plateau, the demand for the de novo synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides ceased. Heparin can mimic the homologous sulfated polysaccharide on the in vitro interaction and also as an inhibitor of aggregation of the dissociated sponge cells. However, this observation is not relevant for the biology of the sponge since heparin is not found in the invertebrate. In conclusion, marine sponges display an ancestor event of cell-cell adhesion, based on the calcium-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

  4. No known hominin species matches the expected dental morphology of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Polly, P. David

    2013-01-01

    A central problem in paleoanthropology is the identity of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans ([N-MH]LCA). Recently developed analytical techniques now allow this problem to be addressed using a probabilistic morphological framework. This study provides a quantitative reconstruction of the expected dental morphology of the [N-MH]LCA and an assessment of whether known fossil species are compatible with this ancestral position. We show that no known fossil species is a suitable candidate for being the [N-MH]LCA and that all late Early and Middle Pleistocene taxa from Europe have Neanderthal dental affinities, pointing to the existence of a European clade originated around 1 Ma. These results are incongruent with younger molecular divergence estimates and suggest at least one of the following must be true: (i) European fossils and the [N-MH]LCA selectively retained primitive dental traits; (ii) molecular estimates of the divergence between Neanderthals and modern humans are underestimated; or (iii) phenotypic divergence and speciation between both species were decoupled such that phenotypic differentiation, at least in dental morphology, predated speciation. PMID:24145426

  5. Strong Selective Sweeps on the X Chromosome in the Human-Chimpanzee Ancestor Explain Its Low Divergence.

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    Julien Y Dutheil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The human and chimpanzee X chromosomes are less divergent than expected based on autosomal divergence. We study incomplete lineage sorting patterns between humans, chimpanzees and gorillas to show that this low divergence can be entirely explained by megabase-sized regions comprising one-third of the X chromosome, where polymorphism in the human-chimpanzee ancestral species was severely reduced. We show that background selection can explain at most 10% of this reduction of diversity in the ancestor. Instead, we show that several strong selective sweeps in the ancestral species can explain it. We also report evidence of population specific sweeps in extant humans that overlap the regions of low diversity in the ancestral species. These regions further correspond to chromosomal sections shown to be devoid of Neanderthal introgression into modern humans. This suggests that the same X-linked regions that undergo selective sweeps are among the first to form reproductive barriers between diverging species. We hypothesize that meiotic drive is the underlying mechanism causing these two observations.

  6. Transcriptome analysis in Coffea eugenioides, an Arabica coffee ancestor, reveals differentially expressed genes in leaves and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Priscila Mary; Reis Júnior, Osvaldo; Ivamoto, Suzana Tiemi; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Charmetant, Pierre; Leroy, Thierry; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio

    2016-02-01

    Studies in diploid parental species of polyploid plants are important to understand their contributions to the formation of plant and species evolution. Coffea eugenioides is a diploid species that is considered to be an ancestor of allopolyploid Coffea arabica together with Coffea canephora. Despite its importance in the evolutionary history of the main economic species of coffee, no study has focused on C. eugenioides molecular genetics. RNA-seq creates the possibility to generate reference transcriptomes and identify coding genes and potential candidates related to important agronomic traits. Therefore, the main objectives were to obtain a global overview of transcriptionally active genes in this species using next-generation sequencing and to analyze specific genes that were highly expressed in leaves and fruits with potential exploratory characteristics for breeding and understanding the evolutionary biology of coffee. A de novo assembly generated 36,935 contigs that were annotated using eight databases. We observed a total of ~5000 differentially expressed genes between leaves and fruits. Several genes exclusively expressed in fruits did not exhibit similarities with sequences in any database. We selected ten differentially expressed unigenes in leaves and fruits to evaluate transcriptional profiles using qPCR. Our study provides the first gene catalog for C. eugenioides and enhances the knowledge concerning the mechanisms involved in the C. arabica homeologous. Furthermore, this work will open new avenues for studies into specific genes and pathways in this species, especially related to fruit, and our data have potential value in assisted breeding applications.

  7. Evolution from a respiratory ancestor to fill syntrophic and fermentative niches: comparative fenomics of six Geobacteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovley Derek R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic degradation of organic matter in natural environments, and the biotechnical use of anaerobes in energy production and remediation of subsurface environments, both require the cooperative activity of a diversity of microorganisms in different metabolic niches. The Geobacteraceae family contains members with three important anaerobic metabolisms: fermentation, syntrophic degradation of fermentation intermediates, and anaerobic respiration. Results In order to learn more about the evolution of anaerobic microbial communities, the genome sequences of six Geobacteraceae species were analyzed. The results indicate that the last common Geobacteraceae ancestor contained sufficient genes for anaerobic respiration, completely oxidizing organic compounds with the reduction of external electron acceptors, features that are still retained in modern Geobacter and Desulfuromonas species. Evolution of specialization for fermentative growth arose twice, via distinct lateral gene transfer events, in Pelobacter carbinolicus and Pelobacter propionicus. Furthermore, P. carbinolicus gained hydrogenase genes and genes for ferredoxin reduction that appear to permit syntrophic growth via hydrogen production. The gain of new physiological capabilities in the Pelobacter species were accompanied by the loss of several key genes necessary for the complete oxidation of organic compounds and the genes for the c-type cytochromes required for extracellular electron transfer. Conclusion The results suggest that Pelobacter species evolved parallel strategies to enhance their ability to compete in environments in which electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration were limiting. More generally, these results demonstrate how relatively few gene changes can dramatically transform metabolic capabilities and expand the range of environments in which microorganisms can compete.

  8. The cult of amphioxus in German Darwinism; or, our gelatinous ancestors in Naples' blue and balmy bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Biologists having rediscovered amphioxus, also known as the lancelet or Branchiostoma, it is time to reassess its place in early Darwinist debates over vertebrate origins. While the advent of the ascidian-amphioxus theory and challenges from various competitors have been, documented, this article offers a richer account of the public appeal of amphioxus as a primitive ancestor. The focus is on how the 'German Darwin' Ernst Haeckel persuaded general magazine and newspaper readers to revere this "flesh of our flesh and blood of our blood", and especially on Das neue Laienbrevier des Haeckelismus (The new lay breviary of Haeckelism) by Moritz Reymond with cartoons by Fritz Steub. From the late 1870s these successful little books of verse introduced the Neapolitan discoveries that made the animal's name and satirized Haeckel's rise as high priest of its cult. One song is reproduced and translated here, with a contemporary "imitation" by the Canadian palaeontologist Edward John Chapman, and extracts from others. Predating the American "It's a long way from amphioxus" by decades, these rhymes dramatize neglected 'species politics' of Darwinism and highlight the roles of humour in negotiating evolution.

  9. Giant viruses coexisted with the cellular ancestors and represent a distinct supergroup along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya

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    Nasir Arshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of giant viruses with genome and physical size comparable to cellular organisms, remnants of protein translation machinery and virus-specific parasites (virophages have raised intriguing questions about their origin. Evidence advocates for their inclusion into global phylogenomic studies and their consideration as a distinct and ancient form of life. Results Here we reconstruct phylogenies describing the evolution of proteomes and protein domain structures of cellular organisms and double-stranded DNA viruses with medium-to-very-large proteomes (giant viruses. Trees of proteomes define viruses as a ‘fourth supergroup’ along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Trees of domains indicate they have evolved via massive and primordial reductive evolutionary processes. The distribution of domain structures suggests giant viruses harbor a significant number of protein domains including those with no cellular representation. The genomic and structural diversity embedded in the viral proteomes is comparable to the cellular proteomes of organisms with parasitic lifestyles. Since viral domains are widespread among cellular species, we propose that viruses mediate gene transfer between cells and crucially enhance biodiversity. Conclusions Results call for a change in the way viruses are perceived. They likely represent a distinct form of life that either predated or coexisted with the last universal common ancestor (LUCA and constitute a very crucial part of our planet’s biosphere.

  10. Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology VII: The Relative Utility of ``Ancestor Analysis'' from Scientific and Educational Vantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Michael Andrew

    2008-05-01

    This article discusses, from various vantages, Ryan Tweney’s (this issue) pedagogical technique of employing historical replications of psychological experiments with graduate students in psychology. A prima facie perspective suggests great promise for this sort of academic “ancestor analysis,” particularly given the enthusiasm and skill represented in the activities that culminated in the replicators’ articles. It is suggested that such activities might be enhanced by requiring a contextualization that makes contact with more modern psychological research—particularly regarding expositions of the replications. From a scientific/cognitive methods perspective, the original experimenters’ inexplicit, ambiguous, descriptions provide both challenges and opportunities for students seeking to improve their understandings of their field. Three practical questions are posed herein regarding the general utility of this—or any—proposed instructional intervention. Ultimately, determining and integrating the diverse objectives that essential stakeholders have in graduate psychological training represent critical prerequisites in comprehensively assessing the relative advantages of such historical replications with respect to alternative experiences.

  11. B1 was the ancestor B chromosome variant in the western Mediterranean area in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, J; López-León, M D; Ruíz-Estévez, M; Gómez, R; Petitpierre, E; Rufas, J S; Massa, B; Kamel Ben Halima, M; Camacho, J P M

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of 2 repetitive DNAs, i.e. ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and a satellite DNA (satDNA), on the B chromosomes found in 17 natural populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis ploransplorans sampled around the western Mediterranean region, including the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Sicily, and Tunisia. Based on the amount of these repetitive DNAs, 4 types of B variants were found: B1, showing an equal or higher amount of rDNA than satDNA, and 3 other variants, B2, B24 and B5, bearing a higher amount of satDNA than rDNA. The variants B1 and B2 varied in size among populations: B1 was about half the size of the X chromosome in Balearic Islands, but two-thirds of the X in Iberian populations at Alicante, Murcia and Albacete provinces. Likewise, B2 was about one-third the size of the X chromosome in populations from the Granada province but half the size of the X in the populations collected at Málaga province. The widespread geographical distribution of the B1 variant makes it the best candidate for being the ancestor B chromosome in the whole western Mediterranean region. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Identification of brachyspina syndrome carriers in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Dongxiao; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Shengli

    2013-07-01

    Brachyspina syndrome (BS) is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive hereditary disorder identified in the Holstein breed caused by a 3.3-kb deletion in the bovine Fanconi anemia complementation group I (FANCI) gene on chromosome 21. In previous reports, the BS mutant allele was identified in North American and European Holstein populations. Because frozen semen and embryos have been imported into China from such regions during the past few years, BS has potentially spread into the dairy cattle population in China. In the present study, 206 Holstein bulls and 136 Holstein cows were tested for BS, with 10 BS carrier bulls and 3 carrier cows identified. Pedigree analysis showed that all 10 BS carrier bulls could be traced back to a common ancestor, the U.S. Holstein sire Sweet Haven Tradition. It is recommended that effective selection and mating strategies should be carried out to gradually eliminate this recessive gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  13. The Chinese Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, N.; Segan, S.

    2009-09-01

    In this article we try to answer the question how and why did Chinese ancient astronomy came into being and how did one lonesome and original calendar system on the very end of the world develop. At the beginning, Chinese people distinguished time of the year by the annual cycles of plants and animals, but soon began to determine seasons by observing celestial bodies. Early successful measuring of tropical year and synodic month made possible for Chinese people to issue first calendars very early. Spring and Autumn (Chunqiu) period (770 - 476 BC) brought forward first official calendars. Further improvement of calendars is due to the development of new astronomical instruments. Chinese calendars also originate from the metaphysical concepts of Qi, Yin-Yang and 5 elements. 5 elements were connected with Chinese 5 seasons of the year and this was the first form of solar calendar. Later, it developed into solar calendar with 10 months. In the next phase, Chinese calendar turned into lunisolar calendar which also has its evolution. Chinese people invented Calendar "with division by four" (the name of this calendar). They also added 24 solar terms to make calendar harmonize with natural cycles. Li Chunfeng rearranged intercalations and used month without main solar term and divided months into short and long months. Sexagesimal system of time measuring refers to the system of Chinese 10 Heavenly Stems and 12 Earthly Branches. Its purpose is to measure time and define years, months, days and hours.

  14. On Developing Business Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  15. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  16. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  17. Commemorating the Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Stevie; Williams, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The festivals of Mexico are renowned for their colorful decorations, energetic music, exuberant parades, and cultural significance. "Los Dias de los Muertos," the Days of the Dead, is no exception. Often misunderstood by those who live elsewhere, this festival commemorating the dead is one of Mexico's most important holidays. As Americans prepare…

  18. Aping our ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennos, Roland

    2014-08-01

    Roland Ennos argues that the abilities of the great apes to cope in the dangerous mechanical environment of the forest canopy are part of the human species' intellectual inheritance and are intimately connected with our abilities as physicists.

  19. The Ancestor as Subtext

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Broeck

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This text has grown out of my love of and respect for Toni Morrison's work. It is supposed to be−however much it might take the shape of a critical reading−very much my homage to the work of a writer who has made some of the most articulate and publicly visible moves to satisfy a communal desire for the African-American memory, and to create, if sites of stone and marble have been lacking, fictional spaces as "monuments" to the black diaspora in the New World. It is also a piece of work that ...

  20. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  1. Serological and Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti in the Blood of Rescued Wild Animals in Gangwon-do (Province), Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jong; Jeong, Young-Il; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Jong-Tak; Lee, Sang-Eun

    2017-04-01

    Infections of Toxoplasma gondii and Babesia microti are reported in many wild animals worldwide, but information on their incidence and molecular detection in Korean wild fields is limited. In this study, the prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti infection in blood samples of 5 animal species (37 Chinese water deer, 23 raccoon dogs, 6 roe deer, 1 wild boar, and 3 Eurasian badgers) was examined during 2008-2009 in Gangwon-do (Province), the Republic of Korea (=Korea) by using serological and molecular tests. The overall seropositivity of T. gondii was 8.6% (6/70); 10.8% in Chinese water deer, 4.3% in raccoon dogs, and 16.7% in roe deer. PCR revealed only 1 case of T. gondii infection in Chinese water deer, and phylogenic analysis showed that the positive isolate was practically identical to the highly pathogenetic strain type I. In B. microti PCR, the positive rate was 5.7% (4/70), including 2 Chinese water deer and 2 Eurasian badgers. Phylogenetic analysis results of 18S rRNA and the β-tubulin gene showed that all positive isolates were US-type B. microti. To our knowledge, this is the first report of B. microti detected in Chinese water deer and Eurasian badger from Korea. These results indicate a potentially high prevalence of T. gondii and B. microti in wild animals of Gangwon-do, Korea. Furthermore, Chinese water deer might act as a reservoir for parasite infections of domestic animals.

  2. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example,

  3. The Chinese negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John L; Lam, N Mark

    2003-10-01

    Most Westerners preparing for a business trip to China like to arm themselves with a list of etiquette how-tos. "Carry a boatload of business cards," tipsters say. "Bring your own interpreter." "Speak in short sentences." "Wear a conservative suit." Such advice can help get companies in the door and even through the first series of business transactions. But it won't sustain the prolonged, year-in, year-out associations Chinese and Western businesses can now achieve. The authors' work with dozens of companies and thousands of American and Chinese executives over the past 20 years has demonstrated that a superficial adherence to etiquette rules gets executives only so far. They have witnessed communication breakdowns between American and Chinese businesspeople time and time again. The root cause: the American side's failure to understand the much broader context of Chinese culture and values, a problem that too often leaves Western negotiators flummoxed and flailing. American and Chinese approaches often appear incompatible. Americans see Chinese negotiators as inefficient, indirect, and even dishonest, while the Chinese see American negotiators as aggressive, impersonal, and excitable. Such perceptions have deep cultural origins. Yet those who know how to navigate these differences can develop thriving, mutually profitable, and satisfying business relationships. Four cultural threads have bound the Chinese people together for some 5,000 years, and these show through in Chinese business negotiations. They are agrarianism, morality, the Chinese pictographic language, and wariness of strangers. Most Western businesspeople often find those elements mysterious and confusing. But ignore them at any time during the negotiation process, and the deal can easily fall apart.

  4. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  5. Sex differences in wild chimpanzee behavior emerge during infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth V Lonsdorf

    Full Text Available The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most detailed analyses of wild chimpanzee infant development to date, encompassing data from 40 infants from the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Our goal was to characterize age-related changes, from birth to five years of age, in the percent of observation time spent performing behaviors that represent important benchmarks in nutritional, motor, and social development, and to determine whether and in which behaviors sex differences occur. Sex differences were found for indicators of social behavior, motor development and spatial independence with males being more physically precocious and peaking in play earlier than females. These results demonstrate early sex differentiation that may reflect adult reproductive strategies. Our findings also resemble those found in humans, which suggests that biologically-based sex differences may have been present in the common ancestor and operated independently from the influences of modern sex-biased parental behavior and gender socialization.

  6. Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Turgay; Wu, Zhangyan; Sterck, Lieven; Turktas, Mine; Lohaus, Rolf; Li, Zhen; Yang, Ming; He, Lijuan; Deng, Tianquan; Escalante, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Carlos; Roig, Francisco J; Parmaksiz, Iskender; Dundar, Ekrem; Xie, Fuliang; Zhang, Baohong; Ipek, Arif; Uranbey, Serkan; Erayman, Mustafa; Ilhan, Emre; Badad, Oussama; Ghazal, Hassan; Lightfoot, David A; Kasarla, Pavan; Colantonio, Vincent; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Hernandez, Pilar; Mete, Nurengin; Cetin, Oznur; Van Montagu, Marc; Yang, Huanming; Gao, Qiang; Dorado, Gabriel; Van de Peer, Yves

    2017-10-31

    Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree ( Olea europaea var. sylvestris ), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at ∼28 and ∼59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neofunctionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2 , SACPD, EAR , and ACPTE , following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2 , 3 , 5 , and 7 , consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics.

  7. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J

    2016-08-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  8. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  9. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zeng

    Full Text Available To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  10. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both

  11. Classification of pmoA amplicon pyrosequences using BLAST and the lowest common ancestor method in MEGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gregory Dumont

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The classification of high-throughput sequencing data of protein-encoding genes is not as well established as for 16S rRNA. The objective of this work was to develop a simple and accurate method of classifying large datasets of pmoA sequences, a common marker for methanotrophic bacteria. A taxonomic system for pmoA was developed based on a phylogenetic analysis of available sequences. The taxonomy incorporates the known diversity of pmoA present in public databases, including both sequences from cultivated and uncultivated organisms. Representative sequences from closely related genes, such as those encoding the bacterial ammonia monooxygenase, were also included in the pmoA taxonomy. In total, 53 low-level taxa (genus-level are included. Using previously published datasets of high-throughput pmoA amplicon sequence data, we tested two approaches for classifying pmoA: a naïve Bayesian classifier and BLAST. Classification of pmoA sequences based on BLAST analyses was performed using the lowest common ancestor (LCA algorithm in MEGAN, a software program commonly used for the analysis of metagenomic data. Both the naïve Bayesian and BLAST methods were able to classify pmoA sequences and provided similar classifications; however, the naïve Bayesian classifier was prone to misclassifying contaminant sequences present in the datasets. Another advantage of the BLAST/LCA method was that it provided a user-interpretable output and enabled novelty detection at various levels, from highly divergent pmoA sequences to genus-level novelty.  

  12. Horizontal transfer of a subtilisin gene from plants into an ancestor of the plant pathogenic fungal genus Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos Jaramillo, Vinicio Danilo; Vargas, Walter Alberto; Sukno, Serenella Ana; Thon, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    The genus Colletotrichum contains a large number of phytopathogenic fungi that produce enormous economic losses around the world. The effect of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has not been studied yet in these organisms. Inter-Kingdom HGT into fungal genomes has been reported in the past but knowledge about the HGT between plants and fungi is particularly limited. We describe a gene in the genome of several species of the genus Colletotrichum with a strong resemblance to subtilisins typically found in plant genomes. Subtilisins are an important group of serine proteases, widely distributed in all of the kingdoms of life. Our hypothesis is that the gene was acquired by Colletotrichum spp. through (HGT) from plants to a Colletotrichum ancestor. We provide evidence to support this hypothesis in the form of phylogenetic analyses as well as a characterization of the similarity of the subtilisin at the primary, secondary and tertiary structural levels. The remarkable level of structural conservation of Colletotrichum plant-like subtilisin (CPLS) with plant subtilisins and the differences with the rest of Colletotrichum subtilisins suggests the possibility of molecular mimicry. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that the HGT event would have occurred approximately 150-155 million years ago, after the divergence of the Colletotrichum lineage from other fungi. Gene expression analysis shows that the gene is modulated during the infection of maize by C. graminicola suggesting that it has a role in plant disease. Furthermore, the upregulation of the CPLS coincides with the downregulation of several plant genes encoding subtilisins. Based on the known roles of subtilisins in plant pathogenic fungi and the gene expression pattern that we observed, we postulate that the CPLSs have an important role in plant infection.

  13. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket...... are symmetric when both valuations and budgets are symmetric. We also study Chinese auctions with discrete budgets, for which we give both existence results and counterexamples. While the literature on rent-seeking contests traditionally focuses on continuous costly tickets, the discrete variant is very natural...

  14. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  15. Wild Vietnamese relatives of blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    rom 25 October to 14 November 2015, wild relatives of cultivated blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, were collected during a Vietnamese-US cooperative expedition in Northern Vietnam. The exploration involved representatives of the Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in Han...

  16. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  17. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129 and Miy...

  18. Quantitative trait locus and haplotype analyses of wild and crop-mimic traits in U.S. weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mispan, Muhamad S; Zhang, Lihua; Feng, Jiuhuan; Gu, Xing-You

    2013-06-21

    Conspecific weeds retained characteristics from wild ancestors and also developed crop mimicries for adaptation and competitiveness. This research was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the wild and crop-mimic traits and to determine haplotype variants for QTL-rich regions in U.S. weedy rice. An F2 population from the cross between a cultivated (EM93-1) and a U.S. weedy (US1) rice line was evaluated for six wild and eight crop-mimic traits in a greenhouse to identify the QTL. A core collection of 27 U.S. weedy red rice lines and 14 AA-genome wild rice lines were determined for the haplotype variants. A total of 49 QTL were identified, with 45 collocated as clusters on 14 genomic segments. The number of haplotypes across the 14 segments was lower in the weedy (6.1 ± 2.4) than in the wild (7.5 ± 1.8) rice sample. Both samples shared ~50% haplotypes (wild-like). The EM93-1-like haplotypes accounted for a greater proportion (30 ± 26%) of the haplotypes in the weedy than in the wild (7 ± 10%) rice. Based on haplotype patterns for the 14 QTL cluster regions, 26 of the 28 red rice lines were clustered into two groups corresponding to the black-hull awned and straw-hull awnless morphological types, respectively. The QTL analysis demonstrated that conspecific weed-crop differentiation involved many genomic segments with multiple loci regulating natural variation for adaptation and competitiveness. The haplotype analysis revealed that U.S. weedy rice retained large blocks of linkage disequilibrium for the multiple loci from the wild relatives and also incorporated haplotypes from cultivars.

