WorldWideScience

Sample records for wikipedia promotion process

  1. Wikipedia in Promoting Science Literary Skills in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sunitha; Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    In learning Science, online environments allowing for user generated content are becoming increasingly important since they offer possibilities for learners to elaborate on assignments and projects. This study investigates how Wikipedia can serve as a means for enhancing science literary skills when students are encouraged to participate in…

  2. [Wikipedia and wikinutrition: key tools for the global promotion of nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Valero, J; Wanden-Berghe, C; Culebras-Fernández, J M; Gil, A; Ruiz, M D; Luengo, L M; Veiga, J

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is an encyclopedia collaboratively edited by volunteers from around the world built on the Web since 2003. Today is the sixth most visited site on the Internet, making it the biggest hit of participatory democracy in the field of information dissemination. The English edition, with more than 3 million items, has become an indispensable part of the Internet and the largest and most popular reference work. In this context, it could be argued that Wikipedia is a valuable tool for the general knowledge of the nutritional sciences terminology. At the same time, it does not only facilitate access to knowledge but also can generate it. It also permits to socialize these spaces for collaboration and development, contributing therefore to disclose science to the society. Consequently, in this article we present and discuss the main features of Wikipedia, emphasizing above all its role in food science and nutrition.

  3. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving credibility evaluations on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schmettow, Martin; Wiering, Caro H.; Pieters, Jules M.; Boer, Henk

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, ongoing research on trust in Wikipedia is used as a case study to illustrate the design process of a support tool for Wikipedia, following the ASCE-model. This research is performed from a cognitive perspective and aims at users actively evaluating the credibility of information on

  5. Improve Research Visibility and Impact by Contributing to Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2017-01-01

    Wikipedia is a tool for collaboration, information sharing and knowledge/content management which anyone can edit. Wikipedia is widely used by students during the research process. So, due to Wikipedia popularity, contributing to Wikipedia website is one way of increasing citation score. In this workshop, I try to answer “Does including your papers as citations on Wikipedia increase the number of academic citations you get?” if yes, how?.

  6. Wikipedia use: Risk for developing technology addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    The present case highlights the addictive potential of Wikipedia usage. The users approached a technology addiction clinic for the management of excessive use of technology. A clinical interview was used to elicit information about usages. It indicates the addictive use of Wikipedia and associated dysfunction in lifestyle. It has implication for promotion of healthy use of technology.

  7. Wikipedia use: Risk for developing technology addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case highlights the addictive potential of Wikipedia usage. The users approached a technology addiction clinic for the management of excessive use of technology. A clinical interview was used to elicit information about usages. It indicates the addictive use of Wikipedia and associated dysfunction in lifestyle. It has implication for promotion of healthy use of technology.

  8. Building a Reputation System for Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. Wikipedia has an extremely open editorial policy that allows anybody to create or modify articles. This has promoted a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but also introduced problems relating...... to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS provides a rating which emphasizes feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This paper presents...... some of the work that has gone into the development of the Wikipedia Recommender System. We first developed a generic architecture for integrating a reputation system into existing legacy systems and based our design of the WRS on this architecture. Both the generic architecture and our design...

  9. Wikipedia and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, WM

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a

  10. Wikipedia for Africanists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, H.; Damen, J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    How can Africanists and information specialists in African research and documentation get the most out of Wikipedia, and how can they contribute to Wikipedia? This article argues that Wikipedia is useful both as a universally accessible - albeit not specifically academic - free reference tool and as

  11. Contribute to Wikipedia: An approach to Increase Research Visibility on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia is a tool for collaboration, information sharing and knowledge/content management which anyone can edit. Wikipedia is widely used by students during the research process. So, due to Wikipedia popularity, contributing to Wikipedia website is one way of increasing citation score. In this workshop, I try to answer “Does including your papers as citations on Wikipedia increase the number of academic citations you get?” if yes, how?.

  12. The Truth of Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Tkacz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to assert that Wikipedia has a relation to truth? That there is, despite regular claims to the contrary, an entire apparatus of truth in Wikipedia? In this article, I show that Wikipedia has in fact two distinct relations to truth: one which is well known and forms the basis of existing popular and scholarly commentaries, and another which refers to equally well-known aspects of Wikipedia, but has not been understood in terms of truth. I demonstrate Wikipedia's dual relation to truth through a close analysis of the Neutral Point of View core content policy (and one of the project's 'Five Pillars'. I conclude by indicating what is at stake in the assertion that Wikipedia has a regime of truth and what bearing this has on existing commentaries.

  13. Towards Automatic Classification of Wikipedia Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymański, Julian

    Wikipedia - the Free Encyclopedia encounters the problem of proper classification of new articles everyday. The process of assignment of articles to categories is performed manually and it is a time consuming task. It requires knowledge about Wikipedia structure, which is beyond typical editor competence, which leads to human-caused mistakes - omitting or wrong assignments of articles to categories. The article presents application of SVM classifier for automatic classification of documents from The Free Encyclopedia. The classifier application has been tested while using two text representations: inter-documents connections (hyperlinks) and word content. The results of the performed experiments evaluated on hand crafted data show that the Wikipedia classification process can be partially automated. The proposed approach can be used for building a decision support system which suggests editors the best categories that fit new content entered to Wikipedia.

  14. Readability of Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Dijkstra, Roald; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is becoming widely acknowledged as a reliable source of encyclopedic information. However, concerns have been expressed about its readability. Wikipedia articles might be written in a language too difficult to be understood by most of its visitors. In this study, we apply the Flesch

  15. Researching trust in Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    As the use of collaborative online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia grows, so does the need for research on how users evaluate its credibility. In this paper we compare three experimental approaches to study trust in Wikipedia, namely think aloud, eye-tracking, and online questionnaires. The

  16. How Elementary Is "Wikipedia"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontichiaro, Kristin; Harvey, Carl A., II

    2010-01-01

    Despite easy access to expert resources and extensive in-school modeling, students--even the youngest--are relying heavily upon "Wikipedia," especially when they do research away from school. With "Wikipedia" holding steady as one of the top ten Web sites worldwide, it is no wonder students are flocking there. For teachers, parents, and students,…

  17. Wikipedias: Collaborative web-based encyclopedias as complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, V.; Božičević, M.; Štefančić, H.; Domazet, M.

    2006-07-01

    Wikipedia is a popular web-based encyclopedia edited freely and collaboratively by its users. In this paper we present an analysis of Wikipedias in several languages as complex networks. The hyperlinks pointing from one Wikipedia article to another are treated as directed links while the articles represent the nodes of the network. We show that many network characteristics are common to different language versions of Wikipedia, such as their degree distributions, growth, topology, reciprocity, clustering, assortativity, path lengths, and triad significance profiles. These regularities, found in the ensemble of Wikipedias in different languages and of different sizes, point to the existence of a unique growth process. We also compare Wikipedias to other previously studied networks.

  18. Wikipedia the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John

    2008-01-01

    Want to be part of the largest group-writing project in human history? Learn how to contribute to Wikipedia, the user-generated online reference for the 21st century. Considered more popular than eBay, Microsoft.com, and Amazon.com, Wikipedia servers respond to approximately 30,000 requests per second, or about 2.5 billion per day. It's become the first point of reference for people the world over who need a fact fast.If you want to jump on board and add to the content, Wikipedia: The Missing Manual is your first-class ticket. Wikipedia has more than 9 million entries in 250 languages, over 2

  19. Map Projections in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia (wiki + encyclopaedia is a multilingual, web-based encyclopaedia with free content. It is a wiki, which means it is written by numerous volunteers, and most articles can be changed by anyone with Internet access and an adequate web browser. The project was started on January 15, 2001. Wikipedia currently has more than 3 700 000 articles in many languages (including a million articles in English.

  20. Extracting central places from the link structure in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    of the German language edition of Wikipedia. The official upper and middle centers declared, based on German spatial laws, are used as a reference dataset. The characteristics of the link structure around their Wikipedia pages, which link to each other or mention each other, and how often, are used to develop...... a bottom-up method for extracting central places from Wikipedia. The method relies solely on the structure and number of links and mentions between the corresponding Wikipedia pages; no spatial information is used in the extraction process. The output of this method shows significant overlap...... with the official central place structure, especially for the upper centers. The results indicate that real-world relationships are in fact reflected in the link structure on the web in the case of Wikipedia....

  1. Making sense of the German Wikipedia community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Jørgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a qualitative study of the German Wikipedia community, focusing on how people engaged with Wikipedia make sense of norms, collaborative practices and means of regulation within the community. The study highlights the strong focus on the quality of the end-product (the encyclopedia in the German community, stressing that article quality is seen as more important than the wiki-process as such. As the community has grown, an increasing number of rules and mechanisms have been deployed to resolve various issues and conflicts, however the interviewees do not perceive Wikipedia as being bureaucratic, but rather describe it as a “rule-governed anarchy”. The findings suggest that people contribute for a variety of reasons, yet point to reactions from and interactions with fellow Wikipedians as one of the strongest motivational drivers for participation.

  2. Diskursive Risikokonstruktionen in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Grethe Julius

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates discursive constructions of health risks in two Wikipedia articles dealing with parabens, one in German and one in English. The aim of the paper is first to provide insight into the way health risks in connection with the use of parabens in cosmetics, food and other products...

  3. Reengineering the Wikipedia for Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Thomas Rune; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    The Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia collaboratively edited by Internet users with a minimum of administration. Anybody can write an article for the Wikipedia and there is no verification of the author’s expertise on the particular subject. This may lead to problems relating to the quality...... of articles, especially completeness and correctness of information, and inaccuracies in the Wikipedia have been rumoured to cause students to fail courses; innocent people have been associated with the killing of John F. Kennedy, etc. Providing a means to assess the correctness, completeness and impartiality...... of information in the Wikipedia is therefore vitally important for the users to build trust in the Wikipedia and ensure the continued success and growth of the system. Integrating a reputation system into the Wikipedia would help users assess the quality of articles and provide a powerful incentive for authors...

  4. Cien arquitectas en Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisset Inés

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo relata la experiencia de editar biografías de mujeres arquitectas en Wikipedia, usando como referencia el blog Un día | Una arquitecta. Se detallan los diversos sesgos y problemas específicos que hacen que la labor de ellas sea invisibilizada en uno de los sitios web más visitados de la red.

  5. The Wikipedia Image Retrieval Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tsikrika (Theodora); J. Kludas

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe wikipedia image retrieval task at ImageCLEF provides a testbed for the system-oriented evaluation of visual information retrieval from a collection of Wikipedia images. The aim is to investigate the effectiveness of retrieval approaches that exploit textual and visual evidence in the

  6. Historie på Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia.dk er et meget populært redskab til informationssøgning. Men hvor pålideligt er det?......Wikipedia.dk er et meget populært redskab til informationssøgning. Men hvor pålideligt er det?...

  7. Articles as Assignments - Modalities and Experiences of Wikipedia Use in University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannemacher, Klaus

    In spite of perceived quality deficits, Wikipedia is a popular information resource among students. Instructors increasingly take advantage of the positive student attitude through actively integrating Wikipedia as a learning tool into university courses. The contribution raises the question if Wikipedia assignments in university courses are suited to make complex research, editing and bibliographic processes through which scholarship is produced transparent to students and to effectively improve their research and writing skills.

  8. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  9. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  10. Semantic analysis of links in the musical Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    are generated automatically, and they may even maliciously be used to promote certain topics. Wikipedia has been analyzed recently using methods fromWeb and text mining, however, the fact the link structure is different from the Web’s makes this approach questionable. To better understand the link structure...

  11. The importance of link evidence in Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Koolen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia is one of the most popular information sources on the Web. The free encyclopedia is densely linked. The link structure in Wikipedia differs from the Web at large: internal links in Wikipedia are typically based on words naturally occurring in a page, and link to another semantically

  12. Talk before you type: Coordination in Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viégas, F.B.; Wattenberg, M.; Kriss, J.; Ham, van F.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, has attracted attention both because of its popularity and its unconventional policy of letting anyone on the Internet edit its articles. This paper describes the results of an empirical analysis of Wikipedia and discusses ways in which the Wikipedia community has

  13. Supporting Multi-Agent Reputation Calculation in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    editorial policy that allows anybody, to create or modify articles. This has resulted in a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but it has also caused problems relating to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help human users determine the credibility...... articles that they have read. This makes the WRS a rating-based collaborative filtering system, which implements trust metrics to determine the weight of feedback from different recommenders. In this paper the authors describe the WRS outlining some of the requirements and constraints that shaped...... of an article based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS calculates a personalised rating for any Wikipedia article based on feedback (recommendations) provided by other Wikipedia users. As part of this process, WRS users are expected to provide their own feedback about the quality of Wikipedia...

  14. “The Sum of All Human Knowledge”: A Systematic Review of Scholarly Research on the Content of Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesgari, Mostafa; Okoli, Chitu; Mehdi, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia may be the best-developed attempt thus far to gather all human knowledge in one place. Its accomplishments in this regard have made it a point of inquiry for researchers from different fields of knowledge. A decade of research has thrown light on many aspects of the Wikipedia community......, its processes, and its content. However, due to the variety of fields inquiring about Wikipedia and the limited synthesis of the extensive research, there is little consensus on many aspects of Wikipedia's content as an encyclopedic collection of human knowledge. This study addresses the issue...... by systematically reviewing 110 peer-reviewed publications on Wikipedia content, summarizing the current findings, and highlighting the major research trends. Two major streams of research are identified: the quality of Wikipedia content (including comprehensiveness, currency, readability, and reliability...

  15. Excavating the mother lode of human-generated text: A systematic review of research that uses the Wikipedia corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdi, Mohamad; Okoli, Chitu; Mesgari, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Although primarily an encyclopedia, Wikipedia’s expansive content provides a knowledge base that has been continuously exploited by researchers in a wide variety of domains. This article systematically reviews the scholarly studies that have used Wikipedia as a data source, and investigates...... the means by which Wikipedia has been employed in three main computer science research areas: information retrieval, natural language processing, and ontology building. We report and discuss the research trends of the identified and examined studies. We further identify and classify a list of tools that can...... be used to extract data from Wikipedia, and compile a list of currently available data sets extracted from Wikipedia....

  16. Is Wikipedia link structure different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Koolen, M.; Baeza-Yates, R.; Boldi, P.; Ribeiro-Neto, B.; Cambazoglu, B.B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the difference between Wikipedia and Web link structure with respect to their value as indicators of the relevance of a page for a given topic of request. Our experimental evidence is from two IR test-collections: the .GOV collection used at the TREC Web tracks and the

  17. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  18. Scholars, don’t disregard Wikipedia. Become Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nel marzo 2012, la rivista ad accesso aperto PLoS Computational Biology ha compiuto l’esperimento di pubblicare, con la procedura normale, un articolo di stile enciclopedico, impegnandosi però a caricarne una versione sulla Wikipedia in lingua inglese. Gli studiosi accademici sono affetti da una peculiare schizofrenia o, meglio, da un’idiozia specializzata. Tutti noi sappiamo, con Weber, [...

  19. Temporal patterns of scientific information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Elad; Sharon, Aviv J

    2017-11-01

    In response to the news coverage of scientific events and to science education, people increasingly go online to get more information. This study investigates how patterns of science and technology information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia change over time, in ways that differ between "ad hoc" terms that correspond to news coverage and "cyclic" terms that correspond to the academic period. Findings show that the science and technology activity in Google and Wikipedia was significantly associated with ad hoc and cyclic patterns. While the peak activity in Google and Wikipedia largely overlapped for ad hoc terms, it mismatched for cyclic terms. The findings indicate the importance of external cues such as news media and education, and also of the online engagement process, and particularly the crucial but different role played by Google and Wikipedia in gaining science and technology knowledge. Educators and policy makers could benefit from taking into account those different patterns.

  20. Collective remembering of organizations: Co-construction of organizational pasts in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael Andreas; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2015-01-01

    is to investigate the online encyclopedia Wikipedia as a global memory place, where the pasts of organizations are communicatively co-constructed by actors of a loosely connected community. Design/methodology/approach – The authors analyze 1,459 edits of Wikipedia pages of ten organizations from various industries....... Quantitative content analysis detects Wikipedia edits for their reputational relevance and reference to formal sources, such as corporate communication or newspapers. Furthermore, the authors investigate to which degree current corporate communication in form of 177 press releases has an influence...... on the remembering process in Wikipedia. Findings – The analysis shows how the continuous construction of collective memories bridges past formal corporate communication, news media, and other sources with the present, exposing, and suppressing relevant information concerning corporate reputation for large audiences...

  1. Effectiveness of shared leadership in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyi; Kraut, Robert E; Kittur, Aniket

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the paper is to understand leadership in an online community, specifically, Wikipedia. Wikipedia successfully aggregates millions of volunteers' efforts to create the largest encyclopedia in human history. Without formal employment contracts and monetary incentives, one significant question for Wikipedia is how it organizes individual members with differing goals, experience, and commitment to achieve a collective outcome. Rather than focusing on the role of the small set of people occupying a core leadership position, we propose a shared leadership model to explain the leadership in Wikipedia. Members mutually influence one another by exercising leadership behaviors, including rewarding, regulating, directing, and socializing one another. We conducted a two-phase study to investigate how distinct types of leadership behaviors (transactional, aversive, directive, and person-focused), the legitimacy of the people who deliver the leadership, and the experience of the people who receive the leadership influence the effectiveness of shared leadership in Wikipedia. Our results highlight the importance of shared leadership in Wikipedia and identify trade-offs in the effectiveness of different types of leadership behaviors. Aversive and directive leadership increased contribution to the focal task, whereas transactional and person-focused leadership increased general motivation. We also found important differences in how newcomers and experienced members responded to leadership behaviors from peers. These findings extend shared leadership theories, contribute new insight into the important underlying mechanisms in Wikipedia, and have implications for practitioners who wish to design more effective and successful online communities.

  2. Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristina; Perc, Matjaž; Levnajić, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy.

  3. Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristina; Levnajić, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy. PMID:29134106

  4. Teaching with Wikipedia in a 21 st -century classroom: Perceptions of Wikipedia and its educational benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Konieczny , Piotr

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper explores the current perception of Wikipedia in academia, focusing on both the reasons for its unpopularity among some, and the reasons for its growing acceptance among others. First, the reasons that Wikipedia is still struggling to gain acceptance among many academics and higher education professionals are identified. These include common misconceptions about Wikipedia, doubts about its quality; uneasiness with the challenge it poses to the traditional pee...

  5. Time evolution of Wikipedia network ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Frahm, Klaus M.; Benczúr, András; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-12-01

    We study the time evolution of ranking and spectral properties of the Google matrix of English Wikipedia hyperlink network during years 2003-2011. The statistical properties of ranking of Wikipedia articles via PageRank and CheiRank probabilities, as well as the matrix spectrum, are shown to be stabilized for 2007-2011. A special emphasis is done on ranking of Wikipedia personalities and universities. We show that PageRank selection is dominated by politicians while 2DRank, which combines PageRank and CheiRank, gives more accent on personalities of arts. The Wikipedia PageRank of universities recovers 80% of top universities of Shanghai ranking during the considered time period.

  6. Robert Cailliau: "Wikipedia ha tradito Internet"

    CERN Multimedia

    Becccaria, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    "Wikipedia? It's not what we wanted to have. Now it is presented like the only enciclopedia, that it centralizes acquaintances instead dispersing them, changing the original philosophy of the net." (1 page)

  7. Clustering of scientific citations in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    The instances of templates in Wikipedia form an interesting data set of structured information. Here I focus on the cite journal template that is primarily used for citation to articles in scientific journals. These citations can be extracted and analyzed: Non-negative matrix factorization...... is performed on a (article x journal) matrix resulting in a soft clustering of Wikipedia articles and scientific journals, each cluster more or less representing a scientific topic....

  8. Dynamics of conflicts in Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasseri

    Full Text Available In this work we study the dynamical features of editorial wars in Wikipedia (WP. Based on our previously established algorithm, we build up samples of controversial and peaceful articles and analyze the temporal characteristics of the activity in these samples. On short time scales, we show that there is a clear correspondence between conflict and burstiness of activity patterns, and that memory effects play an important role in controversies. On long time scales, we identify three distinct developmental patterns for the overall behavior of the articles. We are able to distinguish cases eventually leading to consensus from those cases where a compromise is far from achievable. Finally, we analyze discussion networks and conclude that edit wars are mainly fought by few editors only.

  9. Harnessing Context for Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmish Ramaswamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of collaborative social media (CSM applications such as Wikipedia to modern free societies can hardly be overemphasized. By allowing end users to freely create and edit content, Wikipedia has greatly facilitated democratization of information. However, over the past several years, Wikipedia has also become susceptible to vandalism, which has adversely affected its information quality. Traditional vandalism detection techniques that rely upon simple textual features such as spammy or abusive words have not been very effective in combating sophisticated vandal attacks that do not contain common vandalism markers. In this paper, we propose a context-based vandalism detection framework for Wikipedia. We first propose a contextenhanced finite state model for representing the context evolution ofWikipedia articles. This paper identifies two distinct types of context that are potentially valuable for vandalism detection, namely content-context and contributor-context. The distinguishing powers of these contexts are discussed by providing empirical results. We design two novel metrics for measuring how well the content-context of an incoming edit fits into the topic and the existing content of a Wikipedia article. We outline machine learning-based vandalism identification schemes that utilize these metrics. Our experiments indicate that utilizing context can substantially improve vandalism detection accuracy.

  10. Análise de textos enciclopédicos da Simple English Wikipedia e da Wikipedia: algumas discussões para o ensino de língua inglesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Silva

    2018-03-01

    (Wikipedia. We aim at introducing the encyclopedic text as a pedagogical resource for the enhancement and practice of vocabulary in English. Our specific goals are the following: 1 proceed an analysis of the lexical profile of texts from Simple English Wikipedia and Wikipedia; 2 compare the texts of both encyclopedias and 3 check whether the adapted texts from the encyclopedia designed for English language learners do employ more simple vocabulary. The theoretical background resorts to studies concerning Lexicology (NATION, 2001, 2003, 2015 and Corpus Linguistics (BERBER SARDINHA, 2004, 2012. Regarding methodology, the 35 best articles from Simple English Wikipedia, in the editor´s opinion, were converted to simple text format and later analyzed by the software VocabProfile, version 4, an online software that divides a text into frequency bands. After processing the files, VocabProfile verified the lexical profile of the encyclopedic texts. The findings show that, from a lexicoquantitative perspective, there is no significant difference between the lexical profile in Simple English Wikipedia and Wikipedia. Both encyclopedias primarily differ in terms of article length. Keywords: vocabulary; english language; Wikipedia; Simple English Wikipedia.

  11. Wikipedia Infobox Temporal RDF Knowledge Base and Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Aige

    2015-01-01

    As real world evolves, Infoboxes for Wikipedia subjects are updated to reflect the information changes in the real world, and there is a growing interest in the evolution history of subjects in the Wikipedia. Thus, the management of historical information and the efficiencies of queries for these temporal information have become the major concern. In this paper, we introduce the Wikipedia Infobox temporal RDF knowledge base that constructed from the Wikipedia Infobox history dump, and evaluat...

  12. WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Aibar Puentes, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Peer-reviewed Presentació de la conferència "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentación de la conferencia "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentation of the conference "Science Wiki: Wikipedia for science and technology".

  13. Growing Wikipedia Across Languages via Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Ellery; West, Robert; Zia, Leila; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    The different Wikipedia language editions vary dramatically in how comprehensive they are. As a result, most language editions contain only a small fraction of the sum of information that exists across all Wikipedias. In this paper, we present an approach to filling gaps in article coverage across different Wikipedia editions. Our main contribution is an end-to-end system for recommending articles for creation that exist in one language but are missing in another. The system involves identifying missing articles, ranking the missing articles according to their importance, and recommending important missing articles to editors based on their interests. We empirically validate our models in a controlled experiment involving 12,000 French Wikipedia editors. We find that personalizing recommendations increases editor engagement by a factor of two. Moreover, recommending articles increases their chance of being created by a factor of 3.2. Finally, articles created as a result of our recommendations are of comparable quality to organically created articles. Overall, our system leads to more engaged editors and faster growth of Wikipedia with no effect on its quality. PMID:27819073

  14. WIKIPEDIA AND THE POLITICS OF MASS COLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Tkacz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Working together to produce socio-technological objects, based on emergent platforms of economic production, is of great importance in the task of political transformation and the creation of new subjectivities. Increasingly, “collaboration” has become a veritable buzzword used to describe the human associations that create such new media objects. In the language of “Web 2.0”, “participatory culture”, “user-generated content”, “peer production” and the “produser”, first and foremost we are all collaborators. In this paper I investigate recent literature that stresses the collaborative nature of Web 2.0, and in particular, works that address the nascent processes of peer production. I contend that this material positions such projects as what Chantal Mouffe has described as the “post-political”; a fictitious space far divorced from the clamour of the everyday. I analyse one Wikipedia entry to demonstrate the distance between this post-political discourse of collaboration and the realities it describes, and finish by arguing for a more politicised notion of collaboration.

  15. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  16. Some Linguistic-based and temporal analysis on Wikipedia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasseri, T.

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia as a web-based, collaborative, multilingual encyclopaedia project is a very suitable field to carry out research on social dynamics and to investigate the complex concepts of conflict, collaboration, competition, dispute, etc in a large community (∼26 Million) of Wikipedia users. The other face of Wikipedia as a productive society, is its output, consisting of (∼17) Millions of articles written unsupervised by unprofessional editors in more than 270 different languages. In this talk we report some analysis performed on Wikipedia in two different approaches: temporal analysis to characterize disputes and controversies among users and linguistic-based analysis to characterize linguistic features of English texts in Wikipedia. (author)

  17. SELF-ORGANIZATION AND EMERGENCE PHENOMENA IN WIKIPEDIA AND FREE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT USING MASOES // AUTO-ORGANIZACIÓN Y EMERGENCIA EN WIKIPEDIA Y EL DESARROLLO DEL SOFTWARE LIBRE A TRAVÉS DE MASOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niriaska Perozo Guédez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work models Wikipedia and Free Software Development through a multiagent architecture for self-organizing and emergent systems called MASOES without mathematically representing the system. In that sense, each component, mechanism and process of MASOES is instanced at individual and collective levels by the observed phenomena at the modeled systems. Thus, this paper proposes a methodology to show how to model real systems using MASOES, in order to study their self-organizing and emergent properties and, later on, to facilitate the verification of these properties, mechanisms, components and social interactions for promoting collaborative work and sharing individual and collective knowledge in these systems. // RESUMEN Este trabajo modela el comportamiento de Wikipedia y el desarrollo de Software Libre, a través de una arquitectura multiagente para sistemas emergentes y auto-organizados llamada MASOES, sin especificar matem aticamente el sistema. En ese sentido, cada componente, mecanismo y proceso de MASOES se instancia a nivel individual y colectivo en cada uno de los sistemas modelados. Así, en este trabajo se propone una metodología para mostrar c omo modelar sistemas reales utilizando MASOES, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades emergentes y auto-organizadas, y posteriormente, facilitar la verificación de estas propiedades, mecanismos, componentes e interacciones sociales para promover el trabajo colaborativo y el intercambio del conocimiento individual y colectivo en estos sistemas.

  18. Becoming an Online Editor: Perceived Roles and Responsibilities of Wikipedia Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Allison; Hood, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: We report on the experiences of a group of people as they become Wikipedia editors. We test Benkler's (2002) theory that commons-based production processes accelerate the creation of capital, questioning what knowledge production processes do people engage in as they become editors? The analysis positions the development of editing…

  19. Volunteers in Wikipedia: Why the Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Pfaffman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia is a reliable encyclopedia with over seven million articles in several languages all contributed and maintained by volunteers. To learn more about what drives people to devote their time and expertise to building and maintaining this remarkable resource, surveys with Likert-scaled items measuring different types of motivations were…

  20. Critical point of view: a Wikipedia reader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.; Tkacz, N.

    2011-01-01

    For millions of internet users around the globe, the search for new knowledge begins with Wikipedia. The encyclopedia’s rapid rise, novel organization, and freely offered content have been marveled at and denounced by a host of commentators. Critical Point of View moves beyond unflagging praise,

  1. Processes and outcomes in school health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    This is the second special issue of Health Education which features research, theory and practice based perspectives on what counts as desirable outcomes of health promotion in schools in terms of health as well as education, and the effective processes in schools which lead to these outcomes....... The focus in the first special issue was on highlighting the argument that the question about the outcomes of the health-promoting schools should not be limited to narrowly defined health outcomes but needs to be closely linked with the core tasks and values of the school. Building further on this argument......, the papers in this issue feature a number of research issues of relevance for the effectiveness of the health-promoting schools approach, as well as a variety of research and evaluation methodologies contributing to the debate about what counts as reliable evidence within the health-promoting schools...

  2. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  3. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  4. EVE: Explainable Vector Based Embedding Technique Using Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, M. Atif; Greene, Derek

    2017-01-01

    We present an unsupervised explainable word embedding technique, called EVE, which is built upon the structure of Wikipedia. The proposed model defines the dimensions of a semantic vector representing a word using human-readable labels, thereby it readily interpretable. Specifically, each vector is constructed using the Wikipedia category graph structure together with the Wikipedia article link structure. To test the effectiveness of the proposed word embedding model, we consider its usefulne...

  5. Readability and quality of wikipedia pages on neurosurgical topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiri, Omeed; Guha, Daipayan; Alotaibi, Naif M; Ibrahim, George M; Lipsman, Nir; Fallah, Aria

    2018-03-01

    Wikipedia is the largest online encyclopedia with over 40 million articles, and generating 500 million visits per month. The aim of this study is to assess the readability and quality of Wikipedia pages on neurosurgical related topics. We selected the neurosurgical related Wikipedia pages based on the series of online patient information articles that are published by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS). We assessed readability of Wikipedia pages using five different readability scales (Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch Kincaid Grade Level, Gunning Fog Index, SMOG) Grade level, and Coleman-Liau Index). We used the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Clear Communication Index as well as the DISCERN Instrument to evaluate the quality of each Wikipedia article. We identified a total of fifty-five Wikipedia articles that corresponded with patient information articles published by the AANS. This constitutes 77.46% of the AANS topics. The mean Flesch Kincaid reading ease score for all of the Wikipedia articles we analyzed is 31.10, which indicates that a college-level education is necessary to understand them. In comparison to the readability analysis for the AANS articles, the Wikipedia articles were more difficult to read across every scale. None of the Wikipedia articles meet the CDC criterion for clear communications. Our analyses demonstrated that Wikipedia articles related to neurosurgical topics are associated with higher grade levels for reading and also below the expected levels of clear communications for patients. Collaborative efforts from the neurosurgical community are needed to enhance the readability and quality of Wikipedia pages related to neurosurgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wikipedias inntog på kildelista – holdninger blant lærere og elever til Wikipedia i en skolekontekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Blikstad-Balas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen diskuterer vi hvordan elever og lærere forholder seg til et av verdens mest populære nettsteder, det digitale leksikonet Wikipedia. Internasjonal forskning antyder at mens Wikipedia er svært populært blant elever, kan mange lærere styre sin begeistring for Wikipedia som faglig kilde i skolearbeid. Studien vi presenterer kombinerer to ulike datakilder for å belyse empirisk hvordan elever og lærere forholder seg til Wikipedia. Dataene om elevers holdninger er skriftlige svar 168 elever i videregående skole har gitt på spørsmål om hva de anser som de største fordelene og de største ulempene med Wikipedia i skolesammenheng. Dataene som sier noe om hvordan lærere forholder seg til det samme nettstedet er kvalitative intervjuer av fire samfunnsfaglærere. Lærerne intervjues om hvordan de forholder seg til elevenes bruk av Wikipedia og i hvilken grad de selv integrerer Wikipedia i undervisningen sin. Studien viser at mens elevene er svært samstemte om Wikipedias kvaliteter, er det stor individuell variasjon i lærernes holdninger til Wikipedia, og i hvilken grad de eksplisitt gir elevene opplæring og råd om kildekritikk. Vi finnes også at flere elever anser lærernes skepsis som en av Wikipedias største ulemper i skolesammenheng og tilpasser seg lærernes preferanser på ulike vis. Avslutningsvis diskuterer vi implikasjoner av studien og argumenterer for at det kan være uheldig om det er tilfeldig om Wikipedia adresseres eksplisitt i undervisning eller ei.

  7. Using the Internet for Gerontology Education: Assessing and Improving Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, Donna Lind; Adams, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults, students, professionals, and the general public increasingly turn to the Internet and to Wikipedia for information. Wikipedia, the world's sixth most used website, is by far the most widely used open-source information site. Among its nearly four million English-language encyclopedia articles, how thorough is coverage of key…

  8. Wikipedia in the eyes of its beholders: A systematic review of scholarly research on wikipedia readers and readership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoli, Chitu; Mehdi, Mohamad; Mesgari, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of scholarly studies have investigated various aspects of Wikipedia. Although a number of literature reviews have provided overviews of this vast body of research, none has specifically focused on the readers of Wikipedia and issues concerning its readership. In this systematic literatur...

  9. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suin Kim

    Full Text Available Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  10. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suin; Park, Sungjoon; Hale, Scott A; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H

    2016-01-01

    Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  11. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia medication monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy; Jackson, William; Berger, Victoria; Candelario, Danielle

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the accuracy and completeness of drug information on Wikipedia and Micromedex compared with U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved U.S. product inserts. The top 10 brand and top 10 generic medications from the 2012 Institute for Health Informatics' list of top 200 drugs were selected for evaluation. Wikipedia medication information was evaluated and compared with Micromedex in 7 sections of drug information; the U.S. product inserts were used as the standard comparator. Wikipedia demonstrated significantly lower completeness and accuracy scores compared with Micromedex (mean composite scores 18.55 vs. 38.4, respectively; P <0.01). No difference was found between the mean composite scores for brand versus generic drugs in either reference (17.8 vs. 19.3, respectively [P = 0.62], for Wikipedia; 39.2 vs. 37.6, [P = 0.06] for Micromedex). Limitations to these results include the speed with which information is edited on Wikipedia, that there was no evaluation of off-label information, and the limited number of drugs that were evaluated. Wikipedia lacks the accuracy and completeness of standard clinical references and should not be a routine part of clinical decision making. More research should be conducted to evaluate the rationale for health care providers' use of Wikipedia. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of Vandalism in Wikipedia using Metadata Features – Implementation in Simple English and Albanian sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsim Susuri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate a list of classifiers in order to use them in the detection of vandalism by focusing on metadata features. Our work is focused on two low resource data sets (Simple English and Albanian from Wikipedia. The aim of this research is to prove that this form of vandalism detection applied in one data set (language can be extended into another data set (language. Article views data sets in Wikipedia have been used rarely for the purpose of detecting vandalism. We will show the benefits of using article views data set with features from the article revisions data set with the aim of improving the detection of vandalism. The key advantage of using metadata features is that these metadata features are language independent and simple to extract because they require minimal processing. This paper shows that application of vandalism models across low resource languages is possible, and vandalism can be detected through view patterns of articles.

  13. Wikipedia è poco affidabile? La colpa è anche degli esperti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Cenci

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What kind of relationship do the historical sciences have with Wikipedia? How should a reader approach Wikipedia articles dealing with history? What role will the upcoming “free encyclopedia” play in the study and teaching of history? Starting from an analysis on some Wikipedia’s article performed by the “Nicoletta Bourbaki” working group, six authors animate a panel discussion on the relationship between the free encyclopedia and history.

  14. Considerazioni conclusive. Riflessioni sulla narrazione storica nelle voci di Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Baldo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What kind of relationship do the historical sciences have with Wikipedia? How should a reader approach Wikipedia articles dealing with history? What role will the upcoming “free encyclopedia” play in the study and teaching of history? Starting from an analysis on some Wikipedia’s article performed by the “Nicoletta Bourbaki” working group, six authors animate a panel discussion on the relationship between the free encyclopedia and history.

  15. Riflessioni sulla narrazione storica nelle voci di Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Baldo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What kind of relationship do the historical sciences have with Wikipedia? How should a reader approach Wikipedia articles dealing with history? What role will the upcoming “free encyclopedia” play in the study and teaching of history? Starting from an analysis on some Wikipedia’s article performed by the “Nicoletta Bourbaki” working group, six authors animate a panel discussion on the relationship between the free encyclopedia and history.

  16. Content disputes in Wikipedia reflect geopolitical instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apic, Gordana; Betts, Matthew J; Russell, Robert B

    2011-01-01

    Indicators that rank countries according socioeconomic measurements are important tools for regional development and political reform. Those currently in widespread use are sometimes criticized for a lack of reproducibility or the inability to compare values over time, necessitating simple, fast and systematic measures. Here, we applied the 'guilt by association' principle often used in biological networks to the information network within the online encyclopedia Wikipedia to create an indicator quantifying the degree to which pages linked to a country are disputed by contributors. The indicator correlates with metrics of governance, political or economic stability about as well as they correlate with each other, and though faster and simpler, it is remarkably stable over time despite constant changes in the underlying disputes. For some countries, changes over a four year period appear to correlate with world events related to conflicts or economic problems.

  17. Content disputes in Wikipedia reflect geopolitical instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Apic

    Full Text Available Indicators that rank countries according socioeconomic measurements are important tools for regional development and political reform. Those currently in widespread use are sometimes criticized for a lack of reproducibility or the inability to compare values over time, necessitating simple, fast and systematic measures. Here, we applied the 'guilt by association' principle often used in biological networks to the information network within the online encyclopedia Wikipedia to create an indicator quantifying the degree to which pages linked to a country are disputed by contributors. The indicator correlates with metrics of governance, political or economic stability about as well as they correlate with each other, and though faster and simpler, it is remarkably stable over time despite constant changes in the underlying disputes. For some countries, changes over a four year period appear to correlate with world events related to conflicts or economic problems.

  18. Power and Peril of Wikipedia: Exercises in Social and Industrial/Organizational Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    The author examined Wikipedia's use as an instructional tool in two studies. The widespread use of Wikipedia indicates that students need to learn more about its workings and validity. Wikipedia articles relevant to psychology were edited by students in one class and critiqued in another class. Analysis of the subsequent editing of students'…

  19. Una aproximación a Wikipedia como polisistema cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, de naturaleza cualitativa e interpretativa, se abordan los alcances culturales de Wikipedia desde una aproximación transdisciplinar. Para ello, se analiza la literatura existente centrada en Wikipedia, procedente de medios de comunicación generalistas y de distintas disciplinas académicas (inteligencia artificial, ciencias de la información, educación y estudios de traducción. En dichos trabajos, fundamentalmente de naturaleza descriptiva, empírica y pragmática, se alude a Wikipedia como enciclopedia colaborativa en línea que aúna mecanismos de creación de contenido y de innovación procedentes del software libre. Nuestra propuesta reclama la pertinencia de recurrir a trabajos teóricos que contemplen la dimensión cultural de Wikipedia. Desde una aproximación semiótica, basamos nuestra hipótesis de análisis en el imaginario social de Vázquez Medel y la Teoría de los polisistemas de Even-Zohar, en los que encontramos claves para la consideración de Wikipedia como sistema cultural, en tanto que repositorio de conocimiento y relaciones humanas.

  20. Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Wikipedia: Opportunities for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Koo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia, a free and collaborative Internet encyclopedia, has become one of the most popular sources of free information on the Internet. However, there have been concerns over the quality of online health information, particularly that on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate several page attributes of articles on CAM in the English Wikipedia. A total of 97 articles were analyzed and compared with eight articles of broad categories of therapies in conventional medicine using the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the Wikipedia editorial assessment grading, 4% of the articles attained “good article” status, 34% required considerable editing, and 56% needed substantial improvements in their content. The median daily access of the articles over the previous 90 days was 372 (range: 7–4,214. The median word count was 1840 with a readability of grade 12.7 (range: 9.4–17.7. Medians of word count and citation density of the CAM articles were significantly lower than those in the articles of conventional medicine therapies. In conclusion, despite its limitations, the general public will continue to access health information on Wikipedia. There are opportunities for health professionals to contribute their knowledge and to improve the accuracy and completeness of the CAM articles on Wikipedia.

  1. Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y; Priedhorsky, Reid

    2014-11-01

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with r2 up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art.

  2. Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Generous

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with r2 up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art.

  3. Polyelectrolytes-promoted Forward Osmosis Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Q.C.

    2012-11-07

    The development of the forward osmosis (FO) process has been constrained by the slow development of appropriate draw solutions. Two significant concerns related to draw solutions are the draw solute leakage and intensive-energy requirement in recycling draw solutes after the FO process. FO would be much attractive if there is no draw solute leakage and the recycle of draw solutes is easy and economic.In this study, polyelectrolytes of a series of polyacrylic acid sodium salts (PAA-Na), were explored as draw solutes in the FO process. The characteristics of high solubility in water and flexibility in structural configuration ensure the suitability of PAA-Na as draw solutes and their relative ease in recycle through pressure-driven ultrafiltration (UF) membrane processes. The high water flux with insignificant salt leakage in the FO process and the high salt rejection in UF recycle processes reveal the superiority of PAA-Na to conventional ionic salts, such as NaCl, when comparing their FO performance via the same membranes. The repeatable performance of PAA-Na after recycle indicates the absence of any aggregation problems. The overall performance demonstrates that polyelectrolytes of PAA-Na series are promising as draw solutes, and the new concept of using polyelectrolytes as draw solutes in FO processes is applicable. The magnetic nanoparticle draw solutes can generate reasonably high osmotic pressure in FO system due to the functional groups on the nanoparticles surface and they can be regenerated through magnetic field and reused as draw solutes. Thermo-responsive magnetic nanoparticles are able to be regenerated with high efficiency as the thermo-responsive property can assist the regeneration in a low-strength magnetic field.

  4. Polyelectrolytes-promoted Forward Osmosis Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Q.C.; Ling, M.M.; Amy, Gary L.; Chung, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the forward osmosis (FO) process has been constrained by the slow development of appropriate draw solutions. Two significant concerns related to draw solutions are the draw solute leakage and intensive-energy requirement in recycling draw solutes after the FO process. FO would be much attractive if there is no draw solute leakage and the recycle of draw solutes is easy and economic.In this study, polyelectrolytes of a series of polyacrylic acid sodium salts (PAA-Na), were explored as draw solutes in the FO process. The characteristics of high solubility in water and flexibility in structural configuration ensure the suitability of PAA-Na as draw solutes and their relative ease in recycle through pressure-driven ultrafiltration (UF) membrane processes. The high water flux with insignificant salt leakage in the FO process and the high salt rejection in UF recycle processes reveal the superiority of PAA-Na to conventional ionic salts, such as NaCl, when comparing their FO performance via the same membranes. The repeatable performance of PAA-Na after recycle indicates the absence of any aggregation problems. The overall performance demonstrates that polyelectrolytes of PAA-Na series are promising as draw solutes, and the new concept of using polyelectrolytes as draw solutes in FO processes is applicable. The magnetic nanoparticle draw solutes can generate reasonably high osmotic pressure in FO system due to the functional groups on the nanoparticles surface and they can be regenerated through magnetic field and reused as draw solutes. Thermo-responsive magnetic nanoparticles are able to be regenerated with high efficiency as the thermo-responsive property can assist the regeneration in a low-strength magnetic field.

  5. WIKIPEDIA ENTRIES AS A SOURCE OF CAR NAVIGATION LANDMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Binski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world’s largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries’ categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  6. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  7. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes...... an evaluation of four existing knowledge classification schemes with respect to these requirements. This evaluation helped us identify a classification scheme, which we have implemented in the current version of the Wikipedia Recommender System....... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  8. Knowledge categorization affects popularity and quality of Wikipedia articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jürgen; Lomi, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The existence of a shared classification system is essential to knowledge production, transfer, and sharing. Studies of knowledge classification, however, rarely consider the fact that knowledge categories exist within hierarchical information systems designed to facilitate knowledge search and discovery. This neglect is problematic whenever information about categorical membership is itself used to evaluate the quality of the items that the category contains. The main objective of this paper is to show that the effects of category membership depend on the position that a category occupies in the hierarchical knowledge classification system of Wikipedia-an open knowledge production and sharing platform taking the form of a freely accessible on-line encyclopedia. Using data on all English-language Wikipedia articles, we examine how the position that a category occupies in the classification hierarchy affects the attention that articles in that category attract from Wikipedia editors, and their evaluation of quality of the Wikipedia articles. Specifically, we show that Wikipedia articles assigned to coarse-grained categories (i. e., categories that occupy higher positions in the hierarchical knowledge classification system) garner more attention from Wikipedia editors (i. e., attract a higher volume of text editing activity), but receive lower evaluations (i. e., they are considered to be of lower quality). The negative relation between attention and quality implied by this result is consistent with current theories of social categorization, but it also goes beyond available results by showing that the effects of categorization on evaluation depend on the position that a category occupies in a hierarchical knowledge classification system.

