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Sample records for wilcox aquifer system

  1. Geogenic organic contaminants in the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer of East Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayeeta; Varonka, Matthew S.; Orem, William H.; Finkelman, Robert B.; Manton, William

    2017-01-01

    The organic composition of groundwater along the Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer in East Texas (USA), sampled from rural wells in May and September 2015, was examined as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from low-rank coals. The quality of water from the low-rank coal-bearing Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer is a potential environmental concern and no detailed studies of the organic compounds in this aquifer have been published. Organic compounds identified in the water samples included: aliphatics and their fatty acid derivatives, phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (aliphatics, phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are geogenic and originated from groundwater leaching of young and unmetamorphosed low-rank coals. Estimated concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 3.9 to 0.01 μg/L. In many rural areas in East Texas, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in groundwater are likely to be present in drinking water supplied from wells that penetrate the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the water samples are potentially toxic to humans, but at the estimated levels in these samples, the compounds are unlikely to cause acute health problems. The human health effects of low-level chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water in East Texas are currently unknown, and continuing studies will evaluate possible toxicity.

  2. Assessing aquifer storage and recovery feasibility in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Benjamin Smith

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Study region: The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas. Study focus: Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reservoirs, subject to high evaporative losses. This study seeks to identify sites where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR may be successful, especially in recovery of injected waters, by analyzing publicly-available hydrogeologic data. Transmissivity, hydraulic gradient, well density, depth to aquifer, and depth to groundwater are used in a GIS-based index to determine feasibility of implementing an ASR system in the Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems. New hydrological insights for the region: Large regions of the central and northern Gulf Coast and the central and southern Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems are expected to be hydrologically feasible regions for ASR. Corpus Christi, Victoria, San Antonio, Bryan, and College Station are identified as possible cities where ASR would be a useful water storage strategy. Keywords: Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR, GIS, Gulf coast, Carrizo-Wilcox, Managed aquifer recharge (MAR

  3. Babcock and Wilcox advanced PWR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulynych, G.E.; Lemon, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox 600 MWe PWR design is discussed. Main features of the new B-600 design are improvements in reactor system configuration, glandless coolant pumps, safety features, core design and steam generators

  4. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups (Eocene) in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, W.P.; Templain, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Rocks of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups crop out in the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain and are represented by a series of sands and shales which reflect oscillation of the strandline. The Wilcox Group (lower Eocene), usually undifferentiated in Texas, consists of very fine sands and clays and abundant lignite. The Claiborne Group (middle Eocene) comprises, in ascending order, Carrizo Sand, Reklaw Formation (clay), Queen City Sand, Weches Formation (clay), Sparta Sand, Cook Mountain Formation (clay), and Yegua Formation (sand). Fluvial systems of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups exist in east Texas and trend perpendicular to the present coastline. In central Texas, sand bodies are parallel to the present coastline and are strand-plain, barrier-bar systems. Since the time of deposition of the Queen City Sand, a significant fluvial sand buildup occurred in the area of the present Rio Grande embayment where the marine clays pinch out. Known occurrences of mineral matter in the Wilcox and Claiborne (up to the Yegua) are limited to lignite (particularly in the Wilcox), cannel coal in the upper Claiborne, and hydrocarbons throughout. No uranium mineralization is known, and no uranium is likely to be discovered in the Claiborne and Wilcox. Approximately 50 surface samples and many gamma-ray logs showed no significant anomalies. The sands are very good potential host rocks, but no uranium source was discovered. During deposition of the Wilcox and Claiborne Groups, there was no volcanism to serve as a source of uranium (as with the prolific occurrences in the younger rocks of south Texas); also, Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Llano uplift were not exposed

  5. Thermal-hydraulic research plan for Babcock and Wilcox plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.Y.

    1988-02-01

    This document presents a plan for thermal-hydraulic research for Babcock and Wilcox designed reactor systems. It describes the technical issues, regulatory needs, and the research necessary to address these needs. The plan also discusses the relationship between current and proposed research, and provides a tentative schedule to complete the required work

  6. Paleocene coal deposits of the Wilcox group, central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; SanFilipo, John R.; Schultz, Adam C.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    Coal deposits in the Wilcox Group of central Texas have been regarded as the richest coal resources in the Gulf Coastal Plain. Although minable coal beds appear to be less numerous and generally higher in sulfur content (1 percent average, as-received basis; table 1) than Wilcox coal deposits in the Northeast Texas and Louisiana Sabine assessment areas (0.5 and 0.6 percent sulfur, respectively; table 1), net coal thickness in coal zones in central Texas is up to 32 ft thick and more persistent along strike (up to 15 mi) at or near the surface than coals of any other Gulf Coast assessment area. The rank of the coal beds in central Texas is generally lignite (table 1), but some coal ranks as great as subbituminous C have been reported (Mukhopadhyay, 1989). The outcrop of the Wilcox Group in central Texas strikes northeast, extends for approximately 140 mi between the Trinity and Colorado Rivers, and covers parts of Bastrop, Falls, Freestone, Lee, Leon, Limestone, Milam, Navarro, Robertson, and Williamson Counties (Figure 1). Three formations, in ascending order, the Hooper, Simsboro, and Calvert Bluff, are recognized in central Texas (Figure 2). The Wilcox Group is underlain conformably by the Midway Group, a mudstone-dominated marine sequence, and is overlain and scoured locally by the Carrizo Sand, a fluvial unit at the base of the Claiborne Group.

  7. Babcock and Wilcox plate fabrication experience with uranium silicide spherical fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Lawrence E.; Pace, Brett W.

    1996-01-01

    This report is written to present the fuel fabrication experience of Babcock and Wilcox using atomized spherical uranium silicide powder. The intent is to demonstrate the ability to fabricate fuel plates using spherical powder and to provide useful information proceeding into the next phase of work using this type of fuel. The limited quantity of resources- spherical powder and time, did not allow for much process optimizing in this work scope. However, the information contained within provides optimism for the future of spherical uranium silicide fuel plate fabrication at Babcock and Wilcox.The success of assembling fuel elements with spherical powder will enable Babcock and Wilcox to reduce overall costs to its customers while still maintaining our reputation for providing high quality research and test reactor products. (author)

  8. Babcock and Wilcox Canada steam generators past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.C. [Babcock and Wilcox Canada, Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    The steam generators in all of the domestic CANDU Plants, and most of the foreign CANDU plants, were supplied by Babcock and Wilcox Canada, either on their own or in co-operation with local manufacturers. More than 200 steam generators have been supplied. In addition, Babcock and Wilcox Canada has taken the technology which evolved out of the CANDU steam generators and has adapted the technology to supply of replacement steam generators for PWR's. There is enough history and operating experience, plus laboratory experience, to point to the future directions which will be taken in steam generator design. This paper documents the steam generators which have been supplied, the experience in operation and maintenance, what has worked and not worked, and how the design, materials, and operating and maintenance philosophy have evolved. The paper also looks at future requirements in the market, and the continuing research and product development going on at Babcock and Wilcox to address the future steam generator requirements. (author)

  9. Babcock and Wilcox Canada steam generators past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The steam generators in all of the domestic CANDU Plants, and most of the foreign CANDU plants, were supplied by Babcock and Wilcox Canada, either on their own or in co-operation with local manufacturers. More than 200 steam generators have been supplied. In addition, Babcock and Wilcox Canada has taken the technology which evolved out of the CANDU steam generators and has adapted the technology to supply of replacement steam generators for PWR's. There is enough history and operating experience, plus laboratory experience, to point to the future directions which will be taken in steam generator design. This paper documents the steam generators which have been supplied, the experience in operation and maintenance, what has worked and not worked, and how the design, materials, and operating and maintenance philosophy have evolved. The paper also looks at future requirements in the market, and the continuing research and product development going on at Babcock and Wilcox to address the future steam generator requirements. (author)

  10. Summary description of the Babcock and Wilcox integrated nuclear design system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittkopf, W.A.

    1976-03-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox integrated nuclear design system is divided into three broad areas: basic nuclear data processing, applications data processing, and nuclear design calculations. In basic nuclear data processing, basic nuclear data are collected, evaluated, and processed into a specified fine-energy mesh multigroup data file called a Master Library. In applications data processing, data for selected materials are retrieved from the Master Library and processed into an optimally structured, multigroup Production Library. Using these data and input descriptions of cells or regions, neutron spectra are generated and few-group constants are computed and fitted as a function of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, temperature, etc. In nuclear design calculations, few-group cross-section fits and descriptions of each core region and core geometry are input to a diffusion-depletion program or a nodal program that computes core reactivity, core power distribution, control rod worth, fuel cycle studies, core operating limitations, etc

  11. Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) based on the B ampersand W Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council. The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for developing improved plant-specific technical specifications by individual nuclear power plant licensees. This volume contains sections 3.4--3.9 which cover: Reactor coolant systems, emergency core cooling systems, containment systems, plant systems, electrical power systems, refueling operations

  12. Hydrogeology of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest: B in Regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Siegel, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system contains the most extensive and continuous aquifers in the northern Midwest of the United States. It is the source of water for many municipalities, industries, and rural water users. Since the beginning of ground-water development from the aquifer system in the late 1800's, hydraulic heads have declined hundreds of feet in the heavily pumped Chicago-Milwaukee area and somewhat less in other metropolitan areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a regional assessment of this aquifer system within a 161,000-square-mile area encompassing northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, northern Missouri, and Wisconsin.

  13. Babcock & Wilcox technologies for power plant stack emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, M.; Nolan, P.S.; Batyko, R.J. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The current status of sulfur dioxide control in power plants is reviewed with particular emphasis on proven, commercial technologies. This paper begins with a detailed review of Babcock & Wilcox commercial wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This is followed by a brief discussion of B&W dry FGD technologies, as well as recent full-scale and pilot-scale demonstration projects which focus on lower capital cost alternatives to conventional FGD systems. A comparison of the economics of several of these processes is also presented. Finally, technology selections resulting from recent acid rain legislation in various countries are reviewed.

  14. Transient response of Babcock and Wilcox-designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    On February 26, 1980, the Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, designed by the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), experienced an incident involving a malfunction in an instrumentation and control system power supply. Faced with the Crystal River Unit 3 incident and the apparently high frequency of such near similar types of transients in other B and W designed plants, a special Task Force was established within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation to provide an assessment of the apparent sensitivity of the B and W designed plants to such transients and the consequences of malfunctions and failures of the integrated control system and non-nuclear instrumentation. This report provides an assessment of these issues

  15. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  16. Guarani aquifer hydrogeological synthesis of the Guarani aquifer system. Edicion bilingue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This work represents the synthesis of current knowledge of the Guarani Aquifer System, based on technical products made by different companies and consultants who participated in the framework of the Project for Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development of the Guarani Aquifer.

  17. Hydrogeology - AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_BEDROCK_IDNR_IN: Bedrock Aquifer Systems of Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_BEDROCK_IDNR_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows bedrock aquifer systems of the State of Indiana. The source scale of the map depicting the aquifers...

  18. A General Solution for Groundwater Flow in Estuarine Leaky Aquifer System with Considering Aquifer Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chia; Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the urban and industrial developments near the coastal area are rapid and therefore the associated population grows dramatically. More and more water demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on heavy pumping in coastal area. The decline of groundwater table may result in the problems of seawater intrusion and/or land subsidence. Since the 1950s, numerous studies focused on the effect of tidal fluctuation on the groundwater flow in the coastal area. Many studies concentrated on the developments of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) analytical solutions describing the tide-induced head fluctuations. For example, Jacob (1950) derived an analytical solution of 1D groundwater flow in a confined aquifer with a boundary condition subject to sinusoidal oscillation. Jiao and Tang (1999) derived a 1D analytical solution of a leaky confined aquifer by considered a constant groundwater head in the overlying unconfined aquifer. Jeng et al. (2002) studied the tidal propagation in a coupled unconfined and confined costal aquifer system. Sun (1997) presented a 2D solution for groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary. Tang and Jiao (2001) derived a 2D analytical solution in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water. This study aims at developing a general analytical solution describing the head fluctuations in a 2D estuarine aquifer system consisted of an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer, and an aquitard between them. Both the confined and unconfined aquifers are considered to be anisotropic. The predicted head fluctuations from this solution will compare with the simulation results from the MODFLOW program. In addition, the solutions mentioned above will be shown to be special cases of the present solution. Some hypothetical cases regarding the head fluctuation in costal aquifers will be made to investigate the dynamic effects of water table fluctuation, hydrogeological conditions, and

  19. Sustainable Capture: Concepts for Managing Stream-Aquifer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Jeffrey C; Mehl, Steffen W

    2015-01-01

    Most surface water bodies (i.e., streams, lakes, etc.) are connected to the groundwater system to some degree so that changes to surface water bodies (either diversions or importations) can change flows in aquifer systems, and pumping from an aquifer can reduce discharge to, or induce additional recharge from streams, springs, and lakes. The timescales of these interactions are often very long (decades), making sustainable management of these systems difficult if relying only on observations of system responses. Instead, management scenarios are often analyzed based on numerical modeling. In this paper we propose a framework and metrics that can be used to relate the Theis concepts of capture to sustainable measures of stream-aquifer systems. We introduce four concepts: Sustainable Capture Fractions, Sustainable Capture Thresholds, Capture Efficiency, and Sustainable Groundwater Storage that can be used as the basis for developing metrics for sustainable management of stream-aquifer systems. We demonstrate their utility on a hypothetical stream-aquifer system where pumping captures both streamflow and discharge to phreatophytes at different amounts based on pumping location. In particular, Capture Efficiency (CE) can be easily understood by both scientists and non-scientist alike, and readily identifies vulnerabilities to sustainable stream-aquifer management when its value exceeds 100%. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Lower Paleogene Midway and Wilcox Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group, of the Northern Gulf coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas potential of Tertiary strata underlying the onshore areas and State waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region. The assessment was based on a number of geologic elements including an evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks, suitable reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon traps in an Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System defined for the region by the USGS. Five conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined for the Midway (Paleocene) and Wilcox (Paleocene-Eocene) Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) interval including: (1) the Wilcox Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU; (2) the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone Gas and Oil AU; (3) the Wilcox-Lobo Slide Block Gas AU; (4) the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU; and (5) the Wilcox Mississippi Embayment AU (not quantitatively assessed).The USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Midway-Wilcox-Carrizo interval resulted in estimated mean values of 110 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 36.9 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), and 639 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the four assessed units. The undiscovered oil resources are almost evenly divided between fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Stable Shelf (54 MMBO) AU and deltaic sandstone reservoirs of the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone (52 MMBO) AU. Greater than 70 percent of the undiscovered gas and 66 percent of the natural gas liquids (NGL) are estimated to be in deep (13,000 to 30,000 feet), untested distal deltaic and slope sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU.

  1. Transient well flow in leaky multiple-aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1985-10-01

    A previously developed eigenvalue analysis approach to groundwater flow in leaky multiple aquifers is used to derive exact solutions for transient well flow problems in leaky and confined systems comprising any number of aquifers. Equations are presented for the drawdown distribution in systems of infinite extent, caused by wells penetrating one or more of the aquifers completely and discharging each layer at a constant rate. Since the solution obtained may be regarded as a combined analytical-numerical technique, a type of one-dimensional modelling can be applied to find approximate solutions for several complicating conditions. Numerical evaluations are presented as time-drawdown curves and include effects of storage in the aquitard, unconfined conditions, partially penetrating wells and stratified aquifers. The outcome of calculations for relatively simple systems compares very well with published corresponding results. The proposed multilayer solution can be a valuable tool in aquifer test evaluation, as it provides the analytical expression required to enable the application of existing computer methods to the determination of aquifer characteristics.

  2. Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the B ampersand W Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The unproved STS were developed based on the, criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop proved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. This document, Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS

  3. Hydrogeology - AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_UNCONSOLIDATED_IDNR_IN: Unconsolidated Aquifer Systems of Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 1:48,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_UNCONSOLIDATED_IDNR_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows unconsolidated aquifer systems of the state of Indiana at a scale of 1:48,000. The following...

  4. The influence of solar wind on extratropical cyclones – Part 1: Wilcox effect revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rybanský

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-weather correlation, namely the link between solar magnetic sector boundary passage (SBP by the Earth and upper-level tropospheric vorticity area index (VAI, that was found by Wilcox et al. (1974 and shown to be statistically significant by Hines and Halevy (1977 is revisited. A minimum in the VAI one day after SBP followed by an increase a few days later was observed. Using the ECMWF ERA-40 re-analysis dataset for the original period from 1963 to 1973 and extending it to 2002, we have verified what has become known as the "Wilcox effect" for the Northern as well as the Southern Hemisphere winters. The effect persists through years of high and low volcanic aerosol loading except for the Northern Hemisphere at 500 mb, when the VAI minimum is weak during the low aerosol years after 1973, particularly for sector boundaries associated with south-to-north reversals of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF BZ component. The "disappearance" of the Wilcox effect was found previously by Tinsley et al. (1994 who suggested that enhanced stratospheric volcanic aerosols and changes in air-earth current density are necessary conditions for the effect. The present results indicate that the Wilcox effect does not require high aerosol loading to be detected. The results are corroborated by a correlation with coronal holes where the fast solar wind originates. Ground-based measurements of the green coronal emission line (Fe XIV, 530.3 nm are used in the superposed epoch analysis keyed by the times of sector boundary passage to show a one-to-one correspondence between the mean VAI variations and coronal holes. The VAI is modulated by high-speed solar wind streams with a delay of 1–2 days. The Fourier spectra of VAI time series show peaks at periods similar to those found in the solar corona and solar wind time series. In the modulation of VAI by solar wind the IMF BZ seems to control the phase of the Wilcox effect and the depth of the VAI minimum. The

  5. Can Remote Sensing Detect Aquifer Characteristics?: A Case Study in the Guarani Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, A. S.; Thomas, B.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Global water supply resiliency depends on groundwater, especially regions threatened by population growth and climate change. Aquifer characteristics, even as basic as confined versus unconfined, are necessary to prescribe regulations to sustainably manage groundwater supplies. A significant barrier to sustainable groundwater management exists in the difficulties associated with mapping groundwater resources and characteristics at a large spatial scale. This study addresses this challenge by investigating if remote sensing, including with NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), can detect and quantify key aquifer parameters and characteristics. We explore this through a case study in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) of South America, validating our remote sensing-based findings against the best available regional estimates. The use of remote sensing to advance the understanding of large aquifers is beneficial to sustainable groundwater management, especially in a trans-boundary system, where consistent information exchange can occur within hydrologic boundaries instead of political boundaries.

  6. Upper Basalt-Confined Aquifer System in the Southern Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.

    1999-01-01

    The 1990 DOE Tiger Team Finding GW/CF-202 found that the hydrogeologic regime at the Hanford Site was inadequately characterized. This finding also identified the need for completing a study of the confined aquifer in the central and southern portions of the Hanford Site. The southern portion of the site is of particular interest because hydraulic-head patterns in the upper basalt-confined aquifer system indicate that groundwater from the Hanford central plateau area, where contaminants have been found in the aquifer, flows southeast toward the southern site boundary. This results in a potential for offsite migration of contaminants through the upper basalt-confined aquifer system. Based on the review presented in this report, available hydrogeologic characterization information for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system in this area is considered adequate to close the action item. Recently drilled offsite wells have provided additional information on the structure of the aquifer system in and near the southern part of the Hanford Site. Information on hydraulic properties, hydrochemistry, hydraulic heads and flow directions for the upper basalt-confined aquifer system has been re-examined and compiled in recent reports including Spane and Raymond (1993), Spane and Vermeul ( 1994), and Spane and Webber (1995)

  7. Ground-water quality of the surficial aquifer system and the upper Floridan Aquifer, Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida, 1990-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, J.C.; Knowles, Leel

    2001-01-01

    Data from 217 ground-water samples were statistically analyzed to assess the water quality of the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida. Samples were collected from 49 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system, 141 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 27 springs that discharge water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. A total of 136 samples was collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 1999. These data were supplemented with 81 samples collected by the St. Johns River Water Management District and Lake County Water Resources Management from 1990 through 1998. In general, the surficial aquifer system has low concentrations of total dissolved solids (median was 41 milligrams per liter) and major ions. Water quality of the surficial aquifer system, however, is not homogeneous throughout the study area. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, many major ions, and nutrients are greater in samples from Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest than in samples from within the Forest. These results indicate that the surficial aquifer system in Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest probably is being affected by agricultural and (or) urban land-use practices. High concentrations of dissolved oxygen (less than 0.1 to 8.2 milligrams per liter) in the surficial aquifer system underlying the Ocala National Forest indicate that the aquifer is readily recharged by precipitation and is susceptible to surface contamination. Concentrations of total dissolved solids were significantly greater in the Upper Floridan aquifer (median was 182 milligrams per liter) than in the surficial aquifer system. In general, water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer was homogeneous, primarily being a calcium or calciummagnesium- bicarbonate water type. Near the St. Johns River, the water type of the Upper Floridan aquifer is sodium-chloride, corresponding to an increase in total dissolved

  8. Evaluation of operational safety at Babcock and Wilcox Plants: Volume 2, Thermal-hydraulic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, P.D.; Davis, C.B.; Callow, R.A.; Fletcher, C.D.; Dobbe, C.A.; Beelman, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a research program to develop a methodology to assess the operational performance of Babcock and Wilcox plants and to apply this methodology on a trial basis. The methodology developed for analyzing Babcock and Wilcox plants integrated methods used in both thermal-hydraulics and human factors and compared results with information used in the assessment of risk. The integrated methodology involved an evaluation of a selected plant for each pressurized water reactor vendor during a limited number of transients. A plant was selected to represent each vendor, and three transients were identified for analysis. The plants were Oconee Unit 1 for Babcock and Wilcox, H.B. Robinson Unit 2 for Westinghouse, and Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 for Combustion Engineering. The three transients were a complete loss of all feedwater, a small-break loss-of-coolant accident, and a steam-generator overfill with auxiliary feedwater. Included in the integrated methodology was an assessment of the thermal-hydraulic behavior, including event timing, of the plants during the three transients. Thermal-hydraulic results are presented in this volume (Volume 2) of the report. 26 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs

  9. History of Research Reactor Fuel Fabrication at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freim, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    1982 was a year of tremendous growth for Babcock and Wilcox and its Research Reactor Fuel Facility. The Division has progressed from essentially being a non-competitor to a position where we are growing in strength. This paper describes some of the general aspects of past history and where B and W is now

  10. RELAP5/MOD2 assessment at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nithianandan, C.K.; Shah, N.H.; Schomaker, R.J.; Turk, C.

    1986-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) has been working with the code developers at EG and G Idaho, Inc. and the NRC assessing the RELAP5/MOD2 computer code by simulating selected separate effects tests. The purpose of this B and W Owners Group-sponsored assessment was to evaluate RELAP5/MOD2 for use in design calculations for the MIST and OTIS integral system tests and in predicting pressurized water reactor (PWR) transients. B and W evaluated various versions of the code and made recommendations to improve code performance. As a result, the currently released version (Cycle 36.1) has been improved considerably over earlier versions. However, further refinements to some of the constitutive models may still be needed to further improve specific predictive capabilities of RELAP5/MOD2

  11. Geospatial compilation of historical water-level changes in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers 1977-2013 and Jasper aquifer 2000-13, Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Linard, Joshua I.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District has produced an annual series of reports that depict water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, from 1977 to 2013. Changes are determined from water-level measurements between December and March of each year from groundwater wells screened in one of the three aquifers. Existing published maps and unpublished geographic information system (GIS) datasets were compiled into a comprehensive geodatabase of all water-level-change maps produced as part of this multiagency effort. Annual water-level-change maps were georeferenced and digitized where existing GIS data were unavailable (1979–99). Existing GIS data available for 2000–13 were included in the geodatabase. The compilation contains 121 datasets showing water-level changes for each primary aquifer of the Gulf Coast aquifer system: 56 for the Chicot aquifer (1977; 1979–2013 and 1990; 1993–2013), 56 for the Evangeline aquifer (1977; 1979–2013 and 1990; 1993–2013), and 9 for the Jasper aquifer (2000; 2005–13).

  12. Water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes, northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Liscum, F.

    1980-11-01

    This report contains water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin. Water-quality data were compiled for aquifers in the Wilcox Group, the Carrizo Sand, and the Queen City Sand. The data include analyses for dissolved solids, pH, temperature, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Water-quality and streamflow data were obtained from 63 surface-water sites in the vicinity of the domes. These data include water discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected at selected sites for analysis of principal and selected minor dissolved constituents

  13. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Babcock and Wilcox, Leechburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report characterizes, as far as possible, the solid radioactive wastes generated by Babcock and Wilcox's Park Township Plutonium Facility near Leechburg, Pennsylvania that were sent to retrievable storage at the Hanford Site. Solid waste as defined in this document is any containerized or self-contained material that has been declared waste. The objective is a description of characteristics of solid wastes that are or will be managed by the Restoration and Upgrades Program; gaseous or liquid effluents are discussed only at a summary level This characterization is of particular interest in the planning of transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations, including the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, because Babcock and Wilcox generated greater than 2.5 percent of the total volume of TRU waste currently stored at the Hanford Site

  14. Standard Technical Specifications, Babcock and Wilcox plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the B ampersand W Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. This document Volume 2, contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.10 of the improved STS

  15. Babcock and Wilcox version of PDQ07: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.H.; Wittkopf, W.A.; Mullan, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox version of PDQ07 solves the neutron diffusion depletion problem in one, two, and three dimensions and in up to five lethargy groups. Adjoint and boundary value calculations may also be performed. Geometries available are rectangular, cylindrical, spherical, and hexagonal. Special capabilities of the code include thermal-hydraulic feedback with subcooled boiling effects, boron iteration, rod bank placement, automatic partial rod movement, and flux synthesis. Time-independent group diffusion equations are solved by Gaussian elimination in one dimension, single-line cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative technique in two dimensions, and a modified block Gauss-Siedel in three dimensions. Diffusion coefficients, macroscopic data, and depletion use a modified HARMONY system. Thermal feedback effects use an iterative approach based on relative power density in the core. Flux synthesis uses two-dimensional trial functions to solve three-dimensional problems

  16. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  17. Production of leu high density fuels at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freim, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A large number of fuel elements of all types are produced for both international and domestic customers by Nuclear Fuel Division of Babcock and Wilcox. A brief history of the division, included previous and present research reactor fuel element fabrication experience is discussed. The manufacturing facilities are briefly described. The fabrication of LEU fuels and economic analysis of the production are included. (A.J.)

  18. Data-base system for northern Midwest regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, A.L.; Mandle, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a study of the Cambrian and Ordovician aquifer system of the northern Midwest as part of a national series of Regional Aquifer-Systems Analysis (RASA). An integral part of this study will be a simulation of the ground-water flow regime using the Geological Survey's three-dimensional finite-difference model. The first step in the modeling effort is the design and development of a systematic set of processes to facilitate the collection, evaluation, manipulation, and use of large quantities of information. A computerized data-base system to accomplish these goals has been completed for the northern Midwest RASA.

  19. Characterising Bedrock Aquifer Systems in Korea Using Paired Water-Level Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Min Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on characterising aquifer systems based on water-level changes observed systematically at 159 paired groundwater monitoring wells throughout Korea. Using spectral analysis, principal component analysis (PCA, and cross-correlation analysis with linear regression, aquifer conditions were identified from the comparison of water-level changes in shallow alluvial and deep bedrock monitoring wells. The spectral analysis could identify the aquifer conditions (i.e., unconfined, semi-confined and confined of 58.5% of bedrock wells and 42.8% of alluvial wells: 93 and 68 wells out of 159 wells, respectively. Even among the bedrock wells, 50 wells (53.7% exhibited characteristics of the unconfined condition, implying significant vulnerability of the aquifer to contaminants from the land surface and shallow depths. It appears to be better approach for deep bedrock aquifers than shallow alluvial aquifers. However, significant portions of the water-level changes remained unclear for categorising aquifer conditions due to disturbances in data continuity. For different aquifer conditions, PCA could show typical pattern and factor scores of principal components. Principal component 1 due to wet-and-dry seasonal changes and water-level response time was dominant covering about 55% of total variances of each aquifer conditions, implying the usefulness of supplementary method of aquifer characterisation. Cross-correlation and time-lag analysis in the water-level responses to precipitations clearly show how the water levels in shallow and deep wells correspond in time scale. No significant differences in time-lags was found between shallow and deep wells. However, clear time-lags were found to be increasing from unconfined to confined conditions: from 1.47 to 2.75 days and from 1.78 to 2.75 days for both shallow alluvial and deep bedrock wells, respectively. In combination of various statistical methods, three types of water-level fluctuation

  20. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  1. Hydrochemistry and hydrogeologic conditions within the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Webber, W.D.

    1995-09-01

    As part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, Flow System Characterization Task. Pacific Northwest Laboratory examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system for the US Department of Energy (DOE). As part of this activity, groundwater samples were collected over the past 2 years from selected wells completed in the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt. The hydrochemical and isotopic information obtained from these groundwater samples provides hydrologic information concerning the aquifer-flow system. Ideally, when combined with other hydrologic property information, hydrochemical and isotopic data can be used to evaluate the origin and source of groundwater, areal groundwater-flow patterns, residence and groundwater travel time, rock/groundwater reactions, and aquifer intercommunication for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report presents the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydrochemical properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system. This report provides the hydrogeologic characteristics (Section 2.0) and hydrochemical properties (Section 3.0) for groundwater within this system. A detailed description of the range of the identified hydrochemical parameter subgroups for groundwater in the upper basalt confined aquifer system is also presented in Section 3.0. Evidence that is indicative of aquifer contamination/aquifer intercommunication and an assessment of the potential for offsite migration of contaminants in groundwater within the upper basalt aquifer is provided in Section 4.0. The references cited throughout the report are given in Section 5.0. Tables that summarize groundwater sample analysis results for individual test interval/well sites are included in the Appendix

  2. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Floridan aquifer system and effect of Lower Floridan aquifer withdrawals on the Upper Floridan aquifer at Barbour Pointe Community, Chatham County, Georgia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerard; Clarke, John S.

    2016-06-02

    Two test wells were completed at the Barbour Pointe community in western Chatham County, near Savannah, Georgia, in 2013 to investigate the potential of using the Lower Floridan aquifer as a source of municipal water supply. One well was completed in the Lower Floridan aquifer at a depth of 1,080 feet (ft) below land surface; the other well was completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer at a depth of 440 ft below land surface. At the Barbour Pointe test site, the U.S. Geological Survey completed electromagnetic (EM) flowmeter surveys, collected and analyzed water samples from discrete depths, and completed a 72-hour aquifer test of the Floridan aquifer system withdrawing from the Lower Floridan aquifer.Based on drill cuttings, geophysical logs, and borehole EM flowmeter surveys collected at the Barbour Pointe test site, the Upper Floridan aquifer extends 369 to 567 ft below land surface, the middle semiconfining unit, separating the two aquifers, extends 567 to 714 ft below land surface, and the Lower Floridan aquifer extends 714 to 1,056 ft below land surface.A borehole EM flowmeter survey indicates that the Upper Floridan and Lower Floridan aquifers each contain four water-bearing zones. The EM flowmeter logs of the test hole open to the entire Floridan aquifer system indicated that the Upper Floridan aquifer contributed 91 percent of the total flow rate of 1,000 gallons per minute; the Lower Floridan aquifer contributed about 8 percent. Based on the transmissivity of the middle semiconfining unit and the Floridan aquifer system, the middle semiconfining unit probably contributed on the order of 1 percent of the total flow.Hydraulic properties of the Upper Floridan and Lower Floridan aquifers were estimated based on results of the EM flowmeter survey and a 72-hour aquifer test completed in Lower Floridan aquifer well 36Q398. The EM flowmeter data were analyzed using an AnalyzeHOLE-generated model to simulate upward borehole flow and determine the transmissivity of

  3. Dual Pump Recovery (DPR System to Extract Freshwater in Coastal Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Otto

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the hydraulic theory of recovering a dense plume using a newly devised dual pump recover system (DPR and its feasibility to half the remediation time of a contaminated unconfined aquifer in a coastal urban environment. Although the DPR system was successfully applied to clean up the polluted aquifer, the hydraulic principles and techniques are also applicable to extract fresh groundwater from coastal aquifers without the risk of saltwater incursion.

  4. Characterization of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Richard; Duncan, Joel; Seal, Thomas; Weinberg, J. Michael; Rupert, Frank

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to attempt to improve the existing hydrogeologic information through lithologic and hydrogeologic characterizations of the sediments overlying the Floridan aquifer system in Alachua County. These sediments locally comprise both the intermediate aquifer system and associated confining beds and the surficial aquifer system. (PDF has 119 pages.)

  5. Conceptual and numerical modeling approach of the Guarani Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L.; Vives, L.; Gomez, A.

    2013-01-01

    In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s-1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s-1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through the aquifer boundaries, except at the eastern boundary. On average

  6. Geospatial compilation of historical water-level altitudes in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers 1977-2013 and Jasper aquifer 2000-13 in the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston-Galveston Region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Ellis, Robert H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District has produced a series of annual reports depicting groundwater-level altitudes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas. To produce these annual reports, contours of equal water-level altitudes are created from water levels measured between December and March of each year from groundwater wells screened completely within one of these three aquifers. Information obtained from maps published in the annual series of USGS reports and geospatial datasets of water-level altitude contours used to create the annual series of USGS reports were compiled into a comprehensive geodatabase. The geospatial compilation contains 88 datasets from previously published contour maps showing water-level altitudes for each primary aquifer of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, 37 for the Chicot (1977–2013), 37 for the Evangeline aquifer (1977–2013), and 14 for the Jasper aquifer (2000–13).

  7. Paleocene Wilcox cross-shelf channel-belt history and shelf-margin growth: Key to Gulf of Mexico sediment delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Steel, Ronald; Ambrose, William

    2017-12-01

    Shelf margins prograde and aggrade by the incremental addition of deltaic sediments supplied from river channel belts and by stored shoreline sediment. This paper documents the shelf-edge trajectory and coeval channel belts for a segment of Paleocene Lower Wilcox Group in the northern Gulf of Mexico based on 400 wireline logs and 300 m of whole cores. By quantitatively analyzing these data and comparing them with global databases, we demonstrate how varying sediment supply impacted the Wilcox shelf-margin growth and deep-water sediment dispersal under greenhouse eustatic conditions. The coastal plain to marine topset and uppermost continental slope succession of the Lower Wilcox shelf-margin sediment prism is divided into eighteen high-frequency ( 300 ky duration) stratigraphic sequences, and further grouped into 5 sequence sets (labeled as A-E from bottom to top). Sequence Set A is dominantly muddy slope deposits. The shelf edge of Sequence Sets B and C prograded rapidly (> 10 km/Ma) and aggraded modestly ( 80 m/Ma) characterizes Sequence Sets D and E, which is associated with smaller (9-10 m thick on average) and isolated channel belts. This stratigraphic trend is likely due to an upward decreasing sediment supply indicated by the shelf-edge progradation rate and channel size, as well as an upward increasing shelf accommodation indicated by the shelf-edge aggradation rate. The rapid shelf-edge progradation and large rivers in Sequence Sets B and C confirm earlier suggestions that it was the early phase of Lower Wilcox dispersal that brought the largest deep-water sediment volumes into the Gulf of Mexico. Key factors in this Lower Wilcox stratigraphic trend are likely to have been a very high initial sediment flux to the Gulf because of the high initial release of sediment from Laramide catchments to the north and northwest, possibly aided by modest eustatic sea-level fall on the Texas shelf, which is suggested by the early, flat shelf-edge trajectory, high

  8. Evidence for Upward Flow of Saline Water from Depth into the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D.; Paul, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater salinization is occurring in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial (MRVA) aquifer in southeastern Arkansas (SE AR). Water samples from the MRVA aquifer in Chicot and Desha counties have yielded elevated Cl-concentrations with some as high as 1,639 mg/L. Considering that the MRVA aquifer is the principle source of irrigation water for the agricultural economy of SE AR, salinization needs to be addressed to ensure the sustainability of crop, groundwater, and soil resources in the area. The origin of elevated salinity in MRVA aquifer was investigated using spatial and factor analysis of historical water quality data, and sampling and tracer analysis of groundwater from irrigation, municipal, and flowing industrial wells in SE AR. Spatial analysis of Cl- data in relation to soil type, geomorphic features and sand-blow density indicate that the Cl- anomalies are more closely related to the sand-blow density than soil data, suggesting an underlying tectonic control for the distribution of salinity. Factor analysis of historical geochemical data from the MRVA and underlying Sparta aquifer shows dilute and saline groups, with saline groups weighted positively with Cl- or Na+ and Cl-. Tracer data suggest a component of evaporatively evolved crustal water of pre-modern age has mixed with younger, fresher meteoric sources in SE AR to create the saline conditions in the MRVA aquifer. Stable hydrogen and oxygen values of waters sampled from the Tertiary Sparta and MRVA aquifers deviate from the global and local meteoric water lines along an evaporative trend (slope=4.4) and mixing line with Eocene Wilcox Group groundwaters. Ca2+ and Cl- contents vary with Br- along mixing trends between dilute MRVA water and Jurassic Smackover Formation pore fluids in southern AR. Increasing Cl- content with C-14 age in MRVA aquifer groundwater suggests that the older waters are more saline. Helium isotope ratios decrease with He gas content for more saline water, consistent with

  9. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  10. Potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system, west-central Florida, May, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularoni, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system underlies a 5000-sq-mi area including De Soto, Sarasota, Hardee, Manatee, and parts of Charlotte, Hillsborough, Highlands, and Polk Counties, Florida. It is overlain by the surf@cial aquifer system and underlain by the Floridan aquifer system. The potentiometric surface of the intermediate aquifer system was mapped by determining the altitude of water levels in a network of wells and represented on a map by contours that connect points of equal altitude. This map represents water-level conditions near the end of the spring dry season when ground- water withdrawals for agricultural use were high. The cumulative rainfall for the study area was 4.84 inches above normal for the period from June 1992 to May 1993. Hydrographs for selected wells indicated that the annual and seasonal fluctuations of the water levels were generally large (greater than 15 feet) in the central interior region where water demand for irrigation is high during the fall and spring. Seasonal fluctuations were smaller in the northern recharge area where water use is predominantly for public supply. Water levels measured in May 1993 for the composite intermediate aquifer potentiometric surface were lower than those measured in May or September 1992. A cone of depression exists in the potentiometric surface for the composite aquifer system at Warm Mineral Springs, which is a natural discharge point from this system.

  11. Conceptual and numerical modeling approach of the Guarani Aquifer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In large aquifers, relevant for their considerable size, regional groundwater modeling remains challenging given geologic complexity and data scarcity in space and time. Yet, it may be conjectured that regional scale groundwater flow models can help in understanding the flow system functioning and the relative magnitude of water budget components, which are important for aquifer management. The Guaraní Aquifer System is the largest transboundary aquifer in South America. It contains an enormous volume of water; however, it is not well known, being difficult to assess the impact of exploitation currently used to supply over 25 million inhabitants. This is a sensitive issue because the aquifer is shared by four countries. Moreover, an integrated groundwater model, and therefore a global water balance, were not available. In this work, a transient regional scale model for the entire aquifer based upon five simplified, equally plausible conceptual models represented by different hydraulic conductivity parametrizations is used to analyze the flow system and water balance components. Combining an increasing number of hydraulic conductivity zones and an appropriate set of boundary conditions, the hypothesis of a continuous sedimentary unit yielded errors within the calibration target in a regional sense. The magnitude of the water budget terms resulted very similar for all parametrizations. Recharge and stream/aquifer fluxes were the dominant components representing, on average, 84.2% of total inflows and 61.4% of total outflows, respectively. However, leakage was small compared to stream discharges of main rivers. For instance, the simulated average leakage for the Uruguay River was 8 m3 s−1 while the observed absolute minimum discharge was 382 m3 s−1. Streams located in heavily pumped regions switched from a gaining condition in early years to a losing condition over time. Water is discharged through

  12. Aquifer storage and recovery: recent hydrogeological advances and system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliva, Robert G; Guo, Weixing; Missimer, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is part of the solution to the global problem of managing water resources to meet existing and future freshwater demands. However, the metaphoric "ASR bubble" has been burst with the realization that ASR systems are more physically and chemically complex than the general conceptualization. Aquifer heterogeneity and fluid-rock interactions can greatly affect ASR system performance. The results of modeling studies and field experiences indicate that more sophisticated data collection and solute-transport modeling are required to predict how stored water will migrate in heterogeneous aquifers and how fluid-rock interactions will affect the quality of stored water. It has been well-demonstrated, by historic experience, that ASR systems can provide very large volumes of storage at a lesser cost than other options. The challenges moving forward are to improve the success rate of ASR systems, optimize system performance, and set expectations appropriately.

  13. Solute geochemistry of the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system, Idaho and eastern Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.W.; Low, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three geochemical methods were used to determine chemical reactions that control solute concentrations in the Snake River Plain regional aquifer system: (1) calculation of a regional solute balance within the aquifer and of mineralogy in the aquifer framework to identify solute reactions, (2) comparison of thermodynamic mineral saturation indices with plausible solute reactions, and (3) comparison of stable isotope ratios of the groundwater with those in the aquifer framework. The geothermal groundwater system underlying the main aquifer system was examined by calculating thermodynamic mineral saturation indices, stable isotope ratios of geothermal water, geothermometry, and radiocarbon dating. Water budgets, hydrologic arguments, and isotopic analyses for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system demonstrate that most, if not all, water is of local meteoric and not juvenile or formation origin. Solute balance, isotopic, mineralogic, and thermodynamic arguments suggest that about 20% of the solutes are derived from reactions with rocks forming the aquifer framework. Reactions controlling solutes in the western Snake river basin are believed to be similar to those in the eastern basin but the regional geothermal system that underlies the Snake river Plain contains total dissolved solids similar to those in the overlying Snake River Plain aquifer system but contains higher concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate, silica, fluoride, sulfate, chloride, arsenic, boron, and lithium, and lower concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and hydrogen. 132 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  14. Tubular wells perforation manual for investigation and training of Guarani Aquifer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Environmental protection and sustainable development of the Aquifer Guarani System project is a initiative by Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay with the aim to raise the knowledge, legal and institutional sustainable management from 2003-2008 period. The Guarani consortium integrated by Tahal Engineers Ltda.(Israel), SEINCO SRL. (Uruguay), Hidrocontrol S:A:(Paraguay), Arcadis Hidroambiente S.A. (Argentina) have shown in Tubular wells perforation for investigation and training of Guarani Aquifer System manual their first product. This Manual includes technical especifications focused in Guarani Aquifer System harmessing building

  15. Microbiological and environmental effects of aquifer thermal energy storage - studies at the Stuttgart man-made aquifer and a large-scale model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, M.; Ruck, W.

    1993-01-01

    The storage of thermal energy, either heat or cold, in natural or artificial aquifers creates local perturbations of the indigenous microflora and the environmental properties. Within an international working group of the International Energy Agency (IEA Annex VI) possible environmental impacts of ATES-systems were recognized and investigated. Investigations of storage systems on natural sites, man-made aquifers and large-scale models of impounded aquifers showed changes in microbial populations, but until now no adverse microbiological processes associated with ATES-systems could be documented. However, examinations with a model system indicate an increased risk of environmental impact. Therefore, the operation of ATES-systems should be accompanied by chemical and biological investigations. (orig.) [de

  16. Using Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW to Characterize Aquifer System of Northwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    By integrating Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW2005, an optimizing tool is developed to characterize the aquifer system of Region II, Northwest Florida. The history and the newest available observation data of the aquifer system is fitted automatically by using the numerical model c...

  17. Water withdrawals and trends from the Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern United States, 1950-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2005-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern United States is one of the most productive aquifers in the world (Miller, 1990). This aquifer system underlies an area of about 100,000 square miles in southern Alabama, eastern and southern Georgia, southeastern Mississippi, southern South Carolina, and all of Florida. The Floridan aquifer system is the primary source of water for nearly 10 million people and supports agriculture, industry, and tourism throughout most of the region. In most areas, water from this aquifer is potable and needs very little treatment before use. However, in southern Florida (south of Lake Okeechobee), northwestern Florida and southern Alabama and Mississippi (Pensacola and westward), and eastern South Carolina, water in the aquifer system generally is not potable. The purpose of this report is to: Provide a general description of the Floridan aquifer system; Discuss water withdrawals by category for 2000; Highlight trends in water withdrawals between 1950 and 2000; and Provide a brief summary on the effects that human impacts have on the Floridan aquifer system.

  18. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems at Waynesboro, Burke County, Georgia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were characterized in the City of Waynesboro area in Burke County, Georgia, based on geophysical and drillers’ logs, flowmeter surveys, a 24-houraquifer test, and the collection and chemical analysis of water samples in a newly constructed well. At the test site, the Dublin aquifer system consists of interlayered sands and clays between depths of 396 and 691 feet, and the Midville aquifer system consists of a sandy clay layer overlying a sand and gravel layer between depths of 728 and 936 feet. The new well was constructed with three screened intervals in the Dublin aquifer system and four screened intervals in the Midville aquifer system. Wellbore-flowmeter testing at a pumping rate of 1,000 gallons per minute indicated that 52.2 percent of the total flow was from the shallower Dublin aquifer system with the remaining 47.8 percent from the deeper Midville aquifer system. The lower part of the lower Midville aquifer (900 to 930 feet deep), contributed only 0.1 percent of the total flow. Hydraulic properties of the two aquifer systems were estimated using data from two wellbore-flowmeter surveys and a 24-hour aquifer test. Estimated values of transmissivity for the Dublin and Midville aquifer systems were 2,000 and 1,000 feet squared per day, respectively. The upper and lower Dublin aquifers have a combined thickness of about 150 feet and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Dublin aquifer system averages 10 feet per day. The upper Midville aquifer, lower Midville confining unit, and lower Midville aquifer have a combined thickness of about 210 feet, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the Midville aquifer system averages 6 feet per day. Storage coefficient of the Dublin aquifer system, computed using the Theis method on water-level data from one observation well, was estimated to be 0.0003. With a thickness of about 150 feet, the specific storage of the Dublin aquifer

  19. Integrated and sustainable management of the shared aquifer systems in the Sahel region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwerd, Mickel

    2012-01-01

    It highlights the project Justification, the long term objective, the specific objectives and the project implementation strategy. The countries which participate to this project are the following: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, central African Republic, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal. Regarding Aquifer System we have: Chad Basin, Liptako-Gourma Aquifer, Iullemeden Aquifer, Senegalo-Mauritanian Aquifer and Taoudeni/Tanezrouft Basin.

  20. Summary of hydrologic testing of the Floridan aquifer system at Fort Stewart, coastal Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    Two test wells were completed at Fort Stewart, coastal Georgia, to investigate the potential for using the Lower Floridan aquifer as a source of water to satisfy anticipated, increased water needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army, completed hydrologic testing of the Floridan aquifer system at the study site, including flowmeter surveys, slug tests, and 24- and 72-hour aquifer tests by mid-March 2010. Analytical approaches and model simulation were applied to aquifer-test results to provide estimates of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity of the multilayered Floridan aquifer system. Data from a 24-hour aquifer test of the Upper Floridan aquifer were evaluated by using the straight-line Cooper-Jacob analytical method. Data from a 72-hour aquifer test of the Lower Floridan aquifer were simulated by using axisymmetric model simulations. Results of aquifer testing indicated that the Upper Floridan aquifer has a transmissivity of 100,000 feet-squared per day, and the Lower Floridan aquifer has a transmissivity of 7,000 feet-squared per day. A specific storage for the Floridan aquifer system as a result of model calibration was 3E-06 ft–1. Additionally, during a 72-hour aquifer test of the Lower Floridan aquifer, a drawdown response was observed in two Upper Floridan aquifer wells, one of which was more than 1 mile away from the pumped well.

  1. Revised hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lester J.; Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2015-04-08

    The hydrogeologic framework for the Floridan aquifer system has been revised throughout its extent in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina. The updated framework generally conforms to the original framework established by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1980s, except for adjustments made to the internal boundaries of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers and the individual higher and contrasting lower permeability zones within these aquifers. The system behaves as one aquifer over much of its extent; although subdivided vertically into two aquifer units, the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers. In the previous framework, discontinuous numbered middle confining units (MCUI–VII) were used to subdivide the system. In areas where less-permeable rocks do not occur within the middle part of the system, the system was previously considered one aquifer and named the Upper Floridan aquifer. In intervening years, more detailed data have been collected in local areas, resulting in some of the same lithostratigraphic units in the Floridan aquifer system being assigned to the Upper or Lower Floridan aquifer in different parts of the State of Florida. Additionally, some of the numbered middle confining units are found to have hydraulic properties within the same order of magnitude as the aquifers. A new term “composite unit” is introduced for lithostratigraphic units that cannot be defined as either a confining or aquifer unit over their entire extent. This naming convention is a departure from the previous framework, in that stratigraphy is used to consistently subdivide the aquifer system into upper and lower aquifers across the State of Florida. This lithostratigraphic mapping approach does not change the concept of flow within the system. The revised boundaries of the Floridan aquifer system were mapped by considering results from local studies and regional correlations of lithostratigraphic and hydrogeologic units or zones. Additional zones within

  2. Temperature Distribution and Thermal Performance of an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sayantan

    2017-04-01

    Energy conservation and storage has become very crucial to make use of excess energy during times of future demand. Excess thermal energy can be captured and stored in aquifers and this technique is termed as Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). Storing seasonal thermal energy in water by injecting it into subsurface and extracting in time of demand is the principle of an ATES system. Using ATES systems leads to energy savings, reduces the dependency on fossil fuels and thus leads to reduction in greenhouse gas emission. This study numerically models an ATES system to store seasonal thermal energy and evaluates the performance of it. A 3D thermo-hydrogeological numerical model for a confined ATES system is presented in this study. The model includes heat transport processes of advection, conduction and heat loss to confining rock media. The model also takes into account regional groundwater flow in the aquifer, geothermal gradient and anisotropy in the aquifer. Results show that thermal injection into the aquifer results in the generation of a thermal-front which grows in size with time. Premature thermal-breakthrough causes thermal interference in the system when the thermal-front reaches the production well and consequences in the fall of system performance and hence should be avoided. This study models the transient temperature distribution in the aquifer for different flow and geological conditions. This may be effectively used in designing an efficient ATES project by ensuring safety from thermal-breakthrough while catering to the energy demand. Based on the model results a safe well spacing is proposed. The thermal energy discharged by the system is determined and strategy to avoid the premature thermal-breakthrough in critical cases is discussed. The present numerical model is applied to simulate an experimental field study which is found to approximate the field results quite well.

  3. Identifying Stream/Aquifer Exchange by Temperature Gradient in a Guarani Aquifer System Outcrop Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, E.; Rosa, D. M. S.; Anache, J. A. A.; Lowry, C.; Lin, Y. F. F.

    2017-12-01

    Recharge of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in South America is supposed to occur mainly in the outcrop zones, where the GAS appears as an unconfined aquifer (10% of the 1.2 Million km2 aquifer extension). Previous evaluations of recharge are based essentially on water balance estimates for the whole aquifer area or water table fluctuations in monitoring wells. To gain a more detailed understanding of the recharge mechanisms the present work aimed to study the stream aquifer interaction in a watershed (Ribeirão da Onça) at an outcrop zone. Two Parshall flumes were installed 1.3 km apart for discharge measurement in the stream. Along this distance an optic fiber cable was deployed to identify stretches with gaining and losing behavior. In order to estimate groundwater discharge in specific locations, 8 temperature sticks were set up along the stream reach to measure continuously the vertical temperature gradient. A temperature probe with 4 thermistors was also used to map the shallow streambed temperature gradient manually along the whole distance. The obtained results show a discharge difference of 250 m3/h between both flumes. Since the last significant rainfall (15 mm) in the watershed occurred 3 months ago, this value can be interpreted as the base flow contribution to the stream during the dry season. Given the temperature difference between groundwater ( 24oC) and surface water ( 17oC) the fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) allowed the identification of stretches with gaining behavior. Temperature gradients observed at the streambed varied between 0.67 and 14.33 oC/m. The study demonstrated that heat may be used as natural tracer even in tropical conditions, where the groundwater temperature is higher than the surface water temperature during the winter. The obtained results show that the discharge difference between both flumes can not be extrapolated without detailed analysis. Gaining and loosing stretches have to be identified on order

  4. Simulated effects of groundwater withdrawals from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system and Piney Point aquifer, Maurice and Cohansey River Basins, Cumberland County and vicinity, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Alison D.; Buxton, Debra E.

    2018-05-10

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, conducted a study to simulate the effects of withdrawals from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system on streamflow and groundwater flow and from the Piney Point aquifer on water levels in the Cohansey and Maurice River Basins in Cumberland County and surrounding areas. The aquifer system consists of gravel, sand, silt, and clay sediments of the Cohansey Sand and Kirkwood Formation that dip and thicken to the southeast. The aquifer system is generally an unconfined aquifer, but semi-confined and confined conditions exist within the Cumberland County study area. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system is present throughout Cumberland County and is the principal source of groundwater for public, domestic, agricultural-irrigation, industrial, and commercial water uses. In 2008, reported groundwater withdrawals from the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the study area totaled about 21,700 million gallons—about 36 percent for public supply; about 49 percent for agricultural irrigation; and about 15 percent for industrial, commercial, mining by sand and gravel companies, and non-agricultural irrigation uses. A transient numerical groundwater-flow model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system was developed and calibrated by incorporating monthly recharge, base-flow estimates, water-level data, surface-water diversions and discharges, and groundwater withdrawals from 1998 to 2008.The groundwater-flow model was used to simulate five withdrawal scenarios to observe the effects of additional groundwater withdrawals on the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system and streams. These scenarios include (1) average 1998 to 2008 monthly groundwater withdrawals (baseline scenario); (2) monthly full-allocation groundwater withdrawals, but agricultural-irrigation withdrawals were decreased for October through March; (3) monthly full-allocation groundwater withdrawals; (4) estimated monthly

  5. Hydrogeologic framework and salinity distribution of the Floridan aquifer system of Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about water-level decline and seawater intrusion in the surficial Biscayne aquifer, currently the principal source of water supply to Broward County, prompted a study to refine the hydrogeologic framework of the underlying Floridan aquifer system to evaluate its potential as an alternative source of supply. This report presents cross sections that illustrate the stratigraphy and hydrogeology in eastern Broward County; maps of the upper surfaces and thicknesses of several geologic formations or units within the Floridan aquifer system; and maps of two of the potentially productive water-bearing zones within the system, the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Avon Park permeable zone. An analysis of data on rock depositional textures, associated pore networks, and flow zones in the Floridan aquifer system shows that groundwater moves through the system in two ways. These data support a conceptual, dual-porosity model of the system wherein groundwater moves either as concentrated flow in discrete, thin bedding-plane vugs or zones of vuggy megaporosity, or as diffuse flow through rocks with primarily interparticle and moldic-particle porosity. Because considerable exchange of groundwater may occur between the zones of vuggy and matrix-dominated porosity, understanding the distribution of that porosity and flow zone types is important to evaluating the suitability of the several units within the Floridan aquifer system for managing the water through practices such as aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). The salinity of the water in the Floridan aquifer system is highest in the central part of the study area, and lower toward the north and south. Although salinity generally increases with depth, in the western part of the study area a zone of relatively high saline water is perched above water of lower salinity in the underlying Avon Park permeable zone. Overall, the areas of highest salinity in the aquifer system coincide with those with the lowest estimated

  6. Carbonate aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  7. Groundwater Flow Model of Göksu Delta Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Çelik, Mehmet; Arslan, Şebnem; Engin, Hilal

    2016-04-01

    Like many other coastal areas, Göksu Delta (Mersin-Silifke, Southern Turkey) is a preferred place for human settlement especially due to its productive farmlands and water resources. The water dependent ecosystem in Göksu delta hosts about 332 different plant species and 328 different bird species besides serving for human use. Göksu Delta has been declared as Special Environmental Protection Zone, Wildlife Protection Area, and RAMSAR Convention for Wetlands of International Importance area. Unfortunately, rising population, agricultural and industrial activities cause degradation of water resources both by means of quality and quantity. This problem also exists for other wetlands around the world. It is necessary to prepare water management plans by taking global warming issues into account to protect water resources for next generations. To achieve this, the most efficient tool is to come up with groundwater management strategies by constructing groundwater flow models. By this aim, groundwater modeling studies were carried out for Göksu Delta coastal aquifer system. As a first and most important step in all groundwater modeling studies, geological and hydrogeological settings of the study area have been investigated. Göksu Delta, like many other deltaic environments, has a complex structure because it was formed with the sediments transported by Göksu River throughout the Quaternary period and shaped throughout the transgression-regression periods. Both due to this complex structure and the lack of observation wells penetrating deep enough to give an idea of the total thickness of the delta, it was impossible to reveal out the hydrogeological setting in a correct manner. Therefore, six wells were drilled to construct the conceptual hydrogeological model of Göksu Delta coastal aquifer system. On the basis of drilling studies and slug tests that were conducted along Göksu Delta, hydrostratigraphic units of the delta system have been obtained. According to

  8. Aquifer thermal-energy-storage modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetzle, W. J.; Lecroy, J. E.

    1982-09-01

    A model aquifer was constructed to simulate the operation of a full size aquifer. Instrumentation to evaluate the water flow and thermal energy storage was installed in the system. Numerous runs injecting warm water into a preconditioned uniform aquifer were made. Energy recoveries were evaluated and agree with comparisons of other limited available data. The model aquifer is simulated in a swimming pool, 18 ft by 4 ft, which was filled with sand. Temperature probes were installed in the system. A 2 ft thick aquifer is confined by two layers of polyethylene. Both the aquifer and overburden are sand. Four well configurations are available. The system description and original tests, including energy recovery, are described.

