WorldWideScience

Sample records for wikipedia promotion process

  1. Wikipedia: a key tool for global public health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, James M; Kemmann, Eckhard; Bonert, Michael; Chatterjee, Anwesh; Ragar, Brent; Beards, Graham M; Iberri, David J; Harvey, Matthew; Thomas, Brendan; Stomp, Wouter; Martone, Michael F; Lodge, Daniel J; Vondracek, Andrea; de Wolff, Jacob F; Liber, Casimir; Grover, Samir C; Vickers, Tim J; Meskó, Bertalan; Laurent, Michaël R

    2011-01-31

    The Internet has become an important health information resource for patients and the general public. Wikipedia, a collaboratively written Web-based encyclopedia, has become the dominant online reference work. It is usually among the top results of search engine queries, including when medical information is sought. Since April 2004, editors have formed a group called WikiProject Medicine to coordinate and discuss the English-language Wikipedia's medical content. This paper, written by members of the WikiProject Medicine, discusses the intricacies, strengths, and weaknesses of Wikipedia as a source of health information and compares it with other medical wikis. Medical professionals, their societies, patient groups, and institutions can help improve Wikipedia's health-related entries. Several examples of partnerships already show that there is enthusiasm to strengthen Wikipedia's biomedical content. Given its unique global reach, we believe its possibilities for use as a tool for worldwide health promotion are underestimated. We invite the medical community to join in editing Wikipedia, with the goal of providing people with free access to reliable, understandable, and up-to-date health information.

  2. Wikipedia in Promoting Science Literary Skills in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sunitha; Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    In learning Science, online environments allowing for user generated content are becoming increasingly important since they offer possibilities for learners to elaborate on assignments and projects. This study investigates how Wikipedia can serve as a means for enhancing science literary skills when students are encouraged to participate in…

  3. Wikipedia editing dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandica, Y.; Carvalho, J.; Sampaio dos Aidos, F.

    2015-01-01

    A model for the probabilistic function followed in editing Wikipedia is presented and compared with simulations and real data. It is argued that the probability of editing is proportional to the editor's number of previous edits (preferential attachment), to the editor's fitness, and to an aging factor. Using these simple ingredients, it is possible to reproduce the results obtained for Wikipedia editing dynamics for a collection of single pages as well as the averaged results. Using a stochastic process framework, a recursive equation was obtained for the average of the number of edits per editor that seems to describe the editing behavior in Wikipedia.

  4. [Wikipedia and wikinutrition: key tools for the global promotion of nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Valero, J; Wanden-Berghe, C; Culebras-Fernández, J M; Gil, A; Ruiz, M D; Luengo, L M; Veiga, J

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is an encyclopedia collaboratively edited by volunteers from around the world built on the Web since 2003. Today is the sixth most visited site on the Internet, making it the biggest hit of participatory democracy in the field of information dissemination. The English edition, with more than 3 million items, has become an indispensable part of the Internet and the largest and most popular reference work. In this context, it could be argued that Wikipedia is a valuable tool for the general knowledge of the nutritional sciences terminology. At the same time, it does not only facilitate access to knowledge but also can generate it. It also permits to socialize these spaces for collaboration and development, contributing therefore to disclose science to the society. Consequently, in this article we present and discuss the main features of Wikipedia, emphasizing above all its role in food science and nutrition.

  5. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning chronobiology by improving Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C D; Lewis, C L; Wright, M D E; Agapova, S; Akers, B; Azad, T D; Banerjee, K; Carrera, P; Chen, A; Chen, J; Chi, X; Chiou, J; Cooper, J; Czurylo, M; Downs, C; Ebstein, S Y; Fahey, P G; Goldman, J W; Grieff, A; Hsiung, S; Hu, R; Huang, Y; Kapuria, A; Li, K; Marcu, I; Moore, S H; Moseley, A C; Nauman, N; Ness, K M; Ngai, D M; Panzer, A; Peters, P; Qin, E Y; Sadhu, S; Sariol, A; Schellhase, A; Schoer, M B; Steinberg, M; Surick, G; Tsai, C A; Underwood, K; Wang, A; Wang, M H; Wang, V M; Westrich, D; Yockey, L J; Zhang, L; Herzog, E D

    2012-08-01

    Although chronobiology is of growing interest to scientists, physicians, and the general public, access to recent discoveries and historical perspectives is limited. Wikipedia is an online, user-written encyclopedia that could enhance public access to current understanding in chronobiology. However, Wikipedia is lacking important information and is not universally trusted. Here, 46 students in a university course edited Wikipedia to enhance public access to important discoveries in chronobiology. Students worked for an average of 9 h each to evaluate the primary literature and available Wikipedia information, nominated sites for editing, and, after voting, edited the 15 Wikipedia pages they determined to be highest priorities. This assignment (http://www.nslc.wustl.edu/courses/Bio4030/wikipedia_project.html) was easy to implement, required relatively short time commitments from the professor and students, and had measurable impacts on Wikipedia and the students. Students created 3 new Wikipedia sites, edited 12 additional sites, and cited 347 peer-reviewed articles. The targeted sites all became top hits in online search engines. Because their writing was and will be read by a worldwide audience, students found the experience rewarding. Students reported significantly increased comfort with reading, critiquing, and summarizing primary literature and benefited from seeing their work edited by other scientists and editors of Wikipedia. We conclude that, in a short project, students can assist in making chronobiology widely accessible and learn from the editorial process.

  7. Improving credibility evaluations on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Schmettow, Martin; Wiering, Caro H.; Pieters, Jules M.; Boer, Henk

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, ongoing research on trust in Wikipedia is used as a case study to illustrate the design process of a support tool for Wikipedia, following the ASCE-model. This research is performed from a cognitive perspective and aims at users actively evaluating the credibility of information on

  8. Wikipedia use: Risk for developing technology addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present case highlights the addictive potential of Wikipedia usage. The users approached a technology addiction clinic for the management of excessive use of technology. A clinical interview was used to elicit information about usages. It indicates the addictive use of Wikipedia and associated dysfunction in lifestyle. It has implication for promotion of healthy use of technology.

  9. Wikipedia use: Risk for developing technology addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present case highlights the addictive potential of Wikipedia usage. The users approached a technology addiction clinic for the management of excessive use of technology. A clinical interview was used to elicit information about usages. It indicates the addictive use of Wikipedia and associated dysfunction in lifestyle. It has implication for promotion of healthy use of technology.

  10. Wikipedia use: Risk for developing technology addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case highlights the addictive potential of Wikipedia usage. The users approached a technology addiction clinic for the management of excessive use of technology. A clinical interview was used to elicit information about usages. It indicates the addictive use of Wikipedia and associated dysfunction in lifestyle. It has implication for promotion of healthy use of technology.

  11. SEED: a tool for disseminating systematic review data into Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lena; Friedel, Johannes; Adams, Clive E

    2017-10-17

    Wikipedia, the free-content online encyclopaedia, contains many heavily accessed pages relating to healthcare. Cochrane systematic reviews contain much high-grade evidence but dissemination into Wikipedia has been slow. New skills are needed to both translate and relocate data from Cochrane reviews to implant into Wikipedia pages. This letter introduces a programme to greatly simplify the process of disseminating the summary of findings of Cochrane reviews into Wikipedia pages.

  12. Wikipedia for Africanists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, H.; Damen, J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    How can Africanists and information specialists in African research and documentation get the most out of Wikipedia, and how can they contribute to Wikipedia? This article argues that Wikipedia is useful both as a universally accessible - albeit not specifically academic - free reference tool and as

  13. Wikipedia: Friend, Not Foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovitz, Darren; Smoot, W. Scott

    2009-01-01

    As online research has become an increasingly standard activity for middle school and high school students, Wikipedia (http://www.wikipedia.org) has simultaneously emerged as the bane of many teachers who include research-focused assignments in their courses. An online encyclopedia that allows anyone to edit its entries, Wikipedia has educators…

  14. Wikipedia and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, WM

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a

  15. Regional Languages on Wikipedia. Venetian Wikipedia’s user interaction over time

    OpenAIRE

    Zelenkauskaite, Asta; Massa, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Given that little is known about regional language user interaction practices on Wikipedia, this study analyzed content creation process, user social interaction and exchanged content over the course of the existence of Venetian Wikipedia. Content of and user interactions over time on Venetian Wikipedia exhibit practices shared within larger Wikipedia communities and display behaviors that are pertinent to this specific community. Shared practices with other Wikipedias (eg. English Wikiped...

  16. Personality characteristics of Wikipedia members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Lamdan, Naama; Madiel, Rinat; Hayat, Tsahi

    2008-12-01

    Wikipedia is an online, free access, volunteer-contributed encyclopedia. This article focuses on the Wikipedians' (Wikipedia users) personality characteristics, studying Wikipedians' conceptions of Real-Me and BFI dimensions. To survey these aspects, we posted links to two online web questionnaires; one was targeted at Wikipedians and the second to non-Wikipedia users. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated in the study, of which 69 were active Wikipedia members. It was found that Wikipedia members locate their real me on the Internet more frequently as compared to non-Wikipedia members. Variance analysis revealed significant differences between Wikipedia members and non-Wikipedia members in agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness, which were lower for the Wikipedia members. An interaction was found between Wikipedia membership and gender: introverted women were more likely to be Wikipedia members as compared with extroverted women. The results of this study are discussed with special emphasis on the understanding of the motivators of Wikipedia members.

  17. Building a Reputation System for Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. Wikipedia has an extremely open editorial policy that allows anybody to create or modify articles. This has promoted a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but also introduced problems relating...... to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS provides a rating which emphasizes feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This paper presents...... of the WRS are outlined in this paper. Finally, we present ongoing work to improve the reputation rating of the WRS by determining the areas of expertise for the different feedback providers in the WRS. This will allow more accurate recommendations because the system can assign a higher weight to feedback...

  18. The Truth of Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Tkacz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to assert that Wikipedia has a relation to truth? That there is, despite regular claims to the contrary, an entire apparatus of truth in Wikipedia? In this article, I show that Wikipedia has in fact two distinct relations to truth: one which is well known and forms the basis of existing popular and scholarly commentaries, and another which refers to equally well-known aspects of Wikipedia, but has not been understood in terms of truth. I demonstrate Wikipedia's dual relation to truth through a close analysis of the Neutral Point of View core content policy (and one of the project's 'Five Pillars'. I conclude by indicating what is at stake in the assertion that Wikipedia has a regime of truth and what bearing this has on existing commentaries.

  19. Readability of Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.; Dijkstra, Roald; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is becoming widely acknowledged as a reliable source of encyclopedic information. However, concerns have been expressed about its readability. Wikipedia articles might be written in a language too difficult to be understood by most of its visitors. In this study, we apply the Flesch

  20. How Elementary Is "Wikipedia"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontichiaro, Kristin; Harvey, Carl A., II

    2010-01-01

    Despite easy access to expert resources and extensive in-school modeling, students--even the youngest--are relying heavily upon "Wikipedia," especially when they do research away from school. With "Wikipedia" holding steady as one of the top ten Web sites worldwide, it is no wonder students are flocking there. For teachers, parents, and students,…

  1. Supporting Multi-Agent Reputation Calculation in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    editorial policy that allows anybody, to create or modify articles. This has resulted in a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but it has also caused problems relating to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help human users determine the credibility......The Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. Over the past decade, the Wikipedia has experienced a dramatic growth in popularity and is considered by many the primary source of information on the Internet. The Wikipedia has an extremely open...... of an article based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS calculates a personalised rating for any Wikipedia article based on feedback (recommendations) provided by other Wikipedia users. As part of this process, WRS users are expected to provide their own feedback about the quality of Wikipedia...

  2. Wikipedia the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John

    2008-01-01

    Want to be part of the largest group-writing project in human history? Learn how to contribute to Wikipedia, the user-generated online reference for the 21st century. Considered more popular than eBay, Microsoft.com, and Amazon.com, Wikipedia servers respond to approximately 30,000 requests per second, or about 2.5 billion per day. It's become the first point of reference for people the world over who need a fact fast.If you want to jump on board and add to the content, Wikipedia: The Missing Manual is your first-class ticket. Wikipedia has more than 9 million entries in 250 languages, over 2

  3. Map Projections in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia (wiki + encyclopaedia is a multilingual, web-based encyclopaedia with free content. It is a wiki, which means it is written by numerous volunteers, and most articles can be changed by anyone with Internet access and an adequate web browser. The project was started on January 15, 2001. Wikipedia currently has more than 3 700 000 articles in many languages (including a million articles in English.

  4. Linking Wikipedia to the web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Serdyukov, P.; Kamps, J.; Chen, H.-H.; Efthimiadis, E.N.; Savoy, J.; Crestani, F.; Marchand-Maillet, S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the task of finding links from Wikipedia pages to external web pages. Such external links significantly extend the information in Wikipedia with information from the Web at large, while retaining the encyclopedic organization of Wikipedia. We use a language modeling approach to create

  5. Extracting central places from the link structure in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    of the German language edition of Wikipedia. The official upper and middle centers declared, based on German spatial laws, are used as a reference dataset. The characteristics of the link structure around their Wikipedia pages, which link to each other or mention each other, and how often, are used to develop...... a bottom-up method for extracting central places from Wikipedia. The method relies solely on the structure and number of links and mentions between the corresponding Wikipedia pages; no spatial information is used in the extraction process. The output of this method shows significant overlap...... with the official central place structure, especially for the upper centers. The results indicate that real-world relationships are in fact reflected in the link structure on the web in the case of Wikipedia....

  6. Making sense of the German Wikipedia community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Frank Jørgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings from a qualitative study of the German Wikipedia community, focusing on how people engaged with Wikipedia make sense of norms, collaborative practices and means of regulation within the community. The study highlights the strong focus on the quality of the end-product (the encyclopedia in the German community, stressing that article quality is seen as more important than the wiki-process as such. As the community has grown, an increasing number of rules and mechanisms have been deployed to resolve various issues and conflicts, however the interviewees do not perceive Wikipedia as being bureaucratic, but rather describe it as a “rule-governed anarchy”. The findings suggest that people contribute for a variety of reasons, yet point to reactions from and interactions with fellow Wikipedians as one of the strongest motivational drivers for participation.

  7. Diskursive Risikokonstruktionen in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Grethe Julius

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates discursive constructions of health risks in two Wikipedia articles dealing with parabens, one in German and one in English. The aim of the paper is first to provide insight into the way health risks in connection with the use of parabens in cosmetics, food and other products...

  8. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefévre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles which emphasizes......The Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. The Wikipedia has an extremely open editorial policy that allows anybody, to create or modify articles. This has promoted a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but also introduced problems relating...... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  9. Classification of Recommender Expertise in the Wikipedia Recommender System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian D.; Pilkauskas, Povilas; Lefevre, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    to the quality of articles. The Wikipedia Recommender System (WRS) was developed to help users determine the credibility of articles based on feedback from other Wikipedia users. The WRS implements a collaborative filtering system with trust metrics, i.e., it provides a rating of articles "which emphasizes......The Wikipedia is a web-based encyclopedia, written and edited collaboratively by Internet users. The Wikipedia has an extremely open editorial policy that allows anybody, to create or modify articles. This has promoted a broad and detailed coverage of subjects, but also introduced problems relating...... feedback from recommenders that the user has agreed with in the past. This exposes the problem that most recommenders are not equally competent in all subject areas. The first WRS prototype did not include an evaluation of the areas of expertise of recommenders, so the trust metric used in the article...

  10. Automatically Expanding the Synonym Set of SNOMED CT using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Daniel R; Crowner, Chris; Elkin, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Clinical terminologies and ontologies are often used in natural language processing/understanding tasks as a method for semantically tagging text. One ontology commonly used for this task is SNOMED CT. Natural language is rich and varied: many different combinations of words may be used to express the same idea. It is therefore essential that ontologies and terminologies have a rich set of synonyms. One source of synonyms is Wikipedia. We examine methods for aligning concepts in SNOMED CT with articles in Wikipedia so that newly-found synonyms may be added to SNOMED CT. Our experiments show promising results and provide guidance to researchers who wish to use Wikipedia for similar tasks.

  11. [Is it possible to enhance our expert knowledge from Wikipedia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenberg, U; Josten, C; Klima, S

    2015-04-01

    The so-called new media are always a kind of challenge for training supervisors, medical students and doctors-in-training. Especially Wikipedia has a significant position for obtaining important medical information on the internet. Beside many advantages of Wikipedia, there is always the doubt about the correctness of published articles by unknown authors. Therefore the aim of our survey was to investigate the relevance of Wikipedia articles about orthopaedic and traumatological issues in the daily clinical routine. In September 2013 two different questionnaires about medical issues were given to medical students, resident physicians and one medical specialist. The questioning was about diseases/symptoms, examinations/classifications and conservative therapy/surgery of the department of orthopaedics and traumatology. A total of 211 Wikipedia articles were evaluated. Additionally, the participants gave an subjective estimation about these articles. Overall 134 of 211 separate medical items appeared on Wikipedia. The survey has proven the up-to-dateness of Wikipedia articles and their listing on the first or second position on Google. Wikipedia contains a lot of bibliographical references, high-quality images and video material. Almost half (42,5 %) of all evaluated articles are appropriate for use in medical exams and in the daily clinical work. First and foremost young resident physicians, the so-called web 2.0 generation, are using the internet for daily work. Maybe the process of learning is developing and changing at the same time. Wikipedia gives the opportunity for everyone to acquire information for free and all over the place. The collaboration of everyone is necessary to improve the quality of medical issues on Wikipedia. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Introduction to anatomy on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Thomas Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.com) is the largest encyclopaedia in existence. Of over five million English-language articles, about 6000 relate to Anatomy, which are viewed roughly 30 million times monthly. No work parallels the amount of attention, scope or interdisciplinary layout of Wikipedia, and it offers a unique opportunity to improve the anatomical literacy of the masses. Anatomy on Wikipedia is introduced from an editor's perspective. Article contributors, content, layout and accuracy are discussed, with a view to demystifying editing for anatomy professionals. A final request for edits or on-site feedback from anatomy professionals is made. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  13. Historie på Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia.dk er et meget populært redskab til informationssøgning. Men hvor pålideligt er det?......Wikipedia.dk er et meget populært redskab til informationssøgning. Men hvor pålideligt er det?...

  14. Societal Controversies in Wikipedia Articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, E.; Weltevrede, E.; Ciuccarelli, P.; Kaltenbrunner, A.; Laniado, D.; Magni, G.; Mauri, M.; Rogers, R.; Venturini, T.

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative content creation inevitably reaches situations where different points of view lead to conflict. We focus on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia anyone may edit, where disputes about content in controversial articles often reflect larger societal debates. While Wikipedia has a public edit

  15. Supervised query modeling using Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.; Chen, H.-H.; Efthimiadis, E.N.; Savoy, J.; Crestani, F.; Marchand-Millet, S.

    2010-01-01

    We use Wikipedia articles to semantically inform the generation of query models. To this end, we apply supervised machine learning to automatically link queries to Wikipedia articles and sample terms from the linked articles to re-estimate the query model. On a recent large web corpus, we observe

  16. Reengineering the Wikipedia for Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Thomas Rune; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    to improve the quality of their articles. There are currently more than 7.5 million articles in the Wikipedia, and more than a thousand new articles are added daily, so the investment in the existing system is significant. The introduction of a recommendation system should therefore not require any...... in a proxy placed between the user’s web-browser and theWikipedia server, e.g., on the user’s own machine, so there is no need to modify Wikipedia servers or software. A simple prototype of the proposed recommendation system is presented in this paper along with a preliminary evaluation of the prototype....

  17. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  18. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  19. Semantic analysis of links in the musical Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    are generated automatically, and they may even maliciously be used to promote certain topics. Wikipedia has been analyzed recently using methods fromWeb and text mining, however, the fact the link structure is different from the Web’s makes this approach questionable. To better understand the link structure...

  20. Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual gives you the essential tools for getting the most out of Wikipedia. As a supplement to Wikipedia: The Missing Manual, this handbook provides a basic road map to the largest online collaborative encyclopedia. You'll learn the best ways to search Wikipedia for the information you need, how to navigate the encyclopedia by category, and what to do if you spot an error in an article.

  1. Wikipedia and the University, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Charles; Pryke, Sam

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the use of Wikipedia by academics and students for learning and teaching activities at Liverpool Hope University. Hope has distinctive aspects but we consider the findings to be indicative of Wikipedia use at other British universities. First we discuss general issues of Wikipedia use within the university. Second, we…

  2. The importance of link evidence in Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamps, J.; Koolen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia is one of the most popular information sources on the Web. The free encyclopedia is densely linked. The link structure in Wikipedia differs from the Web at large: internal links in Wikipedia are typically based on words naturally occurring in a page, and link to another semantically

  3. Covering Climate Change in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arritt, R. W.; Connolley, W.; Ramjohn, I.; Schulz, S.; Wickert, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    The first hit in an internet search for "global warming" using any of the three leading search engines (Google, Bing, or Yahoo) is the article "Global warming" in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. The article garners about half a million page views per month. In addition to the site's visibility with the public, Wikipedia's articles on climate-related topics are widely referenced by policymakers, media outlets, and academia. Despite the site's strong influence on public understanding of science, few geoscientists actively participate in Wikipedia, with the result that the community that edits these articles is mostly composed of individuals with little or no expertise in the topic at hand. In this presentation we discuss how geoscientists can help shape public understanding of science by contributing to Wikipedia. Although Wikipedia prides itself on being "the encyclopedia that anyone can edit," the site has policies regarding contributions and behavior that can be pitfalls for newcomers. This presentation is intended as a guide for the geoscience community in contributing to information about climate change in this widely-used reference.

  4. “The Sum of All Human Knowledge”: A Systematic Review of Scholarly Research on the Content of Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesgari, Mostafa; Okoli, Chitu; Mehdi, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia may be the best-developed attempt thus far to gather all human knowledge in one place. Its accomplishments in this regard have made it a point of inquiry for researchers from different fields of knowledge. A decade of research has thrown light on many aspects of the Wikipedia community......, its processes, and its content. However, due to the variety of fields inquiring about Wikipedia and the limited synthesis of the extensive research, there is little consensus on many aspects of Wikipedia's content as an encyclopedic collection of human knowledge. This study addresses the issue......) and the size of Wikipedia. Moreover, we present the key research trends in terms of the domains of inquiry, research design, data source, and data gathering methods. This review synthesizes scholarly understanding of Wikipedia content and paves the way for future studies....

  5. Citations to Wikipedia in Chemistry Journals: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzeal, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia has been the subject of an increasing number of studies. Many of these have focused on the quality of Wikipedia articles and the use of Wikipedia by students. Little research has focused on the use of Wikipedia by scholars. This study helps to fill that gap by examining citations to Wikipedia in chemistry journals from three major…

  6. Towards a geospatial wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, S.; McCallum, I.; Schill, C.; Perger, C.; Kraxner, F.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Based on the Google Earth (http://earth.google.com) platform we have developed a geospatial Wikipedia (geo-wiki.org). The tool allows everybody in the world to contribute to spatial validation and is made available to the internet community interested in that task. We illustrate how this tool can be used for different applications. In our first application we combine uncertainty hotspot information from three global land cover datasets (GLC, MODIS, GlobCover). With an ever increasing amount of high resolution images available on Google Earth, it is becoming increasingly possible to distinguish land cover features with a high degree of accuracy. We first direct the land cover validation community to certain hotspots of land cover uncertainty and then ask them to fill in a small popup menu on type of land cover, possibly a picture at that location with the different cardinal points as well as date and what type of validation was chosen (google earth imagery/panoramio or if the person has ground truth data). We have implemented the tool via a land cover validation community at FACEBOOK which is based on a snowball system which allows the tracking of individuals and the possibility to ignore users which misuse the system. In a second application we illustrate how the tool could possibly be used for mapping malaria occurrence and small water bodies as well as overall malaria risk. For this application we have implemented a polygon as well as attribute function using Google maps as along with virtual earth using openlayers. The third application deals with illegal logging and how an alert system for illegal logging detection within a certain land tenure system could be implemented. Here we show how the tool can be used to document illegal logging via a YouTube video.

  7. DBpedia and the Live Extraction of Structured Data from Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsey, Mohamed; Lehmann, Jens; Auer, Soren; Stadler, Claus; Hellmann, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: DBpedia extracts structured information from Wikipedia, interlinks it with other knowledge bases and freely publishes the results on the web using Linked Data and SPARQL. However, the DBpedia release process is heavyweight and releases are sometimes based on several months old data. DBpedia-Live solves this problem by providing a live…

  8. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  9. The dynamic nature of conflict in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandica, Y.; Sampaio dos Aidos, F.; Carvalho, J.

    2014-10-01

    The voluntary process of Wikipedia edition provides an environment in which the outcome is clearly a collective product of interactions involving a large number of people. We propose a simple agent-based model, developed from real data, to reproduce the collaborative process of Wikipedia edition. With a small number of simple ingredients, our model mimics several interesting features of real human behaviour, namely in the context of edit wars. We show that the level of conflict is determined by a tolerance parameter, which measures the editors' capability to accept different opinions and to change their own opinion. We propose to measure conflict with a parameter based on mutual reverts, which increases only in contentious situations. Using this parameter, we find a distribution for the inter-peace periods that is heavy tailed. The effects of wiki-robots in the conflict levels and in the edition patterns are also studied. Our findings are compared with previous parameters used to measure conflicts in edit wars.

  10. Wikipedia : its reliability and social role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Kyuhachi

    This article discusses Japanese Wikipedia's reliability and its social role as a free, collaborative, multilingual Internet encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Japanese Wikipedia's reliability is explained from several surveys. The central concern is how the nature of encyclopedia and Wikipedia affects the quality of Wikipedia's articles. Wikipedia's core content policies such as verifiability, no original research and a neutral point of view will make articles better. But incomplete or poorly written first drafts exist because Wikipedia is a work in progress. The article also argues that social role of online encyclopedia which provides knowledge for all. Knowledge-based society or/and advanced information society require public understanding of science and other expertise. Online encyclopedia attributed to a reliable, published source using an inline citation will guide anyone to specialized knowledge.

  11. Emerging authorships and organizational authority in network organizations: the case of Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Wathelet, Emmanuel; EGOS 2013

    2013-01-01

    “Who is responsible for what” in organizations where there is no formal organizational chart? To explore this issue, the article focuses on the famous online encyclopedia Wikipedia, considering it as an organizing process (Weick, 1980) constituted through communication. On Wikipedia, decisions are made but nobody has a formal mandate to achieve them. Decisions thus results from negotiations between contributors. Consequently, to uncover the micro-processes thatcomposes the everyday organizati...

  12. Scholars, don’t disregard Wikipedia. Become Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nel marzo 2012, la rivista ad accesso aperto PLoS Computational Biology ha compiuto l’esperimento di pubblicare, con la procedura normale, un articolo di stile enciclopedico, impegnandosi però a caricarne una versione sulla Wikipedia in lingua inglese. Gli studiosi accademici sono affetti da una peculiare schizofrenia o, meglio, da un’idiozia specializzata. Tutti noi sappiamo, con Weber, [...

  13. Search strategies of Wikipedia readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodi, Giovanna Chiara; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The quest for information is one of the most common activity of human beings. Despite the the impressive progress of search engines, not to miss the needed piece of information could be still very tough, as well as to acquire specific competences and knowledge by shaping and following the proper learning paths. Indeed, the need to find sensible paths in information networks is one of the biggest challenges of our societies and, to effectively address it, it is important to investigate the strategies adopted by human users to cope with the cognitive bottleneck of finding their way in a growing sea of information. Here we focus on the case of Wikipedia and investigate a recently released dataset about users' click on the English Wikipedia, namely the English Wikipedia Clickstream. We perform a semantically charged analysis to uncover the general patterns followed by information seekers in the multi-dimensional space of Wikipedia topics/categories. We discover the existence of well defined strategies in which users tend to start from very general, i.e., semantically broad, pages and progressively narrow down the scope of their navigation, while keeping a growing semantic coherence. This is unlike strategies associated to tasks with predefined search goals, namely the case of the Wikispeedia game. In this case users first move from the 'particular' to the 'universal' before focusing down again to the required target. The clear picture offered here represents a very important stepping stone towards a better design of information networks and recommendation strategies, as well as the construction of radically new learning paths.

  14. Temporal patterns of scientific information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Elad; Sharon, Aviv J

    2017-11-01

    In response to the news coverage of scientific events and to science education, people increasingly go online to get more information. This study investigates how patterns of science and technology information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia change over time, in ways that differ between "ad hoc" terms that correspond to news coverage and "cyclic" terms that correspond to the academic period. Findings show that the science and technology activity in Google and Wikipedia was significantly associated with ad hoc and cyclic patterns. While the peak activity in Google and Wikipedia largely overlapped for ad hoc terms, it mismatched for cyclic terms. The findings indicate the importance of external cues such as news media and education, and also of the online engagement process, and particularly the crucial but different role played by Google and Wikipedia in gaining science and technology knowledge. Educators and policy makers could benefit from taking into account those different patterns.

  15. A Call for Wikipedia in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Mark

    2011-01-01

    As teachers and students increasingly dwell in a digital world, Wikipedia is a powerful presence. While it is wise to plan and teach cautiously with respect to Wikipedia, the author believes that teachers need to acknowledge its stronghold in students' lives and teach correspondingly. That is, social studies teachers must provide opportunities for…

  16. Collaborative Wikipedia Projects in the Virtual Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, A. J.; Wolt, J. D.; Hurd, H. S.

    2013-01-01

    Wikipedia is a web-based, free-content encyclopedia that is openly editable and, thus, provides a unique platform for collaborations. Wikipedia projects are increasingly being integrated into upper-level courses across the country to explore advanced concepts, communicate science, and provide high-quality information to the public. Here we outline…

  17. Teachers' Use of Wikipedia with Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit

    2015-01-01

    One of the most impressive phenomena in the creation and dissemination of human knowledge in recent years is Wikipedia, an encyclopedia written collaboratively by Web users. Nevertheless, teachers tend to oppose the use of Wikipedia by their students and question its reliability. This paper explores the perceptions of k-12 school teachers in…

  18. The Wikipedia Project: Changing Students from Consumers to Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Whenever the author teaches English 102, a research-focused, second-semester composition course, at least one student asks her whether or not she "allows" Wikipedia. She then redesigned her course to leverage Wikipedia as a source of inquiry. In other words, she "allows" Wikipedia, but through the Wikipedia project, which is designed to address…

  19. Seeking health information online: does Wikipedia matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Michaël R; Vickers, Tim J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the significance of the English Wikipedia as a source of online health information. DESIGN The authors measured Wikipedia's ranking on general Internet search engines by entering keywords from MedlinePlus, NHS Direct Online, and the National Organization of Rare Diseases as queries into search engine optimization software. We assessed whether article quality influenced this ranking. The authors tested whether traffic to Wikipedia coincided with epidemiological trends and news of emerging health concerns, and how it compares to MedlinePlus. MEASUREMENTS Cumulative incidence and average position of Wikipedia compared to other Web sites among the first 20 results on general Internet search engines (Google, Google UK, Yahoo, and MSN, and page view statistics for selected Wikipedia articles and MedlinePlus pages. RESULTS Wikipedia ranked among the first ten results in 71-85% of search engines and keywords tested. Wikipedia surpassed MedlinePlus and NHS Direct Online (except for queries from the latter on Google UK), and ranked higher with quality articles. Wikipedia ranked highest for rare diseases, although its incidence in several categories decreased. Page views increased parallel to the occurrence of 20 seasonal disorders and news of three emerging health concerns. Wikipedia articles were viewed more often than MedlinePlus Topic (p = 0.001) but for MedlinePlus Encyclopedia pages, the trend was not significant (p = 0.07-0.10). CONCLUSIONS Based on its search engine ranking and page view statistics, the English Wikipedia is a prominent source of online health information compared to the other online health information providers studied.

  20. Wikipedia Chemical Structure Explorer: substructure and similarity searching of molecules from Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Peter; Patiny, Luc; Sander, Thomas; Rufener, Christian; Zasso, Michaël

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia, the world's largest and most popular encyclopedia is an indispensable source of chemistry information. It contains among others also entries for over 15,000 chemicals including metabolites, drugs, agrochemicals and industrial chemicals. To provide an easy access to this wealth of information we decided to develop a substructure and similarity search tool for chemical structures referenced in Wikipedia. We extracted chemical structures from entries in Wikipedia and implemented a web system allowing structure and similarity searching on these data. The whole search as well as visualization system is written in JavaScript and therefore can run locally within a web page and does not require a central server. The Wikipedia Chemical Structure Explorer is accessible on-line at www.cheminfo.org/wikipedia and is available also as an open source project from GitHub for local installation. The web-based Wikipedia Chemical Structure Explorer provides a useful resource for research as well as for chemical education enabling both researchers and students easy and user friendly chemistry searching and identification of relevant information in Wikipedia. The tool can also help to improve quality of chemical entries in Wikipedia by providing potential contributors regularly updated list of entries with problematic structures. And last but not least this search system is a nice example of how the modern web technology can be applied in the field of cheminformatics. Graphical abstractWikipedia Chemical Structure Explorer allows substructure and similarity searches on molecules referenced in Wikipedia.