  9. An Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steil, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Pellis, Neal

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is focused on understanding and mitigating thirty two risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The HRP has developed an evidence report for each of the risks. Most evidence reports are a brief review article describing the evidence related to a specified risk, written at a level appropriate for the scientifically educated, non-specialist reader. Each evidence report captured the current state of knowledge from both research and operations. Two limitations of the evidence reports have become apparent: 1) they are updated infrequently and 2) they do not take full advantage of the expertise available in other space agencies and in related fields of terrestrial research. Therefore, the HRP is experimenting with the use of Wikipedia articles as a repository for evidence. Wikipedia's accessibility to the international space flight community and researchers in related terrestrial fields creates the opportunity to generate a more timely and comprehensive evidence base. Initial Wikipedia articles were populated for seven risks using a subset of the information in the HRP-approved evidence reports: Fatigue and Sleep Loss, Treating An Ill or Injured Crew Member, Radiation Carcinogenesis, Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure, Renal Stone Formation, Team Cohesion, and Intervertebral Disc Damage. Since the initial articles were created, there have been additions to these Wikipedia articles, including content from sources outside the HRP, and editorial changes to the pages. We will report on the nature of the contributions made after the initial articles were created, the comprehensiveness of the resulting Wikipedia articles, and the effort required to maintain quality control of the content. The Wikipedia approach will also be compared to wiki efforts that exert more traditional editorial control of content prior to posting.

  10. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  11. Wikipedia Culture Gap: Quantifying Content Imbalances Across 40 Language Editions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miquel-Ribé

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is the largest general information repository created through collaborative efforts from all over the globe. Despite the project's goal being to achieve the sum of human knowledge, there are strong content imbalances across the language editions. In order to quantify and investigate these imbalances, we study the impact of cultural context in 40 language editions. To this purpose, we developed a computational method to identify articles that can be related to the editors' cultural context associated to each Wikipedia language edition. We employed a combination of strategies taking into account geolocated articles, specific keywords and categories, as well as links between articles. We verified the method's quality with manual assessment and found an average precision of 0.92 and an average recall of 0.95. The results show that about a quarter of each Wikipedia language edition is dedicated to represent the corresponding cultural context. Although a considerable part of this content was created during the first years of the project, its creation is sustained over time. An analysis of cross-language coverage of this content shows that most of it is unique in its original language, and reveals special links between cultural contexts; at the same time, it highlights gaps where the encyclopedia could extend its content. The approach and findings presented in this study can help to foster participation and inter-cultural enrichment of Wikipedias. The datasets produced are made available for further research.

  12. Knowledge from the web. Putting Wikipedia to the test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Christian

    2011-01-01

    On January 15, 2011 Wikipedia, the star project of the Web 2.0 Community, celebrated its 10th birthday. Wikipedia has made not only friends over this decade. As a source of knowledge Wikipedia soon became popular among users of the Internet. Educational institutions, however, take a more sceptical view of developments, as they have made students unwilling to conduct literature searches and carefully investigate in all directions available. Students rely 100% on knowledge stored in the Internet without critically observing or examining the information found. To the normal Internet user, however, the encyclopedia reflects the Web 2.0 model. A huge community is engaged in updating and extending knowledge in the database. Moreover, there are no restrictions on taking part in the project. Literally anybody may participate. The subject portals in the ''Technology'' section in Wikipedia contain a ''Nuclear Power'' column. This subject portal is outstanding because of its large number of entries. Information can be found about all areas of nuclear technology, although a real absence of bias is difficult to detect. According to reports, this category of information is characterized by regular skirmishes about the correctness and absence of bias in contents. (orig.)

  13. Joining the Global Village: Teaching Globalization with Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczny, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of my experiences with a teaching activity that engages students in publishing in Wikipedia on issues relating to globalization. It begins with a short overview of some of the current debates revolving around teaching globalization, which lay ground for the assignment. I discuss how this teaching tool fits with a…

  14. Wikipedia and Education: Anarchist Perspectives and Virtual Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandric, Petar

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the philosophical background of one of the most widespread Web based sources used in contemporary education--Wikipedia. Theoretical part consists of the basic notions of anarchist philosophy of education such as human nature, work and society. Through Chomsky's prism of visions and goals, it provides the frame for further…

  15. Knowledge categorization affects popularity and quality of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomi, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The existence of a shared classification system is essential to knowledge production, transfer, and sharing. Studies of knowledge classification, however, rarely consider the fact that knowledge categories exist within hierarchical information systems designed to facilitate knowledge search and discovery. This neglect is problematic whenever information about categorical membership is itself used to evaluate the quality of the items that the category contains. The main objective of this paper is to show that the effects of category membership depend on the position that a category occupies in the hierarchical knowledge classification system of Wikipedia—an open knowledge production and sharing platform taking the form of a freely accessible on-line encyclopedia. Using data on all English-language Wikipedia articles, we examine how the position that a category occupies in the classification hierarchy affects the attention that articles in that category attract from Wikipedia editors, and their evaluation of quality of the Wikipedia articles. Specifically, we show that Wikipedia articles assigned to coarse-grained categories (i. e., categories that occupy higher positions in the hierarchical knowledge classification system) garner more attention from Wikipedia editors (i. e., attract a higher volume of text editing activity), but receive lower evaluations (i. e., they are considered to be of lower quality). The negative relation between attention and quality implied by this result is consistent with current theories of social categorization, but it also goes beyond available results by showing that the effects of categorization on evaluation depend on the position that a category occupies in a hierarchical knowledge classification system. PMID:29293627

  16. Promotion of Scientific Literacy on Global Warming by Process Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively…

  17. Knowledge from the web. Putting Wikipedia to the test; Wissen aus dem Netz. Wikipedia auf dem Pruefstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Christian [atw Redaktion, Hattingen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    On January 15, 2011 Wikipedia, the star project of the Web 2.0 Community, celebrated its 10th birthday. Wikipedia has made not only friends over this decade. As a source of knowledge Wikipedia soon became popular among users of the Internet. Educational institutions, however, take a more sceptical view of developments, as they have made students unwilling to conduct literature searches and carefully investigate in all directions available. Students rely 100% on knowledge stored in the Internet without critically observing or examining the information found. To the normal Internet user, however, the encyclopedia reflects the Web 2.0 model. A huge community is engaged in updating and extending knowledge in the database. Moreover, there are no restrictions on taking part in the project. Literally anybody may participate. The subject portals in the ''Technology'' section in Wikipedia contain a ''Nuclear Power'' column. This subject portal is outstanding because of its large number of entries. Information can be found about all areas of nuclear technology, although a real absence of bias is difficult to detect. According to reports, this category of information is characterized by regular skirmishes about the correctness and absence of bias in contents. (orig.)

  18. 75 FR 6089 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ..., Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing agreements, Processed Raspberries, Promotion, Reporting and...-705-FR] RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum... referendum to determine whether the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and...

  19. Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership, Editors, and the Significance of Natural Language

    OpenAIRE

    Heilman, James M; West, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Wikipedia is a collaboratively edited encyclopedia. One of the most popular websites on the Internet, it is known to be a frequently used source of health care information by both professionals and the lay public. Objective This paper quantifies the production and consumption of Wikipedia?s medical content along 4 dimensions. First, we measured the amount of medical content in both articles and bytes and, second, the citations that supported that content. Third, we analyzed the med...

  20. Spectral properties of Google matrix of Wikipedia and other networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-05-01

    We study the properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Google matrix of the Wikipedia articles hyperlink network and other real networks. With the help of the Arnoldi method, we analyze the distribution of eigenvalues in the complex plane and show that eigenstates with significant eigenvalue modulus are located on well defined network communities. We also show that the correlator between PageRank and CheiRank vectors distinguishes different organizations of information flow on BBC and Le Monde web sites.

  1. El proyecto Wiki Learning: Wikipedia como entorno de aprendizaje abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Los enfoques predominantes en el sistema educativo tradicional circunscriben las posibilidades de aprendizaje a entornos formales y cerrados. Sin embargo, las tecnologías móviles y plataformas digitales están transformando este paradigma, expandiendo las posibilidades de aprendizaje. A partir de esta condición y en el marco de la producción del conocimiento entre pares, sostenemos que Wikipedia puede ser utilizada como un entorno de aprendizaje abierto que cumple varios propósitos: a permite adquirir competencias básicas; b contribuye a la inteligencia colectiva; c acorta la brecha global de conocimiento; y, d facilita la construcción de redes globales de aprendizaje. Este estudio de caso tiene como objetivo presentar el proceso, estrategias y resultados del proyecto Wiki Learning, como modelo de aprendizaje abierto a través del uso de Wikipedia en una universidad mexicana. El proyecto abarcó desde la producción de artículos hasta talleres para el desarrollo de capacidades de profesores y estudiantes. Se realizaron encuestas a 57 docentes y 115 alumnos para identificar la percepción acerca de Wikipedia, su uso y posibilidades como herramienta educativa. Los resultados demostraron que a pesar de que todos son usuarios de Wikipedia, existe un desconocimiento general sobre su funcionamiento, estructura y comunidades, además de cierta desconfianza. Se presenta un desafío para romper el estigma y recuperar el valor de la gestión compartida del conocimiento, el propósito de la enciclopedia y su lugar como producto de la inteligencia colectiva.

  2. Motivating Students to Learn Biology Vocabulary with Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Timely learning of specialized science vocabulary is critical for building a solid knowledge base in any scientific discipline. To motivate students to dedicate time and effort mastering biology vocabulary, I have designed a vocabulary exercise utilizing the popular web encyclopedia Wikipedia. The exercise creates an opportunity for students to connect the challenge of vocabulary learning to a prior positive experience of self-guided learning using a content source they are familiar and comfortable with.

  3. Exploration of Online Culture Through Network Analysis of Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Joo; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Hong Joo; Park, Hyunjung; Han, Deugcheon; Gloor, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Understanding online culture is becoming crucial in the global and connected world. Contrary to conventional attitudinal surveys used in cultural research, this study uses the approach of directly observing culture-specific behavior that emerges from online collaboration on the Internet. The editing data of Wikipedia were analyzed in 12 languages. Distinctive cultural dimensions were identified, including collectivism, extraversion, boldness, and egalitarianism. Using network analysis, the language-framed cultural factors were extracted as an emergent phenomenon in the virtual world.

  4. Highlighting Entanglement of Cultures via Ranking of Multilingual Wikipedia Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-01-01

    How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013 PMID:24098338

  5. Highlighting entanglement of cultures via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Eom

    Full Text Available How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013.

  6. Opera aperta: Wikipedia e l’oralità secondaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Venturini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In questo articolo si discuterà di Wikipedia, la prima e più importante enciclopedia compilata collaborativamente su Internet. Se ne analizzerà il modello comunicativo e si mostrerà come esso getti nuova luce sulla distinzione oralità/scrittura. Il lettore, tuttavia, dovrà armarsi di pazienza, poiché non prenderemo la via breve. Prima di arrivare a Wikipedia, esamineremo la relazione segno-referente e quella mezzo-messaggio. Contesteremo la semplificazione che riduce la comunicazione a mera trasmissione di messaggi e quella che riduce l’evoluzione sociale allo sviluppo delle tecnologie mediatiche. Criticheremo la nozione di villaggio globale, di oralità secondaria e la loro applicazione al mondo della Rete. Dimostreremo, in particolare, che la comunicazione telematica non conduce a una nuova forma di oralità. Solo a questo punto, al riparo dagli equivoci del determinismo sociale e tecnologico, potremo infine affrontare l’innovazione mediale introdotta dall’invenzione dei wiki. Riflettendo sui processi e sui prodotti della mediazione comunicativa, illustreremo quindi come Wikipedia abbia dato vita a una forma di comunicazione davvero nuova. Un modello comunicativo caratterizzato da un’apertura radicale e totale che non può essere assimilata né all’oralità, né alla scrittura.

  7. Gender differences within the German-language Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut SICHLER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wikipedia project constitutes the currently most-used and most comprehensive online encyclopedia in the world (Schneider, 2008, p. 35 and is advertising itself as free and open for everyone, and in terms of an encyclopedia as diverse and balanced at all levels. But from a gender perspective there is a huge discrepancy in sex ratio within Wikipedia’s community. In 2005, researchers at University of Würzburg found that women constitute only 10 % of German-language Wikipedia authors (Schroer&Hertel, 2009, p. 104. This fact leads to the presumption, that Wikipedia’s reflection of the world mediates and interprets a mainly male conception of the world and thus displays an inequality with reference to modern society. Proceeding from the assumption that women and men have different communication behaviours as well as different perceptions and interpretations of communication in almost all aspects of social interaction including e.g. conversational strategies, conflict management and negotiation skills, we hypothesize that these different ways of communication significantly affect the motivation of female Wikipedia contributors.

  8. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Tsvetkova

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  9. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  10. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia: a comparison with standard textbooks of pharmacology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jona Kräenbring

    Full Text Available The online resource Wikipedia is increasingly used by students for knowledge acquisition and learning. However, the lack of a formal editorial review and the heterogeneous expertise of contributors often results in skepticism by educators whether Wikipedia should be recommended to students as an information source. In this study we systematically analyzed the accuracy and completeness of drug information in the German and English language versions of Wikipedia in comparison to standard textbooks of pharmacology. In addition, references, revision history and readability were evaluated. Analysis of readability was performed using the Amstad readability index and the Erste Wiener Sachtextformel. The data on indication, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and contraindications for 100 curricular drugs were retrieved from standard German textbooks of general pharmacology and compared with the corresponding articles in the German language version of Wikipedia. Quantitative analysis revealed that accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia was 99.7% ± 0.2% when compared to the textbook data. The overall completeness of drug information in Wikipedia was 83.8 ± 1.5% (p < 0.001. Completeness varied in-between categories, and was lowest in the category "pharmacokinetics" (68.0% ± 4.2%; p < 0.001 and highest in the category "indication" (91.3% ± 2.0% when compared to the textbook data overlap. Similar results were obtained for the English language version of Wikipedia. Of the drug information missing in Wikipedia, 62.5% was rated as didactically non-relevant in a qualitative re-evaluation study. Drug articles in Wikipedia had an average of 14.6 ± 1.6 references and 262.8 ± 37.4 edits performed by 142.7 ± 17.6 editors. Both Wikipedia and textbooks samples had comparable, low readability. Our study suggests that Wikipedia is an accurate and comprehensive source of drug-related information for undergraduate medical education.

  11. Accuracy and Completeness of Drug Information in Wikipedia: A Comparison with Standard Textbooks of Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Joanna; Muehlich, Susanne; Zolk, Oliver; Wojnowski, Leszek; Maas, Renke; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The online resource Wikipedia is increasingly used by students for knowledge acquisition and learning. However, the lack of a formal editorial review and the heterogeneous expertise of contributors often results in skepticism by educators whether Wikipedia should be recommended to students as an information source. In this study we systematically analyzed the accuracy and completeness of drug information in the German and English language versions of Wikipedia in comparison to standard textbooks of pharmacology. In addition, references, revision history and readability were evaluated. Analysis of readability was performed using the Amstad readability index and the Erste Wiener Sachtextformel. The data on indication, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and contraindications for 100 curricular drugs were retrieved from standard German textbooks of general pharmacology and compared with the corresponding articles in the German language version of Wikipedia. Quantitative analysis revealed that accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia was 99.7%±0.2% when compared to the textbook data. The overall completeness of drug information in Wikipedia was 83.8±1.5% (ptextbook data overlap. Similar results were obtained for the English language version of Wikipedia. Of the drug information missing in Wikipedia, 62.5% was rated as didactically non-relevant in a qualitative re-evaluation study. Drug articles in Wikipedia had an average of 14.6±1.6 references and 262.8±37.4 edits performed by 142.7±17.6 editors. Both Wikipedia and textbooks samples had comparable, low readability. Our study suggests that Wikipedia is an accurate and comprehensive source of drug-related information for undergraduate medical education. PMID:25250889

  12. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia: a comparison with standard textbooks of pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräenbring, Jona; Monzon Penza, Tika; Gutmann, Joanna; Muehlich, Susanne; Zolk, Oliver; Wojnowski, Leszek; Maas, Renke; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The online resource Wikipedia is increasingly used by students for knowledge acquisition and learning. However, the lack of a formal editorial review and the heterogeneous expertise of contributors often results in skepticism by educators whether Wikipedia should be recommended to students as an information source. In this study we systematically analyzed the accuracy and completeness of drug information in the German and English language versions of Wikipedia in comparison to standard textbooks of pharmacology. In addition, references, revision history and readability were evaluated. Analysis of readability was performed using the Amstad readability index and the Erste Wiener Sachtextformel. The data on indication, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and contraindications for 100 curricular drugs were retrieved from standard German textbooks of general pharmacology and compared with the corresponding articles in the German language version of Wikipedia. Quantitative analysis revealed that accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia was 99.7% ± 0.2% when compared to the textbook data. The overall completeness of drug information in Wikipedia was 83.8 ± 1.5% (p < 0.001). Completeness varied in-between categories, and was lowest in the category "pharmacokinetics" (68.0% ± 4.2%; p < 0.001) and highest in the category "indication" (91.3% ± 2.0%) when compared to the textbook data overlap. Similar results were obtained for the English language version of Wikipedia. Of the drug information missing in Wikipedia, 62.5% was rated as didactically non-relevant in a qualitative re-evaluation study. Drug articles in Wikipedia had an average of 14.6 ± 1.6 references and 262.8 ± 37.4 edits performed by 142.7 ± 17.6 editors. Both Wikipedia and textbooks samples had comparable, low readability. Our study suggests that Wikipedia is an accurate and comprehensive source of drug-related information for undergraduate medical education.

  13. Promoting information diffusion through interlayer recovery processes in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Weihua; Liu, Longzhao; Pei, Sen; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2017-09-01

    For information diffusion in multiplex networks, the effect of interlayer contagion on spreading dynamics has been explored in different settings. Nevertheless, the impact of interlayer recovery processes, i.e., the transition of nodes to stiflers in all layers after they become stiflers in any layer, still remains unclear. In this paper, we propose a modified ignorant-spreader-stifler model of rumor spreading equipped with an interlayer recovery mechanism. We find that the information diffusion can be effectively promoted for a range of interlayer recovery rates. By combining the mean-field approximation and the Markov chain approach, we derive the evolution equations of the diffusion process in two-layer homogeneous multiplex networks. The optimal interlayer recovery rate that achieves the maximal enhancement can be calculated by solving the equations numerically. In addition, we find that the promoting effect on a certain layer can be strengthened if information spreads more extensively within the counterpart layer. When applying the model to two-layer scale-free multiplex networks, with or without degree correlation, similar promoting effect is also observed in simulations. Our work indicates that the interlayer recovery process is beneficial to information diffusion in multiplex networks, which may have implications for designing efficient spreading strategies.

  14. Wikipedia : sama täpne kui päris teatmeteos / Aivar Õepa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õepa, Aivar, 1967-

    2005-01-01

    2001. aastal asutatud Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org) on vabatahtlike tööl põhinev interneti-teatmeteos. Wikipediat ja Encyclopedia Britannicat võrrelnud teadlased leidsid, et veebientsüklopeedia ei jää täpsuses EB-le alla

  15. Wisdom of the crowd or technicity of content? Wikipedia as a sociotechnical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederer, S.; van Dijck, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia is often considered as an example of ‘collaborative knowledge’. Researchers have contested the value of Wikipedia content on various accounts. Some have disputed the ability of anonymous amateurs to produce quality information, while others have contested Wikipedia’s claim to accuracy and

  16. Wisdom of the crowd or technicity of content? Wikipedia as a sociotechnical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederer, S.; van Dijck, J.; David, M.; Millward, P.

    2014-01-01

    Wikipedia is often considered as an example of ‘collaborative knowledge’. Researchers have contested the value of Wikipedia content on various accounts. Some have disputed the ability of anonymous amateurs to produce quality information, while others have contested Wikipedia’s claim to accuracy and

  17. Digging Wikipedia : The Online Encyclopedia as a Digital Cultural Heritage Gateway and Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pentzold, C.; Weltevrede, E.; Mauri, M.; Laniado, D.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Borra, E.

    The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is both a cultural reference to store, refer to, and organize digitized and digital information, as well as a key contemporary digital heritage endeavor in itself. Capitalizing on this dual nature of the project, this article introduces Wikipedia as a digital

  18. Improving Information Literacy Skills through Learning to Use and Edit Wikipedia: A Chemistry Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin A.; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Our students rely on Wikipedia on their mobile devices or laptops, since it is an extremely rich and broad resource. This article overviews the Chemistry content on Wikipedia and how students can learn to use it effectively as an information resource, critically evaluating content, and learning key information literacy skills. We also discuss how…

  19. Resource depletion promotes automatic processing: implications for distribution of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Matthew H

    2010-12-01

    Recent models of cognition include two processing systems: an automatic system that relies on associative learning, intuition, and heuristics, and a controlled system that relies on deliberate consideration. Automatic processing requires fewer resources and is more likely when resources are depleted. This study showed that prolonged practice on a resource-depleting mental arithmetic task promoted automatic processing on a subsequent problem-solving task, as evidenced by faster responding and more errors. Distribution of practice effects (0, 60, 120, or 180 sec. between problems) on rigidity also disappeared when groups had equal time on resource-depleting tasks. These results suggest that distribution of practice effects is reducible to resource availability. The discussion includes implications for interpreting discrepancies in the traditional distribution of practice effect.

  20. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other’s edits over the period 2001–2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other’s edits and these sterile “fights” may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots’ interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively “dumb” bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles. PMID:28231323

  1. THE REACH AND RICHNESS OF WIKINOMICS: IS THE FREE WEB-BASED ENCYCLOPEDIA WIKIPEDIA ONLY FOR RICH COUNTRIES?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds that the cent......In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds...... that the central structural effect is on the level of human development in the current country. In other words, Wikipedia is in general more for rich countries than for less developed countries. It is suggested that policy makers make investments in increasing the general level of literacy, education, and standard...

  2. 77 FR 36983 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ..., consumer information, advertising, sales promotion, producer information, market development, and product... Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently... National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program. DATES: Comments on this document...

  3. Improving CERN's Presence on Wikipedia - Project Report, Summer Student Lecture Program 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Storehaug, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Dissemination of information on high energy physics and related technologies is at the core of CERN’s mission, making research done at CERN available, both to the public and other researchers. Wikipedia, being the most used social media site for researchers and a popular source of science information for the public, is an obvious platform for CERN to be present on. Between 19 June and 25 August 2017, as part of the CERN Summer Student Program, a project to improve CERN’s presence on Wikipedia was carried out in the department of Scientific Information Service at CERN. In the following the use of references in the collection of CERN-related Wikipedia articles is discussed, and the topics of plagiarism and licenses are raised. Furthermore, methods to benefit from the CERN community and archives are described, followed by a summary of how to get a Wikipedia article accepted by the Wikipedia community. Lists of Wikipedia articles created or improved and of Wikipedia articles in need of improvement are given.

  4. Orienteering in Knowledge Spaces: The Hyperbolic Geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or “The MathWiki.” The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of “knowledge space” in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store. PMID:23844017

  5. Orienteering in knowledge spaces: the hyperbolic geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Leibon

    Full Text Available In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or "The MathWiki." The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of "knowledge space" in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store.

  6. The Reach and Richness of Wikipedia: Is Wikinomics only for the rich countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of technological and economic factors on the global diffusion of Wikinomics among developed and developing countries. Examining different language editions of Wikipedia, this study found significant correlation between a variety of socio-economic factors and involve......This study examined the impact of technological and economic factors on the global diffusion of Wikinomics among developed and developing countries. Examining different language editions of Wikipedia, this study found significant correlation between a variety of socio-economic factors...... and involvement in Wikipedia....

  7. Promoting environmental sustainability via an expert elicitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swor, Tom; Canter, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sustainability (ES) planning was applied to the 981-mile, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified within the broad study along with actions to restore aquatic and riparian ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts knowledgeable of Ohio River resources. The received information was synthesized into goals for the selected resources (Valued Ecosystem Components - or VECs), actions or measures to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of ES actions were identified and classified into three ES alternatives. These alternatives were then evaluated relative to key decision criteria, and such evaluations, based on pertinent decision criteria, were also conducted for four navigation improvement alternatives. Finally, the best combination of ES and navigation alternatives was identified. The key lessons derived from this use of EEP were that: (1) EEP can support the preliminary identification of ES measures; however, more detailed study of specific designs and cost evaluations will be necessary; (2) the method promotes collaboration between key scientists and policymakers from governmental agencies and private sectors, and such collaboration will ultimately provide the foundation for implementation of sustainability actions; and (3) an effective EEP does not occur by accident, it requires careful planning, implementation, and documentation. - Research Highlights: → Use of an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) is demonstrated in this study. → EEP was used to identify Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs for the Ohio River. → EEP helped develop consensus among resource experts on ES needs. → EEP promotes collaboration to identify and contribute to common resource goals. → EEP may be used in assessing cumulative effects and formulating restoration

  8. How Readers Shape the Content of an Encyclopedia: A Case Study Comparing the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1890 with Wikipedia (2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Spree

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How knowledge is negotiated between the makers of encyclopedias and their audiences remains an ongoing question in research on encyclopedias. A comparative content analysis of the published answers of letters to the editor of the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (Korrespondenzblatt from 1885 and the discussion pages of the article potato of the German Wikipedia (2013 reveals continuities as well as changes in the communication between encyclopedia producers and their audiences. The main reasons why readers and editors communicate are the need for updated factual information, an exchange on editorial principles and the intellectual exchange of ideas on ideological and philosophical questions in relation to the encyclopedic content. Editors and readers attach a lot of importance to the process of verifying information through bibliographical references. Whereas, for the editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon the leading role of experts remains undisputed, Wikipedians work in a contradictory situation. They are on the one hand exposing knowledge production to a permanent process of negotiation, thereby challenging the role of experts, on the other hand relying strongly on bibliographical authorities. Whilst the reasons for the communication between readers and editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon and among Wikipedia contributors coincide, the understanding of the roles of readers and editors differ. The editors of the Korrespondenzblatt keep up a lecturing attitude. As opposed to this, administrators in Wikipedia want to encourage participation and strive to develop expertise among the participating contributors. Albeit power relations between administrators, regular authors, occasional authors and readers continue to exist they are comparatively flat and transient. Regardless of these differences, the comparison between Meyers Konversationslexikon and Wikipedia indicates that the sine qua non for activating an upwards spiral of quality

  9. Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia: a Bag-of-Words Classifier Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Belani, Amit

    2010-01-01

    A bag-of-words based probabilistic classifier is trained using regularized logistic regression to detect vandalism in the English Wikipedia. Isotonic regression is used to calibrate the class membership probabilities. Learning curve, reliability, ROC, and cost analysis are performed.

  10. 'Anyone can edit', not everyone does: Wikipedia's infrastructure and the gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Heather; Wajcman, Judy

    2017-08-01

    Feminist STS has long established that science's provenance as a male domain continues to define what counts as knowledge and expertise. Wikipedia, arguably one of the most powerful sources of information today, was initially lauded as providing the opportunity to rebuild knowledge institutions by providing greater representation of multiple groups. However, less than ten percent of Wikipedia editors are women. At one level, this imbalance in contributions and therefore content is yet another case of the masculine culture of technoscience. This is an important argument and, in this article, we examine the empirical research that highlights these issues. Our main objective, however, is to extend current accounts by demonstrating that Wikipedia's infrastructure introduces new and less visible sources of gender disparity. In sum, our aim here is to present a consolidated analysis of the gendering of Wikipedia.

  11. Dissoluzioni, parodie o mutamenti? Considerazioni sulla storia nelle pagine di Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus H. F. Pereira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What kind of relationship do the historical sciences have with Wikipedia? How should a reader approach Wikipedia articles dealing with history? What role will the upcoming “free encyclopedia” play in the study and teaching of history? Starting from an analysis on some Wikipedia’s article performed by the “Nicoletta Bourbaki” working group, six authors animate a panel discussion on the relationship between the free encyclopedia and history.

  12. Process evaluation of health fairs promoting cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Liang, Shuting; Rodgers, Kirsten; Haardoerfer, Regine; Hennessy, Grace; Gilbertson, Kendra; Heredia, Natalia I; Gatus, Leticia A; Fernandez, Maria E

    2017-12-18

    Low income and uninsured individuals often have lower adherence to cancer screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. Health fairs are a common community outreach strategy used to provide cancer-related health education and services. This study was a process evaluation of seven health fairs focused on cancer screening across the U.S. We conducted key-informant interviews with the fair coordinator and conducted baseline and follow-up surveys with fair participants to describe characteristics of participants as well as their experiences. We collected baseline data with participants at the health fairs and telephone follow-up surveys 6 months following the fair. Attendance across the seven health fairs ranged from 41 to 212 participants. Most fairs provided group or individual education, print materials and cancer screening during the event. Overall, participants rated health fairs as very good and participants reported that the staff was knowledgeable and that they liked the materials distributed. After the fairs, about 60% of participants, who were reached at follow-up, had read the materials provided and had conversations with others about cancer screening, and 41% talked to their doctors about screening. Based on findings from evaluation including participant data and coordinator interviews, we describe 6 areas in planning for health fairs that may increase their effectiveness. These include: 1) use of a theoretical framework for health promotion to guide educational content and activities provided, 2) considering the community characteristics, 3) choosing a relevant setting, 4) promotion of the event, 5) considerations of the types of services to deliver, and 6) evaluation of the health fair. The events reported varied in reach and the participants represented diverse races and lower income populations overall. Most health fairs offered education, print materials and onsite cancer screening. Participants reported general satisfaction with these events

  13. People Create Health: Effective Health Promotion is a Creative Process

    OpenAIRE

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Effective health promotion involves the creative cultivation of physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being. Efforts at health promotion produce weak and inconsistent benefits when it does not engage people to express their own goals and values. Likewise, health promotion has been ineffective when it relies only on instruction about facts regarding a healthy lifestyle, or focuses on reduction of disease rather than the cultivation of well-being. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies an...

  14. Exploring DBpedia and Wikipedia for Portuguese Semantic Relationship Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Soares Batista

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of semantic relationships, as expressed between named entities in text, is an important step for extracting knowledge from large document collections, such as the Web. Previous works have addressed this task for the English language through supervised learning techniques for automatic classification. The current state of the art involves the use of learning methods based on string kernels. However, such approaches require manually annotated training data for each type of semantic relationship, and have scalability problems when tens or hundreds of different types of relationships have to be extracted. This article discusses an approach for distantly supervised relation extraction over texts written in the Portuguese language, which uses an efficient technique for measuring similarity between relation instances, based on minwise hashing and on locality sensitive hashing. In the proposed method, the training examples are automatically collected from Wikipedia, corresponding to sentences that express semantic relationships between pairs of entities extracted from DBPedia. These examples are represented as sets of character quadgrams and other representative elements. The sets are indexed in a data structure that implements the idea of locality-sensitive hashing. To check which semantic relationship is expressed between a given pair of entities referenced in a sentence, the most similar training examples are searched, based on an approximation to the Jaccard coefficient, obtained through min-hashing. The relation class is assigned with basis on the weighted votes of the most similar examples. Tests with a dataset from Wikipedia validate the suitability of the proposed method, showing, for instance, that the method is able to extract 10 different types of semantic relations, 8 of them corresponding to asymmetric relations, with an average score of 55.6%, measured in terms of F1.

  15. The Elephant in the Room: A Place for Wikipedia in Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Brox

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article departs from a pilot survey among Norwegian teacher students that maps their usage, skills and attitudes in relation to the web based encyclopedia Wikipedia. The survey shows that the students are heavy users of Wikipedia content yet show a low  level  of knowledge as  to  how content  is  constructed  or  the  ways  in  which Wikipedia differs  from traditional,  paper-based  encyclopedias.  The  students also express little interest in parttaking in creating content or maintaining the site. The second part of the article argues that a way to remedy both lack of knowledge and interest  among  students  is  to  bring  Wikipedia  actively  into  the classrooms and enable students to take part in creating and maintaining Wikipedia content. This way, Wikipedia may serve as an effective tool with which to address and enhance a range of central 21st century skills.

  16. The richness and reach of Wikinomics: Is the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia only for the rich countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether or not the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based upon data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, we find that the central...... structural effect is on the level of human development in the current country. In other words, Wikipedia is in general, more for rich countries than for less developed countries. It is suggested that policy makers make investments in increasing the general level of literacy, education, and standard of living...

  17. Motivations for contributing to health-related articles on Wikipedia: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farič, Nuša; Potts, Henry W W

    2014-12-03

    Wikipedia is one of the most accessed sources of health information online. The current English-language Wikipedia contains more than 28,000 articles pertaining to health. The aim was to characterize individuals' motivations for contributing to health content on the English-language Wikipedia. A set of health-related articles were randomly selected and recent contributors invited to complete an online questionnaire and follow-up interview (by Skype, by email, or face-to-face). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis and a realist grounded theory approach. A total of 32 Wikipedians (31 men) completed the questionnaire and 17 were interviewed. Those completing the questionnaire had a mean age of 39 (range 12-59) years; 16 had a postgraduate qualification, 10 had or were currently studying for an undergraduate qualification, 3 had no more than secondary education, and 3 were still in secondary education. In all, 15 were currently working in a health-related field (primarily clinicians). The median period for which they have been an active editing Wikipedia was 3-5 years. Of this group, 12 were in the United States, 6 were in the United Kingdom, 4 were in Canada, and the remainder from another 8 countries. Two-thirds spoke more than 1 language and 90% (29/32) were also active contributors in domains other than health. Wikipedians in this study were identified as health professionals, professionals with specific health interests, students, and individuals with health problems. Based on the interviews, their motivations for editing health-related content were summarized in 5 strongly interrelated categories: education (learning about subjects by editing articles), help (wanting to improve and maintain Wikipedia), responsibility (responsibility, often a professional responsibility, to provide good quality health information to readers), fulfillment (editing Wikipedia as a fun, relaxing, engaging, and rewarding activity), and positive attitude to

  18. Walking Across Wikipedia: A Scale-Free Network Model of Semantic Memory Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham William Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Semantic knowledge has been investigated using both online and offline methods. One common online method is category recall, in which members of a semantic category like animals are retrieved in a given period of time. The order, timing, and number of retrievals are used as assays of semantic memory processes. One common offline method is corpus analysis, in which the structure of semantic knowledge is extracted from texts using co-occurrence or encyclopedic methods. Online measures of semantic processing, as well as offline measures of semantic structure, have yielded data resembling inverse power law distributions. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether these patterns in data might be related. A semantic network model of animal knowledge is formulated on the basis of Wikipedia pages and their overlap in word probability distributions. The network is scale-free, in that node degree is related to node frequency as an inverse power law. A random walk over this network is shown to simulate a number of results from a category recall experiment, including power law-like distributions of inter-response intervals. Results are discussed in terms of theories of semantic structure and processing.

  19. "Language Is the Skin of My Thought": Integrating Wikipedia and AI to Support a Guillotine Player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lops, Pasquale; Basile, Pierpaolo; de Gemmis, Marco; Semeraro, Giovanni

    This paper describes OTTHO (On the Tip of my THOught), a system designed for solving a language game, called Guillotine, which demands knowledge covering a broad range of topics, such as movies, politics, literature, history, proverbs, and popular culture. The rule of the game is simple: the player observes five words, generally unrelated to each other, and in one minute she has to provide a sixth word, semantically connected to the others. The system exploits several knowledge sources, such as a dictionary, a set of proverbs, and Wikipedia to realize a knowledge infusion process. The paper describes the process of modeling these sources and the reasoning mechanism to find the solution of the game. The main motivation for designing an artificial player for Guillotine is the challenge of providing the machine with the cultural and linguistic background knowledge which makes it similar to a human being, with the ability of interpreting natural language documents and reasoning on their content. Experiments carried out showed promising results. Our feeling is that the presented approach has a great potential for other more practical applications besides solving a language game.

  20. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.

    2015-01-01

    Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic) information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic’s importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends. PMID:26720074

  1. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Kämpf

    Full Text Available Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  2. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y; Kantelhardt, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic) information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  3. Contrasting medium and genre on Wikipedia to open up the dominating definition and classification of geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Markusson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering is typically defined as a techno-scientific response to climate change that differs from mitigation and adaptation, and that includes diverse individual technologies, which can be classified as either solar radiation management or carbon dioxide removal. We analyse the representation of geoengineering on Wikipedia as a way of opening up this dominating, if contested, model for further debate. We achieve this by contrasting the dominating model as presented in the encyclopaedic article texts with the patterns of hyper-link associations between the articles. Two datasets were created tracing the geoengineering construct on Wikipedia, shedding light on its boundary with its context, as well as on its internal structure. The analysis shows that the geoengineering category tends to be associated on Wikipedia primarily with atmospheric solar radiation management rather than land-based carbon dioxide removal type technologies. The results support the notion that the dominant model of defining and classifying geoengineering technology has been beneficial for solar radiation management type technologies more than for land-based carbon dioxide removal ones. The article also demonstrates that controversy mapping with Wikipedia data affords analysis that can open up dominating definitions and classifications of technologies, and offer resistance to their frequent naturalising and decontextualising tendencies. This work is in line with recent work on digital sociology, but the article contributes a new methodology and reports on the first empirical application of controversy mapping using Wikipedia data to a technology.

  4. Risk factors and control of hospital acquired infections: a comparison between Wikipedia and scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maggi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays Wikipedia is one of the main on-line sources of general information. It contains several items about nosocomial infections and their prevention, together of items on virtually every scientific topic.This study aims to assess whether Wikipedia can be considered a reliable source for professional updating, concerning Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI.Methods: Wikipedia has been searched in order to gather items on HAI. 387 items were found with a search string. The field of research was reduced at those articles (27 items containing exhaustive information in relation to prevention of HAI. The messages contained in those articles were than compared with the recommendations of a selected guideline (NICE 2003, completed by a literature search, with the aim of testing their reliability and exhaustivity.Results: 15 Wiki items were found and 51 messages selected. NICE guidelines contained 119 recommendations and 52 more recommendations has been found in a further literature search. 45.1% of Wikipedia’s messages were even found in the guidelines. On this percentage, 21.6% completely agreed with the messages of the guidelines, 15.7% partially agreed, 3.9% disagreed and 3.9% showed different level of evidence in different articles. Moreover, 54.9% of Wikipedia’s messages were not included in the guidelines and 84.2% of the recommendations contained in the guidelines were not present in Wikipedia.Conclusions: Wikipedia should not be considered as a reliable source for professional updating on HAI.

  5. Conflict and Computation on Wikipedia: A Finite-State Machine Analysis of Editor Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon DeDeo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available What is the boundary between a vigorous argument and a breakdown of relations? What drives a group of individuals across it? Taking Wikipedia as a test case, we use a hidden Markov model to approximate the computational structure and social grammar of more than a decade of cooperation and conflict among its editors. Across a wide range of pages, we discover a bursty war/peace structure where the systems can become trapped, sometimes for months, in a computational subspace associated with significantly higher levels of conflict-tracking “revert” actions. Distinct patterns of behavior characterize the lower-conflict subspace, including tit-for-tat reversion. While a fraction of the transitions between these subspaces are associated with top-down actions taken by administrators, the effects are weak. Surprisingly, we find no statistical signal that transitions are associated with the appearance of particularly anti-social users, and only weak association with significant news events outside the system. These findings are consistent with transitions being driven by decentralized processes with no clear locus of control. Models of belief revision in the presence of a common resource for information-sharing predict the existence of two distinct phases: a disordered high-conflict phase, and a frozen phase with spontaneously-broken symmetry. The bistability we observe empirically may be a consequence of editor turn-over, which drives the system to a critical point between them.

  6. Measuring Global Disease with Wikipedia: Success, Failure, and a Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priedhorsky, Reid; Osthus, Dave; Daughton, Ashlynn R; Moran, Kelly R; Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2017-01-01

    Effective disease monitoring provides a foundation for effective public health systems. This has historically been accomplished with patient contact and bureaucratic aggregation, which tends to be slow and expensive. Recent internet-based approaches promise to be real-time and cheap, with few parameters. However, the question of when and how these approaches work remains open. We addressed this question using Wikipedia access logs and category links. Our experiments, replicable and extensible using our open source code and data, test the effect of semantic article filtering, amount of training data, forecast horizon, and model staleness by comparing across 6 diseases and 4 countries using thousands of individual models. We found that our minimal-configuration, language-agnostic article selection process based on semantic relatedness is effective for improving predictions, and that our approach is relatively insensitive to the amount and age of training data. We also found, in contrast to prior work, very little forecasting value, and we argue that this is consistent with theoretical considerations about the nature of forecasting. These mixed results lead us to propose that the currently observational field of internet-based disease surveillance must pivot to include theoretical models of information flow as well as controlled experiments based on simulations of disease.

  7. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... the initial assessment rate being one cent per pound, which shall be paid to the National Processed... countries and their share of the imports are: Chile (78 percent) and Canada (17 percent). The 1996 Act... found that it is in the national public interest and vital to the welfare of the agricultural economy of...

  8. Role of BRIT in promoting radiation processing technology in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the major applications of radiation processing include: the sterilization of products such as medical devices to kill bacteria or in the case of food, hygienize the product; the treatment of export bulk commodities such as tropical fruits to extend shelf life by slowing the ripening process and inhibiting sprouting and to kill quarantine pests such as fruit flies. Radiation processing is a value addition process. Taking note of these benefits, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India constituted Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) in March 1989 by carving it out from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The mandate given to BRIT was to extend commercial applications of radioisotopes and radiation in the areas of Health, Agriculture, Industry and Research without losing sight of societal obligations. So far Department of Atomic Energy has set up three demonstration plants, namely, Isomed, RPP, Vashi and Krushak for high, medium and low dose applications of radiation respectively. The safe and business like operation of these facilities amply demonstrated the embedded safety and commercial viability of this technology

  9. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-03-23

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders.

  10. The Faculty Promotion Process. An Empirical Analysis of the Administration of Large State Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthans, Fred

    One phase of academic management, the faculty promotion process, is systematically described and analyzed. The study encompasses three parts: (l) the justification of the use of management concepts in the analysis of academic administration; (2) a descriptive presentation of promotion policies and practices in 46 large state universities; and (3)…

  11. Coercion or empowerment? Moderation of content in Wikipedia as 'essentially contested' bureaucratic rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de laat, Paul B.

    In communities of user-generated content, systems for the management of content and/or their contributors are usually accepted without much protest. Not so, however, in the case of Wikipedia, in which the proposal to introduce a system of review for new edits (in order to counter vandalism) led to

  12. Who Writes the Past? Student Perceptions of Wikipedia Knowledge and Credibility in a World History Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Susanna; Kelley, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an inquiry-based learning project that required students in a first-year world history course to reflect on and analyze critically the nature of the knowledge found in Wikipedia--the free, open-content, rapidly evolving, internet encyclopedia. Using a rubric, the authors explored students' perceptions of the collaborative and…

  13. Multi-cultural Wikipedia mining of geopolitics interactions leveraging reduced Google matrix analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; El Zant, Samer; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2017-09-01

    Geopolitics focuses on political power in relation to geographic space. Interactions among world countries have been widely studied at various scales, observing economic exchanges, world history or international politics among others. This work exhibits the potential of Wikipedia mining for such studies. Indeed, Wikipedia stores valuable fine-grained dependencies among countries by linking webpages together for diverse types of interactions (not only related to economical, political or historical facts). We mine herein the Wikipedia networks of several language editions using the recently proposed method of reduced Google matrix analysis. This approach allows to establish direct and hidden links between a subset of nodes that belong to a much larger directed network. Our study concentrates on 40 major countries chosen worldwide. Our aim is to offer a multicultural perspective on their interactions by comparing networks extracted from five different Wikipedia language editions, emphasizing English, Russian and Arabic ones. We demonstrate that this approach allows to recover meaningful direct and hidden links among the 40 countries of interest.

  14. More than Just Wikipedia: Creating a Collaborative Research Library Using a Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Caroline Lego

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, wiki technology is being used in education and business settings. Although most students are aware of Wikipedia, many do not understand that a wiki is a malleable platform that has a multitude of uses. Wiki technology is one of many social media tools that students need to not only become familiar with but also be able to effectively…

  15. Bipartite Networks of Wikipediaʼs Articles and Authors: a Meso-level Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesus, Rut; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the bipartite network of articles linked by common editors in Wikipedia, 'The Free Encyclopedia that Anyone Can Edit'. We use the articles in the categories (to depth three) of Physics and Philosophy and extract and focus on significant editors (at least 7 or 10...