  19. Depression literacy among Australians of Chinese-speaking background in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poon Ada

    2010-01-01

    including "life stress" and "interpersonal conflict" were rated highly by the respondents, whereas traditional beliefs including "punishment for misdeeds conducted by ancestors" and "demon possession" had the lowest ratings. Conclusions Campaigns to increase the mental health literacy of Chinese-speaking Australians are needed. The abovementioned socially and culturally driven beliefs need to be taken into consideration in the development of culturally relevant education programs.

  20. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  1. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  2. On Being "Chinese Overseas"

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Juliette

    2006-01-01

    Two things characterize the ethnic Chinese overseas: their subjection to discrimination and their over-representation (relative to the local people in the place of destination) in self-employment and entrepreneurship (Chan Kwok-bun 2004:xiii). Much has been written on ethnic Chinese firms in Southeast Asia. A major part of the scholarly attention has gone into trying to understand and explain business success. As such the debate has for a long time, in a rather dichotomizing way, been di...

  3. Multivariable Chinese Remainder Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    a result is now called the Chinese Remainder. Theorem (CRT). From early times – perhaps, from the 1st century ... The Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) seems to have originated in the work of Sun-Tsu in the 3rd century. AD. ... If Mi denotes the product of all the mj's ex- cepting mi, then the GCD of mi and Mi is 1 for each.

  4. The Chinese in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y M; Chan, C

    1997-01-01

    "This research note offers a brief historical perspective on the relationship between Hong Kong and Britain and describes the demographic profile of the Chinese community in Britain...[using] information obtained from the 1991 [UK] Census.... The data analysis shows that the Chinese population is widely dispersed and increasing rapidly, and is characterised by a high child-bearing capacity and a low rate of unemployment." excerpt

  5. The effective population sizes of the anthropoid ancestors of the human-chimpanzee lineage provide insights on the historical biogeography of the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrago, Carlos G

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of methods that apply coalescent theory to phylogenetic problems has enabled the study of the population-level phenomena that drove the diversification of anthropoid primates. Effective population size, Ne, is one of the main parameters that constitute the theoretical underpinning of these new analytical approaches. For this reason, the ancestral N(e) of selected primate lineages has been thoroughly investigated. However, for some of these lineages, the estimates of ancestral N(e) reported in several studies present significant variation. This is the case for the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. Moreover, several ancestral anthropoid lineages have been ignored in the studies conducted so far. Because N(e) is fundamental to understand historic species demography, it is a crucial component of a complete description of the historical scenario of primate evolution. It also provides information that is helpful for differentiating between competing biogeographical hypotheses. In this study, the effective population sizes of the anthropoid ancestors of the human-chimp lineage are inferred using data sets of coding and noncoding sequences. A general pattern of a serial decline of population sizes is found between the ancestral lineage of Anthropoidea and that of Homo and Pan. When the theoretical distribution of gene trees was derived from the parametric estimates obtained, it closely corresponded to the empirical frequency of inferred gene trees along the genome. The most abrupt decrease of N(e) was found between the ancestors of all great apes and those of the African great apes alone. This suggests the occurrence of a genetic bottleneck during the evolution of Homininae, which corroborates the origin of African apes from a Eurasian ancestor.

  6. Chinese officers in Cirebon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Haryono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The city of Cirebon was not as large as Batavia (Jakarta or Semarang, but its location on the northern shore of Java made it an important harbour city from which the inland regions of the southern part of West Java could be serviced. As a harbour town, Cirebon became the regional centre of trade and commerce, and many Chinese immigrants settled there. As were other cities, Cirebon fell under the governance of the VOC and later of the Netherlands Indies administration A Chinese officer was appointed to deal with Chinese community issues in the region. With the exception of the well-known Major (Majoor der Chinezen Tan Tjin Kie, whose funeral is described in his son’s book, little is known about the other Chinese officers in Cirebon. Most publications concentrate on the Chinese officers in Batavia or Semarang or in other large cities. Numerous Chinese officers were appointed in Cirebon and in the surrounding regions. Many of them were members of four or five big families. This article describes their lives, families, and descendants, their businesses, and their whereabouts.

  7. Novel seed protection in the recently evolved invasive, California wild radish, a hybrid Raphanus sp. (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Sylvia M; Ellstrand, Norman C

    2014-12-01

    • Interspecific hybridization may have considerable effects on plant structural defenses that can contribute to the success of invasive hybrid lineages. Changes in fruit structural and material properties are predicted to have key effects on predispersal granivory.• Here, we asked whether plant structure can increase the fitness of a hybrid invasive relative to its progenitors. We compared fruit traits of the hybrid-derived lineage, California wild radish, with its progenitors, cultivated radish and jointed charlock.• The hybrid lineage is significantly different from one or both ancestors in fruit length, mass, diameter, volume, shape, wall strength, and internal seed distribution. We experimentally exposed the fruits of both hybrid and wild progenitor to avian granivores and found (1) different types and degrees of damage at the different fruit sections and (2) significant differences in the inflicted damage at different sections of the fruit.• Combining our descriptive and experimental data, we conclude that the novel seed protection of the hybrid California wild radish is an important defense mechanism. It offers differential protection to its seeds and according to our findings, better protection of seeds that have been found to be better competitors. We suggest then that the fruit has enabled, at least in part, the successful replacement of the parental species by the hybrid lineage. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Incidence of SUC-RTM telomeric repeated genes in brewing and wild wine strains of Saccharomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denayrolles, M; de Villechenon, E P; Lonvaud-Funel, A; Aigle, M

    1997-06-01

    When over-expressed, RTM yeast genes confer resistance to the toxicity of molasses. They are found in distiller's and baker's industrial yeasts in multiple copies, scattered on the telomeres and physically linked to the telomeric SUC genes. Because these genes are absent from some laboratory strains, we explored the genomes of other industrial yeasts (brewing strains) and wine wild strains. A collection of 47 wine yeast strains (S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus) and 15 brewing strains, lager, ale and possible ancestors (S. monacensis, S. paradoxus and S. carlsbergensis) were screened for the presence of RTM genes. Only three wine strains and all brewing strains proved to contain RTM sequences in different copy numbers. PCR and chromosome blotting confirm the presence of SUC sequences in tandem with RTM. Moreover, analysis of the entire S. cerevisiae genome sequence shows that three other, non-telomeric, genes related to RTM are scattered on different chromosomes.

  9. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  10. Updated clusters of orthologous genes for Archaea: a complex ancestor of the Archaea and the byways of horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Yuri I; Makarova, Kira S; Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-12-14

    Collections of Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COGs) provide indispensable tools for comparative genomic analysis, evolutionary reconstruction and functional annotation of new genomes. Initially, COGs were made for all complete genomes of cellular life forms that were available at the time. However, with the accumulation of thousands of complete genomes, construction of a comprehensive COG set has become extremely computationally demanding and prone to error propagation, necessitating the switch to taxon-specific COG collections. Previously, we reported the collection of COGs for 41 genomes of Archaea (arCOGs). Here we present a major update of the arCOGs and describe evolutionary reconstructions to reveal general trends in the evolution of Archaea. The updated version of the arCOG database incorporates 91% of the pangenome of 120 archaea (251,032 protein-coding genes altogether) into 10,335 arCOGs. Using this new set of arCOGs, we performed maximum likelihood reconstruction of the genome content of archaeal ancestral forms and gene gain and loss events in archaeal evolution. This reconstruction shows that the last Common Ancestor of the extant Archaea was an organism of greater complexity than most of the extant archaea, probably with over 2,500 protein-coding genes. The subsequent evolution of almost all archaeal lineages was apparently dominated by gene loss resulting in genome streamlining. Overall, in the evolution of Archaea as well as a representative set of bacteria that was similarly analyzed for comparison, gene losses are estimated to outnumber gene gains at least 4 to 1. Analysis of specific patterns of gene gain in Archaea shows that, although some groups, in particular Halobacteria, acquire substantially more genes than others, on the whole, gene exchange between major groups of Archaea appears to be largely random, with no major 'highways' of horizontal gene transfer. The updated collection of arCOGs is expected to become a key resource for

  11. Contrasting mode of evolution at a coat color locus in wild and domestic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Fang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having only begun approximately 10,000 years ago, the process of domestication has resulted in a degree of phenotypic variation within individual species normally associated with much deeper evolutionary time scales. Though many variable traits found in domestic animals are the result of relatively recent human-mediated selection, uncertainty remains as to whether the modern ubiquity of long-standing variable traits such as coat color results from selection or drift, and whether the underlying alleles were present in the wild ancestor or appeared after domestication began. Here, through an investigation of sequence diversity at the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R locus, we provide evidence that wild and domestic pig (Sus scrofa haplotypes from China and Europe are the result of strikingly different selection pressures, and that coat color variation is the result of intentional selection for alleles that appeared after the advent of domestication. Asian and European wild boar (evolutionarily distinct subspecies differed only by synonymous substitutions, demonstrating that camouflage coat color is maintained by purifying selection. In domestic pigs, however, each of nine unique mutations altered the amino acid sequence thus generating coat color diversity. Most domestic MC1R alleles differed by more than one mutation from the wild-type, implying a long history of strong positive selection for coat color variants, during which time humans have cherry-picked rare mutations that would be quickly eliminated in wild contexts. This pattern demonstrates that coat color phenotypes result from direct human selection and not via a simple relaxation of natural selective pressures.

  12. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    -based method in terms of asymptotic accuracy of variance estimation and distribution approximation. For stationary time series, the asymptotic validity, and the favorable bias properties of the new bootstrap method are shown in two important cases: smooth functions of means, and M-estimators. The first......In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block...

  13. New insights into the history of domesticated and wild apricots and its contribution to Plum pox virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroocq, Stéphane; Cornille, Amandine; Tricon, David; Babayeva, Sevda; Chague, Aurélie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Karychev, Raul; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Kostritsyna, Tatiana; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Weisheng; Geng, Wenjuan; Liao, Kang; Asma, Bayram M; Akparov, Zeynal; Giraud, Tatiana; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-10-01

    Studying domesticated species and their wild relatives allows understanding of the mechanisms of population divergence and adaptation, and identifying valuable genetic resources. Apricot is an important fruit in the Northern hemisphere, where it is threatened by the Plum pox virus (PPV), causing the sharka disease. The histories of apricot domestication and of its resistance to sharka are however still poorly understood. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype a collection of 230 wild trees from Central Asia and 142 cultivated apricots as representatives of the worldwide cultivated apricot germplasm; we also performed experimental PPV inoculation tests. The genetic markers revealed highest levels of diversity in Central Asian and Chinese wild and cultivated apricots, confirming an origin in this region. In cultivated apricots, Chinese accessions were differentiated from more Western accessions, while cultivated apricots were differentiated from wild apricots. An approximate Bayesian approach indicated that apricots likely underwent two independent domestication events, with bottlenecks, from the same wild population. Central Asian native apricots exhibited genetic subdivision and high frequency of resistance to sharka. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of cultivated apricot and point to valuable genetic diversity in the extant genetic resources of wild apricots. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  15. Chinese health beliefs of older Chinese in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L; Surood, Shireen

    2009-02-01

    Objectives. This study examines the cultural health beliefs held by older Chinese in Canada. Methods. Chinese surnames are randomly selected from the local Chinese telephone directories. Telephone screening is then conducted to identify eligible Chinese people 55 years of age or older to take part in a face-to-face interview to complete a structured survey questionnaire. Results. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicate that the health beliefs of the older Chinese are loaded onto three factors related to beliefs about traditional health practices, beliefs about traditional Chinese medicine, and beliefs about preventive diet. Education, religion, country of origin, length of residency in Canada, and city of residency are the major correlates of the various Chinese health beliefs scales. Discussion. The findings support the previous prescriptive knowledge about Chinese health beliefs and illustrate the intragroup sociocultural diversity that health practitioners should acknowledge in their practice.

  16. Minnesota Wild and Scenic River Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — District boundaries for wild, scenic, and recreational rivers designated under the Minnesota State Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. Includes portions of the Minnesota...

  17. AHP 35: Review: TIBET WILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William V Bleisch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Es sieht ein Mondenshcatten Als mein Gefrährte mit, Und aug den wei en Matten Such ich des Wildes Tritt….. Wilhelm Müller, Gute Nacht George Schaller's remarkable career spans nearly six decades of work resulting in field studies of wildlife in the most remote regions, including pioneering investigations on four continents. More than half of that time was spent involved with studies of the wildlife of the Tibetan Plateau and neighboring regions. Following each new phase of his career, from his work on mountain gorillas in Rwanda, tigers in India, lions on the Serengeti, wild sheep in the Himalayas, and Tibetan antelope and other wildlife on the Tibetan steppes, he has made the time to publish a book on each of his expeditions – or more exactly, two (see full list in Appendix. One is always a scholarly monograph full of data, tables, and maps, the other a popular account for the general public. These paired volumes are usually published within one year of each other, and there have been six such pairings so far. For example, Schaller's classic the Mountain Monarchs: Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya was published in 1978; in 1980, he published Stones of Silence: Journeys in the Himalaya; in 1997 he published the popular Tibet's Hidden Wilderness: Wildlife and Nomads of the Chang Tang Reserve; and the next year, 1998, saw the appearance of his scholarly monograph Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe. ...

  18. Wheel running in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Johanna H; Robbers, Yuri

    2014-07-07

    The importance of exercise for health and neurogenesis is becoming increasingly clear. Wheel running is often used in the laboratory for triggering enhanced activity levels, despite the common objection that this behaviour is an artefact of captivity and merely signifies neurosis or stereotypy. If wheel running is indeed caused by captive housing, wild mice are not expected to use a running wheel in nature. This however, to our knowledge, has never been tested. Here, we show that when running wheels are placed in nature, they are frequently used by wild mice, also when no extrinsic reward is provided. Bout lengths of running wheel behaviour in the wild match those for captive mice. This finding falsifies one criterion for stereotypic behaviour, and suggests that running wheel activity is an elective behaviour. In a time when lifestyle in general and lack of exercise in particular are a major cause of disease in the modern world, research into physical activity is of utmost importance. Our findings may help alleviate the main concern regarding the use of running wheels in research on exercise.

  19. Evolutionary Biology Needs Wild Microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome is a vital component to the evolution of a host and much of what we know about the microbiome derives from studies on humans and captive animals. But captivity alters the microbiome and mammals have unique biological adaptations that affect their microbiomes (e.g., milk). Birds represent over 30% of known tetrapod diversity and possess their own suite of adaptations relevant to the microbiome. In a previous study, we showed that 59 species of birds displayed immense variation in their microbiomes and host (bird) taxonomy and ecology were most correlated with the gut microbiome. In this Frontiers Focused Review, I put those results in a broader context by discussing how collecting and analyzing wild microbiomes contributes to the main goals of evolutionary biology and the specific ways that birds are unique microbial hosts. Finally, I outline some of the methodological considerations for adding microbiome sampling to the research of wild animals and urge researchers to do so. To truly understand the evolution of a host, we need to understand the millions of microorganisms that inhabit it as well: evolutionary biology needs wild microbiomes.

  20. Teaching Chinese Negotiating Style through Examination of Key Chinese Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Dan

    This study examined different shades of meaning that a single word may have in Chinese in an effort to better understand the relationship between language and culture. An understanding of the exact meaning of Chinese words and expressions can greatly assist non-Chinese in understanding both the language and the society as a whole. A total of 102…

  1. Tame-wild dichotomy for derived categories

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkert, Viktor I.; Drozd, Yuriy A.

    2003-01-01

    We prove that every finite dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field is either derived tame or derived wild. The proof is based on the technique of matrix problems (boxes and reduction algorithm). It implies, in particular, that any degeneration of a derived wild algebra is derived wild; respectively, any deformation of a derived tame algebra is derived tame.

  2. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  3. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms—particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals’ knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or “conservation consciousness” was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species

  4. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    Full Text Available A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners. In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM, and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs derived from well

  5. Perception, Price and Preference: Consumption and Protection of Wild Animals Used in Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Jiang, Zhigang; Fang, Hongxia; Li, Chunwang; Mi, Aizi; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Cui, Shaopeng; Chen, Daiqiang; Ping, Xiaoge; Li, Feng; Li, Chunlin; Tang, Songhua; Luo, Zhenhua; Zeng, Yan; Meng, Zhibin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners). In this study we conducted questionnaires and designed stated preference experiments embodying different simulation scenarios using a random sample of the population in Beijing to elicit individuals' knowledge, perceptions and preferences toward wild or farmed animal materials and their substitutes used in traditional Chinese medicine. We found that respondents had a stated preference for wild materials over farm-raised and other alternatives because they believe that the effectiveness of wild-sourced materials is more credible than that of other sources. However, we also found that, although respondents used TCM products, they had a poor understanding of the function or composition of either traditional Chinese medicines or proprietary Chinese medicines (PCM), and paid little attention to the composition of products when making purchasing decisions. Furthermore, awareness of the need for species protection, or "conservation consciousness" was found to play an important role in willingness to accept substitutions for wild animal materials, while traditional animal medicinal materials (TAMs) derived from well-known endangered species, such

  6. Jakarta Non-Chinese Ancestry Indonesian Students’motivation of Chinese Studying

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Ruo Mei; Huang Yan- Ling; Ye Mei- Yean

    2011-01-01

    More and more non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian begin to learn Chinese,some of them even choose Chinese as their major in University.The survey of four major Chinese departments in Jakarta shows that intrinsic motivation is the most important motivation of Chinese studying. Interests and passion to Chinese language and culture encouraged the non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian students to study Chinese. To assist them overcome their difficulties in studying is very important for Chinese education i...

  7. The Chinese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Willem Huijnk; Ria Vogels

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Chinese Nederlanders This report presents the first national picture of the position of the Chinese community in the Netherlands. A large-scale survey was conducted among persons of Chinese origin living in the Netherlands, with the aim of answering questions on a wide range of

  8. Chinese alchemy: confluence and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, J J

    1977-01-01

    The study of China's alchemical tradition can provide considerable insight into early Chinese medical theory, pharmaco-therapeutic practice and psychosomatic concepts. Chinese alchemy is a complex blending of philosophical, cosmological, physiological and natural scientific thought. This article presents a historical survey and analysis of some important aspects of Chinese alchemical research and theory.

  9. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  10. Supporting Chinese Speaking Skills Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Ursula; Shi, Lijing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is considered a difficult language to learn by most Western learners, yet recently more and more people are learning Chinese, and increasingly teaching is delivered online. Due to the nature of Chinese and the complexity of online learning, research has not yet produced sufficient information on students' and teachers' interaction during…

  11. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  12. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    society. This chapter is concerned with Chinese journalism students' self-perceptions and evaluations of journalistic performances in order to understand the professional values to which they adhere. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted in two periods in Spring 2011 and Fall...... 2012 with 41 students studying journalism at People's University, Tsinghua University, China Youth University for Political Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing Foreign Languages University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing and at Fudan University in Shanghai....

  13. Ancient Chinese constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  14. Phenolics content, fruit flesh colour and browning in cultivated eggplant, wild relatives and interspecific hybrids and implications for fruit quality breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Prashant; Gramazio, Pietro; Vilanova, Santiago; Raigón, María D; Prohens, Jaime; Plazas, Mariola

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the content in bioactive phenolics in the eggplant (Solanum melongena) fruit is of interest, but may result in enhanced browning. We evaluated six varieties of S. melongena, 22 accessions of wild related species and 42 interspecific hybrids between cultivated eggplant and wild relatives for phenolics content, fruit flesh colour, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and fruit flesh browning. Wild relatives generally had a higher content in phenolics and a broader range of variation than cultivated eggplant. Chlorogenic acid was the predominant (>65.0%) phenolic acid in cultivated eggplant and its primary genepool wild ancestor S. insanum, while for the other wild species on average represented phenolics or chlorogenic acid contents and fruit flesh browning, but PPO activity was correlated to both the degree of browning (r=0.404) and colour difference (r=0.458). The results indicate that wild species can contribute to improving the bioactive properties of eggplant without affecting negatively fruit flesh colour and browning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hsp90 depletion goes wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L; Masel, Joanna

    2012-02-27

    Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to revealing cryptic genetic variation. See research article http://wwww.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/25.

  16. WILD HONEY INTOXICATION: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munire Babayigit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild honey intoxication (WHI is a rare disease that results from consuming honey produced by Rhododendron polen feeded bees. WHI develops due to grayanotoxin (GT that it contains. WHI might present with mild symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological systems or might also present in a life threatining form with AV block and cardiovascular collaps. In this report we aimed to present clinical presentation and treatment of a case of WHI. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 197-199

  17. Cytomolecular analysis of ribosomal DNA evolution in a natural allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum and its putative ancestors – dissecting complex repetitive structure of intergenic spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borowska-Zuchowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon associated with nuclear 35S rRNA genes and consists in selective suppression of gene loci inherited from one of the progenitors in the allopolyploid. Our understanding of the exact mechanisms that determine this process is still fragmentary, especially in case of the grass species. This study aimed to shed some light on the molecular basis of this genome-specific inactivation of 35S rDNA loci in an allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum (2n=30, which arose from the interspecific hybridization between two diploid ancestors that were very similar to modern B. distachyon (2n=10 and B. stacei (2n=20. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with 25S rDNA and chromosome-specific BAC clones as probes we revealed that the nucleolar dominance is present not only in meristematic root-tip cells but also in differentiated cell fraction of B. hybridum. Additionally, the intergenic spacers (IGSs from both of the putative ancestors and the allotetraploid were sequenced and analyzed. The presumptive transcription initiation sites, spacer promoters and repeated elements were identified within the IGSs. Two different length variants, 2.3 kb and 3.5 kb, of IGSs were identified in B. distachyon and B. stacei, respectively, however only the IGS that had originated from B. distachyon-like ancestor was present in the allotetraploid. The amplification pattern of B. hybridum IGSs suggests that some genetic changes occurred in inactive B. stacei-like rDNA loci during the evolution of the allotetraploid. We hypothesize that their preferential silencing is an effect of structural changes in the sequence rather than just the result of the sole inactivation at the epigenetic level.