  1. Wikipedia vs peer-reviewed medical literature for information about the 10 most costly medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasty, Robert T; Garbalosa, Ryan C; Barbato, Vincenzo A; Valdes, Pedro J; Powers, David W; Hernandez, Emmanuel; John, Jones S; Suciu, Gabriel; Qureshi, Farheen; Popa-Radu, Matei; San Jose, Sergio; Drexler, Nathaniel; Patankar, Rohan; Paz, Jose R; King, Christopher W; Gerber, Hilary N; Valladares, Michael G; Somji, Alyaz A

    2014-05-01

    Since its launch in 2001, Wikipedia has become the most popular general reference site on the Internet and a popular source of health care information. To evaluate the accuracy of this resource, the authors compared Wikipedia articles on the most costly medical conditions with standard, evidence-based, peer-reviewed sources. The top 10 most costly conditions in terms of public and private expenditure in the United States were identified, and a Wikipedia article corresponding to each topic was chosen. In a blinded process, 2 randomly assigned investigators independently reviewed each article and identified all assertions (ie, implication or statement of fact) made in it. The reviewer then conducted a literature search to determine whether each assertion was supported by evidence. The assertions found by each reviewer were compared and analyzed to determine whether assertions made by Wikipedia for these conditions were supported by peer-reviewed sources. For commonly identified assertions, there was statistically significant discordance between 9 of the 10 selected Wikipedia articles (coronary artery disease, lung cancer, major depressive disorder, osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, back pain, and hyperlipidemia) and their corresponding peer-reviewed sources (PWikipedia for these medical conditions (PWikipedia articles representing the 10 most costly medical conditions in the United States contain many errors when checked against standard peer-reviewed sources. Caution should be used when using Wikipedia to answer questions regarding patient care.

  2. Biases in the production and reception of collective knowledge: the case of hindsight bias in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeberst, Aileen; von der Beck, Ina; D Back, Mitja; Cress, Ulrike; Nestler, Steffen

    2017-04-17

    The Web 2.0 enabled collaboration at an unprecedented level. In one of the flagships of mass collaboration-Wikipedia-a large number of authors socially negotiate the world's largest compendium of knowledge. Several guidelines in Wikipedia restrict contributions to verifiable information from reliable sources to ensure recognized knowledge. Much psychological research demonstrates, however, that individual information processing is biased. This poses the question whether individual biases translate to Wikipedia articles or whether they are prevented by its guidelines. The present research makes use of hindsight bias to examine this question. To this end, we analyzed foresight and hindsight versions of Wikipedia articles regarding a broad variety of events (Study 1). We found the majority of articles not to contain traces of hindsight bias-contrary to prior individual research. However, for a particular category of events-disasters-we found robust evidence for hindsight bias. In a lab experiment (Study 2), we then examined whether individuals' hindsight bias is translated into articles under controlled conditions and tested whether collaborative writing-as present in Wikipedia-affects the resultant bias (vs. individual writing). Finally, we investigated the impact of biased Wikipedia articles on readers (Study 3). As predicted, biased articles elicited a hindsight bias in readers, who had not known of the event previously. Moreover, biased articles also affected individuals who knew about the event already, and who had already developed a hindsight bias: biased articles further increased their hindsight.

  3. Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristina; Perc, Matjaž; Levnajić, Zoran

    2017-10-01

    Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy.

  4. Robust clustering of languages across Wikipedia growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Kristina; Levnajić, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Wikipedia is the largest existing knowledge repository that is growing on a genuine crowdsourcing support. While the English Wikipedia is the most extensive and the most researched one with over 5 million articles, comparatively little is known about the behaviour and growth of the remaining 283 smaller Wikipedias, the smallest of which, Afar, has only one article. Here, we use a subset of these data, consisting of 14 962 different articles, each of which exists in 26 different languages, from Arabic to Ukrainian. We study the growth of Wikipedias in these languages over a time span of 15 years. We show that, while an average article follows a random path from one language to another, there exist six well-defined clusters of Wikipedias that share common growth patterns. The make-up of these clusters is remarkably robust against the method used for their determination, as we verify via four different clustering methods. Interestingly, the identified Wikipedia clusters have little correlation with language families and groups. Rather, the growth of Wikipedia across different languages is governed by different factors, ranging from similarities in culture to information literacy. PMID:29134106

  5. Effectiveness of shared leadership in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyi; Kraut, Robert E; Kittur, Aniket

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the paper is to understand leadership in an online community, specifically, Wikipedia. Wikipedia successfully aggregates millions of volunteers' efforts to create the largest encyclopedia in human history. Without formal employment contracts and monetary incentives, one significant question for Wikipedia is how it organizes individual members with differing goals, experience, and commitment to achieve a collective outcome. Rather than focusing on the role of the small set of people occupying a core leadership position, we propose a shared leadership model to explain the leadership in Wikipedia. Members mutually influence one another by exercising leadership behaviors, including rewarding, regulating, directing, and socializing one another. We conducted a two-phase study to investigate how distinct types of leadership behaviors (transactional, aversive, directive, and person-focused), the legitimacy of the people who deliver the leadership, and the experience of the people who receive the leadership influence the effectiveness of shared leadership in Wikipedia. Our results highlight the importance of shared leadership in Wikipedia and identify trade-offs in the effectiveness of different types of leadership behaviors. Aversive and directive leadership increased contribution to the focal task, whereas transactional and person-focused leadership increased general motivation. We also found important differences in how newcomers and experienced members responded to leadership behaviors from peers. These findings extend shared leadership theories, contribute new insight into the important underlying mechanisms in Wikipedia, and have implications for practitioners who wish to design more effective and successful online communities.

  6. Wikipedia and the Wisdom of Crowds: A Student Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Barnhisel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Students examined the question of whether the ‘wisdom of experts’ or ‘the wisdom of crowds’ is more reliable and useful in a writing course by engaging in a parallel Wikipedia project. Each student either created a new entry or made significant changes to an existing Wikipedia entry, tracked changes to their contributions, and then wrote a paper and gave a presentation reflecting on what they learned; simultaneously, the class as a whole collaborated on a Wikipedia entry about a local landmarks controversy. Background readings familiarizing students with Wikipedia's procedures, as well as critical and philosophical interpretations of Wikipedia's significance, provided students perspective on Wikipedia’s utility. While the instructor expected students to enter with an uncritical understanding of Wikipedia's reliability, and then to see Wikipedia's fundamental untrustworthiness, student work demonstrated that they entered the class skeptical about Wikipedia and that their projects showed them that Wikipedia was mostly reliable and useful.

  7. Editing Wikipedia content by screen reader: easier interaction with the Accessible Rich Internet Applications suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to improve Wikipedia usability for the blind and promote the application of standards relating to Web accessibility and usability. First, accessibility and usability of Wikipedia home, search result and edit pages are analysed using the JAWS screen reader; next, suggestions for improving interaction are proposed and a new Wikipedia editing interface built. Most of the improvements were obtained using the Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite, developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) within the framework of the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI). Last, a scenario of use compares interaction of blind people with the original and the modified interfaces. Our study highlights that although all contents are accessible via screen reader, usability issues exist due to the user's difficulties when interacting with the interface. The scenario of use shows how building an editing interface with the W3C WAI-ARIA suite eliminates many obstacles that can prevent blind users from actively contributing to Wikipedia. The modified Wikipedia editing page is simpler to use via a screen reader than the original one because ARIA ensures a page overview, rapid navigation, and total control of what is happening in the interface.

  8. Time evolution of Wikipedia network ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Frahm, Klaus M.; Benczúr, András; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-12-01

    We study the time evolution of ranking and spectral properties of the Google matrix of English Wikipedia hyperlink network during years 2003-2011. The statistical properties of ranking of Wikipedia articles via PageRank and CheiRank probabilities, as well as the matrix spectrum, are shown to be stabilized for 2007-2011. A special emphasis is done on ranking of Wikipedia personalities and universities. We show that PageRank selection is dominated by politicians while 2DRank, which combines PageRank and CheiRank, gives more accent on personalities of arts. The Wikipedia PageRank of universities recovers 80% of top universities of Shanghai ranking during the considered time period.

  9. Robert Cailliau: "Wikipedia ha tradito Internet"

    CERN Multimedia

    Becccaria, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    "Wikipedia? It's not what we wanted to have. Now it is presented like the only enciclopedia, that it centralizes acquaintances instead dispersing them, changing the original philosophy of the net." (1 page)

  10. Clustering of scientific citations in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    The instances of templates in Wikipedia form an interesting data set of structured information. Here I focus on the cite journal template that is primarily used for citation to articles in scientific journals. These citations can be extracted and analyzed: Non-negative matrix factorization...... is performed on a (article x journal) matrix resulting in a soft clustering of Wikipedia articles and scientific journals, each cluster more or less representing a scientific topic....

  11. Harnessing Context for Vandalism Detection in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmish Ramaswamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of collaborative social media (CSM applications such as Wikipedia to modern free societies can hardly be overemphasized. By allowing end users to freely create and edit content, Wikipedia has greatly facilitated democratization of information. However, over the past several years, Wikipedia has also become susceptible to vandalism, which has adversely affected its information quality. Traditional vandalism detection techniques that rely upon simple textual features such as spammy or abusive words have not been very effective in combating sophisticated vandal attacks that do not contain common vandalism markers. In this paper, we propose a context-based vandalism detection framework for Wikipedia. We first propose a contextenhanced finite state model for representing the context evolution ofWikipedia articles. This paper identifies two distinct types of context that are potentially valuable for vandalism detection, namely content-context and contributor-context. The distinguishing powers of these contexts are discussed by providing empirical results. We design two novel metrics for measuring how well the content-context of an incoming edit fits into the topic and the existing content of a Wikipedia article. We outline machine learning-based vandalism identification schemes that utilize these metrics. Our experiments indicate that utilizing context can substantially improve vandalism detection accuracy.

  12. Processes and outcomes in school health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    This is the second special issue of Health Education which features research, theory and practice based perspectives on what counts as desirable outcomes of health promotion in schools in terms of health as well as education, and the effective processes in schools which lead to these outcomes...

  13. Dynamics of conflicts in Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Yasseri

    Full Text Available In this work we study the dynamical features of editorial wars in Wikipedia (WP. Based on our previously established algorithm, we build up samples of controversial and peaceful articles and analyze the temporal characteristics of the activity in these samples. On short time scales, we show that there is a clear correspondence between conflict and burstiness of activity patterns, and that memory effects play an important role in controversies. On long time scales, we identify three distinct developmental patterns for the overall behavior of the articles. We are able to distinguish cases eventually leading to consensus from those cases where a compromise is far from achievable. Finally, we analyze discussion networks and conclude that edit wars are mainly fought by few editors only.

  14. Utilizing the Wikidata system to improve the quality of medical content in Wikipedia in diverse languages: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundner, Alexander; Schönberg, Tobias; Horn, John; Boyce, Richard D; Samwald, Matthias

    2015-05-05

    Wikipedia is an important source of medical information for both patients and medical professionals. Given its wide reach, improving the quality, completeness, and accessibility of medical information on Wikipedia could have a positive impact on global health. We created a prototypical implementation of an automated system for keeping drug-drug interaction (DDI) information in Wikipedia up to date with current evidence about clinically significant drug interactions. Our work is based on Wikidata, a novel, graph-based database backend of Wikipedia currently in development. We set up an automated process for integrating data from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) high priority DDI list into Wikidata. We set up exemplary implementations demonstrating how the DDI data we introduced into Wikidata could be displayed in Wikipedia articles in diverse languages. Finally, we conducted a pilot analysis to explore if adding the ONC high priority data would substantially enhance the information currently available on Wikipedia. We derived 1150 unique interactions from the ONC high priority list. Integration of the potential DDI data from Wikidata into Wikipedia articles proved to be straightforward and yielded useful results. We found that even though the majority of current English Wikipedia articles about pharmaceuticals contained sections detailing contraindications, only a small fraction of articles explicitly mentioned interaction partners from the ONC high priority list. For 91.30% (1050/1150) of the interaction pairs we tested, none of the 2 articles corresponding to the interacting substances explicitly mentioned the interaction partner. For 7.21% (83/1150) of the pairs, only 1 of the 2 associated Wikipedia articles mentioned the interaction partner; for only 1.48% (17/1150) of the pairs, both articles contained explicit mentions of the interaction partner. Our prototype demonstrated that automated updating of medical content

  15. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Boulos, Maged N K; Dzenowagis, Joan H

    2008-11-06

    Web 2.0 technologies, where users participate in content production, are increasingly used as informational and educational resources. Wikipedia is frequently cited by students in the healthcare professions. This study compared the accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia to Medscape Drug Reference, a traditionally-edited resource. Wikipedia answered fewer questions [40.0% vs. 82.5%] (pWikipedia and its content has improved over time.

  16. Collective remembering of organizations: Co-construction of organizational pasts in Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael Andreas; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2015-01-01

    . Quantitative content analysis detects Wikipedia edits for their reputational relevance and reference to formal sources, such as corporate communication or newspapers. Furthermore, the authors investigate to which degree current corporate communication in form of 177 press releases has an influence...... on the remembering process in Wikipedia. Findings – The analysis shows how the continuous construction of collective memories bridges past formal corporate communication, news media, and other sources with the present, exposing, and suppressing relevant information concerning corporate reputation for large audiences....... The analysis of press releases shows that current frames provided by corporate communication finds only little resonance in the ongoing remembering processes in Wikipedia. Originality/value – Conventional approaches toward remembering of organizations embrace an organization centric view, whereby corporate...

  17. Sleeping with the Enemy: Wikipedia in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cullen J.; Gregory, Alison S.

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia that is written and edited solely by volunteers who have no qualifying credentials save an internet connection. With over 3.1 million articles in English, Wikipedia is indeed a formidable reference web site. From a research standpoint, Wikipedia is both the sinner and the saint: because anyone can make…

  18. Assigning Students to Edit Wikipedia: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Brian W.; Davis, Rochelle; Kelley, Robin T.; Obar, Jonathan A.; Davis, Lianna L.

    2012-01-01

    During the 2010-11 academic year, the Wikimedia Foundation, the nonprofit organization that supports Wikipedia, worked with professors at universities across the United States who were interested in using Wikipedia as a teaching tool in their classrooms through a pilot version of the Wikipedia Education Program. This article presents a case study…

  19. Wikipedia Use in Research: Perceptions in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Tracy; Johnston, Melissa P.; Evers, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia that can be edited by users, is growing both in the number of content articles written as well as the number of registered users. Students rely on Wikipedia (Purcell et al., 2012) and Wikipedia, through tools, is enabling users to make better decisions regarding the information they find (Gray, 2013; Kyrios,…

  20. WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Aibar Puentes, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Peer-reviewed Presentació de la conferència "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentación de la conferencia "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentation of the conference "Science Wiki: Wikipedia for science and technology".

  1. Middle East and North Africa contribute less to Wikipedia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... The Oxford study, Uneven openness: Barriers to MENA representation on Wikipedia, identified a lack of sources that vet Wikipedia content, such as government sources and news media, as one of the main obstacles to producing content in MENA. The study, which used data from Wikipedia to map and ...

  2. Wikipedia in the Academic Environment: Faculty and Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, John

    2013-01-01

    Wikipedia is probably the best known and most controversial wiki application in existence. Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia started by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger in 2001, has been populated with articles written by "anyone" who cares to contribute. Since its inception, much has been written (both pro and con) about Wikipedia.…

  3. Growing Wikipedia Across Languages via Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Ellery; West, Robert; Zia, Leila; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-04-01

    The different Wikipedia language editions vary dramatically in how comprehensive they are. As a result, most language editions contain only a small fraction of the sum of information that exists across all Wikipedias. In this paper, we present an approach to filling gaps in article coverage across different Wikipedia editions. Our main contribution is an end-to-end system for recommending articles for creation that exist in one language but are missing in another. The system involves identifying missing articles, ranking the missing articles according to their importance, and recommending important missing articles to editors based on their interests. We empirically validate our models in a controlled experiment involving 12,000 French Wikipedia editors. We find that personalizing recommendations increases editor engagement by a factor of two. Moreover, recommending articles increases their chance of being created by a factor of 3.2. Finally, articles created as a result of our recommendations are of comparable quality to organically created articles. Overall, our system leads to more engaged editors and faster growth of Wikipedia with no effect on its quality.

  4. Wikipedia and osteosarcoma: a trustworthy patients' information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithner, Andreas; Maurer-Ertl, Werner; Glehr, Mathias; Friesenbichler, Joerg; Leithner, Katharina; Windhager, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The English version of the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, has been recently reported to be the prominent source of online health information. However, there is little information concerning the quality of information found in Wikipedia. Therefore, we created a questionnaire asking for scope, completeness, and accuracy of information found on osteosarcoma. Three independent observers tested the English version of Wikipedia, as well as the patient version and the health professional version of the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) website. Answers were verified with authoritative resources and international guidelines. The results of our study demonstrate that the quality of osteosarcoma-related information found in the English Wikipedia is good but inferior to the patient information provided by the NCI. Therefore, non-peer-reviewed commonly used websites offering health information, such as Wikipedia, should include links to more definitive sources, such as those maintained by the NCI and professional international organizations on healthcare treatments. Furthermore, frequent checks should make sure such external links are to the highest quality and to the best-maintained aggregate sites on a given healthcare topic.

  5. SELF-ORGANIZATION AND EMERGENCE PHENOMENA IN WIKIPEDIA AND FREE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT USING MASOES // AUTO-ORGANIZACIÓN Y EMERGENCIA EN WIKIPEDIA Y EL DESARROLLO DEL SOFTWARE LIBRE A TRAVÉS DE MASOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niriaska Perozo Guédez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work models Wikipedia and Free Software Development through a multiagent architecture for self-organizing and emergent systems called MASOES without mathematically representing the system. In that sense, each component, mechanism and process of MASOES is instanced at individual and collective levels by the observed phenomena at the modeled systems. Thus, this paper proposes a methodology to show how to model real systems using MASOES, in order to study their self-organizing and emergent properties and, later on, to facilitate the verification of these properties, mechanisms, components and social interactions for promoting collaborative work and sharing individual and collective knowledge in these systems. // RESUMEN Este trabajo modela el comportamiento de Wikipedia y el desarrollo de Software Libre, a través de una arquitectura multiagente para sistemas emergentes y auto-organizados llamada MASOES, sin especificar matem aticamente el sistema. En ese sentido, cada componente, mecanismo y proceso de MASOES se instancia a nivel individual y colectivo en cada uno de los sistemas modelados. Así, en este trabajo se propone una metodología para mostrar c omo modelar sistemas reales utilizando MASOES, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades emergentes y auto-organizadas, y posteriormente, facilitar la verificación de estas propiedades, mecanismos, componentes e interacciones sociales para promover el trabajo colaborativo y el intercambio del conocimiento individual y colectivo en estos sistemas.

  6. Wikipedia vs. Academia: An Investigation into the Role of the Internet in Education, with a Special Focus on Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Timo; Hodel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers Wikipedia and collaborative editing in general: what is Wikipedia, how does it work as a collaborative editing project? Who publishes there, how do these people collaborate, is there a hierarchy among them? And what about Wikipedia quality control: is it efficient, how good is the factual quality of the content? Can Wikipedia…

  7. Scope, completeness, and accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Kevin A; Polen, Hyla H; Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Dzenowagis, Joan H

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of Web 2.0 technologies, user-edited online resources such as Wikipedia are increasingly tapped for information. However, there is little research on the quality of health information found in Wikipedia. To compare the scope, completeness, and accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia with that of a free, online, traditionally edited database (Medscape Drug Reference [MDR]). Wikipedia and MDR were assessed on 8 categories of drug information. Questions were constructed and answers were verified with authoritative resources. Wikipedia and MDR were evaluated according to scope (breadth of coverage) and completeness. Accuracy was tracked by factual errors and errors of omission. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the components. Fisher's exact test was used to compare scope and paired Student's t-test was used to compare current results in Wikipedia with entries 90 days prior to the current access. Wikipedia was able to answer significantly fewer drug information questions (40.0%) compared with MDR (82.5%; p Wikipedia performed poorly regarding information on dosing, with a score of 0% versus the MDR score of 90.0%. Answers found in Wikipedia were 76.0% complete, while MDR provided answers that were 95.5% complete; overall, Wikipedia answers were less complete than those in Medscape (p Wikipedia, whereas 4 answers in Medscape conflicted with the answer key; errors of omission were higher in Wikipedia (n = 48) than in MDR (n = 14). There was a marked improvement in Wikipedia over time, as current entries were superior to those 90 days prior (p = 0.024). Wikipedia has a more narrow scope, is less complete, and has more errors of omission than the comparator database. Wikipedia may be a useful point of engagement for consumers, but is not authoritative and should only be a supplemental source of drug information.

  8. WIKIPEDIA AND THE POLITICS OF MASS COLLABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Tkacz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Working together to produce socio-technological objects, based on emergent platforms of economic production, is of great importance in the task of political transformation and the creation of new subjectivities. Increasingly, “collaboration” has become a veritable buzzword used to describe the human associations that create such new media objects. In the language of “Web 2.0”, “participatory culture”, “user-generated content”, “peer production” and the “produser”, first and foremost we are all collaborators. In this paper I investigate recent literature that stresses the collaborative nature of Web 2.0, and in particular, works that address the nascent processes of peer production. I contend that this material positions such projects as what Chantal Mouffe has described as the “post-political”; a fictitious space far divorced from the clamour of the everyday. I analyse one Wikipedia entry to demonstrate the distance between this post-political discourse of collaboration and the realities it describes, and finish by arguing for a more politicised notion of collaboration.

  9. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  10. Impact of Wikipedia on citation trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Hosseini-Nami, Seyed Mohammad Amin; Alishah, Khadijeh; Hadi, Mahdieh; Karimi, Ali; Hosseinian, Saeedeh; Fard, Rouhallah Ramezani; Mirhassani, Reihaneh Sadat; Hosseini, Zhaleh; Shojaie, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the "visibility" of an article influences its citation count. More specifically, it is believed that the social media can influence article citations.Here we tested the hypothesis that inclusion of scholarly references in Wikipedia affects the citation trends. To perform this analysis, we introduced a citation "propensity" measure, which is inspired by the concept of amino acid propensity for protein secondary structures. We show that although citation counts generally increase during time, the citation "propensity" does not increase after inclusion of a reference in Wikipedia.

  11. Trust Based Evaluation of Wikipedia's Contributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Yann; Vercouter, Laurent; Hübner, Jomi Fred; Herzig, Andreas

    Wikipedia is an encyclopedia on which anybody can change its content. Some users, self-proclaimed "patrollers", regularly check recent changes in order to delete or correct those which are ruining articles integrity. The huge quantity of updates leads some articles to remain polluted a certain time before being corrected. In this work, we show how a multiagent trust model can help patrollers in their task of controlling the Wikipedia. To direct the patrollers verification towards suspicious contributors, our work relies on a formalisation of Castelfranchi & Falcone's social trust theory to assist them by representing their trust model in a cognitive way.

  12. Exploring the Cautionary Attitude toward Wikipedia in Higher Education: Implications for Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the research findings of a small-scale study which aimed to explore the cautionary attitude toward the use of Wikipedia in the process of learning. A qualitative case study approach was taken, using literature review, institutional documentation, and semi-structured interviews with five members of academic teaching staff from…

  13. Using Wikipedia's category structure for entity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the category structure of Wikipedia can be exploited for Entity Ranking. In the last decade, theWeb has not only grown in size, but also changed its character, due to collaborative content creation and an increasing amount of structure. Current Search Engines find

  14. Volunteers in Wikipedia: Why the Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Pfaffman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia is a reliable encyclopedia with over seven million articles in several languages all contributed and maintained by volunteers. To learn more about what drives people to devote their time and expertise to building and maintaining this remarkable resource, surveys with Likert-scaled items measuring different types of motivations were…

  15. Wikipedia võistleb tippteatmeteostega / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Mainekas teadusajakiri Nature avaldas uurimuse, mis hindas populaarse võrguentsüklopeedia Wikipedia teadusartikleid täpsuselt ligilähedaseks EncyclopΜdia Britannica omadega. Vt. samas: Tüli sütitas Nature'i uurimus

  16. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  17. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  18. Wikipedia, Work and Capitalism : A Realm of Freedom?

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Arwid

    2015-01-01

    The peer production of free and open software and Wikipedia has produced use value that competes with commercial exchange value and shown that people are not only motivated by economic self-interest. The peer production of Wikipedia differs from other open cooperative communities in ways that inform this study of how the Wikipedians perceive peer production’s place, influence and potential within society’s economy. Unlike free software, Wikipedia is largely based on amateurs and non-professio...

  19. [Presence and characteristics of nursing terminology in Wikipedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lorente, María; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, Rocío; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2013-10-01

    To determine the presence and consultations with nurse terminology in the Spanish edition of Wikipedia, and to analyze the differences with the English edition. We confirmed the existence of terminology via the Internet by the access to the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia. We calculated the study sample (n = 386) from the 1840 nursery terms. 337 were found in the Spanish edition and 350 in the English. We found significant differences between the two editions (p Wikipedia, has not yet reached an optimum level. Differences between Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia are more related to term existence than adequacy of information.

  20. Linking NCBI to Wikipedia: a wiki-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Roderic D M

    2011-03-31

    The NCBI Taxonomy underpins many bioinformatics and phyloinformatics databases, but by itself provides limited information on the taxa it contains. One readily available source of information on many taxa is Wikipedia. This paper describes iPhylo Linkout, a Semantic wiki that maps taxa in NCBI's taxonomy database onto corresponding pages in Wikipedia. Storing the mapping in a wiki makes it easy to edit, correct, or otherwise annotate the links between NCBI and Wikipedia. The mapping currently comprises some 53,000 taxa, and is available at http://iphylo.org/linkout. The links between NCBI and Wikipedia are also made available to NCBI users through the NCBI LinkOut service.

  1. Writing a Wikipedia Article on Cultural Competence in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingting; Lin, Yu-Hung

    2016-01-01

    This article describes how librarians created a Wikipedia article on cultural competence in health care to support the medical school's curriculum. Wikipedia, often considered not as reliable as scholarly articles, continues to be popular. Rutgers librarians conducted a Wikipedia project to improve its content to benefit students. The importance of cultural competency in health care is widely recognized due to increasingly diverse patient populations. Medical schools integrate cultural competency in curricula to train students to be culturally competent. Therefore, this topic was chosen for the Wikipedia Project. It is hoped that health sciences librarians and educators will benefit from their experience.

  2. Wikipedia as an evidence source for nursing and healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Carol A

    2011-02-01

    Where students once were confined to the University library, they are now at liberty to wander through cyber-space at will. There is evidence to suggest that student have been very quick to exploit the opportunities that the Internet can offer them. Students frequently cited search engines such as Google and Web 2.0 information sharing sites such as Wikipedia as the first places they look when seeking information for an assignment. Although a number of disciplines have accepted that Wikipedia can be viewed as an accurate and legitimate evidence source nurse educators tend to view Wikipedia with a degree of suspicion. The purpose of this paper is to carry out an exploratory study of health and health related content on a sample of Wikipedia site with the overall intention of assessing the quality of their source and supporting information. A 10% sample of health related Wikipedia entries were evaluated, with a total of 2598 references assessed. In total 1473 (56%) of the references citied on the Wikipedia pages reviewed could be argued to come from clearly identifiable reputable sources. This translates to a mean number of reputable sources of M=29 per Wikipedia entry. The quality of the evidence taken obtained from the 2500 plus references from over 50 Wikipedia pages was of sufficiently sound quality to suggest that, for health related entries, Wikipedia is appropriate for use by nursing students. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wikipedias inntog på kildelista – holdninger blant lærere og elever til Wikipedia i en skolekontekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Blikstad-Balas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikkelen diskuterer vi hvordan elever og lærere forholder seg til et av verdens mest populære nettsteder, det digitale leksikonet Wikipedia. Internasjonal forskning antyder at mens Wikipedia er svært populært blant elever, kan mange lærere styre sin begeistring for Wikipedia som faglig kilde i skolearbeid. Studien vi presenterer kombinerer to ulike datakilder for å belyse empirisk hvordan elever og lærere forholder seg til Wikipedia. Dataene om elevers holdninger er skriftlige svar 168 elever i videregående skole har gitt på spørsmål om hva de anser som de største fordelene og de største ulempene med Wikipedia i skolesammenheng. Dataene som sier noe om hvordan lærere forholder seg til det samme nettstedet er kvalitative intervjuer av fire samfunnsfaglærere. Lærerne intervjues om hvordan de forholder seg til elevenes bruk av Wikipedia og i hvilken grad de selv integrerer Wikipedia i undervisningen sin. Studien viser at mens elevene er svært samstemte om Wikipedias kvaliteter, er det stor individuell variasjon i lærernes holdninger til Wikipedia, og i hvilken grad de eksplisitt gir elevene opplæring og råd om kildekritikk. Vi finnes også at flere elever anser lærernes skepsis som en av Wikipedias største ulemper i skolesammenheng og tilpasser seg lærernes preferanser på ulike vis. Avslutningsvis diskuterer vi implikasjoner av studien og argumenterer for at det kan være uheldig om det er tilfeldig om Wikipedia adresseres eksplisitt i undervisning eller ei.

  4. Wikipedia and the Wisdom of Crowds: A Student Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhisel, Greg; Rapchak, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Students in a senior English class examined the question of whether the "wisdom of experts" or "the wisdom of crowds" is more reliable and useful in a writing course by engaging in a parallel Wikipedia project. Each student either created a new entry or made significant changes to an existing Wikipedia entry, tracked changes to…

  5. Using the Internet for Gerontology Education: Assessing and Improving Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, Donna Lind; Adams, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults, students, professionals, and the general public increasingly turn to the Internet and to Wikipedia for information. Wikipedia, the world's sixth most used website, is by far the most widely used open-source information site. Among its nearly four million English-language encyclopedia articles, how thorough is coverage of key…

  6. Wikipedia--challenges and new horizons in enhancing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Verena G; Frings, Andreas; Rehatschek, Herwig; Richard, Gisbert; Leithner, Andreas

    2015-03-06

    Wikipedia gains growing attention as a provider of health information. This study aimed to investigate the use, relevance and challenges of Wikipedia among medical students. An online questionnaire was made accessible to students at five medical universities in Germany, Austria, and Norway. Besides demographical data, the questions covered the role of Wikipedia in the academic life of medical students. The questionnaire investigated if the students had ever found erroneous medical entries and whether they corrected these. A frequent use of Wikipedia in general is statistically significant correlated with a frequent use in medical studies (p Wikipedia is predominantly critically appraised either by comparing it to profound knowledge (79%) and/or to specific literature (75%). Despite most (97%) respondents disclosed that they already had found false information in Wikipedia, recognized errors were seldomly corrected (~20%). The information retrieved from Wikipedia is critically appraised. However, we found shortcomings in handling erroneous entries. We argue for professional responsibility among medical students in dealing with this dynamic resource. Moreover, we encourage medical schools to supplement information to Wikipedia to further benefit from the vast possibilities of this platform.