  16. How Trust in Wikipedia Evolves: A Survey of Students Aged 11 to 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe, Josiane; Sahut, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Whether Wikipedia is to be considered a trusted source is frequently questioned in France. This paper reports the results of a survey examining the levels of trust shown by young people aged eleven to twenty-five. Method: We analyse the answers given by 841 young people, aged eleven to twenty-five, to a questionnaire. To our…

  17. From MDMA to Lady Gaga : Expertise and Contribution Behavior of Editing Communities on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, L.J.; Krieg, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for gaining a better understanding of the contribution behavior, interests and expertise of communities of Wikipedia users. Starting from a list of core articles and their main editors, we identify which other articles (outside of the initial list) they

  18. High Tempo Knowledge Collaboration in Wikipedia's Coverage of Breaking News Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    When major news breaks in our hyper-connected society, we increasingly turn to an encyclopedia for the latest information. Wikipedia's coverage of breaking news events attracts unique levels of attention; the articles with the most page views, edits, and contributors in any given month since 2003 are related to current events. Extant…

  19. Inquiry, Critique, and Dissemination of Knowledge: Graduate Students Contributing to Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Graduate students use existing knowledge and are ultimately expected to add to that knowledge. Students in a Masters of Education entry course were asked to find a Wikipedia page related to the course topics, critique it, and make improvements to it to begin to develop these skills. In this paper, I examine ways in which their perspectives were…

  20. Marketing promotion in the consumer goods’ retail distribution process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Bălăşescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental characteristic of contemporary marketing is the total opening towards three major directions: consumer needs, organization needs and society’s needs. The continuous expansion of marketing has been accompanied by a process of differentiation and specialization. Differentiation has led to the so called “specific marketing”. In this paper, we aim to explain that in the retail companies, the concept of sales marketing can be distinguished as an independent marketing specialization. The main objectives for this paper are: the definition and delimitation of consumer goods’ sales marketing in the retail business and the sectoral approach of the marketing concept and its specific techniques for the retail activities.

  1. Wikipedia Edit-a-thons: Thinking Beyond the Warm Fuzzies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Robichaud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia edit-a-thons represent a unique and fruitful avenue for galleries, libraries, archives and museums (GLAMs to engage with new and existing segments of their user communities. Encompassing information and technical literacy skills development, the success of edit-a-thon campaigns, such the annual art+feminism events, demonstrate their utility and value as outreach initiatives. What is less clear are the logistical, ethical and professional development implications of hosting these events. Centering first-hand experience and concrete examples, this paper explores GLAM-based edit-a-thons through a practical and actionable lens. Topics covered include: what is required to successfully host an edit-a-thon; the importance of leading by example in a volunteer-reliant economy; and the transferable work skills gained by hosting and participating in edit-a-thons. Des « édit-a-thons » (marathon d’édition de texte sur Wikipédia offrent aux galeries, bibliothèques, archives et musées une façon unique et efficace d’interagir avec de nouveaux ou d’existants segments de leur communauté. En incorporant le développement de compétences techniques et informationnelles, le succès des édit-a-thons, tel que l’événement annuel art+feminism, démontre leur utilité et leur valeur comme initiative de sensibilisation. Toutefois, les implications liées à la logistique, l’éthique et au développement professionnel en tant qu’hôte de tels événements demeurent ambiguës. En s’inspirant d’une expérience unique et d’exemples concrets, cet article utilise une approche pratique et appliquée pour explorer des édit-a-thons au sein des galeries, bibliothèques, archives et musées. Les sujets abordés comprennent les éléments requis pour que les édit-a-thons connaissent un succès, l’importance d’être un exemple à suivre au sein d’une économie basée sur des bénévoles et les habiletés transférables acquises en

  2. Understanding the decision-making process for health promotion programming at small to midsized businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M Courtney; Patrick, Donald L; Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Ghosh, Donetta L

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the decision-making process for implementing and continuing health promotion programs at small to midsized businesses to inform health promotion practitioners and researchers as they market their services to these businesses. Qualitative interviews are conducted with 24 employers located in the Pacific Northwest ranging in size from 75 to 800 employees, with the majority having between 100 and 200 employees. Small to midsized employers depend most on company success-related factors rather than on humanitarian motives when deciding whether to adopt workplace health promotion programs. They rely heavily on health insurers for health promotion and desire more information about the actual costs and cost-benefits of programs. To increase health promotion adoption at small to midsized businesses, health promotion practitioners should appeal to overall company success-related factors, use the insurance channel, and target their information to both human resource personnel and senior management.

  3. The process and promotion of radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Radiation-induced cell death is divided into reproductive and interphase death, whose process can be revealed by time-lapse observations. Pedigree analyses of progenies derived from a surviving progenitor cell have shown that moribund cells appear in clusters among cells which are apparently undamaged (lethal sectoring). Sister cell fusion, which likely results from chromosome bridge, is the most frequently observed cell abnormality leading to reproductive death. While interphase death does not occur unless the dose exceeds 10 Gy for low LET radiation such as X-rays, high-LET radiation is very effective at inducing interphase death (RBE: ≅3 at 230 keV/μm). Expression or fixation of potentially lethal damage (PLD) is closely associated with cell cycle events and enhanced by inducing premature chromosome condensation (PCC) at a nonpermissive temperature in tsBN2 cells with a ts-defect in RCC1 protein (a regulator of chromatin condensation) which monitors the completion of DNA replication. Furthermore, higher-order structural changes in nuclear matrix such as induced by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance) protein, also play an important role in the fixation of PLD. (author)

  4. The People’s Encyclopedia Under the Gaze of the Sages: A Systematic Review of Scholarly Research on Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoli, Chitu; Mehdi, Mohamad; Mesgari, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia has become one of the ten most visited sites on the Web, and the world’s leading source of Web reference information. Its rapid success has inspired hundreds of scholars from various disciplines to study its content, communication and community dynamics from various perspectives....... This article presents a systematic review of scholarly research on Wikipedia. We describe our detailed, rigorous methodology for identifying over 450 scholarly studies of Wikipedia. We present the WikiLit website (http wikilit dot referata dot com), where most of the papers reviewed here are described...... in detail. In the major section of this article, we then categorize and summarize the studies. An appendix features an extensive list of resources useful for Wikipedia researchers....

  5. EMPLOYEE PROMOTION PLANNING IN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS PERSPECTIVE: STUDY ON NATIONAL PUBLIC PROCUREMENT AGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuningtyas A.K.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The promotion process is part of the career development conducted by Civil State Apparatus Employee (Pegawai Aparatur Sipil Negara which should be implemented by applying merit system. Employee-related strategic decision making has not applied merit system as mandated in applied laws. It occurred due to Public Service Appointment Board (Badan Pertimbangan Jabatan dan Kepangkatan not possessing assessment model and criteria which could be used to support promotion process implementation in the appropriate structural position based on employee competence and performance. This study aims to describe and analyze assessment criteria and subcriteria required to be considered in State Civil Servant Officers promotion planning by applying Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method in National Public Procurement Agency (Lembaga Kebijakan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah. This study uses the explanative quantitative univariate method. Data collection technique used questionnaire instrument. Analytical tool used was AHP. Research result exhibits that ASN employee promotion planning using assessment model is described as follows: Employee Performance Assessment consist of Employee Work Performance element with three criteria and Employee Work Behavior with twenty-three criteria; and Evaluation of Employee Promotion Implementation with eleven criteria. Through the use of AHP methods employee, promotion planning could be utilized as a tool for Baperjakat to produce employee decisions that will be promoted objectively and effectively.

  6. Accuracy and readability of cardiovascular entries on Wikipedia: are they reliable learning resources for medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; AlSwaidan, Nourah M; Alshwairikh, Lama A; AlShammari, Jumana M

    2015-10-06

    To evaluate accuracy of content and readability level of English Wikipedia articles on cardiovascular diseases, using quality and readability tools. Wikipedia was searched on the 6 October 2013 for articles on cardiovascular diseases. Using a modified DISCERN (DISCERN is an instrument widely used in assessing online resources), articles were independently scored by three assessors. The readability was calculated using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The inter-rater agreement between evaluators was calculated using the Fleiss κ scale. This study was based on 47 English Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases. The DISCERN scores had a median=33 (IQR=6). Four articles (8.5%) were of good quality (DISCERN score 40-50), 39 (83%) moderate (DISCERN 30-39) and 4 (8.5%) were poor (DISCERN 10-29). Although the entries covered the aetiology and the clinical picture, there were deficiencies in the pathophysiology of diseases, signs and symptoms, diagnostic approaches and treatment. The number of references varied from 1 to 127 references; 25.9±29.4 (mean±SD). Several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made in the articles. The readability of articles was 14.3±1.7 (mean±SD); consistent with the readability level for college students. In comparison, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 18th edition had more tables, less references and no significant difference in number of graphs, images, illustrations or readability level. The overall agreement between the evaluators was good (Fleiss κ 0.718 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.83). The Wikipedia entries are not aimed at a medical audience and should not be used as a substitute to recommended medical resources. Course designers and students should be aware that Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases lack accuracy, predominantly due to errors of omission. Further improvement of the Wikipedia content of cardiovascular entries would be needed before they could be considered a supplementary resource

  7. Promotion of sustainable employability : Occupational health in the meat processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Breunis Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Due to rising retirement age, sustainable employability is gaining interest among employers. Such is the case in the meat processing industry. A strategy to address these challenges is health promotion at work. Therefore, the largest Dutch meat processing company has implemented a Workers’ Health

  8. For An Urban Wikipedia. The Challenges of the Urban Project. Maurizio Carta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The city is the pre-eminent encyclopedia of the community, a place where all the components of life, its definition and all its reciprocal relationships are found (Harvey 1989.  In the urban century in which we all are immersed goes from the encyclopedia to the urban Wikipedia: that is a collective, cognitive project in which the inhabitants and the operators, the decision-makers and the participants, the project makers and the actors make up the structure, continually enriching it with the change of practices, with the interpretation of its meanings and intentions. In order to make, understand, represent and transmit the urban Wikipedia, its chronological stratification, its spatial creases, its architectural harmony and often even its social dissonance, we are obliged to create a new epistemology which is capable of evaluating and of utilizing the multiplicity of territorial identities and that knows how to activate new forms of project making.

  9. Contrasting medium and genre on Wikipedia to open up the dominating definition and classification of geoengineering

    OpenAIRE

    Markusson , Nils; Venturini , Tommaso; Laniado , David; Kaltenbrunner , Andreas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Geoengineering is typically defined as a techno-scientific response to climate change that differs from mitigation and adaptation, and that includes diverse individual technologies, which can be classified as either solar radiation management or carbon dioxide removal. We analyse the representation of geoengineering on Wikipedia as a way of opening up this dominating, if contested, model for further debate. We achieve this by contrasting the dominating model as present...

  10. WikiSent : Weakly Supervised Sentiment Analysis Through Extractive Summarization With Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Subhabrata; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a weakly supervised system for sentiment analysis in the movie review domain. The objective is to classify a movie review into a polarity class, positive or negative, based on those sentences bearing opinion on the movie alone. The irrelevant text, not directly related to the reviewer opinion on the movie, is left out of analysis. Wikipedia incorporates the world knowledge of movie-specific features in the system which is used to obtain an extractive summary of the review...

  11. Correlation between Similarity Measures for Inter-Language Linked Wikipedia Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Paramita, M.; Clough, P.; Aker, A.; Gaizauskas, R.

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia articles in different languages have been mined to support various tasks, such as Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) and Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). Articles on the same topic in different languages are often connected by inter-language links, which can be used to identify similar or comparable content. In this work, we investigate the correlation between similarity measures utilising language-independent and language-dependent features and respective human judgm...

  12. Jointly they edit: examining the impact of community identification on political interaction in Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Neff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase 'divided they blog', referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a 'Wikipedian' even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of 'being Wikipedian' may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation.

  13. Jointly They Edit: Examining the Impact of Community Identification on Political Interaction in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jessica J.; Laniado, David; Kappler, Karolin E.; Volkovich, Yana; Aragón, Pablo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase ‘divided they blog’, referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. Methodology/Principal Findings Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a ‘Wikipedian’ even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of ‘being Wikipedian’ may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation. PMID:23573269

  14. A VIEWPOINT ON ECONOMY STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE PROMOTION PROCESS OF TOURISM PRODUCTS USING ONLINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia, MUHCINA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the tools that are used in promotional activity in tourism, the online marketing opens the possibility to promptly create offers, meet buyers' demands, and strengthen customer relationships. The online marketers consider that the Internet is a modern technology that allows firms to connect business partners, to identify more rapidly the consumers' needs, to understand and answer on individual demand. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of online marketing in the process of promotion and distribution of tourism products, starting from an empirical research conducted among economic sciences faculty students. The results of this work may provide a partial image of the young people's opinion about online marketing as a tool of marketing communication, and may be approached as a modest guide for tourism marketers in the process of creating, promoting and distributing tourism offers.

  15. "Putting in Your Time": Faculty Experiences in the Process of Promotion to Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Susan K.; Blackstone, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The rank of professor or "full" professor represents the highest status possible for faculty members, and it is generally gained by attaining professional expertise and a national or international reputation. Beyond this, however, little is known about these individuals or the promotion process at this level. In this qualitative study of…

  16. (Re)framing school as a setting for promoting health and wellbeing: a double translation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordin, Lone Lindegard; Jourdan, Didier; Simovska, Venka

    2018-01-01

    , but entangled, processes of translation. At the national level, despite resistance by a number of actors with differing priorities, the translation resulted in the integration of selected key principles of the setting approach to health promotion in the national curriculum for health education. At the municipal......The aim of this article is to discuss the ways in which the setting approach to health promotion in schools, as part of knowledge-based international policies and guidelines, is embedded in the Danish policy landscape and enacted at the local governance level. The study draws on the sociology...... level, however, the principles seem to be ‘lost in translation’, as the treatment of schools as settings for promoting health and wellbeing remains largely subordinate to the discourses of disease prevention and individual behaviour regulation, dominated by the agenda of actors in the health sector....

  17. [Processes in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Neto, João Leite; Kind, Luciana; Resende, Maria Carolina Costa; Colen, Natália Silva

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the processes involved in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) through the analysis of three documents produced by the Ministry of Health from 2002 to 2005 and the final text of the National Health Promotion Policy, approved in 2006. We interviewed five subjects who participated in drafting the PNPS, three of whom were Ministry of Health administrators, plus two researchers. The documents were explored with discourse analysis. The article contributes to the debate on the development of the PNPS. Health promotion showed various points of disagreement, which led to the delay in the document's final approval. International induction via funding proved to be a crucial element for defining the final wording of the PNPS, reestablishing the emphasis (subject to criticism) on lifestyle changes in its "Actions". The article highlights the negotiated consensus that led to the creation of the PNPS Management Committee, with participation by various sub-sectors, an innovative structure within the Ministry of Health.

  18. Evaluation of empowerment processes in a workplace health promotion intervention based on learning in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Hanna; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a theory-based method for workplace health promotion (WHP) with regard to possible facilitation of empowerment processes. The intervention tool was the pedagogic method known as problem-based learning (PBL). The aim of the intervention was to promote empowerment and health among the employees. The intervention was implemented in three organizations within the public sector in Sweden, in a bottom-up approach. All employees, including management, in each organization, were offered the opportunity to participate (n = 113) and 87% (n = 97) participated. The intervention was implemented in 13 groups of six to eight participants who met once a week over a period of 4 months. The predetermined overall goal of the intervention was to promote employee health within the organizational setting. A facilitator in each group and a group-specific mutual agreement guided the intervention, as did the problem solving process. The participants set goals and developed strategies to reach their goals between the meetings. Thirty informants were interviewed in seven focus groups after the intervention about the intervention method and the process, following a semi-structured theme guide. The phenomenographic analysis resulted in six descriptive categories: reflection, awareness and insight, self-direction and self-management, group coherence, social support and actions. The results correspond to established theories of components of empowerment processes. The method initiated processes of change at organizational, workplace and individual levels as the participants examined their work situation, determined problems and initiated solutions. Social support and group coherence were expressed as essential in order to transform challenging strategies into action and goal realization. The findings indicate that systematic improvements of social support and group coherence among employees ought to be facilitated by the organization as a health-promoting

  19. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  20. A VIEWPOINT ON ECONOMY STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE PROMOTION PROCESS OF TOURISM PRODUCTS USING ONLINE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia, MUHCINA; Andreea-Daniela, MORARU

    2014-01-01

    Among the tools that are used in promotional activity in tourism, the online marketing opens the possibility to promptly create offers, meet buyers' demands, and strengthen customer relationships. The online marketers consider that the Internet is a modern technology that allows firms to connect business partners, to identify more rapidly the consumers' needs, to understand and answer on individual demand. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of online marketing in the process...

  1. Towards improved policy processes for promoting innovation in renewable electricity technologies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Pearson, P.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses recent, current and potential future relations between policy processes and substantive outcomes in UK low carbon innovation policy, focussing on policies relating to renewable electricity generation technologies. It examines the development of policy processes relating to the adoption and implementation of the Renewables Obligation and how these may affect the current and likely future success of the Obligation in promoting low carbon innovation. It examines the new policy and institutional processes put in place in the 2003 Energy White Paper and argues that these are unlikely to provide the strategic long-term framework needed to realise the ambitious goals for UK energy policy set out in the White Paper. Finally, it outlines some suggestions for further development of policy processes to facilitate improved delivery of these goals, based on guiding principles for sustainable innovation policy processes, developed by the authors and their colleagues

  2. Decision support for energy conservation promotion: an analytic hierarchy process approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kablan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    An effective energy conservation program in any country should encourage the different enterprises, utilities and individuals to employ energy efficient processes, technologies, equipment, and materials. Governments use different mechanisms or policy instruments such as pricing policy (PP), regulation and legislation (RL), training and education, fiscal and financial incentives (FFI), and R and D to promote energy conservation. Effective implementation of energy conservation policies requires prioritization of the different available policy instruments. This paper presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based modeling framework for the prioritization of energy conservation policy instruments. The use of AHP to support management in the prioritization process of policy instruments for promoting energy conservation is illustrated in this research using the case study of Jordan. The research provided a comprehensive framework for performing the prioritization in a scientific and systematic manner. The four most promising policy instruments for promoting energy conservation in Jordan are RL (37.4%), followed by FFI (22.2%), PP (18.0%), and Training, education and qualification (14.5%). One of the major advantages of the use of the AHP approach is that it breaks a large problem into smaller problems which enables the decision-maker (DM) to have a better concentration and to make more sound decisions. In addition, AHP employs a consistency test that can screen out inconsistent judgements. The presented methodology of the research might be beneficial to DMs in other countries

  3. Organizing the promotion of radiation processing at Multipurpose Irradiation Facility IRASM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.C.; Moise, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    IRASM will be the first Romanian industrial irradiation facility. International Atomic Energy Agency - Vienna supports the project financing the main equipment and a 100 kCi Co-60 demonstration source. The facility will be commissioned in March 2000. Construction and commissioning of this important nuclear objective are difficult tasks. Promotion of radiation processing in Romanian industry is even more difficult. The Project IRASM is a complex contest for IFIN-HH. The management took into consideration all aspects of the project promotion: technical, legal, R and D. The institute identified the need for an appropriate internal structure. For this reason a Radiation Processing Team (GRIT) was nominated and charged to co-ordinate the internal activity and to co-operate with the external partner. Investment Department and Quality Assurance Department strengthened. The operation team was chosen, instructed and engaged in covering the main directions of the management plans: project correlation, construction supervising, commissioning, promotion of the appropriate legal frame, public acceptance and R and D for the association of the industry to the radiation processing technologies. R and D engaged many researchers from different IFIN-HH departments. This paper presents the management of the project and details the steps already undertaken onto each particular direction. (authors)

  4. Evaluating Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia as Tools for Influenza Surveillance Using Bayesian Change Point Analysis: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, J Danielle; Hopkins, Richard S; Cook, Robert L; Striley, Catherine W

    2016-10-20

    Traditional influenza surveillance relies on influenza-like illness (ILI) syndrome that is reported by health care providers. It primarily captures individuals who seek medical care and misses those who do not. Recently, Web-based data sources have been studied for application to public health surveillance, as there is a growing number of people who search, post, and tweet about their illnesses before seeking medical care. Existing research has shown some promise of using data from Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia to complement traditional surveillance for ILI. However, past studies have evaluated these Web-based sources individually or dually without comparing all 3 of them, and it would be beneficial to know which of the Web-based sources performs best in order to be considered to complement traditional methods. The objective of this study is to comparatively analyze Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia by examining which best corresponds with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ILI data. It was hypothesized that Wikipedia will best correspond with CDC ILI data as previous research found it to be least influenced by high media coverage in comparison with Google and Twitter. Publicly available, deidentified data were collected from the CDC, Google Flu Trends, HealthTweets, and Wikipedia for the 2012-2015 influenza seasons. Bayesian change point analysis was used to detect seasonal changes, or change points, in each of the data sources. Change points in Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia that occurred during the exact week, 1 preceding week, or 1 week after the CDC's change points were compared with the CDC data as the gold standard. All analyses were conducted using the R package "bcp" version 4.0.0 in RStudio version 0.99.484 (RStudio Inc). In addition, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated for Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia. During the 2012-2015 influenza seasons, a high sensitivity of 92% was found for Google, whereas the PPV for

  5. Trait liabilities and specific promotive processes in psychopathology: The example of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Brislin, Sarah J; Venables, Noah C; Joiner, Thomas E; Patrick, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    The RDoC matrix framework calls for investigation of mental health problems through analysis of core biobehavioral processes quantified and studied across multiple domains of measurement. Critics have raised concerns about RDoC, including overemphasis on biological concepts/measures and disregard for the principle of multifinality, which holds that identical biological predispositions can give rise to differing behavioral outcomes. The current work illustrates an ontogenetic process approach to addressing these concerns, focusing on biobehavioral traits corresponding to RDoC constructs as predictors, and suicidal behavior as the outcome variable. Data were collected from a young adult sample (N=105), preselected to enhance rates of suicidality. Participants completed self-report measures of traits (threat sensitivity, response inhibition) and suicide-specific processes. We show that previously reported associations for traits of threat sensitivity and weak inhibitory control with suicidal behavior are mediated by more specific suicide-promoting processes-namely, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and capability for suicide. The sample was relatively small and the data were cross-sectional, limiting conclusions that can be drawn from the mediation analyses. Given prior research documenting neurophysiological as well as psychological bases to these trait dispositions, the current work sets the stage for an intensive RDoC-oriented investigation of suicidal tendencies in which both traits and suicide-promoting processes are quantified using indicators from different domains of measurement. More broadly, this work illustrates how an RDoC research approach can contribute to a nuanced understanding of specific clinical problems, through consideration of how general biobehavioral liabilities interface with distinct problem-promoting processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Trivia like Mobile Game with Autonomous Content That Uses Wikipedia Based Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan IANCU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile devices are everywhere and the gaming industry has an important market share on this field. This paper aims to present a new approach of game which generates autonomous its content, without human intervention, by using existing facts from the semantic version of Wikipedia, called DBpedia. At the beginning a short introduction of the studied field and of the used terms and technologies is presented. There are also remembered similar approaches and different struggles from this domain. In the middle part the architecture and the logic of the system are shown. The paper ends with some conclusions and future plans.

  7. Enhancing Indigenous Health Promotion Research Through Two-Eyed Seeing: A Hermeneutic Relational Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Richard B; Delormier, Treena; McComber, Alex M; Lévesque, Lucie; Martin, Debbie

    2017-07-01

    The intention of this article is to demonstrate how Indigenous and allied health promotion researchers learned to work together through a process of Two-Eyed Seeing. This process was first introduced as a philosophical hermeneutic research project on diabetes prevention within an Indigenous community in Quebec Canada. We, as a research team, became aware that hermeneutics and the principles of Haudenosaunee decision making were characteristic of Two-Eyed Seeing. This article describes our experiences while working with each other. Our learning from these interactions emphasized the relational aspects needed to ensure that we became a highly functional research team while working together and becoming Two-Eyed Seeing partners.

  8. Distinct Prion Domain Sequences Ensure Efficient Amyloid Propagation by Promoting Chaperone Binding or Processing In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Langlois

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prions are a group of proteins that can adopt a spectrum of metastable conformations in vivo. These alternative states change protein function and are self-replicating and transmissible, creating protein-based elements of inheritance and infectivity. Prion conformational flexibility is encoded in the amino acid composition and sequence of the protein, which dictate its ability not only to form an ordered aggregate known as amyloid but also to maintain and transmit this structure in vivo. But, while we can effectively predict amyloid propensity in vitro, the mechanism by which sequence elements promote prion propagation in vivo remains unclear. In yeast, propagation of the [PSI+] prion, the amyloid form of the Sup35 protein, has been linked to an oligopeptide repeat region of the protein. Here, we demonstrate that this region is composed of separable functional elements, the repeats themselves and a repeat proximal region, which are both required for efficient prion propagation. Changes in the numbers of these elements do not alter the physical properties of Sup35 amyloid, but their presence promotes amyloid fragmentation, and therefore maintenance, by molecular chaperones. Rather than acting redundantly, our observations suggest that these sequence elements make complementary contributions to prion propagation, with the repeat proximal region promoting chaperone binding to and the repeats promoting chaperone processing of Sup35 amyloid.

  9. Appropriate criteria set for personnel promotion across organizational levels using analytic hierarchy process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Noven Castillo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there has been limited established specific set of criteria for personnel promotion to each level of the organization. This study is conducted in order to develop a personnel promotion strategy by identifying specific sets of criteria for each level of the organization. The complexity of identifying the criteria set along with the subjectivity of these criteria require the use of multi-criteria decision-making approach particularly the analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Results show different sets of criteria for each management level which are consistent with several frameworks in literature. These criteria sets would help avoid mismatch of employee skills and competencies and their job, and at the same time eliminate the issues in personnel promotion such as favouritism, glass ceiling, and gender and physical attractiveness preference. This work also shows that personality and traits, job satisfaction and experience and skills are more critical rather than social capital across different organizational levels. The contribution of this work is in identifying relevant criteria in developing a personnel promotion strategy across organizational levels.

  10. [The intervention mapping protocol: A structured process to develop, implement and evaluate health promotion programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, J-B; Lamort-Bouché, M; Sarnin, P; Durif-Bruckert, C; Péron, J; Letrilliart, L; Durand, M-J

    2016-02-01

    Health promotion programs are expected to improve population health and reduce social inequalities in health. However, their theoretical foundations are frequently ill-defined, and their implementation faces many obstacles. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention mapping protocol in health promotion programs planning, used recently in several countries. The challenges of planning health promotion programs are presented, and the six steps of the intervention mapping protocol are described with an example. Based on a literature review, the use of this protocol, its requirements and potential limitations are discussed. The intervention mapping protocol has four essential characteristics: an ecological perspective (person-environment), a participative approach, the use of theoretical models in human and social sciences and the use of scientific evidence. It comprises six steps: conduct a health needs assessment, define change objectives, select theory-based change techniques and practical applications, organize techniques and applications into an intervention program (logic model), plan for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability, and generate an evaluation plan. This protocol was used in different countries and domains such as obesity, tobacco, physical activity, cancer and occupational health. Although its utilization requires resources and a critical stance, this protocol was used to develop interventions which efficacy was demonstrated. The intervention mapping protocol is an integrated process that fits the scientific and practical challenges of health promotion. It could be tested in France as it was used in other countries, in particular to reduce social inequalities in health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Measuring Down: Evaluating Digital Storytelling as a Process for Narrative Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline C; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Lowe, Sarah; DiFulvio, Gloria; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth

    2016-05-15

    Digital storytelling (DST) engages participants in a group-based process to create and share narrative accounts of life events. We present key evaluation findings of a 2-year, mixed-methods study that focused on effects of participating in the DST process on young Puerto Rican Latina's self-esteem, social support, empowerment, and sexual attitudes and behaviors. Quantitative results did not show significant changes in the expected outcomes. However, in our qualitative findings we identified several ways in which the DST made positive, health-bearing effects. We argue for the importance of "measuring down" to reflect the locally grounded, felt experiences of participants who engage in the process, as current quantitative scales do not "measure up" to accurately capture these effects. We end by suggesting the need to develop mixed-methods, culturally relevant, and sensitive evaluation tools that prioritize process effects as they inform intervention and health promotion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Barriers and Facilitators in the Maturity Process for Web Promotion of Italian Tourist Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in the tourism domain, the opportunities offered by the web to promote tourist destinations seem to be not yet fully exploited by destination marketing organizations. This study seeks to extend the eTourism Communication Maturity Model (eTcoMM, which is based on stage models of online communication in tourism. The model focuses on identifying processes involved in tourism web marketing activities, from awareness by tourism boards to implementation. The study aims to contribute to the definition of maturity in online promotion by Italian tourism boards, identifying and discussing factors that aid and limit the transition, from awareness to implementation of strategic web marketing.

  13. Interactions of Cultures and Top People of Wikipedia from Ranking of 24 Language Editions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Aragón, Pablo; Laniado, David; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Vigna, Sebastiano; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia is a huge global repository of human knowledge that can be leveraged to investigate interwinements between cultures. With this aim, we apply methods of Markov chains and Google matrix for the analysis of the hyperlink networks of 24 Wikipedia language editions, and rank all their articles by PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. Using automatic extraction of people names, we obtain the top 100 historical figures, for each edition and for each algorithm. We investigate their spatial, temporal, and gender distributions in dependence of their cultural origins. Our study demonstrates not only the existence of skewness with local figures, mainly recognized only in their own cultures, but also the existence of global historical figures appearing in a large number of editions. By determining the birth time and place of these persons, we perform an analysis of the evolution of such figures through 35 centuries of human history for each language, thus recovering interactions and entanglement of cultures over time. We also obtain the distributions of historical figures over world countries, highlighting geographical aspects of cross-cultural links. Considering historical figures who appear in multiple editions as interactions between cultures, we construct a network of cultures and identify the most influential cultures according to this network. PMID:25738291

  14. Interactions of cultures and top people of Wikipedia from ranking of 24 language editions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Eom

    Full Text Available Wikipedia is a huge global repository of human knowledge that can be leveraged to investigate interwinements between cultures. With this aim, we apply methods of Markov chains and Google matrix for the analysis of the hyperlink networks of 24 Wikipedia language editions, and rank all their articles by PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. Using automatic extraction of people names, we obtain the top 100 historical figures, for each edition and for each algorithm. We investigate their spatial, temporal, and gender distributions in dependence of their cultural origins. Our study demonstrates not only the existence of skewness with local figures, mainly recognized only in their own cultures, but also the existence of global historical figures appearing in a large number of editions. By determining the birth time and place of these persons, we perform an analysis of the evolution of such figures through 35 centuries of human history for each language, thus recovering interactions and entanglement of cultures over time. We also obtain the distributions of historical figures over world countries, highlighting geographical aspects of cross-cultural links. Considering historical figures who appear in multiple editions as interactions between cultures, we construct a network of cultures and identify the most influential cultures according to this network.

  15. Efficient chemical-disease identification and relationship extraction using Wikipedia to improve recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Daniel M; O'Boyle, Noel M; Sayle, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the adverse effects of chemicals is important in biomedical research and healthcare. Text mining can allow timely and low-cost extraction of this knowledge from the biomedical literature. We extended our text mining solution, LeadMine, to identify diseases and chemical-induced disease relationships (CIDs). LeadMine is a dictionary/grammar-based entity recognizer and was used to recognize and normalize both chemicals and diseases to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) IDs. The disease lexicon was obtained from three sources: MeSH, the Disease Ontology and Wikipedia. The Wikipedia dictionary was derived from pages with a disease/symptom box, or those where the page title appeared in the lexicon. Composite entities (e.g. heart and lung disease) were detected and mapped to their composite MeSH IDs. For CIDs, we developed a simple pattern-based system to find relationships within the same sentence. Our system was evaluated in the BioCreative V Chemical-Disease Relation task and achieved very good results for both disease concept ID recognition (F1-score: 86.12%) and CIDs (F1-score: 52.20%) on the test set. As our system was over an order of magnitude faster than other solutions evaluated on the task, we were able to apply the same system to the entirety of MEDLINE allowing us to extract a collection of over 250 000 distinct CIDs. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Engineering Encounters: The Cat in the Hat Builds Satellites. A Unit Promoting Scientific Literacy and the Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Abeera P.; Owens, Marissa C.

    2016-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information about a unit promoting scientific literacy and the engineering design process. The integration of engineering with scientific practices in K-12 education can promote creativity, hands-on learning, and an improvement in students'…

  17. Mass media in health promotion: an analysis using an extended information-processing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; DiTecco, D; Schlegel, R P

    1980-01-01

    The information-processing model of the attitude and behavior change process was critically examined and extended from six to 12 levels for a better analysis of change due to mass media campaigns. Findings from social psychology and communications research, and from evaluations of mass media health promotion programs, were reviewed to determine how source, message, channel, receiver, and destination variables affect each of the levels of change of major interest (knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behavior). Factors found to most likely induce permanent attitude and behavior change (most important in health promotion) were: presentation and repetition over long time periods, via multiple sources, at different times (including "prime" or high-exposure times), by multiple sources, in novel and involving ways, with appeals to multiple motives, development of social support, and provisions of appropriate behavioral skills, alternatives, and reinforcement (preferably in ways that get the active participation of the audience). Suggestions for evaluation of mass media programs that take account of this complexity were advanced.

  18. Failure of single electron descriptions of molecular orbital collision processes. [Electron promotion mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elston, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Inner-shell excitation occurring in low and moderate (keV range) energy collisions between light atomic and ionic systems is frequently describable in terms of molecular promotion mechanisms, which were extensively explored both theoretically and experimentally. The bulk of such studies have concentrated on processes understandable through the use of single- and independent-electron models. Nonetheless, it is possible to find cases of inner-shell excitation in relatively simple collision systems which involve nearly simultaneous multiple-electron transitions and transitions induced by inherently two-electron interactions. Evidence for these many- and nonindependent-electron phenomena in inner-shell excitation processes and the importance of considering such effects in the interpretation of collisionally induced excitation spectra is discussed. 13 references.

  19. Why it is important to promote communication in the decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.

    2001-01-01

    Opportunity, nightmare, integrity and public confidence are all well-known words for us working in the nuclear area. Dealing with the outside world involves all those elements. However, having an active communication component in the decision making process can reduce the risk of getting into a nightmare situation and at the same time it contributes to gaining public confidence. The nuclear regulatory authority needs confidence to achieve effectiveness. Investing in trust is, therefore, necessary but requires a well-defined strategy and working methods. Moreover, it requires patience, and a culture of openness and relaxed attitude towards media. Finally, my experience tells me that it requires training of staff and motivators that constantly remind us of the importance of promoting communication in the decision-making process. In this paper I am presenting some insights into how SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) works when preparing decision and why we are doing it. (author)

  20. Wikipedia come attività di empowerment personale e sociale di studenti e insegnanti nel progetto “Veneto in Wikipedia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Petrucco

    2016-11-01

    apprendimento; per gli insegnanti si registra una notevole fiducia in Wikipedia che cresce dopo l’esperienza fatta e contribuisce a considerarla strumento efficace nella didattica, motivante e di empowerment personale e sociale.

  1. Positive emotions: A psychological tool for promoting resilience process in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this theoretical work is to assess the relation between the capacity to experiment positive emotions and the process of resilience throughout childhood. Our interest arises from two research works being carried out in the province of Mendoza, in Argentina (INCIHUSA-CRICYT-CONICET, directed by Dr Mirta Ison. One the so called “Assessment of resilience in childhood maltreatment”, and the other “ Positive emotions as psycological tools for fostering mental health throughout childhood within vulnerable social contexts”. Resilience is always associated to risky or vulnerable social situations. Positive emotions constitute a resource favorable to the development of resilience. This working hypothesis is based on previous studies which hold that positive emotions favor creative thinking for the solution of interpersonal problems, promote cognitive flexibility, reduce risks at decision making, promote replies to generosity and altruism, increase intelectual resources and counteract depressive tendencies among others. Other authors support the fact that the features a resilient child holds are closely connected to cognitive flexibility, to creative capacity, to the capacity for solving interpersonal problems, to self esteem and attachment links among others. Thus, positive emotions are believed to be one of the psycological resources and tools needed for the development of resilience throughout childhood. 

  2. Poisson statistics of PageRank probabilities of Twitter and Wikipedia networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2014-04-01

    We use the methods of quantum chaos and Random Matrix Theory for analysis of statistical fluctuations of PageRank probabilities in directed networks. In this approach the effective energy levels are given by a logarithm of PageRank probability at a given node. After the standard energy level unfolding procedure we establish that the nearest spacing distribution of PageRank probabilities is described by the Poisson law typical for integrable quantum systems. Our studies are done for the Twitter network and three networks of Wikipedia editions in English, French and German. We argue that due to absence of level repulsion the PageRank order of nearby nodes can be easily interchanged. The obtained Poisson law implies that the nearby PageRank probabilities fluctuate as random independent variables.

  3. The Impact of Culture On Smart Community Technology: The Case of 13 Wikipedia Instances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinayida Petrushyna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart communities provide technologies for monitoring social behaviors inside communities. The technologies that support knowledge building should consider the cultural background of community members. The studies of the influence of the culture on knowledge building is limited. Just a few works consider digital traces of individuals that they explain using cultural values and beliefs. In this work, we analyze 13 Wikipedia instances where users with different cultural background build knowledge in different ways. We compare edits of users. Using social network analysis we build and analyze co- authorship networks and watch the networks evolution. We explain the differences we have found using Hofstede dimensions and Schwartz cultural values and discuss implications for the design of smart community technologies. Our findings provide insights in requirements for technologies used for smart communities in different cultures.

  4. How structure shapes dynamics: knowledge development in Wikipedia--a network multilevel modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iassen Halatchliyski

    Full Text Available Using a longitudinal network analysis approach, we investigate the structural development of the knowledge base of Wikipedia in order to explain the appearance of new knowledge. The data consists of the articles in two adjacent knowledge domains: psychology and education. We analyze the development of networks of knowledge consisting of interlinked articles at seven snapshots from 2006 to 2012 with an interval of one year between them. Longitudinal data on the topological position of each article in the networks is used to model the appearance of new knowledge over time. Thus, the structural dimension of knowledge is related to its dynamics. Using multilevel modeling as well as eigenvector and betweenness measures, we explain the significance of pivotal articles that are either central within one of the knowledge domains or boundary-crossing between the two domains at a given point in time for the future development of new knowledge in the knowledge base.

  5. Supporting decision-making processes for evidence-based mental health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané-Llopis, Eva; Katschnig, Heinz; McDaid, David; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2011-12-01

    The use of evidence is critical in guiding decision-making, but evidence from effect studies will be only one of a number of factors that will need to be taken into account in the decision-making processes. Equally important for policymakers will be the use of different types of evidence including implementation essentials and other decision-making principles such as social justice, political, ethical, equity issues, reflecting public attitudes and the level of resources available, rather than be based on health outcomes alone. This paper, aimed to support decision-makers, highlights the importance of commissioning high-quality evaluations, the key aspects to assess levels of evidence, the importance of supporting evidence-based implementation and what to look out for before, during and after implementation of mental health promotion and mental disorder prevention programmes.

  6. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  7. Feminist Organizing in Rural Nicaragua: Assessing a Psychosocial Process to Promote Empowered Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anjali

    2018-04-19

    This study examines a psychosocial process linking women's involvement in a grassroots women's organization with skills and experiences to promote empowered solidarity. Empowered solidarity is described as a process of increasing the sense of connection and capacity to create social transformation among a group of people united by interest in addressing a social issue. Data collected and analyzed for this research were 298 quantitative surveys conducted with two groups of women living in rural Nicaragua. One group of women were members of a grassroots feminist organization, and the other group lived in nearby communities where the organization did not offer programs. Findings document higher levels of leadership skills and sense of community, and lower levels of powerlessness among members of the organization. Additionally, tests of a process model using structural equation modeling provides support for a model that links involvement in the organization to women's increased interest in, capacity and experience in working to support women, broadly. Overall findings from this research are valuable to both community psychologists and groups seeking to enhance social justice and uphold feminist values of equity and community well-being. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  8. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Learning how scientists work: experiential research projects to promote cell biology learning and scientific process skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DebBurman, Shubhik K

    2002-01-01

    Facilitating not only the mastery of sophisticated subject matter, but also the development of process skills is an ongoing challenge in teaching any introductory undergraduate course. To accomplish this goal in a sophomore-level introductory cell biology course, I require students to work in groups and complete several mock experiential research projects that imitate the professional activities of the scientific community. I designed these projects as a way to promote process skill development within content-rich pedagogy and to connect text-based and laboratory-based learning with the world of contemporary research. First, students become familiar with one primary article from a leading peer-reviewed journal, which they discuss by means of PowerPoint-based journal clubs and journalism reports highlighting public relevance. Second, relying mostly on primary articles, they investigate the molecular basis of a disease, compose reviews for an in-house journal, and present seminars in a public symposium. Last, students author primary articles detailing investigative experiments conducted in the lab. This curriculum has been successful in both quarter-based and semester-based institutions. Student attitudes toward their learning were assessed quantitatively with course surveys. Students consistently reported that these projects significantly lowered barriers to primary literature, improved research-associated skills, strengthened traditional pedagogy, and helped accomplish course objectives. Such approaches are widely suited for instructors seeking to integrate process with content in their courses.

  10. Becoming a health promoting school: evaluating the process of effective implementation in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchley, Jo; Muldoon, Janine; Currie, Candace

    2007-03-01

    Increasingly, researchers are exploring alternative ways of assessing the impact of 'Health Promoting School' (HPS) initiatives, in recognition of the model's emphasis on achieving change that is both enduring and far-reaching. However, it is still assumed that initiatives will lead to immediate change at the individual level. This paper challenges that view and argues that potential markers of success associated with process need to be identified earlier as a means of supporting schools and teachers. Notwithstanding differences in the way the HPS is conceptualized and implemented, four themes are highlighted that have relevance beyond any one school or country. These were drawn from a process evaluation of a European Network of HPSs Project in Scotland. They highlight the ways in which schools were able to successfully adopt HPS principles and the conditions that need to be in place for the HPS concept to flourish. Such indicators need to be given greater recognition as HPS outcomes if schools are to progress beyond the early stages of project implementation.

  11. Use of the innovation-decision process teaching strategy to promote evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Nola A; Brown, Janet M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the innovation-decision process teaching strategy (I-DPTS) based on the model of diffusion of innovations [Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press]. A goal of baccalaureate nursing education is to develop competencies required for evidence-based practice. Such practice merges clinician expertise, patient preferences, and critical evaluation of the literature to improve patient outcomes and reduce health care costs [Melnyk, B. M. (2005). A primer on evidence-based practice. Paper presented at the Purdue School of Nursing Seventh Annual Helen R. Johnson Leadership Conference, West Lafayette, IN]. Several strategies to promote evidence-based practice have appeared in the literature. However, when they are examined in light of the innovation-decision process (Rogers, 2003), they do not address all the essential steps for adoption to occur. The I-DPTS allows students to achieve competencies necessary to overcome barriers associated with implementing best practices. This strategy was successfully implemented in a senior-level introductory nursing research class. Community representatives identified practice issues that could be addressed by student groups. After conducting a search of the literature, students analyzed the evidence, determined best practice based on the evidence, and developed a policy for implementation in clinical settings. At course end, representatives were invited to attend oral and poster presentations. Use of the I-DPTS better prepares students to implement best practice as they embark on their professional careers.