  9. Contribution to the study of Arapey Salto-Aquifer System (Department of Salto - Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provide hydrogeological data about the Salto Arapey aquifer system constituted by sedimentary deposits and fisurate effusive rocks, respectively Tertiary and Cretacic aged. The information belongs to an area located at latitude South 31º20' West. North of the Salto city (NW of Uruguay) 500 km away from Montevideo. A regional aquifer system can be defined where the biggest flows are originated in the basaltic fisurate d rocks of the Arapey formation. Environment features are also considered and data about the main polluting agents - both organic and inorganic ones- are provided, bearing in mind that they justify an urgent safety design to protect the aquifer system

  10. An analytical solution for modeling thermal energy transfer in a confined aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Yang, Yang; Hund-der, Yeh

    2008-12-01

    A mathematical model is developed for simulating the thermal energy transfer in a confined aquifer with different geological properties in the underlying and overlying rocks. The solutions for temperature distributions in the aquifer, underlying rock, and overlying rock are derived by the Laplace transforms and their corresponding time-domain solutions are evaluated by the modified Crump method. Field data adopted from the literature are used as examples to demonstrate the applicability of the solutions in modeling the heat transfer in an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The results show that the aquifer temperature increases with time, injection flow rate, and water temperature. However, the temperature decreases with increasing radial and vertical distances. The heat transfer in the rocks is slow and has an effect on the aquifer temperature only after a long period of injection time. The influence distance depends on the aquifer physical and thermal properties, injection flow rate, and injected water temperature. A larger value of thermal diffusivity or injection flow rate will result in a longer influence distance. The present solution can be used as a tool for designing the heat injection facilities for an ATES system.

  11. Using Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW to Characterize Aquifer System of Northwest Florida (Published Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    By integrating Genetic Algorithm and MODFLOW2005, an optimizing tool is developed to characterize the aquifer system of Region II, Northwest Florida. The history and the newest available observation data of the aquifer system is fitted automatically by using the numerical model c...

  12. Radionuclide transport in the Neogene aquifer system located in the environment of the Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedeon, M.; Marivoet, J.; Vandersteen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay is considered as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in NE-Belgium (Campine area). In the frame of the performance assessments of a disposal system located in the Boom Clay Formation, the transport of radionuclides diffusing through the clay barrier into the aquifers located above is modelled. The transport model for the Neogene aquifer is based on a series of groundwater flow models simulating the aquifer systems in the surroundings of the Boom Clay. This series of groundwater models include the regional north-eastern Belgium model simulating flow both above and below the Boom Clay, the recently updated deep-aquifer pumping model, simulating transient flow in the over-exploited aquifers below the Boom Clay and finally the catchment-scale Neogene aquifer model, simulating flow in the aquifer system above the Boom Clay. The Neogene aquifer system consists of two main aquifers. The Pliocene aquifer is located at the top, separated from the underlying Miocene aquifer by the Kasterlee Clay aquitard. The Miocene aquifer consists of three hydrostratigraphic units: the Diest, Berchem and Voort Formations; with the last two having a lower hydraulic conductivity than the Diest unit. The transport model for the Neogene aquifer represents a fraction of the catchment-scale Neogene aquifer model. It stretches from the local divide between the Grote and Kleine Nete Rivers up to the Kleine Nete River, representing the main model sink. The boundary conditions and the sources/sinks in the Pliocene aquifer are defined mostly by the surface water features, such as the rivers, brooks, lakes and canals. In the partially confined Miocene aquifer, the effect of the surface water features is dampened and the heads at the model

  13. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater resources from alluvial and bedrock aquifers of the Denver Basin are critical for municipal, domestic, and agricultural uses in Colorado along the eastern front of the Rocky Mountains. Rapid and widespread urban development, primarily along the western boundary of the Denver Basin, has approximately doubled the population since about 1970, and much of the population depends on groundwater for water supply. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted groundwater-quality studies during 2003–5 in the Denver Basin aquifer system to characterize water quality of shallow groundwater at the water table and of the bedrock aquifers, which are important drinking-water resources. For the Denver Basin, water-quality constituents of concern for human health or because they might otherwise limit use of water include total dissolved solids, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, selenium, radon, uranium, arsenic, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. For the water-table studies, two monitoring-well networks were installed and sampled beneath agricultural (31 wells) and urban (29 wells) land uses at or just below the water table in either alluvial material or near-surface bedrock. For the bedrock-aquifer studies, domestic- and municipal-supply wells completed in the bedrock aquifers were sampled. The bedrock aquifers, stratigraphically from youngest (shallowest) to oldest (deepest), are the Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers. The extensive dataset collected from wells completed in the bedrock aquifers (79 samples) provides the opportunity to evaluate factors and processes affecting water quality and to establish a baseline that can be used to characterize future changes in groundwater quality. Groundwater samples were analyzed for inorganic, organic, isotopic, and age-dating constituents and tracers. This report discusses spatial and statistical distributions of chemical constituents

  14. Three-Dimensional Flow Generated by a Partially Penetrating Well in a Two-Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, N.

    2007-12-01

    An analytical solution is presented for three-dimensional (3D) flow in a confined aquifer and the overlying storative semiconfining layer and unconfined aquifer. The equation describing flow caused by a partially penetrating production well is solved analytically to provide a method to accurately determine the hydraulic parameters in the confined aquifer, semiconfining layer, and unconfined aquifer from aquifer-test data. Previous solutions for a partially penetrating well did not account for 3D flow or storativity in the semiconfining unit. The 3D and two- dimensional (2D) flow solutions in the semiconfining layer are compared for various hydraulic conductivity ratios between the aquifer and the semiconfining layer. Analysis of the drawdown data from an aquifer test in central Florida showed that the 3D solution in the semiconfining layer provides a more unique identification of the hydraulic parameters than the 2D solution. The analytical solution could be used to analyze, with higher accuracy, the effect that pumping water from the lower aquifer in a two-aquifer system has on wetlands.

  15. Geochemistry and origins of mineralized waters in the Floridan aquifer system, northeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Increases in chloride concentration have been observed in water from numerous wells tapping the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida. Although most increases have been in the eastern part of Duval County, Florida, no spatial pattern in elevated chloride concentrations is discernible. Possible sources of the mineralized water include modern seawater intrusion; unflushed Miocene-to-Pleistocene-age seawater or connate water in aquifer sediments; or mineralized water from deeper zones of the aquifer system or from formations beneath the Floridan aquifer system. The purpose of this study was to document the chemical and isotopic characteristics of water samples from various aquifer zones, and from geochemical and hydrogeologic data, to infer the source of the increased mineralization. Water samples were collected from 53 wells in northeastern Florida during 1997-1999. Wells tapped various zones of the aquifer including: the Fernandina permeable zone (FPZ), the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer (UZLF), the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), and both the UFA and the UZLF. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace constituents and for isotopes of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, strontium, chlorine, and boron. Samples of rock from the aquifer were analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, and strontium. In general, water from various aquifer zones cannot be differentiated based on chemistry, except for water from FPZ wells. Major-ion concentrations vary as much within the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer as between these two zones. Simple models of mixing between fresh ground water and either modern seawater or water from the FPZ as a mineralized end member show that many water samples from the UZLF aquifer and the UFA are enriched in bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, and silica and are depleted in sodium and potassium (as compared to concentrations predicted by simple mixing). Chemical mass

  16. Assessment of groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Jorge Luiz; Wendland, Edson

    2009-11-01

    The groundwater recharge and water fluxes of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil were assessed through a numeric model. The study area (6,748 km2) comprises Jacaré-Guaçú and Jacaré-Pepira River watersheds, tributaries of the Tietê River in the central region of the state. GIS based tools were used in the storage, processing and analysis of data. Main hydrologic phenomena were selected, leading to a groundwater conceptual model, taking into account the significant outcrops occurring in the study area. Six recharge zones were related to the geologic formation and structures of the semi-confined and phreatic aquifer. The model was calibrated against the baseflows and static water levels of the wells. The results emphasize the strong interaction of groundwater flows between watersheds and the groundwater inflow into the rivers. It has been concluded that lateral groundwater exchanges between basins, the deep discharges to the regional system, and well exploitation were not significant aquifer outflows when compared to the aquifer recharge. The results have shown that the inflows from the river into the aquifer are significant and have the utmost importance since the aquifer is potentially more vulnerable in these places.

  17. Monitoring Aquifer Depletion from Space: Case Studies from the Saharan and Arabian Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Wahr, J. M.; Yan, E.

    2013-12-01

    Access to potable fresh water resources is a human right and a basic requirement for economic development in any society. In arid and semi-arid areas, the characterization and understanding of the geologic and hydrologic settings of, and the controlling factors affecting, these resources is gaining increasing importance due to the challenges posed by increasing population. In these areas, there is immense natural fossil fresh water resources stored in large extensive aquifers, the transboundary aquifers. Yet, natural phenomena (e.g., rainfall patterns and climate change) together with human-related factors (e.g., population growth, unsustainable over-exploitation, and pollution) are threatening the sustainability of these resources. In this study, we are developing and applying an integrated cost-effective approach to investigate the nature (i.e., natural and anthropogenic) and the controlling factors affecting the hydrologic settings of the Saharan (i.e., Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System [NSAS], Northwest Sahara Aquifer System [NWSA]) and Arabian (i.e., Arabian Peninsula Aquifer System [APAS]) aquifer systems. Analysis of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)-derived Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) inter-annual trends over the NSAS and the APAS revealed two areas of significant TWS depletions; the first correlated with the Dakhla Aquifer System (DAS) in the NSAS and second with the Saq Aquifer System (SAS) in the APAS. Annual depletion rates were estimated at 1.3 × 0.66 × 109 m3/yr and 6.95 × 0.68 × 109 m3/yr for DAS and SAS, respectively. Findings include (1) excessive groundwater extraction, not climatic changes, is responsible for the observed TWS depletions ;(2) the DAS could be consumed in 350 years if extraction rates continue to double every 50 years and the APAS available reserves could be consumed within 60-140 years at present extraction (7.08 × 109 m3/yr) and depletion rates; and (3) observed depletions over DAS and SAS and their

  18. Geologic history and hydrogeologic setting of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.A.; Bush, P.W.; Baker, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system underlies about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas. Nearly flat-lying, mostly Comanche (Lower Cretaceous) strata of the aquifer system thin northwestward atop massive pre-Cretaceous rocks that are comparatively impermeable and structurally complex. From predominately terrigenous clastic sediments in the east and fluvialdeltaic (terrestrial) deposits in the west, the rocks of early Trinitian age grade upward into supratidal evaporitic and dolomitic strata, intertidal limestone and dolostone, and shallow-marine, openshelf, and reefal strata of late Trinitian, Fredericksburgian, and Washitan age. A thick, downfaulted remnant of mostly open-marine strata of Eaglefordian through Navarroan age composes a small, southeastern part of the aquifer system.

  19. Water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  20. Potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  1. Effects of Sea Level Rise on Groundwater Flow Paths in a Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, S. K.; Clark, J. F.; Bennett, M. W.; Richardson, E.; Stute, M.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system, South Florida, from the rise in sea level at the end of the last glacial period may be indicative of changes coastal aquifers will experience with continued sea level rise. As sea level rises, the hydraulic head near the coast increases. Coastal aquifers can therefore experience decreased groundwater gradients (increased residence times) and seawater intrusion. Stable isotopes of water, dissolved noble gas temperatures, radiocarbon and He concentrations were analyzed in water collected from 68 wells in the Floridan aquifer system throughout South Florida. Near the recharge area, geochemical data along groundwater flow paths in the Upper Floridan aquifer show a transition from recently recharged groundwater to glacial-aged water. Down gradient from this transition, little variation is apparent in the stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures, indicating that most of the Upper Floridan aquifer contains groundwater recharged during the last glacial period. The rapid 120-meter rise in sea level marking the end of the last glacial period increased the hydraulic head in the Floridan aquifer system near the coast, slowing the flow of groundwater from the recharge area to the ocean and trapping glacial-aged groundwater. The raised sea level also flooded half of the Florida platform and caused seawater to intrude into the Lower Floridan. This circulation of seawater in the Lower Floridan continues today as our data indicate that the groundwater is similar to modern seawater with a freshwater component entering vertically from the recharge area to the Upper Floridan.

  2. The Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System: A GIS-based tool for assessing groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, David C.; Nardi, Mark R.; Staley, Andrew W.; Achmad, Grufron; Grace, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the source of drinking water for ∼1.4 million people in the Coastal Plain Province of Maryland (USA). In addition, groundwater is essential for commercial, industrial, and agricultural uses. Approximately 0.757 × 109 L d–1 (200 million gallons/d) were withdrawn in 2010. As a result of decades of withdrawals from the coastal plain confined aquifers, groundwater levels have declined by as much as 70 m (230 ft) from estimated prepumping levels. Other issues posing challenges to long-term groundwater sustainability include degraded water quality from both man-made and natural sources, reduced stream base flow, land subsidence, and changing recharge patterns (drought) caused by climate change. In Maryland, groundwater supply is managed primarily by the Maryland Department of the Environment, which seeks to balance reasonable use of the resource with long-term sustainability. The chief goal of groundwater management in Maryland is to ensure safe and adequate supplies for all current and future users through the implementation of appropriate usage, planning, and conservation policies. To assist in that effort, the geographic information system (GIS)–based Maryland Coastal Plain Aquifer Information System was developed as a tool to help water managers access and visualize groundwater data for use in the evaluation of groundwater allocation and use permits. The system, contained within an ESRI ArcMap desktop environment, includes both interpreted and basic data for 16 aquifers and 14 confining units. Data map layers include aquifer and ­confining unit layer surfaces, aquifer extents, borehole information, hydraulic properties, time-series groundwater-level data, well records, and geophysical and lithologic logs. The aquifer and confining unit layer surfaces were generated specifically for the GIS system. The system also contains select groundwater-quality data and map layers that quantify groundwater and surface-water withdrawals. The aquifer

  3. Standard technical specifications: Babcock and Wilcox Plants. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Babcock ampersand Wilcox Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  4. Hydrogeologic framework of the uppermost principal aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins, United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamke, Joanna N.; LeCain, Gary D.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sando, Roy; Long, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The glacial, lower Tertiary, and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems in the Williston and Powder River structural basins within the United States and Canada are the uppermost principal aquifer systems and most accessible sources of groundwater for these energy-producing basins. The glacial aquifer system covers the northeastern part of the Williston structural basin. The lower Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous aquifer systems are present in about 91,300 square miles (mi2) of the Williston structural basin and about 25,500 mi2 of the Powder River structural basin. Directly under these aquifer systems are 800 to more than 3,000 feet (ft) of relatively impermeable marine shale that serves as a basal confining unit. The aquifer systems in the Williston structural basin have a shallow (less than 2,900 ft deep), wide, and generally symmetrical bowl shape. The aquifer systems in the Powder River structural basin have a very deep (as much as 8,500 ft deep), narrow, and asymmetrical shape.

  5. General characteristics of the aquifer system Joanicó (Montevideo, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi Urtasun, S.; Montaño, X.; Montaño Gutiérrez, M.; Lacués Parodi, X.

    2010-01-01

    The work area, comprising the towns of Joanicó, Sauce and N Progress , Canelones province, is a center of intensive agricultural development (viticulture, hortofruticultura, etc), where demand and exploitation of groundwater is common primarily for irrigation supply .The subsoil consists of sedimentary rocks and sediments belonging to the Freedom and Dolores ( Pleistocene), Fray Bentos (Upper Oligocene) (aquitards), Mercedes formations - Asencio (Upper Cretaceous) and Migues (Lower Cretaceous). Permeable levels in the Mercedes and Migues formations make up a significant potential aquifer system , which we call Joanicó Aquifer System. This aquifer is multilayer type and consists of fine to coarse sand and gravel and sand mixture , with the occasional presence of thin matrix. Semi confined and behaves as confined in most area; in the outcrop of the Merc edes training is free. The average transmissivity is approximately the 50m2/día; The average permeability of 5 to 10 m/day. The storage coefficient (confined area) is of the order 10-4 .In the most developed area of the aquifer is where Joanicó are obtained by constructing boreholes higher flows Canelones department: more than 25% of the wells drilled to extract higher flow 15 m3/h y extracted more than 40% flows over 10 m3/h. The production of many agricultural enterprises depends directly on the area irrigated with groundwater, so the deeper knowledge of the exploited resource is paramount

  6. A Review on Concepts, Applications, and Models of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sang Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Being a heat source or sink, aquifers have been used to store large quantities of thermal energy to match cooling and heating supply and demand on both a short-term and long-term basis. The current technical, economic, and environmental status of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES is promising. General information on the basic operation principles, design, and construction of ATES systems is discussed in this paper. Numerous projects in operation around the world are summarized to illustrate the present status of ATES. Hydrogeological-thermal simulation has become an integral part of predicting ATES system performance. Numerical models which are available to simulate an ATES system by modeling mass and heat transport in the aquifer have been summarized. This paper also presents an example of numerical simulation and thermohydraulic evaluation of a two-well, ATES system operating under a continuous flow regime.

  7. Numerical modeling of aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongchan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geothermal Resources Department, 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kongju National University, Department of Geoenvironmental Sciences, 182 Singwan-dong, Gongju-si, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Youngmin [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geothermal Resources Department, 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Woon Sang; Jeon, Jae Soo [nexGeo Inc., 134-1 Garak 2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul 138-807 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Min-Ho; Keehm, Youngseuk [Kongju National University, Department of Geoenvironmental Sciences, 182 Singwan-dong, Gongju-si, Chungnam 314-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The performance of the ATES (aquifer thermal energy storage) system primarily depends on the thermal interference between warm and cold thermal energy stored in an aquifer. Additionally the thermal interference is mainly affected by the borehole distance, the hydraulic conductivity, and the pumping/injection rate. Thermo-hydraulic modeling was performed to identify the thermal interference by three parameters and to estimate the system performance change by the thermal interference. Modeling results indicate that the thermal interference grows as the borehole distance decreases, as the hydraulic conductivity increases, and as the pumping/injection rate increases. The system performance analysis indicates that if {eta} (the ratio of the length of the thermal front to the distance between two boreholes) is lower than unity, the system performance is not significantly affected, but if {eta} is equal to unity, the system performance falls up to {proportional_to}22%. Long term modeling for a factory in Anseong was conducted to test the applicability of the ATES system. When the pumping/injection rate is 100 m{sup 3}/day, system performances during the summer and winter after 3 years of operation are estimated to be {proportional_to}125 kW and {proportional_to}110 kW, respectively. Therefore, 100 m{sup 3}/day of the pumping/injection rate satisfies the energy requirements ({proportional_to}70 kW) for the factory. (author)

  8. Hysteresis, regime shifts, and non-stationarity in aquifer recharge-storage-discharge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammler, Harald; Jawitz, James; Annable, Michael; Hatfield, Kirk; Rao, Suresh

    2016-04-01

    Based on physical principles and geological information we develop a parsimonious aquifer model for Silver Springs, one of the largest karst springs in Florida. The model structure is linear and time-invariant with recharge, aquifer head (storage) and spring discharge as dynamic variables at the springshed (landscape) scale. Aquifer recharge is the hydrological driver with trends over a range of time scales from seasonal to multi-decadal. The freshwater-saltwater interaction is considered as a dynamic storage mechanism. Model results and observed time series show that aquifer storage causes significant rate-dependent hysteretic behavior between aquifer recharge and discharge. This leads to variable discharge per unit recharge over time scales up to decades, which may be interpreted as a gradual and cyclic regime shift in the aquifer drainage behavior. Based on field observations, we further amend the aquifer model by assuming vegetation growth in the spring run to be inversely proportional to stream velocity and to hinder stream flow. This simple modification introduces non-linearity into the dynamic system, for which we investigate the occurrence of rate-independent hysteresis and of different possible steady states with respective regime shifts between them. Results may contribute towards explaining observed non-stationary behavior potentially due to hydrological regime shifts (e.g., triggered by gradual, long-term changes in recharge or single extreme events) or long-term hysteresis (e.g., caused by aquifer storage). This improved understanding of the springshed hydrologic response dynamics is fundamental for managing the ecological, economic and social aspects at the landscape scale.

  9. Groundwater flow and water budget in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Tiedeman, Claire; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Burger, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A numerical transient model of the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems in east-central Florida was developed to (1) increase the understanding of water exchanges between the surficial and the Floridan aquifer systems, (2) assess the recharge rates to the surficial aquifer system from infiltration through the unsaturated zone and (3) obtain a simulation tool that could be used by water-resource managers to assess the impact of changes in groundwater withdrawals on spring flows and on the potentiometric surfaces of the hydrogeologic units composing the Floridan aquifer system. The hydrogeology of east-central Florida was evaluated and used to develop and calibrate the groundwater flow model, which simulates the regional fresh groundwater flow system. The U.S. Geological Survey three-dimensional groundwater flow model, MODFLOW-2005, was used to simulate transient groundwater flow in the surficial, intermediate, and Floridan aquifer systems from 1995 to 2006. The East-Central Florida Transient model encompasses an actively simulated area of about 9,000 square miles. Although the model includes surficial processes-rainfall, irrigation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, infiltration, lake water levels, and stream water levels and flows-its primary purpose is to characterize and refine the understanding of groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system. Model-independent estimates of the partitioning of rainfall into ET, streamflow, and aquifer recharge are provided from a water-budget analysis of the surficial aquifer system. The interaction of the groundwater flow system with the surface environment was simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration method and the MODFLOW-2005 Unsaturated-Zone Flow, Lake, and Streamflow-Routing Packages. The model is intended to simulate the part of the groundwater system that contains freshwater. The bottom and lateral boundaries of the model were established at the estimated depths where the chloride concentration is 5,000 milligrams

  10. Determination of timescales of nitrate contamination by groundwater age models in a complex aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, E. H.; Lee, E.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K. K.; Green, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Timing and magnitudes of nitrate contamination are determined by various factors like contaminant loading, recharge characteristics and geologic system. Information of an elapsed time since recharged water traveling to a certain outlet location, which is defined as groundwater age, can provide indirect interpretation related to the hydrologic characteristics of the aquifer system. There are three major methods (apparent ages, lumped parameter model, and numerical model) to date groundwater ages, which differently characterize groundwater mixing resulted by various groundwater flow pathways in a heterogeneous aquifer system. Therefore, in this study, we compared the three age models in a complex aquifer system by using observed age tracer data and reconstructed history of nitrate contamination by long-term source loading. The 3H-3He and CFC-12 apparent ages, which did not consider the groundwater mixing, estimated the most delayed response time and a highest period of the nitrate loading had not reached yet. However, the lumped parameter model could generate more recent loading response than the apparent ages and the peak loading period influenced the water quality. The numerical model could delineate various groundwater mixing components and its different impacts on nitrate dynamics in the complex aquifer system. The different age estimation methods lead to variations in the estimated contaminant loading history, in which the discrepancy in the age estimation was dominantly observed in the complex aquifer system.

  11. Modelling the salinization of a coastal lagoon-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a coastal area constituted by alternations of saline-brackish lagoons and freshwater bodies was studied and modelled to understand the hydrological processes occurring between the lagoons, the groundwater system of the Po River Delta (Italy) and the Adriatic Sea. The contribution of both evaporation and anthropogenic factors on groundwater salinization was assessed by means of soil, groundwater and surface water monitoring. Highresolution multi-level samplers were used to capture salinity gradients within the aquifer and surface water bodies. Data were employed to calibrate a density-dependent numerical transport model implemented with SEAWAT code along a transect perpendicular to the coast line. The results show that the lagoon is hydraulically well connected with the aquifer, which provides the major source of salinity because of the upcoming of paleo-seawater from the aquitard laying at the base of the unconfined aquifer. On the contrary, the seawater (diluted by the freshwater river outflow) creates only a limited saltwater wedge. The increase in groundwater salinity could be of serious concern, especially for the pinewood located in the dune near the coast, sensitive to salinity increases. This case study represents an interesting paradigm for other similar environmental setting, where the assumption of classical aquifer salinization from a saltwater wedge intruding from the sea is often not representative of the actual aquifer’s salinization mechanisms.

  12. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic investigation and water quality assessment of groundwater in the Sisseb El Alem Nadhour Saouaf aquifer (SANS), northeastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Mohamed; Zagrarni, Mohamed Faouzi; Jerbi, Hamza; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2018-05-01

    In the Sisseb El Alem Nadhour Saouaf basin (SANS), as in all other arid regions, surface water is scarce and groundwater is the greatest most important source of water for all uses. This study aims to identify the processes governing groundwater mineralization in order to assess the suitability of the groundwater for drinking and agriculture purposes. This research used a geodatabase which includes information on hydrogeology, geochemistry, land cover, and geology. We identified the most important factors involved in the deterioration of water quality, including anhydrite and gypsum dissolution, silicate weathering, downward leakage between aquifers, evaporation, groundwater over-exploitation, and the overuse of fertilizers. Furthermore, the two following important factors were identified: the intrusion of Sebkhat El Kelbia and the vertical flow from the deep aquifer. Results were used to develop a conceptual geochemical model, wherein three geochemical regions were differentiated. Statistical techniques, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were used to confirm the water affinities and the presence of three different geochemical regions. The water quality index (WQI), Wilcox and Richards's diagrams were performed to assess the suitability of groundwater to drinking and irrigation purposes. These indexes confirm the fact that the groundwater of this aquifer is not suitable for irrigation, neither for drinking. Furthermore, 18O and deuterium isotope data indicate the importance of evaporation in the basin, and the recharge with modern rainfall.

  13. Closed-form analytical solutions incorporating pumping and tidal effects in various coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyue; Li, Hailong; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei

    2014-07-01

    Pumping wells are common in coastal aquifers affected by tides. Here we present analytical solutions of groundwater table or head variations during a constant rate pumping from a single, fully-penetrating well in coastal aquifer systems comprising an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer and semi-permeable layer between them. The unconfined aquifer terminates at the coastline (or river bank) and the other two layers extend under tidal water (sea or tidal river) for a certain distance L. Analytical solutions are derived for 11 reasonable combinations of different situations of the L-value (zero, finite, and infinite), of the middle layer's permeability (semi-permeable and impermeable), of the boundary condition at the aquifer's submarine terminal (Dirichlet describing direct connection with seawater and no-flow describing the existence of an impermeable capping), and of the tidal water body (sea and tidal river). Solutions are discussed with application examples in fitting field observations and parameter estimations.

  14. Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential

  15. Flow Generated by a Partially Penetrating Well in a Leaky Two-Aquifer System with a Storative Semiconfining Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, N.; Rohrer, K.

    2008-05-01

    The permeability of the semiconfining layers of the highly productive Floridan Aquifer System may be large enough to invalidate the assumptions of the leaky aquifer theory. These layers are the intermediate confining and the middle semiconfining units. The analysis of aquifer-test data with analytical solutions of the ground-water flow equation developed with the approximation of a low hydraulic conductivity ratio between the semiconfining layer and the aquifer may lead to inaccurate hydraulic parameters. An analytical solution is presented here for the flow in a confined leaky aquifer, the overlying storative semiconfining layer, and the unconfined aquifer, generated by a partially penetrating well in a two-aquifer system, and allowing vertical and lateral flow components to occur in the semiconfining layer. The equations describing flow caused by a partially penetrating production well are solved analytically to provide a method to accurately determine the hydraulic parameters in the confined aquifer, semiconfining layer, and unconfined aquifer from aquifer-test data. Analysis of the drawdown data from an aquifer test performed in central Florida showed that the flow solution presented here for the semiconfining layer provides a better match and a more unique identification of the hydraulic parameters than an analytical solution that considers only vertical flow in the semiconfining layer.

  16. Generalized hydrogeologic framework and groundwater budget for a groundwater availability study for the glacial aquifer system of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.; Bayless, E. Randall; Dudley, Robert W.; Feinstein, Daniel T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Hoard, Christopher J.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Qi, Sharon L.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.

    2017-12-14

    The glacial aquifer system groundwater availability study seeks to quantify (1) the status of groundwater resources in the glacial aquifer system, (2) how these resources have changed over time, and (3) likely system response to future changes in anthropogenic and environmental conditions. The glacial aquifer system extends from Maine to Alaska, although the focus of this report is the part of the system in the conterminous United States east of the Rocky Mountains. The glacial sand and gravel principal aquifer is the largest source of public and self-supplied industrial supply for any principal aquifer and also is an important source for irrigation supply. Despite its importance for water supply, water levels in the glacial aquifer system are generally stable varying with climate and only locally from pumping. The hydrogeologic framework developed for this study includes the information from waterwell records and classification of material types from surficial geologic maps into likely aquifers dominated by sand and gravel deposits. Generalized groundwater budgets across the study area highlight the variation in recharge and discharge primarily driven by climate.

  17. Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

    1988-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Comparison of licensing activities for operating plants designed by Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    This report provides a comparison of a number of licensing activities for the operating Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) plants with emphasis on Rancho Seco. The factors selected were a comparison of staff resources expended in FY84, active licensing action reviews, implementation of NUREG-0737 modifications, exemptions to regulations, SALP reports, enforcement actions, and Licensee Event Reports (LERs). The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1)

  19. Sensitivity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to the complexity of aquifer systems for monitoring of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katpatal, Yashwant B.; Rishma, C.; Singh, Chandan K.

    2018-05-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is aimed at assessment of groundwater storage under different terrestrial conditions. The main objective of the presented study is to highlight the significance of aquifer complexity to improve the performance of GRACE in monitoring groundwater. Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, central India, was selected as the study area for analysis, since the region comprises a simple aquifer system in the western region and a complex aquifer system in the eastern region. Groundwater-level-trend analyses of the different aquifer systems and spatial and temporal variation of the terrestrial water storage anomaly were studied to understand the groundwater scenario. GRACE and its field application involve selecting four pixels from the GRACE output with different aquifer systems, where each GRACE pixel encompasses 50-90 monitoring wells. Groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA) are derived for each pixel for the period 2002 to 2015 using the Release 05 (RL05) monthly GRACE gravity models and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land-surface models (GWSAGRACE) as well as the actual field data (GWSAActual). Correlation analysis between GWSAGRACE and GWSAActual was performed using linear regression. The Pearson and Spearman methods show that the performance of GRACE is good in the region with simple aquifers; however, performance is poorer in the region with multiple aquifer systems. The study highlights the importance of incorporating the sensitivity of GRACE in estimation of groundwater storage in complex aquifer systems in future studies.

  20. Investigation of aquifer-system compaction in the Hueco basin, El Paso, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Charles

    1995-01-01

    The Pleistocene geologic history of the Rio Grande valley in the Hueco basin included a cycle of sediment erosion and re-aggradation, resulting in unconformable stratification of sediment of contrasting compressibility and stress history. Since the 1950s large groundwater withdrawals have resulted in significant water-level declines and associated land subsidence. Knowledge of the magnitude and variation of specific storage is needed for developing predictive models of subsidence and groundwater flow simulations. Analyses of piezometric and extensometric data in the form of stress-strain diagrams from a 16 month period yield in situ measurements of aquifer-system compressibility across two discrete aquifer intervals. The linear elastic behaviour of the deeper interval indicates over-consolidation of basin deposits, probably resulting from deeper burial depth before the middle Pleistocene. By contrast, the shallow aquifer system displays an inelastic component, suggesting pre-consolidation stress not significantly greater than current effective stress levels for a sequence of late Pleistocene clay. Harmonic analyses of the piezometric response to earth tides in two water-level piezometers provide an independent estimate of specific storage of aquifer sands.

  1. Guarani aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The environmental protection and sustain ability develop project of Guarani Aquifer System is a join work from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay with a purpose to increase the knowledge resource and propose technical legal and organizational framework for sustainable management between countries.The Universities funds were created as regional universities support in promotion, training and academic research activities related to environmental al social aspects of the Guarani Aquifer System.The aim of the project is the management and protection of the underground waters resources taking advantage and assesment for nowadays and future generations

  2. Geothermal reservoir simulation of hot sedimentary aquifer system using FEFLOW®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hidayat, Hardi; Gala Permana, Maximillian

    2017-12-01

    The study presents the simulation of hot sedimentary aquifer for geothermal utilization. Hot sedimentary aquifer (HSA) is a conduction-dominated hydrothermal play type utilizing deep aquifer, which is heated by near normal heat flow. One of the examples of HSA is Bavarian Molasse Basin in South Germany. This system typically uses doublet wells: an injection and production well. The simulation was run for 3650 days of simulation time. The technical feasibility and performance are analysed in regards to the extracted energy from this concept. Several parameters are compared to determine the model performance. Parameters such as reservoir characteristics, temperature information and well information are defined. Several assumptions are also defined to simplify the simulation process. The main results of the simulation are heat period budget or total extracted heat energy, and heat rate budget or heat production rate. Qualitative approaches for sensitivity analysis are conducted by using five parameters in which assigned lower and higher value scenarios.

  3. Quantifying the energy required for groundwater pumping across a regional aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, M. J.; Shugert, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater pumping can be a substantial source of energy expenditure, particularly in semiarid regions with large depths to water. In this study we assessed the energy required for groundwater pumping in the Denver Basin aquifer system, a group of sedimentary rock aquifers used for municipal water supply in Colorado. In recent decades, declining water levels in the Denver Basin aquifers has resulted in increased pumping lifts and higher energy use rates. We quantified the spatially variable energy intensity for groundwater pumping by analyzing spatial variations in the lift requirement. The median energy intensities for two major aquifers were 1.2 and 1.8 kWh m-3. Considering typical municipal well production rates and household water use in the study area, these results indicate that the energy cost associated with groundwater pumping can be a significant fraction (>20%) of the total electricity consumption for all household end uses. Pumping at this scale (hundreds of municipal wells producing from deep aquifers) also generates substantial greenhouse gas emissions. Analytical wellfield modeling conducted as part of this study clearly demonstrates how multiple components of the lift impact the energy requirement. Results provide guidance for water management strategies that reduce energy expenditure.

  4. Seismic risk analysis for the Babcock and Wilcox facility, Leechburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Babcock and Wilcox Plutonium Fuel Fabrication facility at Leechburg, Pennsylvania are presented. This report focuses on earthquakes; the other natural hazards, being addressed in separate reports, are severe weather (strong winds and tornados) and floods. The calculational method used is based on Cornell's work (1968); it has been previously applied to safety evaluations of major projects. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases. Because of the aseismicity of the region around the site, an analysis different from the conventional closest approach in a tectonic province was adapted. Earthquakes as far from the site as 1,000 km were included, as were the possibility of earthquakes at the site. In addition, various uncertainties in the input were explicitly considered in the analysis. The results of the risk analysis, which include a Bayesian estimate of the uncertainties, are presented, expressed as return period accelerations. The best estimate curve indicates that the Babcock and Wilcox facility will experience 0.05 g every 220 years and 0.10 g every 1400 years. The bounding curves roughly represent the one standard deviation confidence limits about the best estimate, reflecting the uncertainty in certain of the input. Detailed examination of the results show that the accelerations are very insensitive to the details of the source region geometries or the historical earthquake statistics in each region and that each of the source regions contributes almost equally to the cumulative risk at the site. If required for structural analysis, acceleration response spectra for the site can be constructed by scaling the mean response spectrum for alluvium in WASH 1255 by these peak accelerations

  5. Shutdown decay heat removal analysis of a Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water reactor: Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramond, W.R.; Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Sanders, G.A.

    1987-03-01

    This is one of six case studies for USI A-45 Decay Heat Removal (DHR) Requirements. The purpose of this study is to identify any potential vulnerabilities in the DHR systems of a typical Babcock and Wilcox PWR, to suggest possible modifications to improve the DHR capability, and to assess the value and impact of the most promising alternatives to the existing DHR systems. The systems analysis considered small LOCAs and transient internal initiating events, and seismic, fire, extreme wind, internal and external flood, and lightning external events. A full-scale systems analysis was performed with detailed fault trees and event trees including support system dependencies. The system analysis results were extrapolated into release categories using applicable past PRA phenomenological results and improved containment failure mode probabilities. Public consequences were estimated using site specific CRAC2 calculations. The Value-Impact (VI) analysis of possible alternatives considered both onsite and offsite impacts arriving at several risk measures such as averted population dose out to a 50-mile radius and dollars per person rem averted. Uncertainties in the VI analysis are discussed and the issues of feed and bleed and secondary blowdown are analyzed

  6. Estimation of transit times in a Karst Aquifer system using environmental tracers: Application on the Jeita Aquifer system-Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doummar, Joanna; Hamdan, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Estimating transit times is essential for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability to contaminants. Groundwater in karst aquifer is assumed to be relatively young due to fast preferential pathways; slow flow components are present in water stored in the fissured matrix. Furthermore, transit times are site specific as they depend on recharge rates, temperatures, elevation, and flow media; saturated and unsaturated zones. These differences create significant variation in the groundwater age in karst systems as the water sampled will be a mix of different water that has been transported through different flow pathways (fissured matrix and conduits). Several methods can be applied to estimate water transit time of an aquifer such as artificial tracers, which provide an estimate for fast flow velocities. In this study, groundwater residence times in the Jeita spring aquifer (Lebanon) were estimated using several environmental tracers such as Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6), Helium-Tritium (3H, 3H- 3He). Additional stable isotope and major ion analysis was performed to characterize water types. Groundwater samples were collected from six different wells in the Jeita catchment area (Jurassic Kesrouane aquifer) as well as from the spring and cave itself. The results are reproducible for the Tritium-Helium method, unlike for the CFC/SF6 methods that yielded poor results due to sampling problems. Tritium concentrations in all groundwater samples show nearly the same concentration (~2.73 TU) except for one sample with relatively lower tritium concentration (~2.26 TU). Ages ranging from 0.07 ± 0.07 years to 23.59 ± 0.00 years were obtained. The youngest age is attributed to the spring/ cave while the oldest ages were obtained in wells tapping the fissured matrix. Neon in these samples showed considerable variations and high delta Ne in some samples indicating high excess air. Four (4) samples showed extreme excess air (Delta-Ne is greater than 70 %) and

  7. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Alexandros; Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Schmidt, Felix; Athanasiou, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Amditis, Angelos; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  8. Lithological and hydrological influences on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous carbonate-clay aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, S.J.; Herman, J.S.; Jones, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of clay units on ground-water composition was investigated in a heterogeneous carbonate aquifer system of Miocene age in southwest Florida, known as the Intermediate aquifer system. Regionally, the ground water is recharged inland, flows laterally and to greater depths in the aquifer systems, and is discharged vertically upward at the saltwater interface along the coast. A depth profile of water composition was obtained by sampling ground water from discrete intervals within the permeable carbonate units during coring and by squeezing pore water from a core of the less-permeable clay layers. A normative salt analysis of solute compositions in the water indicated a marine origin for both types of water and an evolutionary pathway for the clay water that involves clay diagenesis. The chemical composition of the ground water in the carbonate bedrock is significantly different from that of the pore water in the clay layers. Dissolution of clays and opaline silica results in high silica concentrations relative to water in other parts of the Intermediate aquifer system. Water enriched in chloride relative to the overlying and underlying ground water recharges the aquifer inland where the confining clay layer is absent, and it dissolves carbonate and silicate minerals and reacts with clays along its flow path, eventually reaching this coastal site and resulting in the high chloride and silica concentrations observed in the middle part of the Intermediate aquifer system. Reaction-path modeling suggests that the recharging surficial water mixes with sulfate-rich water upwelling from the Upper Floridan aquifer, and carbonate mineral dissolution and precipitation, weathering and exchange reactions, clay mineral diagenesis, clay and silica dissolution, organic carbon oxidation, and iron and sulfate reduction result in the observed water compositions.A study was conducted to clarify the influence of clay units on ground-water composition in a heterogeneous

  9. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Babcock and Wilcox nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galyean, W.J.; Gertman, D.I.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents information essential to understanding the risk associated with inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs). The methodology developed and presented in the report provides a state-of-the-art method for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware design, human performance issues, and accident consequence factors to relevant to the prediction of the ISLOCA risk. This ISLOCA methodology was developed and then applied to a Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) nuclear power plants. The results from this application are described in detail. For this particular B ampersand W reference plant, the assessment indicated that the probability of a severe ISLOCA is approximately 2.2E-06/reactor-year. This document Volume 3 provides appendices A--H of the report. Topics are: Historical experience related to ISLOCA events; component failure rates; reference B ampersand W plant system descriptions; reference B ampersand W plant ISLOCA event trees; Human reliability analysis for the B ampersand W ISLOCA probabilistic risk assessment; thermal hydraulic calculations; bounding core uncovery time calculations; and system rupture probability

  10. Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlon, B.R.; Nicot, J.P.; Reedy, R.C.; Kurtzman, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    High groundwater As concentrations in oxidizing systems are generally associated with As adsorption onto hydrous metal (Al, Fe or Mn) oxides and mobilization with increased pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, sources and mobilization mechanisms of As in the Southern High Plains (SHP) aquifer, Texas, relative to those in other semiarid, oxidizing systems. Elevated groundwater As levels are widespread in the southern part of the SHP (SHP-S) aquifer, with 47% of wells exceeding the current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L (range 0.3-164 μg/L), whereas As levels are much lower in the north (SHP-N: 9% ≥ As MCL of 10 μg/L; range 0.2-43 μg/L). The sharp contrast in As levels between the north and south coincides with a change in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 395 mg/L (median north) to 885 mg/L (median south). Arsenic is present as arsenate (As V) in this oxidizing system and is correlated with groundwater TDS (Spearman's ρ = 0.57). The most likely current source of As is sorbed As onto hydrous metal oxides based on correlations between As and other oxyanion-forming elements (V, ρ = 0.88; Se, ρ = 0.54; B, ρ = 0.51 and Mo, ρ = 0.46). This source is similar to that in other oxidizing systems and constitutes a secondary source; the most likely primary source being volcanic ashes in the SHP aquifer or original source rocks in the Rockies, based on co-occurrence of As and F (ρ = 0.56), oxyanion-forming elements and SiO 2 (ρ = 0.41), which are found in volcanic ashes. High groundwater As concentrations in some semiarid oxidizing systems are related to high evaporation. Although correlation of As with TDS in the SHP aquifer may suggest evaporative concentration, unenriched stable isotopes (δ 2 H: -65 to -27; δ 18 O: -9.1 to -4.2) in the SHP aquifer do not support evaporation. High TDS in the SHP aquifer is most likely related to upward movement of saline water from the underlying Triassic Dockum aquifer. Mobilization

  11. Planning report for the Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Hayes F.

    1984-01-01

    Large quantities of water for municipal, industrial and agriculture use are supplied from the aquifers in Tertiary and younger sediments over an area of about 225,000 square miles in the Coastal Plain of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas. Three regional aquifer systems, the Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, the Coastal Lowlands aquifer system, and the Texas Coastal Uplands aquifer system have been developed to varying degrees throughout the area. A variety of problems has resulted from development such as movement of the saline-freshwater interface into parts of aquifers that were previously fresh, lowering of the potentiometric surface with resulting increases in pumping lift, and land-surface subsidence due to the compaction of clays within the aquifer. Increased demand for ground water is anticipated to meet the needs of urban growth, expanded energy development, and growth of irrigated agriculture. The U. S. Geological Survey initiated an eightyear study in 1981 to define the geohydrologic framework, describe the chemistry of the ground water, and to analyze the regional ground-water flow patterns. The objectives, plan, and organization of the study are described in this report and the major tasks to be undertaken are outlined.

  12. Aquifer thermal energy stores in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabus, F.; Seibt, P.; Poppei, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the state of essential demonstration projects of heat and cold storage in aquifers in Germany. Into the energy supply system of the buildings of the German Parliament in Berlin, there are integrated both a deep brine-bearing aquifer for the seasonal storage of waste heat from power and heat cogeneration and a shallow-freshwater bearing aquifer for cold storage. In Neubrandenburg, a geothermal heating plant which uses a 1.200 m deep aquifer is being retrofitted into an aquifer heat storage system which can be charged with the waste heat from a gas and steam cogeneration plant. The first centralised solar heating plant including an aquifer thermal energy store in Germany was constructed in Rostock. Solar collectors with a total area of 1000m 2 serve for the heating of a complex of buildings with 108 flats. A shallow freshwater-bearing aquifer is used for thermal energy storage. (Authors)

  13. Review of Aquifer Storage and Recovery Performance in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in Southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Interest and activity in aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in southern Florida has increased greatly during the past 10 to 15 years. ASR wells have been drilled to the carbonate Floridan aquifer system at 30 sites in southern Florida, mostly by local municipalities or counties located in coastal areas. The primary storage zone at these sites is contained within the brackish to saline Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system. The strategy for use of ASR in southern Florida is to store excess freshwater available during the wet season in an aquifer and recover it during the dry season when needed for supplemental water supply. Each ASR cycle is defined by three periods: recharge, storage, and recovery. This fact sheet summarizes some of the findings of a second phase retrospective assessment of existing ASR facilities and sites.

  14. Hydrogeology, water quality, and simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system, Seminole County and vicinity, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, Rick M.; Halford, Keith J.

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogeology and ground-water quality of Seminole County in east-central Florida was evaluated. A ground-water flow model was developed to simulate the effects of both present day (September 1996 through August 1997) and projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on the water levels in the surficial aquifer system and the potentiometric surface of the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers in Seminole County and vicinity. The Floridan aquifer system is the major source of ground water in the study area. In 1965, ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system in Seminole County were about 11 million gallons per day. In 1995, withdrawals totaled about 69 million gallons per day. Of the total ground water used in 1995, 74 percent was for public supply, 12 percent for domestic self-supplied, 10 percent for agriculture self-supplied, and 4 percent for recreational irrigation. The principal water-bearing units in Seminole County are the surficial aquifer system and the Floridan aquifer system. The two aquifer systems are separated by the intermediate confining unit, which contains beds of lower permeability sediments that confine the water in the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system has two major water-bearing zones (the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Lower Floridan aquifer), which are separated by a less-permeable semiconfining unit. Upper Floridan aquifer water levels and spring flows have been affected by ground-water development. Long-term hydrographs of four wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer show a general downward trend from the early 1950's until 1990. The declines in water levels are caused predominantly by increased pumpage and below average annual rainfall. From 1991 to 1998, water levels rose slightly, a trend that can be explained by an increase in average annual rainfall. Long-term declines in the potentiometric surface varied throughout the area, ranging from about 3 to 12 feet. Decreases in spring discharge also have been

  15. Hydrochemical Regions of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, and Their Environmental and Water-Quality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Warner, Kelly L.; Groschen, George E.; Caldwell, James P.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The glacial aquifer system in the United States is a large (953,000 square miles) regional aquifer system of heterogeneous composition. As described in this report, the glacial aquifer system includes all unconsolidated geologic material above bedrock that lies on or north of the line of maximum glacial advance within the United States. Examining ground-water quality on a regional scale indicates that variations in the concentrations of major and minor ions and some trace elements most likely are the result of natural variations in the geologic and physical environment. Study of the glacial aquifer system was designed around a regional framework based on the assumption that two primary characteristics of the aquifer system can affect water quality: intrinsic susceptibility (hydraulic properties) and vulnerability (geochemical properties). The hydrochemical regions described in this report were developed to identify and explain regional spatial variations in ground-water quality in the glacial aquifer system within the hypothetical framework context. Data analyzed for this study were collected from 1991 to 2003 at 1,716 wells open to the glacial aquifer system. Cluster analysis was used to group wells with similar ground-water concentrations of calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate into five unique groups. Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to make the extrapolation from clustered groups of wells, defined by points, to areas of similar water quality (hydrochemical regions) defined in a geospatial model. Spatial data that represented average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, land use, land-surface slope, vertical soil permeability, average soil clay content, texture of surficial deposits, type of surficial deposit, and potential for ground-water recharge were used in the Maximum Likelihood Classification to classify the areas so the characteristics of the hydrochemical regions would resemble the

  16. Identifying and quantifying geochemical and mixing processes in the Matanza-Riachuelo Aquifer System, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengol, S; Manzano, M; Bea, S A; Martínez, S

    2017-12-01

    The Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin, in the Northeast of the Buenos Aires Province, is one of the most industrialized and populated region in Argentina and it is worldwide known for its alarming environmental degradation. In order to prevent further damages, the aquifer system, which consists of two overlaid aquifers, is being monitored from 2008 by the river basin authority, Autoridad de la Cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo. The groundwater chemical baseline has been established in a previous paper (Zabala et al., 2016), and this one is devoted to the identification of the main physical and hydrogeochemical processes that control groundwater chemistry and its areal distribution. Thirty five representative groundwater samples from the Upper Aquifer and thirty four from the deep Puelche Aquifer have been studied with a multi-tool approach to understand the origin of their chemical and isotopic values. The resulting conceptual model has been validated though hydrogeochemical modeling. Most of the aquifer system has fresh groundwater, but some areas have brackish and salt groundwater. Water recharging the Upper Aquifer is of the Ca-HCO 3 type as a result of soil CO 2 and carbonate dissolution. Evapotranspiration plays a great role concentrating recharge water. After recharge, groundwater becomes Na-HCO 3 , mostly due to cation exchange with Na release and Ca uptake, which induces calcite dissolution. Saline groundwaters exist in the lower and upper sectors of the basin as a result of Na-HCO 3 water mixing with marine water of different origins. In the upper reaches, besides mixing with connate sea water other sources of SO 4 exist, most probably gypsum and/or sulfides. This work highlights the relevance of performing detailed studies to understand the processes controlling groundwater chemistry at regional scale. Moreover, it is a step forward in the knowledge of the aquifer system, and provides a sound scientific basis to design effective management programs and recovery plans

  17. Improved aquifer characterization and the optimization of the design of brackish groundwater desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malivaa, Robert G.

    2011-07-01

    Many water scarce regions possess brackish-water resources that can be desalted to provide alternative water supplies. Brackish groundwater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is less expensive than seawater systems because of reduced energy and pretreatment requirements and lesser volumes of concentrate that require disposal. Development of brackish groundwater wellfields include the same hydraulic issues that affect conventional freshwater wellfields. Managing well interference and prevention of adverse impacts such as land subsidence are important concerns. RO systems are designed to treat water whose composition falls within a system-specific envelope of salinities and ion concentrations. A fundamental requirement for the design of brackish groundwater RO systems is prediction of the produced water chemistry at both the start of pumping and after 10-20 years of operation. Density-dependent solute-transport modeling is thus an integral component of the design of brackish groundwater RO systems. The accuracy of groundwater models is dependent upon the quality of the hydrogeological data upon which they are based. Key elements of the aquifer characterization are the determination of the three-dimensional distribution of salinity within the aquifer and the evaluation of aquifer heterogeneity with respect to hydraulic conductivity. It is necessary to know from where in a pumped aquifer (or aquifer zone) water is being produced and the contribution of vertical flow to the produced water. Unexpected, excessive vertical migration (up-coning) of waters that are more saline has adversely impacted some RO systems because the salinity of the water delivered to the system exceeded the system design parameters. Improved aquifer characterization is possible using advanced geophysical techniques, which can, in turn, lead to more accurate solute-transport models. Advanced borehole geophysical logs, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, were run as part of the exploratory test

  18. Soft computing and hydrogeologic characterization of the Serra Geral-Guarani aquifer system, Parana state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, F.; Friedel, M. J.; Ferreira, F. J.; Fraser, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to estimate missing hydrogeologic (hydraulic and hydrochemical) properties and evaluate potential connectivity between the Serra Geral and Guarani aquifer system. K-means clustering of SOM neurons is useful for identifying hydrogeologic units (conceptual models) in which the Serra Geral waters are carbonate-calcium and carbonate-magnesium, and Guarani waters are sodium, chloride, fluoride and sulfate as characteristic elements. SOM predictions appear generally consistent with current connectivity models with vertical fluxes from Guarani aquifer strongly influenced by geological structures. Additionally, we identify other new hydrochemical facies in the Serra Geral aquifer indicating areas with potential connections between the two aquifers.

  19. Interpretational Confounding Is Due to Misspecification, Not to Type of Indicator: Comment on Howell, Breivik, and Wilcox (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2007-01-01

    R. D. Howell, E. Breivik, and J. B. Wilcox (2007) have argued that causal (formative) indicators are inherently subject to interpretational confounding. That is, they have argued that using causal (formative) indicators leads the empirical meaning of a latent variable to be other than that assigned to it by a researcher. Their critique of causal…

  20. Development and Modelling of a High-Resolution Aquifer Analog in the Guarani Aquifer (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Höyng, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and detailed knowledge about the spatial distribution of physical and chemical properties in heterogeneous porous aquifers plays a decisive role for a realistic representation of governing parameters in mathematical models. Models allow the simulation, prediction and reproduction of subsurface flow and transport characteristics. This work explains the identification, characterization and effects of small-scale aquifer heterogeneities in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in S...

  1. Origin and distribution of saline groundwaters in the upper Miocene aquifer system, coastal Rhodope area, northeastern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, C. P.; Diamantis, I. B.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the origins and distribution of saline groundwaters in the coastal area of Rhodope, Greece. The aquifer system includes two aquifers within coarse-grained alluvial sediments in the coastal part of the study area. Two major water-quality groups occur in the study area, namely Ca2+-rich saline groundwater and Ca2+-poor, almost fresh groundwater. The main process controlling the groundwater chemistry is the exchange of calcium and sodium between the aquifer matrix and intruding seawater. The natural salt water in the study area is probably residual water that infiltrated the aquifer system during repeated marine transgressions in late Pleistocene time. Seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifer system occurs as a result of overpumping in two seawater wedges separated vertically by a low-permeability layer. The rate of intrusion averages 0.8 m/d and is less than expected due to a decline of the aquifer's permeability at the interface with the seawater. The application of several hydrochemical techniques (Piper and Durov diagrams; Na+/Cl-, Ca2+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Br-/Cl- molar ratios; Ca2+/Mg2+ weight ratio; and chloride concentrations), combined with field observations, may lead to a better explanation of the origin of the saline groundwater.

  2. Understanding Kendal aquifer system: a baseline analysis for sustainable water management proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, A.; Aryanto, M. D.; Pramudito, A.; Andhika, A.; Irawan, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    North coast of Java has been grown as the center of economic activities and major connectivity hub for Sumatra and Bali. Sustainable water management must support such role. One of the basis is to understand the baseline of groundwater occurrences and potential. However the complex alluvium aquiver system has not been well-understood. A geoelectric measurements were performed to determine which rock layer has a good potential as groundwater aquifers in the northern coast of Kaliwungu Regency, Kendal District, Central Java province. Total of 10 vertical electrical sounding (VES) points has been performed, using a Schlumberger configuration with the current electrode spacing (AB/2) varies between 200 - 300 m and the potential difference electrode spacing (MN/2) varies between 0.5 to 20 m with depths target ranging between 150 - 200 m. Geoelectrical data processing is done using Ip2win software which generates resistivity value, thickness and depth of subsurface rock layers. Based on the correlation between resistivity value with regional geology, hydrogeology and local well data, we identify three aquifer layers. The first layer is silty clay with resistivity values vary between 0 - 10 ohm.m, then the second layer is tuffaceous claystone with resistivity value between 10 - 60 ohm.m. Both layers serve as impermeable layer. The third layer is sandy tuff with resistivity value between 60 - 100 ohm.m which serves as a confined aquifer layer located at 70 - 100 m below surface. Its thickness is vary between 70 to 110 m. The aquifer layer is a mixing of volcanic and alluvium sediment, which is a member of Damar Formation. The stratification of the aquifer system may change in short distance and depth. This natural setting prevent us to make a long continuous correlation between layers. Aquifer discharge is estimated between 5 - 71 L/s with the potential deep well locations lies in the west and southeast part of the study area. These hydrogeological settings should be used

  3. Modelling transient temperature distribution for injecting hot water through a well to an aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der; Li, Kuang-Yi

    2010-10-01

    Heat storage systems are usually used to store waste heat and solar energy. In this study, a mathematical model is developed to predict both the steady-state and transient temperature distributions of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system after hot water is injected through a well into a confined aquifer. The ATES has a confined aquifer bounded by aquicludes with different thermomechanical properties and geothermal gradients along the depth. Consider that the heat is transferred by conduction and forced convection within the aquifer and by conduction within the aquicludes. The dimensionless semi-analytical solutions of temperature distributions of the ATES system are developed using Laplace and Fourier transforms and their corresponding time-domain results are evaluated numerically by the modified Crump method. The steady-state solution is obtained from the transient solution through the final-value theorem. The effect of the heat transfer coefficient on aquiclude temperature distribution is appreciable only near the outer boundaries of the aquicludes. The present solutions are useful for estimating the temperature distribution of heat injection and the aquifer thermal capacity of ATES systems.