  18. Being Chinese or Being Different: Chinese Undergraduates' Use of Discourses of Chineseness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyrme, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Myths about "the Chinese learner" developed from an outsider perspective abound in the Western world. The focus of this article, however, is how discourses of Chineseness were used by the Chinese international students themselves who, as undergraduate students in a New Zealand university, were the subjects of my doctoral research. It…

  19. Analysis of the coding-complete genomic sequence of groundnut ringspot virus suggests a common ancestor with tomato chlorotic spot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Breuil, Soledad; Cañizares, Joaquín; Blanca, José Miguel; Bejerman, Nicolás; Trucco, Verónica; Giolitti, Fabián; Ziarsolo, Peio; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) share biological and serological properties, so their identification is carried out by molecular methods. Their genomes consist of three segmented RNAs: L, M and S. The finding of a reassortant between these two viruses may complicate correct virus identification and requires the characterization of the complete genome. Therefore, we present for the first time the complete sequences of all the genes encoded by a GRSV isolate. The high level of sequence similarity between GRSV and TCSV (over 90 % identity) observed in the genes and proteins encoded in the M RNA support previous results indicating that these viruses probably have a common ancestor.

  20. A molecular clock dates the common ancestor of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at more than 10 years before the emergence of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Roald; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Krabbe Petersen, Anne Mette

    2001-01-01

    The disease caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerged independently and almost simultaneously in Europe (1990) and North America (1987). The original reservoir of the virus and the date it entered the pig populations is not known. In this study, we demonstrate...... an accurate molecular clock for the European PRRSV ORF 3 gene, place the root in the genealogy, estimate the rate of nucleotide substitution, and date the most recent common viral ancestor of the data set to 1979; more than 10 years before the onset of the European epidemic. Based on these findings, we...

  1. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs' embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as, in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess-as most other teleost fish-two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b, respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the

  2. Initial Validation of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale in Chinese Immigrants With Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Graciete; Chen, Jack; Wasser, Thomas; Portenoy, Russell; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-02-01

    Evaluating religious/spiritual influences in the growing Chinese-American population may inform the development of culturally relevant palliative care interventions. We assessed the psychometric properties and acceptability of the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale-Chinese (DSES-C) in Chinese Americans with cancer-related pain. The translated 16-item DSES-C was administered as part of a symptom intervention for Chinese-American cancer patients. Patients were recruited from four New York community oncology practices. Of 321 patients, 78.7% were born in Mainland China, 79.1% spoke Cantonese, and 70.2% endorsed a religious affiliation (Ancestor worship, 31.7%; Chinese God worship, 29.8%; Buddhism, 17.1%; Christianity, 14.0%). In total, 82.6% completed the DSES-C (mean age = 57.7 years; 60.8% women) and 17.4% declined (mean age = 59.3 years; 52.0% women). Reasons for declining included low religiosity or perceived relevance of the scale items and difficulties separating spirituality from religiosity terms. Individuals having a religious affiliation were more likely to complete the DSES-C, whereas those not engaging in individual spiritual/religious practices or frequent group spiritual/religious practices tended to decline (all P 0.40) across items except Item 14 ("Accept others"). Construct validity was suggested by a positive association between DSES-C scores and having a religious affiliation (P < 0.05). In Chinese Americans with cancer pain, the DSES-C demonstrated acceptable psychometrics. Some participants experienced linguistic or cultural barriers preventing completion. Future investigations should provide additional validation in different Asian subgroups and those with varied medical conditions. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  4. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  5. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...

  6. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  7. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  8. Chinese "Magic" Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, Derek B.

    1992-01-01

    Chinese "magic" mirrors are made from bronze with the front side a mirror and the reverse side a molded image. When light is reflected from the mirror,the image on the reverse side appears. Discusses reflections of conventional mirrors, possible explanations for the magic mirror phenomenon, and applications of the phenomenon to…

  9. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  10. Multivariable Chinese Remainder Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 3. Multivariable Chinese Remainder Theorem. B Sury. General Article Volume 20 Issue 3 March 2015 pp 206-216 ... Author Affiliations. B Sury1. Stat-Math Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 8th Mile Road, Bangalore 560 059, India.

  11. Safety assessment and detection method of genetically modified Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea cv. alboglabra ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Lu, Chien-Te; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-03-11

    Sporamins are tuberous storage proteins and account for 80% of soluble protein in sweet potato tubers with trypsin-inhibitory activity. The expression of sporamin protein in transgenic Chinese kale (line BoA 3-1) conferred insecticidal activity toward corn earworm [ Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)] in a previous report. In this study, we present a preliminary safety assessment of transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1. Bioinformatic and simulated gastric fluid (SGF) analyses were performed to evaluate the allergenicity of sporamin protein. The substantial equivalence between transgenic Chinese kale and its wild-type host has been demonstrated by the comparison of important constituents. A reliable real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method was also developed to control sample quality. Despite the results of most evaluations in this study being negative, the safety of sporamin in transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1 was uncluded because of the allergenic risk revealed by bioinformatic analysis.

  12. Using endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca to identify rodent seed predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmao ZHANG, Wei WANG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Some rodent-dispersed seeds have a hard seed-coat (e.g. woody endocarp. Specific scrapes or dental marks on the hard seed-coat left by rodents when they eat these seeds can be used to identify seed predators. In this study we measured the morphological traits of endocarp-remains of seeds of wild apricot Prunus armeniaca used by Chinese white-bellied rats Niviventor confucianus and Korean field mice Apodemus peninsulae. We established their Fisher′s linear discriminant functions to separate endocarp-remains between the two predators. A total of 90.0 % of the endocarp-remains left by Korean field mice and 88.0 % of those left by Chinese white-bellied rats were correctly classified. The overall percentage of correct classification was 89.0 %. One hundred and sixty endocarp-remains of unknown what species predated them were classified using the functions. The method may allow more reliable quantitative studies of the effects of Chinese white-bellied rats and Korean field mice on seed consumption and dispersal of wild apricot and this study might be used for reference in other studies of seed predators identification on hard seeds [Current Zoology 55 (6: 396 –400, 2009].

  13. Reconstructing a B-cell clonal lineage. I. Statistical inference of unobserved ancestors [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/z6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B Kepler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key phenomena in the adaptive immune response to infection and immunization is affinity maturation, during which antibody genes are mutated and selected, typically resulting in a substantial increase in binding affinity to the eliciting antigen. Advances in technology on several fronts have made it possible to clone large numbers of heavy-chain light-chain pairs from individual B cells and thereby identify whole sets of clonally related antibodies. These collections could provide the information necessary to reconstruct their own history - the sequence of changes introduced into the lineage during the development of the clone - and to study affinity maturation in detail. But the success of such a program depends entirely on accurately inferring the founding ancestor and the other unobserved intermediates. Given a set of clonally related immunoglobulin V-region genes, the method described here allows one to compute the posterior distribution over their possible ancestors, thereby giving a thorough accounting of the uncertainty inherent in the reconstruction. I demonstrate the application of this method on heavy-chain and light-chain clones, assess the reliability of the inference, and discuss the sources of uncertainty.

  14. The tapeworm Atractolytocestus tenuicollis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea)--a sister species or ancestor of an invasive A. huronensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Štefka, Jan; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Bokorová, Silvia; Oros, Mikuláš

    2013-10-01

    Atractolytocestus tenuicollis (Li, 1964) Xi, Wang, Wu, Gao et Nie, 2009 is a monozoic, non-segmented tapeworm of the order Caryophyllidea, parasitizing exclusively common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In the current work, the first molecular data, in particular complete ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) on A. tenuicollis from Niushan Lake, Wuhan, China, are provided. In order to evaluate molecular interrelationships within Atractolytocestus, the data on A. tenuicollis were compared with relevant data on two other congeners, Atractolytocestus huronensis and Atractolytocestus sagittatus. Divergent intragenomic copies (ITS2 paralogues) were detected in the ITS2 ribosomal spacer of A. tenuicollis; the same phenomenon has previously been observed also in two other congeners. ITS2 structure of A. tenuicollis was very similar to that of A. huronensis from Slovakia, USA and UK; overall pairwise sequence identity was 91.7-95.2%. On the other hand, values of sequence identity between A. tenuicollis and A. sagittatus were lower, 69.7-70.9%. Cox1 sequence, analysed in five A. tenuicollis individuals, were 100 % identical and no intraspecific variation was observed. Comparison of A. tenuicollis cox1 with respective sequences of two other Atractolytocestus species showed that the mitochondrial haplotype found in Chinese A. tenuicollis is structurally specific (haplotype 4; Ha4) and differs from all so far determined Atractolytocestus haplotypes (Ha1 and Ha2 for A. huronensis; Ha3 for A. sagittatus). Pairwise sequence identity between A. tenuicollis cox1 haplotype and remaining three haplotypes followed the same pattern as in ITS2. The nucleotide and amino acide (aa) sequence comparison with A. huronensis Ha1 and Ha2 revealed higher sequence identity, 90.3-90.8% (96.9% in aa), while lower values were achieved between A. tenuicollis haplotype and Ha3 of Japanese A. sagittatus-75.2 % (81.9 % in aa). The

  15. Haplogroup relationships between domestic and wild sheep resolved using a mitogenome panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, J R S; Hiendleder, S; Kijas, J W

    2011-01-01

    Five haplogroups have been identified in domestic sheep through global surveys of mitochondrial (mt) sequence variation, however these group classifications are often based on small fragments of the complete mtDNA sequence; partial control region or the cytochrome B gene. This study presents the complete mitogenome from representatives of each haplogroup identified in domestic sheep, plus a sample of their wild relatives. Comparison of the sequence successfully resolved the relationships between each haplogroup and provided insight into the relationship with wild sheep. The five haplogroups were characterised as branching independently, a radiation that shared a common ancestor 920 000±190 000 years ago based on protein coding sequence. The utility of various mtDNA components to inform the true relationship between sheep was also examined with Bayesian, maximum likelihood and partitioned Bremmer support analyses. The control region was found to be the mtDNA component, which contributed the highest amount of support to the tree generated using the complete data set. This study provides the nucleus of a mtDNA mitogenome panel, which can be used to assess additional mitogenomes and serve as a reference set to evaluate small fragments of the mtDNA. PMID:20940734

  16. Of Domestic and Wild Guinea Pigs: Studies in Sociophysiology, Domestication, and Social Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Norbert

    Among mammals a majority of each individual's daily expectations, motivations, and behaviors are directed to encounters with conspecifics. Therefore the knowledge of the genesis, control, and consequences of social interactions is crucial for understanding their social life. We present here our research on the sociophysiology, domestication, and social evolution of wild (Cavia aperea and Galea musteloides) and domestic (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) guinea pigs, which summarizes general rules for many group-living mammals. It is shown that social interactions have consequences not only for the individuals' reproductive success but also for their degrees of stress and welfare. The way in which individuals interact is controlled not only by the present environment but also by the previous social experiences which they have gathered during their behavioral development. Furthermore, the study of ontogeny does not begin at birth, because prenatal social factors acting on pregnant females can also affect the way in which the offspring will interact when adult. In addition, to understand the genesis of interactions between domesticated animals implies knowledge of the behavioral and physiological changes which occurred during the process of domestication. Finally, understanding the social interactions among individuals of the wild ancestor of the domesticated form requires knowledge of how their behavior patterns were brought about by natural selection during the process of social evolution.

  17. Vocal communication of wild parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Jack

    2004-05-01

    Field studies of four sympatric parrot species in Costa Rica are revealing several possible functions for the well-known ability of parrots to mimic new sounds throughout life. Despite earlier suggestions that this might facilitate exchanges of environmental information, all data so far suggest that vocal mimicry in the wild is associated with mediation of the fission/fusion of groups of parrots and/or of conflicts between mated pairs. Recent results using array recording and interactive playback will be summarized, and several technical problems created by the mechanisms of parrot vocal signal production discussed. [Research supported by NSF Grant IBN-022927 and by continued encouragement and logistics provided by the staff of the Area Conservacion Guanacaste (Costa Rica).

  18. RESTRAINING OF WILD ANIMALS WITH CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedad Škapur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal restrainment technique is one of the most complex procedures in the veterinary practice. Restraining of wild, zoo and exotic animals is completly different from restraining of domestic animals. The restraining and anesthesia processes of the wild animals are often conducted by using a dart gun and blow pipe with the automatic syringes and gas guns, and with application of different chemical preparation/drugs. Key words: restraning, wild, zoo, exotic, animals

  19. A comparison of reproductive parameters of female Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in the wild and captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiayin; Guo, Yurong; Stott, Philip; Jiang, Guangshun; Ma, Jianzhang

    2016-01-01

    A healthy population of captive Amur tigers might assist recovery of the wild population in Northeast China if individuals were properly prepared and considered suitable for release in the wild. We analyzed the breeding records of 68 female Amur tigers from 1995 to 2010 in the Hengdaohezi Felid Breeding Center of China and compared the reproductive parameters of this population to wild female Amur tigers. We found that the reproductive parameters of the captive population (the age of first parturition, length of gestation and litter survival rate) were not significantly different from those of wild Amur tigers. Differences in birth date and litter size between wild and captive populations may be caused by management protocols for the captive population or insufficient field data from the wild population. Reproductive parameters of females giving birth after losing a litter were similar to parameters of females that did not lose a litter, except for birth date. These results provide no indication of major problems in using captive females for a breeding program for release of cubs into the wild, but additional information is still needed to assess their suitability. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Chinese New Year Materials for Elementary Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Irene

    This is a resource book designed to be used by teachers in Chinese bilingual bicultural programs. The materials in the book are based on Chinese New Year customs still observed in Chinese-American communities. The resource book contains five types of materials: (1) a general introduction to the Chinese New Year, including the Chinese Lunar Year…

  1. Chinese Strategic Art: A Cultural Framework for Assessing Chinese Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Cui Zhiyuan, a Tsinghua University professor, teaching at MIT, called for a “Liberation of Thought” among Chinese intellectuals, and encouraged them...foreign policy. An example of this use of Confucian soft power is the worldwide spread of PRC sponsored Confucian Institutes that teach Chinese...China Commission. He stated that shashoujian is a very common idiom in Chinese society and that in general the term refers to “the means or ways by

  2. Chinese Teaching in Chinese Department of Binus University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andyni Khosasih

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Binus University, established in 1974 and located in West Jakarta, is one of famous universities in Indonesia. This university has some literature departments including Chinese literature department which was started in 2002. At this moment, this department has 419 students and 28 lecturers who have different background. The difference of the students and lecturers’ point of view becomes one the backgrounds of this paper. The others are text books used, campus rules and alternative solution toward the problem faced. The method used in this research is direct observation. From the data taken and analyzed, it can be concluded: (1 Chinese department students, either Chinese descendant or not, has problems in learning Chinese, (2 The number of lecturers of Bachelor graduates is more than the master ones, (3 The Chinese language mastery of Chinese descendant students is better than non Chinese descendant ones, (4 The text books used are not all suitable for Chinese department student, and (5 The quality control system of Chinese teaching is good. 

  3. Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1): Last of the Wild Dataset (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Last of the Wild Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1) is derived from the LWP-1 Human Footprint Dataset. The gridded data are...

  4. Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1): Last of the Wild Dataset (IGHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Last of the Wild Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1) is derived from the LWP-1 Human Footprint Dataset. The gridded data are...

  5. Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2): Last of the Wild Dataset (IGHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Last of the Wild Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2) is derived from the LWP-2 Human Footprint Dataset. The gridded data are...

  6. Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2): Last of the Wild Dataset (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Last of the Wild Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 2, 2005 (LWP-2) is derived from the LWP-2 Human Footprint Dataset. The gridded data are...

  7. Chinese Commercial Negotiating Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Cultural Factors ................................... 20 II. THE AMBIENCE OF NEGOTIATIONS ................ 24 The Costs and Benefits of Bringing Out...to the period allot- ted for hotel reservations. Others involved the complexities of the Chi- nese government and the uncertainties created for...team goes to work helping to prepare your presenta- tion. When you arrive at the hotel , full of anticipation, your Chinese contact says, "How about

  8. Chinese Counterspace Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Russian transport. In the interim, NASA astronauts will be dependent upon rides in Russian Soyuz capsules to reach the ISS until approximately 2014...design of the Russian escape capsule . The PRC wanted to buy the design from the Russians, but found that it was too expensive; instead, China took...reconnaissance pictures of escape capsule production and reverse-engineered its own version from the photos.325 “While the Chinese currently depend

  9. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  10. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  11. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Animating Chinese Cinemas: A Preface

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Li; Li, Jinying

    2017-01-01

    This preface by the guest editors provides a situated overview of the purpose, structure and methodologies of the contributing articles on Chinese animations in this special issue. Aiming to reconfigure Chinese film studies through historical and theoretical inquiries about the relationship between the animated and the cinematic, the special issue introduces a nascent perspective on Chinese animations by offering rigorous and stimulating studies on the forms, genres and materiality of animati...

  13. Chinese culture approached through touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Champion, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Can recent technology help bridge cultures through playful interaction appropriate to traditional tacit means of acquiring knowledge? In order to help answer this question, we designed four Adobe Flash-based based game prototypes and evaluated them via a touch-screen PC. The goal was to offer nonChinese...... participants a playful way of experiencing aspects of traditional Chinese culture. The four single-player games were based on the four arts of China (music, calligraphy, painting and the game of Go!). In the evaluation we asked non-Chinese and the Chinese participants to evaluate the games in terms of learning...

  14. Chinese values, health and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C

    2001-10-01

    To describe the roots of Chinese values, beliefs and the concept of health, and to illustrate how these ways have influenced the development of health care and nursing among Chinese in the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Scope. Based on the literature and direct observation in the PRC and ROC, this is an introduction to Chinese philosophies, religion, basic beliefs, and values with a special meaning for health and nursing. Chinese philosophies and religion include Confucian principles, Taoism, theory of "Yin" and "Yang", and Buddhism. Beliefs and values include the way of education, practice of acupuncture, herbal treatments and diet therapy. How people value traditional Chinese medicine in combination with western science, and the future direction of nursing and nursing inquiry are also briefly addressed. Chinese philosophies and religions strongly influence the Chinese way of living and thinking about health and health care. Nurses must combine information about culture with clinical assessment of the patient to provide cultural sensitive care. A better way may be to combine both western and Chinese values into the Chinese health care system by negotiating between the traditional values while at the same time, respecting an individual's choice. The foundation of China's philosophical and aesthetic tradition, in combination with western science is important to the future advancement of nursing research that will be beneficial to the Republics, Asia, and the world.

  15. Care for the Wild in the Anthropocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Animal ethical approaches often focus on certain individual animal features and capabilities for attributing moral standing to them. These features are usually considered from a moral point of view as not differing for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated animals. However, several authors have argued

  16. Market tntegration between farmed and wild fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronnmann, Julia; Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Following decade-long growth in worldwide farming of pangasius and tilapia, imports to Germany, a main European market, have been reduced since 2010. One reason for this might be supply growth of wild species at the total German whitefish market, if market integration exists between farmed and wild...

  17. The nomenclature of the African wild ass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.P.; Smeenk, C.

    2007-01-01

    The 19th-century reports on the occurrence and identity of wild asses in North-East Africa are reviewed, as well as the names applied in various publications by Fitzinger and von Heuglin, respectively. The first published name for the African wild ass, Asinus africanus Fitzinger, 1858, is a nomen

  18. Sampling wild species to conserve genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling seed from natural populations of crop wild relatives requires choice of the locations to sample from and the amount of seed to sample. While this may seem like a simple choice, in fact careful planning of a collector’s sampling strategy is needed to ensure that a crop wild collection will ...

  19. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  20. Conservation of wild reindeer in Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Mosolov

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild reindeer of Kamchatka were never numerous and probably did not exceed 15 000 in number because of the restricted amount of winter and summer range, and the characteristically deep snow of the peninsula. Before I960, biologists believed there was one population with three major wintering areas. The inaccessibility of the interior of the peninsula provided natural protection for wild reindeer and other wildlife. After I960, the road system was expanded for the benefit of the logging and mining industries, and poorly regulated commercial hunting of wild reindeer expanded. The wild reindeer population declined rapidly, and became fragmented into 3 herds by the early 1970s. The herds in southern and northeastern Kamchatka were reduced to a few hundred animals, but the herd in eastern Kamchatka that was largely protected by the federal Kronotskii Biosphere Reserve recovered. Poorly regulated hunting and competition with domestic reindeer continue to be the major conservation issues facing wild reindeer in Kamchatka.

  1. Avian Influenza Virus Isolated in Wild Waterfowl in Argentina: Evidence of a potentially unique phylogenetic lineage in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, Ariel J.; Uhart, Marcela; Perez, Alberto A.; Zaccagnini, Maria E.; La Sala, Luciano; Decarre, Julieta; Goijman, Andrea; Solari, Laura; Suarez, Romina; Craig, Maria I.; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Rimondi, Agustina; König, Guido; Terrera, Maria V.; Kaloghlian, Analia; Song, Haichen; Sorrell, Erin M.; Perez, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) viruses have been sporadically isolated in South America. The most recent reports are from an outbreak in commercial poultry in Chile in 2002 and its putative ancestor from a wild bird in Bolivia in 2001. Extensive surveillance in wild birds was carried out in Argentina during 2006-2007. Using RRT-PCR, 12 AI positive detections were made from cloacal swabs. One of those positive samples yielded an AI virus isolated from a wild kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) captured in the South Atlantic coastline of Argentina. Further characterization by nucleotide sequencing reveals that it belongs to the H13N9 subtype. Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 viral genes suggests that the 6 internal genes are related to the isolates from Chile and Bolivia. The analysis also indicates that a cluster of phylogenetically related AI viruses from South America may have evolved independently, with minimal gene exchange, from influenza viruses in other latitudes. The data produced from our investigations are valuable contributions to the study of AI viruses in South America. PMID:18632129

  2. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic mapping of the avian coronavirus spike protein-encoding gene in wild and synanthropic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães-Carvalho, Ricardo; Caserta, Leonardo C; Barnabé, Ana C S; Martini, Matheus C; Simas, Paulo V M; Santos, Márcia M B; Salemi, Marco; Arns, Clarice W

    2015-04-02

    The evolution and population dynamics of avian coronaviruses (AvCoVs) remain underexplored. In the present study, in-depth phylogenetic and Bayesian phylogeographic studies were conducted to investigate the evolutionary dynamics of AvCoVs detected in wild and synanthropic birds. A total of 500 samples, including tracheal and cloacal swabs collected from 312 wild birds belonging to 42 species, were analysed using molecular assays. A total of 65 samples (13%) from 22 bird species were positive for AvCoV. Molecular evolution analyses revealed that the sequences from samples collected in Brazil did not cluster with any of the AvCoV S1 gene sequences deposited in the GenBank database. Bayesian framework analysis estimated an AvCoV strain from Sweden (1999) as the most recent common ancestor of the AvCoVs detected in this study. Furthermore, the analysis inferred an increase in the AvCoV dynamic demographic population in different wild and synanthropic bird species, suggesting that birds may be potential new hosts responsible for spreading this virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    aurochsen haplogroup (haplogroup P), thus providing novel insights into pre-domestic patterns of variation. The high proportion of authentic, endogenous aurochs DNA preserved in this sample bodes well for future efforts to determine the complete genome sequence of a wild ancestor of domestic cattle.