  12. BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: Quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3415 (2013) ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BitCoin * Google Trends * Wikipedia * time series analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.078, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-0420810.pdf

  13. Using Normalisation Process Theory to investigate the implementation of school-based oral health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajide, O J; Shucksmith, J; Maguire, A; Zohoori, F V

    2017-09-01

    Despite the considerable improvement in oral health of children in the UK over the last forty years, a significant burden of dental caries remains prevalent in some groups of children, indicating the need for more effective oral health promotion intervention (OHPI) strategies in this population. To explore the implementation process of a community-based OHPI, in the North East of England, using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) to provide insights on how effectiveness could be maximised. Utilising a generic qualitative research approach, 19 participants were recruited into the study. In-depth interviews were conducted with relevant National Health Service (NHS) staff and primary school teachers while focus group discussions were conducted with reception teachers and teaching assistants. Analyses were conducted using thematic analysis with emergent themes mapped onto NPT constructs. Participants highlighted the benefits of OHPI and the need for evidence in practice. However, implementation of 'best evidence' was hampered by lack of adequate synthesis of evidence from available clinical studies on effectiveness of OHPI as these generally have insufficient information on the dynamics of implementation and how effectiveness obtained in clinical studies could be achieved in 'real life'. This impacted on the decision-making process, levels of commitment, collaboration among OHP teams, resource allocation and evaluation of OHPI. A large gap exists between available research evidence and translation of evidence in OHPI in community settings. Effectiveness of OHPI requires not only an awareness of evidence of clinical effectiveness but also synthesised information about change mechanisms and implementation protocols. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  14. Cognitive and Social Factors Affecting the Use of Wikipedia and Information Seeking / Les facteurs cognitifs et sociaux déterminant l'utilisation de Wikipedia et la recherche d'information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyoung Chung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia, is the preferred choice among resources used by college students to meet their research needs. However, Wikipedia has been criticized for its low information quality, lack of accountability, inconsistency, and vulnerability to vandalism. Despite the warnings and concerns voiced by academia, online learning tools such as Wikipedia will continue their rise as major learning resource in today's classroom. Using a sample of 184 college students, the study proposed theoretical models to test the effects of internal beliefs, motivations, and social influences on Wikipedia use and information-seeking, and further empirically tested those models. The findings of this study suggested that Wikipedia use is driven by internal belief and peer pressure, whereas information-seeking is influenced by belief, motivation, and subjective norms. The implications of the findings for the research and practice are discussed. Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie gratuite en ligne, est le choix préféré des étudiants ayant besoin de faire une recherche. Cependant, Wikipédia a été critiqué pour la faible qualité de ses informations, son manque d’imputabilité, son incohérence et sa vulnérabilité au vandalisme. En dépit des mises en garde et des inquiétudes exprimées par le milieu universitaire, l’importance en salle de classe des outils d'apprentissage en ligne tels que Wikipédia continuera de croître. Sur la base d’un échantillon de 184 étudiants de niveau collégial, l'étude a proposé des modèles théoriques pour tester les effets des croyances personnelles, des motivations et des influences sociales sur l'utilisation de Wikipédia et sur la recherche d'information. Ces modèles ont ensuite été testés empiriquement. Les résultats de cette étude suggèrent que l'utilisation de Wikipédia est motivée par les croyances personnelles et la pression exercée par les camarades, alors que la recherche d

  15. Heterogeneous nucleation promotes carrier transport in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ruipeng

    2012-09-04

    A new way to investigate and control the growth of solution-cast thin films is presented. The combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements with dissipation capabilities (QCM-D) and in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) in an environmental chamber provides unique quantitative insights into the time-evolution of the concentration of the solution, the onset of nucleation, and the mode of growth of the organic semiconductor under varied drying conditions. It is demonstrated that careful control over the kinetics of solution drying enhances carrier transport significantly by promoting phase transformation predominantly via heterogeneous nucleation and sustained surface growth of a highly lamellar structure at the solid-liquid interface at the expense of homogeneous nucleation. A new way to investigate and control the growth of drop-cast thin films is presented. The solution-processing of small-molecule thin films of TIPS-pentacene is investigated using time-resolved techniques to reveal the mechanisms of nucleation and growth leading to solid film formation. By tuning the drying speed of the solution, the balance between surface and bulk growth modes is altered, thereby controlling the lamellar formation and tuning the carrier mobility in organic field-effect transistors Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Adenoviral protein V promotes a process of viral assembly through nucleophosmin 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugai, Hideyo; Dobbins, George C.; Wang, Minghui [Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pathology, and Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Le, Long P. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Pathology Service, 55 Fruit St.-GRJ 249, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Matthews, David A. [School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Medical Sciences Building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD (United Kingdom); Curiel, David T., E-mail: dcuriel@radonc.wustl.edu [Division of Human Gene Therapy, Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pathology, and Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); The Gene Therapy Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2012-10-25

    Adenoviral infection induces nucleoplasmic redistribution of a nucleolar nucleophosmin 1/NPM1/B23.1. NPM1 is preferentially localized in the nucleoli of normal cells, whereas it is also present at the nuclear matrix in cancer cells. However, the biological roles of NPM1 during infection are unknown. Here, by analyzing a pV-deletion mutant, Ad5-dV/TSB, we demonstrate that pV promotes the NPM1 translocation from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm in normal cells, and the NPM1 translocation is correlated with adenoviral replication. Lack of pV causes a dramatic reduction of adenoviral replication in normal cells, but not cancer cells, and Ad5-dV/TSB was defective in viral assembly in normal cells. NPM1 knockdown inhibits adenoviral replication, suggesting an involvement of NPM1 in adenoviral biology. Further, we show that NPM1 interacts with empty adenovirus particles which are an intermediate during virion maturation by immunoelectron microscopy. Collectively, these data implicate that pV participates in a process of viral assembly through NPM1.

  17. The food processing contaminant glyoxal promotes tumour growth in the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Camilla; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Alexander, Jan; Murkovic, Michael; Husøy, Trine

    2016-08-01

    Glyoxal is formed endogenously and at a higher rate in the case of hyperglycemia. Glyoxal is also a food processing contaminant and has been shown to be mutagenic and genotoxic in vitro. The tumourigenic potential of glyoxal was investigated using the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse model, which spontaneously develops intestinal tumours and is susceptible to intestinal carcinogens. C57BL/6J females were mated with Min males. Four days after mating and throughout gestation and lactation, the pregnant dams were exposed to glyoxal through drinking water (0.0125%, 0.025%, 0.05%, 0.1%) or regular tap water. Female and male offspring were housed separately from PND21 and continued with the same treatment. One group were only exposed to 0.1% glyoxal from postnatal day (PND) 21. There was no difference in the number of intestinal tumours between control and treatment groups. However, exposure to 0.1% glyoxal starting in utero and at PND21 caused a significant increase in tumour size in the small intestine for male and female mice in comparison with respective control groups. This study suggests that glyoxal has tumour growth promoting properties in the small intestine in Min mice. Copyright © 2016 Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning process on emotional intelligence among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Yimklib, Somkid; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Apinanthavech, Suporn

    2009-12-01

    To study the effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning program on emotional intelligence among early adolescents. The quasi-experimental study was conducted in grade 9 students from two schools in Bangbuathong district, Nonthaburi province. Each experimental and comparative group consisted of 34 students with the lowest score of emotional intelligence. The instruments were questionnaires, Program to Develop Emotional Intelligence and Handbook of Emotional Intelligence Development. The experimental group attended 8 participatory learning activities in 4 weeks to Develop Emotional Intelligence while the comparative group received the handbook for self study. Assessment the effectiveness of program was done by pre-test and post-test immediately and 4 weeks apart concerning the emotional intelligence. Implementation and evaluation was done during May 24-August 12, 2005. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square, independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Before program implementation, both groups had no statistical difference in mean score of emotional intelligence. After intervention, the experimental group had higher mean score of emotional intelligence both immediately and 4 weeks later with statistical significant (p = 0.001 and self-esteem by participatory learning process could enhance the emotional intelligence in early-adolescent. This program could be modified and implemented for early adolescent in the community.

  19. Health promotion viewed as processes of subjectification in the education of Danish Social and Healthcare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    2011-01-01

    problems of both a social and moral character. It is shown how health promotion has a thorough impact on the students' possibilities of coming into being as ( professional) subjects. The article points to the conclusion that in this particular educational setting, health promotion constitutes...

  20. Evaluation of gastroenterology and hepatology articles on Wikipedia: are they suitable as learning resources for medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2014-02-01

    With the changes introduced to medical curricula, medical students use learning resources on the Internet such as Wikipedia. However, the credibility of the medical content of Wikipedia has been questioned and there is no evidence to respond to these concerns. The aim of this paper was to critically evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the gastroenterology and hepatology information that medical students retrieve from Wikipedia. The Wikipedia website was searched for articles on gastroenterology and hepatology on 28 May 2013. Copies of these articles were evaluated by three assessors independently using an appraisal form modified from the DISCERN instrument. The articles were scored for accuracy of content, readability, frequency of updating, and quality of references. A total of 39 articles were evaluated. Although the articles appeared to be well cited and reviewed regularly, several problems were identified with regard to depth of discussion of mechanisms and pathogenesis of diseases, as well as poor elaboration on different investigations. Analysis of the content showed a score ranging from 15.6±0.6 to 43.6±3.2 (mean±SD). The total number of references in all articles was 1233, and the number of references varied from 4 to 144 (mean±SD, 31.6±27.3). The number of citations from peer-reviewed journals published in the last 5 years was 242 (28%); however, several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made. The readability of articles was in the range of -8.0±55.7 to 44.4±1.4; for all articles the readability was 26±9.0 (mean±SD). The concordance between the assessors on applying the criteria had mean κ scores in the range of 0.61 to 0.79. Wikipedia is not a reliable source of information for medical students searching for gastroenterology and hepatology articles. Several limitations, deficiencies, and scientific errors have been identified in the articles examined.

  1. Wikipedia and the National Cancer Institute Website Appear to Offer Similar Osteosarcoma Information for Patients. A Review of: Leithner, A., Werner, M., Glehr, M., Friesenbichler, J., Keithner, K., & Windhager R. (2010. Wikipedia and osteosarcoma: A trustworthy patients' information? Journal of the Medical Informatics Association, 17(4, 373-374.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Kelly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To compare the completeness and accuracy of information about osteosarcoma in Wikipedia to information found on the patient and health professional versions of the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI website.Design – Comparative study, test against 20 item questionnaire and expert opinion.Setting – n/aSubjects – n/aMethods – The authors developed a 20-item questionnaire to test the completeness and accuracy of information on osteosarcoma in Wikipedia and on the "patient version and the health professional version of the National Cancer Institute's website as 'official' reference websites" (p. 373. Three independent observers, two surgeons specializing in musculoskeletal tumour surgery and a medical student, tested the English language version of Wikipedia and the NCI “websites” on April 3, 2009. Answers to the 20 questions found on the websites were scored from zero to three and were discussed with a member of the "German board for guidelines in musculoskeletal surgery" (p. 373 and verified against international guidelines published by the World Health Organization. Data was analyzed using SPSS and group comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney U test with p-values of less than 0.05 significance. Main Results – The quality of information about osteosarcoma found in the English language version of Wikipedia was good but inferior to the patient information from NCI. Out of a total of 60 points Wikipedia scored 33, NCI patient information 40 and NCI professional information 50. There was no significant difference between the NCI patient information and Wikipedia but a significant difference (p=0.039 between Wikipedia and NCI professional information.Conclusion – Non-peer reviewed websites providing health information, such as Wikipedia, should include links to sites such as NCI and other more definitive sources such as professional and international organizations. Frequent checks should be used to ensure external

  2. 75 FR 13238 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... further modifications to its proposal. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kimberly Coy, Marketing Specialist... Part 1208 Administrative practice and procedure, Advertising, Consumer information, Marketing...

  3. Implementation Process and Acceptance of a Setting Based Prevention Programme to Promote Healthy Lifestyle in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauss, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ("TigerKids") to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were…

  4. Oral Health Promotion and Homelessness: A Theory-Based Approach to Understanding Processes of Implementation and Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Laura; Freeman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use the Theory of Diffusion of Innovations as a framework to explore the qualitative data gleaned from a process evaluation of the Smile4life intervention across Scottish National Health Service (NHS) Boards and to inform future oral health promotion and homelessness. Design: A qualitative exploration. Setting: In 2012, the…

  5. Analysis of world terror networks from the reduced Google matrix of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zant, Samer; Frahm, Klaus M.; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2018-01-01

    We apply the reduced Google matrix method to analyze interactions between 95 terrorist groups and determine their relationships and influence on 64 world countries. This is done on the basis of the Google matrix of the English Wikipedia (2017) composed of 5 416 537 articles which accumulate a great part of global human knowledge. The reduced Google matrix takes into account the direct and hidden links between a selection of 159 nodes (articles) appearing due to all paths of a random surfer moving over the whole network. As a result we obtain the network structure of terrorist groups and their relations with selected countries including hidden indirect links. Using the sensitivity of PageRank to a weight variation of specific links we determine the geopolitical sensitivity and influence of specific terrorist groups on world countries. The world maps of the sensitivity of various countries to influence of specific terrorist groups are obtained. We argue that this approach can find useful application for more extensive and detailed data bases analysis.

  6. Nano-copper-bearing stainless steel promotes fracture healing by accelerating the callus evolution process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2017-11-01

    superior for 317L-Cu SS. Histological staining displayed large amounts of fibrous tissues at 3 weeks, and cartilage and new bone at 6 weeks. Further, histomorphometric analysis indicated that the callus possessed higher osteogenic efficiency at 6 weeks, and a high Cu2+ content and increased Runx2 expression were observed in the callus for 317L-Cu SS. Besides, the mechanical strength of the fracture site was much better than that of the control group. Overall, we conclude that 317L-Cu SS possesses the ability to increase Cu2+ content and promote osteogenesis in the callus, which could accelerate the callus evolution process and bone formation to provide faster and better fracture healing. Keywords: nano-sized copper, lysyl oxidase, osteogenesis, fracture healing, callus evolution 

  7. The presence and accuracy of food and nutrition terms in the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia: in comparison with the Mini Larousse encyclopaedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Hernández, Laura María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Curbelo Castro, Celeste; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2014-10-02

    To determine the presence and appropriateness of the terminology concerning Food/Nutrition Science in the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia and to compare them with that of an encyclopaedia for general use (Mini Larousse). Méthods: The terms in the study were taken from the LID dictionary on metabolism and nutrition: The existence and appropriateness of the selected terms were checked through random sample estimate with no replacement (n=386), using the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia. The existence of 261 terms in the Spanish edition and 306 in the English edition was determined from the study sample (n=386). Several differences were found between the two editions (p<0,001). There were differences between the two editions in relation to the appropriateness of definitions, though these were not studied in any depth (p<0,001). During the study of the 261 terms in the Spanish version of Wikipedia,3 entries (1,15%, IC95%: 0,00-2.44) were found to be lacking in appropriate information; 2 of the 306 entries in the English edition failed to give appropriate information (0,52%, IC95%: 0,00-1,23). A comparison between the existing entries of the Mini Larousse Encyclopaedia and the Spanish edition of Wikipedia, showed Wikipedia (p<0,001) as having a larger number of entries. The terminology under study is present to a lesser extent in the Spanish edition of Wikipedia than in the English edition. The appropriateness of content was greater in the English edition. Both the Spanish and English editions have a greater number of entries and more exact ones than the Mini Larousse. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Process Evaluation of a Workplace Health Promotion Intervention Aimed at Improving Work Engagement and Energy Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  9. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  10. Sexual health promotion on social networking sites: a process evaluation of The FaceSpace Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong; Gold, Judy; Pedrana, Alisa; Chang, Shanton; Howard, Steve; Ilic, Olivia; Hellard, Margaret; Stoove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This article reports findings from an evaluation of reach and engagement of The FaceSpace Project, a novel sexual health promotion project delivered through social networking sites that targeted young people aged 16-29 years. Multiple methods were used to evaluate project reach and engagement. The evaluation focussed on quantitative data (online usage statistics, online surveys), complemented by available qualitative data (project team meeting notes). The project reached 900 fans who were mostly between 18 and 34 years of age. The most successful ways of increasing audience reach were via Facebook advertisements and tagging photos of young people attending a music festival on the project Facebook page. Peaks in Facebook page interactions (comments and "likes") coincided with recruitment peaks and when videos were posted. However, video views varied greatly between postings. Feedback from the project team for increasing engagement in future social networking site interventions included having one centralized Facebook page and using episodic videos. This evaluation is among the first to assess the use of social networking sites for sexual health promotion and provides information to inform the implementation and evaluation of future projects using new media. Social networking sites offer great potential to reach and engage young people for sexual health promotion. However, further work is required to improve implementation and promote audience reach and engagement as well as to determine effectiveness of social networking sites in changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 27220 - EPA Activities To Promote Environmental Justice in the Permit Application Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... investors in the applicant's company, to lead to creative solutions that promote the achievement of mutual... Prohibition Against National Origin Discrimination Affecting Limited English Proficient Persons (69 FR 35602... outreach leads to a feasible solution to an issue of interest to a community, all stakeholders benefit...

  12. Professional development programs in health promotion: tools and processes to favor new practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sara; Richard, Lucie; Guichard, Anne; Chiocchio, François; Litvak, Eric; Beaudet, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Developing innovative interventions that are in sync with a health promotion paradigm often represents a challenge for professionals working in local public health organizations. Thus, it is critical to have both professional development programs that favor new practices and tools to examine these practices. In this case study, we analyze the health promotion approach used in a pilot intervention addressing children's vulnerability that was developed and carried out by participants enrolled in a public health professional development program. More specifically, we use a modified version of Guichard and Ridde's (Une grille d'analyse des actions pour lutter contre les inégalités sociales de santé. In Potvin, L., Moquet, M.-J. and Jones, C. M. (eds), Réduire les Inégalités Sociales en Santé. INPES, Saint-Denis Cedex, pp. 297-312, 2010) analytical grid to assess deductively the program participants' use of health promotion practices in the analysis and planning, implementation, evaluation, sustainability and empowerment phases of the pilot intervention. We also seek evidence of practices involving (empowerment, participation, equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability) in the intervention. The results are mixed: our findings reveal evidence of the application of several dimensions of health promotion (equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability), but also a lack of integration of two key dimensions; that is, empowerment and participation, during various phases of the pilot intervention. These results show that the professional development program is associated with the adoption of a pilot intervention integrating multiple but not all dimensions of health promotion. We make recommendations to facilitate a more complete integration. This research also shows that the Guichard and Ridde grid proves to be a thorough instrument to document the practices of participants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  13. Roadmap Towards Registration and Technology Transfer of Radiation Processed Plant Growth Promoters/Elicitors: The Philippine Experience. Chapter 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, L. V.; Aranilla, C. T. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Magsino, G. L. [National Crop Protection Center, UP Los Baños College, Laguna (Philippines); Asis, C. A. [Philippine Rice Research Institute, Science City of Muñoz, Nueva Ecija (Philippines)

    2014-07-15

    Pot experiments to test the effectivity of radiation-processed oligocarrageenans as a plant growth promoter/elicitor have been done on rice, soybean, tomatoes, and corn. Though many data from IAEA RCA and CRP participating countries have proven the efficacy of radiation modified oligomers as bio-stimulants and elicitor, certain R & D gaps need to be addressed in order that these products can reach the commercialization stage. A more integrated and systematic study of each crop with the following components need to be conducted: a) timing of application (plant growth stages such as seedling, active, vegetative, and reproductive stages); b) dosage (concentration of oligomers and volume of spray); c) effect in different seasons of the year (dry or wet); d) efficacy in photosynthetic activities (greening of leaves); and e) induction of resistance to pests and diseases (sturdiness, color of leaves, plant height, enzyme systems etc.). Some R & D work on the effect of radiation processed oligocarrageenans as plant growth promoter/elicitor are discussed. It also discusses R & D gaps that need to be addressed to make these oligomers reach the market. The Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority of the Philippines categorizes plant growth promoters and elicitors as fertilizers, requiring very stringent regulations for its registration. The paper proposes a roadmap towards the commercialization of plant growth promoter/elicitors. (author)

  14. Solubility and viscosity for CO_2 capture process using MEA promoted DEAE aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Dong; Wang, LeMeng; Zhang, Pan; Mi, ChenLu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of CO_2 in MEA promoted DEAE aqueous solution was measured. • Mass fraction and temperature dependences of solubility were illustrated. • Viscosities of carbonated MEA–DEAE solutions were measured and calculated. • Temperature, mass fraction and CO_2 loading dependences of viscosity were illustrated. - Abstract: The saturated solubility of CO_2 in monoethanolamine (MEA) promoted 2-diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) aqueous solution was investigated at temperatures ranging from (303.2 to 323.2) K. The mass fraction and temperature dependences of the saturated solubility and CO_2 loading are illustrated. The viscosities of both CO_2-unloaded and CO_2-loaded DEAE–MEA aqueous solutions were measured and then calculated by using the Weiland equation. The effects of temperature, mass fraction and CO_2 loading on viscosities are demonstrated.

  15. Choice architectural nudge interventions to promote vegetable consumption based on automatic processes decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Friis Rasmussen, Rasmus; Møller Andersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    that had a default portion size of vegetable had he intended impact of increasing vegetable consumption. This emphasises the importance of portion sizes in out of home eating as well as underlines the effect of the one-unit bias. The remaining two nudges were not successful in increasing vegetable intake......, but promoted health by decreasing total energy intake which suggests that visual variety of fruit and greens prompts a healthy-eater subconscious behaviour....

  16. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a zinc or titanium promoted palladium-zirconium catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly [Orlando, FL; Rossin, Joseph A [Columbus, OH; Knapke, Michael J [Columbus, OH

    2011-08-02

    A process and system (18) for reducing NO.sub.x in a gas using hydrogen as a reducing agent is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream (29) with a catalyst system (38) comprising sulfated zirconia washcoat particles (41), palladium, a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a promoter (45) comprising at least one of titanium, zinc, or a mixture thereof. The presence of zinc or titanium increases the resistance of the catalyst system to a sulfur and water-containing gas stream.

  17. Promoting cross-sector partnerships in child welfare: qualitative results from a five-state strategic planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Armstrong, Mary I; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effective strategic planning for public and private child welfare agencies working together to serve families. During a professionally facilitated, strategic planning event, public and private child welfare administrators from five states explored partnership challenges and strengths with a goal of improving collaborative interactions in order to improve outcomes for children and families. Summarizing thematic results of session notes from the planning event, this article describes effective strategies for facilitation of such processes as well as factors that challenge or promote group processes. Implications for conducting strategic planning in jurisdictions seeking to improve public/private partnerships are discussed.

  18. An overview of health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and the effect of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Reyes, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    Broccoli offers many heath-promoting properties owing to its content of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic compounds. The concentration and bioavailability of polyphenols, glucosinolates, sulforaphane and selenium depend on plant biochemistry, cultivation strategy and type of processing. In this article, the main biochemical properties of broccoli are reviewed regarding their health-promoting effects. Additionally, the way these properties are affected by processing is discussed. Steaming and drying result in an apparent increment of sulforaphane content as well as antioxidant activity, most likely due to an increase of the extractability of antioxidants and sulforaphane. Freezing and boiling diminish polyphenols concentration, mainly due to volatilization and leaching into the cooking water. In view of these results, the optimization of broccoli processing in order to maximize the content of bioactive compounds should be possible. The effect of processing on selenium compounds has been poorly studied so far, and therefore this topic should be investigated in the future. Finally, the effect of operating conditions in different drying processes on the content of bioactive compounds in broccoli should be investigated in a greater depth.

  19. Impact of schoolchildren's involvement in the design process on the effectiveness of healthy food promotion materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Christopher R; Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A

    2017-06-01

    Marketing techniques may improve children's vegetable consumption. However, student participation in the design of marketing materials may increase the material's salience, while also improving children's commitment and attitudes towards healthy eating. The impact of student-led design of vegetable promotional materials on choice and consumption was investigated using 1614 observations of students' vegetable choice and plate waste in four public elementary schools in Kearney, Nebraska. Data were collected on children's vegetable choice and consumption in four comparison groups: 1) control; 2) students designed materials only; 3) students were exposed to promotional materials only; and 4) students designed materials that were then posted in the lunchroom. Vegetable choice and consumption data were collected through a validated digital photography-based plate-waste method. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate average treatment effects of the conditions at various time periods. Dependent variables were vegetable choice and consumption, and independent variables included the condition, time period, and interaction terms, as well as controls for gender and grade. Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption ( p  < 0.001) when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2-3 months later ( p  < 0.05). Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected ( p  < 0.05), but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption ( p  < 0.01). Involving elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.

  20. The Impact of Harvesting, Storage and Processing Factors on Health-Promoting Phytochemicals in Berries and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kårlund

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing epidemiological and experimental data now emphasize that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits confers many health benefits. Functional products containing elevated levels of bioactive compounds are attracting considerable attention due to their potential to lower the risk of chronic diseases and their associated huge healthcare costs. On a global scale, there is an increasing demand for berries and fruits, since they are natural polyphenol-rich raw material to be incorporated into functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This is a major challenge for both industry and horticultural experts, because the content of health-promoting compounds in plants varies widely not only in different plant species, but also between cultivars. The content is also significantly affected by harvesting, storage and processing factors. This review summarizes the recent data and clarifies the main contributors of harvesting time, various storage conditions and post-harvest procedures, such as temperature management, controlled atmosphere, 1-MCP, calcium and plant activators, as ways to influence health-promoting compounds in fruits. Furthermore, the ways processing factors, e.g., enzymatic treatment, pressing, clarification, temperature, pressure and fermentation, can influence the levels of polyphenols and vitamins in berries and soft fruits will be discussed. Finally, strategies for preventing the decline of health-promoting compounds in fruits during long-term storage will be assessed in light of recent scientific progress and modern methods, which preserve the levels of polyphenols, will be highlighted.

  1. Interrogating History: Promoting Student Activism Using Children's Literature and the Full Circling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Trisha Wies

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are often disengaged in the learning process, being more focused on social media and self-interest than classroom content. Full circling is a process that can be used to help students collaboratively engage in learning and actively reflect on historical events--especially those that are under reported in history books. In the present…

  2. Feasibility of an implementation strategy for the integration of health promotion in routine primary care: a quantitative process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Grandes, Gonzalo; Cortada, Josep M; Pombo, Haizea; Martinez, Catalina; Corrales, Mary Helen; de la Peña, Enrique; Mugica, Justo; Gorostiza, Esther

    2017-02-17

    Process evaluation is recommended to improve the understanding of underlying mechanisms related to clinicians, patients, context and intervention delivery that may impact on trial or program results, feasibility and transferability to practice. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Prescribe Healthy Life (PVS from the Spanish "Prescribe Vida Saludable") implementation strategy for enhancing the adoption and implementation of an evidence-based health promotion intervention in primary health care. A descriptive study of 2-year implementation indicators for the PVS clinical intervention was conducted in four primary health care centers. A multifaceted collaborative modeling implementation strategy was developed to enhance the integration of a clinical intervention to promote healthy lifestyles into clinical practice. Process indicators were assessed for intervention reach, adoption, implementation, sustainability and their variability at center, practice, and patient levels. Mean rates of adoption by means of active collaboration among the three main professional categories (family physicians, nurses and administrative personnel) were 75% in all centers. Just over half of the patients that attended (n = 11650; 51.9%) were reached in terms of having their lifestyle habits assessed, while more than a third (33.7%; n = 7433) and almost 10% (n = 2175) received advice or a printed prescription for at least one lifestyle change, respectively. Only 3.7% of the target population received a repeat prescription. These process indicators significantly (p implementation period within centers. The implementation strategy used showed moderate-to-good performance on process indicators related to adoption, reach, and implementation of the evidence-based healthy lifestyle promotion intervention in the context of routine primary care. Sources of heterogeneity and instability in these indicators may improve our understanding of factors required to

  3. Impact of schoolchildren's involvement in the design process on the effectiveness of healthy food promotion materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Gustafson

    2017-06-01

    Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption (p < 0.001 when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2–3 months later (p < 0.05. Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected (p < 0.05, but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption (p < 0.01. Involving elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.

  4. Application of Radiation Degraded Chitosan as Plant Growth Promoter. A Pilot Scale Production and Field Trial Study of Radiation Processed Chitosan as Plant Growth Promoter for Rice Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Hashim, Kamaruddin; Bahari, Kamarudin

    2010-01-01

    The application of radiation processed chitosan as plant growth promoter has been carried out in the 24 hectares of rice crops. For the field trial, a pilot scale production of oligochitosan was established using gamma irradiation for partial degradation of chitosan powder of DDA 90% and followed by gamma irradiation of aqueous solution of 3% irradiated chitosan powder in 2% lactic acids (3CL2). Radiation dose of 50 kGy was selected for initial degradation of chitosan powder and followed by 12 kGy irradiation of 3CL2. A viscosity average molecular weight of ~10,000 of oligochitosan was obtained and subsequently used in the field trial of MR219 type of rice seeds on 24 hectares of rice plots. The seedlings were carried out after the rice seeds were soaked 24hrs in water and 30 minutes in 200ppm oligochitosan. The rice plots that were sprayed with oligochitosan were found to have higher resistant towards blast diseases. Oligochitosan of 40ppm was found to be effective as fungicides and resulted in the increase of yield of rice seeds of about 5%. (author)

  5. Modelling of tetrahydrofuran promoted gas hydrate systems for carbon dioxide capture processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    A thermodynamic study of a novel gas hydrate based CO2 capture process is presented.•Model predicts this process unsuitable for CO2 capture from power station flue gases. A thermodynamic modelling study of both fluid phase behaviour and hydrate phase behaviour is presented for the quaternary system...... of water, tetrahydrofuran, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The applied model incorporates the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state for the fluid phase description and the van der Waals-Platteeuw hydrate model for the solid (hydrate) phase. Six binary pairs are studied for their fluid phase behaviour...... accurate descriptions of both fluid- and hydrate phase equilibria in the studied system and its subsystems. The developed model is applied to simulate two simplified, gas hydrate-based processes for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture from power station flue gases. The first process, an unpromoted...

  6. Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Grace E. Giles; Caroline R. Mahoney; Tad T. Brunye; Holly A. Taylor; Robin B. Kanarek

    2013-01-01

    Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task, and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval...

  7. Exploring how the tobacco industry presents and promotes itself in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-21

    The commercial potential of social media is utilized by tobacco manufacturers and vendors for tobacco promotion online. However, the prevalence and promotional strategies of pro-tobacco content in social media are still not widely understood. The goal of this study was to reveal what is presented by the tobacco industry, and how it promotes itself, on social media sites. The top 70 popular cigarette brands are divided into two groups according to their retail prices: group H (brands with high retail prices) and group L (brands with low retail prices). Three comprehensive searches were conducted on Facebook, Wikipedia, and YouTube respectively using the top 70 popular cigarette brands as keywords. We identified tobacco-related content including history and culture, product features, health warnings, home page of cigarette brands, and Web-based tobacco shops. Furthermore, we examined the promotional strategies utilized in social media. According to the data collected from March 3, 2014 to March 10, 2014, 43 of the 70 representative cigarette brands had created 238 Facebook fan pages, 46 cigarette brands were identified in Wikipedia, and there were over 120,000 pro-tobacco videos on YouTube, associated with 61 cigarette brands. The main content presented on the three social media websites differs significantly. Wikipedia focuses on history and culture (67%, 32/48; Ppromotional strategies used, sales promotions exist extensively in social media. Sales promotion is more prevalent on YouTube than on the other two sites (64%, 39/61 vs 35%, 15/43; P=.004). Generally, the sale promotions of higher-cost brands in social media are more prevalent than those of lower-cost brands (55%, 16/29 vs 7%, 1/14; Ppromotion in social media.

  8. Clinical, information and business process modeling to promote development of safe and flexible software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Deveny, Elizabeth; Morrison, Iain; Lewis, Bryn

    2006-09-01

    Using a factorial vignette survey and modeling methodology, we developed clinical and information models - incorporating evidence base, key concepts, relevant terms, decision-making and workflow needed to practice safely and effectively - to guide the development of an integrated rule-based knowledge module to support prescribing decisions in asthma. We identified workflows, decision-making factors, factor use, and clinician information requirements. The Unified Modeling Language (UML) and public domain software and knowledge engineering tools (e.g. Protégé) were used, with the Australian GP Data Model as the starting point for expressing information needs. A Web Services service-oriented architecture approach was adopted within which to express functional needs, and clinical processes and workflows were expressed in the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). This formal analysis and modeling methodology to define and capture the process and logic of prescribing best practice in a reference implementation is fundamental to tackling deficiencies in prescribing decision support software.

  9. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkel, Jantien; Boot, Cécile R L; Proper, Karin I; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The mindfulness training was attended at least once by 81.3% of subjects, and 54.5% were highly compliant. With regard to e-coaching and homework exercises, 6.3% and 8.0%, respectively, were highly compliant. The training was appreciated with a 7.5 score and e-coaching with a 6.8 score. Appreciation of training and e-coaching, satisfaction with trainer and coach, and practical facilitation were significantly associated with compliance. The intervention was implemented well on the level of the mindfulness training, but poorly on the level of e-coaching and homework time investment. To increase compliance, attention should be paid to satisfaction and trainer-participant relationship.

  10. Alkali-promoted hydrothermal gasification of biomass food processing waste: A parametric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, The University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A parametric study of alkali-promoted hydrogen gas production from by-products from food-based biomass, such as glucose, molasses and rice bran, under hydrothermal conditions has been carried out. Partial oxidation of the biomass samples was aided by the addition of hydrogen peroxide and experiments were carried out in the presence of sodium hydroxide. The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and feed concentration on the conversion of glucose, molasses and rice bran to gaseous products under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. The reaction time and reaction temperature were investigated in the range of 0-120 min and 330-390 C, respectively. The results confirmed the positive influence of NaOH in the production of hydrogen gas via the water-gas shift reaction. In the presence of the alkali, no tar/oil and char were observed. The hydrogen gas yield increased when the reaction temperature and reaction time increased. It was observed that higher reaction temperature led to an increase in the amount of methane gas produced. With increasing feed concentration, the yields of other gases such as CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} increased, while hydrogen gas production decreased for all the biomass samples. The generation of gaseous products from the molasses and rice bran showed a similar trend to that of glucose, under identical test conditions. (author)

  11. FOXO3 Promotes Quiescence in Adult Muscle Stem Cells during the Process of Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra D. Gopinath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle stem cells, or “satellite cells” (SCs, are required for the regeneration of damaged muscle tissue. Although SCs self-renew during regeneration, the mechanisms that govern SC re-entry into quiescence remain elusive. We show that FOXO3, a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors, is expressed in quiescent SCs (QSCs. Conditional deletion of Foxo3 in QSCs impairs self-renewal and increases the propensity of SCs to adopt a differentiated fate. Transcriptional analysis of SCs lacking FOXO3 revealed a downregulation of Notch signaling, a key regulator of SC quiescence. Conversely, overexpression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD rescued the self-renewal deficit of FOXO3-deficient SCs. We show that FOXO3 regulates NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptor expression and that decreasing expression of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptors phenocopies the effect of FOXO3 deficiency in SCs. We demonstrate that FOXO3, perhaps by activating Notch signaling, promotes the quiescent state during SC self-renewal in adult muscle regeneration.

  12. Mechanisms promoting and inhibiting the process of proteasomal degradation of cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrycz Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Defects in the process of degradation of unneeded cellular proteins underlie many diseases. This article discusses one of the most important systems of removal of abnormal proteins. It describes the process of ubiquitination of proteins for proteasome degradation. It also describes the structure of the 26S and 20S proteasomes and the mechanism of ubiquitin-proteasome system. Proteasome proteolytic system is highly specialized and organized. Protease-proteasome 26S is particularly important for proper cell functioning. It recognizes and degrades marked proteins. Inhibition of proteasome pathway leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  13. The Processes that Promote Learning in Adult Mentoring and Coaching Dyadic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This is a study of 10 adults participating in one-to-one mentoring and/or coaching. Participants were selected for interviewing through a purposive sampling process from leading international mentoring and coaching organizations. Selection criteria included (a) being an adult, (b) participating in a dyadic learning, and (c) regarding that…

  14. Enhancing Promotion, Tenure and Beyond: Faculty Socialization as a Cultural Process. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Rhoads, Robert A.

    This digest is a brief summary of a longer monograph of the same title on the importance of understanding faculty socialization as a cultural process in the context of the current changes urged on higher education. A section on how faculty socialization is conceptualized adopts a view of culture in which culture shapes and is shaped by social…

  15. Working through: In-Session Processes that Promote Between-Session Thoughts and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Hilsenroth, Mark J.; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether clients' ratings of the working alliance as well as their perception of cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques (delivered by therapists who used both) were associated with clients' intersession processes (i.e., their thoughts about therapy and therapeutic activity between sessions).…

  16. An exploration of decision aid effectiveness: the impact of promoting affective vs. deliberative processing on a health-related decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esther L; McCaffery, Kirsten; Mullan, Barbara; Juraskova, Ilona

    2015-12-01

    Decision aids (DAs) are non-directive communication tools that help patients make value-consistent health-care decisions. However, most DAs have been developed without an explicit theoretical framework, resulting in a lack of understanding of how DAs achieve outcomes. To investigate the effect of promoting affective vs. deliberative processing on DA effectiveness based on dual-process theory. One hundred and forty-eight female university students participated in a randomized controlled experiment with three conditions: emotion-focused, information-focused and control. Preference-value consistency, knowledge, decisional conflict and satisfaction were compared across the conditions using planned contrast analyses. The intervention comprised two different DAs and instructional manipulations. The emotion-focused condition received a modified DA with affective content and instructions to induce an affective reaction. The information-focused and control conditions received the same DA without the affective content. The information-focused condition received additional instructions to induce deliberative processing. Controlling for the experiment-wise error rate at P processing may hinder value-consistent decision making, while deliberative processing may enhance decisional satisfaction. This investigation of the effect of affective and deliberative processes in DA-supported decision making has implications for the design and use of DAs. DA effectiveness may be enhanced by incorporating a simple instruction to focus on the details of the information. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Radiation Processing of Marine Algal Polysaccharides as Plant Growth Promoters. Chapter 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolko, E.; Cerchietti, L. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Ezeiza Atomic Centre, Ezeiza (Argentina); Clozza, M.; Giardina, E. B.; Villela, F.; Divo, M. D. [Faculty of Agronomy, Buenos Aires University (Argentina)

    2014-07-15

    After having participated in the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the “Development of radiation-processed products of natural polymers for application in agriculture, health care, industry and environment” with a project entitled “Assay oligosaccharides as plant growth promoters”, Argentina started mobilizing technical experts from diverse fields to introduce the technology in the country. Agronomers, radiation research scientists, and resource persons from seaweed industries were invited to participate in the project. The project team members consisted of Dr. Mario Clozza and his group from the Faculty of Agronomy of the Buenos Aires University, members of the radiation processing division of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Ezeiza Atomic Centre, and resource persons from the Soriano S.A., a seaweed industry. Under the scope of the CRP, degraded alginic acid from Macrocystis perifera and other algae from the coastal areas were used for the study. Despite the fact that Argentina has huge brown algae farms in the Patagonia region, these are not commercially available due to the lack of specialized vessels for harvesting. Soriano S.A. produces good quality carrageenan from red algae, sourced from the northern part of the extended national maritime littoral of more than 2000 km long. The project involved the utilization of radiation-processed polysaccharides such as carrageenan, alginic acid, and chitosan of commercial origins on tomato, lettuce, spinach, and cabbage plants. (author)

  18. Digital Storytelling as a Narrative Health Promotion Process: Evaluation of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFulvio, Gloria T; Gubrium, Aline C; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Lowe, Sarah E; Del Toro-Mejias, Lizbeth Marie

    2016-04-01

    Digital storytelling (DST) engages participants in a group-based process to create and share narrative accounts of life events. The process of individuals telling their own stories has not been well assessed as a mechanism of health behavior change. This study looks at outcomes associated with engaging in the DST process for vulnerable youth. The project focused on the experiences of Puerto Rican Latinas between the ages of 15 to 21. A total of 30 participants enrolled in a 4-day DST workshops, with 29 completing a 1 to 3-minute digital story. Self-reported data on several scales (self-esteem, social support, empowerment, and sexual attitudes and behaviors) were collected and analyzed. Participants showed an increase in positive social interactions from baseline to 3-month post workshop. Participants also demonstrated increases in optimism and control over the future immediately after the workshop, but this change was not sustained at 3 months. Analysis of qualitative results and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  20. Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E. Giles

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval of local versus global spatial knowledge. In a double-blind, repeated-measures design, non-habitual (Exp. 1; N=36, M=42.5±29 mg/day caffeine and habitual (Exp. 2; N=34, M=579.5±311.5 mg/day caffeine caffeine consumers completed four test sessions corresponding to each of four caffeine doses (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg. During each test session, participants consumed a capsule containing one of the three doses of caffeine or placebo, waited sixty minutes, and then completed two spatial tasks, one involving memorizing maps and one spatial descriptions. A spatial statement verification task tested local versus global spatial knowledge by differentially probing memory for proximal versus distal landmark relationships. On the map learning task, results indicated that caffeine enhanced memory for distal (i.e. global compared to proximal (i.e. local comparisons at 100 (marginal, 200, and 400 mg caffeine in non-habitual consumers, and marginally beginning at 200 mg caffeine in habitual consumers. On the spatial descriptions task, caffeine enhanced memory for distal compared to proximal comparisons beginning at 100 mg in non-habitual but not habitual consumers. We thus provide evidence that caffeine-induced physiological arousal amplifies global spatial processing biases, and these effects are at least partially driven by habitual caffeine consumption.

  1. Silicon scaffolds promoting three-dimensional neuronal web of cytoplasmic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Evie L; Samara, Athina; Barberoglou, Marios; Manousaki, Aleka; Pagakis, Stamatis N; Anastasiadou, Ema; Fotakis, Costas; Stratakis, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Primary neurons were grown on structured silicon (Si) substrates, in the absence of chemotropic factors or synthetic extracellular matrix. The Si substrates used for the study comprise hierarchical structures in the micro- and nanolength scales. The substrates were structured via femtosecond laser irradiation of the Si wafer, in a reactive SF(6) environment. Electron microscopy revealed that the neurons formed an elaborate web of cytoplasmic processes in the absence of glial elements. The neuronal cytoplasm autografted the depth of the spikes, and the neurite sprouting took place over the spikes surface. Here we demonstrate how microfabrication of a Si surface provides an excellent platform for multifaceted studies of neuronal specimens.

  2. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents.

  3. BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: Quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-12-01

    Digital currencies have emerged as a new fascinating phenomenon in the financial markets. Recent events on the most popular of the digital currencies - BitCoin - have risen crucial questions about behavior of its exchange rates and they offer a field to study dynamics of the market which consists practically only of speculative traders with no fundamentalists as there is no fundamental value to the currency. In the paper, we connect two phenomena of the latest years - digital currencies, namely BitCoin, and search queries on Google Trends and Wikipedia - and study their relationship. We show that not only are the search queries and the prices connected but there also exists a pronounced asymmetry between the effect of an increased interest in the currency while being above or below its trend value.

  4. Impaired Albumin Uptake and Processing Promote Albuminuria in OVE26 Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y. S.; Zheng, S.; Kralik, P. M.; Benz, F. W.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of proximal tubules dysfunction to diabetic albuminuria is uncertain. OVE26 mice have the most severe albuminuria of all diabetic mouse models but it is not known if impaired tubule uptake and processing are contributing factors. In the current study fluorescent albumin was used to follow the fate of albumin in OVE26 and normal mice. Compared to normal urine, OVE26 urine contained at least 23 times more intact fluorescent albumin but only 3-fold more 70 kD fluorescent dextran. This indicated that a function other than size selective glomerular sieving contributed to OVE26 albuminuria. Imaging of albumin was similar in normal and diabetic tubules for 3 hrs after injection. However 3 days after injection a subset of OVE26 tubules retained strong albumin fluorescence, which was never observed in normal mice. OVE26 tubules with prolonged retention of injected albumin lost the capacity to take up albumin and there was a significant correlation between tubules unable to eliminate fluorescent albumin and total albuminuria. TUNEL staining revealed a 76-fold increase in cell death in OVE26 tubules that retained fluorescent albumin. These results indicate that failure to process and dispose of internalized albumin leads to impaired albumin uptake, increased albuminuria, and tubule cell apoptosis. PMID:27822483

  5. What can Google and Wikipedia can tell us about a disease? Big Data trends analysis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Savino; Radin, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    To investigate trends of Internet search volumes linked to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), on-going clinical trials and research developments associated to the disease, using Big Data monitoring and data mining. We performed a longitudinal analysis based on the large amount of data generated by Google Trends, scientific search tools (SCOPUS, Medline/Pubmed/ClinicalTrails.gov) considering 'SLE', and 'lupus' in a 5-year web-based research. Wikipedia page views were also analysed using WikiTrends and the results were compared with the search volumes generated by Google Trends. We observed an overall higher distribution of search volumes from Google Trends in United States, South America, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Europe (mainly Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, France, Germany), showing a geographically heterogeneity in insight into health-related behaviour of the different populations towards SLE. By comparing the search volumes analysing the Wikipedia page views of both SLE and belimumab, we found a close peak trend, reflecting the knowledge translation after the approval of belimumab for the treatment of SLE. When focusing on search volumes of Google Trends, we noticed that the highest peaks were related to news headlines that involved celebrities affected by SLE, also when comparing to the peak generated by the approval of belimumab. This new approach, able to investigate health information seeking, might give an estimate of the health-related demand and even of the health-related behaviour of SLE, bringing new light to unanswered questions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inward Processing Regime Promotion System in Vegetable Oil Industry: A Case Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Duru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine applicability of the Inward Processing Regime (IPR in enterprises which are vegetable oil producers and exporters. The data was obtained from 26 vegetable oil producer and exporter enterprises by using survey method. Frequency tables, indices, and percentage calculating were used to analyse Data. Also, SWOT analysis was used to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the sector, and relationship among some variables were examined with correlation coefficient. According to research findings, 25 of the enterprises (96% utilised the IPR. Since the enterprises started to use that system; availability of cheap raw material, rate of capacity utilisation, market share, and export value all have increased. In addition, raw material was found as an important expense item, and the most important problems were qualified as raw material inadequacy and high input prices.