  4. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moleiro Leon, L.F.; Guerra Oliva, M.G.; Maloszewski, P.; Arellano Acosta, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable ( 18 O and 2 H ) and radioactive ( 3 H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems

  5. Estimating the Spatial Extent of Unsaturated Zones in Heterogeneous River-Aquifer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver S.; Irvine, Dylan J.; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Brunner, Philip

    2017-12-01

    The presence of unsaturated zones at the river-aquifer interface has large implications on numerous hydraulic and chemical processes. However, the hydrological and geological controls that influence the development of unsaturated zones have so far only been analyzed with simplified conceptualizations of flow processes, or homogeneous conceptualizations of the hydraulic conductivity in either the aquifer or the riverbed. We systematically investigated the influence of heterogeneous structures in both the riverbed and the aquifer on the development of unsaturated zones. A stochastic 1-D criterion that takes both riverbed and aquifer heterogeneity into account was developed using a Monte Carlo sampling technique. The approach allows the reliable estimation of the upper bound of the spatial extent of unsaturated areas underneath a riverbed. Through systematic numerical modeling experiments, we furthermore show that horizontal capillary forces can reduce the spatial extent of unsaturated zones under clogged areas. This analysis shows how the spatial structure of clogging layers and aquifers influence the propensity for unsaturated zones to develop: In riverbeds where clogged areas are made up of many small, spatially disconnected patches with a diameter in the order of 1 m, unsaturated areas are less likely to develop compared to riverbeds where large clogged areas exist adjacent to unclogged areas. A combination of the stochastic 1-D criterion with an analysis of the spatial structure of the clogging layers and the potential for resaturation can help develop an appropriate conceptual model and inform the choice of a suitable numerical simulator for river-aquifer systems.

  6. Elevated naturally occurring arsenic in a semiarid oxidizing system, Southern High Plains aquifer, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Nicot, J.-P.; Reedy, R.C.; Kurtzman, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    High groundwater As concentrations in oxidizing systems are generally associated with As adsorption onto hydrous metal (Al, Fe or Mn) oxides and mobilization with increased pH. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution, sources and mobilization mechanisms of As in the Southern High Plains (SHP) aquifer, Texas, relative to those in other semiarid, oxidizing systems. Elevated groundwater As levels are widespread in the southern part of the SHP (SHP-S) aquifer, with 47% of wells exceeding the current EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 μg/L (range 0.3–164 μg/L), whereas As levels are much lower in the north (SHP-N: 9% ⩾ As MCL of 10 μg/L; range 0.2–43 μg/L). The sharp contrast in As levels between the north and south coincides with a change in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 395 mg/L (median north) to 885 mg/L (median south). Arsenic is present as arsenate (As V) in this oxidizing system and is correlated with groundwater TDS (Spearman’s ρ = 0.57). The most likely current source of As is sorbed As onto hydrous metal oxides based on correlations between As and other oxyanion-forming elements (V, ρ = 0.88; Se, ρ = 0.54; B, ρ = 0.51 and Mo, ρ = 0.46). This source is similar to that in other oxidizing systems and constitutes a secondary source; the most likely primary source being volcanic ashes in the SHP aquifer or original source rocks in the Rockies, based on co-occurrence of As and F (ρ = 0.56), oxyanion-forming elements and SiO2 (ρ = 0.41), which are found in volcanic ashes. High groundwater As concentrations in some semiarid oxidizing systems are related to high evaporation. Although correlation of As with TDS in the SHP aquifer may suggest evaporative concentration, unenriched stable isotopes (δ2H: −65 to −27; δ18O: −9.1 to −4.2) in the SHP aquifer do not support evaporation. High TDS in the SHP aquifer is most likely related to upward movement of saline water from the underlying

  7. The fluoride in the groundwater of Guarani Aquifer System: the origin associated with black shales of Paraná Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M. L.; Vieiro, A. P.; Machado, G.

    2008-09-01

    This work presents petrological and geochemical results of the black shales interval from Permian and Devonian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil and its relationships with fluoride of groundwater from Guarani Aquifer System. The Guarani Aquifer, located in South Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentine, presents contents of fluoride higher than the Brazilian accepted potability limits. Several hypotheses have been presented for the origin of the fluoride in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer. Microcrystalline fluorite was registered in black shales of Ponta Grossa and Irati formations from Paraná Basin. The results shown in this work suggest that fluoride present in groundwater of Guarani Aquifer can be originated in deeper groundwater that circulates in Ponta Grossa and Irati formations. The interaction of the groundwater coming from deeper black shales with the groundwater-bearing Aquifer Guarani System occurs through regional fragile structures (faults and fractures) that constitute excellent hydraulic connectors between the two sedimentary packages. The microcrystalline fluorite registered in Ponta Grossa and Irati Formations can be dissolved promoting fluoride enrichment in groundwater of these black shales and Guarani Aquifer System.

  8. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO_3"− concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ"1"8O, δ"2H) analysis, "3H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO_3"− concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the

  9. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongmei [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cao, Guoliang [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Center for Water Research, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McCallum, James [National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33–521 mg/L) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ{sup 18}O, δ{sup 2}H) analysis, {sup 3}H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from − 8.5 to − 7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92–467 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8–411 years) and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be

  10. Vulnerability and Hydrogeologic Risk of the Guarani Aquifer System in the outcropping area located in Rivera Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, J.; Collazo, P.; Auge, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Project named Vulnerability and Hydrogeologic Risk of the Guarani Aquifer System in the outcropping area located in Rivera, Uruguay is developed by the Faculty of Science University of the Republic, together with the Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires, and it is financed by the Guarani Fund of Universities - Project for the Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development of the Guarani Aquifer System. This project has the aim of researching the characteristics and the hydrogeologic behavior of the Guarani Aquifer in the North portion of Uruguay, Department of Rivera (outcropping area). Moreover, to propose measures directed to their preservation through their sustainable use. The Hydrogeologic Study of the Guarani Aquifer System in this area will contribute not only with the best knowledge in its dynamics, but also helping to take measures in the water management and to avoid potential risks of contamination [es

  11. Impact of lateral flow on the transition from connected to disconnected stream-aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yang; Jin, Menggui; Liu, Yanfeng; Si, Aonan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which stream water infiltrates through streambeds to recharge groundwater systems is essential to sustainable management of scarce water resources in arid and semi-arid areas. An inverted water table (IWT) can develop under a stream in response to the desaturation between the stream and underlying aquifer as the system changes from a connected to disconnected status. However, previous studies have suggested that the IWT can only occur at the bottom of a low permeability streambed in which only the vertical flow between the stream and groundwater during disconnection was assumed. In the present study, numerical simulations revealed that the lateral flow induced by capillarity or heterogeneity also plays an essential role on interactions between streams and aquifers. Three pathways were identified for the transition from connection to disconnection in homogenous systems; notably, the lowest point of an IWT can develop not only at the bottom of the streambed but also within the streambed or the aquifer in response to the initial desaturation at, above, or below the interface between the streambed and aquifer (IBSA), respectively. A sensitivity analysis indicated that in wide streams, the lowest point of an IWT only occurs at the bottom of the streambed; however, for a stream half width of 1 m above a 6 m thick sandy loam streambed, the lowest point occurs in the streambed as stream depth is less than 0.5 m. This critical stream depth increases with streambed thickness and decreases with stream width. Thus, in narrow streams the lowest point can also develop in a thick streambed under a shallow stream. In narrow streams, the lowest point also forms in the aquifer if the ratio of the hydraulic conductivity of the streambed to that of the aquifer is greater than the ratio of the streambed thickness to the sum of the stream depth and the streambed thickness; correspondingly, the streambed is thin but relatively permeable and the stream is

  12. Groundwater quality of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Houston, Texas, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Brown, Dexter W.; Oden, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    During March–December 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Houston, collected source-water samples from 60 municipal supply wells in the Houston area. These data were collected as part of an ongoing study to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring contaminants (selected trace elements and radionuclides) in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the Houston area. In the summers of 2007 and 2008, a reconnaissance-level survey of these constituents in untreated water from 28 municipal supply wells was completed in the Houston area. Included in this report are the complete analytical results for 47 of the 60 samples collected in 2010—those results which were received from the laboratories and reviewed by the authors as of December 31, 2010. All of the wells sampled were screened in the Gulf Coast aquifer system; 22 were screened entirely in the Evangeline aquifer, and the remaining 25 wells contained screened intervals that intersected both Evangeline and Chicot aquifers. The data documented in this report were collected as part of an ongoing study to characterize source-water-quality conditions in untreated groundwater prior to drinking-water treatment. An evaluation of contaminant occurrence in source water provides background information regarding the presence of a contaminant in the environment. Because source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations, the water-quality results documented by this report represent the quality of the source water, not the quality of finished drinking water provided to the public.

  13. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Katz, Brian G.; Welch, Heather L.; Tollett, Roland W.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.

    2015-01-01

    About 8 million people rely on groundwater from the Mississippi embayment—Texas coastal uplands aquifer system for drinking water. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer also provides drinking water for domestic use in rural areas but is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation. Irrigation withdrawals from this aquifer are among the largest in the Nation and play a key role in the economy of the area, where annual crop sales total more than $7 billion. The reliance of the region on both aquifers for drinking water and irrigation highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  14. Straddle-packer aquifer test analyses of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.S.; Frederick, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, with the University of Idaho, Idaho State University, Boise State University, and the Idaho Geologic Survey, used a straddle-packer system to investigate vertical variations in characteristics of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Sixteen single-well aquifer tests were conducted on.isolated intervals in three observation wells. Each of these wells has approximately 200 feet of open borehole below the water table, penetrating the E through G and I basalt flow groups and interbedded sediments of the Snake River Plain aquifer. The success of the aquifer tests was limited by the inability to induce measurable drawdown in several zones. Time-drawdown data from aquifer tests were matched to type curves for 8 of the 16 zones tested. A single aquifer test at the water table exhibited greater curvature than those at depth. The increased degree of curvature suggests an unconfined response and resulted in an estimate of specific yield of 0.03. Aquifer tests below the water table generally yielded time-drawdown graphs with a rapid initial response followed by constant drawdown throughout the duration of the tests; up to several hours in length. The rapid initial response implies that the aquifer responds as a confined system during brief pumping periods. The nearly constant drawdown suggests a secondary source of water, probably vertical flow from overlying and underlying aquifer layers. Three analytical models were applied for comparison to the conceptual model and to provide estimates of aquifer properties. This, Hantush-Jacob leaky aquifer, and the Moench double-porosity fractured rock models were fit to time-drawdown data. The leaky aquifer type curves of Hantush and Jacob generally provided the best match to observed drawdown. A specific capacity regression equation was also used to estimate hydraulic conductivity

  15. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Floridan Aquifer System Near Tampa, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Temple Terrace, Florida, northeast of Tampa. The well selected for study typically produces water at the rate of 700 gallons per minute from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the supply well. Samples of untreated water from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents nitrate, arsenic, uranium, radon-222, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although all were detected at concentrations less than established drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Temple Terrace: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) short-circuiting of contaminated water through sinkholes; (3) natural geochemical processes within the aquifer; and (4) pumping stress. Although the public-supply well is completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer, it produces water with concentrations of nitrate, VOCs, and the natural contaminant radon that are intermediate between the typical composition of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer and that of the overlying surficial aquifer system. Mixing calculations show that the water produced by the public-supply well could consist of upwards of 50 percent water from the surficial aquifer system mixed with water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Anthropogenically affected water from the surficial aquifer system travels rapidly to depth through sinkholes that must be directly connected to the cavernous zone intersected by the public-supply well (and several other production wells in the region). Such solution features serve as fast pathways to the well and circumvent the natural attenuation of nitrate and

  16. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  17. Effects of regional groundwater flow on the performance of an aquifer thermal energy storage system under continuous operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Sang

    2014-01-01

    Numerical investigations and a thermohydraulic evaluation are presented for two-well models of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system operating under a continuous flow regime. A three-dimensional numerical model for groundwater flow and heat transport is used to analyze the thermal energy storage in the aquifer. This study emphasizes the influence of regional groundwater flow on the heat transfer and storage of the system under various operation scenarios. For different parameters of the system, performances were compared in terms of the temperature of recovered water and the temperature field in the aquifer. The calculated temperature at the producing well varies within a certain range throughout the year, reflecting the seasonal (quarterly) temperature variation of the injected water. The pressure gradient across the system, which determines the direction and velocity of regional groundwater flow, has a substantial influence on the convective heat transport and performance of aquifer thermal storage. Injection/production rate and geometrical size of the aquifer used in the model also impact the predicted temperature distribution at each stage and the recovery water temperature. The hydrogeological-thermal simulation is shown to play an integral part in the prediction of performance of processes as complicated as those in ATES systems.

  18. Simulation of saltwater movement in the Floridan aquifer system, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Freshwater to supply Hilton Head Island, S.C., is obtained from the upper permeable zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Long-term pumping at Savannah, Ga., and the steadily increasing pumping on Hilton Head Island, have lowered Upper Floridan heads near the center of the island from about 10 feet above sea level to about 6 to 7 feet below sea level. The seaward hydraulic gradient that existed before pumping began has been reversed, thus increasing the potential for saltwater intrusion. Simulations of predevelopment, recent, and future ground-water flow in the Floridan aquifer system beneath the north end of Hilton Head Island and Port Royal Sound are presented. A finite-element model for fluid-density-dependent ground-water flow and solute transport was used in cross section. The general configuration of the simulated predevelopment flowfield is typical of a coastal aquifer having a seaward gradient in the freshwater. The freshwater flows toward Port Royal Sound over an intruding wedge of saltwater. The simulated flowfield at the end of 1983 shows that ground water in the Floridan aquifer system beneath most of Hilton Head Island has reversed its predevelopment direction and is moving toward Savannah. The distribution of chloride concentrations, based on simulation at the end of 1983, is about the same as the predevelopment distribution of chloride concentrations obtained from simulation. Results of two 50-year simulations from 1983 to 2034 suggest that there will be no significant threat of saltwater intrusion into the upper permeable zone of the Upper Floridan aquifer if heads on Hilton Head Island remain at current levels for the next 45 to 50 years. However, if head decline continues at the historical rate, any flow that presently occurs from the north end of the island toward Port Royal Sound will cease, allowing lateral intrusion of saltwater to proceed. Even under these conditions, chloride concentrations in the upper permeable zone of the Upper Floridan

  19. Application of multivariate statistical analysis and hydrochemical and isotopic investigations for evaluation of groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agriculture purposes: case of Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer, central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, Imen; Hamzaoui-Azaza, Fadoua; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2016-03-01

    Groundwater plays a dominant role in arid regions; it is among the most available water resources in Tunisia. Located in northwestern Tunisia, Oum Ali-Thelepte is a deep Miocene sedimentary aquifer, where groundwater is the most important source of water supply. The aim of the study is to investigate the hydrochemical processes leading to mineralization and to assess water quality with respect to agriculture and drinking for a better management of groundwater resources. To achieve such objectives, water analysis was carried out on 16 groundwater samples collected during January-February 2014. Stable isotopes and 26 hydrochemical parameters were examined. The interpretation of these analytical data showed that the concentrations of major and trace elements were within the permissible level for human use. The distribution of mineral processes in this aquifer was identified using conventional classification techniques, suggesting that the water facies gradually changes from Ca-HCO3 to Mg-SO4 type and are controlled by water-rock interaction. These results were endorsed using multivariate statistical methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The sustainability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation was assessed based on the water quality index (WQI) and on Wilcox and Richards's diagrams. This aquifer has been classified as "excellent water" serving good irrigation in the area. As for the stable isotope, the measurements showed that groundwater samples lay between global meteoric water line (GMWL) and LMWL; hence, this arrangement signifies that the recharge of the Oum Ali-Thelepte aquifer is ensured by rainwater infiltration through mountains in the border of the aquifer without evaporation effects.

  20. Water-quality assessment of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John T.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a regional assessment of groundwater quality of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, based primarily on raw water samples collected by the NAWQA Program during 1995 through 2007. The NAWQA Program has published findings in local study-unit reports encompassing parts of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system. Data collected from the aquifer system were used in national synthesis reports on selected topics such as specific water-quality constituent classes, well type, or aquifer material; however, a synthesis of groundwater quality at the principal aquifer scale has not been completed and is therefore the major purpose of this report. Water samples collected by the NAWQA Program were analyzed for various classes of characteristics including physical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, radionuclides (tritium, radon, and radium), pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Subsequent sections of this report provide discussions on these classes of characteristics. The assessment objectives of this report are to (1) summarize constituent concentrations and compare them to human-health benchmarks and non-health guidelines; (2) determine the geographic distribution of constituent concentrations and relate them to various factors such as confining conditions, well type, land use, and groundwater age; and (3) evaluate near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections. The most recent sample collected from each well by the NAWQA Program was used for most analyses. Near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections were evaluated for selected well networks by using the most recent sample from each well and comparing it to the results from a sample collected 7 or 11 years earlier. Because some of the NAWQA well networks provide a limited areal coverage of the aquifer system, data for raw water samples from other USGS sources and state agencies were included

  1. Hydrogeology in the area of a freshwater lens in the Floridan aquifer system, northeast Seminole County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.; Rohrer, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Northeast Seminole County, Florida, contains an isolated recharge area of the Floridan aquifer system that forms a freshwater lens completely surrounded by saline water. The freshwater lens covers an area of about 22 sq mi surrounding the town of Geneva, and generally is enclosed by the 25 ft land surface altitude contour. Thickness of the lens is about 350 ft in the center of the recharge area. The geohydrologic units in descending order consist of the post-Miocene sand and shell of the surficial aquifer; Miocene clay, sand, clay, and shell that form a leaky confining bed; and permeable Eocene limestones of the Floridan aquifer system. The freshwater lens is the result of local rainfall flushing ancient seawater from the Floridan aquifer system. Sufficient quantities of water for domestic and small public supply systems are available from the Floridan aquifer system in the Geneva area. The limiting factor for water supply in the area is the chemical quality of the water. Chloride concentrations range from recharge area to about 5,100 mg/L near the St. Johns River southeast of Geneva. Constituents analyzed included sulfate (range 1 to 800 mg/L), hardness (range 89 to 2,076 mg/L), and iron (range 34 to 6,600 mg/L). Because the freshwater lens results entirely from local recharge, the long-term sustained freshwater yield of the aquifer in the Geneva area depends on the local recharge rate. In 1982, recharge was about 13 inches (13.8 million gal/day). Average recharge for 1941 through 1970 was estimated to be about 11 inches (11.3 million gal/day). Freshwater that recharges the aquifer in the Geneva area is either pumped out or flows north and northeast to discharge near or in the St. Johns River. Average annual outflow from the lens is about 10 in/yr. No measurable change in the size or location of the freshwater lens has occurred since studies in the early 1950's. (Lantz-PTT)

  2. Geomorphic Controls on Aquifer Geometry in Northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, W. M.; Densmore, A. L.; Sinha, R.; Gupta, S.; Mason, P. J.; Singh, A.; Joshi, S. K.; Nayak, N.; Kumar, M.; Shekhar, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Indo-Gangetic foreland basin suffers from one of the highest rates of groundwater extraction in the world, especially in the Indian states of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. To understand the effects of this extraction on ground water levels, we must first understand the geometry and sedimentary architecture of the aquifer system, which in turn depend upon its geomorphic setting. We use satellite images and digital elevation models to map the geomorphology of the Sutlej and Yamuna river systems, while aquifer geometry is assessed using ~250 wells that extend to ~300 m depth in Punjab and Haryana. The Sutlej and Yamuna rivers have deposited large sedimentary fans at their outlets. Elongate downslope ridges on the fan surfaces form distributary networks that radiate from the Sutlej and Yamuna fan apices, and we interpret these ridges as paleochannel deposits associated with discrete fan lobes. Paleochannels picked out by soil moisture variations illustrate a complex late Quaternary history of channel avulsion and incision, probably associated with variations in monsoon intensity. Aquifer bodies on the Sutlej and Yamuna fans have a median thickness of 7 and 6 m, respectively, and follow a heavy-tailed distribution, probably because of stacked sand bodies. The percentage of aquifer material in individual lithologs decreases downstream, although the exponent on the thickness distribution remains the same, indicating that aquifer bodies decrease in number down fan but do not thin appreciably. Critically, the interfan area between the Sutlej and Yamuna fans has thinner aquifers and a lower proportion of aquifer material, despite its proximal location. Our data show that the Sutlej and Yamuna fan systems form the major aquifer systems in this area, and that their geomorphic setting therefore provides a first-order control on aquifer distribution and geometry. The large spatial heterogeneity of the system must be considered in any future aquifer management scheme.

  3. Strategy for solving semi-analytically three-dimensional transient flow in a coupled N-layer aquifer system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, E.J.M.; Maas, C.

    2008-01-01

    Efficient strategies for solving semi-analytically the transient groundwater head in a coupled N-layer aquifer system phi(i)(r, z, t), i = 1, ..., N, with radial symmetry, with full z-dependency, and partially penetrating wells are presented. Aquitards are treated as aquifers with their own

  4. Hydrogeology, Pesticide DRASTIC for the Intermediate Aquifer. Pesticide DRASTIC coverage for the Intermediate Aquifer System. Drastic maps are most useful as a generalized tool to assess regional potential aquifer vulnerability., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Hydrogeology dataset current as of 1998. Pesticide DRASTIC for the Intermediate Aquifer. Pesticide DRASTIC coverage for the Intermediate Aquifer System. Drastic maps...

  5. Standard technical specifications for Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water reactors. Revision 4. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgilio, M.J.

    1980-10-01

    The Standard Technical Specifications for Babcock and Wilcox Pressurized Water Reactors (BandW-STS) is a generic document prepared by the U.S. NRC for use in the licensing process. The BandW-STS provide applicants with model specifications to be used in formulation plant-specific technical specifications required by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.36, which set forth the specific characteristics of the facility and the conditions for its operation that are required to provide adequate protection to the health and safety of the public. This document is revised periodically to reflect current licensing requirements

  6. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): MIST Facility Functional Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, T.F.; Koksal, C.G.; Moskal, T.E.; Rush, G.C.; Gloudemans, J.R.

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST Functional Specification documents as-built design features, dimensions, instrumentation, and test approach. It also presents the scaling basis for the facility and serves to define the scope of work for the facility design and construction. 13 refs., 112 figs., 38 tabs

  7. Insights from the salinity origins and interconnections of aquifers in a regional scale sedimentary aquifer system (Adour-Garonne district, SW France): Contributions of δ34S and δ18O from dissolved sulfates and the 87Sr/86Sr ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, Agnès; Négrel, Philippe; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Millot, Romain; Malcuit, Eline

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Regional sedimentary aquifer on the Aquitaine Basin (SW France). • Dealing with limited number of groundwater wells available. • Strong control of evaporite dissolution on groundwater dissolved elements. • Guidelines for decision-makers to manage water resources. - Abstract: The multi-layered Eocene aquifer is a regional scale sedimentary aquifer system occupying ∼120,000 km 2 within the Adour-Garonne district (France). Local authorities have recently identified the aquifer as being at risk from extensive irrigation abstractions, threatening the sustainability of this key resource. Because large water abstractions for human activities can significantly influence the natural functioning of such aquifer systems, e.g., with leakage between aquifer layers, which can lead to water quality degradation, the characterization of such large systems constitutes a key point to protect and prevent further deterioration of aquatic ecosystems. This study provides further insight on this large aquifer through a geochemical approach, which addresses the limited number of groundwater wells where sampling is possible. For that purpose, a geochemical analysis combining two isotope systems (δ 34 S SO4 , δ 18 O SO4 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) has been applied. The Eocene sedimentary aquifer system (detrital to carbonate deposits) is made up of four aquifer layers, Eocene Infra-Molassic sand, Early Eocene, Middle Eocene and Late Eocene, and has a mineralized area north of the Aquitaine Basin, where groundwater shows strong mineralization and anomalous levels of critical substances (SO 4 , F, etc.), increasing the difficulty of resource exploitation. The extreme heterogeneity of the geochemical composition of the groundwater between the aquifers and within a single aquifer is discussed in terms of the lithological control induced by the lateral variation of facies and interconnections between aquifer layers. Geochemical tools, especially the δ 34 S and δ 18 O from

  8. Hydrology of aquifer systems in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criner, James H.; Sun, P-C. P.; Nyman, Dale J.

    1964-01-01

    The Memphis area as described in .this report comprises about 1,300 square miles of the Mississippi embayment part of the Gulf Coastal Plain. The area is underlain by as much as 3,000 feet of sediments ranging in age from Cretaceous through Quaternary. In 1960, 150 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was pumped from the principal aquifers. Municipal pumpage accounted for almost half of this amount, and industrial pumpage a little more than half. About 90 percent of the water used in the area is derived from the '500-foot' sand, and most of the remainder is from the ?400-foot' sand; both sands are of Eocene age. A small amount of water for domestic use is pumped from the terrace deposits of Pliocene and Pleistocene age. Both the '500-foot' and the '1,400-foot' sands are artesian aquifers except in the southeastern part of the area; there the water level in wells in the '500-foot' sand is now below the overlying confining clay. Water levels in both aquifers have declined almost continuously since pumping began, but the rate of decline has increased rapidly since 1940. Water-level decline in the '1,400-foot' sand has been less pronounced since 1956. The cones of depression in both aquifers have expanded and deepened as a result of the annual increases in pumping, and an increase in hydraulic gradients has induced a greater flow of water into the area. Approximately 135 mgd entered the Memphis area through the '500-foot' sand aquifer in 1960, and, of this amount, 60 mgd originated as inflow from the east and about 75 mgd was derived from leakage from the terrace deposits, from the north, south, and west and from other sources. Of the water entering the '1,400-foot' sand, about 5 mgd was inflow from the east, and about half that amount was from each of the north, south, and west directions. The average rate of movement of water outside the area of heavy withdrawals is about 70 feet per year in the '500-foot' sand and about 40 feet per year in the '1,400-foot' sand

  9. On the Meaning of Formative Measurement and How It Differs from Reflective Measurement: Comment on Howell, Breivik, and Wilcox (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    D. Howell, E. Breivik, and J. B. Wilcox (2007) have presented an important and interesting analysis of formative measurement and have recommended that researchers abandon such an approach in favor of reflective measurement. The author agrees with their recommendations but disagrees with some of the bases for their conclusions. He suggests that…

  10. Uranium silicide activities at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, W.W.; Freim, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is actively involved in the Reduced Enrichment Research Test Reactor (RERTR) Program to produce low enriched fuel elements for research reactors. B and W and ANL have undertaken a joint effort in which NNFD will fabricate two low enriched uranium (LEU), Oak Ridge Reactor (ORR) elements with uranium silicide fuel furnished by ANL. These elements are being fabricated for irradiation testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Concurrently with this program, NNFD is developing and implementing the uranium silicide and uranium aluminide fuel fabrication technology. NNFD is fabricating the uranium silicide ORR elements in a two-phase program, Development and Production. To summarize: 1. Full size fuel plates can be made with U 3 SiAl but the fabricator must prevent oxidation of the compact prior to hot roll bonding; 2. Providing the ANL U 3 Si x irradiation results are successful, NNFD plans to provide two ORR elements during February 1983; 3. NNFD is developing and implementing U 3 Si x and UAI x fuel fabrication technology to be operational in 1983; 4. NNFD can supply U 3 O 8 high enriched uranium (HEU) or low enriched uranium (LEU) research reactor elements; 5. NNFD is capable of providing high quality, cost competitive LEU or HEU research reactor elements to meet the needs of the customer

  11. Hydrochemical processes in a shallow coal seam gas aquifer and its overlying stream–alluvial system: implications for recharge and inter-aquifer connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvert, Clément; Raiber, Matthias; Owen, Daniel D.R.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Batiot-Guilhe, Christelle; Cox, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Major ions and isotopes used to study inter-aquifer mixing in a shallow CSG setting. • Considerable heterogeneity in the water composition of the coal-bearing aquifer. • Rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks. • Potential mixing between the coal-bearing aquifer and downstream alluvial aquifer. • Need to consider the seasonal influences on inter-aquifer mixing in CSG settings. - Abstract: In areas of potential coal seam gas (CSG) development, understanding interactions between coal-bearing strata and adjacent aquifers and streams is of highest importance, particularly where CSG formations occur at shallow depth. This study tests a combination of hydrochemical and isotopic tracers to investigate the transient nature of hydrochemical processes, inter-aquifer mixing and recharge in a catchment where the coal-bearing aquifer is in direct contact with the alluvial aquifer and surface drainage network. A strong connection was observed between the main stream and underlying alluvium, marked by a similar evolution from fresh Ca–Mg–HCO 3 waters in the headwaters towards brackish Ca–Na–Cl composition near the outlet of the catchment, driven by evaporation and transpiration. In the coal-bearing aquifer, by contrast, considerable site-to-site variations were observed, although waters generally had a Na–HCO 3 –Cl facies and high residual alkalinity values. Increased salinity was controlled by several coexisting processes, including transpiration by plants, mineral weathering and possibly degradation of coal organic matter. Longer residence times and relatively enriched carbon isotopic signatures of the downstream alluvial waters were suggestive of potential interactions with the shallow coal-bearing aquifer. The examination of temporal variations in deuterium excess enabled detection of rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks, particularly at the catchment

  12. Temperature distribution by the effect of groundwater flow in an aquifer thermal energy storage system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, B.

    2005-12-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) can be a cost-effective and renewable energy source, depending on site-specific thermohydraulic conditions. To design an effective ATES system, the understanding of thermohydraulic processes is necessary. The heat transfer phenomena of an aquifer heat storage system are simulated with the scenario of heat pump operation of pumping and waste water reinjection in a two layered confined aquifer model having the effect of groundwater movement. Temperature distribution of the aquifer model is generated, and hydraulic heads and temperature variations are monitored at both wells during simulation days. The average groundwater velocities are determined with two assumed hydraulic gradients set by boundary conditions, and the effect of groundwater flow are shown at the generated thermal distributions at three different depth slices. The generated temperature contour lines at the hydraulic gradient of 0.001 are shaped circular, and the center is moved less than 5 m to the east in 365 days. However at the hydraulic gradient of 0.01, the contour centers of the east well at each depth slice are moved near the east boundary and the movement of temperature distribution is increased at the lower aquifer. By the analysis of thermal interference data between two wells the efficiency of a heat pump operation model is validated, and the variation of heads is monitored at injection, pumping and stabilized state. The thermal efficiency of the ATES system model is represented as highly depended on groundwater flow velocity and direction. Therefore the hydrogeologic condition for the system site should be carefully surveyed.

  13. Numerical modeling of groundwater flow in the coastal aquifer system of Taranto (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a strong development of coastal areas with a high concentration of water-demanding human activities, resulting in weakly controlled withdrawals of groundwater which accentuate the saltwater intrusion phenomenon. The worsening of groundwater quality is a huge problem especially for those regions, like Salento (southern Italy), where a karst aquifer system represents the most important water resource because of the deficiency of a well developed superficial water supply. In this frame, the first 2D numerical model describing the groundwater flow in the karst aquifer of Salento peninsula was developed by Giudici et al. [1] at the regional scale and then improved by De Filippis et al. [2]. In particular, the estimate of the saturated thickness of the deep aquifer highlighted that the Taranto area is particularly sensitive to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion, both for the specific hydrostratigraphic configuration and for the presence of highly water-demanding industrial activities. These remarks motivate a research project which is part of the research program RITMARE (The Italian Research for the Sea), within which a subprogram is specifically dedicated to the problem of the protection and preservation of groundwater quality in Italian coastal aquifers and in particular, among the others, in the Taranto area. In this context, the CINFAI operative unit aims at providing a contribution to the characterization of groundwater in the study area. The specific objectives are: a. the reconstruction of the groundwater dynamic (i.e., the preliminary identification of a conceptual model for the aquifer system and the subsequent modeling of groundwater flow in a multilayered system which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphical point of view); b. the characterization of groundwater outflows through submarine and subaerial springs and the water exchanges with the shallow coastal water bodies (e.g. Mar Piccolo) and the off

  14. Semi-analytical solution of flow to a well in an unconfined-fractured aquifer system separated by an aquitard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Mohammad M.; Samani, Nozar; Barry, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Semi-analytical solutions are presented for flow to a well in an extensive homogeneous and anisotropic unconfined-fractured aquifer system separated by an aquitard. The pumping well is of infinitesimal radius and screened in either the overlying unconfined aquifer or the underlying fractured aquifer. An existing linearization method was used to determine the watertable drainage. The solution was obtained via Laplace and Hankel transforms, with results calculated by numerical inversion. The main findings are presented in the form of non-dimensional drawdown-time curves, as well as scaled sensitivity-dimensionless time curves. The new solution permits determination of the influence of fractures, matrix blocks and watertable drainage parameters on the aquifer drawdown. The effect of the aquitard on the drawdown response of the overlying unconfined aquifer and the underlying fractured aquifer was also explored. The results permit estimation of the unconfined and fractured aquifer hydraulic parameters via type-curve matching or coupling of the solution with a parameter estimation code. The solution can also be used to determine aquifer hydraulic properties from an optimal pumping test set up and duration.

  15. Ground-water flow and saline water in the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds of Virginia Beach, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barry S.

    2003-01-01

    Population and tourism continues to grow in Virginia Beach, Virginia, but the supply of freshwater is limited. A pipeline from Lake Gaston supplies water for northern Virginia Beach, but ground water is widely used to water lawns in the north, and most southern areas of the city rely solely on ground water. Water from depths greater than 60 meters generally is too saline to drink. Concentrations of chloride, iron, and manganese exceed drinking-water standards in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Virginia Beach, Department of Public Utilities, investigated the shallow aquifer system of the southern watersheds to determine the distribution of fresh ground water, its potential uses, and its susceptibility to contamination. Aquifers and confining units of the southern watersheds were delineated and chloride concentrations in the aquifers and confining units were contoured. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model of the shallow aquifer system reached steady state with regard to measured chloride concentrations after 31,550 years of freshwater recharge. Model simulations indicate that if freshwater is found in permeable sediments of the Yorktown-Eastover aquifer, such a well field could supply freshwater, possibly for decades, but eventually the water would become more saline. The rate of saline-water intrusion toward the well field would depend on the rate of pumping, aquifer properties, and on the proximity of the well field to saline water sources. The steady-state, ground-water-flow model also was used to simulate drawdowns around two hypothetical well fields and drawdowns around two hypothetical open-pit mines. The chloride concentrations simulated in the model did not approximate the measured concentrations for some wells, indicating sites where local hydrogeologic units or unit properties do not conform to the simple hydrogeology of the model. The Columbia aquifer, the Yorktown confining unit, and the Yorktown

  16. Multiloop integral system test (MIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloudemans, J.R.

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox-designed plants. MIST was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock and Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The individual tests are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 8 and Volume 11, and are summarized in Volume 1. Inter-group comparisons are addressed in this document, Volume 9. These comparisons are grouped as follows: mapping versus SBLOCA transients, SBLOCA, pump effects, and the effects of noncondensible gases. Appendix A provides an index and description of the microfiched plots for each test, which are enclosed with the corresponding Volumes 2 through 8. 147 figs., 5 tabs

  17. The origin of barium in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system, North Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrik, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the barium occurrence and its origin is made on the basis of the groundwater chemistry study. High Ba content has been detected in the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in the coastal vicinity of the Gulf of Finland in Estonia and St Petersburg. The dissolution of Ba from witherite as the primary source was derived from the analysis of the aqueous solution equilibrium with Ba-related minerals. It is reflected in the chemical composition of groundwater and influenced by the galenite–calcite–fluorite polymetallic mineralization in Vendian sandstones. The dissolution and re-deposition of carbonates and baryte are confirmed by mineral saturation states for an aqueous solution and distribution of other species in the groundwater of the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in North Estonia.

  18. Wells measured for water-levels, unconfined and confined aquifers, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2006 and October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  19. Use of stable and radioactive isotopes in the determination of the recharge rate in Djeffara aquifer system southern Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelisi, R.; Zouari, K.

    2012-12-01

    Southern Tunisia is characterized by the presence of several hydrogeological basins, which extend over Tunisian borders. The Djeffara aquifer is one of the most important aquifer systems n this area and contains several interconnected aquifer levels. Stable (δ 2 H, δ 18 O and δ 13 C) and radioactive isotopes (1 4C , 3 H ) have been used to evaluate recharge mechanisms and groundwater residence time in the Djeffara multi-aquifer. Thesis aquifer presents two compartments, the first one ( west of the Medenine fault system) is unconfined with a well defined isotope fingerprint, the second compartment is deeper and confined multi- tracer results show groundwater of different origins, and ages , and that tectonic features control ground water flows. The unconfined part was mostly recharged during the Holocene. The recharge rates of this aquifer, inferred by 1 4C ages, are variable and could reach 3.5 mm/year. However, stable isotope composition and 1 4 'C content of the confined groundwater indicates carrier recharge during late pelistocene cold periods. (Author)

  20. Potential effects of deepening the St. Johns River navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has proposed dredging a 13-mile reach of the St. Johns River navigation channel in Jacksonville, Florida, deepening it to depths between 50 and 54 feet below North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The dredging operation will remove about 10 feet of sediments from the surficial aquifer system, including limestone in some locations. The limestone unit, which is in the lowermost part of the surficial aquifer system, supplies water to domestic wells in the Jacksonville area. Because of density-driven hydrodynamics of the St. Johns River, saline water from the Atlantic Ocean travels upstream as a saltwater “wedge” along the bottom of the channel, where the limestone is most likely to be exposed by the proposed dredging. A study was conducted to determine the potential effects of navigation channel deepening in the St. Johns River on salinity in the adjacent surficial aquifer system. Simulations were performed with each of four cross-sectional, variable-density groundwater-flow models, developed using SEAWAT, to simulate hypothetical changes in salinity in the surficial aquifer system as a result of dredging. The cross-sectional models were designed to incorporate a range of hydrogeologic conceptualizations to estimate the effect of uncertainty in hydrogeologic properties. The cross-sectional models developed in this study do not necessarily simulate actual projected conditions; instead, the models were used to examine the potential effects of deepening the navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system under a range of plausible hypothetical conditions. Simulated results for modeled conditions indicate that dredging will have little to no effect on salinity variations in areas upstream of currently proposed dredging activities. Results also indicate little to no effect in any part of the surficial aquifer system along the cross section near River Mile 11 or in the water-table unit along the cross

  1. Using artificial sweeteners to identify contamination sources and infiltration zones in a coupled river-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    In shallow or unconfined aquifers the infiltration of contaminated river water might be a major threat to groundwater quality. Thus, the identification of possible contamination sources in coupled surface- and groundwater systems is of paramount importance to ensure water quality. Micropollutants like artificial sweeteners are promising markers for domestic waste water in natural water bodies. Compounds, such as artificial sweeteners, might enter the aquatic environment via discharge of waste water treatment plants, leaky sewer systems or septic tanks and are ubiquitously found in waste water receiving waters. The hereby presented field study aims at the (1) identification of contamination sources and (2) delineation of infiltration zones in a connected river-aquifer system. River bank filtrate in the groundwater body was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using a combined approach of hydrochemical analysis and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame ACE) as waste water markers. The investigated aquifer lies within a mesoscale alpine head water catchment and is used for drinking water production. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of the groundwater flux originates from bank filtrate of a nearby losing stream. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners at the investigated site. The municipal waste water treatment plant was identified as point-source for ACE in the river network. In the aquifer ACE was present in more than 80% of the monitoring wells. In addition, water samples were classified according to their hydrochemical composition, identifying two predominant types of water in the aquifer: (1) groundwater influenced by bank filtrate and (2) groundwater originating from local recharge. In combination with ACE concentrations a third type of water could be discriminated: (3) groundwater influence by bank filtrate but infiltrated prior to the waste water treatment plant. Moreover, the presence of ACE

  2. Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system configuration control board (SCCB) operating procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedure for the System Configuration Control Board (SCCB) performed in support of the Windows Calorimeter Control (WinCal) system. This board will consist of representatives from Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company Babcock and Wilcox Protec, Inc.; and Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. In accordance with agreements for the joint use of the Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Company calorimeters located in the Hanford Site Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nondestructive Assay Laboratory, concurrence regarding changes to the WinCal system will be obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Further, changes to the WinCal software will be communicated to Los Alamos National Laboratory

  3. AQUIFER IN AJAOKUTA, SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-08

    Mar 8, 2005 ... To establish the feasibility of water supply in a basement complex area ofAjaokuta, Southwestern Nigeria, pumping test results were used to investigate the storage properties and groundwater potential of the aquifer. The aquifer system consists of weathered and weathered/fractured zone of decomposed ...

  4. Experimental and economic study of a greenhouse thermal control system using aquifer water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, V.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 008, Punjab (India)]. E-mail: vpsethi68@yahoo.co.in; Sharma, S.K. [Energy Research Centre, Punjab University, Chandigarh 160 017, Punjab (India)

    2007-01-15

    Underground aquifer water is used for thermal control (heating as well as cooling) of a greenhouse in which chilli and capsicum are grown. Year round performance of the designed system is experimentally evaluated and presented. The designed system utilizes the constant temperature aquifer water available on the ground surface at around 24 deg. C (year round) in the agricultural field through deep tubewell used for irrigation purposes for heating a greenhouse in winter nights and cooling in summer days. Experimental performance of the designed system is tested during a full winter as well as for summer conditions. To enhance the efficiency of the system and to improve relative humidity during extreme summer conditions, a simple evaporative cooling process is also added within the same designed system. The experimental results show that the average greenhouse room air temperature is maintained 7-9 deg. C above ambient during winter nights and 6-7 deg. C below ambient in summer days besides decreasing the daily temperature fluctuations inside the greenhouse. Improvement in the average relative humidity during extreme summer conditions is also observed. Technoeconomic analysis of the greenhouse integrated to the designed aquifer coupled cavity flow heat exchanger system (ACCFHES) is also conducted based on the yield of capsicum and chilli crops and compared with those of the greenhouse without any thermal control system and the open field condition yields. An economic comparison of the ACCFHES has also been made with other existing thermal control technologies such as the earth air heat exchanger system, ground air collector, evaporative cooling using foggers and a fan and pad system.

  5. GRACE-Based Analysis of Total Water Storage Trends and Groundwater Fluctuations in the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and Tindouf Aquifer in Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezzaik, K. A.; Milewski, A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal water management practices and strategies, in arid and semi-arid environments, are often hindered by a lack of quantitative and qualitative understanding of hydrological processes. Moreover, progressive overexploitation of groundwater resources to meet agricultural, industrial, and domestic requirements is drawing concern over the sustainability of such exhaustive abstraction levels, especially in environments where groundwater is a major source of water. NASA's GRACE (gravity recovery and climate change experiment) mission, since March 2002, has advanced the understanding of hydrological events, especially groundwater depletion, through integrated measurements and modeling of terrestrial water mass. In this study, GLDAS variables (rainfall rate, evapotranspiration rate, average soil moisture), and TRMM 3B42.V7A precipitation satellite data, were used in combination with 95 GRACE-generated gravitational anomalies maps, to quantify total water storage change (TWSC) and groundwater storage change (GWSC) from January 2003 to December 2010 (excluding June 2003), in the North-Western Sahara Aquifer System (NWSAS) and Tindouf Aquifer System in northwestern Africa. Separately processed and computed GRACE products by JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA), CSR (Center of Space Research, UT Austin), and GFZ (German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam), were used to determine which GRACE dataset(s) best reflect total water storage and ground water changes in northwest Africa. First-order estimates of annual TWSC for NWSAS (JPL: +5.297 BCM; CSR: -5.33 BCM; GFZ: -9.96 BCM) and Tindouf Aquifer System (JPL: +1.217 BCM; CSR: +0.203 BCM; GFZ: +1.019 BCM), were computed using zonal averaging over a span of eight years. Preliminary findings of annual GWSC for NWSAS (JPL: +2.45 BCM; CSR: -2.278 BCM; GFZ: -6.913 BCM) and Tindouf Aquifer System (JPL: +1.108 BCM; CSR: +0.094 BCM; GFZ: +0.910 BCM), were calculating using a water budget approach, parameterized by GLDAS

  6. Summary and evaluation of hydraulic property data available for the Hanford Site upper basalt confined aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1994-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within the upper basalt confined aquifer system. For the past 40 years, hydrologic testing of the upper basalt confined aquifer has been conducted by a number of Hanford Site programs. Hydraulic property estimates are important for evaluating aquifer flow characteristics (i.e., ground-water flow patterns, flow velocity, transport travel time). Presented are the first comprehensive Hanford Site-wide summary of hydraulic properties for the upper basalt confined aquifer system (i.e., the upper Saddle Mountains Basalt). Available hydrologic test data were reevaluated using recently developed diagnostic test analysis methods. A comparison of calculated transmissivity estimates indicates that, for most test results, a general correspondence within a factor of two between reanalysis and previously reported test values was obtained. For a majority of the tests, previously reported values are greater than reanalysis estimates. This overestimation is attributed to a number of factors, including, in many cases, a misapplication of nonleaky confined aquifer analysis methods in previous analysis reports to tests that exhibit leaky confined aquifer response behavior. Results of the test analyses indicate a similar range for transmissivity values for the various hydro-geologic units making up the upper basalt confined aquifer. Approximately 90% of the calculated transmissivity values for upper basalt confined aquifer hydrogeologic units occur within the range of 10 0 to 10 2 m 2 /d, with 65% of the calculated estimate values occurring between 10 1 to 10 2 m 2 d. These summary findings are consistent with the general range of values previously reported for basalt interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds within the Saddle Mountains Basalt

  7. Optimizing Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Systems for Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals (TOrCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a low-energy subsurface water treatment system with the potential of being an important component of sustainable water reuse schemes. Alongside common wastewater contaminants, MAR systems have been shown

  8. Natural dissolved organic matter dynamics in karstic aquifer: O'Leno Sink-Rise system, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    Natural dissolved organic matter (NDOM) dynamics in karstic aquifer remain poorly understood due to the inaccessibility and heterogeneity of the subsurface. Because the Santa Fe River sinks into the Floridan Aquifer and emerges 6 km down gradient, the O'Leno Sink-Rise system in Northern Florida provides an ideal setting to study NDOM transformation in groundwater. Water samples were collected at both high and low temporal resolutions over 3 years from the River Sink, Rise, and a series of shallow and deep wells. Analyses of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, stable isotopic, and spectrophotometry (excitation-emission matrix or EEM) show that reversals of hydrologic head gradient in the conduit and matrix are closely related to the delivery of NDOM to the aquifer. In addition, the relative influence of biotic and abiotic processes varies along spatiotemporal gradients; regions of the aquifer with greatest connectivity to surface water (new NDOM and terminal electron acceptor supply) see the most microbial transformation of NDOM, while those with least connectivity see relatively greater abiotic transformation of NDOM. A source water mixing model was established for the Sink-Rise system using Mg2+ and SO42- concentrations from three end-members identified as allogenic recharge, upwelling deep water, and shallow groundwater of the Upper Floridan Aquifer. Biogeochemical processes were quantified after accounting for changes that occurred due to source water mixing, according to the model. In addition to NDOM remineralization by subsurface microbes which occurred mostly during wet periods, adsorption of NDOM onto aquifer materials as well as release of NDOM from aquifer materials was also observed. During wet periods when DOC-rich conduit water entered the matrix, progressive NDOM remineralization was found along the preferential flow paths from the conduits into the matrices. Both biotic and abiotic NDOM transformation processes were found to control channel

  9. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Floridan aquifer system and effects of Lower Floridan aquifer pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer at Fort Stewart, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John S.; Cherry, Gregory C.; Gonthier, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Test drilling, field investigations, and digital modeling were completed at Fort Stewart, GA, during 2009?2010, to assess the geologic, hydraulic, and water-quality characteristics of the Floridan aquifer system and evaluate the effect of Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA) pumping on the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). This work was performed pursuant to the Georgia Environmental Protection Division interim permitting strategy for new wells completed in the LFA that requires simulation to (1) quantify pumping-induced aquifer leakage from the UFA to LFA, and (2) identify the equivalent rate of UFA pumping that would produce the same maximum drawdown in the UFA that anticipated pumping from LFA well would induce. Field investigation activities included (1) constructing a 1,300-foot (ft) test boring and well completed in the LFA (well 33P028), (2) constructing an observation well in the UFA (well 33P029), (3) collecting drill cuttings and borehole geophysical logs, (4) collecting core samples for analysis of vertical hydraulic conductivity and porosity, (5) conducting flowmeter and packer tests in the open borehole within the UFA and LFA, (6) collecting depth-integrated water samples to assess basic ionic chemistry of various water-bearing zones, and (7) conducting aquifer tests in new LFA and UFA wells to determine hydraulic properties and assess interaquifer leakage. Using data collected at the site and in nearby areas, model simulation was used to assess the effects of LFA pumping on the UFA. Borehole-geophysical and flowmeter data indicate the LFA at Fort Stewart consists of limestone and dolomitic limestone between depths of 912 and 1,250 ft. Flowmeter data indicate the presence of three permeable zones at depth intervals of 912-947, 1,090-1,139, and 1,211?1,250 ft. LFA well 33P028 received 50 percent of the pumped volume from the uppermost permeable zone, and about 18 and 32 percent of the pumped volume from the middle and lowest permeable zones, respectively. Chemical

  10. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Silurian-Devonian aquifer system, Johnson County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Patrick; McKay, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Bedrock of Silurian and Devonian age (termed the “Silurian-Devonian aquifer system”) is the primary source of ground water for Johnson County in east-central Iowa. Population growth within municipal and suburban areas of the county has resulted in increased amounts of water withdrawn from this aquifer and water-level declines in some areas. A 3-year study of the hydrogeology of the Silurian-Devonian aquifer system in Johnson County was undertaken to provide a quantitative assessment of ground water resources and to construct a ground-water flow model that can be used by local governmental agencies as a management tool.

  11. Application of groundwater residence time tracers and broad screening for micro-organic contaminants in the Indo-Gangetic aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, Dan; Das, Prerona; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Petersen, Jade; Gooddy, Daren; Krishan, Gopal

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater abstracted from aquifers underlying urban centres across India provide a vital source of domestic water. Abstraction from municipal and private supplies is considerable and growing rapidly with ever increasing demand for water from expanding urban populations. This trend is set to continue. The vulnerability of deeper aquifers (typically >100 m below ground) used for domestic water to contamination migration from often heavily contaminated shallow aquifer systems has not been studies in detail in India. This paper focusses on the occurrence of micro-organic contaminants within sedimentary aquifers beneath urban centres which are intensively pumped for drinking water and domestic use. New preliminary results from a detailed case study undertaken across Varanasi, a city with an estimated population of ca. 1.5 million in Uttar Pradesh. Micro -organic groundwater quality status and evolution with depth is investigated through selection of paired shallow and deep sites across the city. These results are considered within the context of paired groundwater residence time tracers within the top 150m within the sedimentary aquifer system. Groundwater emerging contaminant results are compared with surface water quality from the Ganges which is also used for drinking water supply. Broad screening for >800 micro-organic compounds was undertaken. Age dating tools were employed to constrain and inform a conceptual model of groundwater recharge and contaminant evolution within the sedimentary aquifer system.

  12. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, M., E-mail: mmusgrov@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Opsahl, S.P. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Mahler, B.J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Herrington, C. [City of Austin Watershed Protection Department, Austin, TX 78704 (United States); Sample, T.L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 19241 David Memorial Dr., Ste. 180, Conroe, TX 77385 (United States); Banta, J.R. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO{sub 3}{sup −} stable isotopes (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO{sub 3}{sup −}. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO{sub 3}{sup −} contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −} than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates

  13. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, M.; Opsahl, S.P.; Mahler, B.J.; Herrington, C.; Sample, T.L.; Banta, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO 3 − ) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO 3 − in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO 3 − stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 18 O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO 3 − concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO 3 − concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO 3 − concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO 3 − . These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO 3 − contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO 3 − than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a

  14. Changes in the water-table altitude of the unconfined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2006 to October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  15. Changes in the potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer, Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho, October 2006 to October 2012.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established...

  16. Summary and evaluation of available hydraulic property data for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, P.D.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1992-11-01

    Improving the hydrologic characterization of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system is one of the objectives of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project. To help meet this objective, hydraulic property data available for the aquifer have been compiled, mainly from reports published over the past 40 years. Most of the available hydraulic property estimates are based on constant-rate pumping tests of wells. Slug tests have also been conducted at some wells and analyzed to determine hydraulic properties. Other methods that have been used to estimate hydraulic properties of the unconfined aquifer are observations of water-level changes in response to river stage, analysis of ground-water mound formation, tracer tests, and inverse groundwater flow models

  17. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  18. Calculation of particulate dispersion in a design-basis tornadic storm from the Babcock and Wilcox Plant, Leechburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1978-03-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is used to calculate ground-level air concentration and deposition (due to precipitation scavenging) after a hypothetical tornado strike at the Babcock and Wilcox Plutonium Fabrication Facility at Leechburg, Pennsylvania. Plutonium particles lss than 20 ..mu..m in diameter are assumed to be lifted into the tornadic storm cell by the vortex. The rotational characteristics of the tornadic storm are embedded within the larger mesoscale flow of the storm system. The design-basis translational wind values are based on probabilities associated with existing records of tornado strikes in the vicinity of the plant site. Turbulence exchange coefficients are based on empirical values deduced from experimental data in severe storms and from theoretical assumptions obtained from the literature. The quasi-Lagrangian method of moments is used to model the transport of concentration within a grid cell volume.

  19. Calculation of particulate dispersion in a design-basis tornadic storm from the Babcock and Wilcox Plant, Leechburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1978-03-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is used to calculate ground-level air concentration and deposition (due to precipitation scavenging) after a hypothetical tornado strike at the Babcock and Wilcox Plutonium Fabrication Facility at Leechburg, Pennsylvania. Plutonium particles lss than 20 μm in diameter are assumed to be lifted into the tornadic storm cell by the vortex. The rotational characteristics of the tornadic storm are embedded within the larger mesoscale flow of the storm system. The design-basis translational wind values are based on probabilities associated with existing records of tornado strikes in the vicinity of the plant site. Turbulence exchange coefficients are based on empirical values deduced from experimental data in severe storms and from theoretical assumptions obtained from the literature. The quasi-Lagrangian method of moments is used to model the transport of concentration within a grid cell volume

  20. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33-521mg/L) in NO3(-) concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) analysis, (3)H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from -8.5 to -7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92-467years) and the NO3(-) concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8-411years) and the NO3(-) concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the complex carbonate

  1. Characterization of aquifer heterogeneity in a complex fluvial hydrogeologic system to evaluate migration in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, F.G.; Pavlik, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogeology and extent of ground water contamination were characterized at a site in northern California. Wood preserving compounds, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote, have been detected in the soil and ground water. A plume of dissolved PCP up to 1.5 miles long has been identified south of the plant. The aquifer consists of a complex multizonal system of permeable gravels and sands composed of units from four geologic formations deposited by the ancestral Feather River. Fluvial channel gravels form the principal aquifer zones and contain overbank clay and silt deposits which locally form clay lenses or more continuous aquitards. The geometric mean horizontal hydraulic conductivities for channel gravels range between 120 to 530 feet/day. Mean vertical aquitard hydraulic conductivity is 0.07 feet/day. Ground water flow is generally southward with a velocity ranging from 470 to 1000 feet/year. The spatial distribution of dissolved PCP in the aquifer documents the interactions between major permeable zones. Hydrostratigraphic evidence pointing to the separation of aquifer zones is supported by the major ion chemistry of ground water. The sodium and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate-rich water present in the upper aquifer zones is significantly different in chemical composition from the predominantly sodium chloride-rich water present in the deeper permeable zone. This indicates that hydrodynamic separation exists between the upper and lower zones of the aquifer, limiting the vertical movement of the PCP plume. A numerical ground water model, based on this conceptual hydrogeologic model, was developed to evaluate groundwater transport pathways and for use in the design of a ground water extraction and treatment system. (9 refs., 7 figs., tab.)

  2. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium

  3. Developing sustainable management scenarios for Saharan and Arabian aquifer systems using GRACE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sultan, M.; Save, H.