  4. Demographic factors shaped diversity in the two gene pools of wild common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, S; Rossi, M; Moghaddam, S M; Annam, D; Lee, R; Papa, R; McClean, P E

    2013-01-01

    Wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is distributed throughout the Americas from Mexico to northern Argentina. Within this range, the species is divided into two gene pools (Andean and Middle American) along a latitudinal gradient. The diversity of 24 wild common bean genotypes from throughout the geographic range of the species was described by using sequence data from 13 loci. An isolation–migration model was evaluated using a coalescent analysis to estimate multiple demographic parameters. Using a Bayesian approach, Andean and Middle American subpopulations with high percentage of parentages were observed. Over all loci, the Middle American gene pool was more diverse than the Andean gene pool (πsil=0.0089 vs 0.0068). The two subpopulations were strongly genetically differentiated over all loci (Fst=0.29). It is estimated that the two current wild gene pools diverged from a common ancestor ∼111 000 years ago. Subsequently, each gene pool underwent a bottleneck immediately after divergence and lasted ∼40 000 years. The Middle American bottleneck population size was ∼46% of the ancestral population size, whereas the Andean was 26%. Continuous asymmetric gene flow was detected between the two gene pools with a larger number of migrants entering Middle American gene pool from the Andean gene pool. These results suggest that because of the complex population structure associated with the ancestral divergence, subsequent bottlenecks in each gene pool, gene pool-specific domestication and intense selection within each gene pool by breeders; association mapping would best be practised within each common bean gene pool. PMID:23169559

  5. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  6. tRNA-dependent cysteine biosynthetic pathway represents a strategy to increase cysteine contents by preventing it from thermal degradation: thermal adaptation of methanogenic archaea ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ge; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Qian, Shao-Song; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    Although cysteine (Cys) is beneficial to stabilize protein structures, it is not prevalent in thermophiles. For instance, the Cys contents in most thermophilic archaea are only around 0.7%. However, methanogenic archaea, no matter thermophilic or not, contain relatively abundant Cys, which remains elusive for a long time. Recently, Klipcan et al. correlated this intriguing property of methanogenic archaea with their unique tRNA-dependent Cys biosynthetic pathway. But, the deep reasons underlying the correlation are ambiguous. Considering the facts that free Cys is thermally labile and the tRNA-dependent Cys biosynthesis avoids the use of free Cys, we speculate that the unique Cys biosynthetic pathway represents a strategy to increase Cys contents by preventing it from thermal degradation, which may be relevant to the thermal adaptation of methanogenic archaea ancestor.

  7. Evolution after introduction of a novel metabolic pathway consistently leads to restoration of wild-type physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Michael Carroll

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms cope with physiological stressors through acclimatizing mechanisms in the short-term and adaptive mechanisms over evolutionary timescales. During adaptation to an environmental or genetic perturbation, beneficial mutations can generate numerous physiological changes: some will be novel with respect to prior physiological states, while others might either restore acclimatizing responses to a wild-type state, reinforce them further, or leave them unchanged. We examined the interplay of acclimatizing and adaptive responses at the level of global gene expression in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 engineered with a novel central metabolism. Replacing central metabolism with a distinct, foreign pathway resulted in much slower growth than wild-type. After 600 generations of adaptation, however, eight replicate populations founded from this engineered ancestor had improved up to 2.5-fold. A comparison of global gene expression in wild-type, engineered, and all eight evolved strains revealed that the vast majority of changes during physiological adaptation effectively restored acclimatizing processes to wild-type expression states. On average, 93% of expression perturbations from the engineered strain were restored, with 70% of these occurring in perfect parallel across all eight replicate populations. Novel changes were common but typically restricted to one or a few lineages, and reinforcing changes were quite rare. Despite this, cases in which expression was novel or reinforced in parallel were enriched for loci harboring beneficial mutations. One case of parallel, reinforced changes was the pntAB transhydrogenase that uses NADH to reduce NADP(+ to NADPH. We show that PntAB activity was highly correlated with the restoration of NAD(H and NADP(H pools perturbed in the engineered strain to wild-type levels, and with improved growth. These results suggest that much of the evolved response to genetic perturbation was a consequence rather than a

  8. Chinese-Cantonese Dictionary of Common Chinese-Cantonese Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This dictionary contains 1,500 Chinese-Cantonese characters (selected from three frequency lists), and more than 6,000 Chinese-Cantonese terms (selected from three Cantonese-English dictionaries). The characters are arranged alphabetically according to the U.S. Army Language School System of Romanization, which is described in the…

  9. Analysis of a Clonal Lineage of HIV-1 Envelope V2/V3 Conformational Epitope-Specific Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Their Inferred Unmutated Common Ancestors ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Chen, Xi; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Morris, Lynn; Gray, Elin; Marshall, Dawn J.; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Sinangil, Faruk; Pancera, Marie; Yongping, Yang; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhu, Jiang; Kwong, Peter D.; O'Dell, Sijy; Mascola, John R.; Wu, Lan; Nabel, Gary J.; Phogat, Sanjay; Seaman, Michael S.; Whitesides, John F.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kelsoe, Garnett; Yang, Xinzhen; Sodroski, Joseph; Shaw, George M.; Montefiori, David C.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.

    2011-01-01

    V2/V3 conformational epitope antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 (PG9 and PG16) have been recently described. Since an elicitation of previously known broadly neutralizing antibodies has proven elusive, the induction of antibodies with such specificity is an important goal for HIV-1 vaccine development. A critical question is which immunogens and vaccine formulations might be used to trigger and drive the development of memory B cell precursors with V2/V3 conformational epitope specificity. In this paper we identified a clonal lineage of four V2/V3 conformational epitope broadly neutralizing antibodies (CH01 to CH04) from an African HIV-1-infected broad neutralizer and inferred their common reverted unmutated ancestor (RUA) antibodies. While conformational epitope antibodies rarely bind recombinant Env monomers, a screen of 32 recombinant envelopes for binding to the CH01 to CH04 antibodies showed monoclonal antibody (MAb) binding to the E.A244 gp120 Env and to chronic Env AE.CM243; MAbs CH01 and CH02 also bound to transmitted/founder Env B.9021. CH01 to CH04 neutralized 38% to 49% of a panel of 91 HIV-1 tier 2 pseudoviruses, while the RUAs neutralized only 16% of HIV-1 isolates. Although the reverted unmutated ancestors showed restricted neutralizing activity, they retained the ability to bind to the E.A244 gp120 HIV-1 envelope with an affinity predicted to trigger B cell development. Thus, E.A244, B.9021, and AE.CM243 Envs are three potential immunogen candidates for studies aimed at defining strategies to induce V2/V3 conformational epitope-specific antibodies. PMID:21795340

  10. Reconstruction of gross avian genome structure, organization and evolution suggests that the chicken lineage most closely resembles the dinosaur avian ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Michael N; Farré, Marta; Lithgow, Pamela E; Fowler, Katie E; Skinner, Benjamin M; O'Connor, Rebecca; Fonseka, Gothami; Backström, Niclas; Matsuda, Yoichi; Nishida, Chizuko; Houde, Peter; Jarvis, Erich D; Ellegren, Hans; Burt, David W; Larkin, Denis M; Griffin, Darren K

    2014-12-11

    The availability of multiple avian genome sequence assemblies greatly improves our ability to define overall genome organization and reconstruct evolutionary changes. In birds, this has previously been impeded by a near intractable karyotype and relied almost exclusively on comparative molecular cytogenetics of only the largest chromosomes. Here, novel whole genome sequence information from 21 avian genome sequences (most newly assembled) made available on an interactive browser (Evolution Highway) was analyzed. Focusing on the six best-assembled genomes allowed us to assemble a putative karyotype of the dinosaur ancestor for each chromosome. Reconstructing evolutionary events that led to each species' genome organization, we determined that the fastest rate of change occurred in the zebra finch and budgerigar, consistent with rapid speciation events in the Passeriformes and Psittaciformes. Intra- and interchromosomal changes were explained most parsimoniously by a series of inversions and translocations respectively, with breakpoint reuse being commonplace. Analyzing chicken and zebra finch, we found little evidence to support the hypothesis of an association of evolutionary breakpoint regions with recombination hotspots but some evidence to support the hypothesis that microchromosomes largely represent conserved blocks of synteny in the majority of the 21 species analyzed. All but one species showed the expected number of microchromosomal rearrangements predicted by the haploid chromosome count. Ostrich, however, appeared to retain an overall karyotype structure of 2n=80 despite undergoing a large number (26) of hitherto un-described interchromosomal changes. Results suggest that mechanisms exist to preserve a static overall avian karyotype/genomic structure, including the microchromosomes, with widespread interchromosomal change occurring rarely (e.g., in ostrich and budgerigar lineages). Of the species analyzed, the chicken lineage appeared to have undergone

  11. The main features of the craniate mitochondrial DNA between the ND1 and the COI genes were established in the common ancestor with the lancelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delarbre, C; Barriel, V; Tillier, S; Janvier, P; Gachelin, G

    1997-08-01

    We have cloned the mitochondrial DNA fragment extending from tRNA-Leu to the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) genes of Branchiostoma lanceolatum, Myxine glutinosa, Lampetra fluviatilis, and Scyliorhinus caniculus and have determined their respective gene sequences and organization. In all four species, this region contains the ND1 and ND2 genes and the genes coding eight tRNAs, namely, tRNA-Ile, -Gln, -Met, -Trp, -Ala, -Asn, -Cys, and -Tyr. The gene order is the same in the hagfish, lamprey and dogfish. In the lancelet, the location of the tRNA genes is slightly different. The mitochondrial code of Myxine, Lampetra, and Scyliorhinus is identical to that of vertebrates. The code used by the lancelet is the same with the exception of AGA (a stop codon in vertebrates), which codes for glycine in the lancelet. From the comparison of the four maps with already published ones for other species, we propose that the main features of the craniate mtDNA between the ND1 and COI genes were established in the common ancestor to cephalochordates and vertebrates more than 400 MYA. The origin of replication of the light-strand (Ori-L), usually located between the tRNA-Asn and tRNA-Cys genes in vertebrates, was not found in the lancelet, hagfish, or lamprey (Lampetra). In contrast, it was found in the dogfish. Thus the position of Ori-L was established for the first time in the common ancestor to the Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes and remained present in all later-emerging vertebrates.

  12. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  13. Transnational Learning and Chinese Sayings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haedy

    2017-01-01

    Chinese sayings within the context of transnational education have not been extensively explored within higher education. In this qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured interviews, data were collected from 24 participants to explore their transnational study experience. Chinese sayings, framed within a rich Confucian history, provide a…

  14. Danish Chinese Center for Nanometals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe

    The Danish-Chinese Center for Nanometals is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The Chinese partners in the Center are Institute of Metal Research in Shenyang, Tsinghua University and Chongqing University. The Danish part...

  15. The chinese health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Yu, Yi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the structure and present situation of the Chinese healthcare system and discuss its primary problems and challenges. We discuss problems with inefficient burden sharing, adverse provider incentives and huge inequities, and seek explanations in the structural features of the Chinese h...

  16. Communication in the Chinese Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwainmbi, Emmanuel K.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates cultural (idiosyncratic, linguistic) aspects of interpersonal & cross-cultural interactions in a Chinese learning environment. It explains the relationship between the Chinese academic community (CAL) in a university in Beijing, China and American professors (AAS) and how the CAL negotiates meaning through verbal…

  17. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  18. Chinese Companies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.M.; Pieke, F.N.; Stam, T.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of Chinese investment in the Netherlands has been cause for both excitement and anxiety. Many of the companies and other investors are still unknown and the background and objectives of their investment often remain unclear. This research takes a close look at fourteen Chinese

  19. The phonology of Shaoxing Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jisheng

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a thorough survey of the central aspects of the phonology of Shaoxing Chinese from a synchronic perspective and on the basis of recent theoretical phonological developments, with the secondary goal of casting some light on current issues in Modern Chinese (Mandarin). In

  20. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  1. Criminaliteit en traditionele Chinese medicijnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is deeply rooted in the Chinese culture. Although thousands of animal and plant species are used for medicines legally, some medications contain more sinister elements; illegal animal or plant ingredients of protected species. What is the origin of this demand for

  2. [Comparative study on alkaloids of tissue-culture seedling and wild plant of Dendrobium huoshanense ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-dong; Gao, Feng; Lin, Xin; Jin, Hui

    2014-06-01

    To compare the composition and content of alkaloid of Dendrobium huoshanense tissue-culture seedling and wild plant. A comparative evaluation on the quality was carried out by HPLC and TLC methods including the composition and the content of alkaloids. Remarkable variation existed in the two kinds of Dendrobium huoshanense. For the tissue-culture plant, only two alkaloids were checked out by both HPLC and TLC while four alkaloids were observed in the wild plant. The alkaloid content of tissue-culture seedling and wild plant was(0. 29 ± 0. 11)%o and(0. 43 ± 0. 15) %o,respectively. Distinguished difference is observed in both composition and content of alkaloids from the annual shoots of different provenances of Dendrobium huoshanense. It suggested that the quality of tissue-culture seedling of Dendrobium huoshanense might be inconsistent with the wild plant. Furthermore, the established alkaloids-knock-out HPLC method would provide a new research tool on quality control of Chinese medicinal materials which contain unknown alkaloids.

  3. A study on Heavy Metal Contents in Cultivated Wild Ginseng from Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yoon,Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Heavy metal contents in cultivated wild ginseng from Korea and China were evaluated for the safety purpose. Methods : Arsenic(As, cadmium(Cd, lead(Pb, mercury(Hg, copper(Cu, chromium(Cr, and selenium(Se from the root, stem, and leaves of the Korean cultivated wild ginseng and the root of the Chinese cultivated wild ginseng were analyzed for the existence of heavy metal contents. Results : Most of heavy metals weren't detected in all the samples. Copper and lead were found in very minute volume and didn't reach the toxic concentration level of 10mg/kg. Samples used in the test were grown in non-contaminated areas, free from heavy metal contamination. Conclusions : Based on above results, cultivated wild ginseng from Korea and China are relatively safe from the heavy metal exposure. But for more rigorous quality control, an epidemiological survey using the samples from more diverse areas should be conducted.

  4. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yixin; Xu, Songtao; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Mao, Naiying; Jiang, Xiaohong; Ma, Chao; Lu, Peishan; Wang, Changyin; Liang, Yong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Yang; Dai, Defang; Zheng, Lei; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Zhenying; Wu, Shengwei; Nan, Lijuan; Li, Li; Liang, Xiaofeng; Featherstone, David Alexander; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Xu, Wenbo

    2010-05-25

    Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet) from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.

  5. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lijuan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.

  6. Chinese court case fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    established as early as the 6th Century AD, whereas the first substantial evidence of the tradition is from 13th Century and the first Chinese crime fiction novels were written during the 17th Century. This article is, then, a corrective for the international history of crime fiction based on numerous...... breathed the breath of life into it? The usual answer is that crime fiction, in fact, was invented by Poe, but another counter-view is that China – at that point – had had a long narrative tradition for stories about crime and detection. The socalled gongan genre – court case fiction – was probably...

  7. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    to interpret their own educational histories and prior experiences, while at the same time making use of imaginaries of 'Western' education to redefine themselves as independent individuals in an increasingly globalised and individualised world. Through a case study of prospective pre-school teachers preparing...... to study abroad, the article shows how personal, professional and even national goals are closely interwoven. Students expect education abroad to be a personally transformative experience, but rather than defining their goals of individual freedom and creativity in opposition to the authoritarian political...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  8. Unearthing The Chinese Classics

    OpenAIRE

    Shaughnessy, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the status of the Chinese Classics was precarious, with many intellectuals regarding them as the root of modern China’s problems. These intellectuals advocated burying the Classics along with the rest of the past. However, the Classics have not been so easy to kill; moreover, they will not stay buried. Now, more than one hundred years later, the Classics continue quite literally to come up out of China’s soil. Throughout the modern period, China’s e...

  9. A mini-review of chemical composition and nutritional value of edible wild-grown mushroom from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Li-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Li; Li, Tao; Li, Jie-Qing; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Liu, Hong-Gao

    2014-05-15

    In China, many species of edible wild-grown mushrooms are appreciated as food and also found use in traditional Chinese medicine. In this mini-review, for the first time, is summarized and discussed data available on chemical components of nutritional significance for wild-grown mushrooms collected from China. We aimed to update and discuss the latest data published on ash, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, proteins, essential amino acids and nonessential amino acids, some essential (P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) and toxic elements (As, Hg, Cd, Pb), vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, tocopherol, vitamin D), flavour and taste compounds, antioxidants and also on less studied organic compounds (lectin, adustin, ribonuclease and nicotine) contents of wild-grown mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tibet as a Potential Domestication Center of Cultivated Barley of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xifeng; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

    2013-01-01

    The importance of wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the origin and domestication of cultivated barley has long been underestimated. Population-based phylogenetic analyses were performed to study the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese domesticated barley, and address the possibility that the Tibetan region in China was an independent center of barley domestication. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) populations from Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Tibet along with domesticated barley from China were analyzed using two nuclear genes. Our results showed that Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Southwest Asian (Near East) wild barley, that Central Asian wild barley is related to Southwest Asian wild barley, and that Chinese domesticated barley shares the same haplotypes with Tibetan wild barley. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between Chinese domesticated barley and the Tibetan wild barley, suggesting that Tibetan wild barley was the ancestor of Chinese domesticated barley. Our results favor the polyphyletic origin for cultivated barley. PMID:23658764

  11. Jakarta Non-Chinese Ancestry Indonesian Students’motivation of Chinese Studying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruo Mei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available More and more non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian begin to learn Chinese,some of them even choose Chinese as their major in University.The survey of four major Chinese departments in Jakarta shows that intrinsic motivation is the most important motivation of Chinese studying. Interests and passion to Chinese language and culture encouraged the non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian students to study Chinese. To assist them overcome their difficulties in studying is very important for Chinese education in Indonesia. 

  12. Sir William Wilde: an enlightened editor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, M

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines Sir William Wilde's peculiar genius as editor, his contribution to the Irish Journal of Medical Science in ensuring its endurance and making it a treasure-house of the history of medicine in Ireland.

  13. Chinese outward foreign direct investments to Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomkvist, Katarina; Drogendijk, Rian

    This paper addresses Chinese outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) in Europe. We aim to provide more knowledge on the ongoing research discussion about Chinese OFDI, more specifically, we answer questions about what is driving Chinese firms to invest in Europe, and whether Chinese investment

  14. Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

  15. Eelworms in wild hoofed mammals of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dovgyi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongylata, Rhabditata and Ascaridata eelworms were found in wild hoofs (roe deers and wild boars in Ukraine. Strongylata are presented by Globocephalus sp., Dictyocaulus viviparous (Bloch, D. еckerti Skrjabin, Muellerius sp., Cystocaulus sp., Protostrongylus sp., Haemonchus contortus Rundolphi, Marshallagia marshalli (Ransom, Nematodirus oiratianus Rajevskaja, Trichostrongylus axei (Cobbold, Bunostomum phlebotomum (Railliet, Oesophagostomum venulosus (Rudolphi, O. dentatm (Rudolphi and Chabertia ovina (Raill.. The helmints Strongyloides papillosus Wedl, S. ransomi Scwartz et Al. and Ascaris suum (Goeze were identified for Rhabditata and Ascaridata.

  16. Observational Learning in Wild and Captive Dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Yeater, Deirdre B.; Stan A. Kuczaj II

    2010-01-01

    Many non-human species imitate the behavior of others, and dolphins seem particularly adept at this form of observational learning. Evidence for observational learning in wild dolphins is rare, given the difficulty of observing individual wild animals in sufficient detail to eliminate other possible explanations of purported imitation. Consequently, much of the evidence supporting observational learning in dolphins has involved animals in captive settings. This research suggests that dolphins...

  17. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  18. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  19. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  20. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  1. Experimental challenges of wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Tsukasa; Shimokawa, Jun; Watanabe, Shinji; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2012-09-15

    Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum, are widely harvested in the coastal waters in Japan. However, there have been significant decreases in the populations of Manila clams since the 1980s. It is thought that infection with the protozoan Perkinsus species has contributed to these decreases. A previous study demonstrated that high infection levels of a pure strain of Perkinsus olseni (ATCC PRA-181) were lethal to hatchery-raised small Manila clams, however, the pathogenicity of wild strain Perkinsus species to wild Manila clam is unclear. To address this, we challenged large (30-40 mm in shell length) and small (3-15 mm in shell length) wild Manila clams with Perkinsus species isolated from naturally infected wild Manila clams. We report high mortalities among the small clams, but not among the large ones. This is the first report to confirm the pathogenicity of wild isolate of Perkinsus species to wild Manila clams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Content of rare earth elements in wild Hypericum japonicum Thunb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-Lin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Tian, Zhi-Huan

    2009-06-01

    Rare earth elements are important nutritional elements for human health, and today more and more attention has been paid to the effective components in Chinese traditional medicine, especially to rare earth elements. Fifteen rare earth elements in wild hypericum japonicum Thunb were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Tm, Lu and Y ranged from 6 ng x g(-1) x DW to 14 522 ng x g(-1) x DW, and among them the concentrations of La, Ce and Nd were higher than 2 000 ng x g(-1) x DW. Compared with the concentration of rare earth elements in rice, corn, wheat and barley, the total concentration of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb was much higher, which could be the mechanism of curative effect of hypericum japonicum Thunb on liverish diseases. The character of elements and the content of rare earth elements in soil should be responsible for the difference, but the distributive mechanism of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb should be further studied.