  7. Sinatra, He3nry und andere moderne Enzyklopädisten. Synchron und diachron vergleichende Anmerkungen zur Eigen- und Fremdbenennung von Wikipedia-Autoren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzega, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the formation of authors' pseudonyms in the English, German, French, Italian and Spanish versions of the Internet encyclopedia Wikipedia. 694 semi-randomly collected Wikipedia usernames ("nicknames" are checked against traditional classifications of pseudonyms and compared to a semi-randomly collected corpus of 607 pseudonyms of English, German, French, Italian and Spanish writers of the 18th and 19th centuries (who published, at least in part, non-fictional works. The main results of the diachronic comparison are the following: (1 Qualitatively, typical modern phenomena are the replacement of letters by similar-looking special characters (called leetspeak, e. g. Serg!o for Sergio, the use of abstract nouns, the use of non-standard forms, deacronymization (e. g. when a Spanish Wikipedian's initials FG become Efegé, and the formation of nicknames from Wikipedia pseudonyms on users' discussion pages ("nick-nicknames". (2 Qualitatively, typical historical phenomena are the use of symbols not easily representable on modern (Latin keyboards (e. g. musical notes and Greek letters. (3 Quantitatively, there is a clear decrease in the use of Latin elements in pseudonyms. A cross-linguistic comparison of Wikipedia nicknames leads to the following characteristic features of the different Wikipedia communities: (a English Wikipedia nicknames show the highest amount of non-onymic elements and numbers and the lowest amount of nicknames with foreign elements. (b French-speaking Wikipedians use the lowest amount of numbers in their nicknames and are the least informative as regards telling the motivation behind their usernames. (c Italian-speaking Wikipedians are the most open to tell about the motivation behind their usernames, use relatively few non-onymic elements in their nicknames, but are very productive as to forming nicknicknames. (d Spanish-speaking Wikipedians use relatively few appellative lexemes, are the most reserved as to

  8. Cognitive diffusion model with user-oriented context-to-text recognition for learning to promote high level cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.

  9. Examining behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions promote weight loss: results from PREMIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Stevens, Victor J; Coughlin, Janelle W; Rubin, Richard R; Brantley, Phillip J; Funk, Kristine L; Svetkey, Laura P; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene; Charleston, Jeanne; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    To examine the behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions impacted weight loss. The analyses were limited to overweight and obese Black and White adults randomized to a PREMIER lifestyle intervention (N = 501). Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the direct and indirect relationships of session attendance, days of self-monitoring diet and exercise, change in diet composition and exercise, and 6-month weight change. Greater session attendance was associated with increased self-monitoring, which was in turn significantly related to reduction in percent energy from total fat consumed. Change in percent energy from fat and self-monitoring was associated with 6-month percent change in weight. Both a decrease in fat intake and increase in self-monitoring are potential mediators of the relationship between attendance and weight change. The findings provide a reasonable model that suggests regular session attendance and use of behavioral strategies like self-monitoring are associated with improved behavioral outcomes that are associated with weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. IL-4Rα-associated antigen processing by B cells promotes immunity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G C Horsnell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, B cell function in protective T(H2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Rα and IL-13; but not IL-4. Protection did not associate with parasite specific antibody responses. Re-infection of B cell-specific IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice resulted in increased worm burdens compared to control mice, despite their equivalent capacity to control primary infection. Impaired protection correlated with reduced lymphocyte IL-13 production and B cell MHC class II and CD86 surface expression. Adoptive transfer of in vivo N. brasiliensis primed IL-4Rα expressing B cells into naïve BALB/c mice, but not IL-4Rα or IL-13 deficient B cells, conferred protection against primary N. brasiliensis infection. This protection required MHC class II compatibility on B cells suggesting cognate interactions by B cells with CD4⁺ T cells were important to co-ordinate immunity. Furthermore, the rapid nature of these protective effects by B cells suggested non-BCR mediated mechanisms, such as via Toll Like Receptors, was involved, and this was supported by transfer experiments using antigen pulsed Myd88⁻/⁻ B cells. These data suggest TLR dependent antigen processing by IL-4Rα-responsive B cells producing IL-13 contribute significantly to CD4⁺ T cell-mediated protective immunity against N. brasiliensis infection.

  11. Scanning and Deep Processing of Information in Hypertext: An Eye Tracking and Cued Retrospective Think-Aloud Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, L.; Naumann, J.; García, V.; Fajardo, I.

    2017-01-01

    When students solve problems on the Internet, they have to find a balance between quickly scanning large sections of information in web pages and deeply processing those that are relevant for the task. We studied how high school students articulate scanning and deeper processing of information while answering questions using a Wikipedia document,…

  12. Integration of eHealth Tools in the Process of Workplace Health Promotion: Proposal for Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) tools can support and improve the whole process of workplace health promotion (WHP) projects. However, several challenges and opportunities have to be considered while integrating these tools in WHP projects. Currently, a large number of eHealth tools are developed for changing health behavior, but these tools can support the whole WHP process, including group administration, information flow, assessment, intervention development process, or evaluation. Objective To support a successful implementation of eHealth tools in the whole WHP processes, we introduce a concept of WHP (life cycle model of WHP) with 7 steps and present critical and success factors for the implementation of eHealth tools in each step. Methods We developed a life cycle model of WHP based on the World Health Organization (WHO) model of healthy workplace continual improvement process. We suggest adaptations to the WHO model to demonstrate the large number of possibilities to implement eHealth tools in WHP as well as possible critical points in the implementation process. Results eHealth tools can enhance the efficiency of WHP in each of the 7 steps of the presented life cycle model of WHP. Specifically, eHealth tools can support by offering easier administration, providing an information and communication platform, supporting assessments, presenting and discussing assessment results in a dashboard, and offering interventions to change individual health behavior. Important success factors include the possibility to give automatic feedback about health parameters, create incentive systems, or bring together a large number of health experts in one place. Critical factors such as data security, anonymity, or lack of management involvement have to be addressed carefully to prevent nonparticipation and dropouts. Conclusions Using eHealth tools can support WHP, but clear regulations for the usage and implementation of these tools at the

  13. Interleukin-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the osteoclastogenic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Huixian [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Shi, Zhenqi [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Qiao, Ping [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Norman Bethune Medical College, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); McCoy, Erin M. [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Mao, Ping [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Xu, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Feng, Xu [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Wang, Shunqing, E-mail: shqwang_cn@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generates a population of hematopoietic cells. •IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. •Osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are functional. •IL-3 promotes the development of osteoclast progenitors. •IL-3 inhibits the osteoclastogenic process. -- Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-3, a multilineage hematopoietic growth factor, is implicated in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. However, the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis remains controversial; whereas early studies showed that IL-3 stimulates osteoclastogenesis, recent investigations demonstrated that IL-3 inhibits osteoclast formation. The objective of this work is to further address the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis. We found that IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generated a population of cells capable of differentiating into osteoclasts in tissue culture dishes in response to the stimulation of the monocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). The IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were able to further proliferate and differentiate in response to M-CSF stimulation and the resulting cells were also capable of forming osteoclasts with M-CSF and RANKL treatment. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits M-CSF-/RANKL-induced differentiation of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells into osteoclasts. The flow cytometry analysis indicates that while IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells slightly affected the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the surviving populations, it considerably increased the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the populations after subsequent M-CSF treatment. Moreover, osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were fully functional. Thus, we conclude that IL-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the

  14. Wikipedia en la Universidad: cambios en la percepción de valor con la creación de contenidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia es un recurso muy utilizado por estudiantes universitarios, pero no está necesariamente bien valorado en términos de fiabilidad, ni tampoco es visto como un entorno en el que hacer aportaciones de contenido. Este artículo presenta un proyecto de docencia e investigación que consiste en proponer que los estudiantes editen o creen artículos para la Wikipedia, y en comprobar si la experiencia modifica su valoración de la misma. Se realizó la experiencia en la Universidad Pompeu Fabra (España y la Universidad de Niš (Serbia con un total de 240 alumnos. Editaron artículos y respondieron dos cuestionarios, uno antes y otro después de la experiencia. Se compararon las respuestas mediante una serie de pruebas T para muestras emparejadas, a partir de las cuales pudimos comprobar que los datos mostraban un cambio significativo en su percepción sobre la fiabilidad y la utilidad de la Wikipedia y sobre la probabilidad de encontrar información falsa en ella. También cambió su apreciación de la tarea de editar artículos, que se valoró como interesante y representó un reto. En cambio, su valoración del prestigio social de la Wikipedia, tanto en el contexto universitario como el general, no varió significativamente. Adicionalmente, las preguntas abiertas y el feedback informal permitieron recoger informaciones muy valiosas respecto a la valoración del conjunto de la experiencia

  15. RNA-processing proteins regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfrini, Nicola; Trovesi, Camilla; Wery, Maxime; Martina, Marina; Cesena, Daniele; Descrimes, Marc; Morillon, Antonin; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2015-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by activating a checkpoint that depends on the protein kinases Tel1/ATM and Mec1/ATR. Mec1/ATR is activated by RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which arises upon nucleolytic degradation (resection) of the DSB. Emerging evidences indicate that RNA-processing factors play critical, yet poorly understood, roles in genomic stability. Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA decay factors Xrn1, Rrp6 and Trf4 regulate Mec1/ATR activation by promoting generation of RPA-coated ssDNA. The lack of Xrn1 inhibits ssDNA generation at the DSB by preventing the loading of the MRX complex. By contrast, DSB resection is not affected in the absence of Rrp6 or Trf4, but their lack impairs the recruitment of RPA, and therefore of Mec1, to the DSB. Rrp6 and Trf4 inactivation affects neither Rad51/Rad52 association nor DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR), suggesting that full Mec1 activation requires higher amount of RPA-coated ssDNA than HR-mediated repair. Noteworthy, deep transcriptome analyses do not identify common misregulated gene expression that could explain the observed phenotypes. Our results provide a novel link between RNA processing and genome stability. © 2014 The Authors.

  16. Promoting health workers' ownership of infection prevention and control: using Normalization Process Theory as an interpretive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D J; Hale, R; Waters, E; Allen, D

    2016-12-01

    All health workers should take responsibility for infection prevention and control (IPC). Recent reduction in key reported healthcare-associated infections in the UK is impressive, but the determinants of success are unknown. It is imperative to understand how IPC strategies operate as new challenges arise and threats of antimicrobial resistance increase. The authors undertook a retrospective, independent evaluation of an action plan to enhance IPC and 'ownership' (individual accountability) for IPC introduced throughout a healthcare organization. Twenty purposively selected informants were interviewed. Data were analysed inductively. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) was applied to interpret the findings and explain how the action plan was operating. Six themes emerged through inductive analysis. Theme 1: 'Ability to make sense of ownership' provided evidence of the first element of NPT (coherence). Regardless of occupational group or seniority, informants understood the importance of IPC ownership and described what it entailed. They identified three prerequisites: 'Always being vigilant' (Theme 2), 'Importance of access to information' (Theme 3) and 'Being able to learn together in a no-blame culture' (Theme 4). Data relating to each theme provided evidence of the other elements of NPT that are required to embed change: planning implementation (cognitive participation), undertaking the work necessary to achieve change (collective action), and reflection on what else is needed to promote change as part of continuous quality improvement (reflexive monitoring). Informants identified barriers (e.g. workload) and facilitators (clear lines of communication and expectations for IPC). Eighteen months after implementing the action plan incorporating IPC ownership, there was evidence of continuous service improvement and significant reduction in infection rates. Applying a theory that identifies factors that promote/inhibit routine incorporation ('normalization') of IPC

  17. Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wolniewicz-Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia The goal of this article is to examine how different events and phenomena related to the Second World War and the Holocaust are framed via Wikipedia articles written in Polish, Hebrew and English. Departing from the pillars of the theory of framing in mass media, the article conducts a content analysis of three articles, in three different languages. The articles under analysis are the following: “Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp”, “The Pogrom in Jedwabne”, and “Righteous Among the Nations”. The analysis will use the four roles of frames as categories, determined by Entman: definition of the problem/phenomenon, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and treatment recommendation. Analyzing how the articles fulfill each of the roles in the different languages, the research hypothesis is that the framing of the phenomena will differ between the versions, and each version will follow pillars of the collective memory of the Holocaust in its respective country. Findings, however, are not in complete compliance with this hypothesis.   Kształtowanie popularnej wiedzy o Holocauście na przykładzie trzech artykułów z polskiej, hebrajskiej i angielskiej Wikipedii Celem artykułu jest zbadanie, jak przedstawiane są wybrane wydarzenia i zjawiska, związane z historią II wojny światowej oraz Holokaustem, w internetowej encyklopedii „Wikipedia” w różnych językach. Prezentowana analiza treści opiera się na teorii framingu w mass mediach i obejmuje trzy artykuły: „Auschwitz-Birkenau”, „Pogrom w Jedwabnem” oraz „Sprawiedliwy wśród Narodów Świata”, opublikowane w językach polskim, angielskim oraz hebrajskim. W analizie wykorzystano cztery role „ram” (frames, sformułowane przez Entmana: definicja problemu/zjawiska, interpretacja przyczyn, ewaluacja moralna oraz propozycja rozwiązań. Autor, badając to, jak

  18. Is There a Weekly Pattern for Health Searches on Wikipedia and Is the Pattern Unique to Health Topics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Lau, Annie Y S; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-12-22

    Online health information-seeking behaviors have been reported to be more common at the beginning of the workweek. This behavior pattern has been interpreted as a kind of "healthy new start" or "fresh start" due to regrets or attempts to compensate for unhealthy behavior or poor choices made during the weekend. However, the observations regarding the most common health information-seeking day were based only on the analyses of users' behaviors with websites on health or on online health-related searches. We wanted to confirm if this pattern could be found in searches of Wikipedia on health-related topics and also if this search pattern was unique to health-related topics or if it could represent a more general pattern of online information searching--which could be of relevance even beyond the health sector. The aim was to examine the degree to which the search pattern described previously was specific to health-related information seeking or whether similar patterns could be found in other types of information-seeking behavior. We extracted the number of searches performed on Wikipedia in the Norwegian language for 911 days for the most common sexually transmitted diseases (chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]), other health-related topics (influenza, diabetes, and menopause), and 2 nonhealth-related topics (footballer Lionel Messi and pop singer Justin Bieber). The search dates were classified according to the day of the week and ANOVA tests were used to compare the average number of hits per day of the week. The ANOVA tests showed that the sexually transmitted disease queries had their highest peaks on Tuesdays (PJustin Bieber had the most hits on Tuesdays. Both these tracked search queries also showed significantly lower numbers on Saturdays (P<.001). Our study supports prior studies finding an increase in health information searching at the beginning of the workweek. However, we also

  19. Inducing a health-promoting change process within an organization: the effectiveness of a large-scale intervention on social capital, openness, and autonomous motivation toward health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Scheppingen, Arjella R; de Vroome, Ernest M M; Ten Have, Kristin C J M; Bos, Ellen H; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M; van Mechelen, W

    2014-11-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an organizational large-scale intervention applied to induce a health-promoting organizational change process. A quasi-experimental, "as-treated" design was used. Regression analyses on data of employees of a Dutch dairy company (n = 324) were used to examine the effects on bonding social capital, openness, and autonomous motivation toward health and on employees' lifestyle, health, vitality, and sustainable employability. Also, the sensitivity of the intervention components was examined. Intervention effects were found for bonding social capital, openness toward health, smoking, healthy eating, and sustainable employability. The effects were primarily attributable to the intervention's dialogue component. The change process initiated by the large-scale intervention contributed to a social climate in the workplace that promoted health and ownership toward health. The study confirms the relevance of collective change processes for health promotion.

  20. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary ...

  1. Hydrogen generation by aluminum corrosion in aqueous alkaline solutions of inorganic promoters: The AlHidrox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macanas, Jorge; Soler, Lluis; Candela, Angelica Maria; Munoz, Maria; Casado, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The research of alternative processes to obtain clean fuels has become a main issue because of the concerns related to the current energy system, both from economical and environmental points of view. Hydrogen storage and production methods are being investigated for stationary and portable applications. Up to now, a significant part of H 2 production on demand was thought to be fulfilled by using chemical hydrides, but recent studies have proved the limitations of this approach. Conversely, H 2 production based in the corrosion of light metals in water solutions is an interesting alternative. Among all of them, Al is probably the most adequate metal for energetic purposes due to its high electron density and oxidation potential. But concerning H 2 production from Al corrosion in water, a major issue remains unsolved: metal passivation due to the formation of Al(OH) 3 inhibits H 2 evolution. In this work we show the last results obtained for the generation of H 2 from water using Al powder using diverse alkaline solutions. It is confirmed that corrosion is not affected solely by the solution pH but also by the nature of the ionic species found in the aqueous medium. Moreover, we describe the AlHidrox process, which minimizes Al passivation under mild conditions by the addition of different inorganic salts as corrosion promoters, allowing 100% yields and flow rates up to 2.9 L/min per gram of Al. The feasibility of the process has been regarded in terms of stability (by conducting several successive runs) and self-initiation without an external heating. -- Highlights: → The AlHidrox process minimizes Al passivation by the addition of inorganic salts. → Al corrosion to produce H 2 greatly depends on the nature of the dissolved species. → The maximum flow achieved was 2.9 dm 3 H 2 min -1 .per gram of Al using Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . → We found conditions to start up H 2 generation without external energy input.

  2. Health promotion viewed as processes of subjectification in the education of Danish social and health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    2011-01-01

    problems of both a social and moral character. It is shown how health promotion has a thorough impact on the students’ possibilities of coming into being as (professional) subjects. The article points to the conclusion that in this particular educational setting, health promotion constitutes...

  3. Self-Efficacy and the Stages and Processes of Change Associated with Adopting and Maintaining Muscular Fitness-Promoting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kosma, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The majority of physical activity initiatives have been directed toward promoting cardiorespiratory fitness and general health. Far less attention has been devoted to encouraging or understanding muscular fitness-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if constructs from the Transtheoretical Model, a contemporary behavior…

  4. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Jenkins, Marion W; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2017-05-16

    Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA - "Clean India Campaign"), the successor of India's Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. NBA's community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme's theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80) and focus group discussions (n = 26) with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government's cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50 villages, a marginal increase of 7 percentage points over baseline. In

  5. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimita Routray

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA – “Clean India Campaign”, the successor of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. Methods NBA’s community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme’s theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80 and focus group discussions (n = 26 with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Results Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government’s cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50

  6. Implementation of health promotion programmes in schools: an approach to understand the influence of contextual factors on the process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Emily Joan; Violon, Nolwenn; Jourdan, Didier

    2018-01-22

    Implementing complex and multi-level public health programmes is challenging in school settings. Discrepancies between expected and actual programme outcomes are often reported. Such discrepancies are due to complex interactions between contextual factors. Contextual factors relate to the setting, the community, in which implementation occurs, the stakeholders involved, and the characteristics of the programme itself. This work uses realist evaluation to understand how contextual factors influence the implementation process, to result in variable programme outcomes. This study focuses on identifying contextual factors, pinpointing combinations of contextual factors, and understanding interactions and effects of such factors and combinations on programme outcomes on different levels of the implementation process. Schools which had participated in a school-based health promotion programme between 2012 and 2015 were included. Two sets of qualitative data were collected: semi-structured interviews with school staff and programme coordinators; and written documents about the actions implemented in a selection of four schools. Quantitative data included 1553 questionnaires targeting pupils aged 8 to 11 in 14 schools to describe the different school contexts. The comparison between what was expected from the programme (programme theory) and the outcomes identified in the field data, showed that some of the mechanisms expected to support the implementation of the programme, did not operate as anticipated (e.g. inclusion of training, initiation by decision-maker). Key factors which influenced the implementation process included, amongst other factors, the mode of introduction of the programme, home/school relationship, leadership of the management team, and the level of delegated power. Five types of interactions between contextual factors were put forward: enabling, hindering, neutral, counterbalancing and moderating effects. Recurrent combinations of factors were

  7. The promotion effect of coexisting hygroscopic composition on the reaction between oxalic acid and calcite during humidifying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; He, H.

    2012-12-01

    Internally mixed oxalic acid with mineral dust has been frequently detected in field measurements (Sullivan and Prather, 2007; Wang et al., 2012; Yang et al., 2009). Meanwhile, Furukawa and Takahashi (Furukawa and Takahashi, 2011) found that most of the oxalic acid in mineral mixture is present as metal oxalate complexes in the aerosols, however, the formation mechanism of these complexes is not well known. It was reported that cloud process of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture could lead to the formation of calcium oxalate (Gierlus et al., 2012). Recently, we used Raman spectroscopy to investigate the hygroscopic behavior of H2C2O4/CaCO3 mixture below saturation condition as well as the effect of coexisting hygroscopic compositions, e.g. Ca(NO3)2, NaCl, NH4NO3, and (NH4)2SO4. It was found that there was no interaction between H2C2O4 and calcite without third component during humidifying process under ambient condition. In contrast, the presence of coexisting Ca(NO)3, NaCl, or NH4NO3 could promote the reaction between H2C2O4 and calcite by providing an aqueous circumstance after deliquescence, resulting in the formation of calcium oxalate hydrates. Moreover, substitution of strong acid (HNO3) by medium acid (H2C2O4) occurred when water vapor was absorbed in Ca(NO3)2/H2C2O4 mixture (Ma and He, 2012). As for (NH4)2SO4, there existed a competition effect between (NH4)2SO4 and H2C2O4 for the reaction with CaCO3. CaCO3 was preferentially reacted with (NH4)2SO4 to form gypsum in the solution, while the residual NH4+ and C2O42- ions were bonded to (NH4)2C2O4 after efflorescence. These results implies a potential formation pathway of metal oxalate complexes in the atmosphere and also suggests that synergistic effect between different constituents in humidifying process of mixed particles should be considered in future hygroscopic behavior studies.

  8. Inducing a health-promoting change process within an organization the Effectiveness of a Large-Scale Intervention on Social Capital, Openness, and Autonomous Motivation Toward Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Bos, E.H.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effectiveness of an organizational large-scale intervention applied to induce a health-promoting organizational change process. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental, "as-treated" design was used. Regression analyses on data of employees of a Dutch dairy company (n =324)

  9. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-07-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar nonnitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar nonoxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make nonpromoting processed meat. 2010 AACR.

  10. Reduced Zeta potential through use of cationic adhesion promoter for improved resist process performance and minimizing material consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Lorna; Thompson, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a non-HMDS (non-silane) adhesion promoter that was used to reduce the zeta potential for very thin (proprietary) polymer on silicon. By reducing the zeta potential, as measured by the minimum sample required to fully coat a wafer, the amount of polymer required to coat silicon substrates was significantly reduced in the manufacture of X-ray windows used for high transmission of low-energy X-rays. Moreover, this approach used aqueous based adhesion promoter described as a cationic surface active agent that has been shown to improve adhesion of photoresists (positive, negative, epoxy [SU8], e-beam and dry film). As well as reducing the amount of polymer required to coat substrates, this aqueous adhesion promoter is nonhazardous, and contains non-volatile solvents.

  11. Comparison of the Impact of Wikipedia, UpToDate, and a Digital Textbook on Short-Term Knowledge Acquisition Among Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial of Three Web-Based Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffidi, Michael A; Khan, Rishad; Wang, Christopher; Keren, Daniela; Tsui, Cindy; Garg, Ankit; Brar, Simarjeet; Valoo, Kamesha; Bonert, Michael; de Wolff, Jacob F; Heilman, James; Grover, Samir C

    2017-10-31

    Web-based resources are commonly used by medical students to supplement curricular material. Three commonly used resources are UpToDate (Wolters Kluwer Inc), digital textbooks, and Wikipedia; there are concerns, however, regarding Wikipedia's reliability and accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Wikipedia use on medical students' short-term knowledge acquisition compared with UpToDate and a digital textbook. This was a prospective, nonblinded, three-arm randomized trial. The study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2016. Preclerkship medical students were recruited from four Canadian medical schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants through word of mouth, social media, and email. Participants must have been enrolled in their first or second year of medical school at a Canadian medical school. After recruitment, participants were randomized to one of the three Web-based resources: Wikipedia, UpToDate, or a digital textbook. During testing, participants first completed a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) of 25 questions emulating a Canadian medical licensing examination. During the MCQ, participants took notes on topics to research. Then, participants researched topics and took written notes using their assigned resource. They completed the same MCQ again while referencing their notes. Participants also rated the importance and availability of five factors pertinent to Web-based resources. The primary outcome measure was knowledge acquisition as measured by posttest scores. The secondary outcome measures were participants' perceptions of importance and availability of each resource factor. A total of 116 medical students were recruited. Analysis of variance of the MCQ scores demonstrated a significant interaction between time and group effects (P<.001, η g 2 =0.03), with the Wikipedia group scoring higher on the MCQ posttest compared with the textbook group (P<.001, d=0.86). Access to hyperlinks, search

  12. D-Cycloserine Does Not Facilitate Fear Extinction by Reducing Conditioned Stimulus Processing or Promoting Conditioned Inhibition to Contextual Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D.; McNally, Gavan P.; Richardson, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) enhances the extinction of learned fear in rats and exposure therapy in humans with anxiety disorders. Despite these benefits, little is known about the mechanisms by which DCS promotes the loss of fear. The present study examined whether DCS augments extinction retention (1) through reductions…

  13. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  14. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention promoting multiple maternal and neonatal care practices in rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwal Ram C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenge of delivering multiple, complex messages to promote maternal and newborn health in the terai region of Nepal was addressed through training Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs to counsel pregnant women and their families using a flipchart and a pictorial booklet that was distributed to clients. The booklet consists of illustrated messages presented on postcard-sized laminated cards that are joined by a ring. Pregnant women were encouraged to discuss booklet content with their families. Methods We examined use of the booklet and factors affecting adoption of practices through semi-structured interviews with district and community-level government health personnel, staff from the Nepal Family Health Program, FCHVs, recently delivered women and their husbands and mothers-in-law. Results The booklet is shared among household members, promotes discussion, and is referred to when questions arise or during emergencies. Booklet cards on danger signs and nutritious foods are particularly well-received. Cards on family planning and certain aspects of birth preparedness generate less interest. Husbands and mothers-in-law control decision-making for maternal and newborn care-seeking and related household-level behaviors. Conclusions Interpersonal peer communication through trusted community-level volunteers is an acceptable primary strategy in Nepal for promotion of household-level behaviors. The content and number of messages should be simplified or streamlined before being scaled-up to minimize intervention complexity and redundant communication.

  15. Principles and processes behind promoting awareness of rights for quality maternal care services: a synthesis of stakeholder experiences and implementation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha S; Branchini, Casey

    2017-08-31

    Promoting awareness of rights is a value-based process that entails a different way of thinking and acting, which is at times misunderstood or deemed as aspirational. Guided by the SURE framework, we undertook a secondary analysis of 26 documents identified by an earlier systematic review on promoting awareness of rights to increase use of maternity care services. We thematically analysed stakeholder experiences and implementation factors across the diverse initiatives to derive common elements to guide future efforts. Interventions that promote awareness of rights for maternal health varied in nature, methodological orientation, depth and quality. Materials included booklets, posters, pamphlets/ briefs and service standards/charters. Target populations included women, family members, communities, community structures, community-based and non governmental organizations, health providers and administrators, as well as elected representatives. While one initiative only focused on raising awareness, most were embedded within larger efforts to improve the accountability and responsiveness of service delivery through community monitoring and advocacy, with a few aiming to change policies and contest elections. Underlying these action oriented forms of promoting awareness of rights, was a critical consciousness and attitudinal change gained through iterative capacity-building for all stakeholders; materials and processes that supported group discussion and interaction; the formation or strengthening of community groups; situational analysis to ensure adaptation to local context; facilitation to ensure common ground and language across stakeholders; and strategic networking and alliance building across health system levels. While many positive experiences are discussed, few challenges or barriers to implementation are documented. The limited documentation and poor quality of information found indicate that while various examples of promoting awareness of rights for

  16. Products Based on Bio-Resourced Materials for Agriculture. Radiation Processed Biodegradable Polymers, Plant Growth Promoters and Superabsorbent Polymers. Chapter 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, K. A.; Bhardwaj, Y. K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Varshney, L. [Radiation Technology Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2014-07-15

    Radiation-processed natural polymers and their derivatives, namely starch, alginate, chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were explored for different agricultural applications such as biodegradable mulch films, super adsorbent polymers (SAPs), and plant growth promoters (PGPs). It was observed that gamma radiation-processed starch can lead to a better processability of starch/synthetic polymer alloys, and can offer tuneable biodegradability (as low as one month) with acceptable physico-mechanical properties. Acrylic acid/CMC-based SAP was prepared using {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, for soil conditioning. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the acrylic acid/CMC SAP was found to be 460 g/g. The field trial of the SAP was conducted on sorghum. It was found that, with the use of 20 kg/ha of SAP, the crop yield can be increased by almost 18.5% whereas the increase in plant height was 8.5%. A new super adsorbent polymer with a much higher water uptake capacity was also developed by adding a small fraction of carrageenan to neutralized acrylic acid (AA). This SAP had EDS of 800 g/g, with the addition of only 1% carrageenan. Experiments to check the soil conditioning efficacy of AA/carrageenan SAP are in progress. Oligomers of chitosan and alginates were prepared by gamma irradiation and were tried as plant growth promoters in wheat (Triticum aestivum), mung bean (Vigna radiata), linseed (Linum usitatissimum), mentha (Mentha arvensis), and lemon grass. The results suggest that these oligomers have a significant impact on the grain and oil yield. Large scale field trials on Mentha arvensis in collaboration with an industry are in progress, and efforts are going on to formulate a policy framework for the use of oligosaccharides as plant growth promoters. (author)

  17. Effectiveness of a Brief Intervention Using Process-Based Mental Simulations in Promoting Muscular Strength in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Andre

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a brief theory-based intervention on muscular strength among adolescents in a physical education setting. The intervention adopted a process-based mental simulation technique. The self-reported frequency of practising for and actual levels of abdominal muscular strength/endurance as one component of…

  18. Sequence motif upstream of the Hendra virus fusion protein cleavage site is not sufficient to promote efficient proteolytic processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, Willie Warren; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2005-01-01

    The Hendra virus fusion (HeV F) protein is synthesized as a precursor, F 0 , and proteolytically cleaved into the mature F 1 and F 2 heterodimer, following an HDLVDGVK 109 motif. This cleavage event is required for fusogenic activity. To determine the amino acid requirements for processing of the HeV F protein, we constructed multiple mutants. Individual and simultaneous alanine substitutions of the eight residues immediately upstream of the cleavage site did not eliminate processing. A chimeric SV5 F protein in which the furin site was substituted for the VDGVK 109 motif of the HeV F protein was not processed but was expressed on the cell surface. Another chimeric SV5 F protein containing the HDLVDGVK 109 motif of the HeV F protein underwent partial cleavage. These data indicate that the upstream region can play a role in protease recognition, but is neither absolutely required nor sufficient for efficient processing of the HeV F protein

  19. Interleukin-34 promotes tumor progression and metastatic process in osteosarcoma through induction of angiogenesis and macrophage recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségaliny, Aude I; Mohamadi, Amel; Dizier, Blandine; Lokajczyk, Anna; Brion, Régis; Lanel, Rachel; Amiaud, Jérôme; Charrier, Céline; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was recently characterized as the M-CSF "twin" cytokine, regulating the proliferation/differentiation/survival of myeloid cells. The implication of M-CSF in oncology was initially suspected by the reduced metastatic dissemination in knock-out mice, due to angiogenesis impairment. Based on this observation, our work studied the involvement of IL-34 in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. The in vivo effects of IL-34 were assessed on tissue vasculature and macrophage infiltration in a murine preclinical model based on a paratibial inoculation of human osteosarcoma cells overexpressing or not IL-34 or M-CSF. In vitro investigations using endothelial cell precursors and mature HUVEC cells were performed to analyse the involvement of IL-34 in angiogenesis and myeloid cell adhesion. The data revealed that IL-34 overexpression was associated with the progression of osteosarcoma (tumor growth, lung metastases) and an increase of neo-angiogenesis. In vitro analyses demonstrated that IL-34 stimulated endothelial cell proliferation and vascular cord formation. Pre-treatment of endothelial cells by chondroitinases/heparinases reduced the formation of vascular tubes and abolished the associated cell signalling. In addition, IL-34 increased the in vivo recruitment of M2 tumor-associated macrophages into the tumor tissue. IL-34 increased in vitro monocyte/CD34(+) cell adhesion to activated HUVEC monolayers under physiological shear stress conditions. This work also demonstrates that IL-34 is expressed by osteosarcoma cells, is regulated by TNF-α, IL-1β, and contributes to osteosarcoma growth by increasing the neo-angiogenesis and the recruitment of M2 macrophages. By promoting new vessel formation and extravasation of immune cells, IL-34 may play a key role in tumor development and inflammatory diseases. © 2014 UICC.

  20. Problem solving strategies integrated into nursing process to promote clinical problem solving abilities of RN-BSN students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jy; Lo, Chi-Hui Kao; Ku, Ya-Lie

    2004-11-01

    A set of problem solving strategies integrated into nursing process in nursing core courses (PSNP) was developed for students enrolled in a post-RN baccalaureate nursing program (RN-BSN) in a university in Taiwan. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effectiveness of PSNP on students' clinical problem solving abilities. The one-group post-test design with repeated measures was used. In total 114 nursing students with 47 full-time students and 67 part-time students participated in this study. The nursing core courses were undertaken separately in three semesters. After each semester's learning, students would start their clinical practice, and were asked to submit three written nursing process recordings during each clinic. Assignments from the three practices were named post-test I, II, and III sequentially, and provided the data for this study. The overall score of problem solving indicated that score on the post-test III was significantly better than that on post-test I and II, meaning both full-time and part-time students' clinical problem solving abilities improved at the last semester. In conclusion, problem-solving strategies integrated into nursing process designed for future RN-BSN students are recommendable.

  1. Ex Situ and Operando Studies on the Role of Copper in Cu-Promoted SiO2-MgO Catalysts for the Lebedev Ethanol-to-Butadiene Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, Carlo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345731506; Meirer, Florian; van der Eerden, Ad M. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304840483; Schaink, Herrick L.; Goryachev, Andrey; Hofmann, Jan P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355351110; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenation promoters greatly enhance the performance of SiO2-MgO catalysts in the Lebedev process. Here, the effect of preparation method and order of addition of Cu on the structure and performance of Cu-promoted SiO2-MgO materials is detailed. Addition of Cu to MgO via incipient wetness

  2. Ferulic Acid, But Not All Hydroxycinnamic Acids, Is a Novel T3SS Inducer of Ralstonia solanacearum and Promotes Its Infection Process in Host Plants under Hydroponic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs are typical monocyclic phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid (Cin, coumaric acid (Cou, caffeic acid (Caf, ferulic acid (FA and their isomers, and involved in the interactions between pathogens and host plants. Here, we focused on the impact of HCAs on expression of type III secretion system (T3SS in Ralstonia solanacearum. FA significantly induced the expression of the T3SS and some type III effectors (T3Es genes in hrp-inducing medium, while did not the other HCAs. However, exogenously supplemented FA did not affect the T3SS expression in planta and the elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR in tobacco leaves. Consistent with its central roles in pathogenicity, the FA-induced expression of the T3SS led to significant promotion on infection process of R. solanacearum in tomato plants under hydroponics cultivation. Moreover, the FA-induced expression of the T3SS was specifically mediated by the well-characterized signaling cascade PrhA-prhI/R-PrhJ-HrpG-HrpB, independent of the other known regulatory pathways. In summary, our results demonstrated that FA, a novel inducer of the T3SS in R. solanacearum, was able to promote its infection process in host plants under hydroponics condition.

  3. Using fear appeals in warning labels to promote responsible gambling among VLT players: the key role of depth of information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Suissa, Jacob Amnon

    2010-12-01

    Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous. Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was used to test our model based on both Elaboration Likelihood Model and Protection Motivation Theory. 258 VLT adult players (58% males, 42% females) with various degrees of problem gambling were exposed to three threat levels (plus a control condition) from two different sources (i.e., either a medical source or a source related to the provider of VLT's). Our results show that both higher threat warnings and the medical source of warnings enhance Depth of Information Processing. It was also found that Depth of Information Processing affects positively attitude change and compliance intentions. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  4. Capture of microtubule plus-ends at the actin cortex promotes axophilic neuronal migration by enhancing microtubule tension in the leading process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, B Ian; Wray, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Microtubules are a critical part of neuronal polarity and leading process extension, thus microtubule movement plays an important role in neuronal migration. However, the dynamics of microtubules during the forward movement of the nucleus into the leading process (nucleokinesis) is unclear and may be dependent on the cell type and mode of migration used. In particular, little is known about cytoskeletal changes during axophilic migration, commonly used in anteroposterior neuronal migration. We recently showed that leading process actin flow in migrating GnRH neurons is controlled by a signaling cascade involving IP3 receptors, CaMKK, AMPK, and RhoA. In the present study, microtubule dynamics were examined in GnRH neurons. Failure of the migration of these cells leads to the neuroendocrine disorder Kallmann Syndrome. Microtubules translocated forward along the leading process shaft during migration, but reversed direction and moved toward the nucleus when migration stalled. Blocking calcium release through IP3 receptors halted migration and induced the same reversal of microtubule translocation, while blocking cortical actin flow prevented microtubules from translocating toward the distal leading process. Super-resolution imaging revealed that microtubule plus-end tips are captured at the actin cortex through calcium-dependent mechanisms. This work shows that cortical actin flow draws the microtubule network forward through calcium-dependent capture in order to promote nucleokinesis, revealing a novel mechanism engaged by migrating neurons to facilitate movement.

  5. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography–tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  6. Lactic acid induces aberrant amyloid precursor protein processing by promoting its interaction with endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acid, a natural by-product of glycolysis, is produced at excess levels in response to impaired mitochondrial function, high-energy demand, and low oxygen availability. The enzyme involved in the production of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ of Alzheimer's disease, BACE1, functions optimally at lower pH, which led us to investigate a potential role of lactic acid in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lactic acid increased levels of Aβ40 and 42, as measured by ELISA, in culture medium of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, whereas it decreased APP metabolites, such as sAPPα. In cell lysates, APP levels were increased and APP was found to interact with ER-chaperones in a perinuclear region, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy studies. Lactic acid had only a very modest effect on cellular pH, did increase the levels of ER chaperones Grp78 and Grp94 and led to APP aggregate formation reminiscent of aggresomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that sustained elevations in lactic acid levels could be a risk factor in amyloidogenesis related to Alzheimer's disease through enhanced APP interaction with ER chaperone proteins and aberrant APP processing leading to increased generation of amyloid peptides and APP aggregates.

  7. Promoting industrialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayfield, F.

    1986-04-01

    When the first nuclear power programme is decided upon, automatically the country has to initiate in parallel a programme to modify or add to its current industrial structure and resources. The extent of this new industrialisation depends upon many factors which both, the Government and the Industries have to consider. The Government has a vital role which includes the setting up of the background against which the industrial promotion should take place and in many cases may have also to play an active role all along this programme. Equally, the existing industries have an important role so as to achieve the most efficient participation in the nuclear programme. Invariably the industrial promotional programme will incur a certain degree of transfer of technology, the extent depending on the policies adopted. For this technology transfer to take place efficiently, both the donor and the receiver have to recognise each other's legitimate ambitions and fears. The transfer of technology is a process having a high human content and both donor and receiver have to take this into account. This can be further complicated when there is a difference in culture between them. Technology transfer is carried out within a contractual and organisational framework which will identify the donor (licensor) and the receiver (licensee). This framework may take various forms from a simple cooperative agreement, through a joint-venture organisation right to a standard contract between two separate entities. Each arrangement has its advantages and drawbacks and requires investment of different degrees. One of the keys to a successful industrial promotion is having it carried out in a timely fashion which will be parallel with the nuclear power programme. Experience in some countries has shown the problems when the industrialisation is out of phase with the programme whilst in other cases this industrialisation was at a level and scale unjustified. (author)

  8. Promoting Local Ownership: Lessons Learned from Process of Transitioning Clinical Mentoring of HIV Care and Treatment in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet M. Kassie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFocus on improving access and quality of HIV care and treatment gained acceptance in Ethiopia through the work of the International Training and Education Center for Health. The initiative deployed mobile field-based teams and capacity building teams to mentor health care providers on clinical services and program delivery in three regions, namely Tigray, Amhara, and Afar. Transitioning of the clinical mentoring program (CMP began in 2012 through capacity building and transfer of skills and knowledge to local health care providers and management.ObjectiveThe initiative explored the process of transitioning a CMP on HIV care and treatment to local ownership and documented key lessons learned.MethodsA mixed qualitative design was used employing focus group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, and review of secondary data. The participants included regional focal persons, mentors, mentees, multidisciplinary team members, and International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH staff. Three facilities were selected in each region. Data were collected by trained research assistants using customized guides for interviews and with data extraction format. The interviews were recorded and fully transcribed. Open Code software was used for coding and categorizing the data.ResultsA total of 16 focus group discussions and 20 individual in-depth interviews were conducted. The critical processes for transitioning a project were: establishment of a mentoring transition task force, development of a roadmap to define steps and directions for implementing the transition, and signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU between the respective regional health bureaus and I-TECH Ethiopia to formalize the transition. The elements of implementation included mentorship and capacity building, joint mentoring, supportive supervision, review meetings, and independent mentoring supported by facility-based mechanisms: multidisciplinary team

  9. Astrocytic αVβ3 integrin inhibits neurite outgrowth and promotes retraction of neuronal processes by clustering Thy-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Herrera-Molina

    Full Text Available Thy-1 is a membrane glycoprotein suggested to stabilize or inhibit growth of neuronal processes. However, its precise function has remained obscure, because its endogenous ligand is unknown. We previously showed that Thy-1 binds directly to α(Vβ(3 integrin in trans eliciting responses in astrocytes. Nonetheless, whether α(Vβ(3 integrin might also serve as a Thy-1-ligand triggering a neuronal response has not been explored. Thus, utilizing primary neurons and a neuron-derived cell line CAD, Thy-1-mediated effects of α(Vβ(3 integrin on growth and retraction of neuronal processes were tested. In astrocyte-neuron co-cultures, endogenous α(Vβ(3 integrin restricted neurite outgrowth. Likewise, α(Vβ(3-Fc was sufficient to suppress neurite extension in Thy-1(+, but not in Thy-1(- CAD cells. In differentiating primary neurons exposed to α(Vβ(3-Fc, fewer and shorter dendrites were detected. This effect was abolished by cleavage of Thy-1 from the neuronal surface using phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC. Moreover, α(Vβ(3-Fc also induced retraction of already extended Thy-1(+-axon-like neurites in differentiated CAD cells as well as of axonal terminals in differentiated primary neurons. Axonal retraction occurred when redistribution and clustering of Thy-1 molecules in the plasma membrane was induced by α(Vβ(3 integrin. Binding of α(Vβ(3-Fc was detected in Thy-1 clusters during axon retraction of primary neurons. Moreover, α(Vβ(3-Fc-induced Thy-1 clustering correlated in time and space with redistribution and inactivation of Src kinase. Thus, our data indicates that α(Vβ(3 integrin is a ligand for Thy-1 that upon binding not only restricts the growth of neurites, but also induces retraction of already existing processes by inducing Thy-1 clustering. We propose that these events participate in bi-directional astrocyte-neuron communication relevant to axonal repair after neuronal damage.

  10. Perilipin-mediated lipid droplet formation in adipocytes promotes sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 processing and triacylglyceride accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Takahashi

    Full Text Available Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1 has been thought to be a critical factor that assists adipogenesis. During adipogenesis SREBP-1 stimulates lipogenic gene expression, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ enhances perilipin (plin gene expression, resulting in generating lipid droplets (LDs to store triacylglycerol (TAG in adipocytes. Plin coats adipocyte LDs and protects them from lipolysis. Here we show in white adipose tissue (WAT of plin-/- mice that nuclear active SREBP-1 and its target gene expression, but not nuclear SREBP-2, significantly decreased on attenuated LD formation. When plin-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs differentiated into adipocytes, attenuated LDs were formed and nuclear SREBP-1 decreased, but enforced plin expression restored them to their original state. Since LDs are largely derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, alterations in the ER cholesterol content were investigated during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The ER cholesterol greatly reduced in differentiated adipocytes. The ER cholesterol level in plin-/- WAT was significantly higher than that of wild-type mice, suggesting that increased LD formation caused a change in ER environment along with a decrease in cholesterol. When GFP-SREBP-1 fusion proteins were exogenously expressed in 3T3-L1 cells, a mutant protein lacking the S1P cleavage site was poorly processed during adipogenesis, providing evidence of the increased canonical pathway for SREBP processing in which SREBP-1 is activated by two cleavage enzymes in the Golgi. Therefore, LD biogenesis may create the ER microenvironment favorable for SREBP-1 activation. We describe the novel interplay between LD formation and SREBP-1 activation through a positive feedback loop.