  7. Network of Knowledge: Wikipedia as a Sociotechnical System of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Randall M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the codependencies of the social and technical structures that yield Wikipedia the website and Wikipedia the community. In doing so, the research investigated the implications of such a sociotechnical system for the maintenance of the project and the emergence of collective intelligence. Using a theoretical…

  8. Wikipedia Uses in Learning Design: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessakis, Georgios; Zoumpatianou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a literature review report concerning educational uses of Wikipedia in the first 10 years of its existence. The aim of the work is the tracing and the presentation of published and validated educational applications of Wikipedia in a manner that could inform learning design by teachers or researchers. For the review, 24 scientific…

  9. Raising the Stakes: Writing about Witchcraft on Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Elizabeth Ann

    2008-01-01

    Wikiality, Wikimania, WikiGnomes, Wikitrolls, Wikibots, Wikipediaholism... all these neologisms have been coined in recent years to talk about Wikipedia, the online, open-source encyclopedia. In this article, the author describes a project that aims to craft a pedagogical approach that incorporated student-contribution to Wikipedia in order to…

  10. Using Wikipedia with associative networks for document classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, Niels; Theune, Mariet; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique for building associative networks based on Wikipedia, comparing them to WordNet-based associative networks that we used previously, nding the Wikipedia-based networks to perform better at document classification. Additionally, we compare the performance of associative

  11. [Dentistry in Wikipedia: A quantitative and qualitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Annette; Türp, Jens C

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the scientific quality of the 265 dental articles that were present in January 2008 in the German-language version of Wikipedia. For this purpose, the Wikipedia entries were examined for their correctness by comparing them with the current dental literature. Every article was classified as having "textbook quality", "partial textbook quality" or "missing textbook quality". Of the 261 usable articles, 28% were qualitatively comparable to a textbook, while 56% had partial textbook quality. About 16% of the articles fell into the third group. Almost half of the Wikipedia entries fulfilled the qualitative standards, whereas the remaining articles were characterized by omissions. Hence, individuals interested in dental topics should not exclusively rely on Wikipedia. For a cursory overview, however, a search in Wikipedia appears to be in order.

  12. Wikipedia in the eyes of its beholders: A systematic review of scholarly research on wikipedia readers and readership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoli, Chitu; Mehdi, Mohamad; Mesgari, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of scholarly studies have investigated various aspects of Wikipedia. Although a number of literature reviews have provided overviews of this vast body of research, none has specifically focused on the readers of Wikipedia and issues concerning its readership. In this systematic literatur...

  13. Wikipedia mining of hidden links between political leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a new method of reduced Google matrix which allows to establish direct and hidden links between a subset of nodes of a large directed network. This approach uses parallels with quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos. The method is applied to the Wikipedia networks in different language editions analyzing several groups of political leaders of USA, UK, Germany, France, Russia and G20. We demonstrate that this approach allows to recover reliably direct and hidden links among political leaders. We argue that the reduced Google matrix method can form the mathematical basis for studies in social and political sciences analyzing Leader-Members eXchange (LMX).

  14. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suin; Park, Sungjoon; Hale, Scott A; Kim, Sooyoung; Byun, Jeongmin; Oh, Alice H

    2016-01-01

    Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary) languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  15. Understanding Editing Behaviors in Multilingual Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suin Kim

    Full Text Available Multilingualism is common offline, but we have a more limited understanding of the ways multilingualism is displayed online and the roles that multilinguals play in the spread of content between speakers of different languages. We take a computational approach to studying multilingualism using one of the largest user-generated content platforms, Wikipedia. We study multilingualism by collecting and analyzing a large dataset of the content written by multilingual editors of the English, German, and Spanish editions of Wikipedia. This dataset contains over two million paragraphs edited by over 15,000 multilingual users from July 8 to August 9, 2013. We analyze these multilingual editors in terms of their engagement, interests, and language proficiency in their primary and non-primary (secondary languages and find that the English edition of Wikipedia displays different dynamics from the Spanish and German editions. Users primarily editing the Spanish and German editions make more complex edits than users who edit these editions as a second language. In contrast, users editing the English edition as a second language make edits that are just as complex as the edits by users who primarily edit the English edition. In this way, English serves a special role bringing together content written by multilinguals from many language editions. Nonetheless, language remains a formidable hurdle to the spread of content: we find evidence for a complexity barrier whereby editors are less likely to edit complex content in a second language. In addition, we find that multilinguals are less engaged and show lower levels of language proficiency in their second languages. We also examine the topical interests of multilingual editors and find that there is no significant difference between primary and non-primary editors in each language.

  16. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia medication monographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy; Jackson, William; Berger, Victoria; Candelario, Danielle

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the accuracy and completeness of drug information on Wikipedia and Micromedex compared with U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved U.S. product inserts. The top 10 brand and top 10 generic medications from the 2012 Institute for Health Informatics' list of top 200 drugs were selected for evaluation. Wikipedia medication information was evaluated and compared with Micromedex in 7 sections of drug information; the U.S. product inserts were used as the standard comparator. Wikipedia demonstrated significantly lower completeness and accuracy scores compared with Micromedex (mean composite scores 18.55 vs. 38.4, respectively; P Wikipedia; 39.2 vs. 37.6, [P = 0.06] for Micromedex). Limitations to these results include the speed with which information is edited on Wikipedia, that there was no evaluation of off-label information, and the limited number of drugs that were evaluated. Wikipedia lacks the accuracy and completeness of standard clinical references and should not be a routine part of clinical decision making. More research should be conducted to evaluate the rationale for health care providers' use of Wikipedia. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wikipedia and participatory culture: Why fans edit [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Online, fans of popular culture media partake in participatory culture in various ways, such as writing fan fiction and scrutinizing media on message boards. Another way they do so is by editing relevant articles in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. In fact, research has shown that Wikipedia articles skew heavily toward pop culture, suggesting that fans of pop culture are among the most enthusiastic of Wikipedia's editors. Of course, the question emerges: Why are pop culture fans in particular so interested in editing Wikipedia? Building on previous research, I argue that fans want to take part in the production of the media that they enjoy, that Wikipedia allows editors to create their own paratext (i.e., the Wikipedia article in relation to a main text (e.g., a movie, a television show, a book series, and that this paratext may be heavily used by the general public. Such usage is a form of implicit approval that affirms the editors' knowledge and encourages them to make more edits. Thus, Wikipedia validates the fan editor's work in a way that other outlets for participatory culture (e.g., fan fiction, fan art, songwriting cannot.

  18. Polyelectrolytes-promoted Forward Osmosis Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Q.C.

    2012-11-07

    The development of the forward osmosis (FO) process has been constrained by the slow development of appropriate draw solutions. Two significant concerns related to draw solutions are the draw solute leakage and intensive-energy requirement in recycling draw solutes after the FO process. FO would be much attractive if there is no draw solute leakage and the recycle of draw solutes is easy and economic.In this study, polyelectrolytes of a series of polyacrylic acid sodium salts (PAA-Na), were explored as draw solutes in the FO process. The characteristics of high solubility in water and flexibility in structural configuration ensure the suitability of PAA-Na as draw solutes and their relative ease in recycle through pressure-driven ultrafiltration (UF) membrane processes. The high water flux with insignificant salt leakage in the FO process and the high salt rejection in UF recycle processes reveal the superiority of PAA-Na to conventional ionic salts, such as NaCl, when comparing their FO performance via the same membranes. The repeatable performance of PAA-Na after recycle indicates the absence of any aggregation problems. The overall performance demonstrates that polyelectrolytes of PAA-Na series are promising as draw solutes, and the new concept of using polyelectrolytes as draw solutes in FO processes is applicable. The magnetic nanoparticle draw solutes can generate reasonably high osmotic pressure in FO system due to the functional groups on the nanoparticles surface and they can be regenerated through magnetic field and reused as draw solutes. Thermo-responsive magnetic nanoparticles are able to be regenerated with high efficiency as the thermo-responsive property can assist the regeneration in a low-strength magnetic field.

  19. Performance appraisal & promotion process: A measured approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra

    2012-06-01

    Most of the companies have yearly performance appraisal process for their employees. This process involves rating of employees by their manager. And Companies rely purely on managerís state of thinking and perception. Humans have tendency to become biased, corrupt, give favor to some employees whom they like. This favor is due to some other reasons e.g. personal reason, social reason, political reason, flattering. All these reasons are not related to the work that the employee is doing for the organization.

  20. How the structure of Wikipedia articles influences user navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Daniel; Lerman, Kristina; Helic, Denis; Strohmaier, Markus

    2017-01-02

    In this work we study how people navigate the information network of Wikipedia and investigate (i) free-form navigation by studying all clicks within the English Wikipedia over an entire month and (ii) goal-directed Wikipedia navigation by analyzing wikigames, where users are challenged to retrieve articles by following links. To study how the organization of Wikipedia articles in terms of layout and links affects navigation behavior, we first investigate the characteristics of the structural organization and of hyperlinks in Wikipedia and then evaluate link selection models based on article structure and other potential influences in navigation, such as the generality of an article's topic. In free-form Wikipedia navigation, covering all Wikipedia usage scenarios, we find that click choices can be best modeled by a bias towards article structure, such as a tendency to click links located in the lead section. For the goal-directed navigation of wikigames, our findings confirm the zoom-out and the homing-in phases identified by previous work, where users are guided by generality at first and textual similarity to the target later. However, our interpretation of the link selection models accentuates that article structure is the best explanation for the navigation paths in all except these initial and final stages. Overall, we find evidence that users more frequently click on links that are located close to the top of an article. The structure of Wikipedia articles, which places links to more general concepts near the top, supports navigation by allowing users to quickly find the better-connected articles that facilitate navigation. Our results highlight the importance of article structure and link position in Wikipedia navigation and suggest that better organization of information can help make information networks more navigable.

  1. Authoring Wikipedia Articles as an Information Literacy Assignment: Copy-Pasting or Expressing New Understanding in One's Own Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Eero; Lehtio, Leeni

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We report on a pilot study of students' use of sources in authoring Wikipedia articles. The procedure is demonstrated by investigating how students processed texts from sources to compose their own texts. Method: Four groups of upper secondary school students (aged 17-18 years) participated in an eight-week geography course and seven…

  2. Eliciting Disease Data from Wikipedia Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Del Valle, Sara Y; De Silva, Lalindra; Segre, Alberto M

    2015-05-01

    Traditional disease surveillance systems suffer from several disadvantages, including reporting lags and antiquated technology, that have caused a movement towards internet-based disease surveillance systems. Internet systems are particularly attractive for disease outbreaks because they can provide data in near real-time and can be verified by individuals around the globe. However, most existing systems have focused on disease monitoring and do not provide a data repository for policy makers or researchers. In order to fill this gap, we analyzed Wikipedia article content. We demonstrate how a named-entity recognizer can be trained to tag case counts, death counts, and hospitalization counts in the article narrative that achieves an F1 score of 0.753. We also show, using the 2014 West African Ebola virus disease epidemic article as a case study, that there are detailed time series data that are consistently updated that closely align with ground truth data. We argue that Wikipedia can be used to create the first community-driven open-source emerging disease detection, monitoring, and repository system.

  3. Editorial - Wikipedia popularity from a citation analysis point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to provide an overview of the citation rate of Wikipedia since its launch in 2004. It is worth noting that since its inception Wikipedia, the free international multi-lingual encyclopedia, has been subject to criticism (Fasoldt, 2004; Orlowski, 2005; Lipczynska, 2005). Wikipedia as a popular web resource appears in response to every keyword search on Google. One way to test the popularity of a web resource is to use citation analysis method to predict to what extend it is cite...

  4. Linguistic neighbourhoods: explaining cultural borders on Wikipedia through multilingual co-editing activity

    CERN Document Server

    Samoilenko, Anna; Edler, Daniel; Kunegis, Jérôme; Strohmaier, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the network of global interconnections between language communities, based on shared co-editing interests of Wikipedia editors, and show that although English is discussed as a potential lingua franca of the digital space, its domination disappears in the network of co-editing similarities, and instead local connections come to the forefront. Out of the hypotheses we explored, bilingualism, linguistic similarity of languages, and shared religion provide the best explanations for the similarity of interests between cultural communities. Population attraction and geographical proximity are also significant, but much weaker factors bringing communities together. In addition, we present an approach that allows for extracting significant cultural borders from editing activity of Wikipedia users, and comparing a set of hypotheses about the social mechanisms generating these borders. Our study sheds light on how culture is reflected in the collective process of archiving knowledge on Wikipedi...

  5. Detection of Vandalism in Wikipedia using Metadata Features – Implementation in Simple English and Albanian sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsim Susuri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate a list of classifiers in order to use them in the detection of vandalism by focusing on metadata features. Our work is focused on two low resource data sets (Simple English and Albanian from Wikipedia. The aim of this research is to prove that this form of vandalism detection applied in one data set (language can be extended into another data set (language. Article views data sets in Wikipedia have been used rarely for the purpose of detecting vandalism. We will show the benefits of using article views data set with features from the article revisions data set with the aim of improving the detection of vandalism. The key advantage of using metadata features is that these metadata features are language independent and simple to extract because they require minimal processing. This paper shows that application of vandalism models across low resource languages is possible, and vandalism can be detected through view patterns of articles.

  6. Wikipedia neuroscience stub editing in an introductory undergraduate neuroscience course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdo, Joseph R

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Society for Neuroscience initiative to help improve the neuroscience related content in Wikipedia, I implemented Wikipedia article construction and revision in my Introduction to Neuroscience course at Boston College as a writing intensive and neuroscience related outreach activity. My students worked in small groups to revise neuroscience "stubs" of their choice, many of which had little or no useful content. The exercise resulted in the successful development of well-written Wikipedia neuroscience articles, and was received well by my students, receiving positive marks in our course evaluations. Much of the student guidance and assessment was done by student peer groups as well as other Wikipedia editors outside of our course, reducing the instructor involvement to below that of a typical term paper.

  7. Analysis of reference sources used in drug-related Wikipedia articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppen, Laura; Phillips, Jennifer; Papageorgiou, Renee

    2015-07-01

    References from drug-related Wikipedia articles and a drug information database were compared. Drugs in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch alerts from January-July 2013 were searched in Wikipedia and Lexicomp to compare reference types and to assess the time for drug safety information to be incorporated into Wikipedia articles. Wikipedia most commonly cited peer-reviewed journal articles (49.2%) and news articles (12.0%). MedWatch citations were incorporated into Wikipedia on average in 5.9 days. Wikipedia cited various sources but may not be a reliable, up-to-date resource for drug safety information.

  8. Wikipedia Neuroscience Stub Editing in an Introductory Undergraduate Neuroscience Course

    OpenAIRE

    Burdo, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the Society for Neuroscience initiative to help improve the neuroscience related content in Wikipedia, I implemented Wikipedia article construction and revision in my Introduction to Neuroscience course at Boston College as a writing intensive and neuroscience related outreach activity. My students worked in small groups to revise neuroscience ?stubs? of their choice, many of which had little or no useful content. The exercise resulted in the successful development of well-writ...

  9. iULib: where UDL and Wikipedia could meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yonghong; Huang, Tiejun; Gao, Wen

    2011-03-01

    Empowering the group collaboration and knowledge-sharing capabilities for the Universal Digital Library (UDL) is definitely an important work after more than 1.5 million digitalized books were open to access online. One motivation of developing such a platform is the emergence of Web 2.0 in recent years, especially with the rapidly increased popularity of Wikipedia. This paper presents our vision, which we call iULib, about where and how UDL and Wikipedia could meet. In the first phase, we directly apply the Wiki architecture and software in UDL to upgrade the digital library as an interactive platform that facilitates community and collaboration. Preliminary implementation shows the feasibility and reliability of our design. Furthermore, as a free encyclopedia that assembles contributions from different users, Wikipedia may also be used as a knowledge base for UDL. As a result, UDL can be upgraded as an intelligent platform for information retrieval and knowledge sharing. Our practice at the WikipediaMM task in the ImgeCLEF 2008 shows that the knowledge network constructed from Wikipedia can be used to effectively expand the query semantics of image retrieval. It is expected that Wikipedia and digital library can integrate each other's valuable results and best practices to benefit each other.

  10. Changes in College Students' Perceptions of Use of Web-Based Resources for Academic Tasks with Wikipedia Projects: A Preliminary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, Tomoko; Traphagan, John; Dickens, Linda Neavel; Resta, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the need to facilitate Net Generation students' information literacy (IL), or more specifically, to promote student understanding of legitimate, effective use of Web-based resources, this exploratory study investigated how analyzing, writing, posting, and monitoring Wikipedia entries might help students develop critical…

  11. Content disputes in Wikipedia reflect geopolitical instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Apic

    Full Text Available Indicators that rank countries according socioeconomic measurements are important tools for regional development and political reform. Those currently in widespread use are sometimes criticized for a lack of reproducibility or the inability to compare values over time, necessitating simple, fast and systematic measures. Here, we applied the 'guilt by association' principle often used in biological networks to the information network within the online encyclopedia Wikipedia to create an indicator quantifying the degree to which pages linked to a country are disputed by contributors. The indicator correlates with metrics of governance, political or economic stability about as well as they correlate with each other, and though faster and simpler, it is remarkably stable over time despite constant changes in the underlying disputes. For some countries, changes over a four year period appear to correlate with world events related to conflicts or economic problems.

  12. Promotion of Scientific Literacy on Global Warming by Process Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively…

  13. Wikipedia: How It Works and How It Can Work for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Many history professors have been reluctant to authorize students to use Wikipedia in their classwork because they do not fully trust the open source encyclopedia. But as increasing numbers of scholars and teachers work with Wikipedia, its influence becomes undeniable. In this article, the author describes how Wikipedia works and how she made…

  14. Using Wikipedia to Develop Students' Critical Analysis Skills in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Eric; Boisvert, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Wikipedia represents a revolution in the way knowledge is communicated and a potential threat to traditional encyclopedias. Wikipedia is widely used as a reference in academic assignments. Unfortunately, for the neophyte, it may be hard to assess the completeness and the accuracy of a contribution to Wikipedia. In this article, we describe an…

  15. Employing Wikipedia for Good Not Evil: Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lauro, Frances; Johinke, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Wikipedia is an open educational resource that connects writers and editors to diverse discourse communities around the world. Unwarranted stigma is attached to the use of Wikipedia in higher education due to fears that students will not pursue rigorous research practices because of the easy access to information that Wikipedia facilitates. In…

  16. When the Tenets of Composition Go Public: A Study of Writing in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a study of observable changes author-users made to three Wikipedia articles, this article contends that Wikipedia supports notions of revision, collaboration, and authority that writing studies purports to value, while also extending our understanding of the production of knowledge in public spaces. It argues that Wikipedia asks us to…

  17. Power and Peril of Wikipedia: Exercises in Social and Industrial/Organizational Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    The author examined Wikipedia's use as an instructional tool in two studies. The widespread use of Wikipedia indicates that students need to learn more about its workings and validity. Wikipedia articles relevant to psychology were edited by students in one class and critiqued in another class. Analysis of the subsequent editing of students'…

  18. Wikipedia and Psychology: Coverage of Concepts and Its Use by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The online encyclopedia Wikipedia is a frequently referred-to source of information for Internet users. A series of 3 studies examined Wikipedia's coverage of psychology-related concepts, examined how accessible Wikipedia's psychology content is when using Internet search engines, and described how both first-year and senior undergraduates use…

  19. 77 FR 36983 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...-0021] Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research and Information Program; Request for Extension and... approved information collection National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Program. OMB...

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine on wikipedia: opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Wikipedia, a free and collaborative Internet encyclopedia, has become one of the most popular sources of free information on the Internet. However, there have been concerns over the quality of online health information, particularly that on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This exploratory study aimed to evaluate several page attributes of articles on CAM in the English Wikipedia. A total of 97 articles were analyzed and compared with eight articles of broad categories of therapies in conventional medicine using the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the Wikipedia editorial assessment grading, 4% of the articles attained "good article" status, 34% required considerable editing, and 56% needed substantial improvements in their content. The median daily access of the articles over the previous 90 days was 372 (range: 7-4,214). The median word count was 1840 with a readability of grade 12.7 (range: 9.4-17.7). Medians of word count and citation density of the CAM articles were significantly lower than those in the articles of conventional medicine therapies. In conclusion, despite its limitations, the general public will continue to access health information on Wikipedia. There are opportunities for health professionals to contribute their knowledge and to improve the accuracy and completeness of the CAM articles on Wikipedia.

  1. Una aproximación a Wikipedia como polisistema cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alonso-Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, de naturaleza cualitativa e interpretativa, se abordan los alcances culturales de Wikipedia desde una aproximación transdisciplinar. Para ello, se analiza la literatura existente centrada en Wikipedia, procedente de medios de comunicación generalistas y de distintas disciplinas académicas (inteligencia artificial, ciencias de la información, educación y estudios de traducción. En dichos trabajos, fundamentalmente de naturaleza descriptiva, empírica y pragmática, se alude a Wikipedia como enciclopedia colaborativa en línea que aúna mecanismos de creación de contenido y de innovación procedentes del software libre. Nuestra propuesta reclama la pertinencia de recurrir a trabajos teóricos que contemplen la dimensión cultural de Wikipedia. Desde una aproximación semiótica, basamos nuestra hipótesis de análisis en el imaginario social de Vázquez Medel y la Teoría de los polisistemas de Even-Zohar, en los que encontramos claves para la consideración de Wikipedia como sistema cultural, en tanto que repositorio de conocimiento y relaciones humanas.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Wikipedia: Opportunities for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Koo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia, a free and collaborative Internet encyclopedia, has become one of the most popular sources of free information on the Internet. However, there have been concerns over the quality of online health information, particularly that on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate several page attributes of articles on CAM in the English Wikipedia. A total of 97 articles were analyzed and compared with eight articles of broad categories of therapies in conventional medicine using the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the Wikipedia editorial assessment grading, 4% of the articles attained “good article” status, 34% required considerable editing, and 56% needed substantial improvements in their content. The median daily access of the articles over the previous 90 days was 372 (range: 7–4,214. The median word count was 1840 with a readability of grade 12.7 (range: 9.4–17.7. Medians of word count and citation density of the CAM articles were significantly lower than those in the articles of conventional medicine therapies. In conclusion, despite its limitations, the general public will continue to access health information on Wikipedia. There are opportunities for health professionals to contribute their knowledge and to improve the accuracy and completeness of the CAM articles on Wikipedia.

  3. Examining Wikipedia's Value as an Information Source Using the California State University-Chico Website Evaluation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to examine Wikipedia's role as a tool for instruction in website evaluation. Wikipedia's purpose, structural elements and potential failings as an authoritative information source are examined. Also presented are rationales for using Wikipedia as an instructional tool, namely the overwhelming popularity of Wikipedia.…

  4. WIKIPEDIA ENTRIES AS A SOURCE OF CAR NAVIGATION LANDMARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Binski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world’s largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries’ categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  5. Wikipedia Entries as a Source of CAR Navigation Landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binski, N.; Zhang, L.; Dalyot, S.

    2016-06-01

    Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world's largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries' categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  6. Global disease monitoring and forecasting with Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generous, Nicholas; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y; Priedhorsky, Reid

    2014-11-01

    Infectious disease is a leading threat to public health, economic stability, and other key social structures. Efforts to mitigate these impacts depend on accurate and timely monitoring to measure the risk and progress of disease. Traditional, biologically-focused monitoring techniques are accurate but costly and slow; in response, new techniques based on social internet data, such as social media and search queries, are emerging. These efforts are promising, but important challenges in the areas of scientific peer review, breadth of diseases and countries, and forecasting hamper their operational usefulness. We examine a freely available, open data source for this use: access logs from the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Using linear models, language as a proxy for location, and a systematic yet simple article selection procedure, we tested 14 location-disease combinations and demonstrate that these data feasibly support an approach that overcomes these challenges. Specifically, our proof-of-concept yields models with r2 up to 0.92, forecasting value up to the 28 days tested, and several pairs of models similar enough to suggest that transferring models from one location to another without re-training is feasible. Based on these preliminary results, we close with a research agenda designed to overcome these challenges and produce a disease monitoring and forecasting system that is significantly more effective, robust, and globally comprehensive than the current state of the art.

  7. Automatically identifying health- and clinical-related content in wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Moosavinasab, Soheil; Agarwal, Shashank; Bennett, Andrew S; Yu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Physicians are increasingly using the Internet for finding medical information related to patient care. Wikipedia is a valuable online medical resource to be integrated into existing clinical question answering (QA) systems. On the other hand, Wikipedia contains a full spectrum of world's knowledge and therefore comprises a large partition of non-health-related content, which makes disambiguation more challenging and consequently leads to large overhead for existing systems to effectively filter irrelevant information. To overcome this, we have developed both unsupervised and supervised approaches to identify health-related articles as well as clinically relevant articles. Furthermore, we explored novel features by extracting health related hierarchy from the Wikipedia category network, from which a variety of features were derived and evaluated. Our experiments show promising results and also demonstrate that employing the category hierarchy can effectively improve the system performance.

  8. Knowledge categorization affects popularity and quality of Wikipedia articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Jürgen; Lomi, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The existence of a shared classification system is essential to knowledge production, transfer, and sharing. Studies of knowledge classification, however, rarely consider the fact that knowledge categories exist within hierarchical information systems designed to facilitate knowledge search and discovery. This neglect is problematic whenever information about categorical membership is itself used to evaluate the quality of the items that the category contains. The main objective of this paper is to show that the effects of category membership depend on the position that a category occupies in the hierarchical knowledge classification system of Wikipedia-an open knowledge production and sharing platform taking the form of a freely accessible on-line encyclopedia. Using data on all English-language Wikipedia articles, we examine how the position that a category occupies in the classification hierarchy affects the attention that articles in that category attract from Wikipedia editors, and their evaluation of quality of the Wikipedia articles. Specifically, we show that Wikipedia articles assigned to coarse-grained categories (i. e., categories that occupy higher positions in the hierarchical knowledge classification system) garner more attention from Wikipedia editors (i. e., attract a higher volume of text editing activity), but receive lower evaluations (i. e., they are considered to be of lower quality). The negative relation between attention and quality implied by this result is consistent with current theories of social categorization, but it also goes beyond available results by showing that the effects of categorization on evaluation depend on the position that a category occupies in a hierarchical knowledge classification system.

  9. An Evidence Base for Human Spaceflight Risks in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig; Steil, Jennifer; Lumpkins, Sarah; Pellis, Neal

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is focused on understanding and mitigating thirty two risks to crew health and performance in exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The HRP has developed an evidence report for each of the risks. Most evidence reports are a brief review article describing the evidence related to a specified risk, written at a level appropriate for the scientifically educated, non-specialist reader. Each evidence report captured the current state of knowledge from both research and operations. Two limitations of the evidence reports have become apparent: 1) they are updated infrequently and 2) they do not take full advantage of the expertise available in other space agencies and in related fields of terrestrial research. Therefore, the HRP is experimenting with the use of Wikipedia articles as a repository for evidence. Wikipedia's accessibility to the international space flight community and researchers in related terrestrial fields creates the opportunity to generate a more timely and comprehensive evidence base. Initial Wikipedia articles were populated for seven risks using a subset of the information in the HRP-approved evidence reports: Fatigue and Sleep Loss, Treating An Ill or Injured Crew Member, Radiation Carcinogenesis, Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure, Renal Stone Formation, Team Cohesion, and Intervertebral Disc Damage. Since the initial articles were created, there have been additions to these Wikipedia articles, including content from sources outside the HRP, and editorial changes to the pages. We will report on the nature of the contributions made after the initial articles were created, the comprehensiveness of the resulting Wikipedia articles, and the effort required to maintain quality control of the content. The Wikipedia approach will also be compared to wiki efforts that exert more traditional editorial control of content prior to posting.

  10. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  11. Promoting information diffusion through interlayer recovery processes in multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Weihua; Liu, Longzhao; Pei, Sen; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2017-09-01

    For information diffusion in multiplex networks, the effect of interlayer contagion on spreading dynamics has been explored in different settings. Nevertheless, the impact of interlayer recovery processes, i.e., the transition of nodes to stiflers in all layers after they become stiflers in any layer, still remains unclear. In this paper, we propose a modified ignorant-spreader-stifler model of rumor spreading equipped with an interlayer recovery mechanism. We find that the information diffusion can be effectively promoted for a range of interlayer recovery rates. By combining the mean-field approximation and the Markov chain approach, we derive the evolution equations of the diffusion process in two-layer homogeneous multiplex networks. The optimal interlayer recovery rate that achieves the maximal enhancement can be calculated by solving the equations numerically. In addition, we find that the promoting effect on a certain layer can be strengthened if information spreads more extensively within the counterpart layer. When applying the model to two-layer scale-free multiplex networks, with or without degree correlation, similar promoting effect is also observed in simulations. Our work indicates that the interlayer recovery process is beneficial to information diffusion in multiplex networks, which may have implications for designing efficient spreading strategies.

  12. SELECTION AND PROMOTION PROCESS TO SUPERVISORY POSITIONS IN MEXICO, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Hernández López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico it is starting a process of selection and promotion of teachers to supervisory positions through what has been called competitive examinations. This competition, derived from the Education Reform 2013, is justified by the alleged finding the best teachers to fill them. As a "new" process in the Mexican education system has led to a series of disputes since that examination was confined to the application and resolution of a standardized test consisting of multiple-choice questions applied in a session of eight hours which it determines whether a teacher is qualified or not qualified for the job.

  13. From Castalia to Wikipedia: Openness and Closure in Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter; Peters, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores different forms of openness and closure in two knowledge communities: the fictional world of Castalia in Hermann Hesse's great work "The Glass Bead Game", and the twenty-first-century cyberspatial universe of Wikipedia. These two worlds differ in some important respects, but they also share a number of educationally…

  14. Wikipedia: Does It Have a Place in Historical Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claunch, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Every year, thousands of history teachers nationwide stand before their students describing the evils of using an open source encyclopedia for research projects. The teachers warn of lower grades and a general unfulfilled life for any student who uses Wikipedia in a research bibliography. Yet those same students who listen to the fiery words and…

  15. Wikipedia and Education: Anarchist Perspectives and Virtual Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandric, Petar

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the philosophical background of one of the most widespread Web based sources used in contemporary education--Wikipedia. Theoretical part consists of the basic notions of anarchist philosophy of education such as human nature, work and society. Through Chomsky's prism of visions and goals, it provides the frame for further…

  16. Wikistudents. Teaching Consumption through Production Hands on with Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassatelli, Roberta; Arfini, Elisa; Piro, Valeria; Zambelli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects on a teaching experience developed as a complimentary workshops to MA class on history, theory and politics of consumption. We used Wikipedia as a tool to consider the circuit of knowledge production in the Web 2.0 era, where consumers are no longer passive audiences but producers and consumers at the same time.…

  17. Making your database available through Wikipedia: the pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Robert D; Gardner, Paul P; Bateman, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia, is the most famous wiki in use today. It contains over 3.7 million pages of content; with many pages written on scientific subject matters that include peer-reviewed citations, yet are written in an accessible manner and generally reflect the consensus opinion of the community. In this, the 19th Annual Database Issue of Nucleic Acids Research, there are 11 articles that describe the use of a wiki in relation to a biological database. In this commentary, we discuss how biological databases can be integrated with Wikipedia, thereby utilising the pre-existing infrastructure, tools and above all, large community of authors (or Wikipedians). The limitations to the content that can be included in Wikipedia are highlighted, with examples drawn from articles found in this issue and other wiki-based resources, indicating why other wiki solutions are necessary. We discuss the merits of using open wikis, like Wikipedia, versus other models, with particular reference to potential vandalism. Finally, we raise the question about the future role of dedicated database biocurators in context of the thousands of crowdsourced, community annotations that are now being stored in wikis.

  18. Improving Science Education and Understanding through Editing Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Cheryl L.; Locke, Jonas R.; Coppola, Brian P.; McNeil, Anne J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a graduate-level class project centered on editing chemistry-related entries in Wikipedia. This project enables students to work collaboratively, explore advanced concepts in chemistry, and learn how to communicate science to a diverse audience, including the general public. The format and structure of the project is outlined…

  19. Joining the Global Village: Teaching Globalization with Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczny, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of my experiences with a teaching activity that engages students in publishing in Wikipedia on issues relating to globalization. It begins with a short overview of some of the current debates revolving around teaching globalization, which lay ground for the assignment. I discuss how this teaching tool fits with a…

  20. El proyecto Wiki Learning: Wikipedia como entorno de aprendizaje abierto

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    .... A partir de esta condición y en el marco de la producción del conocimiento entre pares, sostenemos que Wikipedia puede ser utilizada como un entorno de aprendizaje abierto que cumple varios propósitos...