  3. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Frank M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat genomics. The barley diploid genome also provides a good model for the Triticeae and T. aestivum since it is only slightly larger than the ancestor wheat D genome. Gene co-linearity between the grasses can be exploited by extrapolating from rice and Brachypodium distachyon to Ae. tauschii or barley, and then to wheat. Results We report the use of Ae. tauschii for the construction of the physical map of a large distal region of chromosome arm 3DS. A physical map of 25.4 Mb was constructed by anchoring BAC clones of Ae. tauschii with 85 EST on the Ae. tauschii and barley genetic maps. The 24 contigs were aligned to the rice and B. distachyon genomic sequences and a high density SNP genetic map of barley. As expected, the mapped region is highly collinear to the orthologous chromosome 1 in rice, chromosome 2 in B. distachyon and chromosome 3H in barley. However, the chromosome scale of the comparative maps presented provides new insights into grass genome organization. The disruptions of the Ae. tauschii-rice and Ae. tauschii-Brachypodium syntenies were identical. We observed chromosomal rearrangements between Ae. tauschii and barley. The comparison of Ae. tauschii physical and genetic maps showed that the recombination rate across the region dropped from 2.19 cM/Mb in the distal region to 0.09 cM/Mb in the proximal region. The size of the gaps between contigs was evaluated by comparing the recombination rate along the map with the local recombination rates calculated on single contigs. Conclusions The physical map reported here is the first physical map using fingerprinting of a complete

  4. About the Chinese School of Comparative Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, He; Huang, Danqing

    2015-01-01

    In their article "About the Chinese School of Comparative Literature" He Lin and Danqing Huang discuss the development of the Chinese school of comparative literature since the 1980s. Lin and Huang describe how based on traditions in Chinese literary history, comparatists constructed a system of theoretical frameworks and methods. They argue that the Chinese School should not be criticized as "Chinacentric" just for the fact that its practitioners perform Chinese-Western comparative studies w...

  5. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cai

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1 critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2 active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3 excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4 with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species.

  6. Recent advances in Chinese palaeontology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Xing; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Rong, Jia-Yu

    2010-01-01

    ... new ideas derived from these fossils. This special issue of Proceedings of Royal Society B entitled Recent Advances in Chinese Palaeontology selects some of the very latest studies aimed at resolving the current problems of palaeontology...

  7. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  8. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Using TCM For More Information Key References Acknowledgments Introduction Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in ancient China ... mental focus). TCM is rooted in the ancient philosophy of Taoism and dates back more than 2, ...

  9. Combined Genetic and Genealogic Studies Uncover a Large BAP1 Cancer Syndrome Kindred Tracing Back Nine Generations to a Common Ancestor from the 1700s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carbone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We recently discovered an inherited cancer syndrome caused by BRCA1-Associated Protein 1 (BAP1 germline mutations, with high incidence of mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and other cancers and very high penetrance by age 55. To identify families with the BAP1 cancer syndrome, we screened patients with family histories of multiple mesotheliomas and melanomas and/or multiple cancers. We identified four families that shared an identical BAP1 mutation: they lived across the US and did not appear to be related. By combining family histories, molecular genetics, and genealogical approaches, we uncovered a BAP1 cancer syndrome kindred of ~80,000 descendants with a core of 106 individuals, whose members descend from a couple born in Germany in the early 1700s who immigrated to North America. Their descendants spread throughout the country with mutation carriers affected by multiple malignancies. Our data show that, once a proband is identified, extended analyses of these kindreds, using genomic and genealogical studies to identify the most recent common ancestor, allow investigators to uncover additional branches of the family that may carry BAP1 mutations. Using this knowledge, we have identified new branches of this family carrying BAP1 mutations. We have also implemented early-detection strategies that help identify cancers at early-stage, when they can be cured (melanomas or are more susceptible to therapy (MM and other malignancies.

  10. Hairless mutation: a driving force of humanization from a human–ape common ancestor by enforcing upright walking while holding a baby with both hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2012-01-01

    Three major characteristics distinguish humans from other primates: bipedality, practical nakedness, and the family as a social unit. A hairless mutation introduced into the chimpanzee/human last common ancestor (CLCA) 6 million years ago (Mya) diverged hairless human and hairy chimpanzee lineages. All primates except humans can carry their babies without using their hands. A hairless mother would be forced to stand and walk upright. Her activities would be markedly limited. The male partner would have to collect food and carry it to her by hand to keep her and their baby from starving; irresponsible and selfish males could not have left their offspring. The mother would have sexually accepted her partner at any time as a reward for food. Sexual relations irrespective of estrus cycles might have strengthened the pair bond. Molecular and paleontological dating indicates that CLCA existed 6 Mya, and early hominin fossils show that they were bipeds, indicating that humanization from CLCA occurred rapidly. A single mutation in animals with scalp hair is known to induce hairless phenotype (ectodermal dysplasia). Bipedalism and hairlessness are disadvantageous traits; only those who could survive trials and tribulations in cooperation with family members must have been able to evolve as humans. PMID:22404045

  11. Combined Genetic and Genealogic Studies Uncover a Large BAP1 Cancer Syndrome Kindred Tracing Back Nine Generations to a Common Ancestor from the 1700s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Michele; Flores, Erin G; Emi, Mitsuru; Johnson, Todd A; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Behner, Dusty; Hoffman, Harriet; Hesdorffer, Mary; Nasu, Masaki; Napolitano, Andrea; Powers, Amy; Minaai, Michael; Baumann, Francine; Bryant-Greenwood, Peter; Lauk, Olivia; Kirschner, Michaela B; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle; Pass, Harvey I; Gaudino, Giovanni; Pastorino, Sandra; Yang, Haining

    2015-12-01

    We recently discovered an inherited cancer syndrome caused by BRCA1-Associated Protein 1 (BAP1) germline mutations, with high incidence of mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and other cancers and very high penetrance by age 55. To identify families with the BAP1 cancer syndrome, we screened patients with family histories of multiple mesotheliomas and melanomas and/or multiple cancers. We identified four families that shared an identical BAP1 mutation: they lived across the US and did not appear to be related. By combining family histories, molecular genetics, and genealogical approaches, we uncovered a BAP1 cancer syndrome kindred of ~80,000 descendants with a core of 106 individuals, whose members descend from a couple born in Germany in the early 1700s who immigrated to North America. Their descendants spread throughout the country with mutation carriers affected by multiple malignancies. Our data show that, once a proband is identified, extended analyses of these kindreds, using genomic and genealogical studies to identify the most recent common ancestor, allow investigators to uncover additional branches of the family that may carry BAP1 mutations. Using this knowledge, we have identified new branches of this family carrying BAP1 mutations. We have also implemented early-detection strategies that help identify cancers at early-stage, when they can be cured (melanomas) or are more susceptible to therapy (MM and other malignancies).

  12. The plant Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) existed in the ancestor of seed plants and has a complex duplication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Lidija; Snel, Berend

    2015-03-13

    Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is an essential protein complex for plant development. It catalyzes ubiquitination of histone H2A that is an important part of the transcription repression machinery. Absence of PRC1 subunits in Arabidopsis thaliana plants causes severe developmental defects. Many aspects of the plant PRC1 are elusive, including its origin and phylogenetic distribution. We established the evolutionary history of the plant PRC1 subunits (LHP1, Ring1a-b, Bmi1a-c, EMF1, and VRN1), enabled by sensitive phylogenetic methods and newly sequenced plant genomes from previously unsampled taxonomic groups. We showed that all PRC1 core subunits exist in gymnosperms, earlier than previously thought, and that VRN1 is a recent addition, found exclusively in eudicots. The retention of individual subunits in chlorophytes, mosses, lycophytes and monilophytes indicates that they can moonlight as part of other complexes or processes. Moreover, we showed that most PRC1 subunits underwent a complex, duplication-rich history that differs significantly between Brassicaceae and other eudicots. PRC1 existed in the last common ancestor of seed plants where it likely played an important regulatory role, aiding their radiation. The presence of LHP1, Ring1 and Bmi1 in mosses, lycophytes and monilophytes also suggests the presence of a primitive yet functional PRC1.

  13. Mitochondrial genome of the homoscleromorph Oscarella carmela (Porifera, Demospongiae) reveals unexpected complexity in the common ancestor of sponges and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2007-02-01

    Homoscleromorpha is a small group in the phylum Porifera (Sponges) characterized by several morphological features (basement membrane, acrosomes in spermatozoa, and cross-striated rootlets of the flagellar basal apparatus) shared with eumetazoan animals but not found in most other sponges. To clarify the phylogenetic position of this group, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of the homoscleromorph sponge Oscarella carmela (Porifera, Demospongiae). O. carmela mtDNA is 20,327 bp and contains the largest complement of genes reported for animal mtDNA, including a putative gene for the C subunit of the twin-arginine translocase (tatC) that has never been found in animal mtDNA. The genes in O. carmela mtDNA are arranged in 2 clusters with opposite transcriptional orientations, a gene arrangement reminiscent of those in several cnidarian mtDNAs but unlike those reported in sponges. At the same time, phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences from 12 mitochondrial (mt) protein genes strongly support the phylogenetic affinity between the Homoscleromorpha and other demosponges. Altogether, our data suggest that homoscleromorphs are demosponges that have retained ancestral features in both mt genome and morphological organization lost in other taxa and that the most recent common ancestor of sponges and other animals was morphologically and genetically more complex than previously thought.

  14. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self

  15. Creation of Indian–Chinese cuisine: Chinese food in an Indian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Sankar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two aspects of Chinese food served in India, based on data collected from fieldwork in Dharavi, Mumbai along with the data gathered from online restaurant reviews, food ordering portals, and blogs. First it discusses different forms of Indianizations in Chinese food served in India. Second part discusses how Chineseness is created through exhibits in and out of the restaurants, and how it communicates ‘Chinese’ in the menu through these symbols. One Major observation was that Indian Chinese restaurants mostly use Indian spices, flavors, and materials to make Chinese food, in which the main flavors are spicy, and pungent. The cooked food is served in a bowl, and eaten with spoon, and fork. Some symbolic elements are frequently exhibited in Chinese restaurants. Predominant use of red color, random Chinese scripts, images of Chinese temples, paintings or statues of Buddha, symbols of wok, picture of fat Chinese chef, picture of dragon, symbols of bowl and chopsticks are such representations. The study concludes that the Chinese food served in India is intrinsically Indianized Chinese food, and there are certain Indian expectations of what Chinese foods are, and a Chineseness is created in Chinese restaurants to give Chinese feel during the eat out. The author argues that the Indian imagination of Chinese food creates a new cuisine category Indian-Chinese cuisine which is neither Indian, nor Chinese.

  16. Chinese investments in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haico EBBERS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s investments in the European Union are much lower than what you may expect given the economic size of both entities. These relatively low investments in Europe are a combination of priority and obstacles. The priority for investments is clearly in Asia, Africa and Latin America. This regional pattern is heavily influenced by the need to solve the resource shortage in the medium and long term. The investments in Europe and the United States are mostly market seeking investments. Research specifically focused on Chinese M&A abroad comes to the same conclusion. The success rate of Chinese M&A abroad is much lower than what we see with respect to American or European investments abroad. In this paper, we examine why Chinese firms are facing more difficulties in the European Union than in other regions. The paper focuses on Chinese M&A as proxy for total foreign direct investments abroad. By looking at the factors that have been documented as influencing the level of M&A abroad, it becomes clear that Chinese firms in Europe are hindered by many factors. For example, the trade between China and the EU is relatively low, the institutional quality is lower compared to the United States, there is less experience with respect to Europe and relatively many deals relate to State Owned Enterprises (SOE which makes the deal sensitive. So it is logical that Chinese investments are not very high in Europe. However, the research makes clear that the obstacles for Chinese investments in Europe are disappearing step by step. In that sense, we expect a strong increase of Chinese investments in Europe in the future.

  17. Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Salinity Stress-Responsive miRNAs in Wild Emmer Wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewei Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs which regulate diverse molecular and biochemical processes at a post-transcriptional level in plants. As the ancestor of domesticated wheat, wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides has great genetic potential for wheat improvement. However, little is known about miRNAs and their functions on salinity stress in wild emmer. To obtain more information on miRNAs in wild emmer, we systematically investigated and characterized the salinity-responsive miRNAs using deep sequencing technology. A total of 88 conserved and 124 novel miRNAs were identified, of which 50 were proven to be salinity-responsive miRNAs, with 32 significantly up-regulated and 18 down-regulated. miR172b and miR1120a, as well as mi393a, were the most significantly differently expressed. Targets of these miRNAs were computationally predicted, then Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis found that the targets of salinity-responsive miRNAs were enriched in transcription factors and stress-related proteins. Finally, we investigated the expression profiles of seven miRNAs ranging between salt-tolerant and sensitive genotypes, and found that they played critical roles in salinity tolerance in wild emmer. Our results systematically identified the salinity-responsive miRNAs in wild emmer, not only enriching the miRNA resource but also laying the foundation for further study on the biological functions and evolution of miRNAs in wild wheat and beyond.

  19. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P.

    2011-01-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features. PMID:22069523

  20. Some ancestors of contraction analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Contraction analysis is a recent tool for analyzing the convergence behavior of nonlinear systems in state-space form (see Lohmiller and Slotine [16] for the main reference). However, it seems that earlier results derived by mathematicians in the 1950s closely match some of the results...... of contraction analysis. In this paper, we review and place into perspective some references of this era, and relate them with contraction....

  1. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  2. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  3. Dietary nutrient profiles of wild wolves: insights for optimal dog nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Guido; Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs diverged from grey wolves between 13,000 and 17,000 years ago when food waste from human settlements provided a new niche. Compared to the carnivorous cat, modern-day dogs differ in several digestive and metabolic traits that appear to be more associated with omnivorous such as man, pigs and rats. This has led to the classification of dogs as omnivores, but the origin of these 'omnivorous' traits has, hitherto, been left unexplained. We discuss the foraging ecology of wild wolves and calculate the nutrient profiles of fifty diets reported in the literature. Data on the feeding ecology of wolves indicate that wolves are true carnivores consuming a negligible amount of vegetal matter. Wolves can experience prolonged times of famine during low prey availability while, after a successful hunt, the intake of foods and nutrients can be excessive. As a result of a 'feast and famine' lifestyle, wolves need to cope with a highly variable nutrient intake requiring an adaptable metabolism, which is still functional in our modern-day dogs. The nutritive characteristics of commercial foods differ in several aspects from the dog's closest free-living ancestor in terms of dietary nutrient profile and this may pose physiological and metabolic challenges. The present study provides new insights into dog nutrition and contributes to the ongoing optimisation of foods for pet dogs.

  4. Genetic architecture for the adaptive origin of annual wild rice, oryza nivara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, Michael A; Li, Changbao; Fowlkes, Angela M; Briggeman, Trevor M; Zhou, Ailing; Schemske, Douglas W; Sang, Tao

    2009-04-01

    The wild progenitors of cultivated rice, Oryza nivara and Oryza rufipogon, provide an experimental system for characterizing the genetic basis of adaptation. The evolution of annual O. nivara from a perennial ancestor resembling its sister species, O. rufipogon, was associated with an ecological shift from persistently wet to seasonally dry habitats. Here we report a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of phenotypic differentiation in life history, mating system, and flowering time between O. nivara and O. rufipogon. The exponential distribution of effect sizes of QTL fits the prediction of a recently proposed population genetic model of adaptation. More than 80% of QTL alleles of O. nivara acted in the same direction of phenotypic evolution, suggesting that they were fixed under directional selection. The loss of photoperiod sensitivity, which might be essential to the survival of the ancestral populations of O. nivara in the new environment, was controlled by QTL of relatively large effect. Mating system evolution from cross- to self-fertilization through the modification of panicle and floral morphology was controlled by QTL of small-to-moderate effect. The lack of segregation of the recessive annual habit in the F(2) mapping populations suggested that the evolution of annual from perennial life form had a complex genetic basis. The study captured the genetic architecture for the adaptive origin of O. nivara and provides a foundation for rigorous experimental tests of population genetic theories of adaptation.

  5. Inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) accession PI483463.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Vuong, Tri D; Nguyen, Henry T

    2009-01-01

    Tolerant soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) cultivars aid in reducing salt damage in problem fields. New genes are important to reduce losses from salt injury. Objectives of this study were to determine inheritance of salt tolerance in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) PI483463 and to test allelism of tolerance genes from genotypes PI483463 and S-100, a common ancestor of southern in US cultivars. Tolerant (T) PI483463 was crossed to sensitive (S) cultivar Hutcheson to study inheritance. PI483463 (T) was crossed with S-100 (T) to test for allelism. Parents, F(1) plants, F(2) populations, and F(2:3) lines were assayed in a 100 mM salt solution to determine tolerance. F(2) from T x S cross segregated 3(T):1 (S) and the F(2:3) lines responded 1 (T): 2 (segregating):1 (S). F(2) plants from PI483463 (T) x S-100 (T) segregated 15 (T):1 (S) indicating different genes from the 2 sources. Results showed that G. soja line PI483463 had a single dominant gene for salt tolerance, which was different than the gene in G. max line S-100. The symbol, Ncl2, was designated for this new salt tolerance allele.

  6. Comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from wild soybean (Glycine soja) and nine other Glycine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Aaqil Khan, Muhammad; Muhammad Imran, Qari; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Hosni, Khdija; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The plastid genomes of different plant species exhibit significant variation, thereby providing valuable markers for exploring evolutionary relationships and population genetics. Glycine soja (wild soybean) is recognized as the wild ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), representing a valuable genetic resource for soybean breeding programmes. In the present study, the complete plastid genome of G. soja was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing and then compared it for the first time with previously reported plastid genome sequences from nine other Glycine species. The G. soja plastid genome was 152,224 bp in length and possessed a typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 25,574 bp) separated by small (178,963 bp) and large (83,181 bp) single-copy regions, with a 51-kb inversion in the large single-copy region. The genome encoded 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes, and possessed 204 randomly distributed microsatellites, including 15 forward, 25 tandem, and 34 palindromic repeats. Whole-plastid genome comparisons revealed an overall high degree of sequence similarity between G. max and G. gracilis and some divergence in the intergenic spacers of other species. Greater numbers of indels and SNP substitutions were observed compared with G. cyrtoloba. The sequence of the accD gene from G. soja was highly divergent from those of the other species except for G. max and G. gracilis. Phylogenomic analyses of the complete plastid genomes and 76 shared genes yielded an identical topology and indicated that G. soja is closely related to G. max and G. gracilis. The complete G. soja genome sequenced in the present study is a valuable resource for investigating the population and evolutionary genetics of Glycine species and can be used to identify related species.

  7. Wild Sex in Zebrafish: Loss of the Natural Sex Determinant in Domesticated Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Catherine A.; High, Samantha K.; McCluskey, Braedan M.; Amores, Angel; Yan, Yi-lin; Titus, Tom A.; Anderson, Jennifer L.; Batzel, Peter; Carvan, Michael J.; Schartl, Manfred; Postlethwait, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination can be robustly genetic, strongly environmental, or genetic subject to environmental perturbation. The genetic basis of sex determination is unknown for zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model for development and human health. We used RAD-tag population genomics to identify sex-linked polymorphisms. After verifying this “RAD-sex” method on medaka (Oryzias latipes), we studied two domesticated zebrafish strains (AB and TU), two natural laboratory strains (WIK and EKW), and two recent isolates from nature (NA and CB). All four natural strains had a single sex-linked region at the right tip of chromosome 4, enabling sex genotyping by PCR. Genotypes for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with the strongest statistical association to sex suggested that wild zebrafish have WZ/ZZ sex chromosomes. In natural strains, “male genotypes” became males and some “female genotypes” also became males, suggesting that the environment or genetic background can cause female-to-male sex reversal. Surprisingly, TU and AB lacked detectable sex-linked loci. Phylogenomics rooted on D. nigrofasciatus verified that all strains are monophyletic. Because AB and TU branched as a monophyletic clade, we could not rule out shared loss of the wild sex locus in a common ancestor despite their independent domestication. Mitochondrial DNA sequences showed that investigated strains represent only one of the three identified zebrafish haplogroups. Results suggest that zebrafish in nature possess a WZ/ZZ sex-determination mechanism with a major determinant lying near the right telomere of chromosome 4 that was modified during domestication. Strains providing the zebrafish reference genome lack key components of the natural sex-determination system but may have evolved variant sex-determining mechanisms during two decades in laboratory culture. PMID:25233988

  8. Chinese kindergartners learn to read characters analytically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; McBride, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Do Chinese children implicitly extract information from Chinese print before they are formally taught to read? We examined Chinese kindergartners' sensitivity to regularities in Chinese characters and the relationship between such sensitivity and later literacy ability. Eighty-five kindergartners from Beijing were given a character-learning task and assessed on word reading and word writing twice within a 1-year interval. Sensitivity to the structural and phonetic regularities in Chinese appeared in 4-year-olds, and sensitivity to the positions of radicals in Chinese characters emerged in 5-year-olds. Such sensitivities explained unique variance in Chinese word reading and writing 1 year later, with age and nonverbal IQ statistically controlled. Young children detected regularities in written Chinese before they received formal instruction in it, which underscores both the importance of early statistical learning for literacy development and the analytic properties of Chinese print. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Market conduct and performance of wild and semi-wild food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the market conduct and performance of wild and semi-wild food plants (WSWFPs) traded in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Uganda. A rapid market survey (RMS) was conducted in 17 local markets in Kibanda County. Market prices and weekly volumes of traded WSWFPs were compared with some of the ...

  10. Market conduct and performance of wild and semi-wild food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Jacob Agea

    2013-06-12

    Jun 12, 2013 ... 5School of Environment, Natural Resources and Geography, Bangor University, Bangor-Gwynedd, ... This study assessed the market conduct and performance of wild and semi-wild food plants (WSWFPs) traded in ... Traded products were primarily delivered to markets on foot and using bicycles. Currently ...

  11. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  12. Haemoglobin polymorphism in wild and cultured African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result shows that both wild and cultured C. gariepinus had AA, BB and CC genotypes in the males and females. However, BD genotype was observed only in the female wild C. gariepinus. The percentage AA and BB genotypes of wild male C. gariepinus was 6.6% each. Wild females had AA, BB, CC and BD genotype ...

  13. Rabies and African wild dogs in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kat, P W; Alexander, K A; Smith, J S; Munson, L

    1995-11-22

    Three packs of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) ranging to the north of the Masai Mara National Reserve in southwestern Kenya were monitored from 1988 to 1990. During a six week period (August 2-September 14, 1989), 21 of 23 members of one of these packs died. Histological examination of two brain samples revealed eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Negri bodies), supporting a diagnosis of rabies viral encephalitis. An additional brain sample tested positive for rabies with a fluorescent antibody test. Nucleotide sequence of the rabies viral N and G genes from isolates of four African wild dogs (including an individual from Tanzania) indicated that infection was with a viral variant common among domestic dogs in Kenya and Tanzania. A hypothesis linking African wild dog rabies deaths to researcher handling is evaluated and considered implausible.