  11. Iron promotion of the TiO2 photosensitization process towards the photocatalytic oxidation of azo dyes under solar-simulated light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Camilo A.; Centeno, Aristobulo; Giraldo, Sonia A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Azo dye photooxidation occurs under strict combination of ultraviolet and visible irradiation of Fe-TiO 2 . → Fe 3+ enhances the TiO 2 photooxidation of azo dyes while decreases that of phenol. → UV irradiation leads to a decrease in photooxidation activity of Fe-TiO 2 photocatalysts. - Abstract: The photocatalytic oxidation of the azo dye Orange-II (Or-II) using Fe loaded TiO 2 (Fe-TiO 2 ) was studied under ultraviolet (UV), visible (vis) and simultaneous UV-vis irradiations using a solar light simulator. Photocatalysts were characterized by means of XRD, SEM-EDX, FTIR and DRS. Fe 3+ species, identified in XPS analyses, were responsible of the increased absorption of visible light. Moreover, DRS analyses showed a decrease in the bandgap due to Fe 3+ loading. Photocatalystic tests proved that Fe modification enhanced the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity towards Or-II photodegradation under simultaneous UV-vis irradiation. Even so, the performance of the Fe-TiO 2 samples towards the photodegradation of phenol, under UV irradiation, was lower than TiO 2 suggesting the recombination of the UV photogenerated electron-hole pair. Therefore, results evidence a Fe 3+ promotion of the electron caption in the photosensitization process of TiO 2 by Or-II acting as a sensitizer. Such process leads to the Or-II photooxidation under UV-vis irradiation by losing energy in electron transferring processes to sensitize TiO 2 , and, the formation of reactive oxygen species promoted by the injected electron to the TiO 2 conduction band.

  12. Chloroplast RNA-Binding Protein RBD1 Promotes Chilling Tolerance through 23S rRNA Processing in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants have varying abilities to tolerate chilling (low but not freezing temperatures, and it is largely unknown how plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana achieve chilling tolerance. Here, we describe a genome-wide screen for genes important for chilling tolerance by their putative knockout mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Out of 11,000 T-DNA insertion mutant lines representing half of the genome, 54 lines associated with disruption of 49 genes had a drastic chilling sensitive phenotype. Sixteen of these genes encode proteins with chloroplast localization, suggesting a critical role of chloroplast function in chilling tolerance. Study of one of these proteins RBD1 with an RNA binding domain further reveals the importance of chloroplast translation in chilling tolerance. RBD1 is expressed in the green tissues and is localized in the chloroplast nucleoid. It binds directly to 23S rRNA and the binding is stronger under chilling than at normal growth temperatures. The rbd1 mutants are defective in generating mature 23S rRNAs and deficient in chloroplast protein synthesis especially under chilling conditions. Together, our study identifies RBD1 as a regulator of 23S rRNA processing and reveals the importance of chloroplast function especially protein translation in chilling tolerance.

  13. Using a combined protection motivation theory and health action process approach intervention to promote exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Prapavessis, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Despite the benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many expectant mothers are inactive. This study examined whether augmenting a protection motivation theory (PMT) intervention with a Health Action Process Approach can enhance exercise behavior change among pregnant women. Sixty inactive pregnant women were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: PMT-only, PMT + action-planning, and PMT + action-and-coping-planning. Week-long objective (accelerometer) and subjective (self-report) exercise measures were collected at baseline, and at 1- and 4-weeks post-intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVAs demonstrated that while all participants reported increased exercise from baseline to 1-week post-intervention, participants in both planning groups were significantly more active (p < .001) than those in the PMT-only group by 4-weeks post-intervention (η (2) = .13 and .15 for accelerometer and self-report data, respectively). In conclusion, augmenting a PMT intervention with action or action-and-coping-planning can enhance exercise behavior change in pregnant women.

  14. El paper de la Wikipedia en la gestió de la reputació: una anàlisi de les millors i les pitjors companyies dels Estats Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia W. DiStaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ser considerada una de las mejores compañías de Estados Unidos es un gran honor, pero la buena reputación no exime a estas empresas de encontrar aspectos negativos en la Wikipedia, la enciclopedia en línea editada en colaboración. Mediante un análisis de contenido de las compañías que tienen mejor y peor reputación de Estados Unidos, este estudio demuestra que el contenido negativo de los artículos corporativos que se publican en la Wikipedia supera el contenido positivo con independencia de la reputación de la empresa. Se ha comprobado que tanto las mejores como las peores compañías contienen más contenidos negativos que positivos. Es una cuestión importante, puesto que la Wikipedia no es solo uno de los lugares web más populares del mundo, sino que se ha convertido en uno de los primeros lugares para buscar información corporativa. A pesar de que se han encontrado más contenidos relacionados con la responsabilidad social corporativa en las entradas de las diez compañías con mejor reputación, estos quedaban eclipsados por cuestiones vinculadas con escándalos o asuntos legales. La conclusión es que los profesionales de las relaciones públicas tendrían que supervisar y actualizar periódicamente sus artículos corporativos en la Wikipedia con independencia de la compañía para la que trabajen. 

  15. STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 promotes angiogenesis and is involved in neoplastic processes of transformed human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Huiqiao; Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xinlu; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Xu, Wenchao; Lu, Lu; Qin, Yu; Xiang, Quanyong; Liu, Qizhan

    2016-01-01

    Although microRNA (miRNA) enclosed in exosomes can mediate intercellular communication, the roles of exosomal miRNA and angiogenesis in lung cancer remain unclear. We investigated functions of STAT3-regulated exosomal miR-21 derived from cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-transformed human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells in the angiogenesis of CSE-induced carcinogenesis. miR-21 levels in serum were higher in smokers than those in non-smokers. The medium from transformed HBE cells promoted miR-21 levels in normal HBE cells and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Transformed cells transferred miR-21 into normal HBE cells via exosomes. Knockdown of STAT3 reduced miR-21 levels in exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells, which blocked the angiogenesis. Exosomes derived from transformed HBE cells elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HBE cells and thereby promoted angiogenesis in HUVEC cells. Inhibition of exosomal miR-21, however, decreased VEGF levels in recipient cells, which blocked exosome-induced angiogenesis. Thus, miR-21 in exosomes leads to STAT3 activation, which increases VEGF levels in recipient cells, a process involved in angiogenesis and malignant transformation of HBE cells. These results, demonstrating the function of exosomal miR-21 from transformed HBE cells, provide a new perspective for intervention strategies to prevent carcinogenesis of lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: Process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Christina J.; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her 8 social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately impacted by HIV. PMID:25416309

  17. Reason and reaction: the utility of a dual-focus, dual-processing perspective on promotion and prevention of adolescent health risk behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X; Houlihan, Amy E; Gerrard, Meg

    2009-05-01

    A brief overview of theories of health behaviour that are based on the expectancy-value perspective is presented. This approach maintains that health behaviours are the result of a deliberative decision-making process that involves consideration of behavioural options along with anticipated outcomes associated with those options. It is argued that this perspective is effective at explaining and predicting many types of health behaviour, including health-promoting actions (e.g. UV protection, condom use, smoking cessation), but less effective at predicting risky health behaviours, such as unprotected, casual sex, drunk driving or binge drinking. These are behaviours that are less reasoned or premeditated - especially among adolescents. An argument is made for incorporating elements of dual-processing theories in an effort to improve the 'utility' of these models. Specifically, it is suggested that adolescent health behaviour involves both analytic and heuristic processing. Both types of processing are incorporated in the prototype-willingness (prototype) model, which is described in some detail. Studies of health behaviour based on the expectancy-value perspective (e.g. theory of reasoned action) are reviewed, along with studies based on the prototype model. These two sets of studies together suggest that the dual-processing perspective, in general, and the prototype model, in particular, add to the predictive validity of expectancy-value models for predicting adolescent health behaviour. Research and interventions that incorporate elements of dual-processing and elements of expectancy-value are more effective at explaining and changing adolescent health behaviour than are those based on expectancy-value theories alone.

  18. A novel approach to enhance biological nutrient removal using a culture supernatant from Micrococcus luteus containing resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) in SBR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yindong; Su, Xiaomei; Lu, Lian; Ding, Linxian; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-03-01

    A culture supernatant from Micrococcus luteus containing resuscitation-promoting factor (SRpf) was used to enhance the biological nutrient removal of potentially functional bacteria. The obtained results suggest that SRpf accelerated the start-up process and significantly enhanced the biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). PO4 (3-)-P removal efficiency increased by over 12 % and total nitrogen removal efficiency increased by over 8 % in treatment reactor acclimated by SRpf compared with those without SRpf addition. The Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that SRpf played an essential role in shifts in the composition and diversity of bacterial community. The phyla of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which were closely related to biological nutrient removal, were greatly abundant after SRpf addition. This study demonstrates that SRpf acclimation or addition might hold great potential as an efficient and cost-effective alternative for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to meet more stringent operation conditions and legislations.

  19. A mixed methods process evaluation of the implementation of JUMP-in, a multilevel school-based intervention aimed at physical activity promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meij, Judith S B; van der Wal, Marcel F; van Mechelen, Willem; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and institutionalization process of JUMP-in-a multilevel school-based physical activity promotion program-to optimize the dissemination of the intervention and improve its effectiveness. The process evaluation concerned the constraints and success and failure factors at sociopolitical, organizational, user, and intervention levels. A mixed methods approach including qualitative and quantitative data was conducted during two school years (2006-2008). JUMP-in was successfully embedded in the Amsterdam municipal policy and in the organizational structure and daily practices of the sectors involved. A general impeding factor was the complexity of the multilevel programme requiring multidisciplinary collaboration between organizations. In addition, there was a discrepancy between the recommendation to standardize and simplify the innovation and the need to tailor the strategies to local environmental, social, and cultural aspects. This process evaluation provides challenges and remedies for managing discrepancies between prerequisites for an effective innovation and demands of daily implementation practice. The main recommendations are (a) standardized, simplified guidelines; (b) stepwise implementation; (c) formalized coalitions, integration of policy, and synchronization of tasks and protocols; and (d) smart planning and control by clear communication and feedback instruments. If these recommendations are incorporated into the JUMP-in intervention and organization, increased effectiveness and long-term effects can be expected.

  20. Implementing a Mentally Healthy Schools Framework Based on the Population Wide Act-Belong-Commit Mental Health Promotion Campaign: A Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert John; Nicholas, Amberlee; Kerrigan, Simone; Francas, Stephanie; Phan, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mentally Healthy WA developed and implemented the Mentally Healthy Schools Framework in 2010 in response to demand from schools wanting to promote the community-based Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion message within a school setting. Schools are an important setting for mental health promotion, therefore, the Framework encourages…

  1. Exploring drivers and challenges in implementation of health promotion in community mental health services: a qualitative multi-site case study using Normalization Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Viola; Carstensen, Kathrine; Fredens, Mia; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm

    2018-01-24

    There is an increased interest in improving the physical health of people with mental illness. Little is known about implementing health promotion interventions in adult mental health organisations where many users also have physical health problems. The literature suggests that contextual factors are important for implementation in community settings. This study focused on the change process and analysed the implementation of a structural health promotion intervention in community mental health organisations in different contexts in Denmark. The study was based on a qualitative multiple-case design and included two municipal and two regional provider organisations. Data were various written sources and 13 semi-structured interviews with 22 key managers and frontline staff. The analysis was organised around the four main constructs of Normalization Process Theory: Coherence, Cognitive Participation, Collective Action, and Reflexive Monitoring. Coherence: Most respondents found the intervention to be meaningful in that the intervention fitted well into existing goals, practices and treatment approaches. Cognitive Participation: Management engagement varied across providers and low engagement impeded implementation. Engaging all staff was a general problem although some of the initial resistance was apparently overcome. Collective Action: Daily enactment depended on staff being attentive and flexible enough to manage the complex needs and varying capacities of users. Reflexive Monitoring: During implementation, staff evaluations of the progress and impact of the intervention were mostly informal and ad hoc and staff used these to make on-going adjustments to activities. Overall, characteristics of context common to all providers (work force and user groups) seemed to be more important for implementation than differences in the external political-administrative context. In terms of research, future studies should adopt a more bottom-up, grounded description of context

  2. What do health-promoting schools promote?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    -promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence......Purpose – The editorial aims to provide a brief overview of the individual contributions to the special issue, and a commentary positioning the contributions within research relating to the health-promoting schools initiative in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The members of the Schools...... for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer...

  3. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    and Adolescent Health Promotion', Salutogenesis - from theory to practice' and Health, Stress and Coping'. More than half of all doctoral theses undertaken at NHV during these years had health promotion as their theme. As a derivative, the Nordic Health Promotion Research Network (NHPRN) was established in 2007......In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...

  4. Cinema e territorio. Processi di valorizzazione e promozione (cineturistica delle destinazioni minori / Cinema and territory. Processes of enhancement and (cinetouristic promotion of minor destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cresta

    2016-05-01

    Il contributo, a partire da un’analisi delle più celebri pellicole girate in Irpinia, rilegge dunque il legame tra Cinema e territorio alla luce delle esperienze di progettualità in corso che vedono nel cine-turismo una possibile forme di sviluppo locale da valorizzare. The objective of the paper is to make a reflection on the relationship between cinema, creativity and practical tourism in the processes of development and promotion of cinetourism which affect, in particular, the minor destinations. To this end, the experience of Irpinia is presented, where the authenticity of the places and the aspirations of a few enlightened by love for the “Seventh Art” has, since the early twentieth century, inspired several film projects, mixing suggestions real with virtual effects film, have proposed a transposition of the culture and customs, traditions and ways of life of Irpinia. A combination between the cinema and Irpinia which transforms Avellino, at the time one of the poorest and remotest provincial of Italy, the world capital of cinema neorealist; able to influence actively on backwardness typical of southern reality. The contribution, through an analysis of the most famous films shot in Irpinia, reads the link between cinema and territory based on the experience of existing projects that see in cine-tourism possible forms of local development to be enhanced.

  5. Whole Medical Systems versus the System of Conventional Biomedicine: A Critical, Narrative Review of Similarities, Differences, and Factors That Promote the Integration Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Erik W; Hamre, Harald J

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a worldwide professional integration of conventional medicine and traditional/complementary whole medical systems (WMSs). However, the integration is perceived by conventional medicine as problematic or unacceptable, because of a supposed lack of evidence for specific effects of WMSs therapies and supposed prescientific or unscientific paradigms of WMSs. To review the literature on the features of WMSs, similarities and differences between conventional medicine and WMSs, and scientific and clinical practice issues that should be dealt with in order to promote the integration process. A critical, narrative review of the literature on six WMSs. Key factors for the integration of WMSs and conventional medicine are as follows: legal frameworks, quality standards, high-quality research on safety and efficacy of WMS interventions, infrastructure, and financial resources. For scientific assessment of WMSs, there are unresolved ontological, epistemological, and methodological issues and issues of diagnostics, therapy delivery, and outcome assessment in clinical practice. Future research not only should be directed at quality assurance and generating the necessary data on safety and efficacy/effectiveness but also should address more fundamental (ontological, epistemological, and methodological) issues, in order to overcome the differences between WMSs and conventional medicine.

  6. Small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis through negatively regulating pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a regulated cellular suicide program that is critical for the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Previous studies have shown that small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP cooperates with kinetochore and mitotic spindle proteins to regulate mitosis. However, the role of SKAP in apoptosis has not been investigated. We have identified a new interaction involving SKAP, and we propose a mechanism through which SKAP regulates cell apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrate that both overexpression and knockdown of SKAP sensitize cells to UV-induced apoptosis. Further study has revealed that SKAP interacts with Pre-mRNA processing Factor 19 (Prp19. We find that UV-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by ectopic expression of Prp19, whereas silencing Prp19 has the opposite effect. Additionally, SKAP negatively regulates the protein levels of Prp19, whereas Prp19 does not alter SKAP expression. Finally, rescue experiments demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic role of SKAP is executed through Prp19. Taken together, these findings suggest that SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis by negatively regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Prp19.

  7. Knockdown of menin affects pre-mRNA processing and promoter fidelity at the interferon-gamma inducible IRF1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auriemma Lauren B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tumor suppressor menin (MEN1 is mutated in the inherited disease multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, and has several documented cellular roles, including the activation and repression of transcription effected by several transcription factors. As an activator, MEN1 is a component of the Set1-like mixed lineage leukemia (MLL MLL1/MLL2 methyltransferase complex that methylates histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4. MEN1 is localized to the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1-dependent gene, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1, and is further recruited when IRF1 transcription is triggered by interferon-γ signaling. Results RNAi-mediated knockdown of MEN1 alters the H3K4 dimethylation and H3 acetylation profiles, and the localization of histone deacetylase 3, at IRF1. While MEN1 knockdown does not impact the rate of transcription, IRF1 heteronuclear transcripts become enriched in MEN1-depleted cells. The processed mRNA and translated protein product are concomitantly reduced, and the antiviral state is attenuated. Additionally, the transcription start site at the IRF1 promoter is disrupted in the MEN1-depleted cells. The H3K4 demethylase, lysine specific demethylase 1, is also associated with IRF1, and its inhibition alters H3K4 methylation and disrupts the transcription start site as well. Conclusions Taken together, the data indicate that MEN1 contributes to STAT1-activated gene expression in a novel manner that includes defining the transcription start site and RNA processing.

  8. Process evaluation of the Living Green, Healthy and Thrifty (LiGHT) web-based child obesity management program: combining health promotion with ecology and economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogova, Maria; Song, Joshua Eun-Soo; Campbell, Audrey Clare; Warbuton, Darren; Warshawski, Tom; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    To conduct a process evaluation of the Living Green, Healthy and Thrifty (LiGHT) program, a novel virtual child obesity management program that combines health promotion with ecology and economy (Phase 1). We carried out a mixed methods process evaluation involving qualitative and quantitative data collection in 3 phases: among 3 child-parent units, (group 1) that informed program development; 9 child-parent units (group 2) that tested the draft program and further aided program refinement; and 17 child-parent units (group 3) for a 4-week pilot of the program. In the program pilot, we assessed participants' knowledge and readiness to change pre- and postintervention and explored perceptions of the program. Participants generally felt that the online format for program delivery was convenient and accessible, the content was practical, and the integration of health-environment-economy was well received. Many parents also appreciated the involvement of the family. However, the lack of visual appeal and overabundance of text was identified as a challenge, and children/youth in particular requested assurance that their personal information (e.g. weight) was not seen by their parents. The online method of program delivery holds the unique challenge of requiring special efforts to create a sense of personal connection and community. The presence of a "Way-finder" to assist participants and discussion boards/forums are potential solutions. The LiGHT online weight management program offers an accessible, convenient weight management resource that children and families appreciate for its availability, broader educational scope, and practicality. Outcome evaluation of LiGHT will be carried out in Phase 2 of the project. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an

  10. Traducción y tecnología. Análisis del uso y percepción de wikipedia por parte de los profesionales de la traducción

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Jiménez, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis doctoral representa una aproximación inter y transdisciplnar al análisis del binomio traducción y tecnología, tanto desde un punto de vista teórico como práctico, y está centrado en el uso y percepción de Wikipedia en el contexto de la traducción profesional. Los principales resultados y conclusiones de este trabajo se presentan siguiendo una estructura de tres niveles que deriva de los objetivos específicos de la tesis: Objetivo de la primera parte (A): Revisar las propuest...

  11. Relevance of First-Tier, Peer-Reviewed Journals in the Tenure and Promotion Process at Non-Doctoral Granting Engineering Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Florio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE (formerly the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is the world's largest professional society dedicated to the advancement of technology. While it is indeed growing into multiple technology areas, the IEEE is still first an organization of electrical, electronics, and computer engineering professionals. It has over 400,000 members and publishes nearly 100, first-tier, peer-reviewed journals. As such a large purveyor of scholarly works, engineering faculty at almost all academic institutions (doctoral granting and non-doctoral granting are familiar with the IEEE. For this reason, the IEEE makes an excellent case study for the relevance of first-tier, peer-reviewed journals in the tenure and promotion process at non-doctoral granting engineering institutions. In our work, we surveyed editors of the 97 IEEE journals. 93% of respondents indicated that 10% or less of their submissions were from non-academic institutions. None (0% of the respondents believed that the number of non-doctoral granting institution submissions would be increasing over the next three years. In fact, a majority of the respondents (55% see the number of non-doctoral granting institution submissions decreasing in the same time frame. To correlate this data, we examined a sample of 2,099 articles published in the first issue of each IEEE journal in 2009. 357 (17% of these 2,099 articles were authored by individuals from academic institutions in the United States. Of the 357, only 35 were published by individuals from non-doctoral granting institutions (1.7%, with only 8 (0.38% from institutions where a bachelor degree is the highest offered.

  12. Recruitment and retention in a 10-month social network-based intervention promoting diabetes self-management in socioeconomically deprived patients: a qualitative process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; Uitewaal, Paul J M; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Stronks, Karien

    2017-07-26

    Socioeconomically deprived patients with type 2 diabetes often face challenges with self-management, resulting in more diabetes-related complications. However, these groups are often under-represented in self-management interventions. Evidence on effective recruitment and retention strategies is growing, but lacking for intensive self-management interventions. This study aims to explore recruitment, retention and effective intervention strategies in a 10-month group-based intervention among Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish and Surinamese patients from socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. Participants were recruited through general practitioners (GPs) and participated in a 10-month social network-based intervention (10 groups, n=69): Powerful Together with Diabetes . This intervention also targeted the significant others of participants and aimed to increase social support for self-management and to decrease social influences hindering self-management. A qualitative process evaluation was conducted. Retention was measured using log books kept by group leaders. Further, we conducted 17 in-depth interviews with participants (multiethnic sample) and 18 with group leaders. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed using framework analyses. The GP's letter and reminder calls, an informational meeting and the intervention's informal nature facilitated recruitment. During the first months, positive group atmosphere, the intervention's perceived usefulness, opportunities to socialise and a reduction in practical barriers facilitated retention. After the first months, conflicting responsibilities and changes in the intervention's nature and planning hindered retention. Calls from group leaders and the prospect of a diploma helped participants overcome these barriers. To promote retention in lengthy self-management interventions, it seems important that patients feel they are going on an outing to a social gathering that is enjoyable, recreational, useful and easy to

  13. Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Until now, considerable effort has been made to determine structural brain characteristics related to exceptional multilingual skills. However, at least one important question has not yet been satisfactorily addressed in the previous literature, namely whether and to which extent the processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions may promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain. Based on the premise that simultaneous interpretation is a highly demanding linguistic task that places strong demands on executive and articulatory functions, here we compared grey matter volumes between professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) and multilingual control subjects. Thereby, we focused on a specific set of a-priori defined bilateral brain regions that have previously been shown to support neurocognitional aspects of language control and linguistic functions in the multilingual brain. These regions are the cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, frontal operculum (pars triangularis and opercularis), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (supramarginal and angular gyrus), and the insula. As a main result, we found reduced grey matter volumes in professional SI, compared to multilingual controls, in the left middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, bilateral middle part of the insula, and in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Interestingly, grey matter volume in left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis, middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, and in the bilateral caudate nucleus was negatively correlated with the cumulative number of interpreting hours. Hence, we provide first evidence for an expertise-related grey matter architecture that may reflect a composite of brain characteristics that were still present before interpreting training and training-related changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Búsqueda y selección de información en recursos digitales: Percepciones de alumnos de Física y Química de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y Bachillerato sobre Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Valverde-Crespo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación presentada analiza las habilidades de búsqueda y selección de información, según lo establecido en la competencia digital, de un grupo de estudiantes de educación secundaria y bachillerato. En este trabajo se busca conocer qué recursos digitales utilizan los estudiantes, cuáles son las razones para utilizarlos y qué uso y fiabilidad le dan a la información obtenida de un sitio web como Wikipedia. Con estos objetivos, y basándonos en resultados previos sobre competencia digital, TICs y Wikipedia, se ha diseñado un cuestionario de cuyas respuestas se puede concluir que el hecho de disponer y manejar diariamente las nuevas tecnologías basadas en recursos online no hace a los alumnos competentes en el tratamiento de la información digital. Además, los alumnos no poseen una actitud crítica sobre cómo buscar y seleccionar información de Internet.

  15. The Adaptation of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme for Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Community-Engaged Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kristie L.; Bandini, Linda G.; Folta, Sara C.; Wansink, Brian; Must, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidenced-based health promotion programmes for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are notably absent. Barriers include a lack of understanding of how to adapt existing evidence-based programmes to their needs, maximize inclusion and support mutual goals of health and autonomy. Methods: We undertook a…

  16. Health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, S; Lucas-Miyake, M

    1989-01-01

    This article will describe a marketing model for the development of a role for occupational therapy in the industrial market. Health promotion activities are used as a means to diversify existing revenue bases by establishing new referral sources in industry. The technique of need satisfaction -selling or marketing one's services to a customer based on needs expressed by the customer - is reviewed, and implementation of this approach is described from two settings, one in psychiatry and the other in rehabilitation.

  17. Effects of H2S and process conditions in the synthesis of mixed alcohols from syngas over alkali promoted cobalt-molybdenum sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Trane, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    pressures of H2 and CO are also investigated. With or without H2S in the feed the pre-sulfided catalyst requires an initiation period to reach a stabilized behavior, but the duration of this period depends upon the H2S level. Operation with a feed containing more than 103 ppmv H2S leads to a fairly rapid...... coverage and low hydrogen coverage. Hydrogen sulfide in the syngas feed generally promotes chain growth for both alcohols and hydrocarbons, but lowers the alcohol selectivity by enhancing the hydrocarbon formation. The highest alcohol productivity reached in these investigations was 0.276 g/g cat...

  18. Thermodynamic and kinetic verification of tetra-n-butyl ammonium nitrate (TBANO3) as a promoter for the clathrate process applicable to precombustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Ponnivalavan; Yao, Minghuang; Datta, Stuti; Kumar, Rajnish; Linga, Praveen

    2014-03-18

    In this study, tetra-n-butyl ammonium nitrate (TBANO3) is evaluated as a promoter for precombustion capture of CO2 via hydrate formation. New hydrate phase equilibrium data for fuel gas (CO2/H2) mixture in presence of TBANO3 of various concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 3.7 mol % was determined and presented. Heat of hydrate dissociation was calculated using Clausius-Clapeyron equation and as the concentration of TBANO3 increases, the heat of hydrate dissociation also increases. Kinetic performance of TBANO3 as a promoter at different concentrations was evaluated at 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K. Based on induction time, gas uptake, separation factor, hydrate phase CO2 composition, and rate of hydrate growth, 1.0 mol % TBANO3 solution was found to be the optimum concentration at the experimental conditions of 6.0 MPa and 274.2 K for gas hydrate formation. A 93.0 mol % CO2 rich stream can be produced with a gas uptake of 0.0132 mol of gas/mol of water after one stage of hydrate formation in the presence of 1.0 mol % TBANO3 solution. Solubility measurements and microscopic images of kinetic measurements provide further insights to understand the reason for 1.0 mol % TBANO3 to be the optimum concentration.

  19. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  20. Meeting the challenges of implementing an intervention to promote work ability and health-related quality of life at construction worksites: A process evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Molen, H.F. van der; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the process of a prevention program among construction workers. Methods: The program consisted of training sessions of a physical therapist and an empowerment trainer, and a Rest-Break Tool. Data on seven process items were collected by means of questionnaires and interviews.

  1. The process and criteria for diagnosing specific learning disorders: indications from the Consensus Conference promoted by the Italian National Institute of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Lorusso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Consensus Conference on Specific Learning Disorders has been promoted by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS. The Consensus Conference consisted in a systematic review of the international literature addressing the issues of diagnosis, risk factors and prognosis, treatment, service delivery and organizational models for Specific Learning Disorders (reading, spelling/writing, calculation. Selected papers were examined by a group of Evaluators and then discussed by a Scientific and Technical Committee, whose conclusions were examined and approved by a Jury Panel. The part on diagnostic issues is presented here, encompassing a systematic discussion of the use and appropriateness of diagnostic criteria, parameters, tasks and psychometric indexes as illustrated in the literature, and providing recommendations for clinical practice. Special attention has been devoted to the collection, analysis and discussion of published data concerning languages with transparent orthography. Controversial issues such as discrepancy criteria, role of reading comprehension and importance of accuracy and fluency are discussed.

  2. A Qualitative Examination of Youth Voice in the Decision-Making Process within the 4-H Youth Development Program: Promoting Promising Practices in Overcoming Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Fox

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a national study designed to identify and describe obstacles to youth voice in the decision-making process in the 4-H youth development program from the perception of three distinct populations - State 4-H Program Leaders, 4-H State Youth Development Specialists, and 4-H Youth Agents/Educators. When examining these professionals’ views on the barriers affecting youth voice in the decision-making process, time and scheduling seem to consistently present the largest barrier to youth voice. Involvement in the decision-making process provides a wide range of hurdles including the opportunity structures, involvement procedures, representation and dynamics within the process. Adult power and control provides a significant hurdle to authentic engagement of youth voice in the decision-making progress. Respect barriers were described by concepts such as preconceived notions, trust and valuing input. Additional barriers were identified including organizational culture, lack of transportation, lack of knowledge/experience, lack of preparation, lack of training, fear, misguided leadership, unclear expectations, participation, staffing and lack of resources.

  3. Pathways to Promotion: Redesigning a Community College Faculty Promotion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Julie; Hawkins, Tony; Coldren, Gregory; Trigger, Kelly; Angleberger, Barbara; Dankanich, Nancy; Clayton, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on a design-based research project that is situated in a medium-size community college in Maryland. The project focused on exploring why the majority of full-time faculty was ranked as Assistant Professor or below, which did not reflect ranking at similar institutions. Under the leadership of the Provost, a task force analyzed…

  4. A Process Evaluation of an Efficacious Family-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating: The Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Emily; Parada, Humberto; Horton, Lucy; Ibarra, Leticia; Ayala, Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Entre Familia: Reflejos de Salud was a successful family-based randomized controlled trial designed to improve dietary behaviors and intake among U.S. Latino families, specifically fruit and vegetable intake. The novel intervention design merged a community health worker (promotora) model with an entertainment-education component. This process evaluation examined intervention implementation and assessed relationships between implementation factors and dietary change. Participants included 180 mothers randomized to an intervention condition. Process evaluation measures were obtained from participant interviews and promotora notes and included fidelity, dose delivered (i.e., minutes of promotora in-person contact with families, number of promotora home visits), and dose received (i.e., participant use of and satisfaction with intervention materials). Outcome variables included changes in vegetable intake and the use of behavioral strategies to increase dietary fiber and decrease dietary fat intake. Participant satisfaction was high, and fidelity was achieved; 87.5% of families received the planned number of promotora home visits. In the multivariable model, satisfaction with intervention materials predicted more frequent use of strategies to increase dietary fiber (p ≤ .01). Trends suggested that keeping families in the prescribed intervention timeline and obtaining support from other social network members through sharing of program materials may improve changes. Study findings elucidate the relationship between specific intervention processes and dietary changes. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs to generate crossovers (COs during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis.

  6. Explaining the effects of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses: a process evaluation alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huis, Anita; Holleman, Gerda; van Achterberg, Theo; Grol, Richard; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Hulscher, Marlies

    2013-04-08

    There is only limited understanding of why hand hygiene improvement strategies are successful or fail. It is therefore important to look inside the 'black box' of such strategies, to ascertain which components of a strategy work well or less well. This study examined which components of two hand hygiene improvement strategies were associated with increased nurses' hand hygiene compliance. A process evaluation of a cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in which part of the nursing wards of three hospitals in the Netherlands received a state-of-the-art strategy, including education, reminders, feedback, and optimising materials and facilities; another part received a team and leaders-directed strategy that included all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy, supplemented with activities aimed at the social and enhancing leadership. This process evaluation used four sets of measures: effects on nurses' hand hygiene compliance, adherence to the improvement strategies, contextual factors, and nurses' experiences with strategy components. Analyses of variance and multiple regression analyses were used to explore changes in nurses' hand hygiene compliance and thereby better understand trial effects. Both strategies were performed with good adherence to protocol. Two contextual factors were associated with changes in hand hygiene compliance: a hospital effect in long term (p feedback about their hand hygiene performance (p manager holds team members accountable for hand hygiene performance p < 0.01) correlated positively with changes in nurses' hand hygiene compliance. This study illustrates the use of a process evaluation to uncover mechanisms underlying change in hand hygiene improvement strategies. Our study results demonstrate the added value of specific aspects of social influence and leadership in hand hygiene improvement strategies, thus offering an interpretation of the trial effects. The study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number: NCT

  7. Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus genome packaging signal is located at the 5' end of the genome and promotes viral RNA incorporation into virions in a replication-independent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-11-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5' end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. The integrity of the entire sequence domain was necessary because deletion of any of the five structural motifs defined within this region abrogated specific packaging of this viral RNA. One of these RNA motifs was the stem-loop SL5, a highly conserved motif in coronaviruses located at nucleotide positions 106 to 136. Partial deletion or point mutations within this motif also abrogated packaging. Using TGEV-derived defective minigenomes replicated in trans by a helper virus, we have shown that TGEV RNA packaging is a replication-independent process. Furthermore, the last 494 nt of the genomic 3' end were not essential for packaging, although this region increased packaging efficiency. TGEV RNA sequences identified as necessary for viral genome packaging were not sufficient to direct packaging of a heterologous sequence derived from the green fluorescent protein gene. These results indicated that TGEV genome packaging is a complex process involving many factors in addition to the identified RNA packaging signal. The identification of well-defined RNA motifs within the TGEV RNA genome that are essential for packaging will be useful for designing packaging-deficient biosafe coronavirus-derived vectors and providing new targets for antiviral therapies.

  8. The SMC-5/6 Complex and the HIM-6 (BLM) Helicase Synergistically Promote Meiotic Recombination Intermediate Processing and Chromosome Maturation during Caenorhabditis elegans Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ye; Sonneville, Remi; Agostinho, Ana; Meier, Bettina; Wang, Bin; Blow, J Julian; Gartner, Anton

    2016-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is essential for the repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) to generate crossovers (COs) during meiosis. The efficient processing of meiotic recombination intermediates not only needs various resolvases but also requires proper meiotic chromosome structure. The Smc5/6 complex belongs to the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) family and is closely related to cohesin and condensin. Although the Smc5/6 complex has been implicated in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis, it is not known how Smc5/6 controls meiotic DSB repair. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans we show that the SMC-5/6 complex acts synergistically with HIM-6, an ortholog of the human Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) during meiotic recombination. The concerted action of the SMC-5/6 complex and HIM-6 is important for processing recombination intermediates, CO regulation and bivalent maturation. Careful examination of meiotic chromosomal morphology reveals an accumulation of inter-chromosomal bridges in smc-5; him-6 double mutants, leading to compromised chromosome segregation during meiotic cell divisions. Interestingly, we found that the lethality of smc-5; him-6 can be rescued by loss of the conserved BRCA1 ortholog BRC-1. Furthermore, the combined deletion of smc-5 and him-6 leads to an irregular distribution of condensin and to chromosome decondensation defects reminiscent of condensin depletion. Lethality conferred by condensin depletion can also be rescued by BRC-1 depletion. Our results suggest that SMC-5/6 and HIM-6 can synergistically regulate recombination intermediate metabolism and suppress ectopic recombination by controlling chromosome architecture during meiosis.

  9. Do reward-processing deficits in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders promote cannabis use? An investigation of physiological response to natural rewards and drug cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Clifford M.; Brodeur, Mathieu B.; Lepage, Martin; Malla, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysfunctional reward processing is present in individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) and may confer vulnerability to addiction. Our objective was to identify a deficit in patients with SSD on response to rewarding stimuli and determine whether this deficit predicts cannabis use. Methods We divided a group of patients with SSD and nonpsychotic controls into cannabis users and nonusers. Response to emotional and cannabis-associated visual stimuli was assessed using self-report, event-related potentials (using the late positive potential [LPP]), facial electromyography and skin-conductance response. Results Our sample comprised 35 patients with SSD and 35 nonpsychotic controls. Compared with controls, the patients with SSD showed blunted LPP response to pleasant stimuli (p = 0.003). Across measures, cannabis-using controls showed greater response to pleasant stimuli than to cannabis stimuli whereas cannabis-using patients showed little bias toward pleasant stimuli. Reduced LPP response to pleasant stimuli was predictive of more frequent subsequent cannabis use (β = −0.24, p = 0.034). Limitations It is not clear if the deficit associated with cannabis use is specific to rewarding stimuli or nonspecific to any kind of emotionally salient stimuli. Conclusion The LPP captures a reward-processing deficit in patients with SSD and shows potential as a biomarker for identifying patients at risk of heavy cannabis use. PMID:24913137

  10. Explaining the effects of an intervention designed to promote evidence-based diabetes care: a theory-based process evaluation of a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaner Eileen FS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of randomised controlled trials can be usefully illuminated by studies of the processes by which they achieve their effects. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB offers a framework for conducting such studies. This study used TPB to explore the observed effects in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of a structured recall and prompting intervention to increase evidence-based diabetes care that was conducted in three Primary Care Trusts in England. Methods All general practitioners and nurses in practices involved in the trial were sent a postal questionnaire at the end of the intervention period, based on the TPB (predictor variables: attitude; subjective norm; perceived behavioural control, or PBC. It focussed on three clinical behaviours recommended in diabetes care: measuring blood pressure; inspecting feet; and prescribing statins. Multivariate analyses of variance and multiple regression analyses were used to explore changes in cognitions and thereby better understand trial effects. Results Fifty-nine general medical practitioners and 53 practice nurses (intervention: n = 55, 41.98% of trial participants; control: n = 57, 38.26% of trial participants completed the questionnaire. There were no differences between groups in mean scores for attitudes, subjective norms, PBC or intentions. Control group clinicians had 'normatively-driven' intentions (i.e., related to subjective norm scores, whereas intervention group clinicians had 'attitudinally-driven' intentions (i.e., related to attitude scores for foot inspection and statin prescription. After controlling for effects of the three predictor variables, this group difference was significant for foot inspection behaviour (trial group × attitude interaction, beta = 0.72, p Conclusion Attitudinally-driven intentions are proposed to be more consistently translated into action than normatively-driven intentions. This proposition was supported by the

  11. 'This is the beginning of the new me': process evaluation of a group fitness intervention to promote wellbeing in formerly homeless individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofija, Ernesta; Plugge, Melanie; Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil

    2018-02-27

    Homelessness is a persistent social issue with diverse impacts reaching far beyond individuals. Strategies and research concerning homelessness and health have largely focused on the risk factors and weaknesses of individuals. Such preoccupation has meant the potential strengths and resources within individuals, and so-called strength-based approaches have received less attention. Consequently, understanding how to effectively work with and engage this population in such interventions is limited. The current study presents a process evaluation of an 8-week group fitness intervention in a supportive housing facility. The purpose of the intervention was to increase tenants' physical activity together with opportunities for social interaction and support to, in turn, improve physical and mental wellbeing, and ultimately help individuals re-engage in their community. The evaluation focused on seven key components: context, recruitment, reach/participation, dose delivered, dose received, satisfaction/feedback and fidelity. Data collection methods included observation, attendance records and participant and staff interviews. Findings indicate the intervention was appropriate, well delivered, and enjoyed by participants who highlighted the importance of the sessions for their mental wellbeing and social inclusion. The intervention being conducted on site, the trainers' ability to build good rapport with participants together with the supportive environment they created were central to successful implementation. Group fitness sessions represent a promising intervention to improve wellbeing of this population. However, the need for more personalised care when delivering fitness sessions, due to the complexity of health issues prevalent in this population, was identified. This has implications for already limited resources, including staffing. Strategies to address this are required to ensure the continuity of fitness programs. Impact evaluation to quantify changes

  12. Mild oxidative stress induces redistribution of BACE1 in non-apoptotic conditions and promotes the amyloidogenic processing of Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Li Tan

    Full Text Available BACE1 is responsible for β-secretase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP, which represents the first step in the production of amyloid β (Aβ peptides. Previous reports, by us and others, have indicated that the levels of BACE1 protein and activity are increased in the brain cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. The association between oxidative stress (OS and AD has prompted investigations that support the potentiation of BACE1 expression and enzymatic activity by OS. Here, we have established conditions to analyse the effects of mild, non-lethal OS on BACE1 in primary neuronal cultures, independently from apoptotic mechanisms that were shown to impair BACE1 turnover. Six-hour treatment of mouse primary cortical cells with 10-40 µM hydrogen peroxide did not significantly compromise cell viability but it did produce mild oxidative stress (mOS, as shown by the increased levels of reactive radical species and activation of p38 stress kinase. The endogenous levels of BACE1 mRNA and protein were not significantly altered in these conditions, whereas a toxic H2O2 concentration (100 µM caused an increase in BACE1 protein levels. Notably, mOS conditions resulted in increased levels of the BACE1 C-terminal cleavage product of APP, β-CTF. Subcellular fractionation techniques showed that mOS caused a major rearrangement of BACE1 localization from light to denser fractions, resulting in an increased distribution of BACE1 in fractions containing APP and markers for trans-Golgi network and early endosomes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that mOS does not modify BACE1 expression but alters BACE1 subcellular compartmentalization to favour the amyloidogenic processing of APP, and thus offer new insight in the early molecular events of AD pathogenesis.

  13. Years of Service and Probability of Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine G. Abraham; James L. Medoff

    1983-01-01

    This study provides evidence which we believe challenges some conventional assumptions about the promotion process. Based on survey information collected from a large random sample of U.S. private sector firms, we reach two main conclusions. First,seniority independent of productivity appears to play a significant role even in nonunion promotion decisions. Second, the differences between union and nonunion promotion processes, at least with regard to the weight assigned to seniority per se, a...

  14. 在线知识社区结构平衡对知识序化影响研究——以维基百科为例%Research on the Impact of OKC Structural Balance on the Knowledge Ordering——a Case Study of Wikipedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘江南; 张美慧; 宋晓玉

    2017-01-01

    The lack of research of Online Knowledge Community (OKC) on the quality of OKC and the impact of the knowledge ordering from the empirical research.The typical platform of OKC—Wikipedia as an example,Ibis paper analyzes the collaborative editing process in the interaction of users,constructs the social interaction network of wiki entry by structural balance theory.Then,we also calculate the wiki pages' quality as the knowledge ordering index and so analyze the influence of social interaction network structure balance on the quality of wiki pages in OKC.It turns out that the social interaction network showing a dynamic "equilibrium—disequilibrium—equilibrium" and orderly trajectory with the wiki pages' quality exhibiting a spiral upward trend.It's helpful to reveal the mechanism of the influence of the social interaction network in OKC on knowledge ordering.%针对当前缺乏从实证的视角研究在线知识社区(OKC)的社会网络对社区构建知识的质量或对知识序化影响的问题.本文以OKC的典型平台维基百科为例,分析了其中协同编辑过程中用户交互关系,采用网络结构平衡理论对词条社区构建了社会交互网络,进而以维基词条页面质量为知识序化指标进行计算,最后分析了在线知识社区中社会交互网络结构平衡对页面质量影响规律.分析结果表明,OKC社会交互网络结构呈现出“平衡一非平衡—动态平衡”的有序演化轨迹,维基词条质量在社会网络的动态演化过程中呈现螺旋上升趋势.该研究有利于揭示OKC的社会交互网络对知识序化影响的机理.

  15. Local wisdom and health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll

    2011-01-01

    The respectful, appropriate use of local wisdom (LW) in health promotion increases penetration and longevity of positive behavior change. Collaborations based on mutual respect, flexibility and trust between health program organizers, traditional and local practitioners, and the communities being...... served are the goal for public health physicians in our modern, globalized world. This meta-analysis reviewed literature from the past 18 years drawn from a wide range of sources. This investigations proposes a grassroots, material shift toward regarding health promotion interventions as partnerships...... when planning, executing, and evaluating health promotion projects. This holistic approach would be based on the premise that LW is equal to expert opinion. This article endorses the integration of LW at every stage of the health promotion process concluding that it is through empowerment...

  16. CAUSE AND EFFECT IN PROMOTING A PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERIAN-VLĂDUȚ IACOB

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For a project to be considered successful it is necessary, besides a proper coordination, to be also done a good and wide promotion. In view of communication, promotion and maintenance ensures the organization's image. Disturbances occurring in any type of project, as a result of poor promotion, affect the image of the team and highlight the weaknesses in its management. Therefore, the promotion should be permanently monitored and evaluated. Cause-effect analysis is one of the ways we can identify some of nonconformities of the promotion process within a project.