    2016-12-01

    Three sources (CSR and JPL Mascons solutions; CSR spherical harmonic fields) of monthly (04/2002 to 03/2016) GRACE-derived TWS estimates were used to develop sustainable utilization scenarios for Saharan and Arabian aquifer systems. These aquifer systems include the Saq Aquifer System in Saudi Arabia (SAS; area: 0.46×106 km2), Nubian Aquifer System in Egypt (NAS; area: 0.66×106 km2), and the Northwestern Saharan Aquifer System in Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya (NWSAS; area: 1.2×106 km2). Piecewise trend analysis of GRACE-derived TWS time series over SAS showed steady-state TWS conditions (0.47 mm/yr; 0.22 km3/yr) during 2002-2006 (Stage I), significant TWS depletion (-13.36 mm/yr; -6.15 km3/yr) during 2006-2012 (Stage II), and signs of replenishment (-3.00 mm/yr; -1.60 km3/yr) during 2012-2016 (Stage III). The pronounced depletion in Stage II is largely related to excessive groundwater extraction mainly for irrigation purposes (2006: irrigated areas/extraction: 502,338 hectare/8.4 km3/yr) compared to those reported in Stage III (2015: irrigated areas/extraction: 326,719 hectare/7.9 km3/yr). Sustainable utilization of SAS waters can be achieved if extraction is reduced to 7.7 km3/yr. The NWSAS showed steady-state conditions (0.02 mm/yr; 0.02 km3/yr) during the 2002-2006 period followed by significant TWS depletions (-4.90 mm/yr; -5.85 km3/yr) due to progressive increase in groundwater extraction (1970: 0.6 km3/yr; 2000: 2.5 km3/yr; 2010: 3 km3/yr). Sustainable utilization of the NWSAS can be achieved if extraction is reduced to 2.5 km3/yr. Trend analysis of GRACE-derived TWS time series over NAS reveals a good correspondence with fluctuations in Lake Nasser Levels (LNL) (2002-2007: LNL/TWS: 177 m/-2.72 mm/yr; 2008-2012: LNL/TWS: 175 m/-7.35 mm/yr; 2013-2016: LNL/TWS: 179 m/11.35 mm/yr) suggesting a causal effect. Given that the average annual (04/2002 to 03/2016) depletion in TWS is -3.24 mm/yr (-2.13 km3/yr), and the average annual extraction is 2.50 km3/yr, we

  4. Subsidence Modeling of the Over-exploited Granular Aquifer System in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Rojas, D. E.; Pacheco, J.; Wdowinski, S.; Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Albino, F.

    2017-12-01

    The valley of Aguascalientes in central Mexico experiences subsidence rates of up to 100 [mm/yr] due to overexploitation of its aquifer system, as revealed from satellite-based geodetic observations. The spatial pattern of the subsidence over the valley is inhomogeneous and affected by shallow faulting. The understanding of the subsoil mechanics is still limited. A better understanding of the subsidence process in Aguascalientes is needed to provide insights for future subsidence in the valley. We present here a displacement-constrained finite-element subsidence model, based on the USGS MODFLOW software. The construction of our model relies on 3 main inputs: (1) groundwater level time series obtained from extraction wells' hydrographs, (2) subsurface lithostratigraphy interpreted from well drilling logs, and (3) hydrogeological parameters obtained from field pumping tests. The groundwater level measurements were converted to pore pressure in our model's layers, and used in Terzaghi's equation for calculating effective stress. We then used the effective stress along with the displacement obtained from geodetic observations to constrain and optimize five geo-mechanical parameters: compression ratio, reloading ratio, secondary compression index, over consolidation ratio, and consolidation coefficient. Finally, we use the NEN-Bjerrum linear stress model formulation for settlements to determine elastic and visco-plastic strain, accounting for the aquifer system units' aging effect. Preliminary results show higher compaction response in clay-saturated intervals (i.e. aquitards) of the aquifer system, as reflected in the spatial pattern of the surface deformation. The forecasted subsidence for our proposed scenarios show a much more pronounced deformation when we consider higher groundwater extraction regimes.

  5. Characterization of the lowland coastal aquifer of Comacchio (Ferrara, Italy): Hydrology, hydrochemistry and evolution of the system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, B. M. S.; Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.; Fidelibus, M. D.

    2013-09-01

    This study delineates the actual hydrogeochemistry and the geological evolution of an unconfined coastal aquifer located in a lowland setting in order to understand the drivers of the groundwater salinization. Physical aquifer parameterization highlights a vertical hydraulic gradient due to the presence of a heavy drainage system, which controls the hydrodynamics of this coastal area, forcing groundwater to flow from the bottom toward the top of the aquifer. As a consequence, relict seawater in stable density stratification, preserved within low permeability sediments in the deepest portion of the aquifer, has been drawn upward. The hydrogeochemical investigations allow identifying the role of seepage and water-sediment interactions in the aquifer salinization process and in the modification of groundwater chemistry. Mixing between freshwater and saltwater occurs; however, it is neither the only nor the dominant process driving groundwater hydrochemistry. In the aquifer several concurring and competing water-sediment interactions - as NaCl solution, ion-exchange, calcite and dolomite dissolution/precipitation, oxidation of organic matter, and sulfate bacterial reduction - are triggered by or overlap freshwater-saltwater mixing The hyper-salinity found in the deepest portion of the aquifer cannot be associated with present seawater intrusion, but suggests the presence of salt water of marine origin, which was trapped in the inter-basin during the Holocene transgression. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of groundwater dynamics and salinization processes in this lowland coastal aquifer.

  6. Isotopic study of the Continental Intercalaire aquifer and its relationship with other aquifers of the northern Sahara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonfiantini, R.; Sauzay, G.; Payne, B.R.; Conrad, G.; Fontes, J.Ch.

    1974-01-01

    The Northern Sahara contains several aquifers, the largest of which is that of the Continental Intercalaire formations. In its eastern part the aquifer is confined and presents a very homogeneous isotopic composition. The 14 C activity is low or zero except in the outcrop zones of the north (Saharan Atlas), the east (Dahar) and the south (Tinrhert), all of which are recharge zones. In these areas the isotopic composition does not differ appreciably from that of the old water in the confined part of the aquifer. In the western part, where the reservoir outcrops widely, the 14 C activities show the extent of the local recharge. The heavy isotope content indicates the overflow of the surface aquifer of the western Grand Erg into the Continental Intercalaire over the whole Gourara front. The mixtures thus formed pass under the Tademait and drain towards the Touat. In the resurgence zone of the Gulf of G abes in Tunisia the heavy-isotope content confirms the recharging of the aquifer of the Complex terminal by drainage of water from the Continental Intercalaire through the El-Hamma fault system. The water then runs eastwards, mixing with local contributions. The marine Miocene confined aquifer of Zarzis-Djerba in the Gulf of Gabes receives no contribution from the Continental Intercalaire. The water in the aquifer of the western Grand Erg indicates an evaporation mechanism, probably peculiar to the dune systems, which gives rise to heavy-isotope enrichment compared with the recharge of other types of formations. (author) [fr

  7. Multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) for optimal locations of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, P; Kallioras, A; Pizpikis, Th; Vasileiou, E; Ilia, I; Pliakas, F

    2017-12-15

    Managed Aquifer Recharge is a wide-spread well-established groundwater engineering method which is largely seen as sound and sustainable solution to water scarcity hydrologically sensitive areas, such as the Circum Mediterranean. The process of site selection for the installation of a MAR facility is of paramount importance for the feasibility and effectiveness of the project itself, especially when the facility will include the use of waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, as in the case of Soil-Aquifer-Treatment systems. The main objective of this study is to present the developed framework of a multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) that integrates within a dynamic platform the main groundwater engineering parameters associated with MAR applications together with the general geographical features which determine the effectiveness of such a project. The proposed system will provide an advanced coupled DSS-GIS tool capable of handling local MAR-related issues -such as hydrogeology, topography, soil, climate etc., and spatially distributed variables -such as societal, economic, administrative, legislative etc., with special reference to Soil-Aquifer-Treatment technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of deep groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer of the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Li; Peng, Wei-Hua; Gui, He-Rong

    2016-04-01

    There is little information available about the hydrochemical characteristics of deep groundwater in the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China. In this study, we report information about the physicochemical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals of 17 groundwater samples that were collected from the coal-bearing aquifer. The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and potassium and sodium (K(+) + Na(+)) in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Chinese National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749-2006). The groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer was dominated by the HCO3·Cl-K + Na and HCO3·SO4-K + Na types. Analysis with a Gibbs plot suggested that the major ion chemistry of the groundwater was primarily controlled by weathering of rocks and that the coal-bearing aquifer in the Linhuan coal-mining district was a relatively closed system. K(+) and Na(+) originated from halite and silicate weathering reactions, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) originated from the dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum or anhydrite. Ion exchange reactions also had an influence on the formation of major ions in groundwater. The concentrations of selected heavy metals decreased in the order Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were low; however, the Cr, Mn, and Ni concentrations in some of the groundwater samples exceeded the standards outlined by the WHO, the GB 5749-2006, and the Chinese National Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93). Analysis by various indices (% Na, SAR, and EC), a USSL diagram, and a Wilcox diagram showed that both the salinity and alkalinity of the groundwater were high, such that the groundwater could not be used for irrigating agricultural land without treatment. These results will be significant for water resource exploiting and utilization in

  9. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mariina Hiiob; Enn Karro

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight diffe...

  10. Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lester J.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2015-01-01

    Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program. The dataset contains structural surfaces depicting the top and base of the aquifer system, its major and minor hydrogeologic units and zones, geophysical marker horizons, and the altitude of the 10,000-milligram-per-liter total dissolved solids boundary that defines the approximate fresh and saline parts of the aquifer system. The thicknesses of selected major and minor units or zones were determined by interpolating points of known thickness or from raster surface subtraction of the structural surfaces. Additional data contained include clipping polygons; regional polygon features that represent geologic or hydrogeologic aspects of the aquifers and the minor units or zones; data points used in the interpolation; and polygon and line features that represent faults, boundaries, and other features in the aquifer system.

  11. Colloid generation and solid-liquid distribution of transuranic elements in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Rommel, H.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviour of transuranic elements in the presence of their pseudocolloids has been investigated in deep geological aquifer systems at Gorleben area. The generation of transuranic colloids and their influence on the determination of distribution coefficients in a laboratory experimental system are evaluated quantitatively. Discussion is made on the possible extrapolation of laboratory results to natural systems. (orig.)

  12. Assessing the efficiency of a coastal Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) system in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Dokou, Zoi; Christodoulou, George; Gaganis, Petros; Karatzas, George

    2018-06-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is becoming an attractive water management option, with more than 223 sites operating in European countries. The quality of the produced water, available for drinking or irrigation processes is strongly depended on the aquifer's hydrogeochemical characteristics and on the MAR system design and operation. The objective of this project is the assessment of the operation efficiency of a MAR system in Cyprus. The coupling of alternative methodologies is used such as water quality monitoring, micro-scale sediment sorption experiments, simulation of groundwater flow and phosphate and copper transport in the subsurface using the FEFLOW model and evaluation of the observed change in the chemical composition of water due to mixing using the geochemical model PHREEQC. The above methodology is tested in the Ezousa MAR project in Cyprus, where treated effluent from the Paphos Waste Water Treatment Plant, is recharged into the aquifer through five sets of artificial ponds along the riverbed. Additionally, groundwater is pumped for irrigation purposes from wells located nearby. A slight attenuation of nutrients is observed, whereas copper in groundwater is overcoming the EPA standards. The FEFLOW simulations reveal no effective mixing in some intermediate infiltration ponds, which is validated by the inverse modeling simulation of the PHREEQC model. Based on the results, better control of the infiltration capacity of some of the ponds and increased travel times are some suggestions that could improve the efficiency of the system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Results from a workshop on research needs for modeling aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, M. K.

    1990-08-01

    A workshop an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system modeling was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of the workshop was to develop a list of high priority research activities that would facilitate the commercial success of ATES. During the workshop, participants reviewed currently available modeling tools for ATES systems and produced a list of significant issues related to modeling ATES systems. Participants assigned a priority to each issue on the list by voting and developed a list of research needs for each of four high-priority research areas; the need for a feasibility study model, the need for engineering design models, the need for aquifer characterization, and the need for an economic model. The workshop participants concluded that ATES commercialization can be accelerated by aggressive development of ATES modeling tools and made specific recommendations for that development.

  14. Geochemistry of the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Scott; Hunt, Andrew G.; Parkhurst, David L.; Osborn, Noel I.

    2009-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. A new understanding of the aquifer flow system was developed as part of the Arbuckle-Simpson Hydrology Study, done in 2003 through 2008 as a collaborative research project between the State of Oklahoma and the Federal government. The U.S. Geological Survey collected 36 water samples from 32 wells and springs in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in 2004 through 2006 for geochemical analyses of major ions, trace elements, isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, dissolved gases, and dating tracers. The geochemical analyses were used to characterize the water quality in the aquifer, to describe the origin and movement of ground water from recharge areas to discharge at wells and springs, and to determine the age of water in the aquifer.

  15. A passive heat tracer experiment to determine the seasonal variation in residence times in a managed aquifer recharge system with DTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    des Tombe, B.F.; Bakker, M.; Schaars, F; van der Made, KJ; Calje, R; Borst, L.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted provisional session N°8.01 The seasonal variation in residence times is determined in a managed aquifer recharge system using a passive heat tracer test. The managed aquifer recharge system consists of a sequence of alternating elongated recharge basins and rows of recovery wells. The

  16. Three-dimensional chemical structure of the INEL aquifer system near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, M.; Estes, M.; Fromm, J.; Welhan, J.; Barrash, W.

    1994-01-01

    Sampling and analysis from the Snake River Plain aquifer using a stainless-steel and teflon constructed straddle-packer system has established detailed vertical profiles of aquifer chemistry from three wells near a major source of low-level waste injection at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Multiple intervals, varying from 4.6 to 6.1 m in length, were sampled between the water table (140.5 mbls - meters below land surface), and approximately 200 mbls to obtain a wide spectrum of metals, anions, radiological and organic components analyses. Measurements were also made at the well sites of important transient parameters (T, Eh, Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ , DO and SC). The principal purpose of this ongoing work is to improve our understanding of the third (i.e. vertical) dimension of aquifer chemistry at the INEL as a basis for critically evaluating site-wide monitoring procedures, and, ultimately, for improving fate and transport models for aquifer contaminants within basalt-hosted aquifers. Chemical and radiological data indicates that substantial systematic vertical and lateral variations occur in the aquifer hydrochemistry - in particular for conservative radiological nuclide concentrations. Radiological data define a three-layered zonation. Ground water within upper and lower zones contain up to 10 times higher concentrations of H-3 and I-129 than in the middle zone. Sr-90 activity is decoupled from H-3 and I-129-relatively high activity was detected within the upper zone nearest the ICPP, but activities elsewhere are very low. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Hydrochemical study of Drean–Annaba aquifer system (NE Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayad Lamine

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is subject to frequent changes in the Drean-Annaba alluvium aquifer. Water-rock interaction can not be the only process that produces the observed modification, but dryness that the country knew during the last two decades has highly contributed to the water quality changes. During this period, irregularities in the distribution of rainfalls, in time and space, have been observed. As a result, a periodicity in hydrochemical changes in water of wells and rivers is noticed. Statistical, the principals components analysis (PCA tools and Tickel diagram have been used to show, through chemical presentation, these effects. The results show, indeed, seasonal changes of water quality for the period 1999-2000. From a cationic point of view, a competition between alkaline and alkaline earths is shown. On the other hand, from an anionic point of view, there is a transition from chlorides to sulphates and may be to bicarbonates. The present work was carried out in a relatively small area and this was useful to show the relationship that existed between dryness and water quality of both the aquifer system and surface water.

  18. Semi-analytical solutions for flow to a well in an unconfined-fractured aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedghi, Mohammad M.; Samani, Nozar

    2015-09-01

    Semi-analytical solutions of flow to a well in an unconfined single porosity aquifer underlain by a fractured double porosity aquifer, both of infinite radial extent, are obtained. The upper aquifer is pumped at a constant rate from a pumping well of infinitesimal radius. The solutions are obtained via Laplace and Hankel transforms and are then numerically inverted to time domain solutions using the de Hoog et al. algorithm and Gaussian quadrature. The results are presented in the form of dimensionless type curves. The solution takes into account the effects of pumping well partial penetration, water table with instantaneous drainage, leakage with storage in the lower aquifer into the upper aquifer, and storativity and hydraulic conductivity of both fractures and matrix blocks. Both spheres and slab-shaped matrix blocks are considered. The effects of the underlying fractured aquifer hydraulic parameters on the dimensionless drawdown produced by the pumping well in the overlying unconfined aquifer are examined. The presented solution can be used to estimate hydraulic parameters of the unconfined and the underlying fractured aquifer by type curve matching techniques or with automated optimization algorithms. Errors arising from ignoring the underlying fractured aquifer in the drawdown distribution in the unconfined aquifer are also investigated.

  19. Identifying functional zones of denitrification in heterogeneous aquifer systems by numerical simulations - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, E.; Kalbacher, T.; He, W.; Shao, H.; Schueth, C.; Kolditz, O.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate contamination in shallow groundwater is still one of the common problems in many countries. Because of its high solubility and anionic nature, nitrate can easily leach through soil and persist in groundwater for decades. High nitrate concentration has been suggested as a major cause of accelerated eutrophication, methemoglobinemia and gastric cancer. There are several factors influencing the fate of nitrate in groundwater system, which is e.g. distribution of N- sources to soil and groundwater, distribution and amount of reactive substances maintaining denitrification, rate of nitrate degradation and its kinetics, and geological characteristics of the aquifer. Nitrate transport and redox transformation processes are closely linked to complex and spatially distributed physical and chemical interaction, therefore it is difficult to predict and quantify in the field and laboratory experiment. Models can play a key role in elucidation of nitrate reduction pathway in groundwater system and in the design and evaluation of field tests to investigate in situ remediation technologies as well. The goal of the current study is to predict groundwater vulnerability to nitrate, to identify functional zones of denitrification in heterogeneous aquifer systems and to describe the uncertainty of the predictions due to scale effects. For this aim, we developed a kinetic model using multi-component mass transport code OpenGeoSys coupling with IPhreeqc module of the geochemical solver PHREEQC. The developed model included sequential aerobic and nitrate-based respiration, multi-Monod kinetics, multi-species biogeochemical reactions, and geological characteristics of the groundwater aquifer. Moreover water-rock interaction such as secondary mineral precipitation was also included in this model. In this presentation, we focused on the general modelling approach and present the simulation results of nitrate transport simulation in a hypothetical aquifer systems based on data from

  20. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  1. Assessing the vulnerability of public-supply wells to contamination--Glacial aquifer system in Woodbury, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Brown, Craig J.; Starn, J. Jeffrey; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Woodbury, Connecticut. The well typically produces water at the rate of 72 gallons per minute from the glacial aquifer system in the Pomperaug River Basin. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the supply well. Samples of untreated water from the public-supply wellhead contained several types of undesirable constituents, including 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrate, pesticides, uranium, and radon. Most of these constituents were detected at concentrations below drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Only concentrations of the VOC trichlorethylene exceeded the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 micrograms per liter (ug/L) established by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Radon concentrations exceeded a proposed-but not finalized-MCL of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Overall, the study findings point to four main factors that affect the movement and fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Woodbury: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) the percentage of recharge received through urban areas; (3) the percentage of recharge received through dry wells and their proximity to the public-supply well; and (4) natural geochemical processes occurring within the aquifer system; that is, processes that affect the amounts and distribution of chemical substances in aquifer sediments and groundwater. A computer-model simulation of groundwater flow to the public-supply well was used to estimate the age of water particles entering the well along the length of the well screen. About 90 percent of the simulated flow to the well consists of water that entered the aquifer 9 or fewer years ago. Such young water is vulnerable to contaminants resulting from human activities

  2. Heterogeneous carbonaceous matter in sedimentary rock lithocomponents causes significant trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption in a low organic carbon content aquifer/aquitard system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Zimmerman, Lisa R; Allen-King, Richelle M; Ligouis, Bertrand; Feenstra, Stanley

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the effects of heterogeneous thermally altered carbonaceous matter (CM) on trichloroethylene (TCE) sorption for a low fraction organic carbon content (foc) alluvial sedimentary aquifer and aquitard system (foc=0.046-0.105%). The equilibrium TCE sorption isotherms were highly nonlinear with Freundlich exponents of 0.46-0.58. Kerogen+black carbon was the dominant CM fraction extracted from the sediments and accounted for >60% and 99% of the total in the sands and silt, respectively. Organic petrological examination determined that the kerogen included abundant amorphous organic matter (bituminite), likely of marine origin. The dark calcareous siltstone exhibited the greatest TCE sorption among aquifer lithocomponents and accounted for most sorption in the aquifer. The results suggest that the source of the thermally altered CM, which causes nonlinear sorption, was derived from parent Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks that outcrop throughout much of New York State. A synthetic aquifer-aquitard unit system (10% aquitard) was used to illustrate the effect of the observed nonlinear sorption on mass storage potential at equilibrium. The calculation showed that >80% of TCE mass contained in the aquifer was sorbed on the aquifer sediment at aqueous concentration TCE groundwater plume in the aquifer studied. It is implied that sorption may similarly contribute to TCE persistence in other glacial alluvial aquifers with similar geologic characteristics, i.e., comprised of sedimentary rock lithocomponents that contain thermally altered CM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Employing Eigenvalue Ratios to Generate Prior Fracture-like Features for Stochastic Hydrogeophysical Characterization of a Fractured Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, J.; Oware, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater hosted in fractured rocks constitutes almost 65% of the principal aquifers in the US. The exploitation and contaminant management of fractured aquifers require fracture flow and transport modeling, which in turn requires a detailed understanding of the structure of the aquifer. The widely used equivalent porous medium approach to modeling fractured aquifer systems is inadequate to accurately predict fracture transport processes due to the averaging of the sharp lithological contrast between the matrix and the fractures. The potential of geophysical imaging (GI) to estimate spatially continuous subsurface profiles in a minimally invasive fashion is well proven. Conventional deterministic GI strategies, however, produce geologically unrealistic, smoothed-out results due to commonly enforced smoothing constraints. Stochastic GI of fractured aquifers is becoming increasing appealing due to its ability to recover realistic fracture features while providing multiple likely realizations that enable uncertainty assessment. Generating prior spatial features consistent with the expected target structures is crucial in stochastic imaging. We propose to utilize eigenvalue ratios to resolve the elongated fracture features expected in a fractured aquifer system. Eigenvalues capture the major and minor directions of variability in a region, which can be employed to evaluate shape descriptors, such as eccentricity (elongation) and orientation of features in the region. Eccentricity ranges from zero to one, representing a circularly sharped to a line feature, respectively. Here, we apply eigenvalue ratios to define a joint objective parameter consisting of eccentricity (shape) and direction terms to guide the generation of prior fracture-like features in some predefined principal directions for stochastic GI. Preliminary unconditional, synthetic experiments reveal the potential of the algorithm to simulate prior fracture-like features. We illustrate the strategy with a

  4. Preliminary delineation of natural geochemical reactions, Snake River Plain aquifer system, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and vicinity, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Orr, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a study to determine the natural geochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer system at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. As part of this study, a group of geochemical reactions that partially control the natural chemistry of ground water at the INEL were identified. Mineralogy of the aquifer matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thin-section analysis and theoretical stabilities of the minerals were used to identify potential solid-phase reactants and products of the reactions. The reactants and products that have an important contribution to the natural geochemistry include labradorite, olivine, pyroxene, smectite, calcite, ferric oxyhydroxide, and several silica phases. To further identify the reactions, analyses of 22 representative water samples from sites tapping the Snake River Plain aquifer system were used to determine the thermodynamic condition of the ground water relative to the minerals in the framework of the aquifer system. Principal reactions modifying the natural geochemical system include congruent dissolution of olivine, diopside, amorphous silica, and anhydrite; incongruent dissolution of labradorite with calcium montmorillonite as a residual product; precipitation of calcite and ferric oxyhydroxide; and oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron. Cation exchange reactions retard the downward movement of heavy, multivalent waste constituents where infiltration ponds are used for waste disposal

  5. What Drives Saline Circulation Cells in Coastal Aquifers? An Energy Balance for Density-Driven Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C. F.; Michael, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We formulate the energy balance for coastal groundwater systems and apply it to: (1) Explain the energy driving offshore saline circulation cells, and; (2) Assess the accuracy of numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems. The flow of fresh groundwater to the ocean is driven by the loss of potential energy as groundwater drops from the elevation of the inland watertable, where recharge occurs, to discharge at sea level. This freshwater flow creates an underlying circulation cell of seawater, drawn into coastal aquifers offshore and discharging near shore, that adds to total submarine groundwater discharge. The saline water in the circulation cell enters and exits the aquifer through the sea floor at the same hydraulic potential. Existing theory explains that the saline circulation cell is driven by mixing of fresh and saline without any additional source of potential or mechanical power. This explanation raises a basic thermodynamic question: what is the source of energy that drives the saline circulation cell? Here, we resolve this question by building upon Hubbert's conception of hydraulic potential to formulate an energy balance for density-dependent flow and salt transport through an aquifer. We show that, because local energy dissipation within the aquifer is proportional to the square of the groundwater velocity, more groundwater flow may be driven through an aquifer for a given energy input if local variations in velocity are smoothed. Our numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems show that dispersion of salt across the fresh-saline interface spreads flow over larger volumes of the aquifer, smoothing the velocity field, and increasing total flow and submarine groundwater discharge without consuming more power. The energy balance also provides a criterion, in addition to conventional mass balances, for judging the accuracy of numerical solutions of non-linear density-dependent flow problems. Our results show that some numerical

  6. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and alluvial basin aquifer systems of northern and central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Leake, Stanley A.; Graser, Leslie F.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical flow model (MODFLOW) of the groundwater flow system in the primary aquifers in northern Arizona was developed to simulate interactions between the aquifers, perennial streams, and springs for predevelopment and transient conditions during 1910 through 2005. Simulated aquifers include the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and basin-fill aquifers. Perennial stream reaches and springs that derive base flow from the aquifers were simulated, including the Colorado River, Little Colorado River, Salt River, Verde River, and perennial reaches of tributary streams. Simulated major springs include Blue Spring, Del Rio Springs, Havasu Springs, Verde River headwater springs, several springs that discharge adjacent to major Verde River tributaries, and many springs that discharge to the Colorado River. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties and groundwater budgets were developed from published reports and groundwater-flow models. Spatial extents of aquifers and confining units were developed from geologic data, geophysical models, a groundwater-flow model for the Prescott Active Management Area, drill logs, geologic logs, and geophysical logs. Spatial and temporal distributions of natural recharge were developed by using a water-balance model that estimates recharge from direct infiltration. Additional natural recharge from ephemeral channel infiltration was simulated in alluvial basins. Recharge at wastewater treatment facilities and incidental recharge at agricultural fields and golf courses were also simulated. Estimates of predevelopment rates of groundwater discharge to streams, springs, and evapotranspiration by phreatophytes were derived from previous reports and on the basis of streamflow records at gages. Annual estimates of groundwater withdrawals for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and domestic uses were developed from several sources, including reported withdrawals for nonexempt wells, estimated crop requirements for agricultural wells, and estimated per

  7. Microbiological risks of recycling urban stormwater via aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D; Gonzalez, D; Dillon, P

    2012-01-01

    With the release of the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling: Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), aquifers are now being included as a treatment barrier when assessing risk of recycled water systems. A MAR research site recharging urban stormwater in a confined aquifer was used in conjunction with a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to assess the microbial pathogen risk in the recovered water for different end uses. The assessment involved undertaking a detailed assessment of the treatment steps and exposure controls, including the aquifer, to achieve the microbial health-based targets.

  8. Groundwater arsenic content in Raigon Aquifer System (San Jose, Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manay, N.; Piston, M.; Goso, C.; Fernnandez, T.; Rejas, M.; Garcia Valles, M.

    2013-01-01

    As a Medical Geology research issue, an environmental arsenic risk assessment study in the most important sedimentary aquifer in southern Uruguay is presented. The Raigon Aquifer System is the most exploited in Uruguay. It has a surface extent of about 1,800 square kilometres and 10,000 inhabitants in San Jose Department, where it was studied. Agriculture and cattle breeding are the main economic activities and this aquifer is the basic support. The groundwater sampling was done on 37 water samples of PRENADER (Natural Resources Management and Irrigation Development Program) wells. Outcropping sediments of Raigon Formation and the overlying Libertad Formation were also sampled in the Kiyu region. The analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed 80% samples with arsenic levels exceeding the 10 μg/l of WHO as limit for waters, and 11% exceeds the 20 μg/l limit of uruguayan regulation. The median, maximum and minimum water arsenic concentrations determined have been 14.24, 24.19 and 1.44 μg/l, respectively. On the other hand, nine sediment samples of Raigon and Libertad Formations in Kiyu region were analysed and yielded median, maximum and minimum arsenic concentrations of 5.03, 9.82 and 1.18 ppm, respectively. This issue leads to the supposition that the population, as well as industrial and agricultural activities, are consuming water with arsenic concentrations over the national and international maximum recommended limit.

  9. Quantification of the reactions in heat storage systems in the Malm aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueckert, Martina; Baumann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Combined heat and power plants (CHP) are efficient and environmentally friendly because excess heat produced during power generation is used for heating purposes. While the power demand remains rather constant throughout the year, the heat demand shows seasonal variations. In a worst-case scenario, the heat production in winter is not sufficient, and the power production in summer has to be ramped down because the excess heat cannot be released to the environment. Therefore, storage of excess heat of CHP is highly beneficial from an economic and an ecological point of view. Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is considered as a promising technology for energy storage. In a typical setting, water from an aquifer is produced, heated up by excess heat from the CHP and injected through a second borehole back into the aquifer. The carbonate rocks of the upper Jurrasic in the Molasse Basin seem to be promising sites for aquifer heat storage because of their high transmissivity combined with a typical geological setting with tight caprock. However, reactions in the aquifer cannot be neglected and may become the limiting process of the whole operation. While there have been several studies performed in clastic aquifers and for temperatures below 100°C, the knowledge about high injection temperatures and storage into a carbonatic aquifer matrix is still limited. Within a research project funded by the Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs and the BMW Group, the storage and recuperation of excess heat energy into the Bavarian Malm aquifer with flow rates of 15 L/s and temperatures of up to 110°C was investigated. The addition of {CO_2} was used to prevent precipitations. Data from the field site was backed up by autoclave experiments and used to verify a conceptional hydrogeochemical model with PhreeqC for the heat storage operation. The model allows to parametrize the operation and to predict possible reactions in the aquifer.

  10. Hydrologic analysis of data for the Lost Lake Aquifer Zone of the Steel Pond Aquifer at recovery well RWM-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.; Hiergesell, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis of data obtained from a large-scale, multiple-well aquifer test of the sandy unit referred to as the Lost Lake Aquifer Zone of the Steed Pond Aquifer in an area just south of the A and M Areas. Pumping was conducted at recovery well RWM-16, which is located near the MSB-40 well cluster, approximately 4000 feet south of the M-Area Basin. RWM-16 is located in the lower left portion of Figure 1, which also illustrates the general relationship of the testing site to the A and M Areas and other monitor wells. The data generated from testing RWM-16 was used to calculate estimates of transmissivity and storage for the aquifer system within which RWM-16 is screened. These parameters are related to hydraulic conductivity and storativity of the aquifer system by the vertical thickness of the unit. The leakage coefficient for the overlying confining unit is also estimated. This information is needed to refine conceptual understanding of the groundwater flow system beneath the A and M Areas. The refined conceptual model will more adequately describe the pattern of groundwater flow, and will contribute to updating the open-quotes Zone of Captureclose quotes model that has been used in the initial phases of designing a groundwater remediation system in the A and M Areas

  11. Multi-scale nitrate transport in a sandstone aquifer system under intensive agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Daniel; Ballard, Jean-Marc; Lefebvre, René; Savard, Martine M.

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate transport in heterogeneous bedrock aquifers is influenced by mechanisms that operate at different spatial and temporal scales. To understand these mechanisms in a fractured sandstone aquifer with high porosity, a groundwater-flow and nitrate transport model—reproducing multiple hydraulic and chemical targets—was developed to explain the actual nitrate contamination observed in groundwater and surface water in a study area on Prince Edward Island, Canada. Simulations show that nitrate is leached to the aquifer year-round, with 61% coming from untransformed and transformed organic sources originating from fertilizers and manure. This nitrate reaches the more permeable shallow aquifer through fractures in weathered sandstone that represent only 1% of the total porosity (17%). Some of the nitrate reaches the underlying aquifer, which is less active in terms of groundwater flow, but most of it is drained to the main river. The river-water quality is controlled by the nitrate input from the shallow aquifer. Groundwater in the underlying aquifer, which has long residence times, is also largely influenced by the diffusion of nitrate in the porous sandstone matrix. Consequently, following a change of fertilizer application practices, water quality in domestic wells and the river would change rapidly due to the level of nitrate found in fractures, but a lag time of up to 20 years would be necessary to reach a steady level due to diffusion. This demonstrates the importance of understanding nitrate transport mechanisms when designing effective agricultural and water management plans to improve water quality.

  12. Seismic reflection and structuring characterization of deep aquifer system in the Dakhla syncline (Cap Bon, North-Eastern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Abir; Jarraya Horriche, Faten; Gabtni, Hakim; Bédir, Mourad

    2018-04-01

    The Dakhla syncline is located in the North-Eastern Tunisia. It is bounded by Abd El Rahmene anticline to the North-West, El Haouaria Graben to the North-East, Grombalia Graben to the South-West and the Mediterranean Sea to the East. The main aquifer reservoirs of Dakhla syncline are constituted by stacks of fluvial to deltaic Neogene sequences and carbonates. The interpretation of eight seismic reflection profiles, calibrated by wire line logging data of three oil wells, hydraulic wells and geologic field sections highlighted the impact of tectonics on the structuring geometry of aquifers and their distribution in elevated structures and subsurface depressions. Lithostratigraphic correlations and seismic profiles analysis through the syncline show that the principal aquifers are thickest within the central and northern part of the study area and thinnest to the southern part of the syncline. Seismic sections shows that the fracture/fault pattern in this syncline is mainly concentrated along corridors with a major direction of NW-SE and secondary directions of N-S, E-W and NE-SW with different release. This is proved by the complexity structure of Eastern Tunisia, resulted from the interaction between the African and Eurasiatic plates. Isochron maps of aquifers systems exhibited the structuring of this syncline in sub-surface characterized by important lateral and vertical geometric and thickness variations. Seismic sections L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 and petroleum wells showed an heterogeneous multilayer aquifers of Miocene formed by the arrangement of ten sandstone bodies, separated by impermeable clay packages. Oligo-Miocene deposits correspond to the most great potential aquifers, with respectively an average transmissivity estimated: Somaa aquifer 6.5 10-4 m2/s, Sandstone level aquifer 2.6 10-3 m2/s, Beglia aquifer 1.1 10-3 m2/s, Ain Ghrab aquifer 1.3 10-4 m2/s and Oligocene aquifer 2 10-3 m2/s. The interpretation of spatial variations of seismic units and the

  13. A control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rostampour Samarin, Vahab; Bloemendal, J.M.; Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Keviczky, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. In particular, we first provide a description of building operational systems together with control framework variables. We then focus on the derivation of an

  14. Transient well flow in layered aquifer systems: the uniform well-face drawdown solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    Previously a hybrid analytical-numerical solution for the general problem of computing transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers was proposed by the author. The radial component of flow was treated analytically, while the finite-difference technique was used for the vertical flow component only. In the present work the hybrid solution has been modified by replacing the previously assumed uniform well-face gradient (UWG) boundary condition in such a way that the drawdown remains uniform along the well screen. The resulting uniform well-face drawdown (UWD) solution also includes the effects of a finite diameter well, wellbore storage and a thin skin, while partial penetration and vertical heterogeneity are accommodated by the one-dimensional discretization. Solutions are proposed for well flow caused by constant, variable and slug discharges. The model was verified by comparing wellbore drawdowns and well-face flux distributions with published numerical solutions. Differences between UWG and UWD well flow will occur in all situations with vertical flow components near the well, which is demonstrated by considering: (1) partially penetrating wells in confined aquifers, (2) fully penetrating wells in unconfined aquifers with delayed response and (3) layered aquifers and leaky multiaquifer systems. The presented solution can be a powerful tool for solving many well-hydraulic problems, including well tests, flowmeter tests, slug tests and pumping tests. A computer program for the analysis of pumping tests, based on the hybrid analytical-numerical technique and UWG or UWD conditions, is available from the author.

  15. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system in the Endicott-Vestal area of southwestern Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-07-29

    The village of Endicott, New York, and the adjacent town of Vestal have historically used groundwater from the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system for municipal water supply, but parts of some aquifers in this urban area suffer from legacy contamination from varied sources. Endicott would like to identify sites distant from known contamination where productive aquifers could supply municipal wells with water that would not require intensive treatment. The distribution or geometry of aquifers within the Susquehanna River valley fill in western Endicott and northwestern Vestal are delineated in this report largely on the basis of abundant borehole data that have been compiled in a table of well records.

  16. Multiloop integral system test (MIST): Final report, Inter-group comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloudemans, J.R.

    1989-07-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox-designed plants. MIST was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock and Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST and two other supporting facilities were specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and the other facilities will be used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The individual tests are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 8 and Volume 11, and are summarized in Volume 1. Inter-group comparisons are addressed in this document, Volume 9. These comparisons are grouped as follows: mapping versus SBLOCA transients, SBLOCA, pump effects, and the effects of noncondensible gases. Appendix A provides an index and description of the microfiched plots for each test, which are enclosed with the corresponding Volumes 2 through 8. 147 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. The Tunisian Jurassic aquifer in the North African Sahara aquifer system: information derived from two-dimensional seismic reflection and well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lasmar, Rafika; Guellala, Rihab; Garrach, Mohamed; Mahroug, Ali; Sarsar Naouali, Benen; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi

    2017-12-01

    Southern Tunisia is an arid area where socio-economic activities are dependent on groundwater resources. The presented study aims to better characterize the Jurassic aquifer based on geological and geophysical data, with a view to develop a rational exploitation program. Well logs are used to precisely determine the position and composition of the known Jurassic aquifer layers and to identify others able to produce good quality water. The logs show that limestones, sandstones and dolomites of the Krachoua, Techout and Foum Tataouine formations are the main Jurassic aquifers. Sixty-eight seismic-reflection sections are integrated within this study. The interpolation between the interpreted sections leads to the construction of isochronous isopach maps and geoseismic sections, and their analysis finds that compressive and extensive tectonic deformations have influenced the Jurassic aquifer geometry. The Hercynian orogeny phase manifestation is remarkable in that there are several stratigraphic gaps in the Jurassic sequence. The E-W, NW-SE, and NNW-SSE accidents, reactivated in normal faults since the Permian to Lower Cretaceous epochs, have generated the structures found in the Jurassic series, such as subsided and raised blocks. Their syn-sedimentary activity has controlled the thickness and facies of these series. The Cretaceous, Tortonian and Post-Villafranchian compressions are responsible for the Jurassic-deposits folding in some localities. The highlighted tectonic and sedimentary events have an important impact on the Jurassic aquifer function by favoring the Jurassic aquifer interconnections and their connections with the Triassic and Cretaceous permeable series.

  18. The water treatment in the dual-purpose nuclear plants of Babcock and Wilcox with straight pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.

    1978-01-01

    A report is given on water processing and water chemistry in the dual-purpose nuclear power plants (as compared to the single-purpose nuclear power plants) of Babcock and Wilcox, with flow steam generators with straight pipes. The most important materials, especially regarding their corrosion resistance, and the water composition during 'hot' start-up of the Okonie-I power plant, the quality factors of the feedwater, the water quality factors of the steam generator with fast start-up and the experience with numerous corrosion-caused defects in steam generator pipes are dealt with from the aspect of optimum water processing and successful continuous operation. (HK) [de

  19. Hydric results in Guarani Aquifer System formation zone through by hydrogeological monitoring in representative basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, E.; Barreto, C.; Gomes, L.; Dias Paiva, J.

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the direct and deep recharge in the Guarani Aquifer System, based on the evaluation of data acquired at the Ribeirao da Onca watershed, which is located at the outcrop zone of the GAS in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. During one year hydrological data (precipitation, temperature, discharge etc) have been monitored at the watershed. Using water level fluctuation measured in 23 monitoring wells, the direct recharge, the free aquifer storage and the base flow could be evaluated.The direct recharge of the system at the watershed has been estimated to 29% of the total precipitation in the period. Due to the drainage by the Ribeirao da Onca, the deep recharge, which effectively reaches the GAS, is reduced to 3,5% of the annual precipitation

  20. Decision Support System for Aquifer Recharge (AR) and Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) Planning, Design, and Evaluation - Principles and Technical Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquifer recharge (AR) is a technical method being utilized to enhance groundwater resources through man-made replenishment means, such as infiltration basins and injections wells. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) furthers the AR techniques by withdrawal of stored groundwater at...

  1. Unravelling aquifer-wetland interaction using CSAMT and gravity methods: the Mollina-Camorra aquifer and the Fuente de Piedra playa-lake, southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrera, A.; Martos-Rosillo, S.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, M.; Benavente, J.; Martín-Rodríguez, J. F.; Zúñiga-López, M. I.

    2016-06-01

    The hydrological regime of Fuente de Piedra playa-lake (Málaga, southern Spain) has been significantly affected by the intensive exploitation of groundwater in the area. The playa-lake is situated above clays, marls, and gypsum, and under unaltered conditions received surface-subsurface runoff within the watershed as well as groundwater discharge from two carbonate aquifers. We have analyzed the structure of the main one, the Mollina-Camorra carbonate aquifer, by combining controlled source audio magnetotellurics (CSAMT), gravity prospecting, and time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings. This geophysical information, together with new structural and hydrogeological data, was gathered to develop a new conceptual hydrogeological model. This model allows the hydrological linkage of the carbonate aquifer with the playa-lake system to be established. Moreover, the intensive exploitation in the carbonate aquifer, even outside the watershed of the playa-lake, has affected the hydrological regime of the system. This multidisciplinary work demonstrates the potential of geophysical methods for understanding wetland-aquifer interaction, having important groundwater management implications.

  2. Generic evaluation of small break loss-of-coolant accident behavior in Babcock and Wilcox designed 177-FA operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Slow system depressurization resulting from small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in the reactor coolant system have not, until recently, received detailed analytical study comparable to that devoted to large breaks. Following the TMI-2 accident, the staff had a series of meetings with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) and the B and W licensees. The staff requested that B and W and the licensees: (1) systematically evaluate plant response for small break loss-of-coolant accidents; (2) address each of the concerns documented in the Michelson report; (3) validate the computer codes used against the TMI-2 accident; (4) extend the break spectrum analysis to very small breaks, giving special consideration to failure of pressurizer valves to close; (5) analyze degraded conditions where AFW is not available; (6) prepare design changes aimed at reducing the probability of loss-of-coolant accidents produced by the failure of a PORV to close; and (7) develop revised emergency procedures for small breaks. This report describes the review of the generic analyses performed by B and W based on the requests stated above

  3. Sustainable development and management of an aquifer system in western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyan, Jale; Yazicigil, Hasan

    This study presents the establishment of sustainable development and management policies for the Küçük Menderes River Basin aquifer system in western Turkey. Geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical data are used conjunctively to define various hydrogeological units and their geometry. Distributions of hydraulic-parameter values and recharge are estimated by geostatistical methods and hydrologic simulations, respectively. A finite-difference groundwater flow model is used to represent the unconfined flow in the aquifer system. The model has been calibrated under steady state and transient conditions. The resulting model was used to test seven management scenarios for a planning period of 21 years to determine the so-called safe yield and sustainable yield of the aquifer system and to investigate the potential impacts of four planned surface water reservoirs on groundwater resources in the basin. The results demonstrate that the continuation of the present pumping rates exceeds both the safe yield and the sustainable yield of the aquifer system. Consequently, the growing need for irrigation water should be met by the construction of the planned surface water reservoirs and the implementation of efficient water management policies and plans. Cette étude présente la proposition d'une politique de développement et de gestion durables du système aquifère du bassin du Petit Mendérès dans l'ouest de la Turquie. Des données géologiques, hydrogéologiques et géophysiques ont été utilisées conjointement pour définir les différentes unités hydrogéologiques et leur géométrie. Les distributions des paramètres hydrauliques et de la recharge ont été estimées respectivement par des méthodes géostatistiques et des simulations hydrologiques. Un modèle d'écoulement souterrain aux éléments finis a été utilisé pour représenter l'écoulement non captif dans le système aquifère. Le modèle a été calibré dans des conditions de r

  4. Comparison of groundwater flow in Southern California coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Edwards, Brian D.; Land, Michael; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Development of the coastal aquifer systems of Southern California has resulted in overdraft, changes in streamflow, seawater intrusion, land subsidence, increased vertical flow between aquifers, and a redirection of regional flow toward pumping centers. These water-management challenges can be more effectively addressed by incorporating new understanding of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical setting of these aquifers.

  5. Development methodologies evaluation of the charge and vulnerability of the Aquifer Guarani System in Argentina and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Gomez, A.; Oleaga, A.

    2007-01-01

    The study area is located in the Uruguayan/Brazilian border near the cities of Rivera (Uruguay) and Santa Ana do Livramento (Brasil) and their surroundings. The area is characterized by the presence of fractured basalts of the Arapey or Serra Geral Formation and sandstones of the Tacuarembo-Rivera (Botucatu) Formation that form up the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS). The general objectives of the project were to adapt and apply methodologies to estimate the recharge to the fractured aquifer and to estimate the fraction of that recharge that eventually reaches the GAS in the study area. The development of new methodologies for the vulnerability assessment of the Serra Geral Formation was also sought. Piezo metric data, geological and structural analyses and hydrogeochemical studies were used to construct the conceptual model of the system behavior. Then, a numerical model was implemented to validate the conceptual model, reproduce the current system behavior, and estimate the recharge to the sandstones (either from the overlying basalts or from rainfall). The model would indicate a downward flow, i.e., recharge from the fractured basalt to the shallow aquifer, and from it to the deep aquifer, which matches the hypothesis of this research. As for the vulnerability of the GAS below the fractured zone, and reminding that there would be recharge from the basalt, adapted methodologies from flat-land scenarios were proposed, integrating the degree of fracturing of the volcanic rocks and the thickness of the unsaturated zone

  6. Regional modelling of the confined aquifers below the Boom clay in NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandersteen, K.; Gedeon, M.; Marivoet, J.; Wouters, L.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay is considered as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in NE-Belgium (Campine area). The hydrogeological program at SCK.CEN supports the long-term performance assessments of the geological disposal of radioactive waste by performing a phenomenological research of the aquifer systems surrounding the studied disposal system. One of the important components of this programme is the regional hydrogeological modelling. The regional hydrogeology is studied using two main models - the steady state Neogene aquifer model (NAM) and the transient deep aquifer pumping model (DAP), developed to characterize and quantify the regional groundwater flow in, respectively, the aquifers lying above the Boom Clay in the Nete catchment area (NAM), and the aquifers lying below the Boom Clay in the Campine area (DAP). This paper describes the most recent update of the DAP model. The DAP model represents the confined part of the groundwater system located stratigraphically below the Boom Clay. This includes the parts of the Oligocene aquifer, the Bartoon aquitard system and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer buried under the Boom Clay. Due to the considerable pumping from these aquifers in combination with a limited recharge, a gradual decrease in groundwater levels has been observed in more than 30-year piezometric records. In the DAP model, the shallow aquifer system overlying the Boom Clay is replaced by fixed head boundaries: this aquifer system is dominated by close-to-surface hydrological processes and the heads fluctuate seasonally without any apparent long-term trend. In the horizontal direction, the model extends to the south as far as the outcrops of the major aquitards: the Maldegem Formation confining the Ledo

  7. The contribution of cluster and discriminant analysis to the classification of complex aquifer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, G P; Angelopoulou, D; Tzirtzilakis, E E; Giannoulopoulos, P

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an innovated method for the discrimination of groundwater samples in common groups representing the hydrogeological units from where they have been pumped. This method proved very efficient even in areas with complex hydrogeological regimes. The proposed method requires chemical analyses of water samples only for major ions, meaning that it is applicable to most of cases worldwide. Another benefit of the method is that it gives a further insight of the aquifer hydrogeochemistry as it provides the ions that are responsible for the discrimination of the group. The procedure begins with cluster analysis of the dataset in order to classify the samples in the corresponding hydrogeological unit. The feasibility of the method is proven from the fact that the samples of volcanic origin were separated into two different clusters, namely the lava units and the pyroclastic-ignimbritic aquifer. The second step is the discriminant analysis of the data which provides the functions that distinguish the groups from each other and the most significant variables that define the hydrochemical composition of the aquifer. The whole procedure was highly successful as the 94.7 % of the samples were classified to the correct aquifer system. Finally, the resulted functions can be safely used to categorize samples of either unknown or doubtful origin improving thus the quality and the size of existing hydrochemical databases.

  8. Occurrence of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV) in Groundwater from a Karst Aquifer System in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiles-González, Gabriela; Ávila-Torres, Gerardo; Moreno-Valenzuela, Oscar A; Acosta-González, Gilberto; Leal-Bautista, Rosa María; Grimaldo-Hernández, Cinthya D; Brown, Judith K; Chaidez-Quiroz, Cristóbal; Betancourt, Walter Q; Gerba, Charles P; Hernández-Zepeda, Cecilia

    2017-12-01

    The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons. Total coliform bacteria were detected at all sites, whereas Escherichia coli were found at relatively low levels water type (p > 0.05). Physicochemical and indicator bacteria were not correlated with PMMoV concentrations. The abundance and prevalence of PMMoV in the karst aquifer may reflect its environmental persistence and its potential as a fecal indicator in this karst aquifer system.

  9. Occurrence and geochemical behavior of arsenic in a coastal aquifer-aquitard system of the Pearl River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ya [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Jiao, Jiu Jimmy, E-mail: jjiao@hku.hk [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Cherry, John A. [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 161 {mu}g/L, have been identified in groundwater samples from the confined basal aquifer underlying the aquitard of the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Both aquatic arsenic in pore water and solid arsenic in the sediments in the basal aquifer and aquitard were identified. Arsenic speciation of groundwater in the basal aquifer was elucidated on a pH-Eh diagram. In the PRD, arsenic is enriched in groundwater having both low and high salinity, and arsenic enriched groundwater is devoid of dissolved oxygen, has negative Eh values, is slightly alkaline, and has abnormally high concentrations of ammonium and dissolved organic carbon, but low concentrations of nitrate and nitrite. Results of geochemical and hydrochemical analyses and sequential extraction analysis suggest that reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide could be one of the important processes that mobilized solid arsenic. We speculate that mineralization of sedimentary organic matter could also contribute to aquatic arsenic. Scanning electron microscope analysis confirms that abundant authigenic pyrite is present in the sediments. Sulphate derived from paleo-seawater served as the important sulfur source for authigenic pyrite formation. Co-precipitation of arsenic with authigenic pyrite significantly controlled concentrations of aquatic arsenic in the coastal aquifer-aquitard system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coastal aquifer and aquitard are treated as an integrate system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both aquatic arsenic and solid arsenic are observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aquatic arsenic is derived from reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aquatic arsenic can also derived from mineralization of sedimentary organic matter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-precipitation of arsenic with authigenic pyrite is significant in such a system.

  10. Hydrochemical zonation of the western part of Göksu Delta aquifer system, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, U. E.; Çelik, M.; Arslan, Ş.; Engin, H.

    2012-04-01

    In general, coastal areas are preferred places for human settlement, especially at places where infrastructure routes benefit from rivers, streets, or harbours. As a result, these areas usually suffer from rising population and endure increasingly high demand on natural resources like water. Göksu Delta, located in southern Turkey, is one of the important wetland areas of Turkey at the Mediterranean coast. It is divided into two parts by Göksu River. The western part of the delta, which is the subject matter of this study, hosts fertile agricultural fields, touristic places and a Special Environmental Protection Area. These properties of the region lead to a water-dependent ecosystem where groundwater has widely been used for agricultural and domestic purposes. When the exploitation of groundwater peaked in the middle of 1990s, the groundwater levels dropped and seawater intruded. General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works tried to stop seawater intrusion by building irrigation channels connected to Göksu River and banned drilling of new wells for groundwater exploitation, although it is hard to control the drilling of wells without official permit. Geological studies show that the delta is composed of terrestrial sediments including clay to coarse sand deposited during Quaternary. The heterogeneous sediments of Göksu Delta cause hydrogeological features of the aquifer systems to be heterogeneous and anisotropic. Hydrogeological investigations, therefore, indicate mainly two different aquifers, shallow and deep, separated by an aquitard. The shallow aquifer is under unconfined to confined conditions from north to south while the deep aquifer is under confined conditions. This study focuses on hydrogeochemical zonation in terms of hydrochemical processes that affect the Göksu Delta aquifer systems. For this purpose, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies are conducted to understand the salinisation and softening processes of groundwater. The physicochemical

  11. Characterising aquifer treatment for pathogens in managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D; Dillon, P; Toze, S; Sidhu, J P S

    2010-01-01

    In this study the value of subsurface treatment of urban stormwater during Aquifer Storage Transfer Recovery (ASTR) is characterised using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) methodology. The ASTR project utilizes a multi-barrier treatment train to treat urban stormwater but to date the role of the aquifer has not been quantified. In this study it was estimated that the aquifer barrier provided 1.4, 2.6, >6.0 log(10) removals for rotavirus, Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter respectively based on pathogen diffusion chamber results. The aquifer treatment barrier was found to vary in importance vis-à-vis the pre-treatment via a constructed wetland and potential post-treatment options of UV-disinfection and chlorination for the reference pathogens. The risk assessment demonstrated that the human health risk associated with potable reuse of stormwater can be mitigated (disability adjusted life years, DALYs aquifer is integrated with suitable post treatment options into a treatment train to attenuate pathogens and protect human health.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of the Role of Wetlands and Rivers in the Groundwater Discharge of the Guarani Aquifer System in NE Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Manzano, M.; Valladares, A.; Agarwaal, P.; Araguas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is a transboundary aquifer occupying parts of Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina, covering some 1200000 km''2. The location and magnitude of recharge and the magnitude of regional discharges are uncertain. Regional groundwater flow modeling suggests that some discharge may occur through selected reaches of the Parana and Uruguay rivers and their tributaries, and perhaps, through the Ibera wetland system within Argentina. Preliminary findings of hydrochemical and isotopic sampling and analysis from surface water and groundwater in the Southern GAS region, studying the role of rivers and wetlands in the aquifer discharge and revising the conceptual model, are presented.

  13. Alluvial Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This coverage shows the extents of the alluvial aquifers in Kansas. The alluvial aquifers consist of unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and contiguous terrace...

  14. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Parana sedimentary basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Parana sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides 40 K, 238 U, 234 U, 226 Ra, 222 Rn, 210 Po and 210 Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at Sao Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors. - Highlights: → Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in groundwaters. → Radiation dose in important hydrological resources in South America. → Contribution of 226 Ra for the more accentuated radiation dose in aquifers. → Dose factors for Rn and generation of values exceeding the maximum of 0.1 mSv/yr.

  15. Natural radionuclides in major aquifer systems of the Parana sedimentary basin, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos, E-mail: danielbonotto@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Av. 24-A, No. 1515 - CP 178, CEP 13506-900-Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    This paper describes the natural radioactivity of groundwater occurring in sedimentary (Bauru and Guarani) and fractured rock (Serra Geral) aquifer systems in the Parana sedimentary basin, South America that is extensively used for drinking purposes, among others. The measurements of gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity as well the activity concentration of the natural dissolved radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were held in 80 tubular wells drilled in 21 municipalities located at Sao Paulo State and its border with Mato Grosso do Sul State in Brazil. Most of the gross alpha radioactivity data were below 1 mBq/L, whereas values exceeding the gross beta radioactivity detection limit of 30 mBq/L were found. The radioelement solubility in the studied systems varied according to the sequence radon>radium>other radionuclides and the higher porosity of sandstones relatively to basalts and diabases could justify the enhanced presence of dissolved radon in the porous aquifer. The implications of the data obtained in terms of standards established for defining the drinking water quality have also been discussed. The population-weighted average activity concentration for these radionuclides was compared to the guideline value of 0.1 mSv/yr for the total effective dose and discussed in terms of the choice of the dose conversion factors. - Highlights: > Integration of distinct radiometric data acquired in groundwaters. > Radiation dose in important hydrological resources in South America. > Contribution of {sup 226}Ra for the more accentuated radiation dose in aquifers. > Dose factors for Rn and generation of values exceeding the maximum of 0.1 mSv/yr.