  14. True Numerical Cognition in the Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive and neural research over the past few decades has produced sophisticated models of the representations and algorithms underlying numerical reasoning in humans and other animals. These models make precise predictions for how humans and other animals should behave when faced with quantitative decisions, yet primarily have been tested only in laboratory tasks. We used data from wild baboons' troop movements recently reported by Strandburg-Peshkin, Farine, Couzin, and Crofoot (2015) to compare a variety of models of quantitative decision making. We found that the decisions made by these naturally behaving wild animals rely specifically on numerical representations that have key homologies with the psychophysics of human number representations. These findings provide important new data on the types of problems human numerical cognition was designed to solve and constitute the first robust evidence of true numerical reasoning in wild animals.

  15. Ombre di ombre. Wilde cita Balzac II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Pietri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Wilde, “reader of Balzac” in Balzac in English and in The Decay of Lying, as well as in other essays and imagined conversations, tests an especially transgressive practice of quotation, rewriting and rereading both Balzac’s self-readings and the readings of Balzac made by other writers, such as Charles Baudelaire, Théophile Gautier and Algernon Charles Swinburne. In this way, Oscar Wilde transforms the manipulation of quotations into a new aesthetic invention. Indeed, by inserting themes and characters taken from the Comédie humaine in his own essays and dialogues, Wilde follows a complex strategy to take possession of Balzac’s inheritance and explores the performative power of the “mask”, the systematic use of critical paradoxes, the poetics of “plagiarism” and of “living plagiarism” as “reverse quotation” of Art by Life and vice versa.

  16. How fast was wild wheat domesticated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Willcox, George

    2006-03-31

    Prehistoric cultivation of wild wheat in the Fertile Crescent led to the selection of mutants with indehiscent (nonshattering) ears, which evolved into modern domestic wheat. Previous estimates suggested that this transformation was rapid, but our analyses of archaeological plant remains demonstrate that indehiscent domesticates were slow to appear, emerging approximately 9500 years before the present, and that dehiscent (shattering) forms were still common in cultivated fields approximately 7500 years before the present. Slow domestication implies that after cultivation began, wild cereals may have remained unchanged for a long period, supporting claims that agriculture originated in the Near East approximately 10,500 years before the present.

  17. Consequences of recurrent gene flow from crops to wild relatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Haygood, Ralph; Ives, Anthony R; Andow, David A

    2003-01-01

    Concern about gene flow from crops to wild relatives has become widespread with the increasing cultivation of transgenic crops. Possible consequences of such gene flow include genetic assimilation, wherein crop genes replace wild ones, and demographic swamping, wherein hybrids are less fertile than their wild parents, and wild populations shrink. Using mathematical models of a wild population recurrently receiving pollen from a genetically fixed crop, we find that the conditions for genetic a...

  18. The Cytophaga hutchinsonii ChTPSP: First characterized bifunctional TPS-TPP protein as putative ancestor of all eukaryotic trehalose biosynthesis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonce, Nelson; Wuyts, Jan; Verschooten, Katrien; Vandesteene, Lies; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2010-02-01

    The most widely distributed pathway to synthesize trehalose in nature consists of two consecutive enzymatic reactions with a trehalose-6-P (T6P)-synthase (TPS) enzyme, producing the intermediate T6P, and a T6P-phosphatase (TPP) enzyme, which dephosphorylates T6P to produce trehalose and inorganic phosphate. In plants, these enzymes are called Class I and Class II proteins, respectively, with some Class I proteins being active enzymes. The Class II proteins possess both TPS and TPP consensus regions but appear to have lost enzymatic activity during evolution. Plants also contain an extra group of enzymes of small protein size, of which some members have been characterized as functional TPPs. These Class III proteins have less sequence similarity with the Class I and Class II proteins. Here, we characterize for the first time, by using biochemical analysis and yeast growth complementation assays, the existence of a natural TPS-TPP bifunctional enzyme found in the bacterial species Cytophaga hutchinsonii. Through phylogenetic analysis, we show that prokaryotic genes such as ChTPSP might be the ancestor of the eukaryotic trehalose biosynthesis genes. Second, we show that plants have recruited during evolution, possibly by horizontal transfer from bacteria such as Rhodoferax ferrireducens, a new type of small protein, encoding TPP activity, which have been named Class III proteins. RfTPP has very high TPP activity upon expression in yeast. Finally, we demonstrate that TPS gene duplication, the recruitment of the Class III enzymes, and recruitment of an N-terminal regulatory element, which regulates the Class I enzyme activity in higher plants, were initiated very early in eukaryan evolution as the three classes of trehalose biosynthesis genes are already present in the alga Ostreococcus tauri.

  19. The mosaic genome of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C suggests an aerobic common ancestor to the delta-proteobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara H Thomas

    Full Text Available Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C is a versaphilic delta-Proteobacterium distributed throughout many diverse soil and sediment environments. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis groups A. dehalogenans together with the myxobacteria, which have distinguishing characteristics including strictly aerobic metabolism, sporulation, fruiting body formation, and surface motility. Analysis of the 5.01 Mb strain 2CP-C genome substantiated that this organism is a myxobacterium but shares genotypic traits with the anaerobic majority of the delta-Proteobacteria (i.e., the Desulfuromonadales. Reflective of its respiratory versatility, strain 2CP-C possesses 68 genes coding for putative c-type cytochromes, including one gene with 40 heme binding motifs. Consistent with its relatedness to the myxobacteria, surface motility was observed in strain 2CP-C and multiple types of motility genes are present, including 28 genes for gliding, adventurous (A- motility and 17 genes for type IV pilus-based motility (i.e., social (S- motility that all have homologs in Myxococcus xanthus. Although A. dehalogenans shares many metabolic traits with the anaerobic majority of the delta-Proteobacteria, strain 2CP-C grows under microaerophilic conditions and possesses detoxification systems for reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, two gene clusters coding for NADH dehydrogenase subunits and two cytochrome oxidase gene clusters in strain 2CP-C are similar to those in M. xanthus. Remarkably, strain 2CP-C possesses a third NADH dehydrogenase gene cluster and a cytochrome cbb(3 oxidase gene cluster, apparently acquired through ancient horizontal gene transfer from a strictly anaerobic green sulfur bacterium. The mosaic nature of the A. dehalogenans strain 2CP-C genome suggests that the metabolically versatile, anaerobic members of the delta-Proteobacteria may have descended from aerobic ancestors with complex lifestyles.

  20. EU experimental study on wild boar trichinellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen F van; Franchimont JH; Garate T; Henriksen SA; Martinez-Fernandez A; Pfeiffer G; Ring C; Soule C; Voigt WP; LPM; diverse veterinaire instituten in Spanje; Denemarken; Duitsland en Frankrijk

    1995-01-01

    Sinds januari 1994 is de EEG-richtlijn 92/45 EEC van kracht waarin de controle van vlees van wilde dieren (inclusief zwijnen) op afwezigheid van Trichinella spiralis is geregeld. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van laboratoriummethoden die geschikt zijn voor onderzoek van vlees van varkens. In een

  1. Zoopharmacognosy-Self-Medication in Wild Animals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. Zoopharmacognosy - Self-Medication in Wild Animals. Rajasekar Raman Sripathi Kandula. General Article Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 245-253. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Who Speaks for Wolf? Not Project WILD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, Bert

    Project WILD, a Canadian elementary school curriculum supplement about wildlife and the environment, is seriously flawed in that it presents a human-centered view of the world while purporting to be unbiased. This anthropocentric perspective, in which humans are alienated from the environment and in control of nature by technological means, is in…

  3. DETERMINANTS OF VISITORS' PREFERENCE FOR WILD ANIMAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omotesho

    this increasingly important sector. This study examined the determinants of visitors' preference for wild animal species in Kwara State, Nigeria. It determined the animal species preference in the state and highlighted the desired animal characteristics that endeared animals to zoo visitors.A structured questionnaire was used ...

  4. Boundaries of the wolf and the wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Koen; Fischer, Anke; Wal, van der René

    2016-01-01

    Animal reintroduction and rewilding are two widely appealing and frequently connected forms of ecological restoration. However, the critical assumption that animal reintroduction automatically helps to restore formerly wild places is under-theorized. To fill this void, we identified three common

  5. aqueous solutions by caladium bicolor (wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomaterial is cellulosic and therefore biodegradable and environment friendly. Kinetics describes the ... The study of kinetics in wastewater treatment is significant as it provides available insights ... metals in aqueous effluent using Caladium bicolor (wild cocoyam) biomass. Secondly, to present a modeling equation to ...

  6. The wild animal as a research animal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  7. aqueous solutions by caladium bicolor (wild

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maximum sorption was found to be 75.11 mg/g and 25.30 mg/g for Pb2+ and Cdº ... be used to predict the rate of pollutant removal from aqueous solutions in the ... The adsorbent used in the present study is C. bicolor (wild cocoyam) biomass.

  8. "Wild Beasts" Roam the Art Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Virginia P.

    2012-01-01

    Fauvism is a style of painting based on the use of intensely vivid colors that were not natural to the faces, landscapes and objects being painted. It was how artists expressed themselves during the first decade of the 20th century, and lasted only a short time. The artists were called "les Fauves," which means "the wild beasts." In this article,…

  9. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on mushroom and mushroom products is dynamic with global increasing interest. The natural habitat of mushrooms being the wild, it is imperative to cultivate mushroom domestically in order to make it available to the populace. The aim of this research was to assess the perception of consumers to consumption of ...

  10. and wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... refrige-rator at 3°C. In addition, an improved German seed source (SS) collected from Mittelgebirge (Polle) seed orchard in 1999 was kindly donated for the study by the. Lower Saxony Forest Genetics Resources Research. Institute (NFV) in Germany. In total, six SSs were used for wild cherry in this study.

  11. Global conservation priorities for crop wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Khoury, Colin K.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bernau, Vivian; Dempewolf, Hannes; Eastwood, Ruth J.; Guarino, Luigi; Harker, Ruth H.; Jarvis, Andy; Maxted, Nigel; Müller, Jonas V.; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Struik, Paul C.; Vincent, Holly; Toll, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The wild relatives of domesticated crops possess genetic diversity useful for developing more productive, nutritious and resilient crop varieties. However, their conservation status and availability for utilization are a concern, and have not been quantified globally. Here, we model the global

  12. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  13. Oscar Montelius and Chinese Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, the world-famous Swedish archaeologist, had a key role in the development of modern scientific Chinese archaeology and the discovery of China’s prehistory. We know that one of his major works, Die Methode, the first volume of his Älteren kulturperioden im Orient und in Europa, translated into Chinese in the 1930s, had considerable influence on generations of Chinese archaeologists and art historians. What has previously remained unknown, is that Montelius personally promoted the research undertaken in China by Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960, whose discoveries of Neolithic cultures in the 1920s constituted the breakthrough and starting point for the development of prehistoric archaeology in China. In this paper, we reproduce, translate and discuss a long forgotten memorandum written by Montelius in 1920 in support of Andersson’s research. In this Montelius indicated his belief in the potential of prehistoric Chinese archaeology as well as his predictions regarding the discoveries about to be made. It is therefore an important document for the study of the history of Chinese archaeology as a whole.

  14. The Chinese-American Workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, S.H.

    1990-05-01

    The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Is Chinese Special? Four Aspects of Chinese Literacy Acquisition That Might Distinguish Learning Chinese from Learning Alphabetic Orthographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Catherine Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Some aspects of Chinese literacy development do not conform to patterns of literacy development in alphabetic orthographies. Four are highlighted here. First, semantic radicals are one aspect of Chinese characters that have no analogy to alphabetic orthographies. Second, the unreliability of phonological cues in Chinese along with the fact that…

  16. A high diversity of Eurasian lineage low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses circulate among wild birds sampled in Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Gerloff

    Full Text Available Surveillance for influenza A viruses in wild birds has increased substantially as part of efforts to control the global movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1 virus. Studies conducted in Egypt from 2003 to 2007 to monitor birds for H5N1 identified multiple subtypes of low pathogenicity avian influenza A viruses isolated primarily from migratory waterfowl collected in the Nile Delta. Phylogenetic analysis of 28 viral genomes was performed to estimate their nearest ancestors and identify possible reassortants. Migratory flyway patterns were included in the analysis to assess gene flow between overlapping flyways. Overall, the viruses were most closely related to Eurasian, African and/or Central Asian lineage low pathogenicity viruses and belonged to 15 different subtypes. A subset of the internal genes seemed to originate from specific flyways (Black Sea-Mediterranean, East African-West Asian. The remaining genes were derived from a mixture of viruses broadly distributed across as many as 4 different flyways suggesting the importance of the Nile Delta for virus dispersal. Molecular clock date estimates suggested that the time to the nearest common ancestor of all viruses analyzed ranged from 5 to 10 years, indicating frequent genetic exchange with viruses sampled elsewhere. The intersection of multiple migratory bird flyways and the resulting diversity of influenza virus gene lineages in the Nile Delta create conditions favoring reassortment, as evident from the gene constellations identified by this study. In conclusion, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences from low pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt, underscoring the significance of the region for viral reassortment and the potential emergence of novel avian influenza A viruses, as well as representing a highly diverse influenza A virus gene pool that merits continued monitoring.

  17. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  18. Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Introduction to CRM Systems in Chinese SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoting

    2015-01-01

    CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is an efficient management tool for an enterprise to improve the service level and customer relationships. However, CRM is not widely applied by Chinese SMEs. The implementation of CRM still faces some problems in Chinese CRM market. In this thesis is CRM systems applied in Chinese SMEs were discussed Chinese,including the current situation of CRM and what the SMEs need from a CRM system. In addition, it was discussed how to implement a CRM system in...

  20. Progress in research on Chinese urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaolin, GU; Liya, WU; Cook, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive study on the progress in research on Chinese urbanization. On the basis of the concept and connotation of Chinese urbanization defined by Chinese scholars, the paper systematically collects the research results on the issues concerning urbanization in China from the different approaches of demography, geography, city planning, economics and history, reviewing the process of research on Chinese urbanization made both domestically and internationally. In this paper...

  1. Identification of mildew resistance in wild and cultivated Central Asian grape germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cultivated grapevines, Vitis vinifera subsp. sativa, evolved from their wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris. They were domesticated in Central Asia in the absence of the powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, which is thought to have originated in North America. However, powdery mildew resistance has previously been discovered in two Central Asian cultivars and in Chinese Vitis species. Results A set of 380 unique genotypes were evaluated with data generated from 34 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The set included 306 V. vinifera cultivars, 40 accessions of V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris, and 34 accessions of Vitis species from northern Pakistan, Afghanistan and China. Based on the presence of four SSR alleles previously identified as linked to the powdery mildew resistance locus, Ren1, 10 new mildew resistant genotypes were identified in the test set: eight were V. vinifera cultivars and two were V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris based on flower and seed morphology. Sequence comparison of a 620 bp region that includes the Ren1-linked allele (143 bp) of the co-segregating SSR marker SC8-0071-014, revealed that the ten newly identified genotypes have sequences that are essentially identical to the previously identified mildew resistant V. vinifera cultivars: ‘Kishmish vatkana’ and ‘Karadzhandal’. Kinship analysis determined that three of the newly identified powdery mildew resistant accessions had a relationship with ‘Kishmish vatkana’ and ‘Karadzhandal’, and that six were not related to any other accession in this study set. Clustering procedures assigned accessions into three groups: 1) Chinese species; 2) a mixed group of cultivated and wild V. vinifera; and 3) table grape cultivars, including nine of the powdery mildew resistant accessions. Gene flow was detected among the groups. Conclusions This study provides evidence that powdery mildew resistance is present in V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris, the dioecious wild

  2. IGBO AND CHINESE TONAL SYSTEMS: A COMPARATIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    during the 2006/2007 academic session. Although Igbo and Chinese are both tone languages, their tonal systems differ. For this reason,. Igbo speaking students find it difficult to study Chinese language. To alleviate the difficulty, this paper attempts to look vividly into comparative analysis of Igbo and Chinese tonal systems.

  3. Some factors facilitating efficient Chinese teacher training

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of Chinese teacher training major. The factors facilitating efficient Chinese teacher training as well as the most common linguistic difficulties of the Chinese language are specified in the article. The author touches upon the peculiarities of the realization of the proposed model aimed at efficient educational success within the Ukraine’s system of education.

  4. Animals of the Chinese Zodiac. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The Chinese lunar calendar dates back to the second millennium BC. Unlike the western calendar, which numbers the years progressively from the birth of Jesus Christ, the Chinese calendar is cyclical. Each cycle is made up of 12 years--after the 12th year, the cycle is repeated. The Chinese associate each year of a 12-year cycle with an animal, and…

  5. Understanding the Varieties of Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    this counterargument, I use management practices in China as an illustrative case. Instead of one ‘Chinese model of management’, there are actually varieties of Chinese management. To understand these diversities, I propose an analytical framework that is based on four traditional Chinese philosophies, i...

  6. The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na

    2010-01-01

    In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

  7. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  8. Accessing Chinese Resources on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yu-lan Margaret

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet resources on subjects related to the Chinese, both in English and Chinese: discussion groups; news; literature and linguistics; social studies; East Asian Studies programs, departments, and libraries; Chinese computer issues; cultural activities; weather; business; art; and entertainment. Hardware and software requirements…

  9. Machine Translations of Chinese Mathematical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Shiu-Chang; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A practical machine translation system called CULT (Chinese University Language Translator), capable of translating Chinese mathematical texts into readable English, has been developed during the period 1969-1977 at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Programs for the system are written in Standard FORTRAN and run on the ICL1904A computer system.…

  10. Chinese-English Machine Translation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William S-Y; And Others

    The report documents results of a two-year R&D effort directed at the completion of a prototype system for Chinese-English machine translation of S&T literature. The system, designated QUINCE, accepts Chinese input exactly as printed, with no pre-editing of any kind, and produces English output on experimental basis. Coding of Chinese text via…

  11. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  12. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, no systematic study of Chinese FDI has been undertaken to date. This paper contributes to filling this research gap and analyses the current composition as well as the historical evolution of Chinese FDI in Indonesia, relying on a survey conducted in 2008 among Chinese invested...

  13. Introduction to "Mediating Chineseness in Cambodia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addendum by Penny Edwards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1981, social anthropologist William Willmott declared, “Today, no-one identifies themselves as Chinese in Kampuchea [Cambodia]” (1981:45. He certainly had the authority to publish such a statement. Having conducted sustained fieldwork on Chinese community formation in Cambodia from 1962 to 1963, Willmott offered an unprecedented examination of social structures, political organization, and patterns of identification among urban Chinese in his monographs, The Chinese in Cambodia (1967 and The Political Structure of the Chinese Community in Cambodia (1970. However, subsequent to his research, Chinese communities suffered terribly during the repression of the Lon Nol government between 1970 and 1975 and the atrocities of the Democratic Kampuchea regime. Willmott thus declared Chinese communities—and a willingness to identify as Chinese—destroyed. This understandably pessimistic vision turned out to be unfounded; the next extensive research done on Chinese in Cambodia by Penny Edwards and Chan Sambath in 1995 showed Chinese communities rebuilding. However, the descriptions of these communities showed a complexity of identity formation—from recent immigrants, “the raw Chinese,” to the five “traditional” Chinese dialect groups—that differed markedly from the indexes of identity applied by Willmott in his initial analysis. Academic ideas of how Chineseness should be configured had shifted and complicated; ascribing identity had become increasingly problematic...

  14. Bilingual Vocational Training Program for Chinese Chefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China Inst. in America, New York, NY.

    This document contains materials that can be used by instructors in an English-as-a-second-language course for Chinese kitchen workers or chefs. The materials consist of lessons on various topics that occur in the everyday life of Chinese chefs. Topics include: English names for Chinese dishes; phrases to employ when meeting people and when using…

  15. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  16. Analysis of chinese language learning motivation and cultural preservation of Chinese Indonesian high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiato Lim

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Chinese Indonesian high school students their language and cultural preservation, also their motivation to keep learning Chinese. By related survey, this paper tries to find out more about how far the young generation of Chinese Indonesian retains their language and culture as well as their motivation to learn Chinese. The contents particularly concerns to the subjects of Chinese learning experience, motivation, mother language backgrounds, religious backgrounds, Chine...

  17. ANTICKÁ GENEZE DNEŠNÍCH SVÁTKŮ: IMAGINES MAIORUM A KULT PŘEDKŮ VE STAROVĚKÉM ŘÍMĚ (Ancient Genesis of Contemporary Holidays: Imagines maiorum and Cult of the Ancestors in Ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartůněk Jiří

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available If the museums serve, among other things, to preserve the cultural heritage of mankind, we can then see the calendar as a museum of human feasts and festivals. At least since antiquity, they have revolved around two basic principles, life (birth, regeneration, harvest, fertility… and death. And it is the cult of worship of deceased ancestors and the associated celebrations that stand at the beginning of many celebrated festivals and tradition even today. In antiquity, the remembrance of the dead greately varied in their forms. And one of the most visible forms were the postmortem masks and portraits. These are today the „showcase“ of a number of world museums, showing the complexity of the funerary practices of ancient civilizations. In Rome, this phenomenon is called imagines maiorum and is an essential element in the Roman cult of ancestors.

  18. A Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence from a Mesolithic Wild Aurochs (Bos primigenius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, Paul A.; Lohan, Amanda J.; Murphy, Alison; Finlay, Emma K.; Shapiro, Beth; Chamberlain, Andrew T.; Richards, Martin B.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Loftus, Brendan J.; MacHugh, David E.

    2010-01-01

    haplogroup (haplogroup P), thus providing novel insights into pre-domestic patterns of variation. The high proportion of authentic, endogenous aurochs DNA preserved in this sample bodes well for future efforts to determine the complete genome sequence of a wild ancestor of domestic cattle. PMID:20174668

  19. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    identified aurochsen haplogroup (haplogroup P, thus providing novel insights into pre-domestic patterns of variation. The high proportion of authentic, endogenous aurochs DNA preserved in this sample bodes well for future efforts to determine the complete genome sequence of a wild ancestor of domestic cattle.

  20. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue....... Finally, we conclude with our suggestions for future indigenous research....