  17. Health promotion: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stacy M

    2014-04-01

    Thinking and practising ethically requires reasoning systematically about the right thing to do. Health promotion ethics - a form of applied ethics - includes analysis of health promotion practice and how this can be ethically justified. Existing frameworks can assist in such evaluation. These acknowledge the moral value of delivering benefits. But benefits need to be weighed against burdens, harms or wrongs, and these should be minimised: they include invading privacy, breaking confidentiality, restraining liberty, undermining self-determination or people's own values, or perpetuating injustice. Thinking about the ethics of health promotion also means recognising health promotion as a normative ideal: a vision of the good society. This ideal society values health, sees citizens as active and includes them in decisions that affect them, and makes the state responsible for providing all of its citizens, no matter how advantaged or disadvantaged, with the conditions and resources they need to be healthy. Ethicists writing about health promotion have focused on this relationship between the citizen and the state. Comparing existing frameworks, theories and the expressed values of practitioners themselves, we can see common patterns. All oppose pursuing an instrumental, individualistic, health-at-all-costs vision of health promotion. And all defend the moral significance of just processes: those that engage with citizens in a transparent, inclusive and open way. In recent years, some Australian governments have sought to delegitimise health promotion, defining it as extraneous to the role of the state. Good evidence is not enough to counter this trend, because it is founded in competing visions of a good society. For this reason, the most pressing agenda for health promotion ethics is to engage with communities, in a procedurally just way, about the role and responsibilities of the citizen and the state in promoting and maintaining good health.

  18. What Is a Promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergamit, Michael R.; Veum, Jonathan R.

    1999-01-01

    For a sample of young workers, "promotion" involved no change in position or duties; promotion was more likely for males than females and Whites than Blacks or Hispanics. Company training and prior promotions were important predictors. Promotion did not appear to have a direct impact on job satisfaction. (SK)

  19. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... regarding a health promotion programme for families with ... to contribute to high rates of not going to school (ibid. ... sector in order, amongst other objectives, to prevent health ... exercise and mental health promotion must be incorporated ..... (2009:141) identified ignorance and misconception about the.

  20. [Five paradoxes in health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J

    The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Drug promotion practices: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Nilan T

    2018-01-18

    Over the years, the pharmaceutical industry has been at the forefront of research and innovation in drug discovery and development. The process of drug discovery extending from preclinical studies to multicentric clinical trials and postmarketing phase is a costly affair running into billions of dollars. On the flip side, not all investigational molecules clear the trial phases and get approved, which puts pressure on the manufacturers to maximize the profit from approved drugs. It is in this key area that the practice of drug promotion plays its role. The World Health Organization defines drug promotion as "all informational and persuasive activities by manufacturers and distributors, the effect of which is to influence the prescription, supply, purchase or use of medicinal drugs". With its humble intent of creating awareness among healthcare professionals and updating their knowledge on recent advances in treatment options, drug promotion has been an important tool, but gradually it has evolved to embrace aggressive marketing strategies and sometimes unethical business and scientific practices where the need for profit-making eclipses commitment to patient care and scientific exploration. In this review, we discuss the evolution of drug promotion practices, the various types, its merits and demerits, the influence of drug promotion on physician prescribing behaviour, the role of regulatory bodies, unethical promotional practices and finally summarize with future directions. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Stimulating innovative research in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Annie; Potvin, Louise

    2013-06-01

    The Global Working Group on Health Promotion Research (GWG HPR) of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) presents a collection of four articles illustrating innovative avenues for health promotion research. This commentary synthesizes the contributions of these articles while attempting to define the contours of research in health promotion. We propose that innovation in research involves the adoption of a reflexive approach wherein consideration of context plays different roles. The reflexive process consists of questioning what is taken for granted in the conceptualization and operationalization of research. It involves linking research findings and its theoretical foundations to characteristics and goals of the field and observed realities, while orienting reflection on specific objects. The reflexive nature of the research activity is of paramount importance for innovation in health promotion. With the publication of this series, the GWG HPR wishes to strengthen health promotion research capacity at the global level and reaffirm health promotion as a specific research domain.

  3. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills are concei......The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...

  4. Food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Neerven, Van Joost; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The majority of foods that are consumed in our developed society have been processed. Processing promotes a non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and sugars, the Maillard reaction (MR). Maillard reaction products (MRPs) contribute to the taste, smell and color of many food products, and thus

  5. Anger Promotes Economic Conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Keri L; Salerno, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that certain facets of people's political ideals can be motivated by different goals. Although it is widely accepted that emotions motivate goal-directed behavior, less is known about how emotion-specific goals may influence different facets of ideology. In this research, we examine how anger affects political ideology and through what mechanisms such effects occur. Drawing on the dual-process motivational model of ideology and the functionalist perspective of emotion, we propose that anger leads people to support conservative economic ideals, which promote economic independence and discourage societal resource sharing. Four studies support our hypothesis that anger can enhance support for an election candidate espousing conservative economic ideals. We find that anger shifts people toward economic conservatism by orienting them toward competition for resources. Implications and future research on the relationship between emotions and political ideology are discussed.

  6. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    Istenič, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  7. FY 2000 report on the results of the data processing in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis was conducted of various data obtained in the geothermal development promotion survey conducted in the Kuwanosawa area, Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 2000. The geology of the Kuwanosawa area consists of the Pretertiary system and Quarternary system, through which intrusive rocks are recognized. Basement rocks are composed of the Paleozoic-origin crystalline schist and the Cretaceous-period granites which intruded into the schist. In the Kuwanosawa area, there were recognized no clear geothermal signs such as the discharge of geothermal fluids like hot spring, fumarolic gas, etc., places of high temperature and new geothermal alteration zones. The geothermal water of borehole N11-KN-1 is a low temperature/low CL concentration geothermal water which was stored in basement rocks, which is supposed to be the one conductively heated in the process of the meteoric water penetrating deep-underground. The geothermal system heat source in the Kuwanosawa area and the periphery is regarded as the relic magma which spewed out the volcanic rocks of Mt. Takamatsu-dake in the Quaternary period. However, the geothermal fluid included no components originating in high temperature volcanic emissions, and therefore, it is considered that the geothermal fluid was formed by the meteoric water conductively heated by volcanic heat source. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1999 report on the geothermal development promotion survey data processing. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area (secondary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (dai niji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the FY 1999 geothermal development promotion survey - Kuwanosawa area, the following were conducted and the results were arranged: ground surface survey (electromagnetic survey, analysis of numerical map), N11-KN-1 structure test boring survey, geothermal water survey, environmental effect survey, supplementary survey related to data processing, and comprehensive analysis. As to the reservoir structure, it seems that the area is low in water permeability from the results that there was seen little lost circulation at the time of drilling N11-KN-1 and that transmission coefficients in the water poring test indicated smaller values than those of the production well. In the underground temperature distribution, the temperature at a depth of 1,800m was 164.5 degrees C, which is lower than that in the neighboring Wasabizawa area. The geothermal water of N11-KN-1 does not have many dissolved constituents, showing alkalescence, which belongs to the Na-HCO{sub 3} type. As to the geothermal water of N11-KN-1, it seems that the meteoric water went down along faults and fractures, was stored in basement rocks and heated by heat conduction to form the geothermal water. In the Kuwanosawa area, there are seen very few geothermal signs on the ground surface, and a possibility seems to be small that high temperature and dominated geothermal fluids are active on a large scale. (NEDO)

  9. Report on geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997. Tsujinodake Area No. B-6 (first report); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. Tsujinodake chiiki No.B-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997 for Tsujinodake Area. Geological, alteration band and fluid geochemical surveys, gravity and electromagnetic exploration, and environment influence survey were generalized to summarize the state of existence of geothermal resources. Sea water permeated into deep underground portion was mixed with meteoric water from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond; heated by deep hot water originated from magma pools as the source of volcanic activities after formation of the Ata caldera; the resultant neutral high salt concentration hot water has risen on the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structural line; and was reserved in deep portion of Mr. Tsujinodake. The sea water permeated into deep underground portion was heated by the same deep hot water originated from magma pools as described above, has risen along the Ata caldera wall, and been reserved in the deep portion of Kaimon Dake Spa. Around the Yamakawa geothermal power plant, the permeated sea water was heated by the same magma pools as described above and by the intrusive rocks originated therefrom as the heat source. The water has risen along the shattered belt developing around the intrusive rocks or the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structure line, and been reserved. Around the Unagi pond, mixed sea and meteoric water has risen along the Yamakawa-Matsugakubo structure line, and been reserved. (NEDO)

  10. Adaptation to climate change for peace and stability. Strengthening of approaches and instruments as well as promotion of processes to reduce the security risks posed by climate change in the context of climate change adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Mohns, Till; Ziegenhagen, Katherina [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The findings of the project ''Strengthening of approaches and instruments as well as promotion of processes to reduce the security risks posed by climate change in the context of climate change adaptation'' are summarized in this report. The main objective of the project is to outline the potential contribution of adaptation measures to avoid crisis and conflicts caused or exacerbated by water scarcity, food shortages or extreme weather events. As discussed in the conceptual chapter of the report, adaptation can contribute to peace and stability even in conflict-prone areas given that a conflict-sensitive approach is applied. On the basis of a comprehensive regional analysis, we show that adaptation is not yet a prominent element of regional cooperation. To address this gap, we design three regional adaptation roadmaps for the Andes region, Central and South Asia based on desk review of regional processes and programs as well as expert consultations. To ensure that the results of the projects can be considered in national and international policy processes and to strengthen international governance for adaptation we close with a Memorandum for action outlining major principles to support processes for adaptation and peace. [German] Das Vorhaben ''Entwicklung von Ansaetzen und Instrumenten sowie Foerderung von Prozessen zur Eindaemmung der Sicherheitsrisiken des Klimawandels im Rahmen der Anpassung an den Klimawandel'' untersucht den moeglichen Beitrag, den Massnahmen zur Anpassung an den Klimawandel fuer Frieden und Stabilitaet leisten koennen. Kernanliegen des Vorhabens ist die Vermeidung von durch den Klimawandel erzeugten oder verstaerkten Sicherheitsrisiken wie Wasserknappheit, Nahrungsmittelengpaesse oder extreme Wetterereignisse. Wie die konzeptionelle Eingangsbetrachtung des Endberichts zeigt, koennen Anpassungsprozesse - auch in konfliktgepraegten Gebieten - einen friedensfoerdernden Beitrag leisten, allerdings bedarf es einer konfliktsensitiven Ausrichtung

  11. Adaptation to climate change for peace and stability. Strengthening of approaches and instruments as well as promotion of processes to reduce the security risks posed by climate change in the context of climate change adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Mohns, Till; Ziegenhagen, Katherina [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The findings of the project ''Strengthening of approaches and instruments as well as promotion of processes to reduce the security risks posed by climate change in the context of climate change adaptation'' are summarized in this report. The main objective of the project is to outline the potential contribution of adaptation measures to avoid crisis and conflicts caused or exacerbated by water scarcity, food shortages or extreme weather events. As discussed in the conceptual chapter of the report, adaptation can contribute to peace and stability even in conflict-prone areas given that a conflict-sensitive approach is applied. On the basis of a comprehensive regional analysis, we show that adaptation is not yet a prominent element of regional cooperation. To address this gap, we design three regional adaptation roadmaps for the Andes region, Central and South Asia based on desk review of regional processes and programs as well as expert consultations. To ensure that the results of the projects can be considered in national and international policy processes and to strengthen international governance for adaptation we close with a Memorandum for action outlining major principles to support processes for adaptation and peace. [German] Das Vorhaben ''Entwicklung von Ansaetzen und Instrumenten sowie Foerderung von Prozessen zur Eindaemmung der Sicherheitsrisiken des Klimawandels im Rahmen der Anpassung an den Klimawandel'' untersucht den moeglichen Beitrag, den Massnahmen zur Anpassung an den Klimawandel fuer Frieden und Stabilitaet leisten koennen. Kernanliegen des Vorhabens ist die Vermeidung von durch den Klimawandel erzeugten oder verstaerkten Sicherheitsrisiken wie Wasserknappheit, Nahrungsmittelengpaesse oder extreme Wetterereignisse. Wie die konzeptionelle Eingangsbetrachtung des Endberichts zeigt, koennen Anpassungsprozesse - auch in konfliktgepraegten Gebieten - einen friedensfoerdernden Beitrag leisten, allerdings bedarf

  12. 中文維基百科管理員參與動機與工作型態之研究 The Participation Motivation and Work Styles of the Administrators for Chinese Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yun Liang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available 本研究以兩岸三地中文維基百科的管理員為對象,探討其參與動機與工作型態。研究群依據研究目的,進行相關文獻探討並編製調查問卷,該問卷共分為四個部分:第一部分為改編之參與動機量表;第二部分為擔任中文維基百科管理員情況;第三部分是日常工作型態;第四部分為受調者基本資料。研究結果顯示:(一)兩岸三地中文維基百科管理員之參與動機主要為「自我成長」、「使命感」、「相近性」,且不因居住地區不同而有差異;(二)在「工作時數」及「僱用合約的型態」兩方面,有部分管理員符合非典型工作型態的特徵;另三地管理員日常工作型態在「全職學生的比例」、「工作時段是否彈性」、「工作合約明訂僱用期限」三方面有顯著的差異。(三)擁有較多自主時間者、人際歸屬較弱者,以及使用網路時間較長者,其參與動機均顯較高。研究群最後根據研究結果,提出對中文維基百科及其管理員制度之系列建議。The purpose of this study is to explore the participation motivations and work styles of administrators of Chinese Wikipedia among Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China. A questionnaire was designed based on literature reviews and expert consultations from related fields. The questionnaire for administrators is divided into three sections: revised scale of participation motivation; daily works and performance; and work styles. The findings of this study include: 1. The major motivations of the administrators to participate in Chinese Wikipedia are: self-growth, sense of mission, and similarity. 2. For work style, in the aspects of working hours and employment type, some of the administrators have atypical work styles. On the other hand, all of them showed a major difference in the following aspects: ratio of full-time student, flexibility of working

  13. Radiation promotive concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebaita, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of radiation promotion was proposed in this study. The proposal of this concept was dependent upon stimulation in growth weight of survived chicks when fertile eggs were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation. It was found that female chick (Promotive Sex) responded to this proposal concept rather than the male. Moreover, the dose level of 640 rads was found to be the Promotive Dose. It is important before applying ionizing radiation as a growth promotive to take into consideration whether you want increasing egg or meat production, as meat promotion in layers breed is bound to decrease egg production. (orig.) [de

  14. Streamlining Appointment, Promotion, and Tenure Procedures to Promote Early-Career Faculty Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon B; Hollerbach, Ann; Donato, Annemarie Sipkes; Edlund, Barbara J; Atz, Teresa; Kelechi, Teresa J

    2016-01-01

    A critical component of the progression of a successful academic career is being promoted in rank. Early-career faculty are required to have an understanding of appointment, promotion, and tenure (APT) guidelines, but many factors often impede this understanding, thwarting a smooth and planned promotion pathway for professional advancement. This article outlines the steps taken by an APT committee to improve the promotion process from instructor to assistant professor. Six sigma's DMAIC improvement model was selected as the guiding operational framework to remove variation in the promotion process. After faculty handbook revisions were made, several checklists developed, and a process review rubric was implemented; recently promoted faculty were surveyed on satisfaction with the process. Faculty opinions captured in the survey suggest increased transparency in the process and perceived support offered by the APT committee. Positive outcomes include a strengthened faculty support framework, streamlined promotion processes, and improved faculty satisfaction. Changes to the APT processes resulted in an unambiguous and standardized pathway for successful promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  16. Evaluation of an Organisational Intervention to Promote Integrated Working between Health Services and Care Homes in the Delivery of End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia: Understanding the Change Process Using a Social Identity Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Sarah; Goodman, Claire; Mathie, Elspeth; Nicholson, Caroline

    2016-06-03

    In the United Kingdom, approximately a third of people with dementia live in long-term care facilities for adults, the majority of whom are in the last years of life. Working arrangements between health services and care homes in England are largely ad hoc and often inequitable, yet quality end-of-life care for people with dementia in these settings requires a partnership approach to care that builds on existing practice. This paper reports on the qualitative component of a mixed method study aimed at evaluating an organisational intervention shaped by Appreciative Inquiry to promote integrated working between visiting health care practitioners (i.e. General Practitioners and District Nurses) and care home staff. The evaluation uses a social identity approach to elucidate the mechanisms of action that underlie the intervention, and understand how organisational change can be achieved. We uncovered evidence of both (i) identity mobilisation and (ii) context change, defined in theory as mechanisms to overcome divisions in healthcare. Specifically, the intervention supported integrated working across health and social care settings by (i) the development of a common group identity built on shared views and goals, but also recognition of knowledge and expertise specific to each service group which served common goals in the delivery of end-of-life care, and (ii) development of context specific practice innovations and the introduction of existing end-of-life care tools and frameworks, which could consequently be implemented as part of a meaningful bottom-up rather than top-down process. Interventions structured around a Social Identity Approach can be used to gauge the congruence of values and goals between service groups without which efforts to achieve greater integration between different health services may prove ineffectual. The strength of the approach is its ability to accommodate the diversity of service groups involved in a given area of care, by valuing their

  17. SPORT PROMOTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  18. Promoting physical activity, healthy eating and gross motor skills development among preschoolers attending childcare centers: Process evaluation of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention using the RE-AIM framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Stéphanie; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Humbert, M Louise; Bélanger, Mathieu; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Vatanparast, Hassan; Leis, Anne

    2018-06-01

    The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention was developed to promote physical activity, gross motor skills and healthy eating among preschoolers attending childcare centers. This process evaluation aimed to report the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention. The RE-AIM framework was used to guide this process evaluation. Data were collected across 140 childcare centers who received the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in the provinces of Saskatchewan and New Brunswick, Canada. Quantitative data were collected through director questionnaires at 10 months and 2 years after the initial training and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected throughout the intervention. The intervention was successful in reaching a large number of childcare centres and engaging both rural and urban communities across Saskatchewan and New Brunswick. Centres reported increasing opportunities for physical activity and healthy eating, which were generally low-cost, easy and quick to implement. However, these changes were rarely transformed into formal written policies. A total of 87% of centers reported using the physical activity resource and 68% using the nutrition resource on a weekly basis. Implementation fidelity of the initial training was high. Of those centers who received the initial training, 75% participated in the mid-point booster session training. Two year post-implementation questionnaires indicated that 47% of centers were still using the Active Play Equipment kit, while 42% were still using the physical activity resource and 37% were still using the nutrition resource. Key challenges to implementation and sustainability identified during the evaluation were consistent among all of the REAIM elements. These challenges included lack of time, lack of support from childcare staff and low parental engagement. Findings from this study suggest the implementation of

  19. Health promotion in globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  20. Promoter reuse in prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveen, H.; Matus-Garcia, M.; Passel, van M.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows promoters being reused separate from their downstream gene, thus providing a mechanism for the efficient and rapid rewiring of a gene’s transcriptional regulation. We have identified over 4000 groups of highly similar promoters using a conservative sequence similarity search

  1. Health promotion in context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liveng, Anne; Andersen, Heidi Myglegård; Lehn Christiansen, Sine

    2018-01-01

    Health promotion constitutes a complex field of study, as it addresses multifaceted problems and involves a range of methods and theories. Students in the field of health promotion can find this challenging. To raise their level of reflexivity and support learning we have developed the “context m...

  2. Promotion primer. Foerderfibel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This revised edition of the promotion primer is to serve as a topical orientation aid for industrial firms, unions, boards and other bodies interested where the actions of governmental R and D and innovation policy are compiled and clearly arranged. It is important for the success of governmental aids that the institutions concerned are informed about all possibilities of the promotion, financing and advisory programme. Beyond the presentation of the research promotion sectors, the fiscal measures and the contractual as well as the joint research this revised edition focussess on the fields of consultative services for innovation and information. For many firms the access to qualified information and guidance is of particular importance. That is why this brochure points out the ways towards governmental research promotion. The BMFT has provided a remarkable contribution to research promotion by establishing information and consultative services for trade and industry.

  3. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...

  4. Radiation Processing of Marine Algal Polysaccharides for Agriculture, as Plant Growth Promoters & Preservation of Foods and Health Care Products as Instant Hydrogel Formulations for Improved Mucose Adhesion and Medical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolko, Eduardo E.; Cerchietti, Luciana [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Centro Atómico Ezeiza, Laboratorio de Polímeros (Argentina); Clozza, Mario; Giardina, Ernesto B.; Villela, Fernando; Divo, Marta D. [Univ. de Buenos Aires, Fac. de Agronomía, Departamento de Producción Vegetal (Argentina)

    2010-07-01

    Characterization of the bulk material for degradation and/or structure modification in grafting procedures during this period was continued They were characterized by ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infra- red spectroscopy (FTIR). After receiving the chitosan sample from Prof. Dr Rosiak we started the duty of harmonization procedures for the characterization of raw materials in terms of molecular weight determination by viscosity and to proceed with the measurements of samples of alginates and carrageenans For investigation of radiation–processed alginates for agriculture applications degraded polymers were used as plant growth promoters, in different crops, such as tomato, lettuce, spinach and cabbage under different environmental conditions. By irradiation of alginates with various radiation doses (500, 750 and 1000 kGy gamma rays) degraded alginates have been obtained. They have been applied in horticultural species in 20 and 100 microgram/l concentrations, in solution state (under hydroponics cultivation condition) and by foliar spraying (under soil less culture). In a preliminary phase of this study, different alginate treatments (radiation doses and concentrations) were applied to determine the effect on seedlings quality, evaluated through leaf and root development, shoot/root ratio and photosynthetic activity. UV-vis spectroscopy of alginate irradiated at very high doses ( up to 1000 kGy) showed an abrupt change in the macroscopic shape of the sample forming hard particles and shifting the absorbing band to a higher wavelength. Alginates irradiated in solution shows an absorption band at 265 nm approximately and increases steadily with dose. Alginates irradiated in solid state shows also the absorption band at 265 and increases with doses but this band disappears at higher dose and shows a new wider band at 427 nm. Degradation was also observed accompanied by a color change to deep brown for highly degraded alginate. A conclusion

  5. Radiation Processing of Marine Algal Polysaccharides for Agriculture, as Plant Growth Promoters & Preservation of Foods and Health Care Products as Instant Hydrogel Formulations for Improved Mucose Adhesion and Medical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolko, Eduardo E.; Cerchietti, Luciana; Clozza, Mario; Giardina, Ernesto B.; Villela, Fernando; Divo, Marta D.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of the bulk material for degradation and/or structure modification in grafting procedures during this period was continued They were characterized by ultra-violet and visible (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infra- red spectroscopy (FTIR). After receiving the chitosan sample from Prof. Dr Rosiak we started the duty of harmonization procedures for the characterization of raw materials in terms of molecular weight determination by viscosity and to proceed with the measurements of samples of alginates and carrageenans For investigation of radiation–processed alginates for agriculture applications degraded polymers were used as plant growth promoters, in different crops, such as tomato, lettuce, spinach and cabbage under different environmental conditions. By irradiation of alginates with various radiation doses (500, 750 and 1000 kGy gamma rays) degraded alginates have been obtained. They have been applied in horticultural species in 20 and 100 microgram/l concentrations, in solution state (under hydroponics cultivation condition) and by foliar spraying (under soil less culture). In a preliminary phase of this study, different alginate treatments (radiation doses and concentrations) were applied to determine the effect on seedlings quality, evaluated through leaf and root development, shoot/root ratio and photosynthetic activity. UV-vis spectroscopy of alginate irradiated at very high doses ( up to 1000 kGy) showed an abrupt change in the macroscopic shape of the sample forming hard particles and shifting the absorbing band to a higher wavelength. Alginates irradiated in solution shows an absorption band at 265 nm approximately and increases steadily with dose. Alginates irradiated in solid state shows also the absorption band at 265 and increases with doses but this band disappears at higher dose and shows a new wider band at 427 nm. Degradation was also observed accompanied by a color change to deep brown for highly degraded alginate. A conclusion

  6. Evaluation of an Organisational Intervention to Promote Integrated Working between Health Services and Care Homes in the Delivery of End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia: Understanding the Change Process Using a Social Identity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Amador

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom, approximately a third of people with dementia live in long-term care facilities for adults, the majority of whom are in the last years of life. Working arrangements between health services and care homes in England are largely ad hoc and often inequitable, yet quality end-of-life care for people with dementia in these settings requires a partnership approach to care that builds on existing practice. This paper reports on the qualitative component of a mixed method study aimed at evaluating an organisational intervention shaped by Appreciative Inquiry to promote integrated working between visiting health care practitioners (i.e. General Practitioners and District Nurses and care home staff. The evaluation uses a social identity approach to elucidate the mechanisms of action that underlie the intervention, and understand how organisational change can be achieved. We uncovered evidence of both (i identity mobilisation and (ii context change, defined in theory as mechanisms to overcome divisions in healthcare. Specifically, the intervention supported integrated working across health and social care settings by (i the development of a common group identity built on shared views and goals, but also recognition of knowledge and expertise specific to each service group which served common goals in the delivery of end-of-life care, and (ii development of context specific practice innovations and the introduction of existing end-of-life care tools and frameworks, which could consequently be implemented as part of a meaningful bottom-up rather than top-down process. Interventions structured around a Social Identity Approach can be used to gauge the congruence of values and goals between service groups without which efforts to achieve greater integration between different health services may prove ineffectual. The strength of the approach is its ability to accommodate the diversity of service groups involved in a given area of care

  7. 中文維基百科管理員參與動機與工作型態之研究 The Participation Motivation and Work Styles of the Administrators for Chinese Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Yun Liang; Chia-Heng Chen; Yu-Ling Hsu

    2008-01-01

    本研究以兩岸三地中文維基百科的管理員為對象,探討其參與動機與工作型態。研究群依據研究目的,進行相關文獻探討並編製調查問卷,該問卷共分為四個部分:第一部分為改編之參與動機量表;第二部分為擔任中文維基百科管理員情況;第三部分是日常工作型態;第四部分為受調者基本資料。研究結果顯示:(一)兩岸三地中文維基百科管理員之參與動機主要為「自我成長」、「使命感」、「相近性」,且不因居住地區不同而有差異;(二)在「工作時數」及「僱用合約的型態」兩方面,有部分管理員符合非典型工作型態的特徵;另三地管理員日常工作型態在「全職學生的比例」、「工作時段是否彈性」、「工作合約明訂僱用期限」三方面有顯著的差異。(三)擁有較多自主時間者、人際歸屬較弱者,以及使用網路時間較長者,其參與動機均顯較高。研究群最後根據研究結果,提出對中文維基百科及其管理員制度之系列建議。The purpose of this study is to explore the participation motivations and work styles of administrators of Chinese Wikipedia a...

  8. What makes health promotion research distinct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, James; Warwick-Booth, Louise; South, Jane; Cross, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    There have been concerns about the decline of health promotion as a practice and discipline and, alongside this, calls for a clearer articulation of health promotion research and what, if anything, makes it distinct. This discussion paper, based on a review of the literature, the authors' own experiences in the field, and a workshop delivered by two of the authors at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, seeks to state the reasons why health promotion research is distinctive. While by no means exhaustive, the paper suggests four distinctive features. The paper hopes to be a catalyst to enable health promotion researchers to be explicit in their practice and to begin the process of developing an agreed set of research principles.

  9. Health Promotion Education Politics and Schooling: The Greek Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifanti, Amalia A.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the politics of health promotion as a continual process of public health globally and locally. Our main objective in this study is to present the health promotion education initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) at an international level and also to examine the politics of health promotion in Greece,…

  10. An Assessment of the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center’s Utilization of the Processes, and Availability of Tools and Physical Environments that Promote Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    ideas. This diversity can aid in the creativity of the team. The size and makeup of the team can, however, be a deterrent to creativeness if the...Vodaphone, Samsung , NASA, and the BBC (Nussbaum, 2004). IDEO deliberately designs workspaces that promote collaboration as they see this as essential to

  11. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-01-01

    Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to cer...

  12. Iconic cuisines, marketing and place promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This chapter looks at how food and drink narratives are utilised to promote and create place identities. By exploring the concepts of heritage branding and constructed historical narratives, it illustrates how iconic cuisines are being employed to promote place and attract consumers. It argues that the marketing process is more than utilising established aspects of heritage cuisines and historical truths, as it is often about creating narratives to meet the evolving needs of destinations and ...

  13. Promoting Your Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  14. Researching health promotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Platt, Stephen David; Watson, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ... the progress towards developing and implementing health promotion interventions that: * * * * are theoretically grounded, socio-culturally appropriate and sustainable involve the redistribution of resources towards those most in need reflect the principles of equity, participation and empowerment incorporate rigorous, methodologically ...

  15. Promoting Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Winker, MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA is a member of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME. The Editorial Board of IJMA believes it is important that the statement on promoting global health and this accompanying editorial is brought to the attention of our readers. Medical journal editors have a social responsibility to promote global health by publishing, whenever possible, research that furthers health worldwide.

  16. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    2004-01-01

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  17. PROMOTION OF MONTENEGRO THROUGH SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervis Selhanovic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern social structures of Montenegro exist in a hypercomplex and very dynamic environment. The complexity and dynamism are, in part, a consequence of the general characteristics of the modern age, and in part, of the transition processes which have affected the Montenegrin society. The transition processes are taking place at all levels and subsystems of the community, and its sociological milieu is facing inevitability of adaptation and immersion in such processes and trends. There is no more positive promotion for a country than a sports promotion. There is no expert team, public relations agency or a lawyer than can win Montenegro a front page. We can talk about the importance of sports for the promotion of Montenegro from another point of view. If we compare the number of occurrences of names of the selected Montenegrin athletes with that of politicians, scientists or artists in different internet search engines, we will realize how great is the capacity of marketing potential that lies in Montenegrin sports and top athletes as representatives of the products and services with the label - Made in Montenegro. In addition to the success of the Montenegrin athletes globally, the promotion of Montenegro through sports is directly contributed by the major sporting events and contests, on account of which Montenegro presented itself not only as an excellent host and organizer, but also demonstrated the remarkable state and marketing capabilities and competencies. Reputation (image is not achieved overnight. Its semiological and symbolic charge includes all (visual, vocal, environmental, personal, active inputs, which need to be channelled and created. Indeed, continual work in creating and maintaining the image of Montenegro is a public relations function. With efficiently and professionally developed media and PR strategy, the modern state of Montenegro may expect to favourably position its image at the international scene, and to present its

  18. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....

  19. ROMANIAN TOURISM PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mircea NEDELEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is unlike any other because, instead of a product, you are selling a place and all the things it has to offer. You are competing with the entire world every time you promote tourism in a given destination, and this high level of competition demands a creative and unique approach. To be successful, your marketing should constantly put forth the best possible image of your destination, while creating interest on a broad scale in as many ways as possible. Romania has to conceive an efficient promotional mix in order to attract more tourists.

  20. Ranking Very Many Typed Entities on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaragoza, Hugo; Rode, H.; Mika, Peter; Atserias, Jordi; Ciaramita, Massimiliano; Attardi, Guiseppe

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ranking very many entities of different types. In particular we deal with a heterogeneous set of types, some being very generic and some very specific. We discuss two approaches for this problem: i) exploiting the entity containment graph and ii) using a Web search engine

  1. Entity Ranking using Wikipedia as a Pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kaptein; P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen); J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about

  2. Entity ranking using Wikipedia as a pivot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; de Vries, A.; Kamps, J.; Huang, X.J.; Jones, G.; Koudas, N.; Wu, X.; Collins-Thompson, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the task of Entity Ranking on the Web. Searchers looking for entities are arguably better served by presenting a ranked list of entities directly, rather than a list of web pages with relevant but also potentially redundant information about these entities. Since

  3. Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Heilman, James M; Wolff, Jacob De; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treat...

  4. Dengue fever: a Wikipedia clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, James M; De Wolff, Jacob; Beards, Graham M; Basden, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is a mosquito-borne infectious tropical disease caused by the dengue virus. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, which results in bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and leakage of blood plasma, or into dengue shock syndrome, in which dangerously low blood pressure occurs. Treatment of acute dengue fever is supportive, with either oral or intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease and use of intravenous fluids and blood transfusion for more severe cases. Along with attempts to eliminate the mosquito vector, work is ongoing to develop a vaccine and medications targeted directly at the virus.

  5. National promotional campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekevski Siniša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking an attention to promotion as operational variable in marketing effort, author focused on so called ways of creating national images. As a case of very interesting activity paper discuss an experience of regional chamber of Croatia with activities in upgrading international recognition of national products as well as country as destination in such context.

  6. Buying time promotes happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,

  7. 50 Practical Promotion Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeyski, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Includes 50 cost-effective ideas for promoting camp in the areas of recruiting new campers, encouraging returning campers, advertising strategies, printing brochures and other written materials, using photographs, targeting groups for camp facility rental, and effectively using the media. (LP)

  8. Health and health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of our social and political effort, including a portion of the research in this university, is directed towards the promotion of one goal: health. But what is health? Or rather, how should we define health so that it is an identifiable goalpost for our social policies and technological

  9. Promoting tourism destination image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Govers (Robert); F.M. Go (Frank); K. Kumar (Kuldeep)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the role of tourism promotion as a component of destination image formation. It reports the findings of a study in which 1,100 respondents from around the globe described their previsit perceived image of seven sample destinations, as well as the information sources

  10. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…

  11. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  12. Meanings of care in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Gladys Carmela Santos; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Backes, Dirce Stein

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to understand the meaning built by students and professors on health promotion in the teaching and learning process of health care in Nursing. It is a qualitative study using ground theory as a methodological reference. Data was collected through interviews, with three samples groups, 13 students and four professors, by classroom observation, and through meetings with nursing professors. The central subject resulting from this analysis was: constructing teaching and learning in order, disorder and self organization for a new way of caring promoting health. The teaching/learning process directed at health promotion develops in a stage of crisis, going from a state of order to a state of disorder that is uncertain and contradictory regarding what society understands about health.

  13. Reconstructing Dynamic Promoter Activity Profiles from Reporter Gene Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Soumya; Sams, Thomas; Maury, Jérôme; Workman, Christopher T

    2018-03-16

    Accurate characterization of promoter activity is important when designing expression systems for systems biology and metabolic engineering applications. Promoters that respond to changes in the environment enable the dynamic control of gene expression without the necessity of inducer compounds, for example. However, the dynamic nature of these processes poses challenges for estimating promoter activity. Most experimental approaches utilize reporter gene expression to estimate promoter activity. Typically the reporter gene encodes a fluorescent protein that is used to infer a constant promoter activity despite the fact that the observed output may be dynamic and is a number of steps away from the transcription process. In fact, some promoters that are often thought of as constitutive can show changes in activity when growth conditions change. For these reasons, we have developed a system of ordinary differential equations for estimating dynamic promoter activity for promoters that change their activity in response to the environment that is robust to noise and changes in growth rate. Our approach, inference of dynamic promoter activity (PromAct), improves on existing methods by more accurately inferring known promoter activity profiles. This method is also capable of estimating the correct scale of promoter activity and can be applied to quantitative data sets to estimate quantitative rates.

  14. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  15. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  16. Developing Partnerships to Promote Local Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters-Bayer, Ann; van Veldhuizen, Laurens; Wettasinha, Chesha; Wongtschowski, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    Local innovation in agriculture and natural resource management is the process through which individuals or groups discover or develop new and better ways of managing resources, building on and expanding the boundaries of their existing knowledge. Prolinnova (Promoting Local Innovation) is a NGO-led global partnership programme that is being built…

  17. Advancement & Promotion Review: 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the end of June, following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 13/2003. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2003. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions are now published on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist_2003.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2003. Final decisions will be applied retroactively to 1 July 2003. Human Resources Division Tel:...

  18. Examples of sales promotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, L.

    The Gas, Electricity and Water Works Cologne (GEW) supplies 4,115 objects with district heat. The connected load totals 830,000 kJ/s, which over the last 10 years has been expanded by an average of 5.3% annually and is currently 2.2% above the national average. The extension of district heat supply has been accomplished without subsidies from the two ZIP programmes. The major objects in Cologne city are to a large extent linked to the GEW district heating network. The goal now is to win more smaller objects in the supply area. To achieve notable new connected load increases in the future, the GEW is conducting a sales promotion drive together with Cologne heating construction firms. The promotion is running under the slogan 'Magically Simple: Heating with District Heat'. Its strategy and execution are described here by the author.

  19. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  20. ADVANCEMENT & PROMOTION REVIEW: 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the beginning of July, under the new career structure scheme and following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2002. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2002. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions will be published this year on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2002. Final decisions will be applied retroactivel...

  1. Governmentality in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm

    Objectives: Issues of governance in health promotion during the last 3-4 decades has increasingly been seen as characterized by health interventions and campaigns aimed at influencing the citizens to exhibit a certain desired behavior, that is an orientation towards generating self...... is not sufficient to ensure healthy behaviour. Such measures are used in the public as well as the private sector. In this paper we will give a number of examples of this development and a preliminary analysis of the social framework for its emergence. Methods: The paper will present a theoretical discussion...... was conducted as a case oriented search in relevant media and available documents illustrating the tendency towards using coercive measures to promote healthy behaviour. This was followed up through semi-structured interviews with actors from public authorities, organizations and companies with experience...

  2. PROMOTING TOURISTIC BRAND ”BUCOVINA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana HÎNCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of tourism product appears as a part of the travel agencies and the tourist areas such as: Bucovina and Maramures, Danube Delta, Dobrogea etc. Tourist areas have become real brands along the sights of Romania. Associations promote tourism, tourist information centers and tourist promotion offices of Romania, together with ANAT should devise strategies to promote tourism brands representing Romania. Regarding tourism brand, it is a picture element, which identifies the products or services of a tourist zone. Customers are the ones who decide if that brand live up to their expectations or not. Travel Branding is a process of creating and maintaining a brand in the hospitality industry. Travel Branding refers to identifying and exploiting competitive advantages in our case about the strengths of your product or Bucovina tourist area. Bucovina ,,Neverland” promoting a full of beauty. I think it can awaken from the numbness Romanian tourism. Just as red Bordeaux promote France among others, as well as Voronet blue is a Romanian brand, internationally recognized, and I think that is the most important national tourism brand. After many this area is considered a wonderland of Romania, a pearl of the country that can make the most to promote the culture and traditions of this part of Europe, so-called Switzerland of Romania. It's an area where natural beauty is complemented by monasteries and hospitality of the people of the lands.

  3. : Healthy lifestyles’ promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gómez, Erika; Díaz-Campo, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The goal of this research was to analyse the advertising of food broadcast by the two Spanish private thematic channels aimed at children with more audience in Spain (Neox and Boing). A content analysis was made in order to study the commercials showed during the hours of children’s enhanced protection established by the normative of this country. The paper presents the increasing concern about kids´ obesity and the role of food industry. Healthy lifestyles are promote...

  4. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  5. Promoting breast screening in Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L; Dobson, H; McGuire, F

    2000-03-01

    To establish whether there is a role for advertising in the promotion of the Breast Screening Programme and what the role of advertising might be. Four hundred and sixty questionnaires were completed by women attending their breast screening appointment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the static unit at Calder Street and the mobile unit in Govan. The advertising (budget 30,000 Pounds) campaign ran over an eight week period in the Govan, Paisley Road West and Cardonald areas of Glasgow. Media used included press advertising, The Glasgow Underground, adshells, bus advertising (interiors) and poster distribution via local outlets. Forty-two per cent of the sample were aware of the campaign. Ninety-seven per cent liked the campaign images. Eighty eight per cent felt that breast screening should be advertised more. Screening uptake increased in the areas covered by the advertising campaign. Govan -58%-71% and Ibrox (Paisley Road West and Cardonald) -59%-61%. Women were very supportive of the role of advertising for the Breast Screening Programme. In particular they found the campaign images and messages reassuring, supportive and credible. Their views suggest that the role of advertising should be: To raise awareness of the service To make women more conscious of the benefits of screening To change public perceptions of the screening process However, it is recognised that a fully integrated approach is required for the promotion of the service to account for the improvement in uptake, as advertising cannot be expected to work in isolation.

  6. Promoter Motifs in NCLDVs: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Andrade, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Arantes, Thalita Souza; Boratto, Paulo Victor Miranda; Silva, Ludmila Karen dos Santos; Dornas, Fábio Pio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2017-01-01

    For many years, gene expression in the three cellular domains has been studied in an attempt to discover sequences associated with the regulation of the transcription process. Some specific transcriptional features were described in viruses, although few studies have been devoted to understanding the evolutionary aspects related to the spread of promoter motifs through related viral families. The discovery of giant viruses and the proposition of the new viral order Megavirales that comprise a monophyletic group, named nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), raised new questions in the field. Some putative promoter sequences have already been described for some NCLDV members, bringing new insights into the evolutionary history of these complex microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of the transcription regulation process in the three domains of life, followed by a systematic description of what is currently known about promoter regions in several NCLDVs. We also discuss how the analysis of the promoter sequences could bring new ideas about the giant viruses’ evolution. Finally, considering a possible common ancestor for the NCLDV group, we discussed possible promoters’ evolutionary scenarios and propose the term “MEGA-box” to designate an ancestor promoter motif (‘TATATAAAATTGA’) that could be evolved gradually by nucleotides’ gain and loss and point mutations. PMID:28117683

  7. Promoter Motifs in NCLDVs: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele Pereira Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, gene expression in the three cellular domains has been studied in an attempt to discover sequences associated with the regulation of the transcription process. Some specific transcriptional features were described in viruses, although few studies have been devoted to understanding the evolutionary aspects related to the spread of promoter motifs through related viral families. The discovery of giant viruses and the proposition of the new viral order Megavirales that comprise a monophyletic group, named nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV, raised new questions in the field. Some putative promoter sequences have already been described for some NCLDV members, bringing new insights into the evolutionary history of these complex microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of the transcription regulation process in the three domains of life, followed by a systematic description of what is currently known about promoter regions in several NCLDVs. We also discuss how the analysis of the promoter sequences could bring new ideas about the giant viruses’ evolution. Finally, considering a possible common ancestor for the NCLDV group, we discussed possible promoters’ evolutionary scenarios and propose the term “MEGA-box” to designate an ancestor promoter motif (‘TATATAAAATTGA’ that could be evolved gradually by nucleotides’ gain and loss and point mutations.

  8. Reconstructing Dynamic Promoter Activity Profiles from Reporter Gene Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Soumya; Sams, Thomas; Maury, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    activity despite the fact that the observed output may be dynamic and is a number of steps away from the transcription process. In fact, some promoters that are often thought of as constitutive can show changes in activity when growth conditions change. For these reasons, we have developed a system......Accurate characterization of promoter activity is important when designing expression systems for systems biology and metabolic engineering applications. Promoters that respond to changes in the environment enable the dynamic control of gene expression without the necessity of inducer compounds......, for example. However, the dynamic nature of these processes poses challenges for estimating promoter activity. Most experimental approaches utilize reporter gene expression to estimate promoter activity. Typically the reporter gene encodes a fluorescent protein that is used to infer a constant promoter...

  9. Chaenomeles – health promoting benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watychowicz, Katarzyna; Janda, Katarzyna; Jakubczyk, Karolina; Wolska, Jolanta

    Chaenomeles is a genus of deciduous spiny in the family of Rosaceae (Pomoideae subfamily). For centuries, the plant was used for a treatment of anemia, rheumatism, gout and cardiovascular diseases. The chemical composition studies of Chaenomeles showed the presence of many biologically active compounds, such as: phenolic compounds, organic acids, terpenoids, alcohols, ketones or aldehydes. Fruit of Chaenomeles has the largest applying potential due to extensive use of medicinal and high concentration of vitamin C. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that Chaenomeles fruit can help in the healing process of diabetes, tumor, allergies and liver diseases. Futhermore the plant has many positive qualities, like: hepatoprotective effect, anti-inflammatory properties, antioxidant action, antimicrobial and neuroprotective effect. Chaenomeles fruit may promote the growth of beneficial intestinal microflora and contribute to the regulation of body weight. The aim of this review was to summarize the information and data on the chemical composition and therapeutic properties of Chaenomeles.