  1. Sum of all knowledge: Wikipedia and the encyclopedic urge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salor, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2012, one year after the 10th anniversary of Wikipedia, the free, online encyclopedia that anyone can edit, the editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica announced that no more print editions of the venerable encyclopedia will be made, marking the end of a print run that span more than two

  2. Completeness, accuracy, and readability of Wikipedia as a reference for patient medication information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelario, Danielle M; Vazquez, Victoria; Jackson, William; Reilly, Timothy

    This study determined the completeness, accuracy, and reading level of Wikipedia patient drug information compared with the corresponding United States product insert medication guides. From the Top 200 Drugs of 2012, the top 33 medications with medication guides were analyzed. Medication guides and Wikipedia pages were downloaded on a single date to ensure continuity of Wikipedia content. To quantify the completeness and accuracy of the Wikipedia medication information, a scoring system was adapted from previously published work and compared with the 7 core domains of medication guides. Wikipedia did not provide patient information that was as complete or accurate as the information within the medication guides: 14.73 out of 42 (SD 5.75). Wikipedia medication pages were written at a significantly higher reading level compared with medication guides (Flesch reading ease score 52.93 vs. 33.24 [P Wikipedia medication pages include incomplete and inaccurate patient information compared with the corresponding product medication guides. Wikipedia patient drug information was also written at reading levels above that of medication guides and substantially above the average United States consumer health literacy level. As the public use of Wikipedia increases, the need for educating patients about the quality of information on Wikipedia and the availability of adequate patient education resources is ever more important to minimize inaccuracies and incomplete information sharing. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge categorization affects popularity and quality of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomi, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    The existence of a shared classification system is essential to knowledge production, transfer, and sharing. Studies of knowledge classification, however, rarely consider the fact that knowledge categories exist within hierarchical information systems designed to facilitate knowledge search and discovery. This neglect is problematic whenever information about categorical membership is itself used to evaluate the quality of the items that the category contains. The main objective of this paper is to show that the effects of category membership depend on the position that a category occupies in the hierarchical knowledge classification system of Wikipedia—an open knowledge production and sharing platform taking the form of a freely accessible on-line encyclopedia. Using data on all English-language Wikipedia articles, we examine how the position that a category occupies in the classification hierarchy affects the attention that articles in that category attract from Wikipedia editors, and their evaluation of quality of the Wikipedia articles. Specifically, we show that Wikipedia articles assigned to coarse-grained categories (i. e., categories that occupy higher positions in the hierarchical knowledge classification system) garner more attention from Wikipedia editors (i. e., attract a higher volume of text editing activity), but receive lower evaluations (i. e., they are considered to be of lower quality). The negative relation between attention and quality implied by this result is consistent with current theories of social categorization, but it also goes beyond available results by showing that the effects of categorization on evaluation depend on the position that a category occupies in a hierarchical knowledge classification system. PMID:29293627

  4. Wikipedia as a gateway to biomedical research: The relative distribution and use of citations in the English Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Willinsky, John M; Steinberg, Ryan M; Mietchen, Daniel; Wass, Joseph L; Dong, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Wikipedia is a gateway to knowledge. However, the extent to which this gateway ends at Wikipedia or continues via supporting citations is unknown. Wikipedia's gateway functionality has implications for information design and education, notably in medicine. This study aims to establish benchmarks for the relative distribution and referral (click) rate of citations-as indicated by presence of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)-from Wikipedia, with a focus on medical citations. DOIs referred from the English Wikipedia in August 2016 were obtained from Crossref.org. Next, based on a DOI's presence on a WikiProject Medicine page, all DOIs in Wikipedia were categorized as medical (WP:MED) or non-medical (non-WP:MED). Using this categorization, referred DOIs were classified as WP:MED, non-WP:MED, or BOTH, meaning the DOI may have been referred from either category. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Out of 5.2 million Wikipedia pages, 4.42% (n = 229,857) included at least one DOI. 68,870 were identified as WP:MED, with 22.14% (n = 15,250) featuring one or more DOIs. WP:MED pages featured on average 8.88 DOI citations per page, whereas non-WP:MED pages had on average 4.28 DOI citations. For DOIs only on WP:MED pages, a DOI was referred every 2,283 pageviews and for non-WP:MED pages every 2,467 pageviews. DOIs from BOTH pages accounted for 12% (n = 58,475). The referral of DOI citations found in BOTH could not be assigned to WP:MED or non-WP:MED, as the page from which the referral was made was not provided with the data. While these results cannot provide evidence of greater citation referral from WP:MED than non-WP:MED, they do provide benchmarks to assess strategies for changing referral patterns. These changes might include editors adopting new methods for designing and presenting citations or the introduction of teaching strategies that address the value of consulting citations as a tool for extending learning.

  5. Peer governance and Wikipedia: Identifying and understanding the problems of Wikipedia’s governance

    OpenAIRE

    Kostakis, Vasilis

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia has been hailed as one of the most prominent peer projects that led to the rise of the concept of peer governance. However, criticism has been levelled against Wikipedia's mode of governance. This paper, using the Wikipedia case as a point of departure and building upon the conflict between inclusionists and deletionists, tries to identify and draw some conclusions on the problematic issue of peer governance.

  6. Readability of Wikipedia Pages on Autoimmune Disorders: Systematic Quantitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Brigo, Francesco; Sharif, Kassem; Amital, Howard; McGonagle, Dennis; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Adawi, Mohammad

    2017-07-18

    In the era of new information and communication technologies, the Internet is being increasingly accessed for health-related information. Indeed, recently published patient surveys of people with autoimmune disorders confirmed that the Internet was reported as one of the most important health information sources. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia launched in 2001, is generally one of the most visited websites worldwide and is often consulted for health-related information. The main objective of this investigation was to quantitatively assess whether the Wikipedia pages related to autoimmune disorders can be easily accessed by patients and their families, in terms of readability. We obtained and downloaded a list of autoimmune disorders from the American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA) website. We analyzed Wikipedia articles for their overall level of readability with 6 different quantitative readability scales: (1) the Flesch Reading Ease, (2) the Gunning Fog Index, (3) the Coleman-Liau Index, (4) the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, (5) the Automated Readability Index (ARI), and (6) the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG). Further, we investigated the correlation between readability and clinical, pathological, and epidemiological parameters. Moreover, each Wikipedia analysis was assessed according to its content, breaking down the readability indices by main topic of each part (namely, pathogenesis, treatment, diagnosis, and prognosis plus a section containing paragraphs not falling into any of the previous categories). We retrieved 134 diseases from the AARDA website. The Flesch Reading Ease yielded a mean score of 24.34 (SD 10.73), indicating that the sites were very difficult to read and best understood by university graduates, while mean Gunning Fog Index and ARI scores were 16.87 (SD 2.03) and 14.06 (SD 2.12), respectively. The Coleman-Liau Index and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level yielded mean scores of 14.48 (SD 1.57) and 14.86 (1

  7. Using ontologies to model human navigation behavior in information networks: A study based on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Daniel; Strohmaier, Markus; Helic, Denis; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Noy, Natalya F; Musen, Mark A

    The need to examine the behavior of different user groups is a fundamental requirement when building information systems. In this paper, we present Ontology-based Decentralized Search (OBDS), a novel method to model the navigation behavior of users equipped with different types of background knowledge. Ontology-based Decentralized Search combines decentralized search, an established method for navigation in social networks, and ontologies to model navigation behavior in information networks. The method uses ontologies as an explicit representation of background knowledge to inform the navigation process and guide it towards navigation targets. By using different ontologies, users equipped with different types of background knowledge can be represented. We demonstrate our method using four biomedical ontologies and their associated Wikipedia articles. We compare our simulation results with base line approaches and with results obtained from a user study. We find that our method produces click paths that have properties similar to those originating from human navigators. The results suggest that our method can be used to model human navigation behavior in systems that are based on information networks, such as Wikipedia. This paper makes the following contributions: (i) To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the utility of ontologies in modeling human navigation and (ii) it yields new insights and understanding about the mechanisms of human navigation in information networks.

  8. Analysis of the accuracy and readability of herbal supplement information on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer; Lam, Connie; Palmisano, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    To determine the completeness and readability of information found in Wikipedia for leading dietary supplements and assess the accuracy of this information with regard to safety (including use during pregnancy/lactation), contraindications, drug interactions, therapeutic uses, and dosing. Cross-sectional analysis of Wikipedia articles. The contents of Wikipedia articles for the 19 top-selling herbal supplements were retrieved on July 24, 2012, and evaluated for organization, content, accuracy (as compared with information in two leading dietary supplement references) and readability. Accuracy of Wikipedia articles. No consistency was noted in how much information was included in each Wikipedia article, how the information was organized, what major categories were used, and where safety and therapeutic information was located in the article. All articles in Wikipedia contained information on therapeutic uses and adverse effects but several lacked information on drug interactions, pregnancy, and contraindications. Wikipedia articles had 26%-75% of therapeutic uses and 76%-100% of adverse effects listed in the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and/or Natural Standard. Overall, articles were written at a 13.5-grade level, and all were at a ninth-grade level or above. Articles in Wikipedia in mid-2012 for the 19 top-selling herbal supplements were frequently incomplete, of variable quality, and sometimes inconsistent with reputable sources of information on these products. Safety information was particularly inconsistent among the articles. Patients and health professionals should not rely solely on Wikipedia for information on these herbal supplements when treatment decisions are being made.

  9. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y; Kantelhardt, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    ...? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used...

  10. An investigation of the dynamic processes promoting citizen participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Fishman, Pennie G; Collins, Charles; Pierce, Steven J

    2013-06-01

    This study expanded the citizen participation literature by examining the dynamic nature of citizen participation and the extent to which the factors associated with citizen participation may be moderated by resident leadership status. Longitudinal survey data collected from 542 residents in one small Midwestern city implementing a community change initiative provide some insight into the challenges surrounding the promotion of an active citizenry. Within this one community, citizenship behaviors of emergent resident leaders and residents uninterested in a leadership role were influenced, to some extent, by different factors and the importance of these factors shifted in only a 2 years time span. Future research is needed to determine if the dynamics uncovered in this study were due to the initiative or to the nature of citizen participation processes.

  11. Semantic super networks: A case analysis of Wikipedia papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, Evgeny; Lebedeva, Taisiya; Goritov, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    An algorithm for constructing super-large semantic networks has been developed in current work. Algorithm was tested using the "Cosmos" category of the Internet encyclopedia "Wikipedia" as an example. During the implementation, a parser for the syntax analysis of Wikipedia pages was developed. A graph based on list of articles and categories was formed. On the basis of the obtained graph analysis, algorithms for finding domains of high connectivity in a graph were proposed and tested. Algorithms for constructing a domain based on the number of links and the number of articles in the current subject area is considered. The shortcomings of these algorithms are shown and explained, an algorithm is developed on their joint use. The possibility of applying a combined algorithm for obtaining the final domain is shown. The problem of instability of the received domain was discovered when starting an algorithm from two neighboring vertices related to the domain.

  12. The World Within Wikipedia: An Ecology of Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Olney

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human beings inherit an informational culture transmitted through spoken and written language. A growing body of empirical work supports the mutual influence between language and categorization, suggesting that our cognitive-linguistic environment both reflects and shapes our understanding. By implication, artifacts that manifest this cognitive-linguistic environment, such asWikipedia, should represent language structure and conceptual categorization in a way consistent with human behavior. We use this intuition to guide the construction of a computational cognitive model, situated in Wikipedia, that generates semantic association judgments. Our unsupervised model combines information at the language structure and conceptual categorization levels to achieve state of the art correlation with human ratings on semantic association tasks including WordSimilarity-353, semantic feature production norms, word association, and false memory.

  13. Manajemen Pengetahuan Melalui Web 2.0 (Wikipedia pada Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfi Angela

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Himpunan mahasiswa merupakan wadah bagi setiap mahasiswa program studi tertentu yang bertujuan untuk menampung aspirasi setiap anggotanya. Proses berbagi pengetahuan biasanya dilakukan melalui pertemuan langsung yang dilakukan di dalam kelas, diskusi, dan rapat. Sistem manajemen pengetahuan dapat mengelola dan mendokumentasikan semua pengetahuan setiap anggotanya agar proses berbagi pengetahuan tidak terhambat. Penelitian ini mengembangkan sebuah sistem manajemen pengetahuan web 2.0 dengan konsep Wikipedia. Konsep Wikipedia diterapkan untuk memungkinkan setiap anggota organisasi dalam menambah, menghapus, dan memperbaiki isi dari website. Informasi dan pengetahuan yang ada dapat dimanfaatkan dan diperbaharui secara terus menerus oleh sesama anggota organisasi. Proses manajemen pengetahuan yang digunakan pada sistem ini adalah knowledge discovery, knowledge capture dan knowledge sharing. Hasil dari pengujian User Acceptance Test yang telah dilakukan bahwa sistem manajemen pengetahuan telah dapat diterima oleh organisasi dalam membantu anggota organisasi mengembangkan pengetahuan serta mendapatkan pengetahuan yang baru.

  14. Wikipedia: the difference between information acquisition and learning knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Ochola, J. Evans; Persson, Dorothy M.; Schumacher, Lisa A.; Lingo, Mitchell D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to define Wikipedia in an information literacy context by providing an analysis of learning knowledge and Wikipedia’s structure. The distribution of learning in the digital information age is a core topic for scholarly communication. It is highly relevant to students, citizens and instructors in their roles as users of content and as creators of content. Even though it appears to be far removed from traditional publishing in the print world, many students, citizens and ins...

  15. Spectral properties of Google matrix of Wikipedia and other networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-05-01

    We study the properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Google matrix of the Wikipedia articles hyperlink network and other real networks. With the help of the Arnoldi method, we analyze the distribution of eigenvalues in the complex plane and show that eigenstates with significant eigenvalue modulus are located on well defined network communities. We also show that the correlator between PageRank and CheiRank vectors distinguishes different organizations of information flow on BBC and Le Monde web sites.

  16. Exploration of Online Culture Through Network Analysis of Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Joo; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Hong Joo; Park, Hyunjung; Han, Deugcheon; Gloor, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Understanding online culture is becoming crucial in the global and connected world. Contrary to conventional attitudinal surveys used in cultural research, this study uses the approach of directly observing culture-specific behavior that emerges from online collaboration on the Internet. The editing data of Wikipedia were analyzed in 12 languages. Distinctive cultural dimensions were identified, including collectivism, extraversion, boldness, and egalitarianism. Using network analysis, the language-framed cultural factors were extracted as an emergent phenomenon in the virtual world.

  17. El proyecto Wiki Learning: Wikipedia como entorno de aprendizaje abierto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Los enfoques predominantes en el sistema educativo tradicional circunscriben las posibilidades de aprendizaje a entornos formales y cerrados. Sin embargo, las tecnologías móviles y plataformas digitales están transformando este paradigma, expandiendo las posibilidades de aprendizaje. A partir de esta condición y en el marco de la producción del conocimiento entre pares, sostenemos que Wikipedia puede ser utilizada como un entorno de aprendizaje abierto que cumple varios propósitos: a permite adquirir competencias básicas; b contribuye a la inteligencia colectiva; c acorta la brecha global de conocimiento; y, d facilita la construcción de redes globales de aprendizaje. Este estudio de caso tiene como objetivo presentar el proceso, estrategias y resultados del proyecto Wiki Learning, como modelo de aprendizaje abierto a través del uso de Wikipedia en una universidad mexicana. El proyecto abarcó desde la producción de artículos hasta talleres para el desarrollo de capacidades de profesores y estudiantes. Se realizaron encuestas a 57 docentes y 115 alumnos para identificar la percepción acerca de Wikipedia, su uso y posibilidades como herramienta educativa. Los resultados demostraron que a pesar de que todos son usuarios de Wikipedia, existe un desconocimiento general sobre su funcionamiento, estructura y comunidades, además de cierta desconfianza. Se presenta un desafío para romper el estigma y recuperar el valor de la gestión compartida del conocimiento, el propósito de la enciclopedia y su lugar como producto de la inteligencia colectiva.

  18. Motivating Students to Learn Biology Vocabulary with Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Timely learning of specialized science vocabulary is critical for building a solid knowledge base in any scientific discipline. To motivate students to dedicate time and effort mastering biology vocabulary, I have designed a vocabulary exercise utilizing the popular web encyclopedia Wikipedia. The exercise creates an opportunity for students to connect the challenge of vocabulary learning to a prior positive experience of self-guided learning using a content source they are familiar and comfortable with.

  19. Highlighting Entanglement of Cultures via Ranking of Multilingual Wikipedia Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2013-01-01

    How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013 PMID:24098338

  20. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Floridi, Luciano; Yasseri, Taha

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  1. Content Volatility of Scientific Topics in Wikipedia: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam M; Likens, Gene E

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia has quickly become one of the most frequently accessed encyclopedic references, despite the ease with which content can be changed and the potential for 'edit wars' surrounding controversial topics. Little is known about how this potential for controversy affects the accuracy and stability of information on scientific topics, especially those with associated political controversy. Here we present an analysis of the Wikipedia edit histories for seven scientific articles and show that topics we consider politically but not scientifically "controversial" (such as evolution and global warming) experience more frequent edits with more words changed per day than pages we consider "noncontroversial" (such as the standard model in physics or heliocentrism). For example, over the period we analyzed, the global warming page was edited on average (geometric mean ±SD) 1.9±2.7 times resulting in 110.9±10.3 words changed per day, while the standard model in physics was only edited 0.2±1.4 times resulting in 9.4±5.0 words changed per day. The high rate of change observed in these pages makes it difficult for experts to monitor accuracy and contribute time-consuming corrections, to the possible detriment of scientific accuracy. As our society turns to Wikipedia as a primary source of scientific information, it is vital we read it critically and with the understanding that the content is dynamic and vulnerable to vandalism and other shenanigans.

  2. A practical approach to language complexity: a Wikipedia case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseri, Taha; Kornai, András; Kertész, János

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present statistical analysis of English texts from Wikipedia. We try to address the issue of language complexity empirically by comparing the simple English Wikipedia (Simple) to comparable samples of the main English Wikipedia (Main). Simple is supposed to use a more simplified language with a limited vocabulary, and editors are explicitly requested to follow this guideline, yet in practice the vocabulary richness of both samples are at the same level. Detailed analysis of longer units (n-grams of words and part of speech tags) shows that the language of Simple is less complex than that of Main primarily due to the use of shorter sentences, as opposed to drastically simplified syntax or vocabulary. Comparing the two language varieties by the Gunning readability index supports this conclusion. We also report on the topical dependence of language complexity, that is, that the language is more advanced in conceptual articles compared to person-based (biographical) and object-based articles. Finally, we investigate the relation between conflict and language complexity by analyzing the content of the talk pages associated to controversial and peacefully developing articles, concluding that controversy has the effect of reducing language complexity.

  3. Opera aperta: Wikipedia e l’oralità secondaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Venturini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In questo articolo si discuterà di Wikipedia, la prima e più importante enciclopedia compilata collaborativamente su Internet. Se ne analizzerà il modello comunicativo e si mostrerà come esso getti nuova luce sulla distinzione oralità/scrittura. Il lettore, tuttavia, dovrà armarsi di pazienza, poiché non prenderemo la via breve. Prima di arrivare a Wikipedia, esamineremo la relazione segno-referente e quella mezzo-messaggio. Contesteremo la semplificazione che riduce la comunicazione a mera trasmissione di messaggi e quella che riduce l’evoluzione sociale allo sviluppo delle tecnologie mediatiche. Criticheremo la nozione di villaggio globale, di oralità secondaria e la loro applicazione al mondo della Rete. Dimostreremo, in particolare, che la comunicazione telematica non conduce a una nuova forma di oralità. Solo a questo punto, al riparo dagli equivoci del determinismo sociale e tecnologico, potremo infine affrontare l’innovazione mediale introdotta dall’invenzione dei wiki. Riflettendo sui processi e sui prodotti della mediazione comunicativa, illustreremo quindi come Wikipedia abbia dato vita a una forma di comunicazione davvero nuova. Un modello comunicativo caratterizzato da un’apertura radicale e totale che non può essere assimilata né all’oralità, né alla scrittura.

  4. Highlighting entanglement of cultures via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Eom

    Full Text Available How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013.

  5. Highlighting entanglement of cultures via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2013-01-01

    How different cultures evaluate a person? Is an important person in one culture is also important in the other culture? We address these questions via ranking of multilingual Wikipedia articles. With three ranking algorithms based on network structure of Wikipedia, we assign ranking to all articles in 9 multilingual editions of Wikipedia and investigate general ranking structure of PageRank, CheiRank and 2DRank. In particular, we focus on articles related to persons, identify top 30 persons for each rank among different editions and analyze distinctions of their distributions over activity fields such as politics, art, science, religion, sport for each edition. We find that local heroes are dominant but also global heroes exist and create an effective network representing entanglement of cultures. The Google matrix analysis of network of cultures shows signs of the Zipf law distribution. This approach allows to examine diversity and shared characteristics of knowledge organization between cultures. The developed computational, data driven approach highlights cultural interconnections in a new perspective. Dated: June 26, 2013.

  6. Gender differences within the German-language Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut SICHLER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Wikipedia project constitutes the currently most-used and most comprehensive online encyclopedia in the world (Schneider, 2008, p. 35 and is advertising itself as free and open for everyone, and in terms of an encyclopedia as diverse and balanced at all levels. But from a gender perspective there is a huge discrepancy in sex ratio within Wikipedia’s community. In 2005, researchers at University of Würzburg found that women constitute only 10 % of German-language Wikipedia authors (Schroer&Hertel, 2009, p. 104. This fact leads to the presumption, that Wikipedia’s reflection of the world mediates and interprets a mainly male conception of the world and thus displays an inequality with reference to modern society. Proceeding from the assumption that women and men have different communication behaviours as well as different perceptions and interpretations of communication in almost all aspects of social interaction including e.g. conversational strategies, conflict management and negotiation skills, we hypothesize that these different ways of communication significantly affect the motivation of female Wikipedia contributors.

  7. Even good bots fight: The case of Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Tsvetkova

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a huge increase in the number of bots online, varying from Web crawlers for search engines, to chatbots for online customer service, spambots on social media, and content-editing bots in online collaboration communities. The online world has turned into an ecosystem of bots. However, our knowledge of how these automated agents are interacting with each other is rather poor. Bots are predictable automatons that do not have the capacity for emotions, meaning-making, creativity, and sociality and it is hence natural to expect interactions between bots to be relatively predictable and uneventful. In this article, we analyze the interactions between bots that edit articles on Wikipedia. We track the extent to which bots undid each other's edits over the period 2001-2010, model how pairs of bots interact over time, and identify different types of interaction trajectories. We find that, although Wikipedia bots are intended to support the encyclopedia, they often undo each other's edits and these sterile "fights" may sometimes continue for years. Unlike humans on Wikipedia, bots' interactions tend to occur over longer periods of time and to be more reciprocated. Yet, just like humans, bots in different cultural environments may behave differently. Our research suggests that even relatively "dumb" bots may give rise to complex interactions, and this carries important implications for Artificial Intelligence research. Understanding what affects bot-bot interactions is crucial for managing social media well, providing adequate cyber-security, and designing well functioning autonomous vehicles.

  8. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia: a comparison with standard textbooks of pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräenbring, Jona; Monzon Penza, Tika; Gutmann, Joanna; Muehlich, Susanne; Zolk, Oliver; Wojnowski, Leszek; Maas, Renke; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The online resource Wikipedia is increasingly used by students for knowledge acquisition and learning. However, the lack of a formal editorial review and the heterogeneous expertise of contributors often results in skepticism by educators whether Wikipedia should be recommended to students as an information source. In this study we systematically analyzed the accuracy and completeness of drug information in the German and English language versions of Wikipedia in comparison to standard textbooks of pharmacology. In addition, references, revision history and readability were evaluated. Analysis of readability was performed using the Amstad readability index and the Erste Wiener Sachtextformel. The data on indication, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and contraindications for 100 curricular drugs were retrieved from standard German textbooks of general pharmacology and compared with the corresponding articles in the German language version of Wikipedia. Quantitative analysis revealed that accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia was 99.7% ± 0.2% when compared to the textbook data. The overall completeness of drug information in Wikipedia was 83.8 ± 1.5% (p Wikipedia. Of the drug information missing in Wikipedia, 62.5% was rated as didactically non-relevant in a qualitative re-evaluation study. Drug articles in Wikipedia had an average of 14.6 ± 1.6 references and 262.8 ± 37.4 edits performed by 142.7 ± 17.6 editors. Both Wikipedia and textbooks samples had comparable, low readability. Our study suggests that Wikipedia is an accurate and comprehensive source of drug-related information for undergraduate medical education.

  9. Accuracy and Completeness of Drug Information in Wikipedia: A Comparison with Standard Textbooks of Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Joanna; Muehlich, Susanne; Zolk, Oliver; Wojnowski, Leszek; Maas, Renke; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The online resource Wikipedia is increasingly used by students for knowledge acquisition and learning. However, the lack of a formal editorial review and the heterogeneous expertise of contributors often results in skepticism by educators whether Wikipedia should be recommended to students as an information source. In this study we systematically analyzed the accuracy and completeness of drug information in the German and English language versions of Wikipedia in comparison to standard textbooks of pharmacology. In addition, references, revision history and readability were evaluated. Analysis of readability was performed using the Amstad readability index and the Erste Wiener Sachtextformel. The data on indication, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and contraindications for 100 curricular drugs were retrieved from standard German textbooks of general pharmacology and compared with the corresponding articles in the German language version of Wikipedia. Quantitative analysis revealed that accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia was 99.7%±0.2% when compared to the textbook data. The overall completeness of drug information in Wikipedia was 83.8±1.5% (p<0.001). Completeness varied in-between categories, and was lowest in the category “pharmacokinetics” (68.0%±4.2%; p<0.001) and highest in the category “indication” (91.3%±2.0%) when compared to the textbook data overlap. Similar results were obtained for the English language version of Wikipedia. Of the drug information missing in Wikipedia, 62.5% was rated as didactically non-relevant in a qualitative re-evaluation study. Drug articles in Wikipedia had an average of 14.6±1.6 references and 262.8±37.4 edits performed by 142.7±17.6 editors. Both Wikipedia and textbooks samples had comparable, low readability. Our study suggests that Wikipedia is an accurate and comprehensive source of drug-related information for undergraduate medical education. PMID:25250889

  10. Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia: a comparison with standard textbooks of pharmacology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jona Kräenbring

    Full Text Available The online resource Wikipedia is increasingly used by students for knowledge acquisition and learning. However, the lack of a formal editorial review and the heterogeneous expertise of contributors often results in skepticism by educators whether Wikipedia should be recommended to students as an information source. In this study we systematically analyzed the accuracy and completeness of drug information in the German and English language versions of Wikipedia in comparison to standard textbooks of pharmacology. In addition, references, revision history and readability were evaluated. Analysis of readability was performed using the Amstad readability index and the Erste Wiener Sachtextformel. The data on indication, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and contraindications for 100 curricular drugs were retrieved from standard German textbooks of general pharmacology and compared with the corresponding articles in the German language version of Wikipedia. Quantitative analysis revealed that accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia was 99.7% ± 0.2% when compared to the textbook data. The overall completeness of drug information in Wikipedia was 83.8 ± 1.5% (p < 0.001. Completeness varied in-between categories, and was lowest in the category "pharmacokinetics" (68.0% ± 4.2%; p < 0.001 and highest in the category "indication" (91.3% ± 2.0% when compared to the textbook data overlap. Similar results were obtained for the English language version of Wikipedia. Of the drug information missing in Wikipedia, 62.5% was rated as didactically non-relevant in a qualitative re-evaluation study. Drug articles in Wikipedia had an average of 14.6 ± 1.6 references and 262.8 ± 37.4 edits performed by 142.7 ± 17.6 editors. Both Wikipedia and textbooks samples had comparable, low readability. Our study suggests that Wikipedia is an accurate and comprehensive source of drug-related information for undergraduate medical education.

  11. The Impact of a Collaborative Wikipedia Assignment on Teaching, Learning, and Student Perceptions in a Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Vanessa J.; Young, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored students' perceptions and behaviors of public wiki use during a collaborative Wikipedia assignment in a graduate technology and literacy education course. Results confirmed that the majority of students had an overall positive experience posting content on Wikipedia. Students learned how to use Wikipedia through collaborative…

  12. Excavating the mother lode of human-generated text: A systematic review of research that uses the Wikipedia corpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdi, Mohamad; Okoli, Chitu; Mesgari, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Although primarily an encyclopedia, Wikipedia’s expansive content provides a knowledge base that has been continuously exploited by researchers in a wide variety of domains. This article systematically reviews the scholarly studies that have used Wikipedia as a data source, and investigates...... be used to extract data from Wikipedia, and compile a list of currently available data sets extracted from Wikipedia....

  13. The richness and reach of Wikinomics: Is the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia only for the rich countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether or not the free web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based upon data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, we find that the centra...

  14. Wisdom of the crowd or technicity of content? Wikipedia as a sociotechnical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niederer, S.; van Dijck, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia is often considered as an example of ‘collaborative knowledge’. Researchers have contested the value of Wikipedia content on various accounts. Some have disputed the ability of anonymous amateurs to produce quality information, while others have contested Wikipedia’s claim to accuracy and

  15. Is Wikipedia a Reliable Learning Resource for Medical Students? Evaluating Respiratory Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to critically evaluate the accuracy and readability of English Wikipedia articles on the respiratory system and its disorders and whether they can be a suitable resource for medical students. On April 27, 2014, English Wikipedia was searched for articles on respiratory topics. Using a modified DISCERN instrument,…

  16. Cognitive and Social Factors Affecting the Use of Wikipedia and Information Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Siyoung

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia, is the preferred choice among resources used by college students to meet their research needs. However, Wikipedia has been criticized for its low information quality, lack of accountability, inconsistency, and vulnerability to vandalism. Despite the warnings and concerns voiced by academia, online learning…

  17. Understanding and Supporting Online Communities of Practice: Lessons Learned from Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Bishop, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to seek more effective ways to design and support online communities of practice, we examined how Wikipedia, a large-scale online community of practice, is developed and emerges over time. We conducted a Delphi study to explore the social, organizational, and technical factors that Wikipedia experts believe have supported the evolution of…

  18. References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, M Dylan; Hladkowicz, Emily S; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Postonogova, Tatyana; Shin, Eunkyung; Boet, Sylvain

    2014-03-06

    To examine indexed health science journals to evaluate the prevalence of Wikipedia citations, identify the journals that publish articles with Wikipedia citations, and determine how Wikipedia is being cited. Bibliometric analysis. Publications in the English language that included citations to Wikipedia were retrieved using the online databases Scopus and Web of Science. To identify health science journals, results were refined using Ulrich's database, selecting for citations from journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase. Using Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports, 2011 impact factors were collected for all journals included in the search. Resulting citations were thematically coded, and descriptive statistics were calculated. 1433 full text articles from 1008 journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase with 2049 Wikipedia citations were accessed. The frequency of Wikipedia citations has increased over time; most citations occurred after December 2010. More than half of the citations were coded as definitions (n = 648; 31.6%) or descriptions (n=482; 23.5%). Citations were not limited to journals with a low or no impact factor; the search found Wikipedia citations in many journals with high impact factors. Many publications are citing information from a tertiary source that can be edited by anyone, although permanent, evidence based sources are available. We encourage journal editors and reviewers to use caution when publishing articles that cite Wikipedia.

  19. Using Wikipedia to Enhance Student Learning: A Case Study in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago; Li, Jingping

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is widespread interest in how Web 2.0 tools can be used to improve students' learning experiences. Previous studies have focused either on the advantages of wikis or on concerns over the use of Wikipedia. In this study, we propose to use Wikipedia as a classroom wiki. In doing so, we discuss how students can improve their standard…

  20. Student Perceptions of Wikipedia as a Learning Tool for Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, Jason; Calhoun, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    This non-experimental qualitative study examined archival survey data collected to evaluate the efficacy of a research assignment utilizing Wikipedia. Respondents were 14 doctoral students enrolled in Educational Leadership coursework during Fall 2011. There is limited research available on this topic, as Wikipedia has been minimally utilized as a…

  1. Information-seeking behaviour for epilepsy: an infodemiological study of searches for Wikipedia articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopaedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. Our aim was to evaluate information-seeking behaviour of English-speaking internet users searching Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and epileptic seizures. Using Wiki Trends, which provides quantitative information on daily viewing of articles, data on global search queries for Wikipedia articles related to epilepsy and seizures were analysed. The daily Wikipedia article views on syncope, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures, migraine, and multiple sclerosis served as comparative data. The period of analysis covered was from January 2008 to December 2014. Overall, the Wikipedia article "epilepsy and driving" was found to be more frequently visited than the articles "epilepsy and employment" or "epilepsy in children". Since January 2008, the Wikipedia article "multiple sclerosis" was more often visited compared to the articles "epilepsy", "syncope", "psychogenic non-epileptic seizures" or "migraine"; the article "epilepsy" ranked 3,779 and was less frequently visited than "multiple sclerosis", ranked at 571, in traffic on Wikipedia. The highest peak in search volume for the article "epilepsy" coincided with the news of a celebrity having seizures. Fears and worries about epileptic seizures, their impact on driving and employment, and news about celebrities with epilepsy might be major determinants in searching Wikipedia for information.