  1. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Common Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and Discovery of Drought-Response Genes in Root Tissue Based on Transcriptomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xin-Jie; Long, Yan; Wang, Jiao; Zhang, Jing-Wen; Wang, Yan-Yan; Li, Wei-Min; Peng, Yu-Fa; Yuan, Qian-Hua; Pei, Xin-Wu

    2015-01-01

    The perennial O. rufipogon (common wild rice), which is considered to be the ancestor of Asian cultivated rice species, contains many useful genetic resources, including drought resistance genes. However, few studies have identified the drought resistance and tissue-specific genes in common wild rice. In this study, transcriptome sequencing libraries were constructed, including drought-treated roots (DR) and control leaves (CL) and roots (CR). Using Illumina sequencing technology, we generated 16.75 million bases of high-quality sequence data for common wild rice and conducted de novo assembly and annotation of genes without prior genome information. These reads were assembled into 119,332 unigenes with an average length of 715 bp. A total of 88,813 distinct sequences (74.42% of unigenes) significantly matched known genes in the NCBI NT database. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis showed that 3617 genes were up-regulated and 4171 genes were down-regulated in the CR library compared with the CL library. Among the DEGs, 535 genes were expressed in roots but not in shoots. A similar comparison between the DR and CR libraries showed that 1393 genes were up-regulated and 315 genes were down-regulated in the DR library compared with the CR library. Finally, 37 genes that were specifically expressed in roots were screened after comparing the DEGs identified in the above-described analyses. This study provides a transcriptome sequence resource for common wild rice plants and establishes a digital gene expression profile of wild rice plants under drought conditions using the assembled transcriptome data as a reference. Several tissue-specific and drought-stress-related candidate genes were identified, representing a fully characterized transcriptome and providing a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies in plants.

  2. HPLC-MSn identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in 28 wild and cultivated berry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2012-12-15

    Berries and red fruits are rich dietary sources of polyphenols with reported health benefits. More than 50 different flavonols (glycosides of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, syringetin and laricitrin) have been detected and quantified with HPLC-MS(n) in fruits of blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, lingonberry, eastern shadbush, Japanese wineberry, black mulberry, chokeberry, red, black and white currants, jostaberry, red and white gooseberry, hardy kiwifruit, goji berry, rowan, dog rose, Chinese and midland hawthorn, wild and cultivated species of blackberry, raspberry, strawberry and elderberry. The phenolic constituents and contents varied considerably among the analyzed berry species. Elderberry contained the highest amount of total flavonols (450-568 mgkg(-1) FW), followed by berry species, containing more than 200 mgkg(-1) FW of total: chokeberry (267mgkg(-1)), eastern shadbush (261 mgkg(-1)), wild grown blackberry (260 mgkg(-1)), rowanberry (232 mgkg(-1)), american cranberry (213 mgkg(-1)) and blackcurrants (204 mgkg(-1)). Strawberry (10.5 mgkg(-1)) and white currants (4.5 mgkg(-1)) contained the lowest amount of total flavonols. Quercetins represent the highest percentage (46-100%) among flavonols in most analyzed berries. In wild strawberry and gooseberry the prevailing flavonols belong to the group of isorhamnetins (50-62%) and kaempferols, which represent the major part of flavonols in currants (49-66%). Myricetin glycosides could only be detected in chokeberry, rowanberry and species from the Grossulariaceae, and Adoxaceae family and Vaccinium genus. Wild strawberry and blackberry contained from 3- to 5-fold higher total flavonols than the cultivated one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammadi, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83% in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27% in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos, así como tocoferoles, fenoles totales y pigmentos de aceites de almendras y pistachos silvestres prensados en frío. Triglicéridos (TAG, tocoferoles y pigmentos se analizaron mediante HPLC, los ácidos grasos y esteroles mediante cromatografía de gases, y los fenoles totales espectrofotométricamente. Los principales ácidos grasos de ambas especies fueron los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico. Las especies de TAG predominantes son SLL + OLP (21,83% en el pistacho silvestre y OOO (47,27% en almendras silvestre. Feofitina a es un pigmento importante en los aceites de pistacho silvestre. No se detectó pigmentos en los aceites de almendras silvestres. Los fenoles totales fueron 57,6 mg kg-1 y 45,3 mg kg-1 en los aceites de pistacho silvestre y de almendra silvestre respectivamente.

  4. The Use of Discourse Markers among Mandarin Chinese Teachers, and Chinese as a Second Language and Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Shu; Chu, Wo-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how the use of discourse markers reflects speaking fluency in Chinese learners. In this study, 220 min of online Chinese courses were transcribed, with 17 Chinese learners and 5 native Chinese teachers as participants. Half of the transcribed data were drawn from students living in Taipei, Taiwan, a Chinese-speaking…

  5. Chinese-Mandarin Table of Simplified Chinese Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    The table of 545 simplified Chinese characters indicates the proper forms for general use according to the State Council of the People's Republic of China. The simplified characters are arranged according to a system that combines stroke counting and stroke order. Alongside the simplified characters are their traditional and more complex forms,…

  6. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  7. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  8. Sleeping distance in wild wolf packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, S.T.; Mech, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Sleeping distances were observed among members of 13 wild wolf (Canis lupus) packs and 11 pairs in northeastern Minnesota to determine if the distances correlated with pack size and composition. The study utilized aerial radio-tracking and observation during winter. Pack size and number of adults per pack were inversely related to pack average sleeping distance and variability. No correlation between sleeping distance and microclimate was observed. Possible relationships between social bonding and our results are discussed.

  9. La seconda visione. Wilde cita Balzac I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Pietri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Wilde, “lettore di Balzac” in Balzac in English, The Decay of Lying, e in diversi altri saggi e conversazioni immaginarie, sperimenta una pratica particolarmente trasgressiva della citazione, riscrivendo e rileggendo auto-letture dello stesso Balzac e letture balzachiane di altri scrittori, come Charles Baudelaire, Théophile Gautier e Algernon Charles Swinburne, fino a trasformare la manipolazione delle citazioni in reinvenzione estetica. L’inserzione di temi e personaggi della Comédie humaine nelle proprie opere saggistiche e dialogiche risponde a una complessa strategia di “riappropriazione” dell’eredità balzachiana, attraverso l’esplorazione del potere performativo della “maschera”, l’uso sistematico di paradossi critici, la poetica del “plagio” e del “plagio vivente” in quanto “citazione a rovescio” dell’Arte da parte della Vita e viceversa. Oscar Wilde, “reader of Balzac” in Balzac in English and in The Decay of Lying, as well as in other essays and imagined conversations, tests an especially transgressive practice of quotation, rewriting and rereading both Balzac’s self-readings and the readings of Balzac made by other writers, such as Charles Baudelaire, Théophile Gautier and Algernon Charles Swinburne. In this way, Oscar Wilde transforms the manipulation of quotations into a new aesthetic invention. Indeed, by inserting themes and characters taken from the Comédie humaine in his own essays and dialogues, Wilde follows a complex strategy to take possession of Balzac’s inheritance and explores the performative power of the “mask”, the systematic use of critical paradoxes, the poetics of “plagiarism” and of “living plagiarism” as “reverse quotation” of Art by Life and vice versa.

  10. Dental eruption in East African wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machanda, Zarin; Brazeau, Nick F; Bernard, Andrew B; Donovan, Ronan M; Papakyrikos, Amanda M; Wrangham, Richard; Smith, Tanya M

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of chimpanzee development has played an essential role in our understanding of the evolution of human ontogeny. However, recent studies of wild ape dentitions have cast doubt on the use of developmental standards derived from captive individuals. Others have called into question the use of deceased wild individuals to infer normative development. We conducted a high resolution photographic study of living known-age subadults in the Kanyawara community (Kibale National Park, Uganda) to generate a comprehensive three year record of dental eruption (including tooth emergence ages). These non-invasive data allow comparisons of captive and wild chimpanzees, establish accurate developmental standards for relatively healthy wild individuals, and facilitate direct assessments of primate-wide associations between dental development and life history. Emergence ages in the Kanyawara chimpanzees are very similar to living Gombe chimpanzees, and are broadly comparable to deceased Taï Forest chimpanzees. Early-emerging teeth such as the deciduous dentition and first molar (M1) appear during a time of maternal dependence, and are almost indistinguishable from captive chimpanzee emergence ages, while later forming teeth in the Kanyawara population emerge in the latter half of captive age ranges or beyond. Five juveniles whose lower M1s emerged by or before 3.3 years of age continued to nurse for a year or more beyond M1 emergence, and their mothers showed considerable variation in reproductive rates. The third molars of two adolescent females emerged several months to several years prior to the birth of their first offspring. Given that broad primate-wide relationships between molar emergence and life history do not necessarily hold within this population of chimpanzees, particularly for variables that are reported to be coincident with molar emergence, we suggest that further study is required in order to predict life history variables in hominins or hominoids

  11. Observation of dystocia in wild elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad P. Lehman; Lowell E. Schmitz; Mark A. Rumble; Jackie J. Kragel; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of reports in the literature, incidence of dystocia in wild elk (Cervus elaphus) across the west is rare. In 2011, one of 34 (3%) pregnant cow elk in our study experienced dystocia during birth. Our visual observations indicated that it took approximately 4 days for a radio-collared cow elk to succumb to dystocia in our study. Little is known about...

  12. Genetic diversity and peculiarity of annual wild soybean (G. soja Sieb. et Zucc.) from various eco-regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zixiang; Ding, Yanlai; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2009-07-01

    Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) is believed to be a potential gene source for future soybean improvement in coping with the world climate change for food security. To evaluate the wild soybean genetic diversity and differentiation, we analyzed allelic profiles at 60 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci and variation of eight morph-biological traits of a representative sample with 196 accessions from the natural growing area in China. For comparison, a representative sample with 200 landraces of Chinese cultivated soybean was included in this study. The SSR loci produced 1,067 alleles (17.8 per locus) with a mean gene diversity of 0.857 in the wild sample, which indicated the genetic diversity of G. soja was much higher than that of its cultivated counterpart (total 826 alleles, 13.7 per locus, mean gene diversity 0.727). After domestication, the genetic diversity of the cultigens decreased, with its 65.5% alleles inherited from the wild soybean, while 34.5% alleles newly emerged. AMOVA analysis showed that significant variance did exist among Northeast China, Huang-Huai-Hai Valleys and Southern China subpopulations. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated very significant association between the geographic grouping and genetic clustering, which demonstrated the geographic differentiation of the wild population had its relevant genetic bases. In comparison with the other two subpopulations, the Southern China subpopulation showed the highest allelic richness, diversity index and largest number of specific-present alleles, which suggests Southern China should be the major center of diversity for annual wild soybean.

  13. Population genetics and disease ecology of European wild boar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Welke factoren beïnvloeden de frequentie van de ziekten in wilde populaties? Het promotieonderzoek van Daniel Goedbloed beoordeelde de invloed van demografische, genetische en omgevingsfactoren op de frequentie van twee infectieziekten in Noordwest-Europese wilde zwijnen populaties.

  14. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes—the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted. PMID:22977071

  15. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L Doty

    Full Text Available The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  16. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Mateja; Zajc, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Žele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd; Pirš, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2016-02-01

    Wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Slovenia is officially free of bTB, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. In this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in Slovenia belonging to the families Cervidae, Suidae, Canidae, Mustelidae and Bovidae. Mycobacteria were isolated from 36/306 (11.8%) animals (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar and jackal) and identified by PCR, commercial diagnostic kits and sequencing. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria identified in five species were Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

    2007-05-23

    Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

  18. Global conservation priorities for crop wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Khoury, Colin K; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Dempewolf, Hannes; Eastwood, Ruth J; Guarino, Luigi; Harker, Ruth H; Jarvis, Andy; Maxted, Nigel; Müller, Jonas V; Ramirez-Villegas, Julian; Sosa, Chrystian C; Struik, Paul C; Vincent, Holly; Toll, Jane

    2016-03-21

    The wild relatives of domesticated crops possess genetic diversity useful for developing more productive, nutritious and resilient crop varieties. However, their conservation status and availability for utilization are a concern, and have not been quantified globally. Here, we model the global distribution of 1,076 taxa related to 81 crops, using occurrence information collected from biodiversity, herbarium and gene bank databases. We compare the potential geographic and ecological diversity encompassed in these distributions with that currently accessible in gene banks, as a means to estimate the comprehensiveness of the conservation of genetic diversity. Our results indicate that the diversity of crop wild relatives is poorly represented in gene banks. For 313 (29.1% of total) taxa associated with 63 crops, no germplasm accessions exist, and a further 257 (23.9%) are represented by fewer than ten accessions. Over 70% of taxa are identified as high priority for further collecting in order to improve their representation in gene banks, and over 95% are insufficiently represented in regard to the full range of geographic and ecological variation in their native distributions. The most critical collecting gaps occur in the Mediterranean and the Near East, western and southern Europe, Southeast and East Asia, and South America. We conclude that a systematic effort is needed to improve the conservation and availability of crop wild relatives for use in plant breeding.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  20. The Perennial Problem: The Chinese Minority in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-28

    peranakan , ethnic Chinese, local Chinese, foreign-born Chinese, Indonesian Chinese, alien Chinese, citizen Chinese, and so forth.) For the purposes of this...study, only four terms are im- -" portant: pribumi, peranakan , totok, and cina. ’Pribumi’ is * an Indonesian term which literally means ’indigenous...pribumi population consists of hundreds of different ethnic and linguistic groups. ’ Peranakan ’ is the term used to refer to the Indonesia-born Chinese

  1. Confessional Peculiarity of Chinese Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Nurzat M.; Bulekbayev, Sagadi B.; Kurmanaliyeva, Ainura D.; Abzhalov, Sultanmurat U.; Meirbayev, Bekzhan B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers features of Islam among Muslim peoples in China. Along with the traditional religions of China--Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism--Islam influenced noticeable impact on the formation of Chinese civilization. The followers of Islam have a significant impact on ethno-religious, political, economic and cultural relations of the…

  2. Chinese CLS sister school relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstead, C M

    1998-01-01

    Establish a relationship with a Chinese CLS Program to foster cross-cultural diversity, provide for student and faculty cross-cultural exchange, scholarship, research, and improve the health care of both communities served by the colleges. Information needed to develop agreement strategy was gathered by literature review, personal interviews, and direct observation in China. Based upon literature review an original list of items for discussion was developed. Discussions were held between administrators of both schools and the teaching hospital. The Chief Laboratory Technologist of the associated Chinese teaching hospital was interviewed to establish the extent of CLS students' experiences. A form for the interview was developed and the results were used during the negotiation of the final agreement. A CLS faculty team member from the U.S. traveled to the Jingmen School of Nursing and Allied Medical Sciences, Jingmen City, China, Hubei Province, P.R. China to establish an agreement. Tours of six cities in China, the School, and Jingmen hospitals provided for a better understanding of the Chinese culture and the Chinese CLS program. Three major concerns for success of the relationship (language barriers, communication vehicles, and socialization issues) were determined and addressed in a final agreement. The components of the agreement may provide some insight for others considering such a collaborative venture. Outcomes will be more fully addressed when exchanges begin.

  3. Autobiography of a Chinese City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of gazetteer [a peculiar Chinese genre of officially supervised local history writing] work in the Northeastern city of Harbin. It is a study of the interaction of politics, bureaucracy, and historical work at the local level in contemporary China, and it points...

  4. Chinese Modernization in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Vinogradov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available China's rise has become subject to fierce academic debates about the nature and possible consequences of this growth. The phenomenon of the Chinese modernization was also studied from the angle of the theories of modernization. This article analyzes the historical stages of political and economic modernization in China, as well as Russian and Soviet experience.

  5. Chinese-Cantonese Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This nine-volume basic course in Cantonese Chinese is designed for 47 weeks of intense audiolingual instruction. The first book of the series introduces the pronunciation, with emphasis on the tone system, and the basic aspects of the grammar. Also introduced in this volume is the romanization system used in this series (the U.S. Army Language…

  6. Aconite: a lethal Chinese herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatovich, D M

    1992-03-01

    Physicians and the public often assume that herbal preparations are harmless. Aconite is a Chinese herb used as an analgesic by homeopaths; its chief effects are on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. The first two reported cases of aconite poisoning in Australia are described.

  7. The geography of Chinese science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, David Emanual; Gunessee, Saileshsingh; Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann

    2014-01-01

    . The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers....

  8. American Drama through Chinese Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    An American instructor taught a 5-week course on the family in American drama to a group of graduate English majors on the campus of Hebei Teachers' University in the People's Republic of China. The instructor learned as much about Chinese culture as the students learned about American culture. Lecture is the standard pedagogy even in graduate…

  9. The Chinese Health Care System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Yu, Yi

    In the present paper we describe the structure of the Chinese health care system and sketch its future development. We analyse issues of provider incentives and the actual burden sharing between government, enterprises and people. We further aim to identify a number of current problems and link...

  10. Dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; van Marrewijk, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of Chinese comparative advantage as measured by export shares and the Balassa index using 3-digit and 4-digit sectors for the period 1970 ¿ 1997. We use novel tools to identify periods of rapid structural change and the persistence of comparative advantage, such as Galtonian

  11. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    -Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...

  12. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  13. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  14. Japan's Influence on Chinese Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    This bibliography includes 26 items with brief annotations. The cited documents include books, journal articles, government reports, and newspaper articles. Emphasis is placed on the Japanese impact on Chinese education during the Japanese occupation of parts of China during the Sino-Japanese War and World War II. While most of the items are…

  15. The Magic of Chinese Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Betty Siu Junn

    Although this booklet is intended for use in the classroom, the author cautions the reader that it is an adventure into Chinese music rather than a teaching or history experience. By learning how to play the music, students "travel" through China, giving them a better understanding of this country. The author describes the invention of…

  16. Chinese human smuggling in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudijn, Melvin Roan Jasper

    2006-01-01

    Kleinschalige mensensmokkelaars beheersen de gehele smokkelroute van China naar de eindbestemming, grootschalige smokkelaars beheersen paradoxaal genoeg slechts een gedeelte van het traject. Dat is een van de conclusies uit de dissertatie “Chinese Smuggling in Transit” van Melvin Soudijn. Het

  17. Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng

    2007-12-01

    This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

  18. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Using Large-Scale Statistical Chinese Brain Template (Chinese2020 in Popular Neuroimage Analysis Toolkits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that the morphology of Chinese brains statistically differs from that of Caucasian, there is an urgent need to develop a Chinese brain template for neuroimaging studies in Chinese populations. Based on a multi-center dataset, we developed a statistical Chinese brain template, named as Chinese2020 (Liang et al., 2015. This new Chinese brain atlas has been validated in brain normalization and segmentation for anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies, and is publicly available at http://www.chinese-brain-atlases.org/. In our previous study, we have demonstrated this Chinese atlas showed higher accuracy in segmentation and relatively smaller shape deformations during registration. Because the spatial normalization of functional images is mainly based on the segmentation and normalization of anatomical image, the population-specific brain atlas should also be more appropriate for functional studies involving Chinese populations. The aim of this technology report is to validate the performance of Chinsese2020 template in functional neuroimaging studies, and demonstrated that for Chinese population studies, the use of the Chinese2010 template produces more valid results. The steps of how to use the Chinese2020 template in SPM software were given in details in this technology report, and based on an example of finger tapping fMRI study, this technology report demonstrated the Chinese2020 template could improve the performance of the neuroimaging analysis of Chinese populations.

  20. The importance of wild meat in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin R.; Meilby, Henrik; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    across Latin America, Asia, and Africa, we show that 39% of the sampled households, by extrapolation representing ~ 150 million households in the Global South, ‘harvest’ wild meat. On average, wild meat makes up 2% of households’ income of which own consumption accounts for 89%. Reliance on wild meat...

  1. Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

  2. Estimation of in situ mating systems in wild sorghum (Sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The high outcrossing rates of wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia indicate a high potential for crop genes (including transgenes) to spread within the wild pool. Therefore, effective risk management strategies may be needed if the introgression of transgenes or other crop genes from improved cultivars into wild or ...

  3. Wild Food Summit: Anishinaabe Relearning Traditional Gathering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Wild Food Summits is a program initiated by Steve Dahlberg, the White Earth Tribal & Community College Extension director. Dahlberg began Wild Food Summits to teach people about identifying and gathering wild greens, mushrooms, and other edible plant life. The whole community comes together to cook and eat the foods. The tribal college has…

  4. Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1): Top One Percent Wild Areas Dataset (Geographic)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Top One Percent Wild Areas Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1) is derived from the LWP-1 Human Footprint Dataset. The gridded data...

  5. Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1): Top One Percent Wild Areas Dataset (IGHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Top One Percent Wild Areas Dataset of the Last of the Wild Project, Version 1, 2002 (LWP-1) is derived from the LWP-1 Human Footprint Dataset. The gridded data...

  6. Genome-wide analysis reveals artificial selection on coat colour and reproductive traits in Chinese domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Hongyang; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Zhonglin; Li, Kui; Liu, Bang

    2015-03-01

    Pigs from Asia and Europe were independently domesticated from c. 9000 years ago. During this period, strong artificial selection has led to dramatic phenotypic changes in domestic pigs. However, the genetic basis underlying these morphological and behavioural adaptations is relatively unknown, particularly for indigenous Chinese pigs. Here, we performed a genome-wide analysis to screen 196 regions with selective sweep signals in Tongcheng pigs, which are a typical indigenous Chinese breed. Genes located in these regions have been found to be involved in lipid metabolism, melanocyte differentiation, neural development and other biological processes, which coincide with the evolutionary phenotypic changes in this breed. A synonymous substitution, c.669T>C, in ESR1, which colocalizes with a major quantitative trait locus for litter size, shows extreme differences in allele frequency between Tongcheng pigs and wild boars. Notably, the variant C allele in this locus exhibits high allele frequency in most Chinese populations, suggesting a consequence of positive selection. Five genes (PRM1, PRM2, TNP2, GPR149 and JMJD1C) related to reproductive traits were found to have high haplotype similarity in Chinese breeds. Two selected genes, MITF and EDNRB, are implied to shape the two-end black colour trait in Tongcheng pig. Subsequent SNP microarray studies of five Chinese white-spotted breeds displayed a concordant signature at both loci, suggesting that these two genes are responsible for colour variations in Chinese breeds. Utilizing massively parallel sequencing, we characterized the candidate sites that adapt to artificial and environmental selections during the Chinese pig domestication. This study provides fundamental proof for further research on the evolutionary adaptation of Chinese pigs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Are habitat fragmentation, local adaptation and isolation-by-distance driving population divergence in wild rice Oryza rufipogon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Vrieling, Klaas; Liao, Hui; Xiao, Manqiu; Zhu, Yongqing; Rong, Jun; Zhang, Wenju; Wang, Yuguo; Yang, Ji; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2013-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation weakens the connection between populations and is accompanied with isolation by distance (IBD) and local adaptation (isolation by adaptation, IBA), both leading to genetic divergence between populations. To understand the evolutionary potential of a population and to formulate proper conservation strategies, information on the roles of IBD and IBA in driving population divergence is critical. The putative ancestor of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) is endangered in China due to habitat loss and fragmentation. We investigated the genetic variation in 11 Chinese Oryza rufipogon populations using 79 microsatellite loci to infer the effects of habitat fragmentation, IBD and IBA on genetic structure. Historical and current gene flows were found to be rare (mh  = 0.0002-0.0013, mc  = 0.007-0.029), indicating IBD and resulting in a high level of population divergence (FST  = 0.343). High within-population genetic variation (HE  = 0.377-0.515), relatively large effective population sizes (Ne  = 96-158), absence of bottlenecks and limited gene flow were found, demonstrating little impact of recent habitat fragmentation on these populations. Eleven gene-linked microsatellite loci were identified as outliers, indicating local adaptation. Hierarchical AMOVA and partial Mantel tests indicated that population divergence of Chinese O. rufipogon was significantly correlated with environmental factors, especially habitat temperature. Common garden trials detected a significant adaptive population divergence associated with latitude. Collectively, these findings imply that IBD due to historical rather than recent fragmentation, followed by local adaptation, has driven population divergence in O. rufipogon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Book Reivew: A chance for lasting survival: Ecology and behavior of wild giant pandas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.