  10. Promoting sustainability through green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.

  11. Capturing how age-friendly communities foster positive health, social participation and health equity: a study protocol of key components and processes that promote population health in aging Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Dubois, Marie-France; Généreux, Mélissa; Menec, Verena; Raina, Parminder; Roy, Mathieu; Gabaude, Catherine; Couturier, Yves; St-Pierre, Catherine

    2017-05-25

    To address the challenges of the global aging population, the World Health Organization promoted age-friendly communities as a way to foster the development of active aging community initiatives. Accordingly, key components (i.e., policies, services and structures related to the communities' physical and social environments) should be designed to be age-friendly and help all aging adults to live safely, enjoy good health and stay involved in their communities. Although age-friendly communities are believed to be a promising way to help aging Canadians lead healthy and active lives, little is known about which key components best foster positive health, social participation and health equity, and their underlying mechanisms. This study aims to better understand which and how key components of age-friendly communities best foster positive health, social participation and health equity in aging Canadians. Specifically, the research objectives are to: 1) Describe and compare age-friendly key components of communities across Canada 2) Identify key components best associated with positive health, social participation and health equity of aging adults 3) Explore how these key components foster positive health, social participation and health equity METHODS: A mixed-method sequential explanatory design will be used. The quantitative part will involve a survey of Canadian communities and secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). The survey will include an age-friendly questionnaire targeting key components in seven domains: physical environment, housing options, social environment, opportunities for participation, community supports and healthcare services, transportation options, communication and information. The CLSA is a large, national prospective study representative of the Canadian aging population designed to examine health transitions and trajectories of adults as they age. In the qualitative part, a multiple

  12. Implementing health promotion tools in Australian Indigenous primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, Nikki A; McCalman, Janya; Armit, Christine; O'Donoghue, Lynette; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Rowley, Kevin; Doyle, Joyce; Tsey, Komla

    2018-02-01

    In Australia, significant resources have been invested in producing health promotion best practice guidelines, frameworks and tools (herein referred to as health promotion tools) as a strategy to improve Indigenous health promotion programmes. Yet, there has been very little rigorous implementation research about whether or how health promotion tools are implemented. This paper theorizes the complex processes of health promotion tool implementation in Indigenous comprehensive primary healthcare services. Data were derived from published and grey literature about the development and the implementation of four Indigenous health promotion tools. Tools were theoretically sampled to account for the key implementation types described in the literature. Data were analysed using the grounded-theory methods of coding and constant comparison with construct a theoretical implementation model. An Indigenous Health Promotion Tool Implementation Model was developed. Implementation is a social process, whereby researchers, practitioners and community members collectively interacted in creating culturally responsive health promotion to the common purpose of facilitating empowerment. The implementation of health promotion tools was influenced by the presence of change agents; a commitment to reciprocity and organizational governance and resourcing. The Indigenous Health Promotion Tool Implementation Model assists in explaining how health promotion tools are implemented and the conditions that influence these actions. Rather than simply developing more health promotion tools, our study suggests that continuous investment in developing conditions that support empowering implementation processes are required to maximize the beneficial impacts and effectiveness of health promotion tools. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. How yogurt is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s Processing column on the theme of “How Is It Processed?” focuses on yogurt. Yogurt is known for its health-promoting properties. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of yogurt and the current market. It will also unveil both traditional and modern yogurt processing t...

  14. The study on Egr-1 promoter which is radioactive promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunzhi; Guo Yang; Lv Zhonghong

    2006-01-01

    Radiogenetic therapy is a heated reaseach on oncotherapy. Early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) gene promoter is a probably means in radiogenetic therapy. The article review studying on Egr-1 gene promoter and constructing regulating gene expressing system by radiation-inducible Egr-1 gene promoter. (authors)

  15. FY 1997 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 3); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 3. No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Described herein are the results of the comprehensive analysis of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area, investigated in the FY 1995 to 1997 period as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3, N8-KI-4 and N9-KI-5; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the 4 wells; environmental impact investigation; and supplementary investigations for determination of ages of rocks and alteration, and analysis of the substances contained in the fluid. The following conclusions are derived from the findings by the comprehensive analysis. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1995 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 1); 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Described herein are the FY 1995 results of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area investigation, conducted as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The project covers the geological structure, geochemical, gravitational, electromagnetic, environmental impact and supplementary investigations. The following findings are obtained by the comprehensive analysis of the data. The Kumaishi Area is based on the sedimentary rocks and granite formed in the Pre-Ternary, which are unconformably covered by the strata belonging to Upper Oligocene of Ternary to Lower Pleistocene of Quaternary. The presence of NW-SE to E-W to NE-SW systems is suggested as the main fracture systems. It is estimated by the K-Ar method that the intrusion was formed in the 2.06 to 2.28Ma. The geochemical temperature suggests the presence of the fluid of 200 degrees C or higher as the deep hot water temperature. The resistivity structure generally indicates the NW-SE direction. Each stratum is confirmed by the test drilling for the structural investigation. The fluid motion model suggests possibility of hot water of high salt content, similar to that confirmed deep in the Yagumo Area, distributed deep in the Kumaishi Area. (NEDO)

  17. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Supplementary survey on data processing (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Data shori ni kakawaru hosoku chosa hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1992, chemical/isotopic analysis of fumarolic gas in the Yoshioka district was made to elucidate the underground geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso in Kumamoto Prefecture. Items for analysis of fumarolic gas were 16 items including the temperature, concentration of non-condensable gas, CO2, H2O, CH{sub 4}, {delta}D(CH{sub 4}) and {delta}{sup 13}C(CO2). Items for analysis of condensed water were 9 items including pH, Na, NH{sub 4}, {delta}D(H2O) and {delta}{sup 18}O. As a result of the analysis, the main component of non-condensable gas of fumarolic gas was CO2, and the composition was similar to that of the fumarolic gas in the Yunoya/Tarutama district in the periphery. It was presumed that the origin and formation mechanism of fumarolic gas were also similar to those in the Yunoya/Tarutama district. It was presumed that the deep geothermal reservoir which is the source of vapor/gas generation was composed of the neutral or alkalescent geothermal water, and a possibility that the reservoir is connected with the deep geothermal reservoir in the Yunoya district was presumed from a viewpoint of geographical location. (NEDO)

  18. FY 1996 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 2); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin data shori hokokusho. 2 . No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Described herein are the FY 1996 results of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area investigation, conducted as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3 and N8-KI-4; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the N8-KI-1 and N8-KI-2; and environmental impact investigation. The following conclusions are derived from the findings. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. The geothermal hot water was not heated to an extent to form the widely distributed convection systems, but arise in the form of separate, small-scale systems. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1997 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Primary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, age determination of rocks, alteration age determination by thermoluminescence method, geochemical survey (hot spring gas, hot spring water), gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were made. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. The geothermal system in this area seems to be controlled by the Mt. Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, folding zone along the fault and Graben-state structure extending southeast of the zone. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction and volcanic effluences from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1998 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Secondary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 2 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997 and FY 1998. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, wide-area gravity/magnetic structure analysis, seismic exploration, etc. In the well exploration, structural boreholes N10-MD-1 and N10-MD-2 were drilled, and the following were conducted: temperature logging/temperature recovery test, electric logging, water injection test and survey of core cuttings. For borehole N10-MD-2, the survey of geothermal water was made. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were conducted. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  1. Generalizing on best practices in image processing: a model for promoting research integrity: Commentary on: Avoiding twisted pixels: ethical guidelines for the appropriate use and manipulation of scientific digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Dale J; Vollmer, Sara H

    2010-12-01

    Modifying images for scientific publication is now quick and easy due to changes in technology. This has created a need for new image processing guidelines and attitudes, such as those offered to the research community by Doug Cromey (Cromey 2010). We suggest that related changes in technology have simplified the task of detecting misconduct for journal editors as well as researchers, and that this simplification has caused a shift in the responsibility for reporting misconduct. We also argue that the concept of best practices in image processing can serve as a general model for education in best practices in research.

  2. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  3. The Promoted Sibling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visholm, Steen

    to understand challenges to leaders in postmodern organisations. Theories about leadership has until now been occupied with the vertical relations in the organisations. To lead a team of creative people the leader has to pay attention both to the relations between leader and followers and to the relations...... to the psychodynamic understanding of families, groups and organisations. With a point of departure in a study of self-governing groups in a factory the paper introduces the concept: ‘the promoted sibling’ which provide quite some understanding of the middle managers challenges in his or her role and the challenges...

  4. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

  5. Precise regulation of gene expression dynamics favors complex promoter architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoters process signals through recruitment of transcription factors and RNA polymerase, and dynamic changes in promoter activity constitute a major noise source in gene expression. However, it is barely understood how complex promoter architectures determine key features of promoter dynamics. Here, we employ prototypical promoters of yeast ribosomal protein genes as well as simplified versions thereof to analyze the relations among promoter design, complexity, and function. These promoters combine the action of a general regulatory factor with that of specific transcription factors, a common motif of many eukaryotic promoters. By comprehensively analyzing stationary and dynamic promoter properties, this model-based approach enables us to pinpoint the structural characteristics underlying the observed behavior. Functional tradeoffs impose constraints on the promoter architecture of ribosomal protein genes. We find that a stable scaffold in the natural design results in low transcriptional noise and strong co-regulation of target genes in the presence of gene silencing. This configuration also exhibits superior shut-off properties, and it can serve as a tunable switch in living cells. Model validation with independent experimental data suggests that the models are sufficiently realistic. When combined, our results offer a mechanistic explanation for why specific factors are associated with low protein noise in vivo. Many of these findings hold for a broad range of model parameters and likely apply to other eukaryotic promoters of similar structure.

  6. A future task for health-promotion research: Integration of health promotion and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Thualagant, Nicole; Holm, Jesper; Kjærgård, Bente; Andersen, Heidi Myglegård; From, Ditte-Marie; Land, Birgit; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm

    2018-02-01

    Based on previous studies and reflections collected from participants in a workshop at the 8th Nordic Health Promotion Research Network conference, we reveal current tendencies and discuss future challenges for health-promotion research regarding integration of sustainable development principles. Despite obvious interfaces and interactions between the two, our contention is that strategies for health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development and that policies aimed at solving health or sustainability problems may therefore cause new, undesired and unforeseen environmental and health problems. As illustrated in previous research and as deliberated in the above-mentioned workshop, a number of barriers are identified. These are believed to be related to historical segregation, the conceptual understandings of health promotion and sustainable development, as well as the politics and implementation of policy goals in both areas. Three focal points are proposed as important challenges to address in future research: (a) the duality of health promotion and sustainability and how it can be handled in order to enhance mutually supportive processes between them; (b) the social dimension of sustainability and how it can be strengthened in the development of strategies for health promotion and sustainable development; and (c) exploring and identifying policy approaches and strategies for integrating health promotion and sustainable development.

  7. [Promoting Research Integrity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2018-01-01

     Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) was launched in April 2015 to promote integrated medical research and development (R&D) ranging from basic research to practical applications, in order to smoothly achieve the nationwide application of research outcomes, and to establish an environment therefor. AMED consolidates budgets for R&D expenses, which had previously been allocated from different sources, such as the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. It provides funds strategically to universities, research institutions, etc. By promoting medical R&D, AMED aims to achieve the world's highest level of medical care/services to contribute to a society in which people live long and healthy lives. To achieve this mission, it is imperative that R&D funded by AMED is widely understood and supported. Maintaining and improving research integrity is a prerequisite to this end. AMED is taking various measures to ensure fair and appropriate R&D. It is asking researchers to participate in its responsible conduct in research (RCR) education program and to comply with its rules for managing conflicts of interest (COI). In addition, AMED also conducts a grant program to create and distribute a variety of educational materials on RCR and other matters. Further, AMED is establishing a platform that allows researchers to exchange information about research integrity, and it is undertaking additional measures, such as holding meetings and international symposia on research integrity.

  8. The promotion of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamut, Marian Kazimierz

    2002-01-01

    The human mind is capable of creating an internal world--the psychic sphere--including the phenomena characteristic of human nature, such as selfconsciousness, conscious experiences, conceptual thinking, symbolic language, dreams, art, creation of culture, sense of values, interest in the distant past and care about the distant future. According to the exceptionally concordant opinions of the sages and scholars of the East and the West it is just within this internal world that human happiness dwells. Happiness is a state of the spirit which consists in: internal peace, satisfaction with one's life, the joy of life, benevolence and cordiality towards oneself and towards others; sensitivity to the beauty of nature, culture and art; harmonious co-existence with the surroundings. The achievement and experiencing of the states of thus understood happiness depend mainly on ourselves and, similarly to the project of health promotion, require knowledge, willingness and possibilities. Happiness Promotion denotes the commendation and popularizing of a certain definite way of thinking and acting--showing the road which leads to the frequent experiencing of happy moments.

  9. The Relevant Factors in Promoting Reading Activities in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Yao-Hsu; Huang, Shih-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to help students absorb knowledge, schools often conduct reading activities. Thorough planning and strategies, however, are needed to insure the effect of reading promotions, and make them a deeply-rooted part of life. This study adopted the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to discuss the relevant factors in promoting reading activities…

  10. Promoters for radiation induced cross-linking in polymer substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, D.S.; Shurpik, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Process for the production of vulcanizates of diolefin rubbers by irradiation of compositions containing such rubbers utilizing polyhydrosulfides such as 1,10-di-mercapto-decane as direct promoters. Indirect promoters may also be used to lower the total dose requirements. (Patent Office Record)

  11. Curriculum Development for Promoting Students' Life Management Skills related to their Independence at Social and Vocational Aspects in Special Support Classes of Lower Secondary School : Practice study of "the food processing" in the carrier management

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Tomoko; Wakamatsu, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    I reconsidered the work learning to bring up life management skills aimed at the social and vocational independence of the students with the mental disabilities in special support class and newly conducted with educational practice based on the subject "carrier management". In this study, we took up the practice of "food processing" and analyzed the students' behavior and description by adapting an evaluation standard, which involved the point of view of the evaluation and basic, transferable...

  12. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Packaging Signal Is Located at the 5′ End of the Genome and Promotes Viral RNA Incorporation into Virions in a Replication-Independent Process

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Enjuanes, Luis; Sola, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5′ end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. Th...

  13. The need to promote behaviour change at the cultural level: one factor explaining the limited impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health intervention in rural Tanzania. A process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wight Daniel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few of the many behavioral sexual health interventions in Africa have been rigorously evaluated. Where biological outcomes have been measured, improvements have rarely been found. One of the most rigorous trials was of the multi-component MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual health programme, which showed improvements in knowledge and reported attitudes and behaviour, but none in biological outcomes. This paper attempts to explain these outcomes by reviewing the process evaluation findings, particularly in terms of contextual factors. Methods A large-scale, primarily qualitative process evaluation based mainly on participant observation identified the principal contextual barriers and facilitators of behavioural change. Results The contextual barriers involved four interrelated socio-structural factors: culture (i.e. shared practices and systems of belief, economic circumstances, social status, and gender. At an individual level they appeared to operate through the constructs of the theories underlying MEMA kwa Vijana - Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action – but the intervention was unable to substantially modify these individual-level constructs, apart from knowledge. Conclusion The process evaluation suggests that one important reason for this failure is that the intervention did not operate sufficiently at a structural level, particularly in regard to culture. Recently most structural interventions have focused on gender or/and economics. Complementing these with a cultural approach could address the belief systems that justify and perpetuate gender and economic inequalities, as well as other barriers to behaviour change.

  14. In planta processing and glycosylation of a nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-like effector and its interaction with a host CLAVATA2-like receptor to promote parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S; Mitchum, Melissa G; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. In Planta Processing and Glycosylation of a Nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-Like Effector and Its Interaction with a Host CLAVATA2-Like Receptor to Promote Parasitism1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S.; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. PMID:25416475

  16. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Coronavirus Genome Packaging Signal Is Located at the 5′ End of the Genome and Promotes Viral RNA Incorporation into Virions in a Replication-Independent Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia; Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Capiscol, Carmen; del Palacio, Lorena; Sola, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Preferential RNA packaging in coronaviruses involves the recognition of viral genomic RNA, a crucial process for viral particle morphogenesis mediated by RNA-specific sequences, known as packaging signals. An essential packaging signal component of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) has been further delimited to the first 598 nucleotides (nt) from the 5′ end of its RNA genome, by using recombinant viruses transcribing subgenomic mRNA that included potential packaging signals. The integrity of the entire sequence domain was necessary because deletion of any of the five structural motifs defined within this region abrogated specific packaging of this viral RNA. One of these RNA motifs was the stem-loop SL5, a highly conserved motif in coronaviruses located at nucleotide positions 106 to 136. Partial deletion or point mutations within this motif also abrogated packaging. Using TGEV-derived defective minigenomes replicated in trans by a helper virus, we have shown that TGEV RNA packaging is a replication-independent process. Furthermore, the last 494 nt of the genomic 3′ end were not essential for packaging, although this region increased packaging efficiency. TGEV RNA sequences identified as necessary for viral genome packaging were not sufficient to direct packaging of a heterologous sequence derived from the green fluorescent protein gene. These results indicated that TGEV genome packaging is a complex process involving many factors in addition to the identified RNA packaging signal. The identification of well-defined RNA motifs within the TGEV RNA genome that are essential for packaging will be useful for designing packaging-deficient biosafe coronavirus-derived vectors and providing new targets for antiviral therapies. PMID:23966403

  17. Nurses' perceptions, understanding and experiences of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Dympna

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents an account of nurses' perceptions and understanding of health promotion in an acute setting. Health promotion is considered the remit of every nurse. To engage in health-promoting practice, however, nurses need to understand the term 'health promotion' clearly. A single qualitative embedded case study was used. Purposive sampling of eight nurses was employed. Initially, theses nurses were observed in practice and, following this, a semi-structured one-to-one interview was conducted with each observed nurse. Qualitative data analysis guided by work of Miles and Huberman was employed. The data revealed one main theme: health-promoting nursing practice and this consisted of six categories and five subcategories. The findings indicated that nurses struggled to describe their understanding of health promotion, their understanding was limited and the strategies described to conduct health promotion were narrow and focused on the individual. Their perceptions and descriptions of health promotion were more in keeping with the traditional health education approach. Overall health promotion was reported to occur infrequently, being added on if the nurse had time. Factors relating to education, organizational and management issues were identified as key barriers prohibiting health-promoting nursing practice. Nurses must recognize that health promotion is a broad concept that does not exclusively focus on the individual or lifestyle factors. Nurses must be educated to recognize health-promoting opportunities in the acute setting, as well as how to plan for and conduct health promotion so that it becomes integral to practice. A review of the methods of organizing and delivering nursing care is also advocated. Ward managers have an important role in supporting nurses, creating a culture for health promotion and sharing power in decision-making processes, so that nurses feel valued and empowered.

  18. Health promotion and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  19. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  20. TRYPTOPHAN PROMOTES CHARITABLE DONATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  1. Buying time promotes happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I

    2017-08-08

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands ( n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.

  2. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  3. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  4. 20 Years Health Promotion Research in and on settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Waller

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 we celebrated the 20th anniversary of the Ottawa Charta for Health Promotion. During these 20 years health promotion became a very influential public health strategy. Let us - with reference to the WHO Health Promotion Glossary - recall some of the core elements of health promotion: “Health promotion represents a comprehensive social and political process, it not only embraces actions directed at strengthening skills and capabilities of individuals, but also actions directed towards changing social, environmental and economic conditions so as to alleviate their impact on public and individual health.Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health. Participation is essential to sustain health promotion action.” The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic strategies for health promotion. These are (1 advocacy for health to create the essential conditions for health indicated above; (2 enabling all people to achieve their full health potential; and (3 mediating between different interests in society in the pursuit of health. The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic strategies for health promotion. These are (1 advocacy for health to create the essential conditions for health indicated above; (2 enabling all people to achieve their full health potential; and (3 mediating between different interests in society in the pursuit of health.

  5. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  6. Avaliando o processo de construção de políticas públicas de promoção de saúde: a experiência de Curitiba Assessing the building process of health promotion public policies: the experience of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Jorge Moysés

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Intervenções de Promoção de Saúde apresentam caráter ampliado, envolvendo a colaboração e participação de diferentes atores e a utilização de múltiplas estratégias. Isto acrescenta complexidade às formas de medir o impacto das intervenções realizadas em termos de estrutura, processo e resultados. Este texto explora questões conceituais e proposições avaliativas focadas na intersetorialidade e na Promoção de Saúde, com base na experiência de Curitiba. A avaliação de processo, tomada como mensuração qualitativa das iniciativas de promoção de saúde na cidade, revelam a importância da participação social e coordenação intersetorial propiciada pelo poder público na condução das ações. O comprometimento dos vários atores envolvidos nos projetos intersetoriais coloca-se como questão crucial para a sustentabilidade das políticas públicas de promoção de saúde, apontando para a necessidade de formação de redes colaborativas, além de bases políticas e legislativas que permitam a continuidade das intervenções.Health Promotion interventions have broad attributes, involving the collaboration and participation of different actors and the use of multiple strategies. These characteristics turn complex the methods for measuring the impact regarding the structure, process and results of the interventions. This text explores some conceptual issues and evaluation schemes focused on the intersectoral approach and on the Health Promotion framework, based on the experience of Curitiba. The process evaluation, taken as qualitative assessment of the health promotion initiatives in the city, uncovers the importance of the social participation and intersectoral coordination afforded by the public administration in the delivering of the actions. The commitment of several actors involved in the intersectoral projects appears to be crucial for the sustainability of the public policies on health promotion, pointing towards

  7. Health Promotion Education in India: Present Landscape and Future Vistas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay; Chauhan, Kavita; Dobe, Madhumita

    2012-01-01

    ‘Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health’. This stream of public health is emerging as a critical domain within the realm of disease prevention. Over the last two decades, the curative model of health care has begun a subtle shift towards a participatory model of health promotion emphasizing upon practice of healthy lifestyles and creating healthy communities. Health promotion encompasses five key strategies with health communication and education as its cornerstones. Present study is an attempt to explore the current situation of health promotion education in India with an aim to provide a background for capacity building in health promotion. A systematic predefined method was adopted to collect and compile information on existing academic programs pertaining to health promotion and health education/communication. Results of the study reveal that currently health promotion education in India is fragmented and not uniform across institutes. It is yet to be recognized as a critical domain of public health education. Mostly teaching of health promotion is limited to health education and communication. There is a need for designing programmes for short-term and long-term capacity building, with focus on innovative methods and approaches. Public health institutes and associations could play a proactive role in designing and imparting academic programs on health promotion. Enhancing alliances with various institutes involved in health promotion activities and networking among public health and medical institutes as well as health services delivery systems would be more productive. PMID:22980352

  8. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  9. Promoting Practices: How Activists Employ Online Tactics to Promote Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Maarten; van den Broek, Tijs Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    This research combines institutional and social movement theory to explore and describe how social movement organizations use online tactics to promote new institutional norms. The research setting for the current research is the Dutch environmental movement. The process of an online campaign of the

  10. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Vapor film collapse behavior on high temperature particle surface. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-3. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka

    2002-03-01

    The experimental researches were conducted to study vapor film collapse behavior on high temperature melted core material coarsely mixed in the coolant under the film boiling condition. The film collapse is very important incipient incident of the trigger process for the vapor explosion in sever accident of nuclear reactor. In the experiment, pressure pulse was applied to the vapor film on a high temperature particle surface simulating melted core material to observed microscopic vapor film collapse behavior with a high-speed video camera of 40,500 fps. The particle surface temperature and pressure around the particle were simultaneously measured. The transition of the vapor film thickness and two-dimensional vapor-liquid interface movement and the velocity were estimated with visual data analysis technique, PIV and digital data analysis technique. Furthermore, heat conduction analysis was performed to estimate the vapor-liquid interfacial temperature with the measured temperature and estimated vapor film thickness. As the results, it was clarified that the vapor-liquid interface changed white from transparent view for all the experimental conditions. It is also clarified that the vapor-liquid interfacial temperature decreased under the saturation temperature when the pressure pulse arrive at the particle. The experimental facts indicates the possibility that the vapor film collapse occurs due to the liquid phase homogeneous moving toward the particle drove by the pressure reduction caused by the phase change inside the vapor film. (author)

  11. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Heat transfer on the liquid-liquid interface between molten core pool and coolant. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-6. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Saito, Yasushi

    2002-03-01

    Heat transfer experiments under steady and transient conditions were performed using molten Wood's metal and distilled water to study heat transfer on the liquid-liquid interface between molten fuel pool and coolant under severe accident conditions. In the steady state experiment, boiling curve was measured over the range from natural convection region to film boiling region. The boiling behavior was observed using a high-speed video camera. In the transient experiment, distilled water was poured onto the hot molten metal surface, and the boiling curve was obtained in the cooling process. Comparing the measured boiling curve with existing correlations and experimental data for solid-liquid and liquid-liquid systems, the following conclusions were drawn: (a) When the interface surge is negligible and oxide layer is formed on the interface, the boiling curve at the liquid-liquid surface could be approximately reproduced by the heat transfer correlations for nucleate boiling and film boiling regions and the critical heat flux correlation for a liquid-solid system. (b) When no oxide layer is formed on the interface, the boiling curve at the liquid-liquid surface moved towards higher wall superheat than that at the liquid-solid surface, as Novakovic et al. observed in their experiment using mercury. (c) Transient heat transfer coefficient for film boiling at the liquid-liquid surface was about 100% higher than that predicted by the heat transfer correlation for a solid-liquid system. (author)

  12. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Vapor film collapse behavior on high temperature particle surface. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-3. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Yutaka [Tsukuba Univ., Institute of Engineering Mechanics and Systems, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    The experimental researches were conducted to study vapor film collapse behavior on high temperature melted core material coarsely mixed in the coolant under the film boiling condition. The film collapse is very important incipient incident of the trigger process for the vapor explosion in sever accident of nuclear reactor. In the experiment, pressure pulse was applied to the vapor film on a high temperature particle surface simulating melted core material to observed microscopic vapor film collapse behavior with a high-speed video camera of 40,500 fps. The particle surface temperature and pressure around the particle were simultaneously measured. The transition of the vapor film thickness and two-dimensional vapor-liquid interface movement and the velocity were estimated with visual data analysis technique, PIV and digital data analysis technique. Furthermore, heat conduction analysis was performed to estimate the vapor-liquid interfacial temperature with the measured temperature and estimated vapor film thickness. As the results, it was clarified that the vapor-liquid interface changed white from transparent view for all the experimental conditions. It is also clarified that the vapor-liquid interfacial temperature decreased under the saturation temperature when the pressure pulse arrive at the particle. The experimental facts indicates the possibility that the vapor film collapse occurs due to the liquid phase homogeneous moving toward the particle drove by the pressure reduction caused by the phase change inside the vapor film. (author)

  13. Fiscal 1998 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on data processing (No. B-6 - Tsujinodake area - Phase 2); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 2. No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The result of the data processing (Phase 1) and the result of the 1998 survey carried out for the Tsujinodake area, Kagoshima Prefecture, were subjected to a comprehensive analysis, and the state of existence of geothermal resources in this area was compiled into a report. In fiscal 1998, structural boring (N10-TD-1), thermal water examination, seismic exploration, environmental impact assessment, fluid inclusion examination, and rock dating were conducted. Some findings obtained from the comprehensive analysis are mentioned below. In the vicinity of structural borehole N10-TD-1, fluids move along geological boundaries and in permeable layers in the horizontal direction, with an aquiclude serving as a border. At levels deeper than 980m, there flows a mixture of seawater heated to approximately 135 degrees C by thermal conduction and water originating in Lake Ikeda. Still deeper, water from Ikeda Lake flows in and lowers the temperature. It is suggested that there may be a sharp and abrupt rise in temperature at levels deeper than the cooling region near the bottom of structural borehole N10-TD-1. It is inferred that the magma reservoir that produced the Tsujinodake lava is small as a heat source or that it has not yet formed a high temperature geothermal system shallow in the ground. (NEDO)

  14. When a promotion is denied: the effects of decision stage on perceptions of promotion and price fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kukar-Kinney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketers frequently use promotions to enhance sales and increase consumers’ perceptions of value. However, most promotions usually come with restrictions, such as time expiration, quantity or product model restriction, etc. In the present research, the effect of the stage in the purchase process when the consumer finds out about the restriction is investigated. The findings indicate that the later in the purchase process the consumer discovers the restriction, the greater is the perception that the effort invested into the purchase is wasted, consequently resulting in lower promotion and price fairness. This effect is mediated through the feeling of entitlement to the promotional price and the inferred negative retailer’s motive for the promotion. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.

  15. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  16. Ethnopoly promotes tolerance

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration.   The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...

  17. What promotes longevity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kujawska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Scientists try to answer on the need of a long life with a full physical capability Nonagenarians, centenarians and their closest family members are characterized by a survival benefit throughout life. Moreover, twin studies of longevity suggest that around 25% of the variation in lifespan in developed countries may be inherited. It is therefore worth to examine the role of inter-relationship between nature vs nurture in longevity increment. Material and methods Articles in the EBSCO database have been analyzed using keywords: longevity, gene, behavior, environment. The available literature was subjectively selected. Then, the newest version of every paper was searched for. Results Restriction of calories as well as intake of desirable nutrients can promote adequate control of metabolic pathways and gene expression. APOE, DRD4, Paraoxonase 1, SIRT 3 and SIRT 5 genes can play an important role in longevity. Conclusions Genetic profile and environmental factors seems to both influence on the longevity. Relationships between genetic profile, behavior pattern, quality of life, years spent free from activity limitations and longevity should be examined, to be able to give a recipe on living a long and happy life.

  18. Promotion and Fast Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...

  19. Health promotion in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiv...

  20. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  1. Developing and applying metamodels of high resolution process-based simulations for high throughput exposure assessment of organic chemicals in riverine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Barber, M; Isaacs, Kristin K; Tebes-Stevens, Caroline

    2017-12-15

    As defined by Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metamodeling), "(a) metamodel or surrogate model is a model of a model, and metamodeling is the process of generating such metamodels." The goals of metamodeling include, but are not limited to (1) developing functional or statistical relationships between a model's input and output variables for model analysis, interpretation, or information consumption by users' clients; (2) quantifying a model's sensitivity to alternative or uncertain forcing functions, initial conditions, or parameters; and (3) characterizing the model's response or state space. Using five models developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, we generate a metamodeling database of the expected environmental and biological concentrations of 644 organic chemicals released into nine US rivers from wastewater treatment works (WTWs) assuming multiple loading rates and sizes of populations serviced. The chemicals of interest have log n-octanol/water partition coefficients (logK OW ) ranging from 3 to 14, and the rivers of concern have mean annual discharges ranging from 1.09 to 3240m 3 /s. Log-linear regression models are derived to predict mean annual dissolved and total water concentrations and total sediment concentrations of chemicals of concern based on their logK OW, Henry's Law Constant, and WTW loading rate and on the mean annual discharges of the receiving rivers. Metamodels are also derived to predict mean annual chemical concentrations in fish, invertebrates, and periphyton. We corroborate a subset of these metamodels using field studies focused on brominated flame retardants and discuss their application for high throughput screening of exposures to human and ecological populations and for analysis and interpretation of field data. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. System-Level Action Required for Wide-Scale Improvement in Quality of Primary Health Care: Synthesis of Feedback from an Interactive Process to Promote Dissemination and Use of Aggregated Quality of Care Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jodie; Laycock, Alison; Matthews, Veronica; Bailie, Ross

    2016-01-01

    There is an enduring gap between recommended practice and care that is actually delivered; and there is wide variation between primary health care (PHC) centers in delivery of care. Where aspects of care are not being done well across a range of PHC centers, this is likely due to inadequacies in the broader system. This paper aims to describe stakeholders' perceptions of the barriers and enablers to addressing gaps in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander chronic illness care and child health, and to identify key drivers for improvement. This paper draws on data collected as part of a large-scale continuous quality improvement project in Australian Indigenous PHC settings. We undertook a qualitative assessment of stakeholder feedback on the main barriers and enablers to addressing gaps in care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and in chronic illness care. Themes on barriers and enablers were further analyzed to develop a "driver diagram," an improvement tool used to locate barriers and enablers within causal pathways (as primary and secondary drivers), enabling them to be targeted by tailored interventions. We identified 5 primary drivers and 11 secondary drivers of high-quality care, and associated strategies that have potential for wide-scale implementation to address barriers and enablers for improving care. Perceived barriers to addressing gaps in care included both health system and staff attributes. Primary drivers were: staff capability to deliver high-quality care; availability and use of clinical information systems and decision support tools; embedding of quality improvement processes and data-driven decision-making; appropriate and effective recruitment and retention of staff; and community capacity, engagement and mobilization for health. Suggested strategies included mechanisms for increasing clinical supervision and support, staff retention, reorientation of service delivery, use of information systems and community health

  3. System level action required for wide-scale improvement in quality of primary healthcare: synthesis of feedback from an interactive process to promote dissemination and use of aggregated quality of care data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie eBailie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThere is an enduring gap between recommended practice and care that is actually delivered; and there is wide variation between primary healthcare (PHC centres in delivery of care. Where aspects of care are not being done well across a range of PHC centres, this is likely due to inadequacies in the broader system. This paper aims to describe stakeholders’ perceptions of the barriers and enablers to addressing gaps in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander chronic illness care and child health, and to identify key drivers for improvement.MethodsThis paper draws on data collected as part of a large scale continuous quality improvement project in Australian Indigenous PHC settings. We undertook a qualitative assessment of stakeholder feedback on the main barriers and enablers to addressing gaps in care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and in chronic illness care. Themes on barriers and enablers were further analysed to develop a ‘driver diagram’, an improvement tool used to locate barriers and enablers within causal pathways, (as primary and secondary drivers, enabling them to be targeted by tailored interventions. ResultsWe identified five primary drivers and eleven secondary drivers of high quality care, and associated strategies that have potential for wide-scale implementation to address barriers and enablers for improving care. Perceived barriers to addressing gaps in care included both health system and staff attributes. Primary drivers were: staff capability to deliver high quality care; availability and use of clinical information systems and decision support tools; embedding of quality improvement processes and data driven decision making; appropriate and effective recruitment and retention of staff; and community capacity, engagement and mobilisation for health. Suggested strategies included mechanisms for increasing clinical supervision and support, staff retention, reorientation of service

  4. Petrochemical promoters in catalytic cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Maria; Vargas, Clemencia; Lizcano, Javier

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on the current scheme followed by a refinery with available Catalytic Cracking capacity to process new feedstocks such as Straight Run Naphtha and Naphthas from FCC. These feedstocks are of petrochemical interest to produce Ethane, Ethylene, Propylene, i-Butane, Toluene and Xylene. To evaluate the potential of these new streams versus the Cracking-charged Residues, it was performed a detailed chemical analysis on the structural groups in carbons [C1-C12] at the reactor product obtained in pilot plant. A catalyst with and without Propylene Promoter Additive was used. This study analyzes the differences in the chemical composition of the feedstocks, relating them to the yield of each petrochemical product. Straight Run Naphthas with a high content of Naphthenes, and Paraffines n[C5-C12] and i[C7-C12] are selective to the production of i-Butane and Propane, while Naphthas from FCC with a high content of n[C5-C12]Olefins, i-Olefins, and Aromatics are more selective to Propylene, Toluene, and Xylene. Concerning Catalytic Cracking of Naphthas, the Additive has similar selectivity for all the petrochemical products, their yields increase by about one point with 4%wt of Additive, while in cracking of Residues, the Additive increases in three points Propylene yield, corresponding to a selectivity of 50% (?C3= / ?LPG).

  5. Biofilms promote altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreft, Jan-Ulrich

    2004-08-01

    The origin of altruism is a fundamental problem in evolution, and the maintenance of biodiversity is a fundamental problem in ecology. These two problems combine with the fundamental microbiological question of whether it is always advantageous for a unicellular organism to grow as fast as possible. The common basis for these three themes is a trade-off between growth rate and growth yield, which in turn is based on irreversible thermodynamics. The trade-off creates an evolutionary alternative between two strategies: high growth yield at low growth rate versus high growth rate at low growth yield. High growth yield at low growth rate is a case of an altruistic strategy because it increases the fitness of the group by using resources economically at the cost of decreased fitness, or growth rate, of the individual. The group-beneficial behaviour is advantageous in the long term, whereas the high growth rate strategy is advantageous in the short term. Coexistence of species requires differences between their niches, and niche space is typically divided into four 'axes' (time, space, resources, predators). This neglects survival strategies based on cooperation, which extend the possibilities of coexistence, arguing for the inclusion of cooperation as the fifth 'axis'. Here, individual-based model simulations show that spatial structure, as in, for example, biofilms, is necessary for the origin and maintenance of this 'primitive' altruistic strategy and that the common belief that growth rate but not yield decides the outcome of competition is based on chemostat models and experiments. This evolutionary perspective on life in biofilms can explain long-known biofilm characteristics, such as the structural organization into microcolonies, the often-observed lack of mixing among microcolonies, and the shedding of single cells, as promoting the origin and maintenance of the altruistic strategy. Whereas biofilms enrich altruists, enrichment cultures, microbiology's paradigm

  6. Mental health promotion in comprehensive schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, A M; Vuokila-Oikkonen, P; Hurtig, T; Ebeling, H

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory action research process on the development of a professional practice model of mental health nurses in mental health promotion in a comprehensive school environment in the city of Oulu, Finland. The developed model is a new method of mental health promotion for mental health nurses working in comprehensive schools. The professional practice model has been developed in workshops together with school staff, interest groups, parents and students. Information gathered from the workshops was analysed using action research methods. Mental health promotion interventions are delivered at three levels: universal, which is an intervention that affects the whole school or community; selective, which is an intervention focusing on a certain group of students; and indicated, which is an individually focused intervention. All interventions are delivered within the school setting, which is a universal setting for all school-aged children. The interventions share the goal of promoting mental health. The purposes of the interventions are enhancing protective factors, reducing risk factors relating to mental health problems and early identification of mental health problems as well as rapid delivery of support or referral to specialized services. The common effect of the interventions on all levels is the increase in the experience of positive mental health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Promotion mix and industrial marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.

  8. Promotion mix and industrial marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2007-01-01

    Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.

  9. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  10. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  11. MCH promotes family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y

    1992-06-01

    Family planning (FP) has been promoted in China through improvements in maternal and child health (MCH) which have affected people's attitude toward childbearing. A case study of FP in Taicang County of Jiangsu Province, China is given. Total population is 446,620; natural increase is 10/1000. 99% of births have been planned in recent years. Contraceptive prevalence has reached 92.71%. Contraceptive awareness has opened people up to health education in general. The community participates in management of human wastes, improvement of water supplies, and parasite control in rural areas. MCH was begun in the early 1980s with premarital examinations, prenatal examinations, postnatal visits, and physical checkups. A systematic program has established in 1983. A pilot program integrating FP, MCH, and parasite control operated between 1984 and 1986, in 7 townships was established and MCH was institutionalized. Increases occurred in comprehensive care for women from 49.1% in 1984 to 78.3% in 1986. Children's coverage rose from 78.2% to 85.9%. Perinatal mortality dropped from 30.2/1000 to 20.8/1000. Neonatal mortality declined from 21.3/1000 to 17.3/1000. Infant mortality also decreased from 31.6/1000 to 21.5/1000. Integration of programs throughout the county was achieved after 1987. 99% of women used the MCH handbook. Between 1987 and 1990, the perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rate dropped to 12.9/1000, 9.5/1000, and 14.7/1000, respectively. MCH achievements are attributed to a strengthening of the MCH network to improve access and improve MCH workers' level of professional skill, to the availability of premarriage and couples of reproductive age services and child care, and to the contribution of research. Careful monitoring during pregnancy helped reduce the incidence of difficult labors for high risk women from 17.55 in 1984 to 11-15% in recent years. 99.9% deliver in hospitals. There were no maternal deaths in 1989 or 1990. Neonatal tetanus has been

  12. Health promotion competencies: providing a road map for health promotion to assume a prominent role in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Trevor

    2009-06-01

    Understanding of health and its determinants is rapidly expanding and changing. The emergence of chronic diseases as the leading cause of global disease burden and improved understanding of social determinants of health has brought greater focus to the role of prevention in health. The IUHPE has shown outstanding leadership through the Galway Consensus Statement. Its three recommendations appropriately focus on stimulating dialogue, developing global consensus and communicating the results to key stakeholders. The IUHPE can further enhance progress of the statement by developing participative processes to ensure engagement and ownership by its members. The Galway Consensus Statement can be used to advance professional standards in global health promotion by: (1) providing a common language by which health promotion and its meaning can be communicated to others; (2) providing a framework for building capacity in the health promotion workforce and in the health workforce in general; (3) providing international consensus for consistency in university health promotion courses; (4) providing a framework for credentialing in health promotion; (5) better informing health promotion engagement with other significant workforce sectors and advancing partnership as a key way of working. A vital further application of the Galway Consensus Statement is to inform advocacy. Advocacy is vital to ensure health promotion is better resourced and prioritized by policy makers. Advocacy and communication are vital tools to highlight the evidence, establish the policy fit and infrastructure requirements of health promotion, and present health promotion solutions based on evidence of effectiveness.

  13. A Guide for Understanding Health Education and Promotion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard W; Nahar, Vinayak K

    2018-03-01

    Planning, Implementing & Evaluating Health Promotion Programs: A Primer is a versatile and comprehensive resource on the theoretical and practical underpinnings of successful health promotion programs. The requirements for effective health promotion program development are presented with frequent use of practical planning examples, pedagogical devices, and expert rationale. Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students in health education, promotion, and planning courses, this 15-chapter textbook is organized in a manner that specifically addresses the responsibilities and competencies required of health education specialists as published in the Health Education Specialist Practice Analysis of 2015. The authors of this textbook are leaders in the field and provide readers with the skills necessary to carry out the full process of health promotion program execution, while also offering direct preparation for CHES and MCHES licensing exams.

  14. 78 FR 78325 - National Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Programs; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... carry out projects relating to research, consumer information, advertising, sales, promotion, producer... Service [Doc.No. AMS-LPS-13-0088] National Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Programs; Request... of Softwood Lumber and National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Programs...

  15. The CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Margaret M.; Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Dempsey, Colette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CompHP Project on Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe was developed in response to the need for new and changing health promotion competencies to address health challenges. This article presents the process of developing the CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion across…

  16. Health Promotion & Counselling in Context of Mixedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    and ‘homogeneity’ on one hand and increasing, polarisation between us & the others and increasing ethnic diversity on the other. Despite increase in number, intermarried couples are still almost invisible as a statistical category and in psychosocial services. Both increased risk for married life disruption...... on subjectively experienced feelings and expressive behaviour, such as responses of others, ‘gaze’ to couples’ ‘visible differences’ and the societal attitudes - the external aspects are significant. Practices such as focus on the ‘fun part’ involving negotiation of gender positions, cultural and social capital....../exclusion processes in the society should be taken in consideration for health promotion, and counselling of the intermarried couples. Key words: Ethnic intermarriages, increased risks, opportunities, good practices, health promotion, integrative counselling...

  17. Phytotherapy natural products: Promotional mix features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of products takes into account organized and controlled planning of changes of inner self and toward the environment. That means the creation of an active force, which should bring changes in other words, it should change the person who participates in the process of creation or in the consumption of the product. It tried to induce customers to purchase through methodologies and promotion strategies which stand to our sen'ice by the change in the way of thinking of the medical and pharmaceutical profession and users of helpful means. The input of marketing within the control of the outcomes, leaders techniques and promotion strategies by the production of helpful healthy means has a very big meaning.

  18. Health promotion in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiveness of effort to promote and protect workers′ health. It proves both cost-effective and cost-beneficial to health promotion at the worksite and subsequently further reduces absenteeism. However, future research is needed to identify the impact of other factors such as age, gender and race on workers′ exposure. There is also a need to develop valid tests to measure the outcome of these programmes at the workplace. Health promotion should be central to workplace planning and should be recognised as an integral part of proactive occupational health. Indeed, the workplace is viewed as one of the most popular venues for promoting health and preventing diseases among employees.

  19. Information technology in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintonen, T P; Konu, A I; Seedhouse, D

    2008-06-01

    eHealth, the use of information technology to improve or enable health and health care, has recently been high on the health care development agenda. Given the vivid interest in eHealth, little reference has been made to the use of these technologies in the promotion of health. The aim of this present study was to conduct a review on recent uses of information technology in health promotion through looking at research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen relevant journals with issues published between 2003 and June 2005 yielded altogether 1352 articles, 56 of which contained content related to the use of information technology in the context of health promotion. As reflected by this rather small proportion, research on the role of information technology is only starting to emerge. Four broad thematic application areas within health promotion were identified: use of information technology as an intervention medium, use of information technology as a research focus, use of information technology as a research instrument and use of information technology for professional development. In line with this rather instrumental focus, the concepts 'ePromotion of Health' or 'Health ePromotion' would come close to describing the role of information technology in health promotion.

  20. Promoting mental health as an essential aspect of health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Shona

    2006-12-01

    This paper advocates that mental health promotion receive appropriate attention within health promotion. It is of great concern that, in practice, mental health promotion is frequently overlooked in health promotion programmes although the WHO definitions of health and the Ottawa Charter describe mental health as an integral part of health. It is suggested that more attention be given to addressing the determinants of mental health in terms of protective and risk factors for both physical and mental conditions, particularly in developing countries. Examples of evidence-based mental health programmes operating in widely diverse settings are presented to demonstrate that well designed interventions can contribute to the well-being of populations. It is advocated that particular attention be given to the intersectorial cooperation needed for this work.