  2. Big data and Wikipedia research: social science knowledge across disciplinary divides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, R.; Taylor, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines research about Wikipedia that has been undertaken using big data approaches. The aim is to gauge the coherence as against the disparateness of studies from different disciplines, how these studies relate to each other, and to research about Wikipedia and new social media in

  3. Improving Information Literacy Skills through Learning to Use and Edit Wikipedia: A Chemistry Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Martin A.; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Our students rely on Wikipedia on their mobile devices or laptops, since it is an extremely rich and broad resource. This article overviews the Chemistry content on Wikipedia and how students can learn to use it effectively as an information resource, critically evaluating content, and learning key information literacy skills. We also discuss how…

  4. Giving Psychology Away: Implementation of Wikipedia Editing in an Introductory Human Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane-Simpson, Christina; Che, Elizabeth; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    To test the feasibility of Wikipedia editing in large undergraduate psychology classrooms, we engaged groups of students in a large introductory-level Human Development course (N = 110) in editing Wikipedia articles to improve psychology-related content. Students attended in-class workshops and received online support to develop skills. They…

  5. Wikipedia : sama täpne kui päris teatmeteos / Aivar Õepa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õepa, Aivar, 1967-

    2005-01-01

    2001. aastal asutatud Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.org) on vabatahtlike tööl põhinev interneti-teatmeteos. Wikipediat ja Encyclopedia Britannicat võrrelnud teadlased leidsid, et veebientsüklopeedia ei jää täpsuses EB-le alla

  6. Submesoscale processes promote seasonal restratification in the Subantarctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, M.; Swart, S.; Ansorge, I. J.; Mahadevan, A.

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, the mechanism driving the seasonal restratification of the Southern Ocean mixed layer (ML) is thought to be the onset of springtime warming. Recent developments in numerical modeling and North Atlantic observations have shown that submesoscale ML eddies (MLE) can drive a restratifying flux to shoal the deep winter ML prior to solar heating at high latitudes. The impact of submesoscale processes on the intraseasonal variability of the Subantarctic ML is still relatively unknown. We compare 5 months of glider data in the Subantarctic Zone to simulations of a 1-D mixing model to show that the magnitude of restratification of the ML cannot be explained by heat, freshwater, and momentum fluxes alone. During early spring, we estimate that periodic increases in the vertical buoyancy flux by MLEs caused small increases in stratification, despite predominantly down-front winds that promote the destruction of stratification. The timing of seasonal restratification was consistent between 1-D model estimates and the observations. However, during up-front winds, the strength of springtime stratification increased over twofold compared to the 1-D model, with a rapid shoaling of the MLD from >200 m to Ekman buoyancy flux during down-front winds, resulting in the destruction of ML stratification and deepening of the MLD. These results propose the importance of submesoscale buoyancy fluxes enhancing seasonal restratification and mixing of the Subantarctic ML.

  7. Chikungunya triggers an autophagic process which promotes viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Laurence

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya Virus (ChikV surprised by a massive re-emerging outbreak in Indian Ocean in 2006, reaching Europe in 2007 and exhibited exceptional severe physiopathology in infants and elderly patients. In this context, it is important to analyze the innate immune host responses triggered against ChikV. Autophagy has been shown to be an important component of the innate immune response and is involved in host defense elimination of different pathogens. However, the autophagic process was recently observed to be hijacked by virus for their own replication. Here we provide the first evidence that hallmarks of autophagy are specifically found in HEK.293 infected cells and are involved in ChikV replication. Methods To test the capacity of ChikV to mobilize the autophagic machinery, we performed fluorescence microscopy experiments on HEK.GFP.LC3 stable cells, and followed the LC3 distribution during the time course of ChikV infection. To confirm this, we performed electron microscopy on HEK.293 infected cells. To test the effect of ChikV-induced-autophagy on viral replication, we blocked the autophagic process, either by pharmacological (3-MA or genetic inhibition (siRNA against the transcript of Beclin 1, an autophagic protein, and analyzed the percentage of infected cells and the viral RNA load released in the supernatant. Moreover, the effect of induction of autophagy by Rapamycin on viral replication was tested. Results The increasing number of GFP-LC3 positive cells with a punctate staining together with the enhanced number of GFP-LC3 dots per cell showed that ChikV triggered an autophagic process in HEK.293 infected cells. Those results were confirmed by electron microscopy analysis since numerous membrane-bound vacuoles characteristic of autophagosomes were observed in infected cells. Moreover, we found that inhibition of autophagy, either by biochemical reagent and RNA interference, dramatically decreases ChikV replication

  8. 76 FR 25618 - Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research... raspberries for processing and importers of processed raspberries to determine whether they favor the establishment of an industry-funded promotion, research, and information program for processed raspberries. The...

  9. Why Medical Schools Should Embrace Wikipedia: Final-Year Medical Student Contributions to Wikipedia Articles for Academic Credit at One School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Amin; Bresler, David; Leon, Armando; Maggio, Lauren; Whitaker, Evans; Heilman, James; Orlowitz, Jake; Swisher, Valerie; Rasberry, Lane; Otoide, Kingsley; Trotter, Fred; Ross, Will; McCue, Jack D

    2017-02-01

    Most medical students use Wikipedia as an information source, yet medical schools do not train students to improve Wikipedia or use it critically. Between November 2013 and November 2015, the authors offered fourth-year medical students a credit-bearing course to edit Wikipedia. The course was designed, delivered, and evaluated by faculty, medical librarians, and personnel from WikiProject Medicine, Wikipedia Education Foundation, and Translators Without Borders. The authors assessed the effect of the students' edits on Wikipedia's content, the effect of the course on student participants, and readership of students' chosen articles. Forty-three enrolled students made 1,528 edits (average 36/student), contributing 493,994 content bytes (average 11,488/student). They added higher-quality and removed lower-quality sources for a net addition of 274 references (average 6/student). As of July 2016, none of the contributions of the first 28 students (2013, 2014) have been reversed or vandalized. Students discovered a tension between comprehensiveness and readability/translatability, yet readability of most articles increased. Students felt they improved their articles, enjoyed giving back "specifically to Wikipedia," and broadened their sense of physician responsibilities in the socially networked information era. During only the "active editing months," Wikipedia traffic statistics indicate that the 43 articles were collectively viewed 1,116,065 times. Subsequent to students' efforts, these articles have been viewed nearly 22 million times. If other schools replicate and improve on this initiative, future multi-institution studies could more accurately measure the effect of medical students on Wikipedia, and vice versa.

  10. On the origin of burstiness in human behavior: The wikipedia edits case

    CERN Document Server

    Gandica, Yerali; Aidos, Fernando Sampaio Dos; Lambiotte, Renaud; Carletti, and Timoteo

    2016-01-01

    A number of human activities exhibit a bursty pattern, namely periods of very high activity that are followed by rest periods. Records of this process generate time series of events whose inter-event times follow a probability distribution that displays a fat tail. The grounds for such phenomenon are not yet clearly understood. In the present work we use the freely available Wikipedia's editing records to tackle this question by measuring the level of burstiness, as well as the memory effect of the editing tasks performed by different editors in different pages. Our main finding is that, even though the editing activity is conditioned by the circadian 24 hour cycle, the conditional probability of an activity of a given duration at a given time of the day is independent from the latter. This suggests that the human activity seems to be related to the high "cost" of starting an action as opposed to the much lower "cost" of continuing that action.

  11. Improving accessibility to mathematical formulas: the Wikipedia Math Accessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Sepúlveda, J.; Ferres, L.

    2012-09-01

    Mathematics accessibility is an important topic for inclusive education. In this paper, we make Wikipedia's repository of mathematical formulas accessible by providing a natural language description of its more than 420,000 formulas using a well-researched sub-language. We also contribute by targeting Spanish speakers, for whom assistive technologies, particularly domain-specific technologies like the one described here, are scarce. Our focus on the semantics of formulas (rather than their visual appearance) allowed us to generate verbalizations with a precision of approximately 80% of understandable descriptions, as shown in an evaluation with sighted users.

  12. Quantifying Wikipedia Usage Patterns Before Stock Market Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, Helen Susannah; Curme, Chester; Avakian, Adam; Kenett, Dror Y.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Preis, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    Financial crises result from a catastrophic combination of actions. Vast stock market datasets offer us a window into some of the actions that have led to these crises. Here, we investigate whether data generated through Internet usage contain traces of attempts to gather information before trading decisions were taken. We present evidence in line with the intriguing suggestion that data on changes in how often financially related Wikipedia pages were viewed may have contained early signs of stock market moves. Our results suggest that online data may allow us to gain new insight into early information gathering stages of decision making.

  13. Building a biomedical semantic network in Wikipedia with Semantic Wiki Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Benjamin M; Clarke, Erik L; Loguercio, Salvatore; Su, Andrew I

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia is increasingly used as a platform for collaborative data curation, but its current technical implementation has significant limitations that hinder its use in biocuration applications. Specifically, while editors can easily link between two articles in Wikipedia to indicate a relationship, there is no way to indicate the nature of that relationship in a way that is computationally accessible to the system or to external developers. For example, in addition to noting a relationship between a gene and a disease, it would be useful to differentiate the cases where genetic mutation or altered expression causes the disease. Here, we introduce a straightforward method that allows Wikipedia editors to embed computable semantic relations directly in the context of current Wikipedia articles. In addition, we demonstrate two novel applications enabled by the presence of these new relationships. The first is a dynamically generated information box that can be rendered on all semantically enhanced Wikipedia articles. The second is a prototype gene annotation system that draws its content from the gene-centric articles on Wikipedia and exposes the new semantic relationships to enable previously impossible, user-defined queries. DATABASE URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Gene_Wiki.

  14. Improving CERN's Presence on Wikipedia - Project Report, Summer Student Lecture Program 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Storehaug, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Dissemination of information on high energy physics and related technologies is at the core of CERN’s mission, making research done at CERN available, both to the public and other researchers. Wikipedia, being the most used social media site for researchers and a popular source of science information for the public, is an obvious platform for CERN to be present on. Between 19 June and 25 August 2017, as part of the CERN Summer Student Program, a project to improve CERN’s presence on Wikipedia was carried out in the department of Scientific Information Service at CERN. In the following the use of references in the collection of CERN-related Wikipedia articles is discussed, and the topics of plagiarism and licenses are raised. Furthermore, methods to benefit from the CERN community and archives are described, followed by a summary of how to get a Wikipedia article accepted by the Wikipedia community. Lists of Wikipedia articles created or improved and of Wikipedia articles in need of improvement are given.

  15. An evaluation of Wikipedia as a resource for patient education in nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Garry R; Eng, Lawson; de Wolff, Jacob F; Grover, Samir C

    2013-01-01

    Wikipedia, a multilingual online encyclopedia, is a common starting point for patient medical searches. As its articles can be authored and edited by anyone worldwide, the credibility of the medical content of Wikipedia has been openly questioned. Wikipedia medical articles have also been criticized as too advanced for the general public. This study assesses the comprehensiveness, reliability, and readability of nephrology articles on Wikipedia. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related problems, 10th Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic codes for nephrology (N00-N29.8) were used as a topic list to investigate the English Wikipedia database. Comprehensiveness was assessed by the proportion of ICD-10 codes that had corresponding articles. Reliability was measured by both the number of references per article and proportion of references from substantiated sources. Finally, readability was assessed using three validated indices (Flesch-Kincaid grade level, Automated readability index, and Flesch reading ease). Nephrology articles on Wikipedia were relatively comprehensive, with 70.5% of ICD-10 codes being represented. The articles were fairly reliable, with 7.1 ± 9.8 (mean ± SD) references per article, of which 59.7 ± 35.0% were substantiated references. Finally, all three readability indices determined that nephrology articles are written at a college level. Wikipedia is a comprehensive and fairly reliable medical resource for nephrology patients that is written at a college reading level. Accessibility of this information for the general public may be improved by hosting it at alternative Wikipedias targeted at a lower reading level, such as the Simple English Wikipedia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Promotion and Tenure Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed A.

    2015-01-01

    Promotion and tenure considerations are equally important steps both for the faculty and institution. For faculty, it's a matter of being able to exercise academic freedom without the fear of repercussion and potentially losing the job. For institutions, it's a matter of how to keep and nourish the best candidates and avoid making a lifetime…

  17. Orienteering in knowledge spaces: the hyperbolic geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or "The MathWiki." The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of "knowledge space" in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store.

  18. Orienteering in Knowledge Spaces: The Hyperbolic Geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or “The MathWiki.” The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of “knowledge space” in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store. PMID:23844017

  19. Orienteering in knowledge spaces: the hyperbolic geometry of Wikipedia Mathematics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Leibon

    Full Text Available In this paper we show how the coupling of the notion of a network with directions with the adaptation of the four-point probe from materials testing gives rise to a natural geometry on such networks. This four-point probe geometry shares many of the properties of hyperbolic geometry wherein the network directions take the place of the sphere at infinity, enabling a navigation of the network in terms of pairs of directions: the geodesic through a pair of points is oriented from one direction to another direction, the pair of which are uniquely determined. We illustrate this in the interesting example of the pages of Wikipedia devoted to Mathematics, or "The MathWiki." The applicability of these ideas extends beyond Wikipedia to provide a natural framework for visual search and to prescribe a natural mode of navigation for any kind of "knowledge space" in which higher order concepts aggregate various instances of information. Other examples would include genre or author organization of cultural objects such as books, movies, documents or even merchandise in an online store.

  20. Virtual tutorials, Wikipedia books, and multimedia-based teaching for blended learning support in a course on algorithms and data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knackmuß, Jenny; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the benefit and support of virtual tutorials, Wikipedia books and multimedia-based teaching in a course on Algorithms and Data Structures. We describe our work and experiences gained from using virtual tutorials held in Netucate iLinc sessions and the use of various multimedia and animation elements for the support of deeper understanding of the ordinary lectures held in the standard classroom on Algorithms and Data Structures for undergraduate computer sciences students. We will describe the benefits, form, style and contents of those virtual tutorials. Furthermore, we mention the advantage of Wikipedia books to support the blended learning process using modern mobile devices. Finally, we give some first statistical measures of improved student's scores after introducing this new form of teaching support.

  1. How Readers Shape the Content of an Encyclopedia: A Case Study Comparing the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (1885-1890 with Wikipedia (2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Spree

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available How knowledge is negotiated between the makers of encyclopedias and their audiences remains an ongoing question in research on encyclopedias. A comparative content analysis of the published answers of letters to the editor of the German Meyers Konversationslexikon (Korrespondenzblatt from 1885 and the discussion pages of the article potato of the German Wikipedia (2013 reveals continuities as well as changes in the communication between encyclopedia producers and their audiences. The main reasons why readers and editors communicate are the need for updated factual information, an exchange on editorial principles and the intellectual exchange of ideas on ideological and philosophical questions in relation to the encyclopedic content. Editors and readers attach a lot of importance to the process of verifying information through bibliographical references. Whereas, for the editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon the leading role of experts remains undisputed, Wikipedians work in a contradictory situation. They are on the one hand exposing knowledge production to a permanent process of negotiation, thereby challenging the role of experts, on the other hand relying strongly on bibliographical authorities. Whilst the reasons for the communication between readers and editors of Meyers Konversationslexikon and among Wikipedia contributors coincide, the understanding of the roles of readers and editors differ. The editors of the Korrespondenzblatt keep up a lecturing attitude. As opposed to this, administrators in Wikipedia want to encourage participation and strive to develop expertise among the participating contributors. Albeit power relations between administrators, regular authors, occasional authors and readers continue to exist they are comparatively flat and transient. Regardless of these differences, the comparison between Meyers Konversationslexikon and Wikipedia indicates that the sine qua non for activating an upwards spiral of quality

  2. 75 FR 6089 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order... in conducting a referendum to determine whether the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Proposed Order) is favored by producers of raspberries for...

  3. Intellectual Interchanges in the History of Massive Online Open-editing Encyclopedia, Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Jeong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia with enormous amount of contents. This encyclopedia is written by volunteers with various backgrounds in a collective fashion; anyone can access and edit most of the articles. This open editing nature may give us prejudice that Wikipedia is unstable and unreliable sources; yet many studies suggest that Wikipedia is even more accurate and self-consistent than traditional encyclopedias. Scholars have attempted to understand such extraordinary credibility, but usually used the edit number without consideration of real-time. In this work, we probe the formation of such collective intelligence through the systematic analysis using the entire history of 34,534,110 English Wikipedia articles, between 2001 and 2014. From this massive data set, we observe the universality of both timewise and lengthwise editing scales, which suggests that it is essential to consider the real-time dynamics. By considering real-time, we find the existence of various growth patterns that are unob...

  4. Modeling Dynamics of Wikipedia: An Empirical Analysis Using a Vector Error Correction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Feng-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we constructed a system dynamic model of Wikipedia based on the co-evolution theory, and investigated the interrelationships among topic popularity, group size, collaborative conflict, coordination mechanism, and information quality by using the vector error correction model (VECM. This study provides a useful framework for analyzing the dynamics of Wikipedia and presents a formal exposition of the VECM methodology in the information system research.

  5. [Presence and adequacy of the nutritional and eating disorders terminology in the Spanish and English editions of the Wikipedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Valero, J; Guardiola-Wanden-Berghe, R; Castiel, L D

    2012-11-01

    To determine the presence and to assess the adequacy of the nutritional and eating disorders descriptors in the English and Spanish Wikipedia. The terms were obtained from the thesaurus: Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and APA-Terms. The existence of the terms was confirmed accessing to the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia via the Internet (http://es.wikipedia.org/). The last date for consultation and calculations was June 8, 2012. A total of 89 descriptors were identified, being 56 (62.92%) of them as terms in the Wikipedia: 42 (47.19%) in the Spanish edition and 56 (62.92%) in English. Significant differences between the two editions were assessed (chi-square = 9.41, df = 1, P Wikipedia editions are more related to criteria of content principles (term existence) than adequacy of information. The English edition of Wikipedia has a more scientific endorsement, through the references cited, than the Spanish edition.

  6. 77 FR 26911 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... almost $361 million. California's crop is predominately delivered to the fresh market, while Oregon and... growing region in Canada. Exports of processed frozen raspberries from British Colombia to the United...

  7. The Elephant in the Room: A Place for Wikipedia in Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Brox

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article departs from a pilot survey among Norwegian teacher students that maps their usage, skills and attitudes in relation to the web based encyclopedia Wikipedia. The survey shows that the students are heavy users of Wikipedia content yet show a low  level  of knowledge as  to  how content  is  constructed  or  the  ways  in  which Wikipedia differs  from traditional,  paper-based  encyclopedias.  The  students also express little interest in parttaking in creating content or maintaining the site. The second part of the article argues that a way to remedy both lack of knowledge and interest  among  students  is  to  bring  Wikipedia  actively  into  the classrooms and enable students to take part in creating and maintaining Wikipedia content. This way, Wikipedia may serve as an effective tool with which to address and enhance a range of central 21st century skills.

  8. Amplifying the Impact of Open Access: Wikipedia and the Diffusion of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitskiy, Misha; Duede, Eamon

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of Wikipedia as a first-stop source for scientific knowledge, it is important to compare its representation of that knowledge to that of the academic literature. This article approaches such a comparison through academic references made within the worlds 50 largest Wikipedias. Previous studies have raised concerns that Wikipedia editors may simply use the most easily accessible academic sources rather than sources of the highest academic status. We test this claim by identifying the 250 most heavily used journals in each of 26 research fields (4,721 journals, 19.4M articles in total) indexed by the Scopus database, and modeling whether topic, academic status, and accessibility make articles from these journals more or less likely to be referenced on Wikipedia. We find that, controlling for field and impact factor, the odds that an open access journal is referenced on the English Wikipedia are 47% higher compared to closed access journals. Moreover, in most of the worlds Wikipedias a journals hig...

  9. Anticipating Stock Market Movements with Google and Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, Helen Susannah; Curme, Chester; Stanley, H. Eugene; Preis, Tobias

    Many of the trading decisions that have led to financial crises are captured by vast, detailed stock market datasets. Here, we summarize two of our recent studies which investigate whether Internet usage data contain traces of attempts to gather information before such trading decisions were taken. By analyzing changes in how often Internet users searched for financially related information on Google (Preis et al., Sci Rep 3:1684, 2013) and Wikipedia (Moat et al., Sci Rep 3:1801, 2013), patterns are found that may be interpreted as "early warning signs" of stock market moves. Our results suggest that online data may allow us to gain new insight into early information gathering stages of economic decision making.

  10. 75 FR 13238 - Processed Raspberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order; Delay of Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1208 RIN 0581-AC79 Processed Raspberry... delays indefinitely the referendum to determine whether producers of raspberries for processing and importers of processed raspberries approve the issuance of the proposed Processed Raspberry Promotion...

  11. Forecasting the 2013-2014 influenza season using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmann, Kyle S; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2015-05-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.

  12. Exploring DBpedia and Wikipedia for Portuguese Semantic Relationship Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Soares Batista

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of semantic relationships, as expressed between named entities in text, is an important step for extracting knowledge from large document collections, such as the Web. Previous works have addressed this task for the English language through supervised learning techniques for automatic classification. The current state of the art involves the use of learning methods based on string kernels. However, such approaches require manually annotated training data for each type of semantic relationship, and have scalability problems when tens or hundreds of different types of relationships have to be extracted. This article discusses an approach for distantly supervised relation extraction over texts written in the Portuguese language, which uses an efficient technique for measuring similarity between relation instances, based on minwise hashing and on locality sensitive hashing. In the proposed method, the training examples are automatically collected from Wikipedia, corresponding to sentences that express semantic relationships between pairs of entities extracted from DBPedia. These examples are represented as sets of character quadgrams and other representative elements. The sets are indexed in a data structure that implements the idea of locality-sensitive hashing. To check which semantic relationship is expressed between a given pair of entities referenced in a sentence, the most similar training examples are searched, based on an approximation to the Jaccard coefficient, obtained through min-hashing. The relation class is assigned with basis on the weighted votes of the most similar examples. Tests with a dataset from Wikipedia validate the suitability of the proposed method, showing, for instance, that the method is able to extract 10 different types of semantic relations, 8 of them corresponding to asymmetric relations, with an average score of 55.6%, measured in terms of F1.

  13. Forecasting the 2013-2014 influenza season using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle S Hickmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.

  14. Interplay of homophily and communication in online social networks: Wikipedia-based semantic metric application on Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Sćepanović, Sanja; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hieu, Nguyen Trung; Hui, Pan

    2016-01-01

    People are observed to assortitavely connect on a set of traits. Uncovering the reasons for people exhibiting this strong assortative mixing in social networks is of great interest to researchers and in practice. A popular case application exploiting the insights about social correlation in social networks is in marketing and product promotion. Suggested tendencies to induce observed social correlation are homophily and social influence. However, clearly identifying the causal relationship between these tendencies has proven to be a hard task. In this study we present the interplay between communication happening on Twitter (represented by user mentions) and different semantical aspects of user communication content (tweets). As a semantic relatedness metric we employ a database built from the English Wikipedia corpus according to the Explicit Semantic Analysis method. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to offer an in-depth analysis on semantic homophily on communication in social networks. ...

  15. Promoting the School Learning Processes: Principals as Learning Boundary Spanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Pascale; Schechter, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The ongoing challenge to sustain school learning and improvement requires schools to explore new ways, and at the same time exploit previous experience. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to expand the knowledge of mechanisms that can facilitate school learning processes by proposing boundary activities and learning mechanisms in…

  16. The 1994 and 1999 Electoral Process/Systems: Promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's general elections of 1994 was a unique occurrence in the country's history, having for the first time enfranchised the majority of the country's citizens. The 1999 elections advanced this process of democratizing the South African policy. This article examines the electoral systems that were applied to two ...

  17. Adhesion promoting polymerinterlayers for Ag layers deposited in OLED processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vicca P.; Steudel S.; Genoe J.; Heremans P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the main drivers for organic electronic research are the backplanes for flexible active-matrix displays using organic light-emitting diodes (AM-OLEDs). In our work, we processed organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) at low temperatures (

  18. A Game to Promote Understanding about UCD Methods and Process

    OpenAIRE

    Garreta Domingo, Muriel; Almirall Hill, Magí; Mor Pera, Enric

    2007-01-01

    The User-centered design (UCD) game is a tool for human-computer interaction practitioners to demonstrate the key user-centered design methods and how they interrelate in the design process in an interactive and participatory manner. The target audiences are departments and institutions unfamiliar with UCD but whose work is related to the definition, creation, and update of a product or service.

  19. Wikipedia Lover, Not a Hater: Harnessing Wikipedia to Increase the Discoverability of Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Danielle; Westbrook, R. Niccole; Reilly, Michele

    2012-01-01

    During the spring of 2010, the University of Houston Libraries Digital Services Department began an initiative to promote existing and upcoming collections in the University of Houston Digital Library and drive traffic to the online repository. Spurred by an OCLC report (De Rosa et al. 2005) that only two percent of college and university students…

  20. Motivations for contributing to health-related articles on Wikipedia: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farič, Nuša; Potts, Henry W W

    2014-12-03

    Wikipedia is one of the most accessed sources of health information online. The current English-language Wikipedia contains more than 28,000 articles pertaining to health. The aim was to characterize individuals' motivations for contributing to health content on the English-language Wikipedia. A set of health-related articles were randomly selected and recent contributors invited to complete an online questionnaire and follow-up interview (by Skype, by email, or face-to-face). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis and a realist grounded theory approach. A total of 32 Wikipedians (31 men) completed the questionnaire and 17 were interviewed. Those completing the questionnaire had a mean age of 39 (range 12-59) years; 16 had a postgraduate qualification, 10 had or were currently studying for an undergraduate qualification, 3 had no more than secondary education, and 3 were still in secondary education. In all, 15 were currently working in a health-related field (primarily clinicians). The median period for which they have been an active editing Wikipedia was 3-5 years. Of this group, 12 were in the United States, 6 were in the United Kingdom, 4 were in Canada, and the remainder from another 8 countries. Two-thirds spoke more than 1 language and 90% (29/32) were also active contributors in domains other than health. Wikipedians in this study were identified as health professionals, professionals with specific health interests, students, and individuals with health problems. Based on the interviews, their motivations for editing health-related content were summarized in 5 strongly interrelated categories: education (learning about subjects by editing articles), help (wanting to improve and maintain Wikipedia), responsibility (responsibility, often a professional responsibility, to provide good quality health information to readers), fulfillment (editing Wikipedia as a fun, relaxing, engaging, and rewarding activity), and positive attitude to

  1. Marketing promotion in the consumer goods’ retail distribution process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Bălăşescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental characteristic of contemporary marketing is the total opening towards three major directions: consumer needs, organization needs and society’s needs. The continuous expansion of marketing has been accompanied by a process of differentiation and specialization. Differentiation has led to the so called “specific marketing”. In this paper, we aim to explain that in the retail companies, the concept of sales marketing can be distinguished as an independent marketing specialization. The main objectives for this paper are: the definition and delimitation of consumer goods’ sales marketing in the retail business and the sectoral approach of the marketing concept and its specific techniques for the retail activities.

  2. Glucose promotes controlled processing: Matching, maximizing, and root beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. McMahon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Participants drank either regular root beer or sugar-free diet root beer before working on a probability-learning task in which they tried to predict which of two events would occur on each of 200 trials. One event (E1 randomly occurred on 140 trials, the other (E2 on 60. In each of the last two blocks of 50 trials, the regular group matched prediction and event frequencies. In contrast, the diet group predicted E1 more often in each of these blocks. After the task, participants were asked to write down rules they used for responding. Blind ratings of rule complexity were inversely related to E1 predictions in the final 50 trials. Participants also took longer to advance after incorrect predictions and before predicting E2, reflecting time for revising and consulting rules. These results support the hypothesis that an effortful controlled process of normative rule-generation produces matching in probability-learning experiments, and that this process is a function of glucose availability.

  3. Walking Across Wikipedia: A Scale-Free Network Model of Semantic Memory Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham William Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Semantic knowledge has been investigated using both online and offline methods. One common online method is category recall, in which members of a semantic category like animals are retrieved in a given period of time. The order, timing, and number of retrievals are used as assays of semantic memory processes. One common offline method is corpus analysis, in which the structure of semantic knowledge is extracted from texts using co-occurrence or encyclopedic methods. Online measures of semantic processing, as well as offline measures of semantic structure, have yielded data resembling inverse power law distributions. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether these patterns in data might be related. A semantic network model of animal knowledge is formulated on the basis of Wikipedia pages and their overlap in word probability distributions. The network is scale-free, in that node degree is related to node frequency as an inverse power law. A random walk over this network is shown to simulate a number of results from a category recall experiment, including power law-like distributions of inter-response intervals. Results are discussed in terms of theories of semantic structure and processing.

  4. Understanding the decision-making process for health promotion programming at small to midsized businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M Courtney; Patrick, Donald L; Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Ghosh, Donetta L

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the decision-making process for implementing and continuing health promotion programs at small to midsized businesses to inform health promotion practitioners and researchers as they market their services to these businesses. Qualitative interviews are conducted with 24 employers located in the Pacific Northwest ranging in size from 75 to 800 employees, with the majority having between 100 and 200 employees. Small to midsized employers depend most on company success-related factors rather than on humanitarian motives when deciding whether to adopt workplace health promotion programs. They rely heavily on health insurers for health promotion and desire more information about the actual costs and cost-benefits of programs. To increase health promotion adoption at small to midsized businesses, health promotion practitioners should appeal to overall company success-related factors, use the insurance channel, and target their information to both human resource personnel and senior management.

  5. Sclerostin Promotes Bone Remodeling in the Process of Tooth Movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Shu

    Full Text Available Tooth movement is a biological process of bone remodeling induced by mechanical force. Sclerostin secreted by osteocytes is mechanosensory and important in bone remodeling. However, little is known regarding the role of sclerostin in tooth movement. In this study, models of experimental tooth movement were established in rats and mice. Sclerostin expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry staining, and osteoclastic activity was analyzed with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells underwent uniaxial compression and tension stress or were cultured in hypoxia conditions. Expression of sclerostin was assessed by RT-qPCR and ELISA. MLO-Y4 cells were cultured with recombinant human sclerostin (rhSCL interference and then co-cultured with RAW264.7 osteoclast precursor cells. Expressions of RANKL and OPG were analyzed by RT-qPCR, and osteoclastic activity was assessed by TRAP staining. During tooth movement, sclerostin was expressed differently in compression and tension sites. In SOST knock-out mice, there were significantly fewer TRAP-positive cells than in WT mice during tooth movement in compression sites. In-vitro studies showed that the expression of sclerostin in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells was not different under a uniaxial compression and tension force, whereas hypoxia conditions significantly increased sclerostin expression in MLO-Y4 cells. rhSCL interference increased the expression of RANKL and the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells and the osteoclastic induction ability of MLO-Y4 cells in experimental osteocyte-osteoclast co-culture. These data suggest that sclerostin plays an important role in the bone remodeling of tooth movement.

  6. "Language Is the Skin of My Thought": Integrating Wikipedia and AI to Support a Guillotine Player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lops, Pasquale; Basile, Pierpaolo; de Gemmis, Marco; Semeraro, Giovanni

    This paper describes OTTHO (On the Tip of my THOught), a system designed for solving a language game, called Guillotine, which demands knowledge covering a broad range of topics, such as movies, politics, literature, history, proverbs, and popular culture. The rule of the game is simple: the player observes five words, generally unrelated to each other, and in one minute she has to provide a sixth word, semantically connected to the others. The system exploits several knowledge sources, such as a dictionary, a set of proverbs, and Wikipedia to realize a knowledge infusion process. The paper describes the process of modeling these sources and the reasoning mechanism to find the solution of the game. The main motivation for designing an artificial player for Guillotine is the challenge of providing the machine with the cultural and linguistic background knowledge which makes it similar to a human being, with the ability of interpreting natural language documents and reasoning on their content. Experiments carried out showed promising results. Our feeling is that the presented approach has a great potential for other more practical applications besides solving a language game.