  16. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Phillip D.; Knierim, Katherine J.; Breaker, Brian K.; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-11-23

    The hydrogeology and hydrologic characteristics of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system were characterized as part of ongoing U.S. Geological Survey efforts to assess groundwater availability across the Nation. The need for such a study in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province (Ozark Plateaus) is highlighted by increasing demand on groundwater resources by the 5.3 million people of the Ozark Plateaus, water-level declines in some areas, and potential impacts of climate change on groundwater availability. The subject study integrates knowledge gained through local investigation within a regional perspective to develop a regional conceptual model of groundwater flow in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (Ozark system), a key phase of groundwater availability assessment. The Ozark system extends across much of southern Missouri and northwestern and north-central Arkansas and smaller areas of southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The region is one of the major karst landscapes in the United States, and karst aquifers are predominant in the Ozark system. Groundwater flow is ultimately controlled by aquifer and confining unit lithologies and stratigraphic relations, geologic structure, karst development, and the character of surficial lithologies and regolith mantle. The regolith mantle is a defining element of Ozark Plateaus karst, affecting recharge, karst development, and vulnerability to surface-derived contaminants. Karst development is more advanced—as evidenced by larger springs, hydraulic characteristics, and higher well yields—in the Salem Plateau and in the northern part of the Springfield Plateau (generally north of the Arkansas-Missouri border) as compared with the southern part of the Springfield Plateau in Arkansas, largely due to thinner, less extensive regolith and purer carbonate lithology.Precipitation is the ultimate source of all water to the Ozark system, and the hydrologic budget for the Ozark system includes inputs from recharge

  17. Characterizing a complex aquifer system using geophysics, hydrodynamics and geochemistry: A new distribution of Miocene aquifers in the Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks (east-central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaal, Fethi; Bédir, Mourad; Tarhouni, Jamila; Gacha, Ayadi Ben; Leduc, Christian

    2011-06-01

    The Zéramdine and Mahdia-Jébéniana blocks are located in the Sahel region in east-central Tunisia. Active tectonics have divided the region into numerous sub-units, as result of multiple phases of distension and compression. The Miocene fluvio-deltaic sediment sandy layers have aquiferous capacities but their hydraulic properties are still unknown, due to the lack of investigation wells. This study proposes a new description of the regional hydrogeology of Miocene deposits. Seismic-reflection and wireline logging of petroleum and water wells were used to understand the structure and the geometry of the Miocene reservoirs. The groundwater flow and its relationship to the sedimentary and tectonic context were then identified by studying piezometry and hydrochemistry. Two Miocene deep aquifer systems were identified: (1) Zéramdine-Béni Hassen to the north and (2) Jébéniana-Ksour Essef to the south. These aquifers are separated by the Mahdia graben. Other major tectonic structures, such as the Zéramdine fault corridor, the Moknine graben, and the El-Jem half-graben represent lateral boundaries for these aquifers. Other deeper sandy and clayey-sandy reservoirs were also identified in the area. Their repartition, thickness and depth vary from one block to other. Hydrodynamics of the deep aquifers seems to be controlled by geological structures. Two independent compartments were identified: in the northern block groundwater flows from West to East and from Northwest to Southeast, while in the southern block it flows from Northwest to Southeast. Geochemical facies are of two types: Na-Ca-Cl-SO 4 for the Zéramdine-Béni Hassen deep aquifer and Na-Cl for the Jébéniana-Ksour Essef deep aquifer. The hydrodynamic and geochemical results confirm the sharing of the Miocene sediments into two aquifers.

  18. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow for the Yakima River basin aquifer system, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, D.M.; Bachmann, M.P.; Vaccaro, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    A regional, three-dimensional, transient numerical model of groundwater flow was constructed for the Yakima River basin aquifer system to better understand the groundwater-flow system and its relation to surface-water resources. The model described in this report can be used as a tool by water-management agencies and other stakeholders to quantitatively evaluate proposed alternative management strategies that consider the interrelation between groundwater availability and surface-water resources.

  19. The thermal impact of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems: a case study in the Netherlands, combining monitoring and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Philip W.; Kooi, Henk; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2015-05-01

    Results are presented of a comprehensive thermal impact study on an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. The study involved monitoring of the thermal impact and modeling of the three-dimensional temperature evolution of the storage aquifer and over- and underlying units. Special attention was paid to non-uniformity of the background temperature, which varies laterally and vertically in the aquifer. Two models were applied with different levels of detail regarding initial conditions and heterogeneity of hydraulic and thermal properties: a fine-scale heterogeneity model which construed the lateral and vertical temperature distribution more realistically, and a simplified model which represented the aquifer system with only a limited number of homogeneous layers. Fine-scale heterogeneity was shown to be important to accurately model the ATES-impacted vertical temperature distribution and the maximum and minimum temperatures in the storage aquifer, and the spatial extent of the thermal plumes. The fine-scale heterogeneity model resulted in larger thermally impacted areas and larger temperature anomalies than the simplified model. The models showed that scattered and scarce monitoring data of ATES-induced temperatures can be interpreted in a useful way by groundwater and heat transport modeling, resulting in a realistic assessment of the thermal impact.

  20. Hydric resources evaluation of the Guarani Aquifer System in the State of Minas Gerais Araguari municipality, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegasse Velasquez, L.; De Carvalho Filho; Brandao Froes, C.

    2004-01-01

    The general objective of this project is to investigate the aquifers comprised by the Guarany Aquifer System that could eventually be found at the county of Araguari, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The main purpose of this investigation is to assist in the implementation of a comprehensive program for the management of the water resources in this region.The proposal can be justified by the fact that, being Araguari located at the north-northeast limit of the river Parana basin, at the plateau which separates the basins of rivers Paranaiba and Araguari, the town concentrates about 90% of the whole population of the county, and is totally supplied by groundwater from the upper formations (Serra Geral and, predominantly, Bauru). Data on these aquifers are scarce, and their intensive explotation has already given rise to conflicts amongst the several water users, such as public and private water supply companies, and industrial and agricultural sectors. Aiming at the evaluation of the groundwater fluxes behavior in the aquifers, as well as the evaluation of their vulnerability to human impacts, besides some other more specific goals, and taking into account two recent studies carried out in the region, a methodology was proposed for simultaneous approaches to the problem, involving from the establishment of a hydrogeological conceptual model to the elaboration/application of a mathematical model for simulation of the groundwater flux and the preparation of natural and specific vulnerability maps of the aquifer system, including the local water budget. The studies will be conducted by the application of classical hydrological and hydrogeological techniques, as well as by the application of nuclear (tracer) and isotopic techniques [es

  1. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  2. The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) field test facility -- system description, aquifer characterization, and results of short-term test cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, M.; Hoyer, M.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Holm, N.L.; Holm, T.R.; Kanivetsky, R.; Jirsa, M.A.; Lee, H.C.; Lauer, J.L.; Miller, R.T.; Norton, J.L.; Runke, H. (Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Phase 1 of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Project at the University of Minnesota was to test the feasibility, and model, the ATES concept at temperatures above 100{degrees}C using a confined aquifer for the storage and recovery of hot water. Phase 1 included design, construction, and operation of a 5-MW thermal input/output field test facility (FTF) for four short-term ATES cycles (8 days each of heat injection, storage, and heat recover). Phase 1 was conducted from May 1980 to December 1983. This report describes the FTF, the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville (FIG) aquifer used for the test, and the four short-term ATES cycles. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic effects are all included. The FTF consists of monitoring wells and the source and storage well doublet completed in the FIG aquifer with heat exchangers and a fixed-bed precipitator between the wells of the doublet. The FIG aquifer is highly layered and a really anisotropic. The upper Franconia and Ironton-Galesville parts of the aquifer, those parts screened, have hydraulic conductivities of {approximately}0.6 and {approximately}1.0 m/d, respectively. Primary ions in the ambient ground water are calcium and magnesium bicarbonate. Ambient temperature FIG ground water is saturated with respect to calcium/magnesium bicarbonate. Heating the ground water caused most of the dissolved calcium to precipitate out as calcium carbonate in the heat exchanger and precipitator. Silica, calcium, and magnesium were significantly higher in recovered water than in injected water, suggesting dissolution of some constituents of the aquifer during the cycles. Further work on the ground water chemistry is required to understand water-rock interactions.

  3. The impact of low-temperature seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) systems on chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater: Modeling of spreading and degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, K.G.; Hartog, N.; Valstar, J.; Post, V.E.A.; Breukelen, B.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater systems are increasingly used for seasonal aquifer thermal energy storage (SATES) for periodic heating and cooling of buildings. Its use is hampered in contaminated aquifers because of the potential environmental risks associated with the spreading of contaminated groundwater, but

  4. An overview of nitrate sources and operating processes in arid and semiarid aquifer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Biagioni, Richard N; Alarcón-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Rivas-Lucero, Bertha A

    2018-05-15

    Nitrate concentration in most aquifers in arid and semi-arid areas has increased in the past several decades as a result of human activities. Under the predominantly oxic conditions of these aquifers, denitrification is inhibited, allowing nitrate, a soluble and stable form of nitrogen (N), to accumulate. Because of its close association with municipal and agricultural wastes, nitrate is commonly used as an indicator of anthropogenic contamination. Aquifers affected by agricultural waste may contain salts from irrigation returns and herbicides in addition to nitrates. Preventing leakage from soil to deeper parts of the aquifer is thus a priority in the sustainable management of aquifers in arid and semiarid areas. Studies report a wide range of nitrate concentrations distributed non-uniformly within the aquifer, with roughly 40% and 20% of sampled wells exceeding 50mg/L nitrate in shallow and deep parts of the aquifer respectively. In aquifers at risk of becoming contaminated, nitrate isotopes (δ 15 N, δ 18 O, Δ 17 O) can be used to identify the source of nitrogen as mineral or organic fertilizer, sewage, or atmospheric deposition. A variety of mathematical models (crop, hydrological, geochemical, or a combination of them) have been successful in identifying best practices that minimize N leakage without negatively affecting crop yield. In addition, field research in crop management, e.g., conservation agriculture, has yielded promising results in determining the adequate dosage and time of application of fertilizers to reduce N losses. Examples of key dryland aquifers impacted by nitrate are discussed, and some of the most pressing challenges to achieve sustainability are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrological controls on transient aquifer storage in a karst watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, P.; Martin, J.; Gulley, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    While surface storage of floodwaters is well-known to attenuate flood peaks, transient storage of floodwaters in aquifers is a less recognized mechanism of flood peak attenuation. The hydraulic gradient from aquifer to river controls the magnitude of transient aquifer storage and is ultimately a function of aquifer hydraulic conductivity, and effective porosity. Because bedrock and granular aquifers tend to have lower hydraulic conductivities and porosities, their ability to attenuate flood peaks is generally small. In karst aquifers, however, extensive cave systems create high hydraulic conductivities and porosities that create low antecedent hydraulic gradients between aquifers and rivers. Cave springs can reverse flow during high discharges in rivers, temporarily storing floodwaters in the aquifer thus reducing the magnitude of flood discharge downstream. To date however, very few studies have quantified the magnitude or controls of transient aquifer storage in karst watersheds. We therefore investigate controls on transient aquifer storage by using 10 years of river and groundwater data from the Suwannee River Basin, which flows over the karstic upper Floridan aquifer in north-central Florida. We use multiple linear regression to compare the effects of three hydrological controls on the magnitude of transient aquifer storage: antecedent stage, recharge and slope of hydrograph rise. We show the dominant control on transient aquifer storage is antecedent stage, whereby lower stages result in greater magnitudes of transient aquifer storage. Our results suggest that measures of groundwater levels prior to an event can be useful in determining whether transient aquifer storage will occur and may provide a useful metric for improving predictions of flood magnitudes.

  6. Hydrogeologic and Hydraulic Characterization of the Surficial Aquifer System, and Origin of High Salinity Groundwater, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Wacker, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the hydrogeology of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, Florida, have focused mostly on the eastern one-half to one-third of the county in the more densely populated coastal areas. These studies have not placed the hydrogeology in a framework in which stratigraphic units in this complex aquifer system are defined and correlated between wells. Interest in the surficial aquifer system has increased because of population growth, westward expansion of urbanized areas, and increased utilization of surface-water resources in the central and western areas of the county. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District, initiated an investigation to delineate the hydrogeologic framework of the surficial aquifer system in Palm Beach County, based on a lithostratigraphic framework, and to evaluate hydraulic properties and characteristics of units and permeable zones within this framework. A lithostratigraphic framework was delineated by correlating markers between all wells with data available based primarily on borehole natural gamma-ray geophysical log signatures and secondarily, lithologic characteristics. These correlation markers approximately correspond to important lithostratigraphic unit boundaries. Using the markers as guides to their boundaries, the surficial aquifer system was divided into three main permeable zones or subaquifers, which are designated, from shallowest to deepest, zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone 1 is above the Tamiami Formation in the Anastasia and Fort Thompson Formations. Zone 2 primarily is in the upper part or Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation, and zone 3 is in the Ochopee Limestone Member of the Tamiami Formation or its correlative equivalent. Differences in the lithologic character exist between these three zones, and these differences commonly include differences in the nature of the pore space. Zone 1 attains its greatest thickness (50 feet or more

  7. Core drilling provides information about Santa Fe Group aquifer system beneath Albuquerque's West Mesa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, B.D.; Connell, S.D.; Hawley, J.W.; Stone, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    Core samples from the upper ???1500 ft of the Santa Fe Group in the Albuquerque West Mesa area provide a first-hand look at the sediments and at subsurface stratigraphic relationships in this important part of the basin-fill aquifer system. Two major hydrostratigraphic subunits consisting of a lower coarse-grained, sandy interval and an overlying fine-grained, interbedded silty sand and clay interval lie beneath the water table at the 98th St core hole. Borehole electrical conductivity measurements reproduce major textural changes observed in the recovered cores and support subsurface correlations of hydrostratigraphic units in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system based on geophysical logs. Comparison of electrical logs from the core hole and from nearby city wells reveals laterally consistent lithostratigraphic patterns over much of the metropolitan area west of the Rio Grande that may be used to delineate structural and related stratigraphic features that have a direct bearing on the availability of ground water.

  8. Comparison of aquifer characteristics derived from local and regional aquifer tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, R.B.; Krause, R.E.; Maslia, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the aquifer parameter values obtained through the analysis of a local and a regional aquifer test involving the same area in southeast Georgia is made in order to evaluate the validity of extrapolating local aquifer-test results for use in large-scale flow simulations. Time-drawdown and time-recovery data were analyzed by using both graphical and least-squares fitting of the data to the Theis curve. Additionally, directional transmissivity, transmissivity tensor, and angle of anisotropy were computed for both tests. -from Authors Georgia drawdown transmissivity regional aquifer tests

  9. Estimating Poromechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Fractured Media Aquifers Using a Model of the Aquifer at Ploemeur France: Broad Applications and Future Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. W.; Burbey, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Aquifers in fractured crystalline bedrock are located over half of the earth's surface and are vital civil and economic resources particularly in places where ample, safe surface water is not available. With fractured media aquifers providing large percentages of water for municipal, industrial, and agricultural use in many regions of the world. Distinguishing sustainable quantities of extraction is of paramount importance to the continuing viability of these important resources and the communities they serve. The fractured and faulted crystalline-rock aquifer system supporting the community of Ploemeur France has been providing one million cubic meters of water annually, resulting in a modest long-term drawdown of about 15m. To understand the sources and mechanisms of recharge that support this aquifer system, a three-dimensional ABAQUS model was developed using known geologic, water-level and geodetic (tiltmeters and GPS) data to simulate the natural aquifer system that is dominated by a permeable sub-vertical fault and an intersecting semi-horizontal contact zone. The model is used to constrain the poromechanical properties of the fault and contact zones relative to the host crystalline rocks and overlying saprolite by taking advantage of the tilt and seasonal GPS responses caused by municipal pumping along with water-level data for the area. A chief goal in this modeling effort is to assess the sources of recharge to this aquifer system that is atypically productive for a crystalline-rock setting. Preliminary results suggest that the source of water supplying this community is a combination of rapid localized recharge through the saprolite and fault zone and recharge along the contact zone, both from the north (older water) and where it is exposed to the south (younger water). The modeling effort also shows the importance of combining GPS and surface tiltmeter data with water-level measurements for constraining the properties of this complex aquifer system and

  10. Hydrogeologic framework and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system and intermediate confining unit in the Lake Okeechobee area, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    The successful implementation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) as a water-management tool requires detailed information on the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of the potential water storage zones. This report presents stratigraphic and hydrogeologic sections of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer system and the overlying confining unit or aquifer system in the Lake Okeechobee area, and contour maps of the upper contacts of the Ocala Limestone and the Arcadia Formation, which are represented in the sections. The sections and maps illustrate hydrogeologic factors such as confinement of potential storage zones, the distribution of permeability within the zones, and geologic features that may control the efficiency of injection, storage, and recovery of water, and thus may influence decisions on ASR activities in areas of interest to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  11. Hydraulic properties of the Midville Aquifer at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, R.A.; Snipes, D.S.; Benson, S.M.; Daggett, J.S.; Temples, T.; Harrelson, L.

    1994-01-01

    Aquifer performance tests of the Midville Aquifer System were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The stratigraphic section of interest consists of Late Cretaceous Coastal Plain sediments. Within the study area, the Midville Aquifer System is composed of sand aquifers separated by discontinuous clay lenses. The Midville is underlain by the Appleton Confining Unit which is separated from underlying Triassic sediments and Paleozoic crystallines by a regional unconformity. This unconformable surface has a dip of 10 m/km to the southeast. The Midville is overlain by the Allendale Confining Unit which separates the Midville from the Dublin Aquifer System. The tests were performed at B and P Areas within the SRS using production wells screened in the Midville Aquifer and monitor well clusters screened in the Midville, Dublin, and Gordon (Eocene) Aquifers. The B Area is located 13 km updip from P Area. The Midville is about 50 meters thick at B Area and 80 meters thick at P Area. The transmissivity of the Midville is 0.0095 m 2 /s at B Area and 0.017 m 2 /s at P Area. The storativity at both areas is about 10 -4 . Vertical leakance of the Midville is greater updip as the stratigraphic section thins. During the B Area test, pumping induced water level changes were detected in aquifers above the Midville. At P Area, no pumping induced water level changes were detected above the Midville Aquifer System

  12. Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the

  13. Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) of chlorinated municipal drinking water in a confined aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Petersen, Christen E.; Glotzbach, Kenneth J.; Metzger, Loren F.; Christensen, Allen H.; Smith, Gregory A.; O'Leary, David R.; Fram, Miranda S.; Joseph, Trevor; Shannon, Heather

    2010-01-01

    About 1.02 x 106 m3 of chlorinated municipal drinking water was injected into a confined aquifer, 94-137 m below Roseville, California, between December 2005 and April 2006. The water was stored in the aquifer for 438 days, and 2.64 x 106 m3 of water were extracted between July 2007 and February 2008. On the basis of Cl data, 35% of the injected water was recovered and 65% of the injected water and associated disinfection by-products (DBPs) remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction. About 46.3 kg of total trihalomethanes (TTHM) entered the aquifer with the injected water and 37.6 kg of TTHM were extracted. As much as 44 kg of TTHMs remained in the aquifer at the end of extraction because of incomplete recovery of injected water and formation of THMs within the aquifer by reactions with freechlorine in the injected water. Well-bore velocity log data collected from the Aquifer Storage Recovery (ASR) well show as much as 60% of the injected water entered the aquifer through a 9 m thick, high-permeability layer within the confined aquifer near the top of the screened interval. Model simulations of ground-water flow near the ASR well indicate that (1) aquifer heterogeneity allowed injected water to move rapidly through the aquifer to nearby monitoring wells, (2) aquifer heterogeneity caused injected water to move further than expected assuming uniform aquifer properties, and (3) physical clogging of high-permeability layers is the probable cause for the observed change in the distribution of borehole flow. Aquifer heterogeneity also enhanced mixing of native anoxic ground water with oxic injected water, promoting removal of THMs primarily through sorption. A 3 to 4-fold reduction in TTHM concentrations was observed in the furthest monitoring well 427 m downgradient from the ASR well, and similar magnitude reductions were observed in depth-dependent water samples collected from the upper part of the screened interval in the ASR well near the end of the extraction

  14. Seasonal Variation of Infiltration Rates in a Managed Aquifer Recharge System: A Belgian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, S.; Sheng, Z.; Munster, C. L.; Houtte, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a powerful tool in addressing water resources management issues. The Torreele water reuse facility is using MAR to address the problem of water sustainability in a coastal aquifer of Belgium. The Torreele MAR facility uses infiltration ponds to maintain the groundwater level and to prevent saltwater intrusion into the aquifer. The source of recharge is treated wastewater from the Torreele wastewater treatment plant (TWWTP) located 1.2 km inland. The TWWTP uses a state-of-the-art filtration mechanism with a combination of ultrafiltration (UF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) techniques to assure that recharge water is of very high quality. Data collected at the Torreele MAR facility indicates reduced infiltration rates during the winter season when pond water temperatures vary from 1 to 10ºC. The proposed hypothesis for these lower infiltration rates may be a reduction in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in water viscosity. This study involves the determination of relationship between water temperature, infiltration rates, and hydraulic conductivity at the Torreele MAR facility. The results of this study will lead to an effective administration of the facility and provide an extensive understanding of the system.

  15. Hydrogeology and ground-water flow of the drift and Platteville aquifer system, St Louis Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Three aquifers and two confining units have been delineated within the drift underlying the area near the site of a former coal-tar distillation and wood-preserving plant in St. Louis Park, Minnesota. The hydrogeologic units of the drift, in descending order, are the upper drift aquifer, the upper drift confining unit, the middle drift aquifer, the lower drift confining unit. and the lower drift aquifer. A contamination plume consisting of coal-tar derivatives exists in the drift aquifers and in the Platteville aquifer underlying the southern part of the plant site and areas to the south and east of the plant site.

  16. Hydrology of the Claiborne aquifer and interconnection with the Upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debbie W.; Gonthier, Gerard

    2017-04-24

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in cooperation with the Georgia Environmental Protection Division, to define the hydrologic properties of the Claiborne aquifer and evaluate its connection with the Upper Floridan aquifer in southwest Georgia. The effort involved collecting and compiling hydrologic data from the aquifer in subarea 4 of southwestern Georgia. Data collected for this study include borehole geophysical logs in 7 wells, and two 72-hour aquifer tests to determine aquifer properties.The top of the Claiborne aquifer extends from an altitude of about 200 feet above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) in Terrell County to 402 feet below NAVD 88 in Decatur County, Georgia. The base of the aquifer extends from an altitude of about 60 feet above NAVD 88 in eastern Sumter County to about 750 feet below NAVD 88 in Decatur County. Aquifer thickness ranges from about 70 feet in eastern Early County to 400 feet in Decatur County.The transmissivity of the Claiborne aquifer, determined from two 72-hour aquifer tests, was estimated to be 1,500 and 700 feet squared per day in Mitchell and Early Counties, respectively. The storage coefficient was estimated to be 0.0006 and 0.0004 for the same sites, respectively. Aquifer test data from Mitchell County indicate a small amount of leakage occurred during the test. Groundwater-flow models suggest that the source of the leakage was the underlying Clayton aquifer, which produced about 2.5 feet of drawdown in response to pumping in the Claiborne aquifer. The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining unit between the Claiborne and Clayton aquifers was simulated to be about 0.02 foot per day.Results from the 72-hour aquifer tests run for this study indicated no interconnection between the Claiborne and overlying Upper Floridan aquifers at the two test sites. Additional data are needed to monitor the effects that increased withdrawals from the Claiborne aquifer may have on future water resources.

  17. Tabulated Transmissivity and Storage Properties of the Floridan Aquifer System in Florida and Parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Bellino, Jason C.

    2012-04-19

    A goal of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program is to assess the availability of fresh water within each of the principal aquifers in the United States with the greatest groundwater withdrawals. The Floridan aquifer system (FAS), which covers an area of approximately 100,000 square miles in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina, is one such principal aquifer, having the fifth largest groundwater withdrawals in the Nation, totaling 3.64 billion gallons per day in 2000. Compilation of FAS hydraulic properties is critical to the development and calibration of groundwater flow models that can be used to develop water budgets spatially and temporally, as well as to evaluate resource changes over time. Wells with aquifer test data were identified as Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), Lower Floridan aquifer (LFA), Floridan aquifer system (FAS, Upper Floridan with some middle and/or Lower Floridan), or middle Floridan confining unit (MCU), based on the identification from the original database or report description, or comparison of the open interval of the well with previously published maps.This report consolidates aquifer hydraulic property data obtained from multiple databases and reports of the U.S. Geological Survey, various State agencies, and the Water Management Districts of Florida, that are compiled into tables to provide a single information source for transmissivity and storage properties of the FAS as of October 2011. Transmissivity calculated from aquifer pumping tests and specific-capacity data are included. Values for transmissivity and storage coefficients are intended for use in regional or sub regional groundwater flow models; thus, any tests (aquifer pumping tests and specific capacity data) that were conducted with packers or for open intervals less than 30 feet in length are excluded from the summary statistics and tables of this report, but are included in the database.The transmissivity distribution

  18. Redox Conditions in Selected Principal Aquifers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Cowdery, T.K.; Chapelle, F.H.; Jurgens, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Reduction/oxidation (redox) processes affect the quality of groundwater in all aquifer systems. Redox processes can alternately mobilize or immobilize potentially toxic metals associated with naturally occurring aquifer materials, contribute to the degradation or preservation of anthropogenic contami-nants, and generate undesirable byproducts, such as dissolved manganese (Mn2+), ferrous iron (Fe2+), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and methane (CH4). Determining the kinds of redox processes that occur in an aquifer system, documenting their spatial distribution, and understanding how they affect concentrations of natural or anthropogenic contaminants are central to assessing and predicting the chemical quality of groundwater. This Fact Sheet extends the analysis of U.S. Geological Survey authors to additional principal aquifer systems by applying a framework developed by the USGS to a larger set of water-quality data from the USGS national water databases. For a detailed explanation, see the 'Introduction' in the Fact Sheet.

  19. 226Ra and 228Ra in ground water of the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer System in northern Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Holtzman, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Over a large region of Illinois, ground water of the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer System exceeds the US EPA drinking water standard of 5 pCi/L for the combined concentration of 226 Ra and 228 Ra. 226 Ra concentrations range from 226 Ra is the geochemistry of uranium in the ground-water flow system, while the 228 Ra activity in ground water which ranges from 232 Th-bearing minerals in the aquifer strata. The comparison of recent analyses to historical data gathered over the last 20 years indicates that, with few exceptions, 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities in ground water have remained constant. The combined concentrations of the two nuclides in ground water of the aquifer system ranged from 226 Ra concentrations were high (greater than or equal to 10 pCi/L), those of 228 Ra were low (less than or equal to 2 pCi/L), but, with few exceptions, in regions where 228 Ra concentrations were high, those of 226 Ra were also high. The range of values raises questions concerning the validity of the US EPA regulation which requires analysis for 228 Ra only when the concentration of 226 Ra exceeds 3.0 pCi/L

  20. An evaluation of aquifer intercommunication between the unconfined and Rattlesnake Ridge aquifers on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.J.

    1987-10-01

    During 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study of a portion of the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer (confined aquifer) that lies beneath the B Pond - Gable Mountain Pond area of the Hanford Site. The purpose was to determine the extent of intercommunication between the unconfined aquifer and the uppermost regionally extensive confined aquifer, referred to as the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer. Hydraulic head data and chemical data were collected from the ground water in the study area during December 1986. The hydraulic head data were used to determine the effects caused by water discharged to the ground from B Pond on both the water table of the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric surface of the confined aquifer. The chemical data were collected to determine the extent of chemical constituents migrating from the unconfined aquifer to the confined aquifer. Analysis of chemical constituents in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer demonstrated that communication between the unconfined and confined aquifers had occurred. However, the levels of contaminants found in the Rattlesnake Ridge aquifer during this study were below the DOE Derived Concentration Guides

  1. Hydrogeological study of the aquifer system of the northern Sahara in the Algero-Tunisian border: A case study of Oued Souf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassa, Younes; Zeddouri, Aziez; Mouhamadou, Ould Babasy; Kechiched, Rabah; Benhamida, Abdeldjebbar Slimane

    2018-05-01

    The aquifer system in The Algero-Tunisian border and Chotts region is mainly composed of two aquifers: The first is the Complex Terminal (CT) and the second is the Intercalary aquifer (CI). This study aims the identification and spatial evolution of factors that controlling the water quality in the Complex Terminal aquifer (CT) in the Chotts region (Oued Souf region - Southeastern of Algeria). The concentration of major elements, temperature, pH and salinity were monitored during 2015 in 34 wells from the CT aquifer. The geological, geophysical, hydrogeological and hydrochemical methods were applied in order to carried out a model for the investigated aquifer system and to characterize the hydrogeological and the geochemical behavior, as well as the geometrical and the lithological configuration. Multivariate statistical analyses such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were also used for the treatment of several data. Results show that the salinity follows the same regional distribution of Chloride, Sodium, Magnesium, Sulfate and Calcium. Note that the salinity shows low contents in the upstream part of investigated region suggesting restricted dissolution of salts. Hydro-chemical study and saturation indexes highlight the dominance of the dissolution and the precipitation of calcite, dolomite, anhydrite, gypsum and halite. The PCA analysis indicates that Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42- and K+ variables that influence the water mineralization.

  2. Considerations on fluorides anomalies in Botucatu-Piramboia aquifers system, Parana basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmelmann, A.A.; Reboucas, A.C.; Reboucas, A.M.; Heine, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Groundwater of a great number of deep wells dug to exploit the Botucatu-Piramboia aquifer system in the Parana Basin, Brazil, have high fluoride concentrations, over 1 ppm, that turns groundwater useless for human supply. Investigations being carried out a the Center for Groundwater Research (CEPAS) of the Institute of Geosciences at USP, Sao Paulo, indicate a relationship between fluoride concentration and groundwater age, dated with radiocarbon. (author)

  3. Diagnosis of the Ghiss Nekor aquifer in order to elaborate the aquifer contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baite, Wissal; Boukdir, A.; Zitouni, A.; Dahbi, S. D.; Mesmoudi, H.; Elissami, A.; Sabri, E.; Ikhmerdi, H.

    2018-05-01

    The Ghiss-Nekor aquifer, located in the north-east of the action area of the ABHL, plays a strategic role in the drinkable water supply of the city of Al Hoceima and of the neighboring urban areas. It also participates in the irrigation of PMH. However, this aquifer has problems such as over-exploitation and pollution. In the face of these problems, the only Solution is the establishment of a new mode of governance, which privileges the participation, the involvement and the responsibility of the actors concerned in a negotiated contractual framework, namely the aquifer contract. The purpose of this study is to diagnose the current state of the Ghiss Nekor aquifer, the hydrogeological characterization of the aquifer, the use of the waters of the aquifer, the Problem identification and the introduction of the aquifer contract, which aims at the participatory and sustainable management of underground water resources in the Ghiss- Nekor plain, to ensure sustainable development.

  4. Groundwater vulnerability mapping of Qatar aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa

    2016-12-01

    Qatar is one of the most arid countries in the world with limited water resources. With little rainfall and no surface water, groundwater is the only natural source of fresh water in the country. Whilst the country relies mainly on desalination of seawater to secure water supply, groundwater has extensively been used for irrigation over the last three decades, which caused adverse environmental impact. Vulnerability assessment is a widely used tool for groundwater protection and land-use management. Aquifers in Qatar are carbonate with lots of fractures, depressions and cavities. Karst aquifers are generally more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers as any anthropogenic-sourced contaminant, especially above a highly fractured zone, can infiltrate quickly into the aquifer and spread over a wide area. The vulnerability assessment method presented in this study is based on two approaches: DRASTIC and EPIK, within the framework of Geographical Information System (GIS). Results of this study show that DRASTIC vulnerability method suits Qatar hydrogeological settings more than EPIK. The produced vulnerability map using DRASTIC shows coastal and karst areas have the highest vulnerability class. The southern part of the country is located in the low vulnerability class due to occurrence of shale formation within aquifer media, which averts downward movement of contaminants.

  5. Estimated hydrologic budgets of kettle-hole ponds in coastal aquifers of southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Kettle-hole ponds in southeastern Massachusetts are in good hydraulic connection to an extensive coastal aquifer system that includes the Plymouth-Carver aquifer system on the mainland and aquifers underlying Cape Cod. The ponds receive water from, and contribute water to, the underlying glacial aquifer; ponds also receive water from precipitation and lose water to evaporation from the pond surface. Some ponds are connected to surface-water drainage systems and receive water from or contribute water to streams or adjacent wetlands. The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection currently (2011) is developing Total Maximum Daily Loads of phosphorus for the freshwater ponds in the region to maintain the health of pond ecosystems; the amounts and sources of water fluxes into and out of the ponds are important factors in determining the amount of phosphorus that can be assimilated into a pond. To assist in this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey used groundwater-flow models of the coastal aquifer system to estimate hydrologic budgets-including inflows and outflows from the aquifer system and adjacent streams and wetlands, and recharge from precipitation-for 425 ponds in southeastern Massachusetts.

  6. Managing A Lake/Aquifer System-Science, Policy, and the Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Isabel is a small (312 ha) natural lake located in central North Dakota in the glaciated Missouri Coteau. The average lake depth is about 1.8 m with a maximum depth of about 3.6 to 4.6 m. The lake overlies the Central Dakota aquifer complex which is comprised of three sand and gravel aquifer units that are either directly or indirectly (through leakage) hydraulically connected to the lake. The aquifer is a major water source for center pivot irrigation. During the 2001-2008 drought, lower lake levels reduced lake recreation, including leaving many boat docks unusable. Lake homeowners attribute lake level decline to irrigation pumping and believe that irrigation should be curtailed. There is no water right associated with Lake Isabel because there are no constructed works associated with the lake. Therefore, under North Dakota statute the lake cannot be protected as a prior (senior) appropriator. The lake does have standing under the public interest as defined by North Dakota statute. Evaluation of the public interest involves the integration of both science and policy. Is it in the best interest of the people of the state to prohibit ground water withdrawals for irrigation to protect the lake? This is a policy decision, not a scientific decision. The basis of the policy decision should include an economic analysis of the irrigated crops, fish, wildlife, recreation, and lake property. In addition, priority of use and lake level history should be considered. The issue can likely be resolved without scientific controversy arising from hydrologic system uncertainty. If the decision is to protect the lake at some level, the issue becomes “scientized” and the following questions need to be answered: 1) Does irrigation pumping effect changes in lake levels? 2) Is our level of scientific understanding sufficient to determine what volume of irrigation pumping will cause what amount of lake level change? 3) Given aquifer lag time response to changes in pumping and

  7. Determination of dominant biogeochemical processes in a contaminated aquifer-wetland system using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez-Cazull, S. E.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Voytek, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the processes governing aqueous biogeochemistry in a wetland hydrologically linked to an underlying contaminated aquifer is challenging due to the complex exchange between the systems and their distinct responses to changes in precipitation, recharge, and biological activities. To evaluate temporal and spatial processes in the wetland-aquifer system, water samples were collected using cm-scale multichambered passive diffusion samplers (peepers) to span the wetland-aquifer interface over a period of 3 yr. Samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, methane, and a suite of organic acids resulting in a large dataset of over 8000 points, which was evaluated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was chosen with the purpose of exploring the sources of variation in the dataset to expose related variables and provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that control the water chemistry of the system. Factor scores computed from PCA were mapped by date and depth. Patterns observed suggest that (i) fermentation is the process controlling the greatest variability in the dataset and it peaks in May; (ii) iron and sulfate reduction were the dominant terminal electron-accepting processes in the system and were associated with fermentation but had more complex seasonal variability than fermentation; (iii) methanogenesis was also important and associated with bacterial utilization of minerals as a source of electron acceptors (e.g., barite BaSO4); and (iv) seasonal hydrological patterns (wet and dry periods) control the availability of electron acceptors through the reoxidation of reduced iron-sulfur species enhancing iron and sulfate reduction. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer in east-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Spechler, Rick M.; McGurk, Brian E.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water-quality characteristics of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the relation of the Lower Floridan aquifer to the framework of the Floridan aquifer system were evaluated during a 6-year (1995-2001) study. The study area, a 7,500 square-mile area of east-central Florida, is underlain by three principal hydrogeologic units: the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the Floridan aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system, a carbonate-rock aquifer system composed of the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semiconfining unit, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer, is the major source of water supply to east-central Florida. The Upper Floridan aquifer provides much of the water required to meet the current (2002) demand; however, the Lower Floridan aquifer is being used increasingly as a source of freshwater, particularly for municipal needs. For this reason, a better understanding of the aquifer is needed. The Lower Floridan aquifer is present throughout east-central Florida. The aquifer is composed of alternating beds of limestone and dolomite, and is characterized by abundant fractured dolomite zones and solution cavities. The altitude of the top of the Lower Floridan aquifer ranges from less than 600 feet below sea level in the northern part of the study area to more than 1,600 feet below sea level in the southwestern part. Thickness of the unit ranges from about 910 to 1,180 feet. The top of the Lower Floridan aquifer generally is marked by an increase in formation resistivity and by an increase in the occurrence of fractures and solution cavities within the carbonates. Also, a noticeable increase in borehole flow often marks the top of the unit. The bottom of the Lower Floridan aquifer is based on the first occurrence of evaporites. Ground-water in the Lower Floridan aquifer generally moves in a southwest-to-northeast direction across the study area. In September 1998, the altitude of the potentiometric

  9. Use of computer programs STLK1 and STWT1 for analysis of stream-aquifer hydraulic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, Leslie A.; Barlow, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    Quantifying the hydraulic interaction of aquifers and streams is important in the analysis of stream base fow, flood-wave effects, and contaminant transport between surface- and ground-water systems. This report describes the use of two computer programs, STLK1 and STWT1, to analyze the hydraulic interaction of streams with confined, leaky, and water-table aquifers during periods of stream-stage fuctuations and uniform, areal recharge. The computer programs are based on analytical solutions to the ground-water-flow equation in stream-aquifer settings and calculate ground-water levels, seepage rates across the stream-aquifer boundary, and bank storage that result from arbitrarily varying stream stage or recharge. Analysis of idealized, hypothetical stream-aquifer systems is used to show how aquifer type, aquifer boundaries, and aquifer and streambank hydraulic properties affect aquifer response to stresses. Published data from alluvial and stratifed-drift aquifers in Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Iowa are used to demonstrate application of the programs to field settings. Analytical models of these three stream-aquifer systems are developed on the basis of available hydrogeologic information. Stream-stage fluctuations and recharge are applied to the systems as hydraulic stresses. The models are calibrated by matching ground-water levels calculated with computer program STLK1 or STWT1 to measured ground-water levels. The analytical models are used to estimate hydraulic properties of the aquifer, aquitard, and streambank; to evaluate hydrologic conditions in the aquifer; and to estimate seepage rates and bank-storage volumes resulting from flood waves and recharge. Analysis of field examples demonstrates the accuracy and limitations of the analytical solutions and programs when applied to actual ground-water systems and the potential uses of the analytical methods as alternatives to numerical modeling for quantifying stream-aquifer interactions.

  10. A method to investigate inter-aquifer leakage using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Stacey; Love, Andrew; Wohling, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Shand, Paul; Kipfer, Rolf; Tyroller, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Informed aquifer management decisions regarding sustainable yields or potential exploitation require an understanding of the groundwater system (Alley et al. 2002, Cherry and Parker 2004). Recently, the increase in coal seam gas (CSG) or shale gas production has highlighted the need for a better understanding of inter-aquifer leakage and contaminant migration. In most groundwater systems, the quantity or location of inter-aquifer leakage is unknown. Not taking into account leakage rates in the analysis of large scale flow systems can also lead to significant errors in the estimates of groundwater flow rates in aquifers (Love et al. 1993, Toth 2009). There is an urgent need for robust methods to investigate inter-aquifer leakage at a regional scale. This study builds on previous groundwater flow and inter-aquifer leakage studies to provide a methodology to investigate inter-aquifer leakage in a regional sedimentary basin using hydraulics and a multi-tracer approach. The methodology incorporates geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical information in the basin to determine the likelihood and location of inter-aquifer leakage. Of particular benefit is the analysis of hydraulic heads and environmental tracers at nested piezometers, or where these are unavailable bore couplets comprising bores above and below the aquitard of interest within a localised geographical area. The proposed methodology has been successful in investigating inter-aquifer leakage in the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia. The suite of environmental tracers and isotopes used to analyse inter-aquifer leakage included the stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, chloride-36, 87Sr/86Sr and helium isotopes. There is evidence for inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the basin ~40 km along the regional flow path. This inter-aquifer leakage has been identified by a slight draw-down in the upper aquifer during pumping in the lower aquifer, overlap in Sr isotopes, δ2H, δ18O and chloride

  11. Hydrogeology and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Performance in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Ronald S.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Well construction, hydraulic well test, ambient water-quality, and cycle test data were inventoried and compiled for 30 aquifer storage and recovery facilities constructed in the Floridan aquifer system in southern Florida. Most of the facilities are operated by local municipalities or counties in coastal areas, but five sites are currently being evaluated as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. The relative performance of all sites with adequate cycle test data was determined, and compared with four hydrogeologic and design factors that may affect recovery efficiency. Testing or operational cycles include recharge, storage, and recovery periods that each last days or months. Cycle test data calculations were made including the potable water (chloride concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter) recovery efficiency per cycle, total recovery efficiency per cycle, and cumulative potable water recovery efficiencies for all of the cycles at each site. The potable water recovery efficiency is the percentage of the total amount of potable water recharged for each cycle that is recovered; potable water recovery efficiency calculations (per cycle and cumulative) were the primary measures used to evaluate site performance in this study. Total recovery efficiency, which is the percent recovery at the end of each cycle, however, can be substantially higher and is the performance measure normally used in the operation of water-treatment plants. The Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system currently is being used, or planned for use, at 29 of the aquifer storage and recovery sites. The Upper Floridan aquifer is continuous throughout southern Florida, and its overlying confinement is generally good; however, the aquifer contains brackish to saline ground water that can greatly affect freshwater storage and recovery due to dispersive mixing within the aquifer. The hydrogeology of the Upper Floridan varies in southern Florida; confinement

  12. A Regional Strategy for the Assessment and Management of Transboundary Aquifer Systems in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Rivera, A.; Tujchneider, O.; Guillén, C.; Campos, M.; Da Franca, N.; May, Z.; Aureli, A.

    2015-12-01

    The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has developed a regional strategy for the assessment and management of transboundary aquifer systems in the Americas as part of their ongoing cooperative assistance to help neighboring countries sustain water resources and reduce potential conflict. The fourth book in the series of publications sponsored by UNESCO and OAS documents this strategy. The goal of this strategy is the collective understanding, developing, managing, and protecting of the transboundary aquifers in the Americas This strategy includes technical, social, and governance recommendations for an integrated resource management of groundwater based on flexible arrangements that not only manage but also demand social participation in solving problems, consider changes in land use and water use and promote the increase of water sustainability for all transboundary neighbors. The successful implementation of this strategy starts with sharing information of the status and use of land and water as well as intergovernmental partnerships to link science and policy with existing instruments for managing the water resources. International organizations such as UNESCO and OAS also can help facilitate the development of transboundary agreements and establish cooperation on transboundary aquifers between neighbors. The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has been successful in creating a network of partners from 24 countries and in translating existing aquifer knowledge into a meaningful strategy for the American hemisphere. The strategy aims to explain and develop the role of science and the informed-decision approach. Examples from North and South America show how the process has begun to develop for selected transboundary aquifers. These include the Milk River basin between the US and Canada, the Rio Grande and Colorado River basins between the US and Mexico, and the Guarani River basin in South America.

  13. Geostatistical Simulation of Hydrofacies Heterogeneity of the West Thessaly Aquifer Systems in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.; Sideri, D.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating geological properties, such as relative positions and proportions of different hydrofacies, is of highest importance in order to render realistic geological patterns. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and Plurigaussian simulation (PS) are alternative methods for conceptual and deterministic modeling for the characterization of hydrofacies distribution. In this work, we studied the spatial differentiation of hydrofacies in the alluvial aquifer system of West Thessaly basin in Greece. For this, we applied both SIS and PS techniques to an extensive set of borehole data from that basin. Histograms of model versus experimental hydrofacies proportions and indicative cross sections were plotted in order to validate the results. The PS technique was shown to be more effective in reproducing the spatial characteristics of the different hydrofacies and their distribution across the study area. In addition, the permeability differentiations reflected in the PS model are in accordance to known heterogeneities of the aquifer capacity.

  14. Geostatistical Simulation of Hydrofacies Heterogeneity of the West Thessaly Aquifer Systems in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K., E-mail: kmodis@mail.ntua.gr; Sideri, D. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering (Greece)

    2013-06-15

    Integrating geological properties, such as relative positions and proportions of different hydrofacies, is of highest importance in order to render realistic geological patterns. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and Plurigaussian simulation (PS) are alternative methods for conceptual and deterministic modeling for the characterization of hydrofacies distribution. In this work, we studied the spatial differentiation of hydrofacies in the alluvial aquifer system of West Thessaly basin in Greece. For this, we applied both SIS and PS techniques to an extensive set of borehole data from that basin. Histograms of model versus experimental hydrofacies proportions and indicative cross sections were plotted in order to validate the results. The PS technique was shown to be more effective in reproducing the spatial characteristics of the different hydrofacies and their distribution across the study area. In addition, the permeability differentiations reflected in the PS model are in accordance to known heterogeneities of the aquifer capacity.

  15. Geohydrology of the stratified-drift aquifer system in the lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek trough, Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.; Karig, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tompkins County Planning Department began a series of studies of the stratified-drift aquifers in Tompkins County to provide geohydrologic data for planners to develop a strategy to manage and protect their water resources. This aquifer study in lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek trough is the second in a series of aquifer studies in Tompkins County. The study area is within the northern area of the Appalachian Plateau and extends about 9 miles from the boundary between Tompkins County and Tioga County in the south to just south of the City of Ithaca in the north. In lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek trough, confined sand and gravel aquifers comprise the major water-bearing units while less extensive unconfined units form minor aquifers. About 600 people who live in lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek trough rely on groundwater from the stratified-drift aquifer system. In addition, water is used by non-permanent residents such as staff at commercial facilities. The estimated total groundwater withdrawn for domestic use is about 45,000 gallons per day (gal/d) or 0.07 cubic foot per second (ft3/s) based on an average water use of 75 gal/d per person for self-supplied water systems in New York. Scouring of bedrock in the preglacial lower Sixmile Creek and Willseyville Creek valleys by glaciers and subglacial meltwaters truncated hillside spurs, formed U-shaped, transverse valley profiles, smoothed valley walls, and deepened the valleys by as much as 300 feet (ft), forming a continuous trough. The unconsolidated deposits in the study area consist mostly of glacial drift, both unstratified drift (till) and stratified drift (laminated lake, deltaic, and glaciofluvial sediments), as well as some post-glacial stratified sediments (lake-bottom sediments that were deposited in reservoirs, peat and muck that were deposited in wetlands, and alluvium deposited by streams). Multiple advances and

  16. Evaluation of the groundwater Hydric resources of the Guarani Aquifer System from Municipality of Araguari, Minas Gerais Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegasse Velasquez, L. . E- mail: menegasse@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br; De Carvalho Filho, C.; Costa Camargos, C. .E- mail: cacf@cdtn.br; E- mail: rena@cpd.ufmt.br

    2007-01-01

    The municipality of Araguari, with a total territorial area of 2.745.85 km2, is located in the western border of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and is situated at the northeastern limit of the Guarani Aquifer System-GAS. This work intends to increase the knowledge of the quantitative potencial and of the dynamics of the GAS in the Municipality bythe development of the following technical activities: elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeologic model of the GAS in the municipality; evaluation of the groundwater recharge; evaluation of groundwater reserves and resources; hydrochemical characterization; investigacion of the provenance and dynamics of groundwater by means of the stable isotopes analysis; elaboration of a hydrogeologic mathematical model of Bauru Aquifer; and evaluation of the natural vulnerability of Bauru Aquifer to anthropic pollution

  17. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of drinking water for a given aquifer service area; that is, an aquifer which is needed to supply 50% or more of the drinking water for the area and for which there are no reasonable alternative sources should the aquifer become contaminated.The aquifers were defined by a EPA hydrogeologist. Aquifer boundaries were then drafted by EPA onto 1:24000 USGS quadrangles. For the coastal sole source aquifers the shoreline as it appeared on the quadrangle was used as a boundary. Delineated boundaries were then digitized into ARC/INFO.

  18. Hydrological connectivity of perched aquifers and regional aquifers in semi-arid environments: a case study from Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated isotopic and hydrological tracers along with standard hydrological data are used to understand complex dry land hydrological processes on different spatial and temporal scales. The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between the perched aquifers and the regional aquifer using hydrochemical data and isotopic composition in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin in Namibia. This relation between the aquifers will aid in understanding groundwater recharge processes and flow dynamics. Perched aquifers are discontinuous shallow aquifers with water level ranging from 0 to 30 meters below ground level. The regional aquifer occurs in semi-consolidated sandstone at depths between about 60 and 160 meters below ground level. Water samples were collected from both aquifers in 10 villages and were analysed for major ions and stable isotopes. The results show overlapping hydrochemistry and isotopic compositions of both aquifers in 8 villages which suggest the possibility of perched aquifer water infiltrating into the regional aquifer. In two villages the hydrochemistry and isotopic composition of the aquifers are totally different and this suggests that there is no interaction between this aquifers. Areas where perched aquifers are connected to regional aquifers maybe recharge zones. These finding have important implications for groundwater resource management.

  19. State Aquifer Recharge Atlas Plates, Geographic NAD83, LDEQ (1999) [aquifer_recharge_potential_LDEQ_1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset depicting the boundaries of aquifer systems in the state of Louisiana and adjacent areas of Texas, Arkansas and a portion of Mississippi....

  20. An Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) System for Continuous and Sustainable Cold Supply in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterleitner, G.; Schütz, F.; Huenges, E.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the GeoSolCool research programme between the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and The Research Council of Oman (TRC) is the development of an innovative and sustainable cooling system in combination with an aquifer thermal energy storage system in northern Oman. An integral part of this project is the design of a subsurface aquifer reservoir system for storage of thermal energy through hot water injection. An accurate characterisation of potential storage horizons is thus essential to ensure optimal efficiency of the cooling system. The study area, 40 km west of Muscat is characterised by a thick Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession, containing at least 3 aquifer horizons. We used a multidisciplinary approach for the initial ATES development phase, including geological fieldwork dovetailed with remote sensing analyses, thin-section analyses, geological modelling and reservoir fluid flow forecasting. First results indicate two potential storage horizons: (1) a Miocene-aged clastic-dominated alluvial fan system and (2) an Eocene carbonate sequence. The alluvial fan system is a more than 300 m thick, coarse clastic (mainly gravels and sandstones) succession of coalesced individual fans. Thin-section analyses showed that hydraulic parameters are favourable for the gravel and sandstone intervals but reservoir architecture is complex due to multiple generations of interconnecting fans with highly heterogeneous facies distributions. The Eocene carbonates were deposited in a carbonate ramp setting, strongly influenced by currents and storm events. Individual facies belts extend over kilometres and thus horizontal reservoir connectivity is expected to be good with minor facies variability. Thin-section analyses showed that especially the fossil-rich sections show good storage qualities. Fluid flow forecasting indicate that both potential horizons have good to very good storage characteristics. However, intense diagenetic

  1. Arsenic control during aquifer storage recovery cycle tests in the Floridan Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirecki, June E; Bennett, Michael W; López-Baláez, Marie C

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of aquifer storage recovery (ASR) for water resource management in Florida is impeded by arsenic mobilization. Arsenic, released by pyrite oxidation during the recharge phase, sometimes results in groundwater concentrations that exceed the 10 µg/L criterion defined in the Safe Drinking Water Act. ASR was proposed as a major storage component for the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), in which excess surface water is stored during the wet season, and then distributed during the dry season for ecosystem restoration. To evaluate ASR system performance for CERP goals, three cycle tests were conducted, with extensive water-quality monitoring in the Upper Floridan Aquifer (UFA) at the Kissimmee River ASR (KRASR) pilot system. During each cycle test, redox evolution from sub-oxic to sulfate-reducing conditions occurs in the UFA storage zone, as indicated by decreasing Fe(2+) /H2 S mass ratios. Arsenic, released by pyrite oxidation during recharge, is sequestered during storage and recovery by co-precipitation with iron sulfide. Mineral saturation indices indicate that amorphous iron oxide (a sorption surface for arsenic) is stable only during oxic and sub-oxic conditions of the recharge phase, but iron sulfide (which co-precipitates arsenic) is stable during the sulfate-reducing conditions of the storage and recovery phases. Resultant arsenic concentrations in recovered water are below the 10 µg/L regulatory criterion during cycle tests 2 and 3. The arsenic sequestration process is appropriate for other ASR systems that recharge treated surface water into a sulfate-reducing aquifer. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Bedrock aquifers of eastern San Juan County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles

    1986-01-01

    This study is one of a series of studies appraising the waterbearing properties of the Navajo Sandstone and associated formations in southern Utah.  The study area is about 4,600 square miles, extending from the Utah-Arizona State line northward to the San Juan-Grand County line and westward from the Utah-Colorado State line to the longitude of about 109°50'.Some of the water-yielding formations are grouped into aquifer systems. The C aquifer is comprised of the DeChelly Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation.  The P aquifer is comprised of the Cedar Mesa Member of the Cutler Formation and the undifferentiated Cutler Formation. The N aquifer is comprised of the sedimentary section that includes the Wingate Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Navajo Sandstone, Carmel Formation, and Entrada sandstone.  The M aquifer is comprised of the Bluff Sandstone Member and other sandstone units of the Morrison Formation.  The D aquifer is comprised of the Burro Canyon Formation and Dakota Sandstone.  Discharge from the ground-water reservoir to the San Juan River between gaging stations at Four Corners and Mexican Hat is about 66 cubic feet per second.The N aquifer is the main aquifer in the study area. Recharge by infiltration of precipitation is estimated to be 25,000 acre-feet per year.  A major ground-water divide exists under the broad area east of Monticello.  The thickness of the N aquifer, where the sedimentary section is fully preserved and saturated, generally is 750 to 1,250 feet.   Hydraulic conductivity values obtained from aquifer tests range from 0.02 to 0.34 foot per day.  The total volume of water in transient storage is about 11 million acre-feet. Well discharge somewhat exceeded 2,340 acre-feet during 1981.  Discharge to the San Juan River from the N aquifer is estimated to be 6.9 cubic feet per second. Water quality ranges from a calcium bicarbonate to sodium chloride type water

  3. A Black Hills-Madison Aquifer origin for Dakota Aquifer groundwater in northeastern Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, Randy; Harvey, F Edwin; Gosselin, David C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the Dakota Aquifer in South Dakota attributed elevated groundwater sulfate concentrations to Madison Aquifer recharge in the Black Hills with subsequent chemical evolution prior to upward migration into the Dakota Aquifer. This study examines the plausibility of a Madison Aquifer origin for groundwater in northeastern Nebraska. Dakota Aquifer water samples were collected for major ion chemistry and isotopic analysis ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (34)S, (18)O-SO(4), (87)Sr, (37)Cl). Results show that groundwater beneath the eastern, unconfined portion of the study area is distinctly different from groundwater sampled beneath the western, confined portion. In the east, groundwater is calcium-bicarbonate type, with delta(18)O values (-9.6 per thousand to -12.4 per thousand) similar to local, modern precipitation (-7.4 per thousand to -10 per thousand), and tritium values reflecting modern recharge. In the west, groundwater is calcium-sulfate type, having depleted delta(18)O values (-16 per thousand to -18 per thousand) relative to local, modern precipitation, and (14)C ages 32,000 to more than 47,000 years before present. Sulfate, delta(18)O, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O-SO(4) concentrations are similar to those found in Madison Aquifer groundwater in South Dakota. Thus, it is proposed that Madison Aquifer source water is also present within the Dakota Aquifer beneath northeastern Nebraska. A simple Darcy equation estimate of groundwater velocities and travel times using reported physical parameters from the Madison and Dakota Aquifers suggests such a migration is plausible. However, discrepancies between (14)C and Darcy age estimates indicate that (14)C ages may not accurately reflect aquifer residence time, due to mixtures of varying aged water.