    2015-01-01

    “If we watch species going extinct in front of us, how useful is that we publish 100 or even 1,000 papers by studying them?” (p. 330). This quote from senior author Pan Wenshi captures an important essence of this book. A translation of a 2001 monograph originally published in Chinese, this volume details the findings of a 15-year research program in the Qinling Mountains by Wenshi and his students. Starting in 1984, this Chinese research team from Peking University was only the second to study free-ranging pandas. This is the remarkable journey of a devoted group of field researchers who helped changed the course of giant panda conservation, events that few conservationists outside of China have been aware of until now.Review info: A chance for lasting survival: Ecology and behavior of wild giant pandas. By Pan Wenshi, Lü Zhi, Zhu Xiaojian, Wang Dajun, Wang Hao, Long Yu, Fu Dali, and Zhou Xin; edited by, William J. McShea, Richard B. Harris, David L. Garshelis, and Wang Dajun, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-935623-17-5, 349pp.

  9. The high frequency of GJB2 gene mutation c.313_326del14 suggests its possible origin in ancestors of Lithuanian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikstiene, Violeta; Jakaitiene, Audrone; Byckova, Jekaterina; Gradauskiene, Egle; Preiksaitiene, Egle; Burnyte, Birute; Tumiene, Birute; Matuleviciene, Ausra; Ambrozaityte, Laima; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Domarkiene, Ingrida; Rancelis, Tautvydas; Cimbalistiene, Loreta; Lesinskas, Eugenijus; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Utkus, Algirdas

    2016-02-19

    HL. The allele frequency of c.35delG mutation (64.7 %) is consistent with many previously published studies in groups of affected individuals of Caucasian populations. The high frequency of the c.313_326del14 (28.3 % of pathogenic alleles) mutation in affected group of participants was an unexpected finding in our study suggesting not only a high frequency of carriers of this mutation in our population but also its possible origin in Lithuanian ancestors. The high frequency of carriers of the c.313_326del14 mutation in the entire Lithuanian population is supported by it being identified twice in the ethnic Lithuanian group of healthy participants (a frequency 2.0 % of carriers in the study group). Analysis of the allele frequency of GJB2 gene mutations revealed a high proportion of c. 313_326del14 (rs111033253) mutations in the GJB2-positive group suggesting its possible origin in Lithuanian forebears. The high frequency of carriers of GJB2 gene mutations in the group of healthy participants corresponds to the substantial frequency of GJB2-associated HL in Lithuania. The observations of the study indicate the significant contribution of GJB2 gene mutations to the pathogenesis of the disorder in the Lithuanian population and will contribute to introducing principles to predict the characteristics of the disease in patients.

  10. Chinese Muslim Predicament in Indonesia's Post Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Abidin Eko Putro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Chinese with no exception Chinese Muslim in Indonesia has stepped into a considerable freedom during the current Reformation era. As like as many other Chinese Indonesians who take a part in creating integration model without abandoning their ethnic identity, Chinese Muslim have also shown similar endeavor. However, within the context of post-Reformation democracy, it seems that Chinese Muslim solely fights against any other Indonesian Chinese group and other Muslim community in Indonesia at the same time. Study about Chinese Muslim in Indonesia after Reformation is briefly undertaken ranging from its political contexts, cultural, and economy alike. Some scholars who interest in its cultural realm have been dealt with the important role of Chinese in spreading Islam into Nusantara in 14th Century. Here, Admiral Cheng Ho was an influential figure to introduce Islam to local people in northern coastal area of Java Island. It sounds that it is unlike with many other scholars who convince that Islam came to Java in the hand of Gujarat traders. This paper tries to explore the existence of Chinese Muslim in Jakarta during the current Post Reformation era. To complete this paper, I try to combine data that taken from in-depth interview with literature review and personal observation on some people and signs of Chinese Muslim in Jakarta.

  11. Towards an Ancient Chinese-Inspired Theory of Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    In this philosophical paper, I propose a theory of music education inspired by ancient Chinese philosophy. In particular, I draw on five classical Chinese philosophical texts: the Analects (lunyu [Chinese characters omitted]), the Mencius (Mengzi [Chinese characters omitted]), the Zhuangzi ([Chinese characters omitted]), the Xunzi ([Chinese…

  12. Population estimate of Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) in a Nebraska reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Noelle M.; Allen, Craig R.; Fricke, Kent A.; Haak, Danielle M.; Hellman, Michelle L.; Kill, Robert A.; Nemec, Kristine T.; Pope, Kevin L.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Uden, Daniel R.; Unstad, Kody M.; VanderHam, Ashley E.

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an aquatic invasive species in North America. Little is known regarding this species' impacts on freshwater ecosystems. It is be lieved that population densities can be high, yet no population estimates have been reported. We utilized a mark-recapture approach to generate a population estimate for Chinese mystery snail in Wild Plum Lake, a 6.47-ha reservoir in southeast Nebraska. We calculated, using bias-adjusted Lincoln-Petersen estimation, that there were approximately 664 adult snails within a 127 m2 transect (5.2 snails/m2). If this density was consistent throughout the littoral zone (Chinese mystery snail wet biomass is estimated to be 3,119 kg (643 kg/ha). If this density is confined to the depth sampled in this study (1.46 m), then the adult population is estimated to be 169,400 snails, and wet biomass is estimated to be 2,084 kg (643 kg/ha). Additional research is warranted to further test the utility of mark-recapture methods for aquatic snails and to better understand Chinese mystery snail distributions within reservoirs.

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine use among Chinese immigrant cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jennifer C F; Gany, Francesca

    2014-03-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) includes both herbal remedies and non-herbal practices. Chinese cancer patients are particularly at high risk for herb-drug interactions. Providers, both primary care physicians and oncologists, frequently do not ask patients about TCM use, which has potentially dangerous consequences. This study describes an assessment of TCM use while undergoing conventional cancer treatment, among a cohort of Chinese immigrant cancer patients in New York City. The Immigrant Health and Cancer Disparities Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center assists underserved cancer patients through a patient navigation program, the Cancer Portal Project. Six questions related to TCM are included in the existing Portal Needs Assessment Intake. Mandarin- or Cantonese-speaking Portal patients enrolled between January 2010 and May 2012 were surveyed. One hundred nine Chinese-speaking patients were enrolled in the Portal Project during the study period. Forty-six completed the TCM questions. Ninety-six percent preferred to speak Mandarin, Cantonese, or Fujianese in the healthcare setting. Thirty-nine percent (n = 18) of the 46 participants reported using TCM since being diagnosed with cancer. Nearly all (n = 16) who used TCM reported using herbal medicines. Ten TCM users did not describe sharing their use with Western doctors. Eight (44%) of TCM users reported concurrently using TCM and conventional cancer treatment. Larger scale studies should further explore the concurrent use of TCM and conventional cancer treatment in this unique population. Future research should also address patient-provider communication related to the concurrent use of TCM and cancer treatment. This is also an important area of education for both patients and providers.

  14. Herba Cistanche (Rou Cong-Rong: One of the Best Pharmaceutical Gifts of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cistanche species, known as Rou Cong-Rong in Chinese, are an endangered wild species and are mainly distributed in the arid lands and warm deserts of northwestern China. Within Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, Herba Cistanche is applied as a tonic and/or in a formula for chronic renal disease, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia and senile constipation. The chemical constituents of Herba Cistanche mainly consist of volatile oils, non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs, iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. There have been an increasing number of studies focusing on its bio-activities, including antioxidation, neuroprotection, and antiaging. The objective of this review is to introduce this herb to the world. Its taxonomy, distribution, and corresponding biological functions and molecular mechanisms are addressed in this review.

  15. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  16. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Budak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum and durum wheat (Triticum durum and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides, which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  17. The fecal viral flora of wild rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung G Phan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in

  18. Cyclical nursing patterns in wild orangutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya M.; Austin, Christine; Hinde, Katie; Vogel, Erin R.; Arora, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Nursing behavior is notoriously difficult to study in arboreal primates, particularly when offspring suckle inconspicuously in nests. Orangutans have the most prolonged nursing period of any mammal, with the cessation of suckling (weaning) estimated to occur at 6 to 8 years of age in the wild. Milk consumption is hypothesized to be relatively constant over this period, but direct evidence is limited. We previously demonstrated that trace element analysis of bioavailable elements from milk, such as barium, provides accurate estimates of early-life diet transitions and developmental stress when coupled with growth lines in the teeth of humans and nonhuman primates. We provide the first detailed nursing histories of wild, unprovisioned orangutans (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus) using chemical and histological analyses. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine barium distributions across the teeth of four wild-shot individuals aged from postnatal biological rhythms. Barium levels rose during the first year of life in all individuals and began to decline shortly after, consistent with behavioral observations of intensive nursing followed by solid food supplementation. Subsequent barium levels show large sustained fluctuations on an approximately annual basis. These patterns appear to be due to cycles of varying milk consumption, continuing until death in an 8.8-year-old Sumatran individual. A female Bornean orangutan ceased suckling at 8.1 years of age. These individuals exceed the maximum weaning age reported for any nonhuman primate. Orangutan nursing may reflect cycles of infant demand that relate to fluctuating resource availability. PMID:28560319

  19. Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wild Melon MLO Mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wild species have a potential value in crop breeding. Explore MLO gene which related with powdery mildew natural resistance is very important for improving the quality of melon. Resistance to powdery mildew was examined in cultivar and wild species by leaf inoculation. The wild germplasms showed resistance to powdery mildew Race1. Cloning and sequence analysis of the CmMLO2 gene identified an 85 bp difference between the wild and cultivated species. The CmMLO2 gene was expressed in the wild germplasm after fluorescence-labeled Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A positive transgenic plant showed successful invasion by powdery mildew Race1. These results suggested that the wild species might have failed to encode the MLO protein, thereby resulting in the MLO-negative regulation of powdery mildew, which in turn resulted in the broad-spectrum resistance of the wild species to powdery mildew.

  20. Lead in wild blackberries from suburban roadsides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    A mean lead content of 0.79 mg kg/sup -1/ was found for wild blackberries from roadside hedgerows in a suburban area of Glasgow. This represents a five-fold enhancement in lead content relative to blackberries from non-roadside environments and can be attributed to the emission of lead-containing compounds from car exhaust. Washing typically removed less than or equal to 0.1 mg kg/sup -1/. However, M.A.F.F. (1975) recommended limits for lead in fresh food (1 mg kg/sup -1/) and canned fruits and preserves (2 mg kg/sup -1/) were not, in general, exceeded.

  1. Sanguepazzo (Wild blood) : Motion picture (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2009-01-01

    Giovanna's father: Bologna, Italy, Pre-war scenario. Michele Casali's only teenage daughter, Giovanna Casali, poses a problem to him. Driven by jealousy, she has just killed her best friend. After a painful trial, Giovanna is sent to to a psychiatric hospital due to her ¨non compus mentis¨ state Wild blood: Valenti and Ferida - executed by partisans. Idolised by the public, a famous and infamous couple on and off screen. Stars of the Fascist endorsed 'white telephone' cinema, their privat...

  2. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  3. Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon: a genome-wide view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pu; Molina, Jeanmaire; Flowers, Jonathan M; Rubinstein, Samara; Jackson, Scott A; Purugganan, Michael D; Schaal, Barbara A

    2012-09-01

    Asian wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) that ranges widely across the eastern and southern part of Asia is recognized as the direct ancestor of cultivated Asian rice (O. sativa). Studies of the geographic structure of O. rufipogon, based on chloroplast and low-copy nuclear markers, reveal a possible phylogeographic signal of subdivision in O. rufipogon. However, this signal of geographic differentiation is not consistently observed among different markers and studies, with often conflicting results. To more precisely characterize the phylogeography of O. rufipogon populations, a genome-wide survey of unlinked markers, intensively sampled from across the entire range of O. rufipogon is critical. In this study, we surveyed sequence variation at 42 genome-wide sequence tagged sites (STS) in 108 O. rufipogon accessions from throughout the native range of the species. Using Bayesian clustering, principal component analysis and amova, we conclude that there are two genetically distinct O. rufipogon groups, Ruf-I and Ruf-II. The two groups exhibit a clinal variation pattern generally from north-east to south-west. Different from many earlier studies, Ruf-I, which is found mainly in China and the Indochinese Peninsula, shows genetic similarity with one major cultivated rice variety, O. satvia indica, whereas Ruf-II, mainly from South Asia and the Indochinese Peninsula, is not found to be closely related to cultivated rice varieties. The other major cultivated rice variety, O. sativa japonica, is not found to be similar to either O. rufipogon groups. Our results support the hypothesis of a single origin of the domesticated O. sativa in China. The possible role of palaeoclimate, introgression and migration-drift balance in creating this clinal variation pattern is also discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Thinking Chinese Translation A Course in Translation Method; Chinese to English

    CERN Document Server

    Valerie, Pellatt

    2010-01-01

    Suitable for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students of Chinese. "Thinking Chinese Translation", this book explores the ways in which memory, general knowledge, and creativity (summed up as 'schema') contribute to the linguistic ability necessary to create a good translation

  5. Increasing imputation and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins using joint Chinese-Nordic reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Ding, X

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows g...... to increase reference population rather than increasing marker density......This study investigated the effect of including Nordic Holsteins in the reference population on the imputation accuracy and prediction accuracy for Chinese Holsteins. The data used in this study include 85 Chinese Holstein bulls genotyped with both 54K chip and 777K (HD) chip, 2862 Chinese cows...... in Chinese Holstein were assessed. The allele correct rate increased around 2.7 and 1.7% in imputation from the 54K to the HD marker data for Chinese Holstein bulls and cows, respectively, when the Nordic HD-genotyped bulls were included in the reference data for imputation. However, the prediction accuracy...

  6. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  7. Child Mortality under Chinese Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher GRIGORIOU; Patrick GUILLAUMONT

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks for the impact of the Chinese economic reforms on its health performance. From an appropriate health outcomes indicator, it appears that while still being one of the most performing countries, China’s relative advance decreased during the reforms. Consistent with the fact that the health system had to rely more and more on private expenditures, we find an increasing impact of income on infant survival. We also show that relative prices matter for infant survival: for a given ...

  8. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  9. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Junping; Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Weicun; CISC’15

    2016-01-01

    This book presents selected research papers from the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference (CISC’15), held in Yangzhou, China. The topics covered include multi-agent systems, evolutionary computation, artificial intelligence, complex systems, computation intelligence and soft computing, intelligent control, advanced control technology, robotics and applications, intelligent information processing, iterative learning control, and machine learning. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent systems.

  10. [Overview of Chinese digital medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, S Z; Ouyang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Digital medicine is a newly developed interdiscipline, which is based on the rapid development of medical imaging technology and other advanced technologies in information science, such as computer and internet etc. To let academic world comprehend the history, status, mission, and prospect of this new branch of science, this comment primarily review the major events related to the booming process in Chinese digital medicine, the published milestone works, and dominating applied technology.

  11. How Chinese learn mathematics perspectives from insiders

    CERN Document Server

    Ngai-Ying, Wong; Lianghuo, Fan; Shiqi, Li

    2004-01-01

    The book has been written by an international group of very active researchers and scholars who have a passion for the study of Chinese mathematics education. It aims to provide readers with a comprehensive and updated picture of the teaching and learning of mathematics involving Chinese students from various perspectives, including the ways in which Chinese students learn mathematics in classrooms, schools and homes, the influence of the cultural and social environment on Chinese students' mathematics learning, and the strengths and weaknesses of the ways in which Chinese learn mathematics. Furthermore, based on the relevant research findings, the book explores the implications for mathematics education and offers sound suggestions for reform and improvement. This book is a must for anyone who is interested in the teaching and learning of mathematics concerning Chinese learners.

  12. Traditional Chinese food technology and cuisine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-rong; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2004-01-01

    From ancient wisdom to modern science and technology, Chinese cuisine has been established from a long history of the country and gained a global reputation of its sophistication. Traditional Chinese foods and cuisine that exhibit Chinese culture, art and reality play an essential role in Chinese people's everyday lives. Recently, traditional Chinese foods have drawn a great degree of attention from food scientists and technologists, the food industry, and health promotion institutions worldwide due to the extensive values they offer beyond being merely another ethnic food. These traditional foods comprise a wide variety of products, such as pickled vegetables, salted fish and jellyfish, tofu and tofu derived products, rice and rice snack foods, fermented sauces, fish balls and thousand-year-old eggs. An overview of selected popular traditional Chinese foods and their processing techniques are included in this paper. Further development of the traditional techniques for formulation and production of these foods is expected to produce economic, social and health benefits.

  13. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Analysis of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Bin-xing; Xiao, Hong-tao; Tong, Rong-sheng; Gao, Chun-ming

    2013-09-01

    Chinese medicine is a historic cultural legacy of China. It has made a significant contribution to medicine and healthcare for generations. The development of Chinese herbal medicine analysis is emphasized by the Chinese pharmaceutical industry. This study has carried out the experimental analysis of ten kinds of Chinese herbal powder including Fritillaria powder, etc., based on the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) method. First, a photoacoustic spectroscopy system was designed and constructed, especially a highly sensitive solid photoacoustic cell was established. Second, the experimental setup was verified through the characteristic emission spectrum of the light source, obtained by using carbon as a sample in the photoacoustic cell. Finally, as the photoacoustic spectroscopy analysis of Fritillaria, etc., was completed, the specificity of the Chinese herb medicine analysis was verified. This study shows that the PAS can provide a valid, highly sensitive analytical method for the specificity of Chinese herb medicine without preparing and damaging samples.

  14. Application of Chinese Jun-Cao technique for the production of Brazilian Ganoderma lucidum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo do Nascimento Rolim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom traditionally used in China against a wide range of diseases such as cancer and also for its prevention. In this work, commercial Chinese strains G. lucidum were compared to wild Brazilian strains aiming to determine the cultivation potential through the use of Jun-Cao. Six formulations were tested and the strains presented good response to the applied method. In general, the mixture between the grass and wood was well suited for the basidiomycetes, contributing to the preparation of substrates that generated better results in Jun Cao.

  15. The Role of Religion in Chinese Subethnicity : Christian Communities of Papua New Guinean Chinese in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsu, Ichikawa; National Museum of Ethnology

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the relationship between subethnicity and religion among Chinese in Australia using the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Chinese population in Australia as a case study. By looking at their Christian communities in Australia, the paper analyzes the characteristics of Chinese subethnicity. Australia has had a Chinese community since the late 19^ century. Since the Australian government abandoned its White Australian Policy and adopted multiculturalism after World War...

  16. Brand Image of Finnair Among Young Wealthy Chinese People in Chinese Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about the brand image of Finnair among young wealthy Chinese people in Chinese social media. In this thesis, the author would give a general view of Finnair and Chinese social media. The theories and framework consist of literature discussing brand and branding. Additionally, the Chinese social media Weibo and Wechat are presented. The data of this survey in this thesis was collected in April 2015, and100 respondents provided their answers. The survey was only published on ...

  17. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment.

  18. A history of Chinese mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Martzloff, Jean-Claude

    1997-01-01

    For the English language edition, this completely unique book of J.C. Martzloff has been fully revised and updated. It includes many new recent insights and illustrations, a new appendix on Chinese primary sources and a guide to the to the bibliography. From the reviews: "This book ranks with the most erudite Asian publications, and is the most informative and most broadly informed on its topic in any language." N. Sivin, China Quarterly "... crammed with insights, cautionary tales and a great deal of information about current research ... will surely become a standard reference for students, teachers, and researchers alike", J. N. Crossley, Annals of Science "... a truly scholarly and balanced exposition ... a book that the reviewer believes belongs in the library of every university or college, as well as in that of every individual seriously interested in the history of Chinese mathematics", B. L. McAllister, ZBfM "Martzloff History demonstrates clearly that while the Chinese were adept in applying their m...

  19. Measuring circulating antioxidants in wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan; Klasing, Kirk; Ricklefs, Robert

    2007-05-01

    Antioxidants protect against free radical damage, which is associated with various age-related pathologies. Antioxidants are also an important buffer against the respiratory burst of the immune system. This protection presumably has costs and therefore might underlie important life-history trade-offs. Studying such trade-offs in a comparative context requires field-applicable methods for assessing antioxidant capacity in wild animals. Here, we present modifications to a simple spectrophotometric assay (the TEAC or TAS assay) that can be applied to miniscule amounts of blood plasma to determine circulating antioxidant capacity. Additionally, uric acid, the most abundant circulating antioxidant, should be measured independently. Uric acid in birds is derived from amino acid catabolism, perhaps incidentally to its antioxidant function. The assay was validated in experimental studies on chickens showing effects of diet on antioxidant capacity, and in field measurements on 92 species of birds, which demonstrate substantial species differences in constitutive antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, most wild birds demonstrate a dramatic change in antioxidant capacity due to stress. These results show that this technique detects variation appropriate for both interspecific and intraspecific studies, and that antioxidants and uric acid change in response to conditions of interest to field ecologists, such as diet and stress.

  20. Farming and the fate of wild nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rhys E; Cornell, Stephen J; Scharlemann, Jörn P W; Balmford, Andrew

    2005-01-28

    World food demand is expected to more than double by 2050. Decisions about how to meet this challenge will have profound effects on wild species and habitats. We show that farming is already the greatest extinction threat to birds (the best known taxon), and its adverse impacts look set to increase, especially in developing countries. Two competing solutions have been proposed: wildlife-friendly farming (which boosts densities of wild populations on farmland but may decrease agricultural yields) and land sparing (which minimizes demand for farmland by increasing yield). We present a model that identifies how to resolve the trade-off between these approaches. This shows that the best type of farming for species persistence depends on the demand for agricultural products and on how the population densities of different species on farmland change with agricultural yield. Empirical data on such density-yield functions are sparse, but evidence from a range of taxa in developing countries suggests that high-yield farming may allow more species to persist.