  7. Wikipedia and medicine: quantifying readership, editors, and the significance of natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, James M; West, Andrew G

    2015-03-04

    Wikipedia is a collaboratively edited encyclopedia. One of the most popular websites on the Internet, it is known to be a frequently used source of health care information by both professionals and the lay public. This paper quantifies the production and consumption of Wikipedia's medical content along 4 dimensions. First, we measured the amount of medical content in both articles and bytes and, second, the citations that supported that content. Third, we analyzed the medical readership against that of other health care websites between Wikipedia's natural language editions and its relationship with disease prevalence. Fourth, we surveyed the quantity/characteristics of Wikipedia's medical contributors, including year-over-year participation trends and editor demographics. Using a well-defined categorization infrastructure, we identified medically pertinent English-language Wikipedia articles and links to their foreign language equivalents. With these, Wikipedia can be queried to produce metadata and full texts for entire article histories. Wikipedia also makes available hourly reports that aggregate reader traffic at per-article granularity. An online survey was used to determine the background of contributors. Standard mining and visualization techniques (eg, aggregation queries, cumulative distribution functions, and/or correlation metrics) were applied to each of these datasets. Analysis focused on year-end 2013, but historical data permitted some longitudinal analysis. Wikipedia's medical content (at the end of 2013) was made up of more than 155,000 articles and 1 billion bytes of text across more than 255 languages. This content was supported by more than 950,000 references. Content was viewed more than 4.88 billion times in 2013. This makes it one of if not the most viewed medical resource(s) globally. The core editor community numbered less than 300 and declined over the past 5 years. The members of this community were half health care providers and 85

  8. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y; Kantelhardt, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic) information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  9. Mind the Gaps: Wikipedia as an education model and public duty for scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustead, Greg; Wiki Education Foundation

    2016-06-01

    Search for almost any scientific term on the Internet, and chances are that a Wikipedia page will be the first result. Wikipedia’s content reaches more than 450 million readers around the world, at a rate of about 8,000 readers a second. That makes Wikipedia one of the most powerful platforms for the dissemination of science information in the world. Although Wikipedia’s coverage of science topics is robust, clear gaps remain — especially with subject matter that requires technical or specialized expertise. Some information is woefully out of date; and, while a minority, some scientific entries on Wikipedia are simply inaccurate. Furthermore, the underrepresentation of women, and diversity in general, remains a real issue. The Wikipedia Year of Science 2016 is an unprecedented targeted initiative designed to improve Wikipedia’s potential for communicating science to the public. The multi-faceted effort is a program conceived by the Wiki Education Foundation, with support from the Simons Foundation and Google. This talk will provide a brief overview of the Wikipedia Year of Science initiative, and ways AAS members can get involved — during the meeting, in the classroom, and beyond.

  10. Mining Missing Hyperlinks from Human Navigation Traces: A Case Study of Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert; Paranjape, Ashwin; Leskovec, Jure

    Hyperlinks are an essential feature of the World Wide Web. They are especially important for online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia: an article can often only be understood in the context of related articles, and hyperlinks make it easy to explore this context. But important links are often missing, and several methods have been proposed to alleviate this problem by learning a linking model based on the structure of the existing links. Here we propose a novel approach to identifying missing links in Wikipedia. We build on the fact that the ultimate purpose of Wikipedia links is to aid navigation. Rather than merely suggesting new links that are in tune with the structure of existing links, our method finds missing links that would immediately enhance Wikipedia's navigability. We leverage data sets of navigation paths collected through a Wikipedia-based human-computation game in which users must find a short path from a start to a target article by only clicking links encountered along the way. We harness human navigational traces to identify a set of candidates for missing links and then rank these candidates. Experiments show that our procedure identifies missing links of high quality.

  11. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Kämpf

    Full Text Available Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic's importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends.

  12. Risk factors and control of hospital acquired infections: a comparison between Wikipedia and scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maggi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays Wikipedia is one of the main on-line sources of general information. It contains several items about nosocomial infections and their prevention, together of items on virtually every scientific topic.This study aims to assess whether Wikipedia can be considered a reliable source for professional updating, concerning Healthcare-associated Infections (HAI.Methods: Wikipedia has been searched in order to gather items on HAI. 387 items were found with a search string. The field of research was reduced at those articles (27 items containing exhaustive information in relation to prevention of HAI. The messages contained in those articles were than compared with the recommendations of a selected guideline (NICE 2003, completed by a literature search, with the aim of testing their reliability and exhaustivity.Results: 15 Wiki items were found and 51 messages selected. NICE guidelines contained 119 recommendations and 52 more recommendations has been found in a further literature search. 45.1% of Wikipedia’s messages were even found in the guidelines. On this percentage, 21.6% completely agreed with the messages of the guidelines, 15.7% partially agreed, 3.9% disagreed and 3.9% showed different level of evidence in different articles. Moreover, 54.9% of Wikipedia’s messages were not included in the guidelines and 84.2% of the recommendations contained in the guidelines were not present in Wikipedia.Conclusions: Wikipedia should not be considered as a reliable source for professional updating on HAI.

  13. The Detection of Emerging Trends Using Wikipedia Traffic Data and Context Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tessenow, Eric; Kenett, Dror Y.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.

    2015-01-01

    Can online media predict new and emerging trends, since there is a relationship between trends in society and their representation in online systems? While several recent studies have used Google Trends as the leading online information source to answer corresponding research questions, we focus on the online encyclopedia Wikipedia often used for deeper topical reading. Wikipedia grants open access to all traffic data and provides lots of additional (semantic) information in a context network besides single keywords. Specifically, we suggest and study context-normalized and time-dependent measures for a topic’s importance based on page-view time series of Wikipedia articles in different languages and articles related to them by internal links. As an example, we present a study of the recently emerging Big Data market with a focus on the Hadoop ecosystem, and compare the capabilities of Wikipedia versus Google in predicting its popularity and life cycles. To support further applications, we have developed an open web platform to share results of Wikipedia analytics, providing context-rich and language-independent relevance measures for emerging trends. PMID:26720074

  14. Contrasting medium and genre on Wikipedia to open up the dominating definition and classification of geoengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Markusson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering is typically defined as a techno-scientific response to climate change that differs from mitigation and adaptation, and that includes diverse individual technologies, which can be classified as either solar radiation management or carbon dioxide removal. We analyse the representation of geoengineering on Wikipedia as a way of opening up this dominating, if contested, model for further debate. We achieve this by contrasting the dominating model as presented in the encyclopaedic article texts with the patterns of hyper-link associations between the articles. Two datasets were created tracing the geoengineering construct on Wikipedia, shedding light on its boundary with its context, as well as on its internal structure. The analysis shows that the geoengineering category tends to be associated on Wikipedia primarily with atmospheric solar radiation management rather than land-based carbon dioxide removal type technologies. The results support the notion that the dominant model of defining and classifying geoengineering technology has been beneficial for solar radiation management type technologies more than for land-based carbon dioxide removal ones. The article also demonstrates that controversy mapping with Wikipedia data affords analysis that can open up dominating definitions and classifications of technologies, and offer resistance to their frequent naturalising and decontextualising tendencies. This work is in line with recent work on digital sociology, but the article contributes a new methodology and reports on the first empirical application of controversy mapping using Wikipedia data to a technology.

  15. Academics and Wikipedia: Reframing Web 2.0+ as a Disruptor of Traditional Academic Power-Knowledge Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkman, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: There is much hype about academics' attitude to Wikipedia. This paper seeks to go beyond anecdotal evidence by drawing on empirical research to ascertain how academics respond to Wikipedia and the implications these responses have for the take-up of Web 2.0+. It aims to test the hypothesis that Web 2.0+, as a platform built around the…

  16. An Analysis of the Application of Wikipedia Corpus on the Lexical Learning in the Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed linguistic research but has a slightly moderate impact on the ESL teaching and learning. The Wikipedia Corpus, designed by Mark Davis is introduced in this essay. The corpus allows teachers to search Wikipedia in a powerful way: they can search by word, phrase, part of speech, and synonyms. Teachers can also find…

  17. THE REACH AND RICHNESS OF WIKINOMICS: IS THE FREE WEB-BASED ENCYCLOPEDIA WIKIPEDIA ONLY FOR RICH COUNTRIES?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, lays the foundation for studying whether the free Web-based encyclopedia Wikipedia is only for developed countries. Based on data from 12 different Wikipedia language editions, the author finds...... that the central structural effect is on the level of human development in the current country. In other words, Wikipedia is in general more for rich countries than for less developed countries. It is suggested that policy makers make investments in increasing the general level of literacy, education, and standard...... of living in their country. The main managerial implication for businesses, that will expand their social network applications to other countries, is to use the model of the patterns of correlation in Wikipedia, reach and richness, as a market screening and monitoring model....

  18. Quality of information sources about mental disorders: a comparison of Wikipedia with centrally controlled web and printed sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, N J; Mackinnon, A J; Morgan, A J; Alvarez-Jimenez, M; Hetrick, S E; Killackey, E; Nelson, B; Purcell, R; Yap, M B H; Jorm, A F

    2012-08-01

    Although mental health information on the internet is often of poor quality, relatively little is known about the quality of websites, such as Wikipedia, that involve participatory information sharing. The aim of this paper was to explore the quality of user-contributed mental health-related information on Wikipedia and compare this with centrally controlled information sources. Content on 10 mental health-related topics was extracted from 14 frequently accessed websites (including Wikipedia) providing information about depression and schizophrenia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, and a psychiatry textbook. The content was rated by experts according to the following criteria: accuracy, up-to-dateness, breadth of coverage, referencing and readability. Ratings varied significantly between resources according to topic. Across all topics, Wikipedia was the most highly rated in all domains except readability. The quality of information on depression and schizophrenia on Wikipedia is generally as good as, or better than, that provided by centrally controlled websites, Encyclopaedia Britannica and a psychiatry textbook.

  19. Wikipedia information flow analysis reveals the scale-free architecture of the semantic space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution.

  20. Conflict and Computation on Wikipedia: A Finite-State Machine Analysis of Editor Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon DeDeo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available What is the boundary between a vigorous argument and a breakdown of relations? What drives a group of individuals across it? Taking Wikipedia as a test case, we use a hidden Markov model to approximate the computational structure and social grammar of more than a decade of cooperation and conflict among its editors. Across a wide range of pages, we discover a bursty war/peace structure where the systems can become trapped, sometimes for months, in a computational subspace associated with significantly higher levels of conflict-tracking “revert” actions. Distinct patterns of behavior characterize the lower-conflict subspace, including tit-for-tat reversion. While a fraction of the transitions between these subspaces are associated with top-down actions taken by administrators, the effects are weak. Surprisingly, we find no statistical signal that transitions are associated with the appearance of particularly anti-social users, and only weak association with significant news events outside the system. These findings are consistent with transitions being driven by decentralized processes with no clear locus of control. Models of belief revision in the presence of a common resource for information-sharing predict the existence of two distinct phases: a disordered high-conflict phase, and a frozen phase with spontaneously-broken symmetry. The bistability we observe empirically may be a consequence of editor turn-over, which drives the system to a critical point between them.

  1. Wikipedia information flow analysis reveals the scale-free architecture of the semantic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, Adolfo Paolo; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Eguíluz, Victor Martínez; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we extract the topology of the semantic space in its encyclopedic acception, measuring the semantic flow between the different entries of the largest modern encyclopedia, Wikipedia, and thus creating a directed complex network of semantic flows. Notably at the percolation threshold the semantic space is characterised by scale-free behaviour at different levels of complexity and this relates the semantic space to a wide range of biological, social and linguistics phenomena. In particular we find that the cluster size distribution, representing the size of different semantic areas, is scale-free. Moreover the topology of the resulting semantic space is scale-free in the connectivity distribution and displays small-world properties. However its statistical properties do not allow a classical interpretation via a generative model based on a simple multiplicative process. After giving a detailed description and interpretation of the topological properties of the semantic space, we introduce a stochastic model of content-based network, based on a copy and mutation algorithm and on the Heaps' law, that is able to capture the main statistical properties of the analysed semantic space, including the Zipf's law for the word frequency distribution.

  2. Value Production in a Collaborative Environment. Sociophysical Studies of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseri, Taha; Kertész, János

    2013-05-01

    We review some recent endeavors and add some new results to characterize and understand underlying mechanisms in Wikipedia (WP), the paradigmatic example of collaborative value production. We analyzed the statistics of editorial activity in different languages and observed typical circadian and weekly patterns, which enabled us to estimate the geographical origins of contributions to WPs in languages spoken in several time zones. Using a recently introduced measure we showed that the editorial activities have intrinsic dependencies in the burstiness of events. A comparison of the English and Simple English WPs revealed important aspects of language complexity and showed how peer cooperation solved the task of enhancing readability. One of our focus issues was characterizing the conflicts or edit wars in WPs, which helped us to automatically filter out controversial pages. When studying the temporal evolution of the controversiality of such pages we identified typical patterns and classified conflicts accordingly. Our quantitative analysis provides the basis of modeling conflicts and their resolution in collaborative environments and contribute to the understanding of this issue, which becomes increasingly important with the development of information communication technology.

  3. The most controversial topics in Wikipedia: A multilingual and geographical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yasseri, Taha; Graham, Mark; Kertész, János

    2013-01-01

    We present, visualize and analyse the similarities and differences between the controversial topics related to "edit wars" identified in 10 different language versions of Wikipedia. After a brief review of the related work we describe the methods developed to locate, measure, and categorize the controversial topics in the different languages. Visualizations of the degree of overlap between the top 100 list of most controversial articles in different languages and the content related geographical locations will be presented. We discuss what the presented analysis and visualizations can tell us about the multicultural aspects of Wikipedia, and, in general, about cultures of peer-production with focus on universal and specifically, local features. We demonstrate that Wikipedia is more than just an encyclopaedia; it is also a window into divergent social-spatial priorities, interests and preferences.

  4. Detecting Spatial Patterns of Natural Hazards from the Wikipedia Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Stewart, K.

    2015-07-01

    The Wikipedia database is a data source of immense richness and variety. Included in this database are thousands of geotagged articles, including, for example, almost real-time updates on current and historic natural hazards. This includes usercontributed information about the location of natural hazards, the extent of the disasters, and many details relating to response, impact, and recovery. In this research, a computational framework is proposed to detect spatial patterns of natural hazards from the Wikipedia database by combining topic modeling methods with spatial analysis techniques. The computation is performed on the Neon Cluster, a high performance-computing cluster at the University of Iowa. This work uses wildfires as the exemplar hazard, but this framework is easily generalizable to other types of hazards, such as hurricanes or flooding. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) modeling is first employed to train the entire English Wikipedia dump, transforming the database dump into a 500-dimension topic model. Over 230,000 geo-tagged articles are then extracted from the Wikipedia database, spatially covering the contiguous United States. The geo-tagged articles are converted into an LDA topic space based on the topic model, with each article being represented as a weighted multidimension topic vector. By treating each article's topic vector as an observed point in geographic space, a probability surface is calculated for each of the topics. In this work, Wikipedia articles about wildfires are extracted from the Wikipedia database, forming a wildfire corpus and creating a basis for the topic vector analysis. The spatial distribution of wildfire outbreaks in the US is estimated by calculating the weighted sum of the topic probability surfaces using a map algebra approach, and mapped using GIS. To provide an evaluation of the approach, the estimation is compared to wildfire hazard potential maps created by the USDA Forest service.

  5. The Completeness of Articles and Citation Analysis on the Slovenian Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manca Noč

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The purpose of this research was to examine the number and type of sources cited by featured articles on the Slovenian Wikipedia and to compare a sample of featured articles with a sample of random articles, with the purpose of determining an indicative framework for the quality of both.Methodology: 122 featured Wikipedia articles created in 2009, 2010 and 2011 were analysed, particularly the topic and originality of an article and the number, language and type of sources. A sample of featured articles was compared to a sample of 194 random articles which represent average Wikipedia articles.Results: The results showed that most of the featured articles were adapted from the English Wikipedia, the most common topics being natural science, sports and history. It turned out that the majority of random articles were stubs and articles with a minimal number of references, with military, sports or biographic topic. Based on these results it has been confirmed that despite their deficiencies the featured articles represent the highest-quality Wikipedia articles as compared to random articles.Research limitation: The biggest limitation of the research was the very low quality of random articles as they were mostly stubs, so it was hard to even determine sensible parameters upon which they could be analysed. Originality/practical implications: This is the first research of the Slovenian Wikipedia that focuses on citation analysis of featured articles. Results of this research offer valuable information to editors of featured articles on their own work as well as point out certain deficiencies which can be eliminated.

  6. The double power law in human collaboration behavior: The case of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    We study human behavior in terms of the inter-event time distribution of revision behavior on Wikipedia, an online collaborative encyclopedia. We observe a double power law distribution for the inter-editing behavior at the population level and a single power law distribution at the individual level. Although interactions between users are indirect or moderate on Wikipedia, we determine that the synchronized editing behavior among users plays a key role in determining the slope of the tail of the double power law distribution.

  7. A VIEWPOINT ON ECONOMY STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE PROMOTION PROCESS OF TOURISM PRODUCTS USING ONLINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia, MUHCINA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the tools that are used in promotional activity in tourism, the online marketing opens the possibility to promptly create offers, meet buyers' demands, and strengthen customer relationships. The online marketers consider that the Internet is a modern technology that allows firms to connect business partners, to identify more rapidly the consumers' needs, to understand and answer on individual demand. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of online marketing in the process of promotion and distribution of tourism products, starting from an empirical research conducted among economic sciences faculty students. The results of this work may provide a partial image of the young people's opinion about online marketing as a tool of marketing communication, and may be approached as a modest guide for tourism marketers in the process of creating, promoting and distributing tourism offers.

  8. "Putting in Your Time": Faculty Experiences in the Process of Promotion to Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Susan K.; Blackstone, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The rank of professor or "full" professor represents the highest status possible for faculty members, and it is generally gained by attaining professional expertise and a national or international reputation. Beyond this, however, little is known about these individuals or the promotion process at this level. In this qualitative study of…

  9. Who Writes the Past? Student Perceptions of Wikipedia Knowledge and Credibility in a World History Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Susanna; Kelley, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an inquiry-based learning project that required students in a first-year world history course to reflect on and analyze critically the nature of the knowledge found in Wikipedia--the free, open-content, rapidly evolving, internet encyclopedia. Using a rubric, the authors explored students' perceptions of the collaborative and…

  10. Inquiry, Critique, and Dissemination of Knowledge: Graduate Students Contributing to Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Graduate students use existing knowledge and are ultimately expected to add to that knowledge. Students in a Masters of Education entry course were asked to find a Wikipedia page related to the course topics, critique it, and make improvements to it to begin to develop these skills. In this paper, I examine ways in which their perspectives were…

  11. Wikipedia Writing as Praxis: Computer-Mediated Socialization of Second-Language Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the writing of Wikipedia articles as a form of authentic writing for learners of English in Hong Kong. Adopting "Second Language Socialization and Language Learning & Identity" approaches to language learning inquiry, it responds to an identified shortage of research on computer-mediated language socialization.…

  12. An evaluation of medical knowledge contained in Wikipedia and its use in the LOINC database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlin, Jeff; McDonald, Clement J

    2010-01-01

    The logical observation identifiers names and codes (LOINC) database contains 55 000 terms consisting of more atomic components called parts. LOINC carries more than 18 000 distinct parts. It is necessary to have definitions/descriptions for each of these parts to assist users in mapping local laboratory codes to LOINC. It is believed that much of this information can be obtained from the internet; the first effort was with Wikipedia. This project focused on 1705 laboratory analytes (the first part in the LOINC laboratory name). Of the 1705 parts queried, 1314 matching articles were found in Wikipedia. Of these, 1299 (98.9%) were perfect matches that exactly described the LOINC part, 15 (1.14%) were partial matches (the description in Wikipedia was related to the LOINC part, but did not describe it fully), and 102 (7.76%) were mis-matches. The current release of RELMA and LOINC include Wikipedia descriptions of LOINC parts obtained as a direct result of this project.

  13. "You Just Type in What You Are Looking for": Undergraduates' Use of Library Resources vs. Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Aguirre, Monica; Fleming-May, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from one-on-one interviews with 21 undergraduate students at a large public research university in the southeastern United States. While the preliminary focus of the study was to be students' opinions about and use of Wikipedia as a resource for course-related research, many of the interviews evolved into discussion…

  14. Using Wikipedia and Conceptual Graph Structures to Generate Questions for Academic Writing Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Calvo, R. A.; Aditomo, A.; Pizzato, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for semiautomatic question generation to support academic writing. Our system first extracts key phrases from students' literature review papers. Each key phrase is matched with a Wikipedia article and classified into one of five abstract concept categories: Research Field, Technology, System, Term, and…

  15. High Tempo Knowledge Collaboration in Wikipedia's Coverage of Breaking News Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    When major news breaks in our hyper-connected society, we increasingly turn to an encyclopedia for the latest information. Wikipedia's coverage of breaking news events attracts unique levels of attention; the articles with the most page views, edits, and contributors in any given month since 2003 are related to current events. Extant…

  16. (Re)Writing "Feminism in Canada": Wikipedia in the Feminist Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Alana

    2012-01-01

    In the winter of 2012, the students in the author's fourth-year seminar, The Politics of the Canadian Women's Movement, undertook the project of editing, updating, and expanding a number of Wikipedia articles, including the page on "Feminism in Canada." Though it often serves as a first point of reference for research on Canadian…

  17. The use of software tools and autonomous bots against vandalism : eroding Wikipedia's moral order?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Paul B.

    English-language Wikipedia is constantly being plagued by vandalistic contributions on a massive scale. In order to fight them its volunteer contributors deploy an array of software tools and autonomous bots. After an analysis of their functioning and the 'coactivity' in use between humans and bots,

  18. Multi-cultural Wikipedia mining of geopolitics interactions leveraging reduced Google matrix analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; El Zant, Samer; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2017-09-01

    Geopolitics focuses on political power in relation to geographic space. Interactions among world countries have been widely studied at various scales, observing economic exchanges, world history or international politics among others. This work exhibits the potential of Wikipedia mining for such studies. Indeed, Wikipedia stores valuable fine-grained dependencies among countries by linking webpages together for diverse types of interactions (not only related to economical, political or historical facts). We mine herein the Wikipedia networks of several language editions using the recently proposed method of reduced Google matrix analysis. This approach allows to establish direct and hidden links between a subset of nodes that belong to a much larger directed network. Our study concentrates on 40 major countries chosen worldwide. Our aim is to offer a multicultural perspective on their interactions by comparing networks extracted from five different Wikipedia language editions, emphasizing English, Russian and Arabic ones. We demonstrate that this approach allows to recover meaningful direct and hidden links among the 40 countries of interest.

  19. From MDMA to Lady Gaga : Expertise and Contribution Behavior of Editing Communities on Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, L.J.; Krieg, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for gaining a better understanding of the contribution behavior, interests and expertise of communities of Wikipedia users. Starting from a list of core articles and their main editors, we identify which other articles (outside of the initial list) they

  20. The Reach and Richness of Wikipedia: Is Wikinomics only for the rich countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of technological and economic factors on the global diffusion of Wikinomics among developed and developing countries. Examining different language editions of Wikipedia, this study found significant correlation between a variety of socio-economic factors and involve...

  1. Coercion or empowerment? Moderation of content in Wikipedia as 'essentially contested' bureaucratic rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de laat, Paul B.

    In communities of user-generated content, systems for the management of content and/or their contributors are usually accepted without much protest. Not so, however, in the case of Wikipedia, in which the proposal to introduce a system of review for new edits (in order to counter vandalism) led to

  2. Information-seeking behaviour for epilepsy : an infodemiological study of searches for Wikipedia articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Otte, Willem M; Igwe, Stanley C; Ausserer, Harald; Nardone, Raffaele; Tezzon, Frediano; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopaedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. Our aim was to evaluate information-seeking behaviour of English-speaking internet users

  3. Intellectual interchanges in the history of the massive online open-editing encyclopedia, Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia with an enormous amount of content. This encyclopedia is written by volunteers with various backgrounds in a collective fashion; anyone can access and edit most of the articles. This open-editing nature may give us prejudice that Wikipedia is an unstable and unreliable source; yet many studies suggest that Wikipedia is even more accurate and self-consistent than traditional encyclopedias. Scholars have attempted to understand such extraordinary credibility, but usually used the number of edits as the unit of time, without consideration of real time. In this work, we probe the formation of such collective intelligence through a systematic analysis using the entire history of 34 534 110 English Wikipedia articles, between 2001 and 2014. From this massive data set, we observe the universality of both timewise and lengthwise editing scales, which suggests that it is essential to consider the real-time dynamics. By considering real time, we find the existence of distinct growth patterns that are unobserved by utilizing the number of edits as the unit of time. To account for these results, we present a mechanistic model that adopts the article editing dynamics based on both editor-editor and editor-article interactions. The model successfully generates the key properties of real Wikipedia articles such as distinct types of articles for the editing patterns characterized by the interrelationship between the numbers of edits and editors, and the article size. In addition, the model indicates that infrequently referred articles tend to grow faster than frequently referred ones, and articles attracting a high motivation to edit counterintuitively reduce the number of participants. We suggest that this decay of participants eventually brings inequality among the editors, which will become more severe with time.

  4. Intellectual interchanges in the history of the massive online open-editing encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2016-01-01

    Wikipedia is a free Internet encyclopedia with an enormous amount of content. This encyclopedia is written by volunteers with various backgrounds in a collective fashion; anyone can access and edit most of the articles. This open-editing nature may give us prejudice that Wikipedia is an unstable and unreliable source; yet many studies suggest that Wikipedia is even more accurate and self-consistent than traditional encyclopedias. Scholars have attempted to understand such extraordinary credibility, but usually used the number of edits as the unit of time, without consideration of real time. In this work, we probe the formation of such collective intelligence through a systematic analysis using the entire history of 34534110 English Wikipedia articles, between 2001 and 2014. From this massive data set, we observe the universality of both timewise and lengthwise editing scales, which suggests that it is essential to consider the real-time dynamics. By considering real time, we find the existence of distinct growth patterns that are unobserved by utilizing the number of edits as the unit of time. To account for these results, we present a mechanistic model that adopts the article editing dynamics based on both editor-editor and editor-article interactions. The model successfully generates the key properties of real Wikipedia articles such as distinct types of articles for the editing patterns characterized by the interrelationship between the numbers of edits and editors, and the article size. In addition, the model indicates that infrequently referred articles tend to grow faster than frequently referred ones, and articles attracting a high motivation to edit counterintuitively reduce the number of participants. We suggest that this decay of participants eventually brings inequality among the editors, which will become more severe with time.

  5. Cognitive and Social Factors Affecting the Use of Wikipedia and Information Seeking / Les facteurs cognitifs et sociaux déterminant l'utilisation de Wikipedia et la recherche d'information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Siyoung

    2012-01-01

    .... Using a sample of 184 college students, the study proposed theoretical models to test the effects of internal beliefs, motivations, and social influences on Wikipedia use and information-seeking...

  6. Involving students in learning and health promotion processes--clarifying why? what? and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarne Bruun; Simovska, Venka

    2005-01-01

    The concept of student participation is currently a popular notion in health promoting schools as well as in general education. However, phrases such as 'involvement', 'participation', 'co-determination' and 'influence' are frequently used without careful definition. In this article two models, developed in the context of health promoting schools in two different cultures, are presented and discussed. The first model makes a fundamental distinction between token and genuine participation. Token participation in health promotion is characterised by focusing on prescribed knowledge, closed and convergent outcomes and targeting individuals isolated from the surrounding environment. In contrast, genuine participation stresses students' own construction of knowledge, open and divergent outcomes and targeting individuals in their context. Genuine participation is in accordance with a democratic health promoting school aiming at students' empowerment and action competence. The second model clarifies a number of different categories of students' participation in health promotion. The different categories illustrate how the teacher in various ways can play an active role in participatory approaches as a responsible professional. The more the students are involved in health projects, the more important it will be for the teacher to provide support, insight and knowledge to facilitate the learning processes. Furthermore, the different participation categories have to be related to a number of decisions which are normally included in a school health project. The model illustrates that participation should always be viewed in relation to the context and that it makes no sense to establish a single ideal way of working with participation in a health promoting school. The theoretical models are illuminated by concrete examples from health promoting schools. The overall conclusion is that participation is a complex term and rather than providing definitive answers, the models can

  7. Wikipedia Edit-a-thons: Thinking Beyond the Warm Fuzzies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Robichaud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia edit-a-thons represent a unique and fruitful avenue for galleries, libraries, archives and museums (GLAMs to engage with new and existing segments of their user communities. Encompassing information and technical literacy skills development, the success of edit-a-thon campaigns, such the annual art+feminism events, demonstrate their utility and value as outreach initiatives. What is less clear are the logistical, ethical and professional development implications of hosting these events. Centering first-hand experience and concrete examples, this paper explores GLAM-based edit-a-thons through a practical and actionable lens. Topics covered include: what is required to successfully host an edit-a-thon; the importance of leading by example in a volunteer-reliant economy; and the transferable work skills gained by hosting and participating in edit-a-thons. Des « édit-a-thons » (marathon d’édition de texte sur Wikipédia offrent aux galeries, bibliothèques, archives et musées une façon unique et efficace d’interagir avec de nouveaux ou d’existants segments de leur communauté. En incorporant le développement de compétences techniques et informationnelles, le succès des édit-a-thons, tel que l’événement annuel art+feminism, démontre leur utilité et leur valeur comme initiative de sensibilisation. Toutefois, les implications liées à la logistique, l’éthique et au développement professionnel en tant qu’hôte de tels événements demeurent ambiguës. En s’inspirant d’une expérience unique et d’exemples concrets, cet article utilise une approche pratique et appliquée pour explorer des édit-a-thons au sein des galeries, bibliothèques, archives et musées. Les sujets abordés comprennent les éléments requis pour que les édit-a-thons connaissent un succès, l’importance d’être un exemple à suivre au sein d’une économie basée sur des bénévoles et les habiletés transférables acquises en

  8. Bacterial strains from floodplain soils perform different plant-growth promoting processes and enhance cowpea growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Martins da Costa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Certain nodulating nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes and other nodule endophytes perform different plant-growth promoting processes. The objective of this study was to evaluate 26 bacterial strains isolated from cowpea nodules grown in floodplain soils in the Brazilian savannas, regarding performance of plant-growth promoting processes and ability to enhance cowpea growth. We also identified these strains by 16S rRNA sequencing. The following processes were evaluated: free-living biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, solubilization of calcium, aluminum and iron phosphates and production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA. The abilities to nodulate and promote cowpea growth were evaluated in Leonard jars. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified 60 % of the strains as belonging to genus Paenibacillus. The following four genera were also identified: Bacillus, Bradyrhizobium, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas. None of the strains fixed N2 free-living. Among the strains, 80 % solubilized Ca phosphate and one solubilized Al phosphate and none solubilized Fe phosphate. The highest IAA concentrations (52.37, 51.52 and 51.00 μg mL−1 were obtained in the 79 medium with tryptophan by Enterobacter strains UFPI B5-7A, UFPI B5-4 and UFPI B5-6, respectively. Only eight strains nodulated cowpea, however, all increased production of total dry matter. The fact that the strains evaluated perform different biological processes to promote plant growth indicates that these strains have potential use in agricultural crops to increase production and environmental sustainability.

  9. Need to categorize: A comparative look at the categories of the Universal Decimal Classification system (UDC) and Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Akdag Salah, A.; Gao, S.; Suchecki, K.; Scharnhorst, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the differences between the category structure of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) system (which is one of the widely used library classification systems in Europe) and Wikipedia. In particular, we compare the emerging structure of category-links to the structure of classes in the UDC. With this comparison we would like to scrutinize the question of how do knowledge maps of the same domain differ when they are created socially (i.e. Wikipedia) as opposed to when ...