  4. Long-term nitrogen behavior under treated wastewater infiltration basins in a soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, Omer; Arye, Gilboa

    2018-05-01

    The long term behavior of total nitrogen and its components was investigated in a soil aquifer treatment system of the Dan Region Reclamation Project (Shafdan), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Use is made of the previous 40 years' secondary data for the main nitrogen components (ammonium, nitrate and organic nitrogen) in recharged effluent and observation wells located inside an infiltration basin. The wells were drilled to 106 and 67 m, both in a similar position within the basin. The transport characteristics of each nitrogen component were evaluated based on chloride travel-time, calculated by a cross-correlation between its concentration in the recharge effluent and the observation wells. Changes in the source of recharge effluent, wastewater treatment technology and recharge regime were found to be the main factors affecting turnover in total nitrogen and its components. During aerobic operation of the infiltration basins, most organic nitrogen and ammonium will be converted to nitrate. Total nitrogen removal in the upper part of the aquifer was found to be 47-63% by denitrification and absorption, and overall removal, including the lower part of the aquifer, was 49-83%. To maintain the aerobic operation of the infiltration fields, the total nitrogen load should remain below 10 mg/L. Above this limit, ammonium and organic nitrogen will be displaced into the aquifer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Managed aquifer recharge: rediscovering nature as a leading edge technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, P; Toze, S; Page, D; Vanderzalm, J; Bekele, E; Sidhu, J; Rinck-Pfeiffer, S

    2010-01-01

    Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) has rapidly increased in Australia, USA, and Europe in recent years as an efficient means of recycling stormwater or treated sewage effluent for non-potable and indirect potable reuse in urban and rural areas. Yet aquifers have been relied on knowingly for water storage and unwittingly for water treatment for millennia. Hence if 'leading edge' is defined as 'the foremost part of a trend; a vanguard', it would be misleading to claim managed aquifer recharge as a leading edge technology. However it has taken a significant investment in scientific research in recent years to demonstrate the effectiveness of aquifers as sustainable treatment systems to enable managed aquifer recharge to be recognised along side engineered treatment systems in water recycling. It is a 'cross-over' technology that is applicable to water and wastewater treatment and makes use of passive low energy processes to spectacularly reduce the energy requirements for water supply. It is robust within limits, has low cost, is suitable from village to city scale supplies, and offers as yet almost untapped opportunities for producing safe drinking water supplies where they do not yet exist. It will have an increasingly valued role in securing water supplies to sustain cities affected by climate change and population growth. However it is not a universal panacea and relies on the presence of suitable aquifers and sources of water together with effective governance to ensure human health and environment protection and water resources planning and management. This paper describes managed aquifer recharge, illustrates its use in Australia, outlining economics, guidelines and policies, and presents some of the knowledge about aquifer treatment processes that are revealing the latent value of aquifers as urban water infrastructure and provide a driver to improving our understanding of urban hydrogeology.

  6. Geology of hole drill thermal infra basaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) in Salto Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, C.; Muzio, R.; Marmisolle, J.; De Souza, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the lithological description of a thermal infrabasaltic (Guarani Aquifer System) hole drill cutting in Dayman (Kanarek Hotel), Salto department (Uruguay). This hole drill shows 152 meters of Buena Vista Formation (Upper Permian- Lower Triassic), 188 meters of Tacuarembo Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) and 940meters of Arapey Formation (Lower Cretaceous). Petrographical studies of six basaltic levels were done [es

  7. Characterization of a managed aquifer recharge system using multiple tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Radny, Dirk; Popp, Andrea; Brennwald, Matthias; Stoll, Sebastian; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Berg, Michael; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-12-31

    Knowledge about the residence times of artificially infiltrated water into an aquifer and the resulting flow paths is essential to developing groundwater-management schemes. To obtain this knowledge, a variety of tracers can be used to study residence times and gain information about subsurface processes. Although a variety of tracers exists, their interpretation can differ considerably due to subsurface heterogeneity, underlying assumptions, and sampling and analysis limitations. The current study systematically assesses information gained from seven different tracers during a pumping experiment at a site where drinking water is extracted from an aquifer close to contaminated areas and where groundwater is artificially recharged by infiltrating surface water. We demonstrate that the groundwater residence times estimated using dye and heat tracers are comparable when the thermal retardation for the heat tracer is considered. Furthermore, major ions, acesulfame, and stable isotopes (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) show that mixing of infiltrated water and groundwater coming from the regional flow path occurred and a vertical stratification of the flow system exist. Based on the concentration patterns of dissolved gases (He, Ar, Kr, N 2 , and O 2 ) and chlorinated solvents (e.g., tetrachloroethene), three temporal phases are observed in the ratio between infiltrated water and regional groundwater during the pumping experiment. Variability in this ratio is significantly related to changes in the pumping and infiltration rates. During constant pumping rates, more infiltrated water was extracted, which led to a higher dilution of the regional groundwater. An infiltration interruption caused however, the ratio to change and more regional groundwater is extracted, which led to an increase in all concentrations. The obtained results are discussed for each tracer considered and its strengths and limitations are illustrated. Overall, it is demonstrated that aquifer heterogeneity and

  8. Modeling groundwater flow to elliptical lakes and through multi-aquifer elliptical inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Two new analytic element solutions are presented for steady flow problems with elliptical boundaries. The first solution concerns groundwater flow to shallow elliptical lakes with leaky lake beds in a single-aquifer. The second solution concerns groundwater flow through elliptical cylinder inhomogeneities in a multi-aquifer system. Both the transmissivity of each aquifer and the resistance of each leaky layer may differ between the inside and the outside of an inhomogeneity. The elliptical inhomogeneity may be bounded on top by a shallow elliptical lake with a leaky lake bed. Analytic element solutions are obtained for both problems through separation of variables of the Laplace and modified-Helmholtz differential equations in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the discharge potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials, trigonometric functions, and modified-Mathieu functions. The series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately, but up to machine accuracy provided enough terms are used. The head and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the aquifer. Examples are given of uniform flow through an elliptical lake, a well pumping near two elliptical lakes, and uniform flow through three elliptical inhomogeneities in a multi-aquifer system. Mathieu functions may be applied in a similar fashion to solve other groundwater flow problems in semi-confined aquifers and leaky aquifer systems with elliptical internal or external boundaries.

  9. Estimating Groundwater Mounding in Sloping Aquifers for Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Kacimov, Anvar; Al-Maktoumi, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Design of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) for augmentation of groundwater resources often lacks detailed data, and simple diagnostic tools for evaluation of the water table in a broad range of parameters are needed. In many large-scale MAR projects, the effect of a regional aquifer base dip cannot be ignored due to the scale of recharge sources (e.g., wadis, streams, reservoirs). However, Hantush's (1967) solution for a horizontal aquifer base is commonly used. To address sloping aquifers, a new closed-form analytical solution for water table mound accounts for the geometry and orientation of recharge sources at the land surface with respect to the aquifer base dip. The solution, based on the Dupiuit-Forchheimer approximation, Green's function method, and coordinate transformations is convenient for computing. This solution reveals important MAR traits in variance with Hantush's solution: mounding is limited in time and space; elevation of the mound is strongly affected by the dip angle; and the peak of the mound moves over time. These findings have important practical implications for assessment of various MAR scenarios, including waterlogging potential and determining proper rates of recharge. Computations are illustrated for several characteristic MAR settings. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Simulating groundwater flow and runoff for the Oro Moraine aquifer system. Part II. Automated calibration and mass balance calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, J.; Frind, E. O.

    2001-03-01

    A steady-state groundwater model of the Oro Moraine aquifer system in Central Ontario, Canada, is developed. The model is used to identify the role of baseflow in the water balance of the Minesing Swamp, a 70 km 2 wetland of international significance. Lithologic descriptions are used to develop a hydrostratigraphic conceptual model of the aquifer system. The numerical model uses long-term averages to represent temporal variations of the flow regime and includes a mechanism to redistribute recharge in response to near-surface geologic heterogeneity. The model is calibrated to water level and streamflow measurements through inverse modeling. Observed baseflow and runoff quantities validate the water mass balance of the numerical model and provide information on the fraction of the water surplus that contributes to groundwater flow. The inverse algorithm is used to compare alternative model zonation scenarios, illustrating the power of non-linear regression in calibrating complex aquifer systems. The adjoint method is used to identify sensitive recharge areas for groundwater discharge to the Minesing Swamp. Model results suggest that nearby urban development will have a significant impact on baseflow to the swamp. Although the direct baseflow contribution makes up only a small fraction of the total inflow to the swamp, it provides an important steady influx of water over relatively large portions of the wetland. Urban development will also impact baseflow to the headwaters of local streams. The model provides valuable insight into crucial characteristics of the aquifer system although definite conclusions regarding details of its water budget are difficult to draw given current data limitations. The model therefore also serves to guide future data collection and studies of sub-areas within the basin.

  11. Organic and inorganic carbon dynamics in a karst aquifer: Santa Fe River Sink-Rise system, north Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Moore, Paul J.; Martin, Jonathan B.

    2014-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), major ions concentrations and other geochemical parameters including stable carbon isotopes of DIC (δ13CDIC), were measured in surface water and deep and shallow well water samples of the Santa Fe River Sink-Rise eogenetic karst system, north Florida, USA. Three end-member water sources were identified: one DOC-rich/DIC-poor/δ13CDIC-depleted, one DOC-poor/DIC-rich/δ13CDIC-enriched, and one enriched in major ions. Given their spatiotemporal distributions, they were presumed to represent soil water, upper aquifer groundwater, and deep aquifer water sources, respectively. Using assumed ratios of Na+, Cl, and SO42- for each end-member, a mixing model calculated the contribution of each water source to each sample. Then, chemical effects of biogeochemical reactions were calculated as the difference between those predicted by the mixing model and measured species concentrations. In general, carbonate mineral dissolution occurred throughout the Sink-Rise system, surface waters were net autotrophic and the subsurface was in metabolic balance, i.e., no net DOC or DIC production or consumption. However, there was evidence for chemolithoautotrophy, perhaps by hydrogen oxidizing microbes, at some deep aquifer sites. Mineralization of this autochthonous natural dissolved organic matter (NDOM) led to localized carbonate dissolution as did surface water-derived NDOM supplied to shallow well sites during the highest flow periods. This study demonstrates linkages between hydrology, abiotic and microbial processes and carbon dynamics and has important implications for groundwater quality, karst morphologic evolution, and hydrogeologic projects such as aquifer storage and recovery in karst systems.

  12. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  13. First step to understand the importance of new deep aquifer pumping regime in groundwater system in a developing country, Kwale, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Nuria; Folch, Albert; Lane, Mike; Thomas, Mike; Sasaka, Willie; Wara, Calvince; Banje, Said; Olago, Dan; Katuva, Jacob; Thomson, Patrick; Hope, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The population growth in the world carries on the one hand, an increased demand of fresh water and on the other hand, a decrease of quality and quantity of this resource. To avoid this deterioration it is essential doing a good management of surface water and groundwater, specially the second one, which has become the major source of water supply for domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries (UNEP 1999). This groundwater management starts with an accurate hydrogeological characterization of aquifer systems, mainly in that aquifer systems in which is changing the abstraction regime. In this context of population growth and new abstraction regimes on aquifer system is where the project "Gro for Good: Groundwater Risk for Growth and Development" is founded by UPGro. This interdisciplinary project has the main goal to design, test and transfer to the society an innovative Groundwater Risk Management Tool to improve and get by new governance transformations the balance between economic growth, groundwater sustainability (in terms of quality and quantity) and human development (http://upgro.org/consortium/gro-for-good/). The study area is located on the south eastern coast of Kenya, in Kwale County. The Kwale coastal groundwater system formed by a shallow and deep aquifer systems has long served urban water demands and an established tourism industry but now faces unprecedented ground and surface water resource demands especially from KISCOL's (5,500 hectares of irrigated sugarcane) and the country's largest mining operation (Base Titanium Ltd.). Despite both companies have drilled deep boreholes around the study area (416 km2) to extract groundwater from deep aquifer; no major pumping activity has started yet, allowing baseline evaluation. Scattered around the study are 440 handpumps providing drinking water to over 90,000 people. The relationship between the shallow and deep aquifers remains uncertain and so, the future influence on groundwater

  14. Hydrologic and isotopic study of the Quito aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Fabio; Benalcazar, Julio; Garcia, Marco; Altamirano, Cesar; Altamirano, Homero; Sarasti, Santiago; Mancero, Maria; Leiva, Eduardo; Pino, Jose; Alulema, Rafael; Cedeno, Alberto; Burbano, Napoleon; Paquel, Efren; Becerra, Simon; Andrade, Graciela

    2000-10-01

    The dynamics of the Quito basin and surrounding area aquifers were determined through the use of stable and radioactive isotopes, and the monitoring of the freatic levels and of the bacteriological and physico-chemical quality of the water. A conceptual hydrodynamic model of the Quito aquifer was also proposed in order to establish in the future a sustainable management system

  15. Fate of N-nitrosomorpholine in an anaerobic aquifer used for managed aquifer recharge: a column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitoi, M M; Patterson, B M; Furness, A J; Bastow, T P; McKinley, A J

    2011-04-01

    The fate of N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) was evaluated at microgram and nanogram per litre concentrations. Experiments were undertaken to simulate the passage of groundwater contaminants through a deep anaerobic pyritic aquifer system, as part of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy. Sorption studies demonstrated the high mobility of NMOR in the Leederville aquifer system, with retardation coefficients between 1.2 and 1.6. Degradation studies from a 351 day column experiment and a 506 day stop-flow column experiment showed an anaerobic biologically induced reductive degradation process which followed first order kinetics. A biological lag-time of less than 3 months and a transient accumulation of morpholine (MOR) were also noted during the degradation. Comparable half-life degradation rates of 40-45 days were observed over three orders of magnitude in concentration (200 ng L(-1) to 650 μg L(-1)). An inhibitory effect on microorganism responsible to the biodegradation of NMOR at 650 μg L(-1) or a threshold effect at 200 ng L(-1) was not observed during these experiments. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of geologic layering on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, D. W.; Allen, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling study was carried out to evaluate the influence of aquifer heterogeneity, as represented by geologic layering, on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Agassiz, British Columbia, Canada. Two 3D heat transport models were developed and calibrated using the flow and heat transport code FEFLOW including: a "non-layered" model domain with homogeneous hydraulic and thermal properties; and, a "layered" model domain with variable hydraulic and thermal properties assigned to discrete geological units to represent aquifer heterogeneity. The base model (non-layered) shows limited sensitivity for the ranges of all thermal and hydraulic properties expected at the site; the model is most sensitive to vertical anisotropy and hydraulic gradient. Simulated and observed temperatures within the wells reflect a combination of screen placement and layering, with inconsistencies largely explained by the lateral continuity of high permeability layers represented in the model. Simulation of heat injection, storage and recovery show preferential transport along high permeability layers, resulting in longitudinal plume distortion, and overall higher short-term storage efficiencies.

  17. Post audit of a numerical prediction of wellfield drawdown in a semiconfined aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, M.; Langevin, C.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical ground water flow model was created in 1978 and revised in 1981 to predict the drawdown effects of a proposed municipal wellfield permitted to withdraw 30 million gallons per day (mgd; 1.1 x 105 m3/day) of water from the semiconfined Floridan Aquifer system. The predictions are based on the assumption that water levels in the semiconfined Floridan Aquifer reach a long-term, steady-state condition within a few days of initiation of pumping. Using this assumption, a 75 day simulation without water table recharge, pumping at the maximum permitted rates, was considered to represent a worst-case condition and the greatest drawdowns that could be experienced during wellfield operation. This method of predicting wellfield effects was accepted by the permitting agency. For this post audit, observed drawdowns were derived by taking the difference between pre-pumping and post-pumping potentiometric surface levels. Comparison of predicted and observed drawdowns suggests that actual drawdown over a 12 year period exceeds predicted drawdown by a factor of two or more. Analysis of the source of error in the 1981 predictions suggests that the values used for transmissivity, storativity, specific yield, and leakance are reasonable at the wellfield scale. Simulation using actual 1980-1992 pumping rates improves the agreement between predicted and observed drawdowns. The principal source of error is the assumption that water levels in a semiconfined aquifer achieve a steady-state condition after a few days or weeks of pumping. Simulations using a version of the 1981 model modified to include recharge and evapotranspiration suggest that it can take hundreds of days or several years for water levels in the linked Surficial and Floridan Aquifers to reach an apparent steady-state condition, and that slow declines in levels continue for years after the initiation of pumping. While the 1981 'impact' model can be used for reasonably predicting short-term, wellfield

  18. Development of a three-dimensional ground-water model of the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer system: FY 1995 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Freshley, M.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model of ground-water flow was developed for the uppermost unconfined aquifer at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. Development of the model is supported by the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is responsible for monitoring the sitewide movement of contaminants in ground water beneath the Hanford Site. Two objectives of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project are to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, and (2) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the Hanford Site through the ground-water pathway. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system are important tools for estimating future aquifer conditions and predicting the movement of contaminants through ground water. The Ground-Water Surveillance Project has supported development and maintenance of a two-dimensional model of the unconfined aquifer. This report describes upgrade of the two-dimensional model to a three-dimensional model. The numerical model is based on a three-dimensional conceptual model that will be continually refined and updated as additional information becomes available. This report presents a description of the three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system and then discusses the cur-rent state of the three-dimensional numerical model

  19. Digital surfaces and hydrogeologic data for the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    A digital dataset for the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and in parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina was developed from selected reports published as part of the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the 1980s. These reports contain maps and data depicting the extent and elevation of both time-stratigraphic and hydrogeologic units of which the aquifer system is composed, as well as data on hydrology, meteorology, and aquifer properties. The three primary reports used for this dataset compilation were USGS Professional Paper 1403-B (Miller, 1986), Professional Paper 1403-C (Bush and Johnston, 1988), and USGS Open-File Report 88-86 (Miller, 1988). Paper maps from Professional Papers 1403-B and 1403-C were scanned and georeferenced to the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27) using the Lambert Conformal Conic projection (standard parallels 33 and 45 degrees, central longitude -96 degrees, central latitude 39 degrees). Once georeferenced, tracing of pertinent line features contained in each image (for example, contours and faults) was facilitated by specialized software using algorithms that automated much of the process. Resulting digital line features were then processed using standard geographic information system (GIS) software to remove artifacts from the digitization process and to verify and update attribute tables. The digitization process for polygonal features (for example, outcrop areas and unit extents) was completed by hand using GIS software.

  20. Using Novel Laboratory Incubations and Field Experiments to Identify the Source and Fate of Reactive Organic Carbon in an Arsenic-contaminated Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, M.; Tarek, M. H.; Badruzzaman, B.; Harvey, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) within aquifer systems is key to our understanding of both the broader global carbon cycle as well as the quality of our groundwater resources. The linkage between the subsurface carbon cycle and groundwater quality is perhaps nowhere more apparent than in the aquifer systems of South and Southeast Asia, where the contamination of groundwater with geogenic arsenic (As) is widespread and threatens the health of millions of individuals. OM fuels the biogeochemical processes driving As mobilization within these aquifers, however the source (i.e., modern surface-derived or aged sedimentary OM) of the reactive OM is widely debated. To characterize the sources of OM driving aquifer redox processes we tracked DIC and DOC concentrations and isotopes (stable and radiocarbon) along groundwater flow-paths and beneath an instrumented study pond at a field site in Bangladesh. We also conducted a set of novel groundwater incubation experiments, where we carbon-dated the DOC at the start and end of a experiment in order to determine the age of the OM that was mineralized. Our carbon/isotope balance reveals that aquifer recharge introduces a large quantity of young (i.e. near modern) OM that is efficiently mineralized within the upper few meters of the aquifer, effectively limiting this pool of reactive surface-sourced OM from being transported deeper into the aquifer where significant As mobilization takes place. The OM mineralized past the upper few meters is an aged, sedimentary source. Consistent with our field data, our incubation experiments show that past the upper few meters of the aquifer the reactive DOC is significantly older than the bulk DOC and has an age consistent with sedimentary OM. Combining our novel set of incubation experiments and a carbon/isotope balance along groundwater flow-paths and beneath our study pond we have identified the sources of reactive OM across different aquifer depths in a

  1. Comparison of implementation of selected TMI action plan requirements on operating plants designed by Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, J.O.

    1984-05-01

    This report provides the results of a study conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to compare the degree to which eight Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) designed licensed nuclear power plants have complied with the requirements in NUREG-0737, Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements. The eight licensed operating plants examined are as follows: Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 1 (ANO-1), Crystal River Unit 3, Davis Besse, Oconee Units 1, 2, and 3, Rancho Seco, and Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1). The purpose of this audit was to establish the progress of the TMI-1 licensee, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear Corporation, in completing the long-term requirements in NUREG-0737 relative to the other B and W licensees examined

  2. Groundwater movement study of Guarani Aquifer System through isotopes in Parana Sao Paulo and Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rosa Filho, E.; Chemas Hindi, E.; Lima Bittencourt, A.; Aravena, R.; Montano, J.; Duarte, U.

    2007-01-01

    The current conceptual models of the Guarany Aquifer System (GAS), found in Galboa et al. (1976), Fraga (1992); Campos (1994), Araujo et al. (1995), Rosa Filho et al. (1998) and Campos (2000), are in regional scale, taking only intoaccount the aquifer stratigraphic characteristics, showing the Piramboia and Botucatu Formations gently dipping under the Serra Geral Formation. This model represents the aquifer like an almost homogeneous and isotropic layer, desregarding local influences caused by fauts and intrusive bodies on the groundwater flow or on the water volume stored in the aquifer, as quoted by Sinelli et al. (1984). The GAS shows many structural conditioning, with highligts to the depocenters of Serra Geral Formation, reactivation of faulting systems, the uplift of the present basin s borders and the activation of the Rio Grande and Ponta Grossa Arches (Araujo et al., 1995). Regarding the structural control due to the Ponta Grossa Arch, it is worthwhile to point out the ocurrence along the mentioned arch, of innumerous diabase dykes predominately striking NW (Ferreira 1982a,b).The dykes and regional geological structures (faultings) play an important role on the structural compartimentation of the GAS. The strategy for the GAS exploitation, inside Parana State, must involve technical, scientific (geology, geophysics, hydrochemistr y and isotopic studies) and socio-economic approaches, in order to select the favourable targets for groundwater withdraw and, simultaneously, allow a proper management that result in a good balance between water production and use and protection of the GAS. Therefore, the knowledge of local geological factors controling the aquifer hydrodynamic (flow pattern, volume of stored water, well yieldings and water quality) besides its geometric compartimentation (unities with different hydrodynamic behaviour), will contribute to the development of a conceptual qualitative model to be used as a tool for the SAG mangement. The results of

  3. Effect of flow leakage on the benchmarking of FLOWTRAN with Mark-22 mockup flow excursion test data from Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuo-Fu.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents a revised analysis of the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) downflow flow excursion tests that accounts for leakage between flow channels in the test assembly. Leak rates were estimated by comparing results from the downflow tests with those for upflow tests conducted using an identical assembly with some minor modifications. The upflow test assembly did not contain leaks. This revised analyses shows that FLOWTRAN with the SRS working criterion conservatively predicts onset of flow instability without using a local peaking factor to model heat transfer variations near the ribs

  4. Groundwater reorganization in the Floridan aquifer following Holocene sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Sheila K.; Clark, Jordan F.; Bennett, Michael; Richardson, Emily; Stute, Martin

    2010-10-01

    Sea-level fluctuations, particularly those associated with glacial-interglacial cycles, can have profound impacts on the flow and circulation of coastal groundwater: the water found at present in many coastal aquifers may have been recharged during the last glacial period, when sea level was over 100m lower than present, and thus is not in equilibrium with present recharge conditions. Here we show that the geochemistry of the groundwater found in the Floridan Aquifer System in south Florida is best explained by a reorganization of groundwater flow following the sea-level rise at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 18,000 years ago. We find that the geochemistry of the fresh water found in the upper aquifers at present is consistent with recharge from meteoric water during the last glacial period. The lower aquifer, however, consists of post-sea-level-rise salt water that is most similar to that of the Straits of Florida, though with some dilution from the residual fresh water from the last glacial period circulation. We therefore suggest that during the last glacial period, the entire Floridan Aquifer System was recharged with meteoric waters. After sea level rose, the increased hydraulic head reduced the velocity of the groundwater flow. This velocity reduction trapped the fresh water in the upper aquifers and initiated saltwater circulation in the lower aquifer.

  5. Managing the unseen: Langebaan Road Aquifer System | du Plessis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effective management of groundwater resources is a critical aspect to ... The paper highlights specific problems experienced with the implementation of the Langebaan Road Aquifer well-field as an integrated water resource, and the ...

  6. Regeneration of a confined aquifer after redevelopment and decommission of artesian wells, example from Grafendorf aquifer (Styria, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmedovski, Nudzejma; Winkler, Gerfried

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for life and it is therefore necessary to protect drinking water sustainably. Compared to shallow groundwater, deeper groundwater is especially important due to its characteristic tendency to remain extensively unaffected by environmental impacts. Thus, the uncontrolled waste of this valuable resource has to be avoided. A lot of artesian wells have been established in Grafendorf bei Hartberg (Styria, Austria). Almost all wells were not state-of-the art. As a result the different aquifer horizons began to intermix. Additionally some of the artesian wells had a permanent free overflow and the water was not even used. Consequently, since 1950, where the mean discharge of 37 wells was 0,334 l/s per well, the discharge has decreased to 0,090 l/s until 2013, which means a decline of about 75 %. As a reaction to these declines a decommissioning campaign was conducted where 69 artesian wells have been closed by injecting a cement-bentonite suspension (ratio 3:1). The Grafendorf aquifer is situated in the Styrian Basin and consists of 5 separated artesian horizons in Neogene sediments. These artesian horizons range from 42 m (1st horizon) to 176 m (5th horizon) and mostly consist of sand, partly of fine/medium/coarse gravel and partially with minor clay content. In order to analyse the reaction of the Grafendorf aquifer to these redevelopments, 5 monitoring wells could be used for the analysis. Some monitoring wells include different aquifer horizons and hydraulically short cut them. Thus, in this work the analysis focus on the general trend of the whole aquifer system neglecting the individual interactions between the different aquifers. In a first investigation step the hydraulic properties of the aquifer system has been determined using pumping tests which were analysed with different analytical solutions with the software AQTESOLV. Overall the pumping test solutions hardly differ in the transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity. On the contrary the

  7. Digital model evaluation of the predevelopment flow system of the Tertiary limestone aquifer, Southeast Georgia, Northeast Florida, and South South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model using finite-difference techniques was used successfully to simulate the predevelopment flow regime within the multilayered Tertiary limestone aquifer system in Southeastern Georgia, Northeastern Florida, and Southern South Carolina as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's Tertiary Limestone Regional Aquifer System analysis. The aquifer, of early Eocene to Miocene age, ranges from thin interbedded clastics and marl in the updip area to massive limestone and dolomite 1,500 feet thick in the downdip area. The aquifer is confined above by Miocene clay beds, and terminates at depth in low-permeability rocks or the saltwater interface. Model-simulated transmissivity of the upper permeable zone ranged from about 1 x 10 super 3 foot squared per day in the updip area and within parts of the Gulf Trough (a series of alinement basins filled by fine clastic in material) to about 1 x 10 super 6 foot squared per day in South Georgia, and area having large secondarily developed solution channels. The model results indicate that only about 540 cubic feet per second of water flowed through the predeveloped system, from the updip highland area of high altitude and in the areas north of Valdosta and southwest of Jacksonville, to discharge along streams in the updip area and diffuse upward leakage in the downdip area near the coast and offshore. (USGS)

  8. Accounting for the Decreasing Reaction Potential of Heterogeneous Aquifers in a Stochastic Framework of Aquifer-Scale Reactive Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschko, Matthias; Wöhling, Thomas; Rudolph, David L.; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2018-01-01

    Many groundwater contaminants react with components of the aquifer matrix, causing a depletion of the aquifer's reactivity with time. We discuss conceptual simplifications of reactive transport that allow the implementation of a decreasing reaction potential in reactive-transport simulations in chemically and hydraulically heterogeneous aquifers without relying on a fully explicit description. We replace spatial coordinates by travel-times and use the concept of relative reactivity, which represents the reaction-partner supply from the matrix relative to a reference. Microorganisms facilitating the reactions are not explicitly modeled. Solute mixing is neglected. Streamlines, obtained by particle tracking, are discretized in travel-time increments with variable content of reaction partners in the matrix. As exemplary reactive system, we consider aerobic respiration and denitrification with simplified reaction equations: Dissolved oxygen undergoes conditional zero-order decay, nitrate follows first-order decay, which is inhibited in the presence of dissolved oxygen. Both reactions deplete the bioavailable organic carbon of the matrix, which in turn determines the relative reactivity. These simplifications reduce the computational effort, facilitating stochastic simulations of reactive transport on the aquifer scale. In a one-dimensional test case with a more detailed description of the reactions, we derive a potential relationship between the bioavailable organic-carbon content and the relative reactivity. In a three-dimensional steady-state test case, we use the simplified model to calculate the decreasing denitrification potential of an artificial aquifer over 200 years in an ensemble of 200 members. We demonstrate that the uncertainty in predicting the nitrate breakthrough in a heterogeneous aquifer decreases with increasing scale of observation.

  9. Aquifer test to determine hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer near Aberdeen, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    2000-01-01

    The Elm aquifer, which consists of sandy and gravelly glacial-outwash deposits, is present in several counties in northeastern South Dakota. An aquifer test was conducted northeast of Aberdeen during the fall of 1999 to determine the hydraulic properties of the Elm aquifer in that area. An improved understanding of the properties of the aquifer will be useful in the possible development of the aquifer as a water resource. Historical water-level data indicate that the saturated thickness of the Elm aquifer can change considerably over time. From September 1977 through November 1985, water levels at three wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 5.1 ft, 9.50 ft, and 11.1 ft. From June 1982 through October 1999, water levels at five wells completed in the Elm aquifer near the aquifer test site varied by 8.7 ft, 11.4 ft, 13.2 ft, 13.8 ft, and 19.7 ft. The water levels during the fall of 1999 were among the highest on record, so the aquifer test was affected by portions of the aquifer being saturated that might not be saturated during drier times. The aquifer test was conducted using five existing wells that had been installed prior to this study. Well A, the pumped well, has an operating irrigation pump and is centrally located among the wells. Wells B, C, D, and E are about 70 ft, 1,390 ft, 2,200 ft, and 3,100 ft, respectively, in different directions from Well A. Using vented pressure transducers and programmable data loggers, water-level data were collected at the five wells prior to, during, and after the pumping, which started on November 19, 1999, and continued a little over 72 hours. Based on available drilling logs, the Elm aquifer near the test area was assumed to be unconfined. The Neuman (1974) method theoretical response curves that most closely match the observed water-level changes at Wells A and B were calculated using software (AQTESOLV for Windows Version 2.13-Professional) developed by Glenn M. Duffield of Hydro

  10. Sedimentological analysis of a contaminated groundwater aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of sedimentological reservoir analysis techniques adapted from standard oilfield practice can improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of the evaluation of groundwater aquifers and the design of restoration programs. An evaluation/restoration program at a site in California drilled over 200 test wells in about 750 ac. All wells were logged lithologically and with wireline. The shallow aquifer is a complex braided alluvial floodplain deposit of Late Quaternary age. Analysis demonstrates depositional and erosional responses to periodic hinterland uplifts and to changing climatic conditions. Channel, overbank, lacustrine, and minor deltaic deposits can be recognized. The aquifer architecture has been interpreted to explain the movement of fuel and halogenated hydrocarbon solvents in the sediments and water. Routine engineering geology techniques and hydrologic tests were used to evaluate contamination and to design experimental restoration processes. As demonstrated here, sedimentological techniques show promise in reducing the costs and time required for this type of study. The abundant detailed data will be used in an attempt to develop a microcomputer-based expert system for rapid preliminary analyses of similar aquifers or reservoirs

  11. Unconsolidated Aquifers in Tompkins County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Todd S.

    2000-01-01

    Unconsolidated aquifers consisting of saturated sand and gravel are capable of supplying large quantities of good-quality water to wells in Tompkins County, but little published geohydrologic inform ation on such aquifers is available. In 1986, the U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) began collecting geohydrologic information and well data to construct an aquifer map showing the extent of unconsolidated aquifers in Tompkins county. Data sources included (1) water-well drillers. logs; (2) highway and other construction test-boring logs; (3) well data gathered by the Tompkins County Department of Health, (4) test-well logs from geohydrologic consultants that conducted projects for site-specific studies, and (5) well data that had been collected during past investigations by the USGS and entered into the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. In 1999, the USGS, in cooperation with the Tompkins County Department of Planning, compiled these data to construct this map. More than 600 well records were entered into the NWIS database in 1999 to supplement the 350 well records already in the database; this provided a total of 950 well records. The data were digitized and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) coverage so that well locations could be plotted on a map, and well data could be tabulated in a digital data base through ARC/INFO software. Data on the surficial geology were used with geohydrologic data from well records and previous studies to delineate the extent of aquifers on this map. This map depicts (1) the extent of unconsolidated aquifers in Tompkins County, and (2) locations of wells whose records were entered into the USGS NWIS database and made into a GIS digital coverage. The hydrologic information presented here is generalized and is not intended for detailed site evaluations. Precise locations of geohydrologic-unit boundaries, and a description of the hydrologic conditions within the units, would require additional detailed, site

  12. Hydrogeologic characteristics and water quality of a confined sand unit in the surficial aquifer system, Hunter Army Airfield, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    An 80-foot-deep well (36Q397, U.S. Geological Survey site identification 320146081073701) was constructed at Hunter Army Airfield to assess the potential of using the surficial aquifer system as a water source to irrigate a ballfield complex. A 300-foot-deep test hole was drilled beneath the ballfield complex to characterize the lithology and water-bearing characteristics of sediments above the Upper Floridan aquifer. The test hole was then completed as well 36Q397 open to a 19-foot-thick shallow, confined sand unit contained within the surficial aquifer system. A single-well, 24-hour aquifer test was performed by pumping well 36Q397 at a rate of 50 gallons per minute during July 13-14, 2011, to characterize the hydrologic properties of the shallow, confined sand unit. Two pumping events prior to the aquifer test affected water levels. Drawdown during all three pumping events and residual drawdown during recovery periods were simulated using the Theis formula on multiple changes in discharge rate. Simulated drawdown and residual drawdown match well with measured drawdown and residual drawdown using values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and specific storage, which are typical for a confined sand aquifer. Based on the hydrologic parameters used to match simulated drawdown and residual drawdown to measured drawdown and residual drawdown, the transmissivity of the sand was determined to be about 400 feet squared per day. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the sand was determined to be about 20 feet per day. Analysis of a water-quality sample indicated that the water is suitable for irrigation. Sample analysis indicated a calcium-carbonate type water having a total dissolved solids concentration of 39 milligrams per liter. Specific conductance and concentrations of all analyzed constituents were below those that would be a concern for irrigation, and were below primary and secondary water-quality criteria levels.

  13. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  14. Toward an Economic Definition of Sustainable Yield for Coastal Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, J. W.; Habana, N. C.; Lander, M.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of aquifer sustainable yield has long been criticized, debated, and even disparaged among groundwater hydrologists, but policy-makers and professional water resource managers inevitably ask them for unequivocal answers to such questions as "What is the absolute maximum volume of water that could be sustainably withdrawn from this aquifer?" We submit that it is therefore incumbent upon hydrologists to develop and offer valid practical definitions of sustainable yield that can be usefully applied to given conditions and types of aquifers. In coastal aquifers, water quality—in terms of salinity—is affected by changes in the natural water budget and the volume rate of artificial extraction. In principle, one can identify a family of assay curves for a given aquifer, showing the specific relationships between the quantity and quality of the water extracted under given conditions of recharge. The concept of the assay curve, borrowed from the literature of natural-resource extraction economics, has to our knowledge not yet found its way into the literature of applied hydrology. The relationships between recharge, extraction, and water quality that define the assay curve can be determined empirically from sufficient observations of groundwater response to recharge and extraction and can be estimated from models that have been reliably history-matched ("calibrated") to such data. We thus propose a working definition of sustainable yield for coastal aquifers in terms of the capacity that ultimately could be achieved by an ideal production system, given what is known or can be assumed about the natural limiting conditions. Accordingly, we also offer an approach for defining an ideal production system for a given aquifer, and demonstrate how observational data and/or modeling results can be used to develop assay curves of quality vs. quantity extracted, which can serve as reliable predictive tools for engineers, managers, regulators, and policy

  15. The Guarani Aquifer System: estimation of recharge along the Uruguay-Brazil border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Andrea A.; Rodríguez, Leticia B.; Vives, Luis S.

    2010-11-01

    The cities of Rivera and Santana do Livramento are located on the outcropping area of the sandstone Guarani Aquifer on the Brazil-Uruguay border, where the aquifer is being increasingly exploited. Therefore, recharge estimates are needed to address sustainability. First, a conceptual model of the area was developed. A multilayer, heterogeneous and anisotropic groundwater-flow model was built to validate the conceptual model and to estimate recharge. A field campaign was conducted to collect water samples and monitor water levels used for model calibration. Field data revealed that there exists vertical gradients between confining basalts and underlying sandstones, suggesting basalts could indirectly recharge sandstone in fractured areas. Simulated downward flow between them was a small amount within the global water budget. Calibrated recharge rates over basalts and over outcropping sandstones were 1.3 and 8.1% of mean annual precipitation, respectively. A big portion of sandstone recharge would be drained by streams. The application of a water balance yielded a recharge of 8.5% of average annual precipitation. The numerical model and the water balance yielded similar recharge values consistent with determinations from previous authors in the area and other regions of the aquifer, providing an upper bound for recharge in this transboundary aquifer.

  16. The chemical behavior of the transuranic elements and the barrier function in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    In a geological repository for long-lived radioactive wastes, such as actinides and certain fission products, most of the stored radionuclides remain immobile in the particular geological formation. If any of these could possibly become mobile, only trace concentrations of a few radionuclides would result. Nevertheless, with an inventory in the repository of many tonnes of transuranic elements, the amounts that could disperse cannot be neglected. A critical assessment of the chemical behavior of these nuclides, especially their migration properties in the aquifer system around the repository site, is mandatory for analysis of the long-term safety. The chemistry requited for this includes many geochemical multicomponent reactions that are so far only partially understood and hich therefore can be quantified only incompletely. A few of these reactions have been discussed in this paper based on present knowledge. If a comprehensive discussion of the subject is impossible because of this ack of information then an attempt to emphasize the importance of the predominant geochemical reactions of the transuranic elements in various aquifer systems should be made

  17. Krypton-81, Helium-4 and Carbon-14 based estimation of groundwater ages in the Guarani Aquifer System: implications for the He-4 geochronometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P. K.; Chang, H. K.; Gastmans, D.; Sturchio, N. C.; Araguas, L.; Matsumoto, T.; Lu, Z.; Jiang, W.; Yokochi, R.; Mueller, P.

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of aquifer systems remains a challenge, particularly for large aquifers with limited hydrogeological information. Groundwater age is an important parameter that integrates aquifer recharge and flow dynamics and provides the ability to reliably constrain groundwater models. We have used multiple isotope tracers (C-14, He-4, and Kr-81) to estimate the age of groundwater along a 400-km transect in the north-eastern part of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) in Brazil. Carbon-14 measurements were made with an AMS, He-4 by mass-spectrometry, and Kr-81 by atom trap trace analysis (ATTA). Groundwater samples were collected along a groundwater flow path that runs from the outcrop area in the east to the deep confined section in the west, where the aquifer is up to about 1000 m deep. Present groundwater recharge occurs in the outcrop areas, as indicated by the presence of tritium and modern 14C. Carbon-14 activities reach values below detection limit at relatively short distances (a few km) from the outcrop. Abundance of 81Kr (half-life 229 Ka), in samples free of C-14, decreases from 0.81±0.11 (expressed as (81Kr/Kr)sample/(81Kr/Kr)air) in the east to 0.18±0.03 in the western-most sample (estimated age = 566±60 ka). Measured 4He-excess is far above that expected from in-situ production rates in sandstone aquifers and overestimates the age by several orders of magnitude. We used 81Kr ages to calibrate the 4He geochronometer which indicates a basal flux of about 2.8 x10-11 cm3STP He/cm2/a. This flux is lower than most estimates of basal flux in previous studies and will allow a wider use of 4He for groundwater dating and aquifer characterization.

  18. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer System from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Monti, Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2013-11-14

    The seaward-dipping sedimentary wedge that underlies the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain forms a complex groundwater system. This major source of water provides for public and domestic supply and serves as a vital source of freshwater for industrial and agricultural uses throughout the region. Population increases and land-use and climate changes, however, have led to competing demands for water. The regional response of the aquifer system to these stresses poses regional challenges for water-resources management at the State level because hydrologic effects often extend beyond State boundaries. In response to these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the groundwater availability of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in 2010.

  19. Standard technical specifications: Babcock and Wilcox plants. Volume 3, Revision 1: Bases (Sections 3.4--3.9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This report documents the results of the combined effort of the NRC and the industry to produce improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS), Revision 1 for Babcock and Wilcox Plants. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  20. Recharge and Aquifer Response: Manukan Island’s Aquifer, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarva Mangala Praveena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Manukan Island is a small island located in North-West of Sabah, Malaysia was used as a case study area for numerical modeling of an aquifer response to recharge and pumping rates. The results in this study present the variations of recharge into the aquifer under the prediction simulations. The recharge rate increases the water level as indicated by hydraulic heads. This shows that it can alter groundwater of Manukan Island which has been suffering from an overexploration in its unconfined the aquifer. The increase in recharge rate (from 600 mm/year to 750 mm/year increases the water level indicated by hydraulic heads. A reduction in pumping rate (from 0.072 m3/day to 0.058 m3/day not only increases the amount of water levels in aquifer but also reduces the supply hence a deficit in supply. The increase in hydraulic heads depends on the percentage reduction of pumping and recharges rates. The well water has 1978.3 mg/L chloride with current pumping (0.072 m3/day and recharge rates (600 mm/year. However, with an increased of recharge rate and current pumping rate it has decreased about 1.13%. In addition, reduction in pumping rate made the chloride concentration decreased about 2.8%. In general, a reduction in pumping with an increase in recharge rate leads to a decreased in chloride concentrations within the vicinity of cone of depression. Next, to further develop the numerical model, the model should focus on climate change variables such as consequences of climate change are increase in air temperature, increase in sea surface temperature, and more extreme weather conditions. These parameters are considered critical parameters for climate change impact modeling in aquifers. The behavior of the aquifer and its sustainable pumping rate can be done by applying a computer modeling component.

  1. Iron in the aquifer system of Suffolk County, New York, 1990–98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Craig J.; Walter, Donald A.; Colabufo, Steven

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of dissolved iron in ground water contribute to the biofouling of public-supply wells, and the treatment and remediation of biofouling are costly. Water companies on Long Island, N.Y., spend several million dollars annually to recondition, redevelop, and replace supply wells and distribution lines; treat dissolved iron with sequestering agents or by filtration; and respond to iron-related complaints by customers. This report summarizes the results of studies done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Suffolk County Water Authority, to characterize the geochemistry and microbiology of iron in the aquifer system of Suffolk County. This information should be helpful for the siting and operation of supply wells.Concentrations of dissolved iron in Long Island's ground water, and the frequency of iron biofouling of wells, are highest in ground-water-discharge zones, particularly near the south shore. Ground water along a deep north-south flowpath of the Magothy aquifer in southwestern Suffolk County becomes anaerobic (oxygen deficient) and Fe(III) reducing at a distance of 8 to 10 kilometers south of the ground-water divide, and this change coincides with the downgradient increase in dissolved iron concentrations. The distribution of organic carbon, and the distribution and local variations in reactivity of Fe(III), in Magothy aquifer sediments have resulted in localized differences in redox microenvironments. For example, Fe(III)-reducing zones are associated with anaerobic conditions, where relatively large amounts of Fe(III) oxyhydroxide grain coatings are present, whereas sulfate-reducing zones are associated with lignite-rich lenses of silt and clay and appear to have developed in response to the depletion of available Fe(III) oxyhydroxides. The sulfate-reducing zones are characterized by relatively low concentrations of dissolved iron (resulting from iron-disulfide precipitation) and may be large enough to warrant water

  2. A conceptual hydrogeologic model for the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Pearson, Daniel K.; Teeple, Andrew; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2013-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer is a vital groundwater resource for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system in the 4,700 square-mile study area was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Middle Pecos Groundwater Conservation District, Pecos County, City of Fort Stockton, Brewster County, and Pecos County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The model was developed to gain a better understanding of the groundwater system and to establish a scientific foundation for resource-management decisions. Data and information were collected or obtained from various sources to develop the model. Lithologic information obtained from well reports and geophysical data were used to describe the hydrostratigraphy and structural features of the groundwater system, and aquifer-test data were used to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Groundwater-quality data were used to evaluate groundwater-flow paths, water and rock interaction, aquifer interaction, and the mixing of water from different sources. Groundwater-level data also were used to evaluate aquifer interaction as well as to develop a potentiometric-surface map, delineate regional groundwater divides, and describe regional groundwater-flow paths.

  3. McMunn, et al. v. Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc., et al.: The long road to dismissal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    McMunn, et al. v Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc., et al. was one of 17 related public liability actions filed between 2010 and 2015 by individuals living and/or working in the vicinity of two former fuel fabrication facilities who alleged that releases of radioactive materials from those facilities contaminated the air, soil, surface water and groundwater in the surrounding communities, causing them personal injury and property damage. The plaintiffs in all 17 cases claimed they had contracted various cancers and their property was contaminated with uranium. Plaintiffs brought their claims pursuant to the Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAA) and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (AEA), and also asserted related state law claims of negligence, negligence per se, strict liability, civil conspiracy, and wrongful death and survival. The defendants, Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc., B and W Technical Services, Inc. and Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO), were unrelated companies who, at different times, owned and operated those facilities. The PAA, which became law on 2 September 1957, is a federal statute that governs claims for personal injury and property damage 'arising from the activities of NRC licensees and DOE contractors'. These claims are defined in the PAA as public liability actions. In order to prevail in a public liability action, plaintiffs must establish through expert evidence that the defendants released radiation into the environment in excess of the limits then permitted by federal regulations and that the plaintiffs were exposed to those releases. They must also establish that their respective exposures to radionuclides were capable of causing their illnesses and that the doses of radiation they received did in fact cause their illnesses

  4. Iron in the Middle Devonian aquifer system and its removal at Võru County water treatment plants, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariina Hiiob

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater abstracted from the Middle Devonian aquifer system is the main source of drinking water in South Estonia. High iron and manganese concentrations in groundwater are the greatest problems in this region. The total iron concentrations up to 16 mg L–1 are mainly caused by a high Fe2+ content in water, pointing to the dominance of reducing conditions in the aquifer system. A pilot study was carried out to estimate the effectiveness of 20 groundwater purification plants with eight different water treatment systems (aeration combined with Manganese Greensand, Birm, Nevtraco, Hydrolit-Mn, Magno-Dol and quartz sand filters in Võru County. The results demonstrate that in most cases the systems with pre-aeration effectively purify groundwater from iron, but only 13 out of 20 water treatment plants achieved a reduction of iron concentration to the level fixed in drinking water requirements (0.2 mg L–1. Manganese content decreased below the maximum allowed concentration in only 25% of systems and in cases where the filter media was Birm or quartz sand and pre-oxidation was applied. The study showed that the high level of iron purification does not guarantee effective removal of manganese.

  5. Nutrient Removal during Stormwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery in an Anoxic Carbonate Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderzalm, Joanne L; Page, Declan W; Dillon, Peter J; Barry, Karen E; Gonzalez, Dennis

    2018-03-01

    Stormwater harvesting coupled to managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provides a means to use the often wasted stormwater resource while also providing protection of the natural and built environment. Aquifers can act as a treatment barrier within a multiple-barrier approach to harvest and use urban stormwater. However, it remains challenging to assess the treatment performance of a MAR scheme due to the heterogeneity of aquifers and MAR operations, which in turn influences water treatment processes. This study uses a probabilistic method to evaluate aquifer treatment performance based on the removal of total organic C (TOC), N, and P during MAR with urban stormwater in an anoxic carbonate aquifer. Total organic C, N, and P are represented as stochastic variables and described by probability density functions (PDFs) for the "injectant" and "recovery"; these injectant and recovery PDFs are used to derive a theoretical MAR removal efficiency PDF. Four long-term MAR sites targeting one of two tertiary carbonate aquifers (T1 and T2) were used to describe the nutrient removal efficiencies. Removal of TOC and total N (TN) was dominated by redox processes, with median removal of TOC between 50 and 60% at all sites and TN from 40 to 50% at three sites with no change at the fourth. Total P removal due to filtration and sorption accounted for median removal of 29 to 53%. Thus, the statistical method was able to characterize the capacity of the anoxic carbonate aquifer treatment barrier for nutrient removal, which highlights that aquifers can be an effective long-term natural treatment option for management of water quality, as well as storage of urban stormwater. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil

  7. Restoration of Wadi Aquifers by Artificial Recharge with Treated Waste Water

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2012-04-26

    Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country\\'s treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Restoration of wadi aquifers by artificial recharge with treated waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missimer, Thomas M; Drewes, Jörg E; Amy, Gary; Maliva, Robert G; Keller, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Fresh water resources within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are a rare and precious commodity that must be managed within a context of integrated water management. Wadi aquifers contain a high percentage of the naturally occurring fresh groundwater in the Kingdom. This resource is currently overused and has become depleted or contaminated at many locations. One resource that could be used to restore or enhance the fresh water resources within wadi aquifers is treated municipal waste water (reclaimed water). Each year about 80 percent of the country's treated municipal waste water is discharged to waste without any beneficial use. These discharges not only represent a lost water resource, but also create a number of adverse environmental impacts, such as damage to sensitive nearshore marine environments and creation of high-salinity interior surface water areas. An investigation of the hydrogeology of wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia revealed that these aquifers can be used to develop aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) systems that will be able to treat the impaired-quality water, store it until needed, and allow recovery of the water for transmittal to areas in demand. Full-engineered ARR systems can be designed at high capacities within wadi aquifer systems that can operate in concert with the natural role of wadis, while providing the required functions of additional treatment, storage and recovery of reclaimed water, while reducing the need to develop additional, energy-intensive desalination to meet new water supply demands. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  9. The usefulness of multi-well aquifer tests in heterogeneous aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S.C.; Benton, D.J.; Herweijer, J.C.; Sims, P.

    1990-01-01

    Three large-scale (100 m) and seven small-scale (3-7 m) multi-well aquifer tests were conducted in a heterogeneous aquifer to determine the transmissivity distribution across a one-hectare test site. Two of the large-scale tests had constant but different rates of discharge; the remaining large-scale test had a discharge that was pulsed at regulated intervals. The small-scale tests were conducted at two well clusters 20 m apart. The program WELTEST was written to analyze the data. By using the methods of non-linear least squares regression analysis and Broyden's method to solve for non-linear extrema, WELTEST automatically determines the best values of transmissivity and the storage coefficient. The test results show that order of magnitude differences in the calculated transmissivities at a well location can be realized by varying the discharge rate at the pumping well, the duration of the aquifer test, and/or the location of the pumping well. The calculated storage coefficients for the tests cover a five-order magnitude range. The data show a definite trend for the storage coefficient to increase with the distance between the pumping and the observation wells. This trend is shown to be related to the orientation of high hydraulic conductivity zones between the pumping and the observation wells. A comparison among single-well aquifer tests, geological investigations and multi-well aquifer tests indicate that the multi-well tests are poorly suited for characterizing a transmissivity field. (Author) (11 refs., 14 figs.)

  10. Combining lead isotopes and cluster analysis to distinguish the Guarani and Serra Geral Aquifer Systems and contaminated waters in a highly industrialized area in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Isadora Aumond; Roisenberg, Ari

    2017-10-01

    The Rio dos Sinos Watershed area is located at the Middle-West region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil, along thirty two municipalities and affecting 1.5 million inhabitants and many important industrial centers. Three main aquifers are recognized in the study area: the unconfined-fractured Serra Geral Aquifer System, the porous Guarani Aquifer System, and the Permian Aquitard. This study aims to understand groundwater, surface water and human activity interactions in the Rio dos Sinos Watershed, evaluating the application of stable lead isotopic ratios analyzed for this propose. Thirty six groundwater samples, 8 surface water samples and 5 liquid effluents of tanneries and landfills samples were measured using a Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer Thermo-Finnigan and a Neptune Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Groundwater isotopic ratios have a wider range compared to the surface water, with less radiogenic averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1837 vs 38.4050 (standard deviation = 0.2921 vs 0.1343) and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.2947 vs 18.4766 (standard deviation = 0.2215 vs 0.1059), respectively. Industrial liquid effluents (tanneries and industrial landfill) have averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.1956 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.3169, distinct from effluent samples of domestic sanitary landfill (averages 208 Pb/ 204 Pb = 38.2353 and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb = 18.6607). Hierarchical cluster analysis led to distinguish six groups of groundwater, representing the three aquifers that occur in the area, two clusters suggesting groundwater mixtures and one demonstrating a highly contaminated groundwater. By analyzing the cluster results and wells' stratigraphic profiles it was possible to distinguish the different aquifers in the area. The Serra Geral Aquifer System has 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios between 18.4718 and 18.7089; 207 Pb/ 204 Pb between 15.6692 and 15.6777; 208 Pb/ 204 Pb between 38.6826 and 38.7616; 207 Pb/ 206 Pb between 0.8372 and 0

  11. Contamination Control of Freeze Shoe Coring System for Collection of Aquifer Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; van Geen, A.; Spivack, A. J.; Grzybowski, B.; Schlottenmier, D.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed and tested an original device, the freeze-shoe coring system, designed to recover undisturbed samples of water contained in sand-dominated aquifers. Aquifer sands are notoriously difficult to collect together with porewater from coincident depths, as high hydraulic permeability leads to water drainage and mixing during retrieval. Two existing corer designs were reconfigured to incorporate the freeze-shoe system; a Hydraulic Piston (HPC) and a Rotary (RC) Corer. Once deployed, liquid CO­2 contained in an interior tank is channeled to coils at the core head where it changes phase, rapidly cooling the deepest portion of the core. The resulting frozen core material impedes water loss during recovery. We conducted contamination tests to examine the integrity of cores retrieved during a March 2017 yard test deployment. Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFC) was added to the drill fluid and recovered cores were subsampled to capture the distribution of PFC throughout the core length and interior. Samples were collected from two HPC and one RC core and analyzed for PFC concentrations. The lowest porewater contamination, around 0.01% invasive fluid, occurs in the center of both HPC cores. The greatest contamination (up to 10%) occurs at the disturbed edges where core material contacts drill fluid. There was lower contamination in the core interior than top, bottom, and edges, as well as significantly lower contamination in HPC cores that those recovered with the RC. These results confirm that the freeze-shoe system, proposed for field test deployments in West Bengal, India, can successfully collect intact porewater and sediment material with minimal if any contamination from drill fluid.

  12. VULNERABILITY AND RISK OF CONTAMINATION KARSTIC AQUIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yameli Aguilar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Karstic systems occupy nearly 20% of the surface of the earth and are inhabited by numerous human communities. Karstic aquifers are the most exposed to pollution from human activities. Pollution of karstic aquifers is a severe environmental problem worldwide.  In order to face the vulnerability of karstic aquifers to pollution, researchers have created a diversity of study approaches and models, each one having their own strengths and weaknesses depending on the discipline from which they were originated, thus requiring a thorough discussion within the required multidisciplinary character. The objective of this article was to analyze the theoretical and methodological approaches applied to the pollution of karstic aquifers. The European hydrogeological, land evaluation, hydropedological and a geographic approach were analyzed. The relevance of a geomorphological analysis as a cartographic basis for the analysis of vulnerability and risks were emphasized. From the analysis of models, approaches and methodologies discussed the following recommendation is made: to form an interdisciplinary work team, to elaborate a conceptual model according to the site and the working scale and to e, apply and validate the model.

  13. Evaluation of long-term water-level declines in basalt aquifers near Mosier, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Morgan, David S.; Lee, Karl K.; Haynes, Jonathan V.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    2012-01-01

    The Mosier area lies along the Columbia River in northwestern Wasco County between the cities of Hood River and The Dalles, Oregon. Major water uses in the area are irrigation, municipal supply for the city of Mosier, and domestic supply for rural residents. The primary source of water is groundwater from the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) aquifers that underlie the area. Concerns regarding this supply of water arose in the mid-1970s, when groundwater levels in the orchard tract area began to steadily decline. In the 1980s, the Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD) conducted a study of the aquifer system, which resulted in delineation of an administrative area where parts of the Pomona and Priest Rapids aquifers were withdrawn from further appropriations for any use other than domestic supply. Despite this action, water levels continued to drop at approximately the same, nearly constant annual rate of about 4 feet per year, resulting in a current total decline of between 150 and 200 feet in many wells with continued downward trends. In 2005, the Mosier Watershed Council and the Wasco Soil and Water Conservation District began a cooperative investigation of the groundwater system with the U.S. Geological Survey. The objectives of the study were to advance the scientific understanding of the hydrology of the basin, to assess the sustainability of the water supply, to evaluate the causes of persistent groundwater-level declines, and to evaluate potential management strategies. An additional U.S. Geological Survey objective was to advance the understanding of CRBG aquifers, which are the primary source of water across a large part of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. In many areas, significant groundwater level declines have resulted as these aquifers were heavily developed for agricultural, municipal, and domestic water supplies. Three major factors were identified as possible contributors to the water-level declines in the study area: (1) pumping at rates that

  14. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  15. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system near "Boulder Zone" deep wells in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, acquired, processed, and interpreted seismic-reflection data near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields to determine if geologic factors may contribute to the upward migration of injected effluent into that upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an underground source of drinking water. The depth of the Boulder Zone at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields ranges from about 2,750 to 3,300 feet below land surface (ft bls), whereas overlying permeable zones used as alternative drinking water supply range in depth from about 825 to 1,580 ft bls at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structures imaged on seismic-reflection profiles created for the study describe the part of the Floridan aquifer system overlying and within the Boulder Zone. Features of the Floridan aquifer system underlying the Boulder Zone were not studied because seismic-reflection profiles acquired near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields lacked adequate resolution at such depths.