  10. [The intervention mapping protocol: A structured process to develop, implement and evaluate health promotion programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, J-B; Lamort-Bouché, M; Sarnin, P; Durif-Bruckert, C; Péron, J; Letrilliart, L; Durand, M-J

    2016-02-01

    Health promotion programs are expected to improve population health and reduce social inequalities in health. However, their theoretical foundations are frequently ill-defined, and their implementation faces many obstacles. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention mapping protocol in health promotion programs planning, used recently in several countries. The challenges of planning health promotion programs are presented, and the six steps of the intervention mapping protocol are described with an example. Based on a literature review, the use of this protocol, its requirements and potential limitations are discussed. The intervention mapping protocol has four essential characteristics: an ecological perspective (person-environment), a participative approach, the use of theoretical models in human and social sciences and the use of scientific evidence. It comprises six steps: conduct a health needs assessment, define change objectives, select theory-based change techniques and practical applications, organize techniques and applications into an intervention program (logic model), plan for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability, and generate an evaluation plan. This protocol was used in different countries and domains such as obesity, tobacco, physical activity, cancer and occupational health. Although its utilization requires resources and a critical stance, this protocol was used to develop interventions which efficacy was demonstrated. The intervention mapping protocol is an integrated process that fits the scientific and practical challenges of health promotion. It could be tested in France as it was used in other countries, in particular to reduce social inequalities in health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Accuracy and readability of cardiovascular entries on Wikipedia: are they reliable learning resources for medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A; AlSwaidan, Nourah M; Alshwairikh, Lama A; AlShammari, Jumana M

    2015-10-06

    To evaluate accuracy of content and readability level of English Wikipedia articles on cardiovascular diseases, using quality and readability tools. Wikipedia was searched on the 6 October 2013 for articles on cardiovascular diseases. Using a modified DISCERN (DISCERN is an instrument widely used in assessing online resources), articles were independently scored by three assessors. The readability was calculated using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The inter-rater agreement between evaluators was calculated using the Fleiss κ scale. This study was based on 47 English Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases. The DISCERN scores had a median=33 (IQR=6). Four articles (8.5%) were of good quality (DISCERN score 40-50), 39 (83%) moderate (DISCERN 30-39) and 4 (8.5%) were poor (DISCERN 10-29). Although the entries covered the aetiology and the clinical picture, there were deficiencies in the pathophysiology of diseases, signs and symptoms, diagnostic approaches and treatment. The number of references varied from 1 to 127 references; 25.9±29.4 (mean±SD). Several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made in the articles. The readability of articles was 14.3±1.7 (mean±SD); consistent with the readability level for college students. In comparison, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 18th edition had more tables, less references and no significant difference in number of graphs, images, illustrations or readability level. The overall agreement between the evaluators was good (Fleiss κ 0.718 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.83). The Wikipedia entries are not aimed at a medical audience and should not be used as a substitute to recommended medical resources. Course designers and students should be aware that Wikipedia entries on cardiovascular diseases lack accuracy, predominantly due to errors of omission. Further improvement of the Wikipedia content of cardiovascular entries would be needed before they could be considered a supplementary resource

  12. Information needs of Botswana health care workers and perceptions of wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elizabeth; Masupe, Tiny; Joseph, Joseph; Ho-Foster, Ari; Chavez, Afton; Jammalamadugu, Swetha; Marek, Andrew; Arumala, Ruth; Ketshogileng, Dineo; Littman-Quinn, Ryan; Kovarik, Carrie

    2016-11-01

    Since the UN Human Rights Council's recognition on the subject in 2011, the right to access the Internet and information is now considered one of the most basic human rights of global citizens [1,2]. Despite this, an information gap between developed and resource-limited countries remains, and there is scant research on actual information needs of workers themselves. The Republic of Botswana represents a fertile ground to address existing gaps in research, policy, and practice, due to its demonstrated gap in access to information and specialists among rural health care workers (HCWs), burgeoning mHealth capacity, and a timely offer from Orange Telecommunications to access Wikipedia for free on mobile platforms for Botswana subscribers. In this study, we sought to identify clinical information needs of HCWs of Botswana and their perception of Wikipedia as a clinical tool. Twenty-eight facilitated focus groups, consisting of 113 HCWs of various cadres based at district hospitals, clinics, and health posts around Botswana, were employed. Transcription and thematic analysis were performed for those groups. Access to the Internet is limited at most facilities. Most HCWs placed high importance upon using Botswana Ministry of Health (MoH) resources for obtaining credible clinical information. However, the clinical applicability of these materials was limited due to discrepancies amongst sources, potentially outdated information, and poor optimization for time-sensitive circumstances. As a result, HCWs faced challenges, such as loss of patient trust and compromises in patient care. Potential solutions posed by HCWs to address these issues included: multifaceted improvements in Internet infrastructure, access to up-to-date information, transfer of knowledge from MoH to HCW, and improving content and applicability of currently available information. Topics of clinical information needs were broad and encompassed: HIV, TB (Tuberculosis), OB/GYN (Obstetrics and Gynecology

  13. Promoting a Culture of Engaged Scholarship and Mentoring Junior Faculty in the Reappointment, Tenure, and Promotion Process at a "Teaching First" University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Lisa Krissoff; Larrivee, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the processes and outcomes involved with mentoring junior faculty in the reappointment, promotion, and tenure (RPT) process at a comprehensive state university and creating a culture supportive of engaged research. Although the university in this case study is governed by a collective bargaining agreement that prohibits the…

  14. Measuring Down: Evaluating Digital Storytelling as a Process for Narrative Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline C; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Lowe, Sarah; DiFulvio, Gloria; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth

    2016-05-15

    Digital storytelling (DST) engages participants in a group-based process to create and share narrative accounts of life events. We present key evaluation findings of a 2-year, mixed-methods study that focused on effects of participating in the DST process on young Puerto Rican Latina's self-esteem, social support, empowerment, and sexual attitudes and behaviors. Quantitative results did not show significant changes in the expected outcomes. However, in our qualitative findings we identified several ways in which the DST made positive, health-bearing effects. We argue for the importance of "measuring down" to reflect the locally grounded, felt experiences of participants who engage in the process, as current quantitative scales do not "measure up" to accurately capture these effects. We end by suggesting the need to develop mixed-methods, culturally relevant, and sensitive evaluation tools that prioritize process effects as they inform intervention and health promotion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Health Promotion and Education: A Study of the Effectiveness of Programs Focusing on the Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Kenio Costa; Caldas, Celia Pereira; Veras, Renato Peixoto; Correa, Renata de Freitas; Bonfada, Diego; de Souza, DyegoLeandro Bezerra; Jerez-Roig, Javier

    2017-07-01

    Considering the population aging and the failure of biologistic and hospital-based treatment model, health promotion programs based on scientific evidence are necessary. A comprehensive review of literature was performed, aiming to identify and analyze health promotion and education experiments focused on the aging process. Papers published in eight databases, together with the database of the Pan-American Health Organization, were selected based on review of titles and abstracts, followed by a full text review conducted by two independent reviewers. A total of 22 studies were included, the majority of which adopted a quantitative approach, with a sample larger than 100 elderly or pre-retirement individuals. The majority of studies reported positive results in terms of health promotion and education. One study obtained minimum improvement and one reported that no statistically significant improvement had occurred. The positive effects most indicated by authors were: general or self-perceived improvement in physical health, improvement in psychosocial aspects and in relation to the aging process, improvement in adherence to preventative actions and in healthy conduct and lifestyle, increase in level of physical activity, improvement in quality of life and/or physical well-being, and improvement in activities of daily living or reduction of the risk of developing disabilities.

  16. Mutant IDH1 Expression Drives TERT Promoter Reactivation as Part of the Cellular Transformation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Shigeo; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Johannessen, Tor-Christian; Mancini, Andrew; Chow, Tracy T; Wood, Matthew; Jones, Lindsey; Mazor, Tali; Marshall, Roxanne E; Viswanath, Pavithra; Walsh, Kyle M; Perry, Arie; Bell, Robert J A; Phillips, Joanna J; Costello, Joseph F; Ronen, Sabrina M; Pieper, Russell O

    2016-11-15

    Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene IDH1 are common in low-grade glioma, where they result in the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), disrupted patterns of histone methylation, and gliomagenesis. IDH1 mutations also cosegregate with mutations in the ATRX gene and the TERT promoter, suggesting that IDH mutation may drive the creation or selection of telomere-stabilizing events as part of immortalization/transformation process. To determine whether and how this may occur, we investigated the phenotype of pRb-/p53-deficient human astrocytes engineered with IDH1 wild-type (WT) or R132H-mutant (IDH1(mut)) genes as they progressed through their lifespan. IDH1(mut) expression promoted 2HG production and altered histone methylation within 20 population doublings (PD) but had no effect on telomerase expression or telomere length. Accordingly, cells expressing either IDH1(WT) or IDH1(mut) entered a telomere-induced crisis at PD 70. In contrast, only IDH1(mut) cells emerged from crisis, grew indefinitely in culture, and formed colonies in soft agar and tumors in vivo Clonal populations of postcrisis IDH1(mut) cells displayed shared genetic alterations, but no mutations in ATRX or the TERT promoter were detected. Instead, these cells reactivated telomerase and stabilized their telomeres in association with increased histone lysine methylation (H3K4me3) and c-Myc/Max binding at the TERT promoter. Overall, these results show that although IDH1(mut) does not create or select for ATRX or TERT promoter mutations, it can indirectly reactivate TERT, and in doing so contribute to astrocytic immortalization and transformation. Cancer Res; 76(22); 6680-9. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Barriers and Facilitators in the Maturity Process for Web Promotion of Italian Tourist Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in the tourism domain, the opportunities offered by the web to promote tourist destinations seem to be not yet fully exploited by destination marketing organizations. This study seeks to extend the eTourism Communication Maturity Model (eTcoMM, which is based on stage models of online communication in tourism. The model focuses on identifying processes involved in tourism web marketing activities, from awareness by tourism boards to implementation. The study aims to contribute to the definition of maturity in online promotion by Italian tourism boards, identifying and discussing factors that aid and limit the transition, from awareness to implementation of strategic web marketing.

  18. For An Urban Wikipedia. The Challenges of the Urban Project. Maurizio Carta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The city is the pre-eminent encyclopedia of the community, a place where all the components of life, its definition and all its reciprocal relationships are found (Harvey 1989.  In the urban century in which we all are immersed goes from the encyclopedia to the urban Wikipedia: that is a collective, cognitive project in which the inhabitants and the operators, the decision-makers and the participants, the project makers and the actors make up the structure, continually enriching it with the change of practices, with the interpretation of its meanings and intentions. In order to make, understand, represent and transmit the urban Wikipedia, its chronological stratification, its spatial creases, its architectural harmony and often even its social dissonance, we are obliged to create a new epistemology which is capable of evaluating and of utilizing the multiplicity of territorial identities and that knows how to activate new forms of project making.

  19. Bipartite Networks of Wikipediaʼs Articles and Authors: a Meso-level Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesus, Rut; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the bipartite network of articles linked by common editors in Wikipedia, 'The Free Encyclopedia that Anyone Can Edit'. We use the articles in the categories (to depth three) of Physics and Philosophy and extract and focus on significant editors (at least 7 or 1...... by interest, real-world controversies, or the result of coordination in WikiProjects. Our results confirm that topics aggregate editors; and show that highly coordinated efforts result in dense clusters....

  20. WikiSent : Weakly Supervised Sentiment Analysis Through Extractive Summarization With Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Subhabrata; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a weakly supervised system for sentiment analysis in the movie review domain. The objective is to classify a movie review into a polarity class, positive or negative, based on those sentences bearing opinion on the movie alone. The irrelevant text, not directly related to the reviewer opinion on the movie, is left out of analysis. Wikipedia incorporates the world knowledge of movie-specific features in the system which is used to obtain an extractive summary of the review...

  1. Collective remembering of organizations: Co-construction of organizational pasts in Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Etter, Michael Andreas; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – How organizations’ pasts are presented to the public is crucial, because this presentation shapes corporate reputations. Increasingly, various actors contribute to the public remembering of organizations with new information and communication technologies (ICTs). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the online encyclopedia Wikipedia as a global memory place, where the pasts of organizations are communicatively co-constructed by actors of a loosely connected community. Design/...

  2. The Wikipedia Gender Gap Revisited: Characterizing Survey Response Bias with Propensity Score Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Benjamin Mako; Shaw, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Opt-in surveys are the most widespread method used to study participation in online communities, but produce biased results in the absence of adjustments for non-response. A 2008 survey conducted by the Wikimedia Foundation and United Nations University at Maastricht is the source of a frequently cited statistic that less than 13% of Wikipedia contributors are female. However, the same study suggested that only 39.9% of Wikipedia readers in the US were female - a finding contradicted by a representative survey of American adults by the Pew Research Center conducted less than two months later. Combining these two datasets through an application and extension of a propensity score estimation technique used to model survey non-response bias, we construct revised estimates, contingent on explicit assumptions, for several of the Wikimedia Foundation and United Nations University at Maastricht claims about Wikipedia editors. We estimate that the proportion of female US adult editors was 27.5% higher than the original study reported (22.7%, versus 17.8%), and that the total proportion of female editors was 26.8% higher (16.1%, versus 12.7%).

  3. Jointly they edit: examining the impact of community identification on political interaction in Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J Neff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase 'divided they blog', referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a 'Wikipedian' even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of 'being Wikipedian' may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation.

  4. Jointly they edit: examining the impact of community identification on political interaction in Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jessica J; Laniado, David; Kappler, Karolin E; Volkovich, Yana; Aragón, Pablo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase 'divided they blog', referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a 'Wikipedian' even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of 'being Wikipedian' may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation.

  5. Functional human GRIN2B promoter polymorphism and variation of mental processing speed in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Kuan Lin, Ming; Jicha, Gregory A.; Ding, Xiuhua; McIlwrath, Sabrina L.; Fardo, David W.; Broster, Lucas S.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard; Lipsky, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the role of a single nucleotide polymorphism rs3764030 (G>A) within the human GRIN2B promoter in mental processing speed in healthy, cognitively intact, older adults. In vitro DNA-binding and reporter gene assays of different allele combinations in transfected cells showed that the A allele was a gain-of-function variant associated with increasing GRIN2B mRNA levels. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with A allele will have better memory performance (i.e. faster reacti...

  6. Challenges since Wikipedia: the availability of Rorschach information online and internet users' reactions to online media coverage of the Rorschach-Wikipedia debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas S; Loving, James L

    2012-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies to assess the availability of Rorschach information online and Internet users' attitudes since the inkblots were published on Wikipedia. In the first study, the authors conducted 2 Google searches for Web sites containing Rorschach-related information. The top 88 results were classified by level of threat to test security; 19% posed a direct threat. The authors also found Web sites authored by psychologists that divulged sensitive Rorschach information. In the second study, 588 comments to online news stories covering the Rorschach-Wikipedia debate were coded as expressing favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding the field of psychology, psychologists, and the Rorschach. Eight percent of comments described unfavorable opinions toward psychology, 15% contained unfavorable opinions toward psychologists, and 35% portrayed unfavorable opinions of the Rorschach. Common themes and popular misconceptions of the Rorschach contained in these comments are described. Implications and recommendations for practice are discussed. Limitations, including the second study's narrow sample and self-selection bias, are also detailed.

  7. Engineering Encounters: The Cat in the Hat Builds Satellites. A Unit Promoting Scientific Literacy and the Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Abeera P.; Owens, Marissa C.

    2016-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information about a unit promoting scientific literacy and the engineering design process. The integration of engineering with scientific practices in K-12 education can promote creativity, hands-on learning, and an improvement in students'…

  8. What is actually measured in process evaluations for worksite health promotion programs: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous worksite health promotion program (WHPPs) have been implemented the past years to improve employees’ health and lifestyle (i.e., physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol use and relaxation). Research primarily focused on the effectiveness of these WHPPs. Whereas process evaluations provide essential information necessary to improve large scale implementation across other settings. Therefore, this review aims to: (1) further our understanding of the quality of process evaluations alongside effect evaluations for WHPPs, (2) identify barriers/facilitators affecting implementation, and (3) explore the relationship between effectiveness and the implementation process. Methods Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane (controlled trials) were searched from 2000 to July 2012 for peer-reviewed (randomized) controlled trials published in English reporting on both the effectiveness and the implementation process of a WHPP focusing on physical activity, smoking cessation, alcohol use, healthy diet and/or relaxation at work, targeting employees aged 18-65 years. Results Of the 307 effect evaluations identified, twenty-two (7.2%) published an additional process evaluation and were included in this review. The results showed that eight of those studies based their process evaluation on a theoretical framework. The methodological quality of nine process evaluations was good. The most frequently reported process components were dose delivered and dose received. Over 50 different implementation barriers/facilitators were identified. The most frequently reported facilitator was strong management support. Lack of resources was the most frequently reported barrier. Seven studies examined the link between implementation and effectiveness. In general a positive association was found between fidelity, dose and the primary outcome of the program. Conclusions Process evaluations are not systematically performed alongside effectiveness studies for WHPPs. The quality

  9. Gene Expression in Archaea: Studies of Transcriptional Promoters, Messenger RNA Processing, and Five Prime Untranslated Regions in "Methanocaldococcus Jannashchii"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in Archaea is less understood than those in Bacteria and Eucarya. In general, three steps are involved in gene expression--transcription, RNA processing, and translation. To expand our knowledge of these processes in Archaea, I have studied transcriptional promoters, messenger RNA processing, and 5'-untranslated regions in…

  10. Positive emotions: A psychological tool for promoting resilience process in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Greco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this theoretical work is to assess the relation between the capacity to experiment positive emotions and the process of resilience throughout childhood. Our interest arises from two research works being carried out in the province of Mendoza, in Argentina (INCIHUSA-CRICYT-CONICET, directed by Dr Mirta Ison. One the so called “Assessment of resilience in childhood maltreatment”, and the other “ Positive emotions as psycological tools for fostering mental health throughout childhood within vulnerable social contexts”. Resilience is always associated to risky or vulnerable social situations. Positive emotions constitute a resource favorable to the development of resilience. This working hypothesis is based on previous studies which hold that positive emotions favor creative thinking for the solution of interpersonal problems, promote cognitive flexibility, reduce risks at decision making, promote replies to generosity and altruism, increase intelectual resources and counteract depressive tendencies among others. Other authors support the fact that the features a resilient child holds are closely connected to cognitive flexibility, to creative capacity, to the capacity for solving interpersonal problems, to self esteem and attachment links among others. Thus, positive emotions are believed to be one of the psycological resources and tools needed for the development of resilience throughout childhood. 

  11. Choice architectural nudge interventions to promote vegetable consumption based on automatic processes decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Friis Rasmussen, Rasmus; Møller Andersen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    . Methodology: Experimental cross-over design study in the FoodScape Lab, comparing control to exposure of three nudges: Nudge 1: Natural green - priming vegetable-choosing behaviour. Nudge 2: Having a pre-weighed (200g) fixed salad as default to the main course, and Nudge 3: presenting each component......Objective: To test the effectiveness of three types of choice architectural nudges to promote vegetable consumption among Danish people. The experiment aims at providing evidence on the influence of automatic processing system in the food choice situation in an all you can eat buffet serving.......001) but no significant change in vegetable in- take (p=0.16). Nudge 2 (N=33) found a significant increase in vegetable consumption (p=0.018) while Nudge 3 (N=32) found no impact on vegetable intake (p=0.56) but a decrease in total energy intake due to a decrease in meat intake (p

  12. Sodium dodecyl sulfate promoting a cooperative association process of sodium cholate with bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Bianca; Felippe, Arlindo C; Dal Bó, Alexandre; Minatti, Edson; Zanette, Dino; Lopes, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    Sodium cholate (NaC) was used as a representative bile salt in the process of cooperative binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a mixture with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The experiments were performed in 0.02 M Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 7.50), in the presence of 0.1% BSA and at 25 degrees C. The aim of this study is to provide information on the performance of the BSA in the promotion of cooperative binding of sodium cholate promoted by the presence of SDS. The method used to monitor the binding was based on the analysis of the effect of SDS and NaC concentrations and their mixtures upon the fluorescence intensity of the BSA tryptophan residues. Plots of the fluorescence emission bands in terms of the A0/A ratio vs surfactant concentrations, where A0 and A represent the areas of emission bands in the presence and absence of the surfactants, respectively, were drawn in order to investigate the surfactant interaction with the protein. An alternative methodology, the specific conductivity vs surfactant concentration plots, was used, which involves mixtures of SDS and NaC to investigate the association processes, through the determination of the critical aggregation concentration (cac, when in the presence of protein) and the critical micellar concentration (cmc). The results led to a general conclusion that as the mixed micellar aggregates become richer in the bile salt monomer, the tendency to lose the reactivity with the protein increases. According to our results, a clear evidence of the predomination of BSA-SDS-NaC complexes is found only for the SDS molar fraction above approximately 0.6, and below this fraction a tendency toward free mixed micelles starts to predominate.

  13. Decomposition Mechanism and Decomposition Promoting Factors of Waste Hard Metal for Zinc Decomposition Process (ZDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pee, J H; Kim, Y J; Kim, J Y; Cho, W S; Kim, K J [Whiteware Ceramic Center, KICET (Korea, Republic of); Seong, N E, E-mail: pee@kicet.re.kr [Recytech Korea Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-29

    Decomposition promoting factors and decomposition mechanism in the zinc decomposition process of waste hard metals which are composed mostly of tungsten carbide and cobalt were evaluated. Zinc volatility amount was suppressed and zinc steam pressure was produced in the reaction graphite crucible inside an electric furnace for ZDP. Reaction was done for 2 hrs at 650 deg. C, which 100% decomposed the waste hard metals that were over 30 mm thick. As for the separation-decomposition of waste hard metals, zinc melted alloy formed a liquid composed of a mixture of {gamma}-{beta}1 phase from the cobalt binder layer (reaction interface). The volume of reacted zone was expanded and the waste hard metal layer was decomposed-separated horizontally from the hard metal. Zinc used in the ZDP process was almost completely removed-collected by decantation and volatilization-collection process at 1000 deg. C. The small amount of zinc remaining in the tungsten carbide-cobalt powder which was completely decomposed was fully removed by using phosphate solution which had a slow cobalt dissolution speed.

  14. Oxytocin promotes bone formation during the alveolar healing process in old acyclic female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Vilma Clemi; Okamoto, Roberta; Spritzer, Poli Mara; Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati

    2012-09-01

    OT was reported to be a direct regulator of bone mass in young rodents, and this anabolic effect on bone is a peripheral action of OT. The goal of this study was to investigate the peripheral action of oxytocin (OT) in the alveolar healing process in old female rats. Females Wistar rats (24-month-old) in permanent diestrus phase, received two ip (12h apart) injections of saline (NaCl 0.15M - control group) or OT (45μg/rat - treated group). Seven days later, the right maxillary incisor was extracted and analyses were performed up to 28 days of the alveolar healing process (35 days after saline or OT administration). Calcium and phosphorus plasma concentrations did not differ between the groups. The plasma biochemical bone formations markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were significantly higher in the treated group. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed bone formation as the treated group presented the highest mean value of post-extraction bone formation. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was significantly reduced in the treated group indicating an anti-resorptive effect of OT. Immunohistochemistry reactions performed in order to identify the presence of osteocalcin and TRAP in the bone cells of the dental socket confirmed these outcomes. OT was found to promote bone formation and to inhibit bone resorption in old acyclic female rats during the alveolar healing process. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Is artificial recharge promoting microbial activity and biodegradation processes in groundwater systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba Ferrer, Carme; Folch, Albert; Gaju, Núria; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Carrasquilla, Marc; Grau-Martínez, Alba; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) represents a strategic tool for managing water resources, especially during scarce periods. On one hand, it can increase water stored in aquifers and extract it when weather conditions do not permit exclusive exploitation of surface resources. On the other, it allows improve water quality due the processes occurring into the soil whereas water crosses vadose zone. Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) conurbation is suffering significant quantitative and qualitative groundwater disturbances. For this reason, Sant Vicenç MAR system, constituted by a sedimentation and an infiltration pond, was constructed in 2009 as the strategic water management infrastructure. Compared with other MAR facilities, this infiltration pond has a reactive bed formed by organic compost and local material. The objective is to promote different redox states allowing more and different degradation of chemical compounds than regular MAR systems. In previous studies in the site, physical and hydrochemical parameters demonstrated that there was indeed a degradation of different pollutants. However, to go a step further understanding the different biogeochemical processes and the related degradation processes occurring in the system, we studied the existing microbial communities. So, molecular techniques were applied in water and soil samples in two different scenarios; the first one, when the system was fully operating and the second when the system was not operating during some months. We have specifically compared microbial diversity and richness indexes and both cluster dendrograms obtained from DGGEs analysis made in each sampling campaign.

  16. A process oriented approach to promoting collaborative practice: Incorporating complexity methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P; Risdon, C

    2014-09-01

    Only recently have complexity informed methods been viewed as a strategy for changing health care systems and care delivery. This article reports on participants' perceptions of being involved in a complexity informed educational approach to promote interprofessional collaboration in a system of care for children with disabilities. Over a one-year period, all employees within a network of eight community agencies participated in three day-long workshops. A subset of twenty-four employees participated in eight monthly facilitated discussion groups. The workshops and discussion groups focused on processes rooted in complexity sciences which value small-scale interaction to improve the quality of discovery and shared problem solving. Learning group members (n = 24) and their facilitators (n = 4) participated in interviews and focus groups at the end of the project. Qualitative content analyses of the transcriptions of the interviews and focus groups revealed that participants identified tangible benefits of the process oriented approach. Challenges related to the lack of structure and emergent nature of the methods were identified. Lessons learned include incorporating a gradual shift to emergent methods, fostering ownership from the beginning of the process, providing ongoing training to facilitators, flexibility and use of small-group scenarios.

  17. [Sexuality, health promotion and the educational process. Key ideas about an intervention and its repercussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Sexuality is the energy that exists within the body since birth and is vital in the relationship with others as a means of becoming a person and part of a community. Sexual health and healthy sexuality also belong to the set of terms of health, education, and democracy. It is impossible to talk about these concepts without affection and the involvement of the individual with others and the surrounding world. Healthy sexuality does not only mean the knowledge about and avoidance of sexually transmitted diseases and acting in accordance with social norms, but also vitality and intimacy. Other related concepts are the family, country, school, and teachers that are part and parcel of the educational process of children, socialization for the development of fundamental skills for life. The additional terms of psychologist, physician, and nurse evoke the spiral of development of becoming a person and a community where freedom, solidarity, and happiness could be enjoyed. This is why sex education is fundamental for the promotion of health in schools as part of the educational process using questions, debates in sexology courses which transmit knowledge, develop attitudes, and stimulate interpersonal communication by role playing, drama, and posters. The maintenance of the dialogue of school and country and the stimulation of the dialogue of children-parents is crucial in this process.

  18. Patient-oriented cancer information on the internet: a comparison of wikipedia and a professionally maintained database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Malolan S; Khanna, Vineet K; Leiter, Yaacov; Stott, Meghan; Showalter, Timothy N; Dicker, Adam P; Lawrence, Yaacov R

    2011-09-01

    A wiki is a collaborative Web site, such as Wikipedia, that can be freely edited. Because of a wiki's lack of formal editorial control, we hypothesized that the content would be less complete and accurate than that of a professional peer-reviewed Web site. In this study, the coverage, accuracy, and readability of cancer information on Wikipedia were compared with those of the patient-orientated National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query (PDQ) comprehensive cancer database. For each of 10 cancer types, medically trained personnel scored PDQ and Wikipedia articles for accuracy and presentation of controversies by using an appraisal form. Reliability was assessed by using interobserver variability and test-retest reproducibility. Readability was calculated from word and sentence length. Evaluators were able to rapidly assess articles (18 minutes/article), with a test-retest reliability of 0.71 and interobserver variability of 0.53. For both Web sites, inaccuracies were rare, less than 2% of information examined. PDQ was significantly more readable than Wikipedia: Flesch-Kincaid grade level 9.6 versus 14.1. There was no difference in depth of coverage between PDQ and Wikipedia (29.9, 34.2, respectively; maximum possible score 72). Controversial aspects of cancer care were relatively poorly discussed in both resources (2.9 and 6.1 for PDQ and Wikipedia, respectively, NS; maximum possible score 18). A planned subanalysis comparing common and uncommon cancers demonstrated no difference. Although the wiki resource had similar accuracy and depth as the professionally edited database, it was significantly less readable. Further research is required to assess how this influences patients' understanding and retention.

  19. The Impact of Topic Characteristics and Threat on Willingness to Engage with Wikipedia Articles: Insights from Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenikent, Seren; Holtz, Peter; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research aims to identify the factors that motivate people to make contributions in Wikipedia. We conducted two laboratory experiments to investigate the connections between topic characteristics, perception of threat, and willingness to engage with Wikipedia articles. In Study 1 (N = 83), we examined how topic familiarity, topic controversiality, and mortality salience influenced participants’ willingness to engage with Wikipedia articles. We presented the introduction parts of 20 Wikipedia articles and asked participants to rate each article with respect to familiarity and controversiality. In addition, we experimentally manipulated participants’ level of mortality salience in terms of the amount of threat they experienced when reading the article. Participants also indicated their willingness to engage with a particular article. The results revealed that familiar and controversial topics increased the willingness to engage with Wikipedia articles. Although mortality salience increased accessibility of death-related thoughts, it did not result in any changes in people’s willingness to work with the articles. The aim of Study 2 (N = 90) was to replicate the effects of topic characteristics by following a similar procedure. We additionally manipulated uncertainty salience by assigning participants to three experimental conditions: uncertainty salience, certainty salience, and non-salience. As expected, familiar and controversial topics were of high interest in terms of willingness to contribute. However, the manipulation of uncertainty salience did not yield any significant results despite the emergence of negative emotional states. In sum, we demonstrated that topic characteristics were factors that substantially influenced people’s willingness to engage with Wikipedia articles whereas perceived threat was not.

  20. The Impact of Topic Characteristics and Threat on Willingness to Engage with Wikipedia Articles: Insights from Laboratory Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenikent, Seren; Holtz, Peter; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research aims to identify the factors that motivate people to make contributions in Wikipedia. We conducted two laboratory experiments to investigate the connections between topic characteristics, perception of threat, and willingness to engage with Wikipedia articles. In Study 1 (N = 83), we examined how topic familiarity, topic controversiality, and mortality salience influenced participants' willingness to engage with Wikipedia articles. We presented the introduction parts of 20 Wikipedia articles and asked participants to rate each article with respect to familiarity and controversiality. In addition, we experimentally manipulated participants' level of mortality salience in terms of the amount of threat they experienced when reading the article. Participants also indicated their willingness to engage with a particular article. The results revealed that familiar and controversial topics increased the willingness to engage with Wikipedia articles. Although mortality salience increased accessibility of death-related thoughts, it did not result in any changes in people's willingness to work with the articles. The aim of Study 2 (N = 90) was to replicate the effects of topic characteristics by following a similar procedure. We additionally manipulated uncertainty salience by assigning participants to three experimental conditions: uncertainty salience, certainty salience, and non-salience. As expected, familiar and controversial topics were of high interest in terms of willingness to contribute. However, the manipulation of uncertainty salience did not yield any significant results despite the emergence of negative emotional states. In sum, we demonstrated that topic characteristics were factors that substantially influenced people's willingness to engage with Wikipedia articles whereas perceived threat was not.

  1. Evaluating Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia as Tools for Influenza Surveillance Using Bayesian Change Point Analysis: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, J Danielle; Hopkins, Richard S; Cook, Robert L; Striley, Catherine W

    2016-10-20

    Traditional influenza surveillance relies on influenza-like illness (ILI) syndrome that is reported by health care providers. It primarily captures individuals who seek medical care and misses those who do not. Recently, Web-based data sources have been studied for application to public health surveillance, as there is a growing number of people who search, post, and tweet about their illnesses before seeking medical care. Existing research has shown some promise of using data from Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia to complement traditional surveillance for ILI. However, past studies have evaluated these Web-based sources individually or dually without comparing all 3 of them, and it would be beneficial to know which of the Web-based sources performs best in order to be considered to complement traditional methods. The objective of this study is to comparatively analyze Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia by examining which best corresponds with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ILI data. It was hypothesized that Wikipedia will best correspond with CDC ILI data as previous research found it to be least influenced by high media coverage in comparison with Google and Twitter. Publicly available, deidentified data were collected from the CDC, Google Flu Trends, HealthTweets, and Wikipedia for the 2012-2015 influenza seasons. Bayesian change point analysis was used to detect seasonal changes, or change points, in each of the data sources. Change points in Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia that occurred during the exact week, 1 preceding week, or 1 week after the CDC's change points were compared with the CDC data as the gold standard. All analyses were conducted using the R package "bcp" version 4.0.0 in RStudio version 0.99.484 (RStudio Inc). In addition, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) were calculated for Google, Twitter, and Wikipedia. During the 2012-2015 influenza seasons, a high sensitivity of 92% was found for Google, whereas the PPV for

  2. Need to categorize: A comparative look at the categories of the Universal Decimal Classification system (UDC) and Wikipedia

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, Almila Akdag; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the differences between the category structure of the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) system (which is one of the widely used library classification systems in Europe) and Wikipedia. In particular, we compare the emerging structure of category-links to the structure of classes in the UDC. With this comparison we would like to scrutinize the question of how do knowledge maps of the same domain differ when they are created socially (i.e. Wikipedia) as opposed to when they are created formally (UDC) using classificatio theory. As a case study, we focus on the category of "Arts".

  3. Medical Student Journals: Teaching The Peer-Review Process and Promoting Academic Mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskas, Nadine M; Ballard, David H; Weisman, Jeffery A; Vanchiere, John A

    2016-01-01

    Early exposure to research and longitudinal academic mentorship encourages medical student interest in academic careers and postgraduate research productivity. There are various ways for students to gain exposure to research in medical school; however, there are very few opportunities for medical students to participate in the peer-review process as a reviewer or editor for an academic journal. One potential method to supply such educational experiences is the creation of scientific journals specifically for medical students. Medical student research journals provide a platform for students to develop a scholarly voice as authors, reviewers, and editors. As the corresponding author of their own work, student authors learn to communicate professionally to address reviewer concerns. As peer-reviewers in training, students learn to analyze manuscripts for quality and document their concerns in a cohesive manner under the supervision of a faculty advisor. The authors elected to model the reviewer and editor education process in the spirit of traditional medical education, with student reviewers and editors "presenting" their assessments to the "attending" faculty advisor to obtain feedback on performance. Student journals have the potential to bolster critical thinking and communication skills, provide longitudinal faculty mentorship opportunities, and promote interest in physician-scientist and academic medical careers.