  16. Mapping Greenland's Firn Aquifer using L-band Microwave Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Bringer, A.; Jezek, K. C.; Johnson, J. T.; Scambos, T. A.; Long, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Greenland's recently discovered firn aquifer is one of the most interesting, yet still mysterious, components of the ice sheet system. Many open questions remain regarding timescales of refreezing and/or englacial drainage of liquid meltwater, and the connections of firn aquifers to the subglacial hydrological system. If liquid meltwater production at the surface of the Greenland ice sheet continues to increase, subsequent increases in the volume of mobile liquid meltwater retained within Greenland's firn aquifer may increase the possibility of crevasse-deepening via hydrofracture. Hydrofracture is an important component of supraglacial lake drainage leading to at least temporary accelerated flow velocities and ice sheet mass balance changes. Firn aquifers may also support hydrofracture-induced drainage and thus are potentially capable of significantly influencing ice sheet mass balance and sea level rise. Spaceborne L-band microwave radiometers provide an innovative tool for ice-sheet wide mapping of the spatiotemporal variability of Greenland's firn aquifer. Both refreezing and englacial drainage may be observable given the sensitivity of the microwave response to the upper surface of liquid meltwater retained within snow and firn pore space as well as the ability of L band instruments to probe the ice sheet from the surface to the firn-ice transition at pore close-off depth. Here we combine L-band (1.4 GHz) brightness temperature observations from multiple sources to demonstrate the potential of mapping firn aquifers on ice sheets using L-band microwave radiometry. Data sources include the interferometric MIRAS instrument aboard ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission and the radiometer aboard NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission. We will also present mulit-frequency L-band brightness temperature data (0.5-2 GHz) that will be collected over several firn aquifer areas on the Greenland ice sheet by the Ohio State

  17. Development and evaluation of a building integrated aquifer thermal storage model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkaya, Basar; Li, Rongling; Labeodan, Timilehin

    2017-01-01

    An aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in combination with a heat pump is an excellent way to reduce the net energy usage of buildings. The use of ATES has been demonstrated to have the potential to provide a reduction of between 20 and 40% in the cooling and heating energy use of buildings. ATES...... systems are however a complex system to analyse as a number of ground conditions influence heat losses within the aquifer. ATES is also not confined from the sides and is therefore vulnerable to heat losses through conduction, advection and dispersion. The analyses of ATES system is even further...... complicated when the dynamic of a building is considered. When connected to a building, the temperature in the aquifer is influenced by the amount of heat exchange with the varying building load. Given the energy saving potentials of ATES systems in building operation, detailed understanding of the influence...

  18. San Pedro River Aquifer Binational Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, James B.; Minjárez Sosa, Ismael; Tapia Villaseñor, Elia María; dos Santos, Placido; Monreal Saavedra, Rogelio; Grijalva Noriega, Franciso Javier; Huth, A. K.; Gray, Floyd; Scott, C. A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz Ramos, L. A.; Rangel Medina, Miguel; Leenhouts, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The United States and Mexico share waters in a number of hydrological basins and aquifers that cross the international boundary. Both countries recognize that, in a region of scarce water resources and expanding populations, a greater scientific understanding of these aquifer systems would be beneficial. In light of this, the Mexican and U.S. Principal Engineers of the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC) signed the “Joint Report of the Principal Engineers Regarding the Joint Cooperative Process United States-Mexico for the Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program" on August 19, 2009 (IBWC-CILA, 2009). This IBWC “Joint Report” serves as the framework for U.S.-Mexico coordination and dialogue to implement transboundary aquifer studies. The document clarifies several details about the program such as background, roles, responsibilities, funding, relevance of the international water treaties, and the use of information collected or compiled as part of the program. In the document, it was agreed by the parties involved, which included the IBWC, the Mexican National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora, to study two priority binational aquifers, one in the San Pedro River basin and the other in the Santa Cruz River basin. This report focuses on the Binational San Pedro Basin (BSPB). Reasons for the focus on and interest in this aquifer include the fact that it is shared by the two countries, that the San Pedro River has an elevated ecological value because of the riparian ecosystem that it sustains, and that water resources are needed to sustain the river, existing communities, and continued development. This study describes the aquifer’s characteristics in its binational context; however, most of the scientific work has been undertaken for many years by each country without full knowledge of the conditions on the other side of the border. The general objective of this study is to

  19. The impact of river water intrusion on trace metal cycling in karst aquifers: an example from the Floridan aquifer system at Madison Blue Spring, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. L.; Martin, J. B.; Screaton, E.; Spellman, P.; Gulley, J.

    2011-12-01

    Springs located adjacent to rivers can serve as recharge points for aquifers when allogenic runoff increases river stage above the hydraulic head of the spring, forcing river water into the spring vent. Depending on relative compositions of the recharged water and groundwater, the recharged river water could be a source of dissolved trace metals to the aquifer, could mobilize solid phases such as metal oxide coatings, or both. Whether metals are mobilized or precipitated should depend on changes in redox and pH conditions as dissolved oxygen and organic carbon react following intrusion of the river water. To assess how river intrusion events affect metal cycling in springs, we monitored a small recharge event in April 2011 into Madison Blue Spring, which discharges to the Withlacoochee River in north-central Florida. Madison Blue Spring is the entrance to a phreatic cave system that includes over 7.8 km of surveyed conduits. During the event, river stage increased over base flow conditions for approximately 25 days by a maximum of 8%. Intrusion of the river water was monitored with conductivity, temperature and depth sensors that were installed within the cave system and adjacent wells. Decreased specific conductivity within the cave system occurred for approximately 20 days, reflecting the length of time that river water was present in the cave system. During this time, grab samples were collected seven times over a period of 34 days for measurements of major ion and trace metal concentrations at the spring vent and at Martz sink, a karst window connected to the conduit system approximately 150 meters from the spring vent. Relative fractions of surface water and groundwater were estimated based on Cl concentrations of the samples, assuming conservative two end-member mixing during the event. This mixing model indicates that maximum river water contribution to the groundwater system was approximately 20%. River water had concentrations of iron, manganese, and other

  20. EPA Region 1 Sole Source Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This coverage contains boundaries of EPA-approved sole source aquifers. Sole source aquifers are defined as an aquifer designated as the sole or principal source of...

  1. Thermal exploitation of shallow aquifers. Guide for the preparation of preliminary studies of technical feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausseur, J.Y.; Sauty, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    This report presents the main devices aimed at exploiting surface aquifers. After an introduction to the different systems of thermal exploitation of aquifers (generalities, very low energy geothermal, sensitive heat storage, interest of thermal exploitation of aquifers, indication of possible systems), this report presents the different possible systems and analyses their characteristics and performance. These systems are: direct exploitation of groundwater bodies at their natural temperature by heat sink and with release in surface networks or by geothermal dipole, or exploitation with artificial thermal refill. Thus the report addresses the single sink device with or without storage, heat pumps on dipole in surface groundwater bodies or very low temperature geothermal, the scanning dipole system, and the dipole system with hot sink and cold sink. It discusses the choice and sizing of the exploitation system. An appendix reports a feasibility preliminary study of nine cases of thermal exploitation of surface aquifers by double drills

  2. The use potential of aquifer thermal energy storage systems in Canada; Das Anwendungspotential fuer Aquiferwaermespeichersysteme in Kanada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshanks, F. [Environment Canada, Dartmouth, ON (Canada); Morofski, E. [Government Services Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Technology RD and D

    1994-12-31

    This paper offers a brief overview of the historical and technical aspects of aquifer thermal energy storage and its use potential in commercial buildings in Canada. Aquifer thermal energy storage systems are now attractive both for new commercial buildings in Canada and for some already existing ones. This holds true especially of the Atlantic region, where fuel costs are rising and electric power rates vary according to the time of day. The simple pay-back period for ATES systems is between zero and five years. The economic aspects of the use of ATES systems in buildings are pointed out. (orig./BWI) [Deutsch] Dieser Beitrag gibt eine kurze Uebersicht der historischen und technischen Aspekte der Waermespeicherung in Aquiferen und deren Verwendungspotential in kommerziellen Gebaeuden in Kanada. Aquiferwaermespeicherungssysteme sind nunmehr attraktiv sowohl fuer neue als auch fuer manche bereits bestehenden kommerziellen Gebaeude in Kanada. Dies gilt insbesondere fuer die atlantische Region wegen der dort steigenden Kosten fuer Brennstoffe und tageszeitabhaengigen fuer elektrischen Strom. Die einfache Amortisationszeit fuer ATES-Systeme liegt zwischen null und fuenf Jahren. Die wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkte des Einsatzes von ATES-Systemen in kommerziellen Gebaeuden werden angefuehrt. (orig./BWI)

  3. Aquifer restoration system improvement using an acid fluid purge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodder, E.A.; Peck, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of a water pump acid purge procedure at a free-phase liquid hydrocarbon recovery site has increased water pump operational run times and improved the effectiveness of the aquifer restoration effort. Before introduction of this technique, pumps at some locations would fail within 14 days of operation due to CaSO 4 .2H 2 O (calcium sulfate) precipitate fouling. After acid purge implementation at these locations, pump operational life improved to an average of over 110 days. Other locations, where pump failures would occur within one month, were improved to approximately six months of operation. The increase in water pump run time has also improved the liquid hydrocarbon recovery rate by 2,000 gallons per day; representing a 20% increase for the aquifer restoration system. Other concepts tested in attempts to prolong pump life included: specially designed electric submersible pumps, submersible pump shrouds intended to reduce the fluid pressure shear that enhances CaSO 4 .2H 2 O precipitation, and high volume pneumatic gas lift pumps. Due to marginal pump life improvement or other undesirable operational features, these concepts were primarily ineffective. The purge apparatus utilizes an acid pump, hose, and discharge piping to deliver the solution directly into the inlet of an operating water pump. The water pumps used for this activity require stainless steel construction with Teflon or other acid resistant bearings and seals. Purges are typically conducted before sudden discharge pressure drops (greater than 15 psig) occur for the operating water pump. Depending on volume of precipitate accumulation and pump type, discharge pressure is restored after introduction of 10 to 40 gallons of hydrochloric acid solution. The acid purge procedure outlined herein eliminates operational downtime and does not require well head pump removal and the associated costs of industry cleaning procedures

  4. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system and surrounding watershed areas was investigated within a 23-mile long, fault-controlled valley in eastern Orange County, New York. Glacial deposits form a divide within the valley that is drained to the north by Woodbury Creek and is drained to the south by the Ramapo River. Surficial geology, extent and saturated thickness of sand and gravel aquifers, extent of confining units, bedrock-surface elevation beneath valleys, major lineaments, and the locations of wells for which records are available were delineated on an interactive map.

  5. Evaluation and Preliminary Design of a Stormwater Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) System at the Wadi Khulays Dunefield in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver M.

    2013-04-01

    An important source of freshwater in arid lands is found in groundwater aquifers that are recharged after storm events. However, most of the precipitation is lost due to evaporation and only small fractions actually recharge the aquifers. The construction of dams along wadi channels enables the retention of stormwater, however the reservoirs are still subject to huge evaporative losses and contamination. In this study, the hydraulic properties of a dunefield in western Saudi Arabia are evaluated in order to determine the feasibility of designing a stormwater storage aquifer storage and recovery facility using the dune sands as a natural medium and design recommendations are addressed. The accurate estimation of hydraulic conductivity of unlithified sediments such as dune sands has become very important in the design of natural filtration projects, including aquifer recharge and recovery systems. Therefore, a comparison and selection of methods for the determination of the hydraulic conductivity from grain size distribution found in the literature was done. An improvement to these equations based on measurements on dune samples was obtained.

  6. Transient well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, C. J.

    1999-11-01

    A solution for the general problem of computing well flow in vertically heterogeneous aquifers is found by an integration of both analytical and numerical techniques. The radial component of flow is treated analytically; the drawdown is a continuous function of the distance to the well. The finite-difference technique is used for the vertical flow component only. The aquifer is discretized in the vertical dimension and the heterogeneous aquifer is considered to be a layered (stratified) formation with a finite number of homogeneous sublayers, where each sublayer may have different properties. The transient part of the differential equation is solved with Stehfest's algorithm, a numerical inversion technique of the Laplace transform. The well is of constant discharge and penetrates one or more of the sublayers. The effect of wellbore storage on early drawdown data is taken into account. In this way drawdowns are found for a finite number of sublayers as a continuous function of radial distance to the well and of time since the pumping started. The model is verified by comparing results with published analytical and numerical solutions for well flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous, confined and unconfined aquifers. Instantaneous and delayed drainage of water from above the water table are considered, combined with the effects of partially penetrating and finite-diameter wells. The model is applied to demonstrate that the transient effects of wellbore storage in unconfined aquifers are less pronounced than previous numerical experiments suggest. Other applications of the presented solution technique are given for partially penetrating wells in heterogeneous formations, including a demonstration of the effect of decreasing specific storage values with depth in an otherwise homogeneous aquifer. The presented solution can be a powerful tool for the analysis of drawdown from pumping tests, because hydraulic properties of layered heterogeneous aquifer systems with

  7. Simulation of groundwater flow in the glacial aquifer system of northeastern Wisconsin with variable model complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Clark, Brian R.; Feinstein, Daniel T.

    2017-05-04

    The U.S. Geological Survey, National Water-Quality Assessment seeks to map estimated intrinsic susceptibility of the glacial aquifer system of the conterminous United States. Improved understanding of the hydrogeologic characteristics that explain spatial patterns of intrinsic susceptibility, commonly inferred from estimates of groundwater age distributions, is sought so that methods used for the estimation process are properly equipped. An important step beyond identifying relevant hydrogeologic datasets, such as glacial geology maps, is to evaluate how incorporation of these resources into process-based models using differing levels of detail could affect resulting simulations of groundwater age distributions and, thus, estimates of intrinsic susceptibility.This report describes the construction and calibration of three groundwater-flow models of northeastern Wisconsin that were developed with differing levels of complexity to provide a framework for subsequent evaluations of the effects of process-based model complexity on estimations of groundwater age distributions for withdrawal wells and streams. Preliminary assessments, which focused on the effects of model complexity on simulated water levels and base flows in the glacial aquifer system, illustrate that simulation of vertical gradients using multiple model layers improves simulated heads more in low-permeability units than in high-permeability units. Moreover, simulation of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields in coarse-grained and some fine-grained glacial materials produced a larger improvement in simulated water levels in the glacial aquifer system compared with simulation of uniform hydraulic conductivity within zones. The relation between base flows and model complexity was less clear; however, the relation generally seemed to follow a similar pattern as water levels. Although increased model complexity resulted in improved calibrations, future application of the models using simulated particle

  8. Characterization of an island aquifer from tidal response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pallavi; Sarwade, Deepak; Singh, V. S.

    2008-08-01

    Growing demand for potable water for various needs has lead to indiscriminate exploitation of groundwater resources, particularly, in the terrain where surface water resources are negligible. One such area is an island where groundwater is the only source of fresh water. Groundwater is the prime source of fresh water on most of the atolls in the world. Groundwater on these islands is in the form of thin fragile floating lens and is often vulnerable to overexploitation, draught, tidal waves, tsunami and cyclone resulting in seawater ingress. Sustainable development of this meager source of fresh groundwater for a longer time becomes a more difficult task on small atolls with a large population depending on this vital resource. To develop a sustainable management scheme and identify the vulnerable part of aquifer, characterization of the aquifer system on islands is imperative. Groundwater on an atoll is extremely vulnerable to seawater mixing through natural as well as human activities. One such natural process is the tides of the ocean. The response of sea tide to the water table on the island offers valuable data as well as cost-effective means to characterize an aquifer system. Such characterization is vital for the management of groundwater resources on an atoll. The obtained results have compared well with the parameters obtained through a conventional pumping test. Therefore, the use of tidal response to the water table, which can easily be recorded, provides a rapid and cost-effective means to characterization of the aquifer system on the island.

  9. Arsenic and radionuclide occurrence and relation to geochemistry in groundwater of the Gulf Coast Aquifer System in Houston, Texas, 2007–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jeannette H.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2016-03-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Houston, began a study in 2007 to determine concentrations, spatial extent, and associated geochemical conditions that might be conducive for mobility and transport of selected naturally occurring trace elements and radionuclides in the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Houston, Texas. Water samples were collected from 91 municipal supply wells completed in the Evangeline and Chicot aquifers of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in northeastern, northwestern, and southwestern Houston; hereinafter referred to as northeast, northwest and southwest Houston areas. Wells were sampled in three phases: (1) 28 municipal supply wells were sampled during 2007–8, (2) 60 municipal supply wells during 2010, and (3) 3 municipal supply wells during December 2011. During each phase of sampling, samples were analyzed for major ions, selected trace elements, and radionuclides. At a subset of wells, concentrations of arsenic species and other radionuclides (carbon-14, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, and tritium) also were analyzed. Selected physicochemical properties were measured in the field at the time each sample was collected, and oxidation-reduction potential and unfiltered sulfides also were measured at selected wells. The source-water (the raw, ambient water withdrawn from municipal supply wells prior to water treatment) samples were collected for assessment of aquifer conditions in order to provide community water-system operators information that could be important when they make decisions about which treatment processes to apply before distributing finished drinking water.

  10. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  11. Stable and Variable Parts of Microbial Community in Siberian Deep Subsurface Thermal Aquifer System Revealed in a Long-Term Monitoring Study

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Yulia A.; Kadnikov, Vitaly V.; Gavrilov, Sergey N.; Banks, David; Gerasimchuk, Anna L.; Podosokorskaya, Olga A.; Merkel, Alexander Y.; Chernyh, Nikolai A.; Mardanov, Andrey V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study the diversity of microorganisms inhabiting a deep subsurface aquifer system in order to understand their functional roles and interspecies relations formed in the course of buried organic matter degradation. A microbial community of a deep subsurface thermal aquifer in the Tomsk Region, Western Siberia was monitored over the course of five years via a 2.7 km deep borehole 3P, drilled down to a Palaeozoic basement. The borehole water discharges with a tempera...

  12. A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers in the Pecos County region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Teeple, Andrew; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Houston, Natalie A.; Payne, Jason; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework, geochemistry, and groundwater-flow system of the Edwards-Trinity and related aquifers, which include the Pecos Valley, Igneous, Dockum, Rustler, and Capitan Reef aquifers, was developed as the second phase of a groundwater availability study in the Pecos County region in west Texas. The first phase of the study was to collect and compile groundwater, surface-water, water-quality, geophysical, and geologic data in the area. The third phase of the study involves a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer in order to simulate groundwater conditions based on various groundwater-withdrawal scenarios. Resource managers plan to use the results of the study to establish management strategies for the groundwater system. The hydrogeologic framework is composed of the hydrostratigraphy, structural features, and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. Well and geophysical logs were interpreted to define the top and base surfaces of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units. Elevations of the top and base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer generally decrease from the southwestern part of the study area to the northeast. The thicknesses of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer units were calculated using the interpolated top and base surfaces of the hydrostratigraphic units. Some of the thinnest sections of the aquifer were in the eastern part of the study area and some of the thickest sections were in the Pecos, Monument Draw, and Belding-Coyanosa trough areas. Normal-fault zones, which formed as growth and collapse features as sediments were deposited along the margins of more resistant rocks and as overlying sediments collapsed into the voids created by the dissolution of Permian-age evaporite deposits, were delineated based on the interpretation of hydrostratigraphic cross sections. The lowest aquifer transmissivity values were measured in the eastern part of the study area; the highest transmissivity values were

  13. The use of salinity contrast for density difference compensation to improve the thermal recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lopik, Jan H.; Hartog, Niels; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency of heat recovery in high-temperature (>60 °C) aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) systems is limited due to the buoyancy of the injected hot water. This study investigates the potential to improve the efficiency through compensation of the density difference by increased salinity of the injected hot water for a single injection-recovery well scheme. The proposed method was tested through numerical modeling with SEAWATv4, considering seasonal HT-ATES with four consecutive injection-storage-recovery cycles. Recovery efficiencies for the consecutive cycles were investigated for six cases with three simulated scenarios: (a) regular HT-ATES, (b) HT-ATES with density difference compensation using saline water, and (c) theoretical regular HT-ATES without free thermal convection. For the reference case, in which 80 °C water was injected into a high-permeability aquifer, regular HT-ATES had an efficiency of 0.40 after four consecutive recovery cycles. The density difference compensation method resulted in an efficiency of 0.69, approximating the theoretical case (0.76). Sensitivity analysis showed that the net efficiency increase by using the density difference compensation method instead of regular HT-ATES is greater for higher aquifer hydraulic conductivity, larger temperature difference between injection water and ambient groundwater, smaller injection volume, and larger aquifer thickness. This means that density difference compensation allows the application of HT-ATES in thicker, more permeable aquifers and with larger temperatures than would be considered for regular HT-ATES systems.

  14. Glacial recharge, salinisation and anthropogenic contamination in the coastal aquifers of Recife (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatton, E., E-mail: eliot.chatton@gmail.com [Géosciences Rennes, Université Rennes 1-CNRS, UMR 6118, adress: 263 av du général Leclerc, Campus de Beaulieu, bat 15, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Aquilina, L., E-mail: luc.aquilina@univ-rennes1.fr [Géosciences Rennes, Université Rennes 1-CNRS, UMR 6118, adress: 263 av du général Leclerc, Campus de Beaulieu, bat 15, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pételet-Giraud, E., E-mail: e.petelet@brgm.fr [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), adress: 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Cary, L., E-mail: l.cary@brgm.fr [Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), adress: 3 avenue Claude-Guillemin, BP 36009, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Bertrand, G., E-mail: guillaume353@gmail.com [Instituto de Geociências, CEPAS (Groundwater Research Center), University of São Paulo, adress: Rua do lago 562, 05508-080 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Labasque, T., E-mail: thierry.labasque@univ-rennes1.fr [Géosciences Rennes, Université Rennes 1-CNRS, UMR 6118, adress: 263 av du général Leclerc, Campus de Beaulieu, bat 15, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    Implying large residence times and complex water origins deep coastal aquifers are of particular interest as they are remarkable markers of climate, water use and land use changes. Over the last decades, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (Brazil) went through extensive environmental changes increasing the pressure on water resources and giving rise to numerous environmental consequences on the coastal groundwater systems. We analysed the groundwater of the deep aquifers Cabo and Beberibe that are increasingly exploited. The processes potentially affecting groundwater residence times and flow paths have been studied using a multi-tracer approach (CFCs, SF6, noble gases, 14C, 2H and 18O). The main findings of these investigations show that: (1) Groundwaters of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers have long residence times and were recharged about 20,000 years ago. (2) Within these old groundwaters we can find palaeo-climate evidences from the last glacial period at the tropics with lower temperatures and dryer conditions than the present climate. (3) Recently, the natural slow dynamic of these groundwater systems was significantly affected by mixing processes with contaminated modern groundwater coming from the shallow unconfined Boa Viagem aquifer. (4) The large exploitation of these aquifers leads to a modification of the flow directions and causes the intrusion through palaeo-channels of saline water probably coming from the Capibaribe River and from the last transgression episodes. These observations indicate that the current exploitation of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers is unsustainable regarding the long renewal times of these groundwater systems as well as their ongoing contamination and salinisation. The groundwater cycle being much slower than the human development rhythm, it is essential to integrate the magnitude and rapidity of anthropogenic impacts on this extremely slow cycle to the water management concepts. - Highlights: • Study of anthropogenic impacts

  15. Glacial recharge, salinisation and anthropogenic contamination in the coastal aquifers of Recife (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatton, E.; Aquilina, L.; Pételet-Giraud, E.; Cary, L.; Bertrand, G.; Labasque, T.

    2016-01-01

    Implying large residence times and complex water origins deep coastal aquifers are of particular interest as they are remarkable markers of climate, water use and land use changes. Over the last decades, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (Brazil) went through extensive environmental changes increasing the pressure on water resources and giving rise to numerous environmental consequences on the coastal groundwater systems. We analysed the groundwater of the deep aquifers Cabo and Beberibe that are increasingly exploited. The processes potentially affecting groundwater residence times and flow paths have been studied using a multi-tracer approach (CFCs, SF6, noble gases, 14C, 2H and 18O). The main findings of these investigations show that: (1) Groundwaters of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers have long residence times and were recharged about 20,000 years ago. (2) Within these old groundwaters we can find palaeo-climate evidences from the last glacial period at the tropics with lower temperatures and dryer conditions than the present climate. (3) Recently, the natural slow dynamic of these groundwater systems was significantly affected by mixing processes with contaminated modern groundwater coming from the shallow unconfined Boa Viagem aquifer. (4) The large exploitation of these aquifers leads to a modification of the flow directions and causes the intrusion through palaeo-channels of saline water probably coming from the Capibaribe River and from the last transgression episodes. These observations indicate that the current exploitation of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers is unsustainable regarding the long renewal times of these groundwater systems as well as their ongoing contamination and salinisation. The groundwater cycle being much slower than the human development rhythm, it is essential to integrate the magnitude and rapidity of anthropogenic impacts on this extremely slow cycle to the water management concepts. - Highlights: • Study of anthropogenic impacts

  16. Radium mobility and the age of groundwater in public-drinking-water supplies from the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, north-central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Szabo, Zoltan; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2018-01-01

    High radium (Ra) concentrations in potable portions of the Cambrian-Ordovician (C-O) aquifer system were investigated using water-quality data and environmental tracers (3H, 3Hetrit, SF6, 14C and 4Herad) of groundwater age from 80 public-supply wells (PSWs). Groundwater ages were estimated by calibration of tracers to lumped parameter models and ranged from modern (1 Myr) in the most downgradient, confined portions of the potable system. More than 80 and 40 percent of mean groundwater ages were older than 1000 and 50,000 yr, respectively. Anoxic, Fe-reducing conditions and increased mineralization develop with time in the aquifer system and mobilize Ra into solution resulting in the frequent occurrence of combined Ra (Rac = 226Ra + 228Ra) at concentrations exceeding the USEPA MCL of 185 mBq/L (5 pCi/L). The distribution of the three Ra isotopes comprising total Ra (Rat = 224Ra + 226Ra + 228Ra) differed across the aquifer system. The concentrations of 224Ra and 228Ra were strongly correlated and comprised a larger proportion of the Rat concentration in samples from the regionally unconfined area, where arkosic sandstones provide an enhanced source for progeny from the 232Th decay series. 226Ra comprised a larger proportion of the Ratconcentration in samples from downgradient confined regions. Concentrations of Rat were significantly greater in samples from the regionally confined area of the aquifer system because of the increase in 226Ra concentrations there as compared to the regionally unconfined area. 226Ra distribution coefficients decreased substantially with anoxic conditions and increasing ionic strength of groundwater (mineralization), indicating that Ra is mobilized to solution from solid phases of the aquifer as adsorption capacity is diminished. The amount of 226Ra released from solid phases by alpha-recoil mechanisms and retained in solution increases relative to the amount of Ra sequestered by adsorption processes or co

  17. Hydrodynamical, hydrochemical and isotopic characterization of the Kourimat aquifer system (Essaouira basin, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes, P.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The synclinal basin of Kourimat, subdivided in two sub-basins (Igounzar in the North, and Zeltene in the South, is situated in the oriental part of Essaouira basin shelters a carbonate aquifer system contained in the limestones and dolomitic limestones of the Cenomanian and the Turonian. These ground waters represent the only drinking water and irrigation resource for the region.The geological formations outcropping in the studied area, start with the clay and marly formations of the terminal Jurassic in the south of Zelten watershed, and end with the sandy and loamy Quaternary formations in coastal areas in the Low Qsob watershed. The Middle and Upper Cretaceous (marl, fractured limestone, and dolomites represent the rest of the stratigraphic series especially in the areas of the Igrounzar watershed (up to 85% of the outcrops and in Zelten (up to 50%.The field occupation is not very significant. It basically consists of three types: 1 cultures (essentially cereals where it is possible (on the marly soils of the Cretaceous, the Quaternary and the Eocene; 2 uncovered areas corresponding to the fissured and karstic limestone outcrops of the Cretaceous and the Jurassic formations, and 3 forests (coniferous trees in the downstream part of the catchments area (Plio-quaternary soils and mountainous reinforcements of the Western High Atlas. Like for other undeveloped areas of Morocco, the Meskala basin is also subjected to an intensive deforestation (wood for heating and cooking.The study undertaken on the Cenomano-turonian aquifer has allowed us to characterize it from the hydrodynamical, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical point of view. The piezometric map of the two regrouped aquifer levels shows water flow senses from the SE to the NW. The hydraulic gradient varies from upstream to downstream, being weak n the central zone relative to the best hydrodynamic characteristics. The time evolution of the piezometry shows annual and seasonal

  18. Potential Offshore Submarine Groundwater in the Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira aquifer system (Algarve, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugman, Rui; Stigter, Tibor; Monteiro, Jose Paulo

    2015-04-01

    The Albufeira-Ribeira de Quarteira aquifer system on the south coast of Portugal is an important source of groundwater for agriculture and tourism, as well as contributing to significant freshwater discharge along the coast in the form of inter- and sub-tidal springs and maintaining groundwater dependent ecosystems along the Quarteira stream. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in the area was investigated within the scope of a multidisciplinary research project FREEZE (PTDC/MAR/102030/2008) which aimed to identify and characterize the effects of the hydrological/hydrogeological conditions on associated ecosystems. As well as near shore submarine springs, signs of SGD were found several kilometres from the shoreline during offshore CTD and geophysical surveys. On-land geophysical and offshore seismic surveys supplied data to update the 3D hydrogeological conceptual model of the aquifer system. Numerical models were applied to test the possibility of an offshore continuation of fresh groundwater over several kilometres under local conditions. Due to the high computational demand of variable density modelling, in an initial phase simplified 2D cross section models were used to test the conceptual model and reduce uncertainty in regards to model parameters. Results confirm the potential for SGD several kilometres from the coast within a range of acceptable values of hydraulic conductivity and recharge of the system. This represents the initial step in developing and calibrating a 3D regional scale model of the system, which aims to supply an estimate of the spatial distribution of SGD as well as serve as a decision support tool for the local water resources management agency.

  19. Investigating river–aquifer relations using water temperature in an anthropized environment (Motril-Salobreña aquifer)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duque, Carlos; Calvache, Marie; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2010-01-01

    Heat was applied as a tracer for determining river–aquifer relations in the Motril-Salobreña aquifer (S Spain). The aquifer has typically been recharged by River Guadalfeo infiltration, nevertheless from 2005 a dam was constructed changing the traditional dynamic river flow and recharge events...

  20. Sequence stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, and seismic structures of the lower intermediate confining unit and most of the Floridan aquifer system, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Kluesner, Jared W.; Westcott, Richard L.; Robinson, Edward; Walker, Cameron; Khan, Shakira A.

    2017-12-08

    Deep well injection and disposal of treated wastewater into the highly transmissive saline Boulder Zone in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer system began in 1971. The zone of injection is a highly transmissive hydrogeologic unit, the Boulder Zone, in the lower part of the Floridan aquifer system. Since the 1990s, however, treated wastewater injection into the Boulder Zone in southeastern Florida has been detected at three treated wastewater injection utilities in the brackish upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated for potential use as drinking water. At a time when usage of the Boulder Zone for treated wastewater disposal is increasing and the utilization of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer system for drinking water is intensifying, there is an urgency to understand the nature of cross-formational fluid flow and identify possible fluid pathways from the lower to upper zones of the Floridan aquifer system. To better understand the hydrogeologic controls on groundwater movement through the Floridan aquifer system in southeastern Florida, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Broward County Environmental Planning and Community Resilience Division conducted a 3.5-year cooperative study from July 2012 to December 2015. The study characterizes the sequence stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, and seismic structures of the lower part of the intermediate confining unit aquifer and most of the Floridan aquifer system.Data obtained to meet the study objective include 80 miles of high-resolution, two-dimensional (2D), seismic-reflection profiles acquired from canals in eastern Broward County. These profiles have been used to characterize the sequence stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy, and seismic structures in a 425-square-mile study area. Horizon mapping of the seismic-reflection profiles and additional data collection from well logs and cores or cuttings from 44 wells were focused on construction of three-dimensional (3D) visualizations of eight

  1. Geologic Setting and Hydrogeologic Units of the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Morgan, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System (CPRAS) covers approximately 44,000 square miles of northeastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and western Idaho. The area supports a $6 billion per year agricultural industry, leading the Nation in production of apples and nine other commodities (State of Washington Office of Financial Management, 2007; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007). Groundwater availability in the aquifers of the area is a critical water-resource management issue because the water demand for agriculture, economic development, and ecological needs is high. The primary aquifers of the CPRAS are basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) and overlying basin-fill sediments. Water-resources issues that have implications for future groundwater availability in the region include (1) widespread water-level declines associated with development of groundwater resources for irrigation and other uses, (2) reduction in base flow to rivers and associated effects on temperature and water quality, and (3) current and anticipated effects of global climate change on recharge, base flow, and ultimately, groundwater availability. As part of a National Groundwater Resources Program, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study of the CPRAS in 2007 with the broad goals of (1) characterizing the hydrologic status of the system, (2) identifying trends in groundwater storage and use, and (3) quantifying groundwater availability. The study approach includes documenting changes in the status of the system, quantifying the hydrologic budget for the system, updating the regional hydrogeologic framework, and developing a groundwater-flow simulation model for the system. The simulation model will be used to evaluate and test the conceptual model of the system and later to evaluate groundwater availability under alternative development and climate scenarios. The objectives of this study were to update the hydrogeologic framework for the CPRAS using the available

  2. Numerical analysis of the hydrogeologic controls in a layered coastal aquifer system, Oahu, Hawaii, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Delwyn S.; Souza, William R.; Bolke, Edward L.; Bauer, Glenn R.

    The coastal aquifer system of southern Oahu, Hawaii, USA, consists of highly permeable volcanic aquifers overlain by weathered volcanic rocks and interbedded marine and terrestrial sediments of both high and low permeability. The weathered volcanic rocks and sediments are collectively known as caprock, because they impede the free discharge of groundwater from the underlying volcanic aquifers. A cross-sectional groundwater flow and transport model was used to evaluate the hydrogeologic controls on the regional flow system in southwestern Oahu. Controls considered were: (a) overall caprock hydraulic conductivity; and (b) stratigraphic variations of hydraulic conductivity in the caprock. Within the caprock, variations in hydraulic conductivity, caused by stratigraphy or discontinuities of the stratigraphic units, are a major control on the direction of groundwater flow and the distribution of water levels and salinity. Results of cross-sectional modeling confirm the general groundwater flow pattern that would be expected in a layered coastal system. Groundwater flow is: (a) predominantly upward in the low-permeability sedimentary units; and (b) predominantly horizontal in the high-permeability sedimentary units. Résumé Le système aquifère littoral du sud d'Oahu (Hawaii, États-Unis) est constitué par des aquifères de terrains volcaniques très perméables, recouverts par des roches volcaniques altérées, et interstratifiés avec des sédiments marins et continentaux de perméabilité aussi bien forte que faible. Les roches volcaniques altérées et les sédiments sont globalement considérés comme une couverture, parce qu'ils s'opposent à l'écoulement de l'eau souterraine provenant des aquifères volcaniques sous-jacents. Les contrôles hydrogéologiques sur le système aquifère régional du sud-ouest d'Oahu ont étéévaluées au moyen d'un modèle d'écoulement et de transport sur une section transversale. Ces contrôles prennent en compte la conductivit

  3. Water quality considerations on the rise as the use of managed aquifer recharge systems widens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Niels; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2017-01-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique in making

  4. Aquifer Treatment of Sea Water to Remove Natural Organic Matter Before Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2016-10-18

    An investigation of a sea water reverse osmosis desalination facility located in western Saudi Arabia has shown that aquifer treatment of the raw sea water provides a high degree of removal of natural organic matter (NOM) that causes membrane biofouling. The aquifer is a carbonate system that has a good hydraulic connection to the sea and 14 wells are used to induce sea water movement 400 to 450 m from the sea to the wells. During aquifer transport virtually all of the algae, over 90% of the bacteria, over 90% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and high percentages of the humic substance, building blocks, and some of the low molecular weight fractions of NOM are removed. Between 44 and over 90% of the transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are removed with a corresponding significant reduction in concentration of the colloidal fraction of TEP. The removal rate for TEP appears to be greater in carbonate aquifers compared to siliciclastic systems. Although the production wells range in age from 4 months to 14 years, no significant difference in the degree of water treatment provided by the aquifer was found.

  5. Aquifer Treatment of Sea Water to Remove Natural Organic Matter Before Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Almashharawi, Samir; Ng, Kim Choon; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of a sea water reverse osmosis desalination facility located in western Saudi Arabia has shown that aquifer treatment of the raw sea water provides a high degree of removal of natural organic matter (NOM) that causes membrane biofouling. The aquifer is a carbonate system that has a good hydraulic connection to the sea and 14 wells are used to induce sea water movement 400 to 450 m from the sea to the wells. During aquifer transport virtually all of the algae, over 90% of the bacteria, over 90% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and high percentages of the humic substance, building blocks, and some of the low molecular weight fractions of NOM are removed. Between 44 and over 90% of the transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are removed with a corresponding significant reduction in concentration of the colloidal fraction of TEP. The removal rate for TEP appears to be greater in carbonate aquifers compared to siliciclastic systems. Although the production wells range in age from 4 months to 14 years, no significant difference in the degree of water treatment provided by the aquifer was found.

  6. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) involves injection and withdrawal of temperature-conditioned water into and from a permeable water-bearing formation. The groundwater quality and associated geological characteristics were assessed as they may affect the feasibility of ATES system development in any hydrologic region. Seven physical and chemical mechanisms may decrease system efficiency: particulate plugging, chemical precipitation, clay mineral dispersion, piping corrosion, aquifer disaggregation, mineral oxidation, and the proliferation of biota. Factors affecting groundwater quality are pressure, temperature, pH, ion exchange, evaporation/transpiration, and commingling with diverse waters. Modeling with the MINTEQ code showed three potential reactions: precipitation of calcium carbonate at raised temperatures; solution of silica at raised temperature followed by precipitation at reduced temperatures; and oxidation/precipitation of iron compounds. Low concentrations of solutes are generally favorable for ATES. Near-surface waters in high precipitation regions are low in salinity. Groundwater recharged from fresh surface waters also has reduced salinity. Rocks least likely to react with groundwater are siliceous sandstones, regoliths, and metamorphic rocks. On the basis of known aquifer hydrology, ten US water resource regions are candidates for selected exploration and development, all characterized by extensive silica-rich aquifers

  7. Standard technical specifications - Babcock and Wilcox Plants: Bases (Sections 2.0-3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) plants. Revision 1 incorporates the cumulative changes to Revision 0, which was published in September 1992. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, specifically the B ampersand W Owners Group (BWOG), NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993 (58 FR 39132). Licensees are encouraged to upgrade their technical specifications consistent with those criteria and conforming, to the extent practical and consistent with the licensing basis for the facility, to Revision 1 to the improved STS. The Commission continues to place the highest priority on requests for complete conversions to the improved STS. Licensees adopting portions of the improved STS to existing technical specifications should adopt all related requirements, as applicable, to achieve a high degree of standardization and consistency

  8. Stochastic simulation of time-series models combined with geostatistics to predict water-table scenarios in a Guarani Aquifer System outcrop area, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzione, Rodrigo L.; Wendland, Edson; Tanikawa, Diego H.

    2012-11-01

    Stochastic methods based on time-series modeling combined with geostatistics can be useful tools to describe the variability of water-table levels in time and space and to account for uncertainty. Monitoring water-level networks can give information about the dynamic of the aquifer domain in both dimensions. Time-series modeling is an elegant way to treat monitoring data without the complexity of physical mechanistic models. Time-series model predictions can be interpolated spatially, with the spatial differences in water-table dynamics determined by the spatial variation in the system properties and the temporal variation driven by the dynamics of the inputs into the system. An integration of stochastic methods is presented, based on time-series modeling and geostatistics as a framework to predict water levels for decision making in groundwater management and land-use planning. The methodology is applied in a case study in a Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) outcrop area located in the southeastern part of Brazil. Communication of results in a clear and understandable form, via simulated scenarios, is discussed as an alternative, when translating scientific knowledge into applications of stochastic hydrogeology in large aquifers with limited monitoring network coverage like the GAS.

  9. Isotopes to Study the coastal aquifer plain, Cap Bon, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hamouda, M. F.; Zouari, Kamel; Tarhouni, J.; Gaye, C.B.; Oueslati, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of Tunisia about 60 km south of the Tunis city. It is bounded by the Gulf of Haematite in the East, Djebel Sidi Aberahmane in the West, The town of Nabeul in the south and the area of the town Kelibia in the north. The landscape is a coastal plain slightly sloping (3%) towards the sea. The groundwater of the Oriental coast aquifer system occurs mainly at two levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 50 m whose reservoir is consisted by sediments of the Plio quaternary and a deep aquifer between about 150 and 400 m located in the sand stone formations of Miocene of the anticline of Djebel Sidi Abderrahmene. The climate of the region is semi-arid to sub-humid and of Mediterranean type. There are no perennial rivers in this region; but intense storms occasionally cause surface runoff, which is discharged by the oueds. The study is related to a technical cooperation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, aimed at the use of isotope techniques to study the seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers of Cap Bon in Tunisia. In this regard, a better understanding of the recharge and flow regime as well as the origin or salinity of the groundwater was required. To reach this goal, isotope and geochemical investigations were carried out. Water samples were taken from wells, boreholes from deep and shallow aquifer of the Oriental coastal aquifer located between Beni Khiar in the south and Kelibia in the north. The samples were analysed for their chemical and isotopic compositions (18O, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S). In the following, the results of these analyses are presented and discussed in terms of the recharge and flow regime of the groundwater and the origin and evolution of its salinity. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that the groundwater is very eterogeneous and suggest the aquifer is replenished by recent water coming from direct infiltration from rain. At

  10. Understanding Interactions between Hydrogeologic Factors, Design Variables, and System Operations for Multi-Well Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S.; Miller, G. R.; Smith, B.; Sheng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) system is a powerful tool for managing our present and future freshwater supplies. It involves injection of excess water into an aquifer, storing and later recovering it when needed, such as in a drought or during peak demand periods. Multi-well ASR systems, such as the Twin Oaks Facility in San Antonio, consist of a group of wells that are used for simultaneous injection and extraction of stored water. While significant research has gone into examining the effects of hydraulic and operational factors on recovery efficiency for single ASR well, little is known about how multi-well systems respond to these factors and how energy uses may vary. In this study, we created a synthetic ASR model in MODFLOW to test a range of multi-well scenarios. We altered design parameters (well spacing, pumping capacity, well configuration), hydrogeologic factors (regional hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivity, dispersivity), and operational variables (injection and withdrawal durations; pumping rates) to determine the response of the system across a realistic range of interrelated parameters. We then computed energy use for each simulation, based on the hydraulic head in each well and standard pump factors, as well as recovery efficiency, based on tracer concentration in recovered water from the wells. The tracer concentration in the groundwater was determined using MT3DMS. We observed that the recovery and energy efficiencies for the Multi-well ASR system decrease with the increase in well spacing and hydraulic gradient. When longitudinal dispersivity was doubled, the recovery and energy efficiencies were nearly halved. Another finding from our study suggests that we can recover nearly 90% of the water after two successive cycles of operation. The results will be used to develop generalized operational guidelines for meeting freshwater demands and also optimise the energy consumed during pumping.

  11. Digital model analysis of the principal artesian aquifer, Savannah, Georgia area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, H.B.; Krause, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    A digital model of the principal artesian aquifer has been developed for the Savannah, Georgia, area. The model simulates the response of the aquifer system to various hydrologic stresses. Model results of the water levels and water-level changes are shown on maps. Computations may be extended in time, indicating changes in pumpage were applied to the system and probable results calculated. Drawdown or water-level differences were computed, showing comparisons of different water management alternatives. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Application of a numerical model in the interpretation of a leaky aquifer test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroth, B.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1997-01-01

    The potential use of numerical models in aquifer analysis is by no means a new concept; yet relatively few engineers and scientists are taking advantage of this powerful tool that is more convenient to use now than ever before. In this technical note the authors present an example of using a numerical model in an integrated analysis of data from a three-layer leaky aquifer system involving well-bore storage, skin effects, variable discharge, and observation wells in the pumped aquifer and in an unpumped aquifer. The modeling detail may differ for other cases. The intent is to show that interpretation can be achieved with reduced bias by reducing assumptions in regard to system geometry, flow rate, and other details. A multiwell aquifer test was carried out at a site on the western part of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), located about 60 kilometers east of San Francisco. The test was conducted to hydraulically characterize one part of the site and thus help develop remediation strategies to alleviate the ground-water contamination

  13. Hydrogeology and geochemistry of aquifers underlying the San Lorenzo and San Leandro areas of the East Bay Plain, Alameda County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Borchers, James W.; Leighton, David A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Fields, Latoya; Galloway, Devin L.; Michel, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    The East Bay Plain, on the densely populated eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, contains an upper aquifer system to depths of 250 feet below land surface and an underlying lower aquifer system to depths of more than 650 feet. Injection and recovery of imported water has been proposed for deep aquifers at two sites within the lower aquifer system. Successful operation requires that the injected water be isolated from surface sources of poor-quality water during storage and recovery. Hydraulic, geochemical, and isotopic data were used to evaluate the isolation of deeper aquifers. Ground-water responses to tidal changes in the Bay suggest that thick clay layers present within these deposits effectively isolate the deeper aquifers in the northern part of the study area from overlying surficial deposits. These data also suggest that the areal extent of the shallow and deep aquifers beneath the Bay may be limited in the northern part of the study area. Despite its apparent hydraulic isolation, the lower aquifer system may be connected to the overlying upper aquifer system through the corroded and failed casings of abandoned wells. Water-level measurements in observation wells and downward flow measured in selected wells during nonpumped conditions suggest that water may flow through wells from the upper aquifer system into the lower aquifer system during nonpumped conditions. The chemistry of water from wells in the East Bay Plain ranges from fresh to saline; salinity is greater than seawater in shallow estuarine deposits near the Bay. Water from wells completed in the lower aquifer system has higher pH, higher sodium, chloride, and manganese concentrations, and lower calcium concentrations and alkalinity than does water from wells completed in the overlying upper aquifer system. Ground-water recharge temperatures derived from noble-gas data indicate that highly focused recharge processes from infiltration of winter streamflow and more diffuse recharge processes from

  14. Linking Groundwater Use and Stress to Specific Crops Using the Groundwater Footprint in the Central Valley and High Plains Aquifer Systems, U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Esnault, L.; Gleeson, T.; Heinke, J.; Gerten, D.; Flanary, E.; Bierkens, M. F.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    A number of aquifers worldwide are being depleted, mainly by agricultural activities, yet groundwater stress has not been explicitly linked to specific agricultural crops. Using the newly-developed concept of the groundwater footprint (the area required to sustain groundwater use and groundwater-dependent ecosystem services), we develop a methodology to derive crop-specific groundwater footprints. We illustrate this method by calculating high resolution groundwater footprint estimates of crops in two heavily used aquifer systems: the Central Valley and High Plains, U.S. In both aquifer systems, hay and haylage, corn and cotton have the largest groundwater footprints, which highlights that most of the groundwater stress is induced by crops meant for cattle feed. Our results are coherent with other studies in the High Plains but suggest lower groundwater stress in the Central Valley, likely due to artificial recharge from surface water diversions which were not taken into account in previous estimates. Uncertainties of recharge and irrigation application efficiency contribute the most to the total relative uncertainty of the groundwater footprint to aquifer area ratios. Our results and methodology will be useful for hydrologists, water resource managers, and policy makers concerned with which crops are causing the well-documented groundwater stress in semiarid to arid agricultural regions around the world.

  15. Water quality considerations on the rise as the use of managed aquifer recharge systems widens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Niels; Stuijfzand, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique in making

  16. Time-Domain Electromagnetic Data Collected in the U.S. Part of the Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos Aquifer System in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas, November 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The transboundary Mesilla Basin/Conejos-Médanos aquifer system was identified as one of the priority transboundary aquifer systems for additional study by the United...

  17. Predicting Formation Damage in Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Systems Utilizing a Coupled Hydraulic-Thermal-Chemical Reservoir Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel; Regenspurg, Simona; Milsch, Harald; Blöcher, Guido; Kranz, Stefan; Saadat, Ali

    2014-05-01

    In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems, large amounts of energy can be stored by injecting hot water into deep or intermediate aquifers. In a seasonal production-injection cycle, water is circulated through a system comprising the porous aquifer, a production well, a heat exchanger and an injection well. This process involves large temperature and pressure differences, which shift chemical equilibria and introduce or amplify mechanical processes. Rock-fluid interaction such as dissolution and precipitation or migration and deposition of fine particles will affect the hydraulic properties of the porous medium and may lead to irreversible formation damage. In consequence, these processes determine the long-term performance of the ATES system and need to be predicted to ensure the reliability of the system. However, high temperature and pressure gradients and dynamic feedback cycles pose challenges on predicting the influence of the relevant processes. Within this study, a reservoir model comprising a coupled hydraulic-thermal-chemical simulation was developed based on an ATES demonstration project located in the city of Berlin, Germany. The structural model was created with Petrel, based on data available from seismic cross-sections and wellbores. The reservoir simulation was realized by combining the capabilities of multiple simulation tools. For the reactive transport model, COMSOL Multiphysics (hydraulic-thermal) and PHREEQC (chemical) were combined using the novel interface COMSOL_PHREEQC, developed by Wissmeier & Barry (2011). It provides a MATLAB-based coupling interface between both programs. Compared to using COMSOL's built-in reactive transport simulator, PHREEQC additionally calculates adsorption and reaction kinetics and allows the selection of different activity coefficient models in the database. The presented simulation tool will be able to predict the most important aspects of hydraulic, thermal and chemical transport processes relevant to

  18. A Trans-disciplinary Hydrogeological Systems Analysis Approach for Identifying and Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Options: Example from the Darling River Floodplain, N.S.W., Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, K.; Brodie, R. S.; Tan, K. P.; Halas, L.; Magee, J.; Gow, L.; Christensen, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Surface water availability and quality generally limits managed aquifer recharge (MAR) opportunities in inland Australia's highly salinized landscapes and groundwater systems. Economic factors also commonly limit MAR investigations to shallow freshwater groundwater systems near existing infrastructure. Aquifer opportunities lie mainly in zones of fresh groundwater in relatively thin fluvial sedimentary aquifer systems with highly variable hydraulic properties. As part of a broader strategy to identify water savings in the Murray-Darling Basin, the Broken Hill Managed Aquifer Recharge (BHMAR) project was tasked with identifying and assessing MAR and/or groundwater extraction options to reduce evaporative losses from existing surface water storages, secure Broken Hill's water supply, protect the local environment and heritage, and return water to the river system. A trans-disciplinary research approach was used to identify and assess MAR options across a broad area of the Darling River floodplain. This methodology enabled the team to recognise fundamental problems in discipline approaches, helped identify critical data gaps, led to significant innovation across discipline boundaries, was critical in the development of a new hydrogeological conceptual model, facilitated development of new models of landscape, geological and tectonic evolution of the study area, and enabled completion of pre-commissioning maximal and residual MAR risk assessments. An airborne electromagnetics (AEM) survey, acquired over a large (>7,500 sq km) area of the Darling Floodplain, enabled rapid identification of a multi-layer sequence of aquifers and aquitards, while a phased assessment methodology was developed to rapidly identify and assess over 30 potential MAR targets (largely in fresh groundwater zones within palaeochannels and at palaeochannel confluences). Hydraulic properties were confirmed by a 7.5 km drilling program (100 sonic and rotary mud holes), and complementary field

  19. Machine-readable files developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System analysis in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Machine-readable files were developed for the High Plains Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project are stored on two magnetic tapes available from the U.S. Geological Survey. The first tape contains computer programs that were used to prepare, store, retrieve, organize, and preserve the areal interpretive data collected by the project staff. The second tape contains 134 data files that can be divided into five general classes: (1) Aquifer geometry data, (2) aquifer and water characteristics , (3) water levels, (4) climatological data, and (5) land use and water use data. (Author 's abstract)

  20. A new approach for assessing the future of aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J.; Whittemore, Donald O.; Wilson, Blake B.; Bohling, Geoffrey C.

    2016-03-01

    Aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture are under stress worldwide as a result of large pumping-induced water deficits. To aid in the formulation of more sustainable management plans for such systems, we have developed a water balance approach for assessing the impact of proposed management actions and the prospects for aquifer sustainability. Application to the High Plains aquifer (HPA) in the state of Kansas in the United States reveals that practically achievable reductions in annual pumping (determining the net inflow (capture) component of the water balance. The HPA is similar to many aquifers supporting critically needed agricultural production, so the presented approach should prove of value far beyond the area of this initial application.

  1. Distribution of effluent injected into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, southeastern Florida, 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2018-02-09

    Nonhazardous, secondarily treated, domestic wastewater (effluent) has been injected about 1 kilometer below land surface into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southeastern Florida. The Boulder Zone contains saline, nonpotable water. Effluent transport out of the injection zone is a risk of underground effluent injection. At the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, injected effluent was detected outside the Boulder Zone. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, investigated effluent transport from the Boulder Zone to overlying permeable zones in the Floridan aquifer system.One conceptual model is presented to explain the presence of effluent outside of the injection zone in which effluent injected into the Boulder Zone was transported to the Avon Park permeable zone, forced by buoyancy and injection pressure. In this conceptual model, effluent injected primarily into the Boulder Zone reaches a naturally occurring feature (a karst-collapse structure) near an injection well, through which the effluent is transported vertically upward to the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The effluent is then transported laterally through the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer to another naturally occurring feature northwest of the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, through which it is then transported vertically upward into the Avon Park permeable zone. In addition, a leak within a monitoring well, between monitoring zones, allowed interflow between the Avon Park permeable zone and the Upper Floridan aquifer. A groundwater flow and effluent transport simulation of the hydrogeologic system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, based on the hypothesized and non-unique conceptualization of the subsurface hydrogeology and flow system, generally replicated measured effluent constituent

  2. Managed aquifer recharge by a check dam to improve the quality of fluoride-rich groundwater: a case study from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrisankar, G; Jagadeshan, G; Elango, L

    2017-04-01

    In many regions around the globe, including India, degradation in the quality of groundwater is of great concern. The objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of recharge from a check dam on quality of groundwater in a region of Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu State, India. For this study, water samples from 15 wells were periodically obtained and analysed for major ions and fluoride concentrations. The amount of major ions present in groundwater was compared with the drinking water guideline values of the Bureau of Indian Standards. With respect to the sodium and fluoride concentrations, 38% of groundwater samples collected was not suitable for direct use as drinking water. Suitability of water for agricultural use was determined considering the electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percentage, permeability index, Wilcox and United States Salinity Laboratory diagrams. The influence of freshwater recharge from the dam is evident as the groundwater in wells nearer to the check dam was suitable for both irrigation and domestic purposes. However, the groundwater away from the dam had a high ionic composition. This study demonstrated that in other fluoride-affected areas, the concentration can be reduced by dilution with the construction of check dams as a measure of managed aquifer recharge.

  3. Geohydrology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, J.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the Cerro Prieto geothermal aquifer is summarized, with special emphasis on the initial production zone where the wells completed in the Alpha aquifer are located. These wells produce steam for power plant units 1 and 2. Brief comments also are made on the Beta aquifer, which underlies the Alpha aquifer in the Cerro Prieto I area and which extends to the east to what is known as the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas. The location of the area studied is shown. The Alpha and Beta aquifers differ in their mineralogy and cementing mineral composition, temperatures, and piezometric levels. The difference in piezometric levels indicates that there is no local communication between the two aquifers. This situation has been verified by a well interference test, using well E-1 as a producer in the Beta aquifer and well M-46 as the observation well in the Alpha aquifer. No interference between them was observed. Information on the geology, geohydrology, and geochemistry of Cerro Prieto is presented.

  4. Carbon-14 measurements in aquifers with methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.F.; Fritz, P.; Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of various groundwater systems indicates that methane is a common trace constituent and occasionally a major carbon species in groundwaters. Thermocatalytic methane had delta 13 Csub(CH 4 )>-45 per mille and microbially produced or biogenic methane had delta 13 Csub(CH 4 ) 13 C values for the inorganic carbon. Thermocatalytic methane had no apparent effect on the inorganic carbon. Because methanogenesis seriously affects the carbon isotope geochemistry of groundwaters, the correction of raw 14 C ages of affected groundwaters must consider these effects. Conceptual models are developed which adjust the 14 C activity of the groundwater for the effects of methanogenesis and for the dilution of carbon present during infiltration by simple dissolution of rock carbonate. These preliminary models are applied to groundwaters from the Alliston sand aquifer where methanogenesis has affected most samples. In this system, methanogenic bacteria using organic matter present in the aquifer matrix as substrate have added inorganic carbon to the groundwater which has initiated further carbonate rock dissolution. These processes have diluted the inorganic carbon 14 C activity. The adjusted groundwater ages can be explained in terms of the complex hydrogeology of this aquifer, but also indicate that these conceptual models must be more rigorously tested to evaluate their appropriateness. (author)

  5. Estimating aquifer transmissivity from specific capacity using MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLin, Stephen G

    2005-01-01

    Historically, specific capacity information has been used to calculate aquifer transmissivity when pumping test data are unavailable. This paper presents a simple computer program written in the MATLAB programming language that estimates transmissivity from specific capacity data while correcting for aquifer partial penetration and well efficiency. The program graphically plots transmissivity as a function of these factors so that the user can visually estimate their relative importance in a particular application. The program is compatible with any computer operating system running MATLAB, including Windows, Macintosh OS, Linux, and Unix. Two simple examples illustrate program usage.

  6. New methodology for aquifer influx status classification for single wells in a gas reservoir with aquifer support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For gas reservoirs with strong bottom or edge aquifer support, the most important thing is avoiding aquifer breakthrough in a gas well. Water production in gas wells does not only result in processing problems in surface facilities, but it also explicitly reduces well productivity and reservoir recovery. There are a lot of studies on the prediction of water breakthrough time, but they are not completely practicable due to reservoir heterogeneity. This paper provides a new method together with three diagnostic curves to identify aquifer influx status for single gas wells; the aforementioned curves are based on well production and pressure data. The whole production period of a gas well can be classified into three periods based on the diagnostic curves: no aquifer influx period, early aquifer influx period, and middle-late aquifer influx period. This new method has been used for actual gas well analysis to accurately identify gas well aquifer influx status and the water breakthrough sequence of all wells in the same gas field. Additionally, the evaluation results are significantly beneficial for well production rate optimization and development of an effective gas field.

  7. The Role of Attached and Free-Living Bacteria in Biodegradation in Karst Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheder

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural attenuation of groundwater contamination occurs at some level for all aquifers impacted with organic contaminants. The issues regarding natural attenuation are whether it takes place at a sufficient rate to be protective of human health and the environment. Implementation of a Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA remedial alternative for groundwater requires parties responsible for the contamination to demonstrate to regulators and the public that MNA is protective at a given site. Analysis of MNA for remediation of karst aquifers is hampered by a lack of understanding of biodegradation in karst environments. The lack of studies examining biodegradation in karst aquifers may in large part be due to the widespread perception that contaminants are rapidly flushed out of karst aquifers resulting in insufficient residence times for contaminants to biodegrade. In highly developed and well-connected conduit systems, the rate of contaminant migration is perceived to be much faster than the rate of biodegradation. This perception of contaminant transport is largely incorrect. Tracer studies for karst aquifers often indicate that these aquifers are characterized by diverse flow regimes and storage capabilities. Additionally, it is also believed that if bioremediation in bedrock aquifers is dependent upon contact between surface-attached bacteria and contaminants, then bioremediation would be limited by the low surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V of karst aquifers. A quantitative basis, however, for accepting or rejecting the assumption that attached bacteria dominate the biodegradation process in karst conduits has not been shown. The objective of this research was to determine if free-living karst bacteria from contributed as much to toluene biodegradation as attached bacteria. This is an important area of research. Research indicates bacteria are both attached and free-living in karst aquifers and it is unrealistic to think that only the attached

  8. Optimization of the exploitation system of a low enthalpy geothermal aquifer with zones of different transmissivities and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tselepidou, K.; Katsifarakis, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Market penetration of renewable energy sources, such as geothermal energy, could be promoted even by small cost reductions, achieved through improved development design. This paper deals with optimization of the exploitation system of a low enthalpy geothermal aquifer, by means of the method of genetic algorithms, which has been successfully used in similar problems of groundwater resources management. With respect to water flow, the aquifer consists of two zones of different transmissivities, while from the thermal point of view it may bear any number of zones with different temperatures. The optimization process comprises the annual pumping cost of the required flow and the amortization cost of the pipe network, which carries the hot water from the wells to a central water tank, situated at the border of the geothermal field. Results show that application of the proposed methodology allows better planning of low enthalpy geothermal heating systems, which may be crucial in cases of marginal financial viability. (author)

  9. Increasing freshwater recovery upon aquifer storage : A field and modelling study of dedicated aquifer storage and recovery configurations in brackish-saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Koen

    2016-01-01

    The subsurface may provide opportunities for robust, effective, sustainable, and cost-efficient freshwater management solutions. For instance, via aquifer storage and recovery (ASR; Pyne, 2005): “the storage of water in a suitable aquifer through a well during times when water is available, and the

  10. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  11. An analytical model for flow induced by a constant-head pumping in a leaky unconfined aquifer system with considering unsaturated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ye-Chen; Li, Ming-Hsu; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2017-09-01

    A new mathematical model is developed to describe the flow in response to a constant-head pumping (or constant-head test, CHT) in a leaky unconfined aquifer system of infinite lateral extent with considering unsaturated flow. The model consists of an unsaturated zone on the top, an unconfined aquifer in the middle, and a second aquifer (aquitard) at the bottom. The unsaturated flow is described by Richard's equation, and the flows in unconfined aquifer and second layer are governed by the groundwater flow equation. The well partially penetrates the unconfined aquifer with a constant head in the well due to CHT. The governing equations of the model are linearized by the perturbation method and Gardner's exponential model is adopted to describe the soil retention curves. The solution of the model for drawdown distribution is obtained by applying the methods of Laplace transform and Weber transform. Then the solution for the wellbore flowrate is derived from the drawdown solution with Darcy's law. The issue of the equivalence of normalized drawdown predicted by the present solution for constant-head pumping and Tartakovsky and Neuman's (2007) solution for constant-rate pumping is discussed. On the basis of the wellbore flowrate solution, the results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the wellbore flowrate is very sensitive to the changes in the radial hydraulic conductivity and the thickness of the saturated zone. Moreover, the results predicted from the present wellbore flowrate solution indicate that this new solution can reduce to Chang's et al. (2010a) solution for homogenous aquifers when the dimensionless unsaturated exponent approaches 100. The unsaturated zone can be considered as infinite extent in the vertical direction if the thickness ratio of the unsaturated zone to the unconfined aquifer is equal to or greater than one. As for the leakage effect, it can be ignored when the vertical hydraulic conductivity ratio (i.e., the vertical hydraulic

  12. Hydrochemistry and Isotope Hydrology for Groundwater Sustainability of the Coastal Multilayered Aquifer System (Zhanjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater sustainability has become a critical issue for Zhanjiang (China because of serious groundwater level drawdown induced by overexploitation of its coastal multilayered aquifer system. It is necessary to understand the origins, material sources, hydrochemical processes, and dynamics of the coastal groundwater in Zhanjiang to support its sustainable management. To this end, an integrated analysis of hydrochemical and isotopic data of 95 groundwater samples was conducted. Hydrochemical analysis shows that coastal groundwater is fresh; however, relatively high levels of Cl−, Mg2+, and total dissolved solid (TDS imply slight seawater mixing with coastal unconfined groundwater. Stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H values reveal the recharge sources of groundwater in the multilayered aquifer system. The unconfined groundwater originates from local modern precipitation; the confined groundwater in mainland originates from modern precipitation in northwestern mountain area, and the confined groundwater in Donghai and Leizhou is sourced from rainfall recharge during an older period with a colder climate. Ionic relations demonstrate that silicate weathering, carbonate dissolutions, and cation exchange are the primary processes controlling the groundwater chemical composition. Declining trends of groundwater level and increasing trends of TDS of the confined groundwater in islands reveal the landward extending tendency of the freshwater-seawater mixing zone.

  13. Potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in Florida and parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama, May – June 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnaman, Sandra L.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2011-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system covers nearly 100,000 square miles in the southeastern United States throughout Florida and in parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama, and is one of the most productive aquifers in the world (Miller, 1990). This sequence of carbonate rocks is hydraulically connected and is over 300 feet thick in south Florida and thins toward the north. Typically, this sequence is subdivided into the Upper Floridan aquifer, the middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The majority of freshwater is contained in the Upper Floridan aquifer and is used for water supply (Miller, 1986). The Lower Floridan aquifer contains fresh to brackish water in northeastern Florida and Georgia, while in south Florida it is saline. The potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in May–June 2010 shown on this map was constructed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Floridan Aquifer System Groundwater Availability Study (U.S. Geological Survey database, 2011). Previous synoptic measurements and regional potentiometric maps of the Upper Floridan aquifer were prepared for May 1980 (Johnston and others, 1981) and May 1985 (Bush and others, 1986) as part of the Floridan Regional Aquifer System Analysis.

  14. Effect of Short-Circuit Pathways on Water Quality in Selected Confined Aquifers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P. B.

    2010-12-01

    Confined aquifers in the United States generally contain fewer anthropogenic contaminants than unconfined aquifers because confined aquifers often contain water recharged prior to substantial human development and redox conditions are more reducing, which favors degradation of common contaminants like nitrate and chlorinated solvents. Groundwater in a confined part of the High Plains aquifer near York, Nebraska had an adjusted radiocarbon age of about 2,000 years, and groundwater in a confined part of the Floridan aquifer near Tampa, Florida had apparent ages greater than 60 years on the basis of tritium measurements. Yet compounds introduced more recently into the environment (anthropogenic nitrate and volatile organic compounds) were detected in selected public-supply wells completed in both aquifers. Depth-dependent measurements of flow and chemistry in the pumping supply wells, groundwater age dating, numerical modeling of groundwater flow, and other monitoring data indicated that the confined aquifers sampled by the supply wells were connected to contaminated unconfined aquifers by short-circuit pathways. In the High Plains aquifer, the primary pathways appeared to be inactive irrigation wells screened in both the unconfined and confined aquifers. In the Floridan aquifer, the primary pathways were karst sinkholes and conduits. Heavy pumping in both confined systems exacerbated the problem by reducing the potentiometric surface and increasing groundwater velocities, thus enhancing downward gradients and reducing reaction times for processes like denitrification. From a broader perspective, several confined aquifers in the U.S. have experienced large declines in their potentiometric surfaces because of groundwater pumping and this could increase the potential for contamination in those aquifers, particularly where short-circuit pathways connect them to shallower, contaminated sources of water, such as was observed in York and Tampa.

  15. Chemical and environmental isotope study of the basaltic aquifer systems of Yarmouk Basin (Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    1994-08-01

    The water in the fissured basalt aquifer system, the Upper Jurassic aquifer of the Yarmouk Basin and the atmospheric precipitation have been investigated using chemical and environmental isotope techniques. The groundwaters flowing through the different aquifers are differentiated by their chemical ratios and their isotopic compositions. The evolution of chemical facies of groundwater from the recharge area towards the basin outlet is characterized by increasing of sodium and magnesium contents as a result of silicate leaching. The stable isotope compositions of precipitation and mountainous spring waters match the Mediterranean Meteoric Water Line, while the groundwaters from the central zone and from the major springs of the Yarmouk Basin are mixtures of freshwater, which is isotopically depleted and salty groundwater of Laja plateau area. The interpretations of tritium and radiocarbon ( 14 C) data indicate that the recharge zones of the groundwater in the Yarmouk Basin occur on the high-land of more than 1000 m of altitude. The residence time of the mountainous springs is short (of about 40 years or less). However, water ages corrected by Vogel's concept and Gonfiantini's Model show, in general, a range from 1000 to 11000 years for the central zone groundwater. The groundwater moves from the Mt. Hermon and Mt. Arab towards the central zone and from the north-east (i.e. the Laja plateau) towards south-west (i.e. the major springs). The radiometric flow velocities range from 20 to 60 m/year within the central zone, while the flow velocities from both sides of Mt. Hermon and Mt. Arab are lower (1-7 m/year). (author). 43 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Aquifers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer contains the shallowest principal aquifers of the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, portrayed as polygons....

  17. Aquifer recharge estimation at the Mesilla Bolson and Guaymas aquifer systems, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Three unsaturated profiles were obtained from Mesilla Bolson and Guaymas aquifer systems, northern Mexico. About 500 mL of undisturbed soil from depths between 1 m and 58 m below the surface were obtained every meter by dry percussion from a borehole located near Cd Juarez, Chihuahua state. The other two boreholes were located in the southwestern portion of Sonora state; about 500 mL of undisturbed soil from depths 0-5.50 and 0- 8.50 m were obtained every 0.25 m by dry drilling at Narciso Mendoza and Guaymas sites, respectively. Samples were contained in sealed glass jars and analyzed for moisture content, chloride, deuterium and nitrate (NO 3 -N). The interstitial water was extracted by elution; chloride and nitrate were determined by automated colorimetry while deuterium by direct reduction. Considering an average precipitation at Mesilla Bolson area of 230 mm/year, a chloride rain content of 1 mg/L and a mean Cl content on the unsaturated profile of 977 mg/L below the zero flux plane, we estimated by the Cl mass balance approach a net palaeorecharge in the area of about 0.24 mm/year with a probable time scale profile of 11,000 years. For the Guaymas area the net recharge is in the range 0.11-0.16 mm/year, assuming an average rainfall of 320 mm/year, Cl rainfall content of 3.4 mg/L and mean Cl concentrations on the profiles of 6,939 and 9,470 mg/L below the zero flux plane, respectively. (author)

  18. Aquifer restoration: state of the art

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knox, Robert C; Knox, R. C

    1986-01-01

    ... of chemicals or waste materials, improper underground injection of liquid wastes, and placement of septic tank systems in hydrologically and geologically unsuitable locations. Incidents of aquifer pollution from man's waste disposal activities have been discovered with increasing regularity. At the same time, demands for groundwater usage have been inc...

  19. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage for Seasonal Thermal Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Vahab; Bloemendal, Martin; Keviczky, Tamas

    2017-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems allow storing large quantities of thermal energy in subsurface aquifers enabling significant energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions. This is achieved by injection and extraction of water into and from saturated underground aquifers, simultaneously. An ATES system consists of two wells and operates in a seasonal mode. One well is used for the storage of cold water, the other one for the storage of heat. In warm seasons, cold water is extracted from the cold well to provide cooling to a building. The temperature of the extracted cold water increases as it passes through the building climate control systems and then gets simultaneously, injected back into the warm well. This procedure is reversed during cold seasons where the flow direction is reversed such that the warmer water is extracted from the warm well to provide heating to a building. From the perspective of building climate comfort systems, an ATES system is considered as a seasonal storage system that can be a heat source or sink, or as a storage for thermal energy. This leads to an interesting and challenging optimal control problem of the building climate comfort system that can be used to develop a seasonal-based energy management strategy. In [1] we develop a control-oriented model to predict thermal energy balance in a building climate control system integrated with ATES. Such a model however cannot cope with off-nominal but realistic situations such as when the wells are completely depleted, or the start-up phase of newly installed wells, etc., leading to direct usage of aquifer ambient temperature. Building upon our previous work in [1], we here extend the mathematical model for ATES system to handle the above mentioned more realistic situations. Using our improved models, one can more precisely predict system behavior and apply optimal control strategies to manage the building climate comfort along with energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions

  20. Hydrogeological geochemical and isotopic study of the coastal aquifer of Sousse Eastern, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hamouda, M. F.; Carreira, P.; Marques, J. M.; Eggenkamp, H.

    2012-12-01

    At Sahel, near one of the seaside resort available in Tunisia, the water quantity and quality is a major problem ever at southern center of Tunisia. The Oued Laya coastal system is no exception. The levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 60 m whose reservoir is mainly formed by Mio-Pliocnesediments (with some gypsum lenses dispersed within the geological formations) and deep aquifer, situated between 100 and 250 m depth, located in the Miocene sandstone formations. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that groundwater salinity seems not be linked with the increasing water well's abstraction. In contrast, water mineralization seems to acquired by dissolution of minerals in the aquifer system especially halie and gypsum. Besides ion exchange processes play also an important role in the groundwater mineralization. Therefore, it clearly appears that several sources might contribute with different mineralization to the selenization of the aquifer through the natural recharge and also through the return of water irrigation. The contamination of the Mio-Pliocene shallow aquifer by a mixture with seawater is confirmed, and stable isotopes data do not support the hypothesis of mixing with seawater. (Author)

  1. Role of primary substrate composition on microbial community structure and function and trace organic chemical attenuation in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to reveal the microbial community characteristics in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a natural water treatment system, under different concentrations and compositions of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC

  2. Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Maliva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Managed aquifer recharge (MAR technologies can provide a variety of water resources management benefits by increasing the volume of stored water and improving water quality through natural aquifer treatment processes. Implementation of MAR is often hampered by the absence of a clear economic case for the investment to construct and operate the systems. Economic feasibility can be evaluated using cost benefit analysis (CBA, with the challenge of monetizing benefits. The value of water stored or treated by MAR systems can be evaluated by direct and indirect measures of willingness to pay including market price, alternative cost, value marginal product, damage cost avoided, and contingent value methods. CBAs need to incorporate potential risks and uncertainties, such as failure to meet performance objectives. MAR projects involving high value uses, such as potable supply, tend to be economically feasible provided that local hydrogeologic conditions are favorable. They need to have low construction and operational costs for lesser value uses, such as some irrigation. Such systems should therefore be financed by project beneficiaries, but dichotomies may exist between beneficiaries and payers. Hence, MAR projects in developing countries may be economically viable, but external support is often required because of limited local financial resources.

  3. Delineation of the extent of milling-related contamination in a naturally contaminated aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, William F.; Storms, Erik F.

    1992-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings from the Susquehanna-Western mill near Falls City, Texas, were pumped to tailings ponds located in abandoned open pit uranium mines. The ores from these mines were oxidized. Uranium and the associated hazardous constituents were present in these ores as relatively soluble secondary minerals. Because the tailings piles are located on the outcrops of the units designated as the uppermost aquifer, there is no upgradient aquifer from which to establish 'background' water quality. The widespread mineralization in the area naturally imposes a large variability in water quality in these units. It was necessary to demonstrate to State and Federal regulators that selected downgradient wells were beyond the influence of milling operations, and to develop a series of 'indicator parameters' that could be used to differentiate milling contaminated groundwater from that native to the aquifer. (author)

  4. Hydrostratigraphy, soil/sediment chemistry, and water quality, Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, Puchack Well Field Superfund site and vicinity, Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, 1997-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Julia L.; Walker, Richard L.; Jacobsen, Eric; Jankowski, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Drinking-water supplies from the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system at the Puchack well field in Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, have been contaminated by hexavalent chromium-the most toxic and mobile form-at concentrations exceeding the New Jersey maximum contaminant level of 100 micrograms per liter. Also, scattered but widespread instances of volatile organic compounds (primarily trichloroethylene) at concentrations that exceed their respective maximum contaminant levels in the area's ground water have been reported. Because inorganic and organic contaminants are present in the ground water underlying the Puchack well field, no water from there has been withdrawn for public supply since 1998, when the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) added the area that contains the Puchack well field to the National Priorities List. As part of the USEPA's investigation of the Puchack Well Field Superfund site, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study during 1997-2001 to (1) refine previous interpretations of the hydrostratigraphic framework, hydraulic gradients, and local directions of ground-water flow; (2) describe the chemistry of soils and saturated aquifer sediments; and (3) document the quality of ground water in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in the area. The four major water-bearing units of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system-the Upper aquifer (mostly unsaturated in the study area), the Middle aquifer, the Intermediate Sand (a local but important unit), and the Lower aquifer-are separated by confining units. The confining units contain areas of cut and fill, resulting in permeable zones that permit water to pass through them. Pumping from the Puchack well field during the past 3 decades resulted in downward hydraulic gradients that moved contaminants into the Lower aquifer, in which the production wells are finished, and caused ground water to flow northeast, locally. A comparison of current (1997

  5. Biogeochemical aspects of aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the process of aquifer thermal energy storage the in situ temperature of the groundwater- sediment system may fluctuate significantly. As a result the groundwater characteristics can be considerably affected by a variety of chemical, biogeochemical and microbiological

  6. Inorganic carbon cycle in soil-rock-groundwater system in karst and fissured aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Koceli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a systematic analysis of the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13CCaCO3 in carbonate rocks in central Slovenia, representing karst and fissured aquifers, and share of carbon contributions from carbonate dissolution and degradation of organic matter in aquifers, calculated from the mass balance equation. 59 samples of rocks (mainly dolomites from Upper Permian to Upper Triassic age were analyzed. Samples of carbonate rocks were pulverized and ground to fraction of 45 μm and for determination of δ13CCaCO3 analyzed with mass spectrometer for analyses of stable isotopes of light elements-IRMS. The same method was used for determination of isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC in groundwater for 54 of 59 locations. Values of δ13CCaCO3 are in the range from -2.0 ‰ to +4.1 ‰, with an average δ13CCaCO3 value of +2.2 ‰. These values are typical for marine carbonates with δ13CCaCO3 around 0 ‰, although δ13CCaCO3 values differ between groups depending on the origin and age. Early diagenetic dolomites have relatively higher values of δ13CCaCO3 compared to other analyzed samples. The lowest values of δ13CCaCO3 were observed in Cordevolian and Bača dolomite, probably due to late diagenesis, during which meteoric water with lower isotopic carbon composition circulated in the process of sedimentation. Values of δ13CDIC range from -14.6 ‰ to -8.2 ‰. Higher δ13CDIC values (-8.2 ‰ indicate a low proportion of soil CO2 in the aquifer and rapid infiltration, while lower values (-14.6 ‰ indicate higher proportion of soil CO2 in the aquifer and slower infiltration. Calculated contributions of carbon from organic matter / dissolution of carbonates in the karstic and fissured aquifers s how a similar proportion (50 % : 50 %.

  7. Managed Aquifer Recharge: from Local Research and Experiences to Regional Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, D.; Faneca, M.; Oude Essink, G.; van Baaren, E.; Stuurman, R.; Delsman, J. R.; van Kempen, C.; de Louw, P.

    2016-12-01

    Many areas in the world experience periodic water shortages due to meteorological drought, salt water intrusion or over-exploitation of the water resources. Recently, it was established that the depletion of aquifers in many areas of the world is in an advanced state (Gleeson et al, 2012). This poses enormous challenges as 2.5 billion people and many companies depend on groundwater now and in the future (UN, 2015; ESG, 2016). A solution to increase robustness of water systems and prevent water shortage is subsurface storage of water during wet periods using Managed Aquifer Research (MAR). In addition to mitigation of water shortage, MAR can also reduce the occurrence and degree of flooding. Here, we present an overview of Deltares MAR expertise and available tools for up-scaling MAR. Deltares has experience with both research and implementation of MAR in different parts of the world under various hydro(geo)logical, climatic and socio-economic conditions. Various MAR techniques were assessed/tested in coastal areas of the Netherlands, Spain, New York, New Orleans and in Bangladesh. In some of these areas specific groundwater shortage related issues occur, such as salt water intrusion or subsidence. In Singapore, monitoring campaigns and modeling were done to design MAR by infiltration of water in over-exploited aquifers. In Abu Dhabi, geophysical methods were used to detect the optimal conditions for MAR systems. To effectively increase the robustness of groundwater systems up-scaling of MAR is required. For this purpose, Deltares developed tools that provide insight in the potential demand, possibilities and effectiveness of MAR at larger scales. The Quick scan tool for Fresh Groundwater Buffering provides insight on regional to national scale and is based on GIS-information of water demand, water resources, and subsurface properties. This quick scan tool has been applied for Mozambique, Kenya, India and Bangladesh. The Fresh Water Optimizer assesses the

  8. Structural Control and Groundwater Flow in the Nubian Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy, K.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Save, H.; Emil, M. K.; Elkaliouby, B.

    2017-12-01

    An integrated research approach (remote sensing, field, geophysics) was conducted to investigate the structural control on groundwater flow in large aquifers using the less studied Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) of NE Africa as a test site. The aquifer extends over 2.2 x 106 km2 in Egypt, Libya, Chad, and Sudan and consists of thick (> 3 kms), water-bearing, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone with intercalations of Tertiary shale and clay. It is subdivided into three sub-basins (Northern Sudan Platform [NSP], Dakhla [DAS], and Kufra) that are separated by basement uplifts (e.g., E-W trending Uweinat-Aswan uplift that separates DAS from the NSP). Aquifer recharge occurs in the south (NSP and southern Kufra) where the aquifer is unconfined and precipitation is high (Average Annual Precipitation [AAP]: 117 mm/yr.) and discharge is concentrated in the north (DAS and northern Kufra). Our approach is a three-fold exercise. Firstly, we compared GOCE-based Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) to terrestrial gravity anomalies for 21262 sites to select the optimum model for deriving Bouguer gravity anomalies. Secondly, structures and uplifts were mapped using hill shade images and their extension in the subsurface were mapped using the Eigen_6C4 model-derived Bouguer anomalies and their Tilt Derivative products (TDR). Thirdly, hydrological analysis was conducted using GRACE CSR 1° x 1° mascon solutions to investigate the mass variations in relation to the mapped structures. Our findings include: (1) The Eigen-6C4 is the optimum model having the lowest deviation (9.122 mGal) from the terrestrial gravity anomalies; (2) the surface expressions of structures matched fairly well with their postulated extensions in the subsurface; (3) identified fault systems include: Red Sea rift-related N-S to NW-SE trending grabens formed by reactivating basement structures during Red Sea opening and Syrian arc-related NE-SW trending dextral shear systems; (4) TWS patterns are uniform

  9. Estimating Aquifer Properties Using Sinusoidal Pumping Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, T. C.; Haborak, K. G.; Young, M. H.

    2001-12-01

    We develop the theoretical and applied framework for using sinusoidal pumping tests to estimate aquifer properties for confined, leaky, and partially penetrating conditions. The framework 1) derives analytical solutions for three boundary conditions suitable for many practical applications, 2) validates the analytical solutions against a finite element model, 3) establishes a protocol for conducting sinusoidal pumping tests, and 4) estimates aquifer hydraulic parameters based on the analytical solutions. The analytical solutions to sinusoidal stimuli in radial coordinates are derived for boundary value problems that are analogous to the Theis (1935) confined aquifer solution, the Hantush and Jacob (1955) leaky aquifer solution, and the Hantush (1964) partially penetrated confined aquifer solution. The analytical solutions compare favorably to a finite-element solution of a simulated flow domain, except in the region immediately adjacent to the pumping well where the implicit assumption of zero borehole radius is violated. The procedure is demonstrated in one unconfined and two confined aquifer units near the General Separations Area at the Savannah River Site, a federal nuclear facility located in South Carolina. Aquifer hydraulic parameters estimated using this framework provide independent confirmation of parameters obtained from conventional aquifer tests. The sinusoidal approach also resulted in the elimination of investigation-derived wastes.

  10. Estimating hydraulic properties of the Floridan Aquifer System by analysis of earth-tide, ocean-tide, and barometric effects, Collier and Hendry Counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    -varying drawdown in an open well with periodic pressure-head oscillations in the aquifer, but the applicability of such methods might be limited in studies of the Floridan aquifer system.

  11. Hydrogeology, groundwater levels, and generalized potentiometric-surface map of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, 2010–14, in the northern Green River structural basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl

    2015-07-14

    In cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, groundwater levels in wells located in the northern Green River Basin in Wyoming, an area of ongoing energy development, were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2010 to 2014. The wells were completed in the uppermost aquifers of the Green River Basin lower Tertiary aquifer system, which is a complex regional aquifer system that provides water to most wells in the area. Except for near perennial streams, groundwater-level altitudes in most aquifers generally decreased with increasing depth, indicating a general downward potential for groundwater movement in the study area. Drilled depth of the wells was observed as a useful indicator of depth to groundwater such that deeper wells typically had a greater depth to groundwater. Comparison of a subset of wells included in this study that had historical groundwater levels that were measured during the 1960s and 1970s and again between 2012 and 2014 indicated that, overall, most of the wells showed a net decline in groundwater levels.

  12. A unified approach for designing a photovoltaic solar system for the underground water pumping well-34 at Disi aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, Munzer S.Y.; Qandil, Hasan; Hammad, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic system for the underground water pumping wells at Disi aquifer was designed. • Solar irradiation values on horizontal and tilted surfaces were identified. • Method of the worst month MWM and peak sun hours PSH method were applied. • Thirty-eight percentage of the total PV panels would not be used beyond the design conditions (December). • Dust accumulation problem were solved by cleaning or as a 5% power loss factor. - Abstract: This paper aims to present a detailed design of a standalone photovoltaic system used to power continuously a submersible water pump from a selected well (Well-34 of a current static water level, SWL = 147.3 m), out of 55 production wells located at the Disi aquifer, where each of these wells should have a continuously-operating water flow rate of 80 l/s (288 m 3 /h) according to the Disi project specifications. Initially, solar irradiation calculations on horizontal and tilted surfaces were carried out to identify the potential of solar energy available in kW h/m 2 /day in the Disi aquifer. Then, a system design approach based on the worst month of the year (December) was carried out to choose and size the components of photovoltaic system that is required to operate the submersible pump over the 25-year operation period. The system sizing implies defining the number and type of solar panels required to capture the available solar energy, the capacity and number of batteries, inverter rating, cable sizing, charge controller numbers and rating to ensure the maximum reliability of the system. Furthermore, beyond the design conditions of the worst month (December), extra energy can be produced by the PV system during the rest of the year time, which can be used for many purposes. Also, the design process considers the problem of dust accumulation on PV surfaces and this can be dealt with by periodic cleaning

  13. Water-quality characteristics of quaternary unconsolidated-deposit aquifers and lower tertiary aquifers of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Norris, Jody R.; Gamper, Merry E.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Yellowstone River Basin National Water Quality Assessment study, ground-water samples were collected from Quaternary unconsolidated-deposit and lower Tertiary aquifers in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana from 1999 to 2001. Samples from 54 wells were analyzed for physical characteristics, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, radionuclides, pesticide compounds, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate current water-quality conditions in both aquifers. Water-quality samples indicated that waters generally were suitable for most uses, and that natural conditions, rather than the effects of human activities, were more likely to limit uses of the waters. Waters in both types of aquifers generally were highly mineralized, and total dissolved-solids concentrations frequently exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Because of generally high mineralization, waters from nearly one-half of the samples from Quaternary aquifers and more than one-half of the samples from lower Tertiary aquifers were not classified as fresh (dissolved-solids concentration were not less than 1,000 mg/L). The anions sulfate, fluoride, and chloride were measured in some ground-water samples at concentrations greater than SMCLs. Most waters from the Quaternary aquifers were classified as very hard (hardness greater than 180 mg/L), but hardness varied much more in waters from the lower Tertiary aquifers and ranged from soft (less than 60 mg/L) to very hard (greater than 180 mg/L). Major-ion chemistry varied with dissolved-solids concentrations. In both types of aquifers, the predominant anion changes from bicarbonate to sulfate with increasing dissolved-solids concentrations. Samples from Quaternary aquifers with fresh waters generally were calcium-bicarbonate, calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, and calcium-sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate type waters, whereas

  14. Arsenic release from shallow aquifers of the Hetao basin, Inner Mongolia: evidence from bacterial community in aquifer sediments and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Guo, Huaming; Hao, Chunbo

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous microbes play crucial roles in arsenic mobilization in high arsenic groundwater systems. Databases concerning the presence and the activity of microbial communities are very useful in evaluating the potential of microbe-mediated arsenic mobilization in shallow aquifers hosting high arsenic groundwater. This study characterized microbial communities in groundwaters at different depths with different arsenic concentrations by DGGE and one sediment by 16S rRNA gene clone library, and evaluated arsenic mobilization in microcosm batches with the presence of indigenous bacteria. DGGE fingerprints revealed that the community structure changed substantially with depth at the same location. It indicated that a relatively higher bacterial diversity was present in the groundwater sample with lower arsenic concentration. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene demonstrated that the sediment bacteria mainly belonged to Pseudomonas, Dietzia and Rhodococcus, which have been widely found in aquifer systems. Additionally, NO3(-)-reducing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. was the largest group, followed by Fe(III)-reducing, SO4(2-)-reducing and As(V)-reducing bacteria in the sediment sample. These anaerobic bacteria used the specific oxyanions as electron acceptor and played a significant role in reductive dissolution of Fe oxide minerals, reduction of As(V), and release of arsenic from sediments into groundwater. Microcosm experiments, using intact aquifer sediments, showed that arsenic release and Fe(III) reduction were microbially mediated in the presence of indigenous bacteria. High arsenic concentration was also observed in the batch without amendment of organic carbon, demonstrating that the natural organic matter in sediments was the potential electron donor for microbially mediated arsenic release from these aquifer sediments.

  15. How to Recharge a Confined Aquifer: An Exploration of Geologic Controls on Groundwater Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, S.; Fogg, G. E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decreased snowpack storage and groundwater overdraft in California has increased interest in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) of excess winter runoff to the Central Valley aquifer system, which has unused storage capacity that far exceeds the state's surface reservoirs. Recharge to the productive, confined aquifer system remains a challenge due to the presence of nearly-ubiquitous, multiple silt and clay confining units that limit recharge pathways. However, previous studies have identified interconnected networks of sand and gravel deposits that bypass the confining units and accommodate rapid, high-volume recharge to the confined aquifer system in select locations. We use the variably-saturated, fully-integrated groundwater/surface-water flow code, ParFlow, in combination with a high-resolution, transition probability Markov-chain geostatistical model of the subsurface geologic heterogeneity of the east side of the Sacramento Valley, CA, to characterize recharge potential across a landscape that includes these geologic features. Multiple 180-day MAR simulations show that recharge potential is highly dependent on subsurface geologic structure, with a several order-of-magnitude range of recharge rates and volumes across the landscape. Where there are recharge pathways to the productive confined-aquifer system, pressure propagation in the confined system is widespread and rapid, with multi-kilometer lateral pressure propagation. Although widespread pressure propagation occurs in the confined system, only a small fraction of recharge volume is accommodated there. Instead, the majority of recharge occurs by filling unsaturated pore spaces. Where they outcrop at land surface, high-K recharge pathways fill rapidly, accommodating the majority of recharge during early time. However, these features become saturated quickly, and somewhat counterintuitively, the low-K silt and clay facies accommodate the majority of recharge volume during most of the simulation. These findings

  16. Onset of density-driven instabilities in fractured aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Raad, Seyed Mostafa; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Linear stability analysis is conducted to study the onset of density-driven convection involved in solubility trapping of C O2 in fractured aquifers. The effect of physical properties of a fracture network on the stability of a diffusive boundary layer in a saturated fractured porous media is investigated using the dual porosity concept. Linear stability analysis results show that both fracture interporosity flow and fracture storativity play an important role in the stability behavior of the system. It is shown that a diffusive boundary layer under the gravity field in fractured porous media with lower fracture storativity and/or higher fracture interporosity flow coefficient is more stable. We present scaling relations for the onset of convective instability in fractured aquifers with single and variable matrix block size distribution. These findings improve our understanding of density-driven flow in fractured aquifers and are important in the estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage site characterization and screening.

  17. WTAQ - A computer program for aquifer-test analysis of confined and unconfined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, P.M.; Moench, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    Computer program WTAQ was developed to implement a Laplace-transform analytical solution for axial-symmetric flow to a partially penetrating, finite-diameter well in a homogeneous and anisotropic unconfined (water-table) aquifer. The solution accounts for wellbore storage and skin effects at the pumped well, delayed response at an observation well, and delayed or instantaneous drainage from the unsaturated zone. For the particular case of zero drainage from the unsaturated zone, the solution simplifies to that of axial-symmetric flow in a confined aquifer. WTAQ calculates theoretical time-drawdown curves for the pumped well and observation wells and piezometers. The theoretical curves are used with measured time-drawdown data to estimate hydraulic parameters of confined or unconfined aquifers by graphical type-curve methods or by automatic parameter-estimation methods. Parameters that can be estimated are horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, and specific yield. A sample application illustrates use of WTAQ for estimating hydraulic parameters of a hypothetical, unconfined aquifer by type-curve methods. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  18. Study of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Masaaki; Umemiya, Hiromichi; Shibuya, Ikuko; Haga, Eiji

    Yamagata University 'Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES)' is the experimental system which has been running since 1982. From the results for along terms of experiments, we obtain many important knowledge. This paper presents the accomplishments for 16 years and the characteristics of thermal energy storage in thermal energy storage well. The conclusions show as follows. 1)In recent years, the thermal recovery factor of warm energy storage well becomes almost constant at about 60%. 2) The thermal recovery factor of cool energy storage well increases gradually and becomes at about 15%. 3) Since the ferric colloidal dam is formed in aquifer, thermal recovery factor increase year after year. 4) Back wash can remove clogging for ferric colloidal dam. 5) The apparent thermal diffusivity decrease gradually due to ferric colloidal dam.

  19. Ground-water-quality assessment of the Central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma: geochemical and geohydrologic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.; Christenson, Scott C.; Breit, George N.

    1993-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment pilot project for the Central Oklahoma aquifer examined the chemical and isotopic composition of ground water, the abundances and textures of minerals in core samples, and water levels and hydraulic properties in the flow system to identify geochemical reactions occurring in the aquifer and rates and directions of ground-water flow. The aquifer underlies 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and consists of Permian red beds, including parts of the Permian Garber Sandstone, Wellington Formation, and Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, and Quaternary alluvium and terrace deposits.In the part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation that is not confined by the Permian Hennessey Group, calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water; in the confined part of the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation and in the Chase, Council Grove, and Admire Groups, sodium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions in ground water. Nearly all of the Central Oklahoma aquifer has an oxic or post-oxic environment as indicated by the large dissolved concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, arsenic(V), chromium(VI), selenium(VI), vanadium, and uranium. Sulfidic and methanic environments are virtually absent.Petrographic textures indicate dolomite, calcite, sodic plagioclase, potassium feldspars, chlorite, rock fragments, and micas are dissolving, and iron oxides, manganese oxides, kaolinite, and quartz are precipitating. Variations in the quantity of exchangeable sodium in clays indicate that cation exchange is occurring within the aquifer. Gypsum may dissolve locally within the aquifer, as indicated by ground water with large concentra-tions of sulfate, but gypsum was not observed in core samples. Rainwater is not a major source for most elements in ground water, but evapotranspiration could cause rainwater to be a significant source of potassium, sulfate, phosphate and nitrogen species. Brines derived from seawater are

  20. Unconfined aquifer response to infiltration basins and shallow pump tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorf, David W.; DeGroot, Don J.; Hinlein, Erich S.

    2007-05-01

    SummaryWe measure and model the unsteady, axisymmetric response of an unconfined aquifer to delayed, arbitrary recharge. Water table drainage follows the initial elastic aquifer response, as modeled for uniform, instantaneous recharge by Zlotnik and Ledder [Zlotnik, V., Ledder, G., 1992. Groundwater flow in a compressible unconfined aquifer with uniform circular recharge. Water Resources Research 28(6), 1619-1630] and delayed drainage by Moench [Moench, A.F., 1995. Combining the Neuman and Boulton models for flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer. Ground Water 33(3), 378-384]. We extend their analyses with a convolution integral that models the delayed response of an aquifer to infiltration from a circular infiltration basin. The basin routes the hydrograph to the water table with a decay constant dependent on a Brooks and Corey [Brooks, R.H., Corey, A.T., 1966. Properties of porous media affecting fluid flow. Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division ASCE 92(2), 61-88] unsaturated permeability exponent. The resulting closed form model approaches Neuman's [Neuman, S.P., 1972. Theory of flow in unconfined aquifers considering delayed response of the water table. Water Resources Research 8(4), 1031-1045] partially penetrating pump test equation for a small source radius, instantaneous, uniform drainage and a shallow screen section. Irrigation pump data at a well characterized part of the Plymouth-Carver Aquifer in southeastern Massachusetts calibrate the small source model, while infiltration data from the closed drainage system of State Route 25 calibrate the infiltration basin model. The calibrated permeability, elasticity, specific yield, and permeability exponent are plausible and consistent for the pump and infiltration data sets.

  1. The Transboundary Aquifer Management Challenge: Linking Landscape Patterns and Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations in the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer, USA/Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T.; Gergel, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in land use and landscape pattern can have an array of impacts on aquatic systems, including impacts which span international waters and borders. Globally, agricultural land use patterns and practices are among the factors responsible for elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater aquifers. Coordination of landscape monitoring across trans-boundary aquifers is needed to monitor and address contamination issues as landscape patterns can vary widely among different political jurisdictions. Landscape indicators, which quantify the amount and arrangement of land cover (such as proportion and abundance of land cover types), are one such way to improve our understanding of cross-border aquatic system interactions. In Western North America, the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer (ASA) spans the US-Canada border and provides drinking water for over 100,000 people. Intensive agriculture combined with high precipitation and well-drained soils make this aquifer susceptible to nitrate leaching. To understand how landscape patterns influence nitrate concentrations, we ask: Which landscape indicators correlate most strongly with elevated nitrate concentrations? A seamless cross-border land cover mosaic was created by harmonizing a variety of US and Canadian geodata. Auxiliary high spatial resolution imagery (e.g., 5m RapidEye and historical Google Earth) were used to quantify fine-scale landscape features (such as number of farm field renovations) with suspected mechanistic links to nitrate sources. We examined groundwater nitrate concentrations in shallow wells (screens Environment Canada. Surrounding each well, terrestrial zones of influence (aligned with the directional flow of groundwater) were delineated within which landscape patterns were characterized. Multiple regression was used to compare the strength of relationships between land use practices and nitrate concentrations. Preliminary results show strong positive correlations between area of raspberry renovations and

  2. Coastal aquifers: Scientific advances in the face of global environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Vincent E. A.; Werner, Adrian D.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal aquifers embody the subsurface transition between terrestrial and marine systems, and form the almost invisible pathway for tremendous volumes of freshwater that flow to the ocean. Changing conditions of the earth's landscapes and oceans can disrupt the fragile natural equilibrium between fresh and saltwater that exists in coastal zones. Among these, over-abstraction of groundwater is considered the leading man-made cause of seawater intrusion. Moreover, many of the world's largest urban settings, where sources of contamination are profuse, have been built over the freshwater in coastal aquifers. Thus, coastal aquifers are important receptors of human impacts to water on Earth (Michael et al., 2017). This Special Issue on 'Investigation and Management of Coastal Aquifers' contains current scientific advances on the topic, dealing with the storage and quality of water, affected by stressors ranging in scale from point source contamination to global climate change.

  3. Seismic velocities to characterize the soil-aquifer continuum on the Orgeval experimental basin (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, S.; Ludovic, B.; Dhemaied, A.; Flipo, N.; Guérin, R.; Mouhri, A.; Faycal, R.; Vitale, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Among geophysical methods applied to hydrogeology, seismic prospecting is frequently confined to the characterization of aquifers geometry. The combined study of pressure- (P) and shear- (SH) wave velocities (respectively Vp and Vs) can however provide information about the aquifer parameters, as it is commonly done for most fluids in hydrocarbon exploration. This approach has recently been proposed in sandy aquifers with the estimation of Vp/Vs ratio. In order to address such issues in more complex aquifer systems (e.g. unconsolidated, heterogeneous or low-permeability media) we carried out P- and SH-wave seismic surveys on the Orgeval experimental basin (70 km east from Paris, France). This basin drains a multi-layer aquifer system monitored by a network of piezometers. The upper part of the aquifer system is characterized by tabular layers well delineated all over the basin thanks to Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Time Domain ElectroMagnetic (TDEM) soundings and wells. But the lateral variability of the intrinsic properties in each layer raises questions regarding the hydrodynamics of the upper aquifer and the validity of interpolations between piezometers. A simple interpretation of P- and SH-wave first arrivals for tabular models provides 1D velocity structures in very good agreement with the stratification anticipated from ERT and nearby geological logs. Vp/Vs ratios show a strong contrast at a depth consistent with the observed water table level, reinforcing the assumption of a free upper aquifer in the area. Similar experiments have to be conducted under different hydrological conditions to validate these observations. Anticipating the need to propose lateral applications of the method, we additionally performed tomographic inversions of the recorded data to retrieve 2D Vp and Vs models. If interpreted independently, both models fail to depict the stratification of the medium and the water table level cannot be straightforwardly identified

  4. Use of static Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to determine pathogen risks in an unconfined carbonate aquifer used for Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toze, Simon; Bekele, Elise; Page, Declan; Sidhu, Jatinder; Shackleton, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is becoming a mechanism used for recycling treated wastewater and captured urban stormwater and is being used as a treatment barrier to remove contaminants such as pathogens from the recharged water. There is still a need, however, to demonstrate the effectiveness of MAR to reduce any residual risk of pathogens in the recovered water. A MAR research site recharging secondary treated wastewater in an unconfined carbonate aquifer was used in conjunction with a static Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) to assess the microbial pathogen risk in the recovered water following infiltration and aquifer passage. The research involved undertaking a detailed hydrogeological assessment of the aquifer at the MAR site and determining the decay rates of reference pathogens from an in-situ decay study. These variables along with literature data were then used in the static QMRA which demonstrated that the recovered water at this site did not meet the Australian Guidelines for recycled water when used for differing private green space irrigation scenarios. The results also confirmed the importance of obtaining local hydrogeological data as local heterogeneity can influence of residence time in the aquifer which, in turn, influences the outcomes. The research demonstrated that a static QMRA can be used to determine the residual risk from pathogens in recovered water and showed that it can be a valuable tool in the preliminary design and operation of MAR systems and the incorporation of complementary engineered treatment processes to ensure that there is acceptable health risk from the recovered water. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Semianalytical Solutions for Transport in Aquifer and Fractured Clay Matrix System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-dimensional mathematical model that describes transport of contaminant in a horizontal aquifer with simultaneous diffusion into a fractured clay formation is proposed. A group of analytical solutions is derived based on specific initial and boundary conditions as well as ...

  6. Semi-analytical solution for flow in a leaky unconfined aquifer toward a partially penetrating pumping well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, Bwalya; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Barrash, Warren

    2008-07-01

    SummaryA semi-analytical solution is presented for the problem of flow in a system consisting of unconfined and confined aquifers, separated by an aquitard. The unconfined aquifer is pumped continuously at a constant rate from a well of infinitesimal radius that partially penetrates its saturated thickness. The solution is termed semi-analytical because the exact solution obtained in double Laplace-Hankel transform space is inverted numerically. The solution presented here is more general than similar solutions obtained for confined aquifer flow as we do not adopt the assumption of unidirectional flow in the confined aquifer (typically assumed to be horizontal) and the aquitard (typically assumed to be vertical). Model predicted results show significant departure from the solution that does not take into account the effect of leakage even for cases where aquitard hydraulic conductivities are two orders of magnitude smaller than those of the aquifers. The results show low sensitivity to changes in radial hydraulic conductivities for aquitards that are two or more orders of magnitude smaller than those of the aquifers, in conformity to findings of earlier workers that radial flow in aquitards may be neglected under such conditions. Hence, for cases were aquitard hydraulic conductivities are two or more orders of magnitude smaller than aquifer conductivities, the simpler models that restrict flow to the radial direction in aquifers and to the vertical direction in aquitards may be sufficient. However, the model developed here can be used to model flow in aquifer-aquitard systems where radial flow is significant in aquitards.

  7. Enhancement of wadi recharge using dams coupled with aquifer storage and recovery wells

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M. M.

    2014-06-25

    Wadi channel recharge to the underlying alluvial aquifer is naturally limited by the flashy nature of flood events, evapotranspiration losses of water from the vadose zone, and aquifer heterogeneity, particularly low vertical hydraulic conductivity. Anthropogenic lowering of the water table in many wadi aquifers has also reduced the potential recharge by increasing the thickness of the vadose zone, causing interflow water loss from surface emergence and evaporation. A method to enhance recharge is to slow the flow within wadi channels by placement of dam structures, thereby ponding water and increasing the vertical head gradient to create a more rapid rate of infiltration and percolation. Effectiveness of wadi dams to enhance aquifer recharge reduces over time due to mud deposition within the reservoir caused by storm events. Up to 80 % of the water in old wadi reservoirs is lost to free-surface evaporation before infiltration and recharge can occur. One method to maintain or increase the rate of recharge is to convey clean water by gravity flow from the reservoir down-gradient to artificially recharge the aquifer using existing wells. This type of system is a low-cost and low-energy recharge method which could greatly enhance groundwater storage in wadi aquifers. Modeling results show that existing wells could store up to 1,000 m3/day under gravity-feed conditions and up to 3,900 m3/day with the shut-in of the well to produce a pressurized system. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Hydrochemical Processes in the Alluvial Aquifer of the Gwydir River (Northern New South Wales, Australia)

    OpenAIRE

    Menció, Anna; Mas-Pla, Josep; Korbel, Kathryn; Hose, Grant C.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of the Narrabri Formation, the shallow aquifer system of the alluvial fan of the Gwydir River (NSW, Australia), is analyzed to better understand the hydrogeological processes involved in aquifer recharge, and to set up future management options that preserve the quantity and quality of water resources. Results show that groundwater hydrochemistry in this alluvial aquifer is mainly controlled by silicate weathering and cation exchange. However, salt remobilization in specifi...

  9. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba; Hidrodinamica isotopica de los sistemas acuiferos Jaruco y Aguacate, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moleiro Leon, L F; Guerra Oliva, M G [Grupo de Aguas Terrestres, Instituto de Geofisica y Astronomia, La Habana (Cuba); Maloszewski, P [GSF, Institut fue Hydrologie, Munich (Germany); Arellano Acosta, D M [Agencia de Medio Ambiente, CITMA, La Habana (Cuba)

    2002-07-01

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable ({sup 18}O and 2{sup H}) and radioactive ({sup 3}H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Borehole Flow in Deep Monitor Wells, Pearl Harbor Aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, K.; Oki, D. S.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    Salinity profiles collected from uncased deep monitor wells are commonly used to monitor freshwater-lens thickness in coastal aquifers. However, vertical flow in these wells can cause the measured salinity to differ from salinity in the adjacent aquifer. Substantial borehole flow has been observed in uncased wells in the Pearl Harbor aquifer, Oahu, Hawaii. A numerical modeling approach, incorporating aquifer hydraulic characteristics and recharge rates representative of the Pearl Harbor aquifer, was used to evaluate the effects of borehole flow on measured salinity profiles from deep monitor wells. Borehole flow caused by vertical hydraulic gradients associated with the natural regional groundwater-flow system and local groundwater withdrawals was simulated. Model results were used to estimate differences between vertical salinity profiles in deep monitor wells and the adjacent aquifer in areas of downward, horizontal, and upward flow within the regional flow system—for cases with and without nearby pumped wells. Aquifer heterogeneity, represented in the model as layers of contrasting permeability, was incorporated in model scenarios. Results from this study provide insight into the magnitude of the differences between vertical salinity profiles from deep monitor wells and the salinity distributions in the aquifers. These insights are relevant and are critically needed for management and predictive modeling purposes.

  11. The Next Generation in Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction Modeling within the MODFLOW Software Family: A New Package for MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-OWHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, S. E.; Leake, S. A.; Hanson, R. T.; Galloway, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Subsidence and Aquifer-System Compaction Packages, SUB and SUB-WT, for MODFLOW are two currently supported subsidence packages within the MODFLOW family of software. The SUB package allows the calculation of instantaneous and delayed releases of water from distributed interbeds (relatively more compressible fine-grained sediments) within a saturated aquifer system or discrete confining beds. The SUB-WT package does not include delayed releases, but does perform a more rigorous calculation of vertical stresses that can vary the effective stress that causes compaction. This calculation of instantaneous compaction can include the effect of water-table fluctuations for unconfined aquifers on effective stress, and can optionally adjust the elastic and inelastic storage properties based on the changes in effective stress. The next generation of subsidence modeling in MODFLOW is under development, and will merge and enhance the capabilities of the SUB and SUB-WT Packages for MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-OWHM. This new version will also provide some additional features such as stress dependent vertical hydraulic conductivity of interbeds, time-varying geostatic loads, and additional attributes related to aquifer-system compaction and subsidence that will broaden the class of problems that can be simulated. The new version will include a redesigned source code, a new user friendly input file structure, more output options, and new subsidence solution options. This presentation will discuss progress in developing the new package and the new features being implemented and their potential applications. By Stanley Leake, Scott E. Boyce, Randall T. Hanson, and Devin Galloway

  12. Hydrology of the shallow aquifer and uppermost semiconfined aquifer near El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.E.; Baker, E.T.; Sperka, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The availability of fresh ground water in El Paso and adjacent areas that is needed to meet increased demand for water supply concerns local, State, and Federal agencies. The Hueco bolson is the principal aquifer in the El Paso area. Starting in the early 1900s and continuing to the 1950s, most of the municipal and industrial water supply in El Paso was pumped from the Hueco bolson aquifer from wells in and near the Rio Grande Valley and the international border. The Rio Grande is the principal surface-water feature in the El Paso area, and a major source of recharge to the shallow aquifer (Rio Grande alluvium) within the study area is leakage of flow from the Rio Grande.

  13. Attenuation of landfill leachate by UK Triassic sandstone aquifer materials. 1. Fate of inorganic pollutants in laboratory columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Steven F.; Tellam, John H.; Lerner, David N.

    2000-05-01

    The attenuation of inorganic contaminants in acetogenic and methanogenic landfill leachate by calcareous and carbonate-deficient, oxide-rich Triassic sandstone aquifer materials from the English Midlands was examined in laboratory columns. Aqueous equilibrium speciation modelling, simple transport modelling and chemical mass balance approaches are used to evaluate the key processes and aquifer geochemical properties controlling contaminant fate. The results indicate that leachate-rock interactions are dominated by ion-exchange processes, acid-base and redox reactions and sorption/precipitation of metal species. Leachate NH 4 is attenuated by cation exchange with the aquifer sediments; however, NH 4 migration could be described with a simple model using retardation factors. Organic acids in the acetogenic leachate buffered the system pH at low levels during flushing of the calcareous aquifer material. In contrast, equilibrium with Al oxyhydroxide phases initially buffered pH (˜4.5) during flushing of the carbonate-deficient sandstone with methanogenic leachate. This led to the mobilisation of sorbed and oxide-bound heavy metals from the aquifer sediment which migrated as a concentrated pulse at the leachate front. Abiotic reductive dissolution of Mn oxyhydroxides on each aquifer material by leachate Fe 2+ maintains high concentrations of dissolved Mn and buffers the leachate inorganic redox system. This feature is analogous to the Mn-reducing zones found in leachate plumes and in the experiments provides a sink for the leachate Fe load and other heavy metals. The availability of reactive solid phase Mn oxyhydroxides limits the duration of redox buffering and Fe attenuation by these aquifer sediments. Aquifer pH and redox buffering capacity exert a fundamental influence on leachate inorganic contaminant fate in these systems. The implications for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability at landfills are discussed and simple measurements of aquifer properties which

  14. Water-quality observations of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, Texas, with an emphasis on processes influencing nutrient and pesticide geochemistry and factors affecting aquifer vulnerability, 2010–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Stephen P.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Mahler, Barbara J.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2018-06-07

    As questions regarding the influence of increasing urbanization on water quality in the Edwards aquifer are raised, a better understanding of the sources, fate, and transport of compounds of concern in the aquifer—in particular, nutrients and pesticides—is needed to improve water management decision-making capabilities. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, performed a study from 2010 to 2016 to better understand how water quality changes under a range of hydrologic conditions and in contrasting land-cover settings (rural and urban) in the Edwards aquifer. The study design included continuous hydrologic monitoring, continuous water-quality monitoring, and discrete sample collection for a detailed characterization of water quality at a network of sites throughout the aquifer system. The sites were selected to encompass a “source-to-sink” (that is, from aquifer recharge to aquifer discharge) approach. Network sites were selected to characterize rainfall, recharging surface water, and groundwater; groundwater sites included wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer (unconfined wells) and in the confined part of the aquifer (confined wells) and a major discharging spring. Storm-related samples—including rainfall samples, stormwater-runoff (surface-water) samples, and groundwater samples—were collected to characterize the aquifer response to recharge.Elevated nitrate concentrations relative to national background values and the widespread detection of pesticides indicate that the Edwards aquifer is vulnerable to contamination and that vulnerability is affected by factors such as land cover, aquifer hydrogeology, and changes in hydrologic conditions. Greater vulnerability of groundwater in urban areas relative to rural areas was evident from results for urban groundwater sites, which generally had higher nitrate concentrations, elevated δ15N-nitrate values, a greater diversity of pesticides, and higher pesticide

  15. Effects of Land-Use Change and Managed Aquifer Recharge on Geochemical Reactions with Implications for Groundwater Quantity and Quality in Atoll Island Aquifers, Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Gurdak, J. J.; Odigie, K. O.; Storlazzi, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    This study compares the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll groundwater systems in Roi-Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur houses a U.S. Department of Defense military installation and presents an ideal study location where a human impacted