  4. Use of the innovation-decision process teaching strategy to promote evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Nola A; Brown, Janet M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the innovation-decision process teaching strategy (I-DPTS) based on the model of diffusion of innovations [Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press]. A goal of baccalaureate nursing education is to develop competencies required for evidence-based practice. Such practice merges clinician expertise, patient preferences, and critical evaluation of the literature to improve patient outcomes and reduce health care costs [Melnyk, B. M. (2005). A primer on evidence-based practice. Paper presented at the Purdue School of Nursing Seventh Annual Helen R. Johnson Leadership Conference, West Lafayette, IN]. Several strategies to promote evidence-based practice have appeared in the literature. However, when they are examined in light of the innovation-decision process (Rogers, 2003), they do not address all the essential steps for adoption to occur. The I-DPTS allows students to achieve competencies necessary to overcome barriers associated with implementing best practices. This strategy was successfully implemented in a senior-level introductory nursing research class. Community representatives identified practice issues that could be addressed by student groups. After conducting a search of the literature, students analyzed the evidence, determined best practice based on the evidence, and developed a policy for implementation in clinical settings. At course end, representatives were invited to attend oral and poster presentations. Use of the I-DPTS better prepares students to implement best practice as they embark on their professional careers.

  5. TERRA-Reinforced Association of LSD1 with MRE11 Promotes Processing of Uncapped Telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Porro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. Upon telomere shortening or telomere uncapping induced by loss of telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2, telomeres elicit a DNA-damage response leading to cellular senescence. Here, we show that following TRF2 depletion, the levels of the long noncoding RNA TERRA increase and LSD1, which binds TERRA, is recruited to telomeres. At uncapped telomeres, LSD1 associates with MRE11, one of the nucleases implicated in the processing of 3′ telomeric G overhangs, and we show that LSD1 is required for efficient removal of these structures. The LSD1-MRE11 interaction is reinforced in vivo following TERRA upregulation in TRF2-deficient cells and in vitro by TERRA-mimicking RNA oligonucleotides. Furthermore, LSD1 enhances the nuclease activity of MRE11 in vitro. Our data indicate that recruitment of LSD1 to deprotected telomeres requires MRE11 and is promoted by TERRA. LSD1 stimulates MRE11 catalytic activity and nucleolytic processing of uncapped telomeres.

  6. TERRA-reinforced association of LSD1 with MRE11 promotes processing of uncapped telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Antonio; Feuerhahn, Sascha; Lingner, Joachim

    2014-02-27

    Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as sites of DNA damage. Upon telomere shortening or telomere uncapping induced by loss of telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2), telomeres elicit a DNA-damage response leading to cellular senescence. Here, we show that following TRF2 depletion, the levels of the long noncoding RNA TERRA increase and LSD1, which binds TERRA, is recruited to telomeres. At uncapped telomeres, LSD1 associates with MRE11, one of the nucleases implicated in the processing of 3' telomeric G overhangs, and we show that LSD1 is required for efficient removal of these structures. The LSD1-MRE11 interaction is reinforced in vivo following TERRA upregulation in TRF2-deficient cells and in vitro by TERRA-mimicking RNA oligonucleotides. Furthermore, LSD1 enhances the nuclease activity of MRE11 in vitro. Our data indicate that recruitment of LSD1 to deprotected telomeres requires MRE11 and is promoted by TERRA. LSD1 stimulates MRE11 catalytic activity and nucleolytic processing of uncapped telomeres. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Heterogeneous nucleation promotes carrier transport in solution-processed organic field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ruipeng

    2012-09-04

    A new way to investigate and control the growth of solution-cast thin films is presented. The combination of in situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements with dissipation capabilities (QCM-D) and in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) in an environmental chamber provides unique quantitative insights into the time-evolution of the concentration of the solution, the onset of nucleation, and the mode of growth of the organic semiconductor under varied drying conditions. It is demonstrated that careful control over the kinetics of solution drying enhances carrier transport significantly by promoting phase transformation predominantly via heterogeneous nucleation and sustained surface growth of a highly lamellar structure at the solid-liquid interface at the expense of homogeneous nucleation. A new way to investigate and control the growth of drop-cast thin films is presented. The solution-processing of small-molecule thin films of TIPS-pentacene is investigated using time-resolved techniques to reveal the mechanisms of nucleation and growth leading to solid film formation. By tuning the drying speed of the solution, the balance between surface and bulk growth modes is altered, thereby controlling the lamellar formation and tuning the carrier mobility in organic field-effect transistors Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Promotes Process Outgrowth in Neural Cells and Exerts Protective Effects against Tropodithietic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Wichmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment harbors a plethora of bioactive substances, including drug candidates of potential value in the field of neuroscience. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP, produced by several algae, corals and higher plants, on cells of the mammalian nervous system, i.e., neuronal N2a and OLN-93 cells as model system for nerve cells and glia, respectively. Additionally, the protective capabilities of DMSP were assessed in cells treated with tropodithietic acid (TDA, a marine metabolite produced by several Roseobacter clade bacteria. Both cell lines, N2a and OLN-93, have previously been shown to be a sensitive target for the action of TDA, and cytotoxic effects of TDA have been connected to the induction of oxidative stress. Our data shows that DMSP promotes process outgrowth and microtubule reorganization and bundling, accompanied by an increase in alpha-tubulin acetylation. Furthermore, DMSP was able to prevent the cytotoxic effects exerted by TDA, including the breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, upregulation of heat shock protein Hsp32 and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2. Our study points to the conclusion that DMSP provides an antioxidant defense, not only in algae but also in mammalian neural cells.

  9. Interactions of Cultures and Top People of Wikipedia from Ranking of 24 Language Editions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Aragón, Pablo; Laniado, David; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Vigna, Sebastiano; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia is a huge global repository of human knowledge that can be leveraged to investigate interwinements between cultures. With this aim, we apply methods of Markov chains and Google matrix for the analysis of the hyperlink networks of 24 Wikipedia language editions, and rank all their articles by PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. Using automatic extraction of people names, we obtain the top 100 historical figures, for each edition and for each algorithm. We investigate their spatial, temporal, and gender distributions in dependence of their cultural origins. Our study demonstrates not only the existence of skewness with local figures, mainly recognized only in their own cultures, but also the existence of global historical figures appearing in a large number of editions. By determining the birth time and place of these persons, we perform an analysis of the evolution of such figures through 35 centuries of human history for each language, thus recovering interactions and entanglement of cultures over time. We also obtain the distributions of historical figures over world countries, highlighting geographical aspects of cross-cultural links. Considering historical figures who appear in multiple editions as interactions between cultures, we construct a network of cultures and identify the most influential cultures according to this network. PMID:25738291

  10. Efficient chemical-disease identification and relationship extraction using Wikipedia to improve recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Daniel M; O'Boyle, Noel M; Sayle, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the adverse effects of chemicals is important in biomedical research and healthcare. Text mining can allow timely and low-cost extraction of this knowledge from the biomedical literature. We extended our text mining solution, LeadMine, to identify diseases and chemical-induced disease relationships (CIDs). LeadMine is a dictionary/grammar-based entity recognizer and was used to recognize and normalize both chemicals and diseases to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) IDs. The disease lexicon was obtained from three sources: MeSH, the Disease Ontology and Wikipedia. The Wikipedia dictionary was derived from pages with a disease/symptom box, or those where the page title appeared in the lexicon. Composite entities (e.g. heart and lung disease) were detected and mapped to their composite MeSH IDs. For CIDs, we developed a simple pattern-based system to find relationships within the same sentence. Our system was evaluated in the BioCreative V Chemical-Disease Relation task and achieved very good results for both disease concept ID recognition (F1-score: 86.12%) and CIDs (F1-score: 52.20%) on the test set. As our system was over an order of magnitude faster than other solutions evaluated on the task, we were able to apply the same system to the entirety of MEDLINE allowing us to extract a collection of over 250 000 distinct CIDs. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. [Presence and adequacy of pharmaceutical preparations in the Spanish edition of Wikipedia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Marcos, Paula; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2013-02-01

    To determine the presence, and to evaluate the adequacy of pharmaceutical preparations in the Spanish edition of Wikipedia. Descriptive cross-sectional study. the terms studied were obtained from the Vademecum, UBM Medica Spain S.A, (http://vademécum.es). the sample was calculated by simple random sampling without replacement from the active ingredients present in the Vademecum, making the estimation of population parameters (expected value of approximately 0.5; 0.05 range accuracy and confidence level=0.95) in an infinite population. The existence and adequacy of the terminology was observed by accessing the Spanish edition of Wikipedia. The term was considered adequate when the information contained the proper use, dosage and adverse effects. The qualitative binary variable yes/no (presence of the pharmaceutical drug, use, posology, adverse effects, adequacy) were described by frequency and percentage, quantitative (number of queries, update) using mean and standard deviation. The existences of an association between qualitative variables were analyzed using chi-square, and significance of the differences of means for independent samples, using the Student t test. Of the sample studied (n=386), 171 terms were found, with 15 being adequate. Significant differences were observed between adequacy and dose (PWikipedia are still insufficient and the adequacy of the information remains inconsistent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Interactions of cultures and top people of Wikipedia from ranking of 24 language editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Aragón, Pablo; Laniado, David; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas; Vigna, Sebastiano; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2015-01-01

    Wikipedia is a huge global repository of human knowledge that can be leveraged to investigate interwinements between cultures. With this aim, we apply methods of Markov chains and Google matrix for the analysis of the hyperlink networks of 24 Wikipedia language editions, and rank all their articles by PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. Using automatic extraction of people names, we obtain the top 100 historical figures, for each edition and for each algorithm. We investigate their spatial, temporal, and gender distributions in dependence of their cultural origins. Our study demonstrates not only the existence of skewness with local figures, mainly recognized only in their own cultures, but also the existence of global historical figures appearing in a large number of editions. By determining the birth time and place of these persons, we perform an analysis of the evolution of such figures through 35 centuries of human history for each language, thus recovering interactions and entanglement of cultures over time. We also obtain the distributions of historical figures over world countries, highlighting geographical aspects of cross-cultural links. Considering historical figures who appear in multiple editions as interactions between cultures, we construct a network of cultures and identify the most influential cultures according to this network.

  13. Interactions of cultures and top people of Wikipedia from ranking of 24 language editions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Eom

    Full Text Available Wikipedia is a huge global repository of human knowledge that can be leveraged to investigate interwinements between cultures. With this aim, we apply methods of Markov chains and Google matrix for the analysis of the hyperlink networks of 24 Wikipedia language editions, and rank all their articles by PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. Using automatic extraction of people names, we obtain the top 100 historical figures, for each edition and for each algorithm. We investigate their spatial, temporal, and gender distributions in dependence of their cultural origins. Our study demonstrates not only the existence of skewness with local figures, mainly recognized only in their own cultures, but also the existence of global historical figures appearing in a large number of editions. By determining the birth time and place of these persons, we perform an analysis of the evolution of such figures through 35 centuries of human history for each language, thus recovering interactions and entanglement of cultures over time. We also obtain the distributions of historical figures over world countries, highlighting geographical aspects of cross-cultural links. Considering historical figures who appear in multiple editions as interactions between cultures, we construct a network of cultures and identify the most influential cultures according to this network.

  14. A Bag of Concepts Approach for Biomedical Document Classification Using Wikipedia Knowledge*. Spanish-English Cross-language Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriño-García, Marcos A; Pérez-Rodríguez, Roberto; Anido-Rifón, Luis E

    2017-10-26

    The ability to efficiently review the existing literature is essential for the rapid progress of research. This paper describes a classifier of text documents, represented as vectors in spaces of Wikipedia concepts, and analyses its suitability for classification of Spanish biomedical documents when only English documents are available for training. We propose the cross-language concept matching (CLCM) technique, which relies on Wikipedia interlanguage links to convert concept vectors from the Spanish to the English space. The performance of the classifier is compared to several baselines: a classifier based on machine translation, a classifier that represents documents after performing Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA), and a classifier that uses a domain-specific semantic annotator (MetaMap). The corpus used for the experiments (Cross-Language UVigoMED) was purpose-built for this study, and it is composed of 12,832 English and 2,184 Spanish MEDLINE abstracts. The performance of our approach is superior to any other state-of-the art classifier in the benchmark, with performance increases up to: 124% over classical machine translation, 332% over MetaMap, and 60 times over the classifier based on ESA. The results have statistical significance, showing p-values Wikipedia to represent documents as vectors in a space of Wikipedia concepts and translating vectors between language-specific concept spaces, a cross-language classifier can be built, and it performs better than several state-of-the-art classifiers.

  15. What Leads Students to Adopt Information from Wikipedia? An Empirical Investigation into the Role of Trust and Information Usefulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Cheung, Christy M. K.; Lee, Matthew K. O.

    2013-01-01

    With the prevalence of the Internet, it has become increasingly easy and common for students to seek information from various online sources. Wikipedia is one of the largest and most popular reference websites that university students may heavily rely on in completing their assignments and other course-related projects. Based on the information…

  16. "You Get What You Need": A Study of Students' Attitudes towards Using Wikipedia When Doing School Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikstad-Balas, Marte

    2016-01-01

    In traditional classrooms, a textbook was often the only source of knowledge available; in stark contrast, today's classrooms have an infinite number of knowledge sources available through the Internet. Nevertheless, a range of studies suggest that students systematically favor Wikipedia in their school-related literacy practices. The present…

  17. Explaining Authors' Contribution to Pivotal Artifacts during Mass Collaboration in the Wikipedia's Knowledge Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halatchliyski, Iassen; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the relevance of large-scale mass collaboration for computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research, adhering to a theoretical perspective that views collective knowledge both as substance and as participatory activity. In an empirical study using the German Wikipedia as a data source, we explored collective…

  18. Minimally-supervised extraction of domain-specific part-whole relations using Wikipedia as knowledge-base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittoo, Ashwin; Bouma, Gosse

    We present a minimally-supervised approach for learning part whole relations from texts. Unlike previous techniques, we focused on sparse, domain-specific texts. The novelty in our approach lies in the use of Wikipedia as a knowledge-base, from which we first acquire a set of reliable patterns that

  19. The People’s Encyclopedia Under the Gaze of the Sages: A Systematic Review of Scholarly Research on Wikipedia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoli, Chitu; Mehdi, Mohamad; Mesgari, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia has become one of the ten most visited sites on the Web, and the world’s leading source of Web reference information. Its rapid success has inspired hundreds of scholars from various disciplines to study its content, communication and community dynamics from various perspectives. This a...

  20. Nano-copper-bearing stainless steel promotes fracture healing by accelerating the callus evolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangdong; Wang, Yugang; Han, Xiuguo; Jiang, Wenbo; Dai, Kerong; Yang, Ke; Hao, Yongqiang

    2017-01-01

    Treatment for fractures requires internal fixation devices, which are mainly produced from stainless steel or titanium alloy without biological functions. Therefore, we developed a novel nano-copper-bearing stainless steel with nano-sized copper-precipitation (317L-Cu SS). Based on previous studies, this work explores the effect of 317L-Cu SS on fracture healing; that is, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, osteogenesis-related gene expression, and lysyl oxidase activity of human bone mesenchymal stem cells were detected in vitro. Sprague–Dawley rats were used to build an animal fracture model, and fracture healing and callus evolution were investigated by radiology (X-ray and micro-CT), histology (H&E, Masson, and safranin O/fast green staining), and histomorphometry. Further, the Cu2+ content and Runx2 level in the callus were determined, and local mechanical test of the fracture was performed to assess the healing quality. Our results revealed that 317L-Cu SS did not affect the proliferation of human bone mesenchymal stem cells, but promoted osteogenic differentiation and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. In addition, 317L-Cu SS upregulated the lysyl oxidase activity. The X-ray and micro-CT results showed that the callus evolution efficiency and fracture healing speed were superior for 317L-Cu SS. Histological staining displayed large amounts of fibrous tissues at 3 weeks, and cartilage and new bone at 6 weeks. Further, histomorphometric analysis indicated that the callus possessed higher osteogenic efficiency at 6 weeks, and a high Cu2+ content and increased Runx2 expression were observed in the callus for 317L-Cu SS. Besides, the mechanical strength of the fracture site was much better than that of the control group. Overall, we conclude that 317L-Cu SS possesses the ability to increase Cu2+ content and promote osteogenesis in the callus, which could accelerate the callus evolution process and bone formation to provide faster and better

  1. Health promotion viewed as processes of subjectification in the education of Danish Social and Healthcare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    2011-01-01

    problems of both a social and moral character. It is shown how health promotion has a thorough impact on the students' possibilities of coming into being as ( professional) subjects. The article points to the conclusion that in this particular educational setting, health promotion constitutes......This article explores how health promotion is practised within a specific educational setting: the Danish Social and Health Education Programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a strategy aimed at citizens - not at the students themselves. However, the students are generally...... perceived as being incapable of taking care of their own health and therefore also as being too far from the role model figure inherent in the discourse of professional health promotion work. Practices targeting students' physical health are induced both in- and outside the curriculum. Based on empirical...

  2. Knowledge Construction in Wikipedia: A Systemic-Constructivist Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeberst, Aileen; Halatchliyski, Iassen; Kimmerle, Joachim; Cress, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    We propose a systemic-constructivist perspective for analyzing knowledge construction. In contrast to theories that focus on individuals as actors, the systemic-constructivist approach emphasizes the relevance of social systems and regards the construction of knowledge as a self-referential process that takes place in social systems. We propose…

  3. Regulation of alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and peroxisome biogenesis in different fermentation processes in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehoon; Warburton, Shannon; Boldogh, Istvan; Svensson, Cecilia; Pon, Liza; d'Anjou, Marc; Stadheim, Terrance A; Choi, Byung-Kwon

    2013-07-20

    Production of recombinant proteins is affected by process conditions, where transcriptional regulation of Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (PpAOX1) promoter has been a key factor to influence expression levels of proteins of interest. Here, we demonstrate that the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis are regulated based on different process conditions. Two types of GFP-fusion proteins, Ub-R-GFP (short-lived GFP in the cytosol) and GFP-SKL (peroxisomal targeting GFP), were successfully used to characterize the time-course of the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis, respectively. The activity of the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis was highly subjected to different fermentation process conditions - methanol-limited condition at normoxy (ML), switched feeding of carbon sources (e.g., glucose and methanol) under carbon-limited condition at normoxy (SML), and oxygen-limited (OL) condition. The AOX1 promoter was most active under the ML, but less active under the OL. Peroxisome biogenesis showed a high dependency on methanol consumption. In addition, the proliferation of peroxisomes was inhibited in a medium containing glucose and stimulated in the methanol phase under a carbon-limited fed-batch culture condition. The specific productivity of a monoclonal antibody (qp) under the AOX1 promoter was higher at 86h of induction in the ML than in the OL (0.026 vs 0.020mgg(-1)h(-1)). However, the oxygen-limited condition was a robust process suitable for longer induction (180h) due to high cell fitness. Our study suggests that the maximal production of a recombinant protein is highly dependent on methanol consumption rate that is affected by the availability of methanol and oxygen molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Implementation Process and Acceptance of a Setting Based Prevention Programme to Promote Healthy Lifestyle in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Birgit; Strauss, Angelika; Mayer, Andrea; Duvinage, Kristin; Mitschek, Christine; Koletzko, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the implementation process of a kindergarten-based intervention ("TigerKids") to promote a healthy lifestyle. Design: Questionnaire survey among kindergarten teachers about programme implementation and acceptance. Setting: Kindergartens in Bavaria, Germany. Methods: Two hundred and fifteen kindergartens were…

  5. Oral Health Promotion and Homelessness: A Theory-Based Approach to Understanding Processes of Implementation and Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Laura; Freeman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use the Theory of Diffusion of Innovations as a framework to explore the qualitative data gleaned from a process evaluation of the Smile4life intervention across Scottish National Health Service (NHS) Boards and to inform future oral health promotion and homelessness. Design: A qualitative exploration. Setting: In 2012, the…

  6. The Dynamic between Knowledge Production and Faculty Evaluation: Perceptions of the Promotion and Tenure Process across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J. Kasi; Latimer, Melissa; Stoiko, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to understand predictors of faculty satisfaction with promotion and tenure processes and reasonableness of expectations in the context of a striving institution. The factors we investigated included discipline (high-consensus [science and math] vs. low-consensus [humanities and social sciences]); demographic variables; and…

  7. Social Information-Processing Skills Training to Promote Social Competence and Prevent Aggressive Behavior in the Third Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mark W.; Galinsky, Maeda J.; Smokowski, Paul R.; Day, Steven H.; Terzian, Mary A.; Rose, Roderick A.; Guo, Shenyang

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a school-based study designed to promote social competence and reduce aggressive behavior by strengthening children's skills in processing social information and regulating emotions. Three successive cohorts of 3rd graders (N = 548) from 2 schools participated. In 2000-2001, children received a routine health curriculum; in…

  8. Sexual Health Promotion on Social Networking Sites: A Process Evaluation of the FaceSpace Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Phuong; Gold, Judy; Pedrana, Alisa; Chang, Shanton; Howard, Steve; Ilic, Olivia; Hellard, Margaret; Stoove, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports findings from an evaluation of reach and engagement of The FaceSpace Project, a novel sexual health promotion project delivered through social networking sites that targeted...

  9. A conserved RNA polymerase III promoter required for gammaherpesvirus TMER transcription and microRNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Kevin W; Claypool, David J; van Dyk, Linda F

    2014-07-01

    Canonical RNA polymerase III (pol III) type 2 promoters contain a single A and B box and are well documented for their role in tRNA and SINE transcription in eukaryotic cells. The genome of Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) contains eight polycistronic tRNA-microRNA encoded RNA (TMER) genes that are transcribed from a RNA pol III type 2-like promoter containing triplicated A box elements. Here, we demonstrate that the triplicated A box sequences are required in their entirety to produce functional MuHV-4 miRNAs. We also identify that these RNA pol III type 2-like promoters are conserved in eukaryotic genomes. Human and mouse predicted tRNA genes containing these promoters also show enrichment of alternative RNA pol III transcription termination sequences and are predicted to give rise to longer tRNA primary transcripts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Women's experiences of how their recovery process is promoted after a first myocardial infarction: Implications for cardiac rehabilitation care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Wieslander

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A rapid improvement in the care of myocardial infarction (MI in the emergency services has been witnessed in recent years. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the factors involved in a successful recovery process, after the initial stages of emergency care among patients, and in particular those who are women. Both preventive and promotive perspectives should be taken into consideration for facilitating the recovery process of women after a MI. Aim: To explore how women's recovery processes are promoted after a first MI. Methods: A qualitative content analysis was used. Findings: The women's recovery process is a multidirectional process with a desire to develop and approach a new perspective on life. The women's possibility to approach new perspectives on life incorporates how they handle the three dimensions: behaviour, that is, women's acting and engaging in various activities; social, that is, how women receive and give support in their social environment; and psychological, that is, their way of thinking, reflecting, and appreciating life. Conclusions: The personal recovery of women is a multidirectional process with a desire to develop and approach a new perspective on life. It is important for cardiac rehabilitation nurses to not only focus on lifestyle changes and social support but also on working actively with the women's inner strength in order to promote the recovery of the women.

  11. Women's experiences of how their recovery process is promoted after a first myocardial infarction: Implications for cardiac rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieslander, Inger; Mårtensson, Jan; Fridlund, Bengt; Svedberg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    A rapid improvement in the care of myocardial infarction (MI) in the emergency services has been witnessed in recent years. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the factors involved in a successful recovery process, after the initial stages of emergency care among patients, and in particular those who are women. Both preventive and promotive perspectives should be taken into consideration for facilitating the recovery process of women after a MI. To explore how women's recovery processes are promoted after a first MI. A qualitative content analysis was used. The women's recovery process is a multidirectional process with a desire to develop and approach a new perspective on life. The women's possibility to approach new perspectives on life incorporates how they handle the three dimensions: behaviour, that is, women's acting and engaging in various activities; social, that is, how women receive and give support in their social environment; and psychological, that is, their way of thinking, reflecting, and appreciating life. The personal recovery of women is a multidirectional process with a desire to develop and approach a new perspective on life. It is important for cardiac rehabilitation nurses to not only focus on lifestyle changes and social support but also on working actively with the women's inner strength in order to promote the recovery of the women.

  12. Wikipedia come attività di empowerment personale e sociale di studenti e insegnanti nel progetto “Veneto in Wikipedia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Petrucco

    2016-11-01

    apprendimento; per gli insegnanti si registra una notevole fiducia in Wikipedia che cresce dopo l’esperienza fatta e contribuisce a considerarla strumento efficace nella didattica, motivante e di empowerment personale e sociale.

  13. The presence and accuracy of food and nutrition terms in the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia: in comparison with the Mini Larousse encyclopaedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Hernández, Laura María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Curbelo Castro, Celeste; Sanz-Valero, Javier

    2014-10-02

    To determine the presence and appropriateness of the terminology concerning Food/Nutrition Science in the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia and to compare them with that of an encyclopaedia for general use (Mini Larousse). Méthods: The terms in the study were taken from the LID dictionary on metabolism and nutrition: The existence and appropriateness of the selected terms were checked through random sample estimate with no replacement (n=386), using the Spanish and English editions of Wikipedia. The existence of 261 terms in the Spanish edition and 306 in the English edition was determined from the study sample (n=386). Several differences were found between the two editions (pWikipedia,3 entries (1,15%, IC95%: 0,00-2.44) were found to be lacking in appropriate information; 2 of the 306 entries in the English edition failed to give appropriate information (0,52%, IC95%: 0,00-1,23). A comparison between the existing entries of the Mini Larousse Encyclopaedia and the Spanish edition of Wikipedia, showed Wikipedia (pWikipedia than in the English edition. The appropriateness of content was greater in the English edition. Both the Spanish and English editions have a greater number of entries and more exact ones than the Mini Larousse. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Poisson statistics of PageRank probabilities of Twitter and Wikipedia networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2014-04-01

    We use the methods of quantum chaos and Random Matrix Theory for analysis of statistical fluctuations of PageRank probabilities in directed networks. In this approach the effective energy levels are given by a logarithm of PageRank probability at a given node. After the standard energy level unfolding procedure we establish that the nearest spacing distribution of PageRank probabilities is described by the Poisson law typical for integrable quantum systems. Our studies are done for the Twitter network and three networks of Wikipedia editions in English, French and German. We argue that due to absence of level repulsion the PageRank order of nearby nodes can be easily interchanged. The obtained Poisson law implies that the nearby PageRank probabilities fluctuate as random independent variables.

  15. How structure shapes dynamics: knowledge development in Wikipedia--a network multilevel modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halatchliyski, Iassen; Cress, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Using a longitudinal network analysis approach, we investigate the structural development of the knowledge base of Wikipedia in order to explain the appearance of new knowledge. The data consists of the articles in two adjacent knowledge domains: psychology and education. We analyze the development of networks of knowledge consisting of interlinked articles at seven snapshots from 2006 to 2012 with an interval of one year between them. Longitudinal data on the topological position of each article in the networks is used to model the appearance of new knowledge over time. Thus, the structural dimension of knowledge is related to its dynamics. Using multilevel modeling as well as eigenvector and betweenness measures, we explain the significance of pivotal articles that are either central within one of the knowledge domains or boundary-crossing between the two domains at a given point in time for the future development of new knowledge in the knowledge base.

  16. How structure shapes dynamics: knowledge development in Wikipedia--a network multilevel modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iassen Halatchliyski

    Full Text Available Using a longitudinal network analysis approach, we investigate the structural development of the knowledge base of Wikipedia in order to explain the appearance of new knowledge. The data consists of the articles in two adjacent knowledge domains: psychology and education. We analyze the development of networks of knowledge consisting of interlinked articles at seven snapshots from 2006 to 2012 with an interval of one year between them. Longitudinal data on the topological position of each article in the networks is used to model the appearance of new knowledge over time. Thus, the structural dimension of knowledge is related to its dynamics. Using multilevel modeling as well as eigenvector and betweenness measures, we explain the significance of pivotal articles that are either central within one of the knowledge domains or boundary-crossing between the two domains at a given point in time for the future development of new knowledge in the knowledge base.

  17. Early Prediction of Movie Box Office Success based on Wikipedia Activity Big Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mestyán, Márton; Kertész, János

    2012-01-01

    Use of socially generated "big data" to access information about collective states of the minds in human societies becomes a new paradigm in the emerging field of computational social science. One of the natural application of this would be prediction of the society's reaction to a new product in the sense of popularity and adoption rate. However, bridging between "real time monitoring" and "early predicting" remains as a big challenge. Here, we report on an endeavor to build a minimalistic predictive model for the financial success of movies based on collective activity data of online users. We show that the popularity of a movie could be predicted well in advance by measuring and analyzing the activity level of editors and viewers of the corresponding entry to the movie in Wikipedia, the well-known online encyclopedia.

  18. The Impact of Culture On Smart Community Technology: The Case of 13 Wikipedia Instances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinayida Petrushyna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart communities provide technologies for monitoring social behaviors inside communities. The technologies that support knowledge building should consider the cultural background of community members. The studies of the influence of the culture on knowledge building is limited. Just a few works consider digital traces of individuals that they explain using cultural values and beliefs. In this work, we analyze 13 Wikipedia instances where users with different cultural background build knowledge in different ways. We compare edits of users. Using social network analysis we build and analyze co- authorship networks and watch the networks evolution. We explain the differences we have found using Hofstede dimensions and Schwartz cultural values and discuss implications for the design of smart community technologies. Our findings provide insights in requirements for technologies used for smart communities in different cultures.

  19. Biomedical literature classification using encyclopedic knowledge: a Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriño García, Marcos Antonio; Pérez Rodríguez, Roberto; Anido Rifón, Luis E

    2015-01-01

    Automatic classification of text documents into a set of categories has a lot of applications. Among those applications, the automatic classification of biomedical literature stands out as an important application for automatic document classification strategies. Biomedical staff and researchers have to deal with a lot of literature in their daily activities, so it would be useful a system that allows for accessing to documents of interest in a simple and effective way; thus, it is necessary that these documents are sorted based on some criteria-that is to say, they have to be classified. Documents to classify are usually represented following the bag-of-words (BoW) paradigm. Features are words in the text-thus suffering from synonymy and polysemy-and their weights are just based on their frequency of occurrence. This paper presents an empirical study of the efficiency of a classifier that leverages encyclopedic background knowledge-concretely Wikipedia-in order to create bag-of-concepts (BoC) representations of documents, understanding concept as "unit of meaning", and thus tackling synonymy and polysemy. Besides, the weighting of concepts is based on their semantic relevance in the text. For the evaluation of the proposal, empirical experiments have been conducted with one of the commonly used corpora for evaluating classification and retrieval of biomedical information, OHSUMED, and also with a purpose-built corpus of MEDLINE biomedical abstracts, UVigoMED. Results obtained show that the Wikipedia-based bag-of-concepts representation outperforms the classical bag-of-words representation up to 157% in the single-label classification problem and up to 100% in the multi-label problem for OHSUMED corpus, and up to 122% in the single-label classification problem and up to 155% in the multi-label problem for UVigoMED corpus.

  20. Process Evaluation of an Innovative Healthy Eating Website Promoting the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, A.; Scott, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    The Internet offers a promising medium for delivering nutrition education. This study aimed to evaluate user perceptions and usage patterns of an innovative healthy eating website promoting the Mediterranean diet. The website was evaluated over a 6-month period by female employees of University of Glasgow, aged 25-55 years. User satisfaction with…

  1. Encouraging Uncertainty in the "Scientific Method": Promoting Understanding in the Processes of Science with Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony; Fazio, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' feelings of uncertainty are an overlooked, though crucial, condition necessary for the promotion of educational change. This article investigates the feelings of uncertainty that preservice teachers have toward the conduct of science as inquiry and the extent to which methods courses can confront and embrace those uncertainties. Our work…

  2. Sexual health promotion on social networking sites: a process evaluation of The FaceSpace Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong; Gold, Judy; Pedrana, Alisa; Chang, Shanton; Howard, Steve; Ilic, Olivia; Hellard, Margaret; Stoove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This article reports findings from an evaluation of reach and engagement of The FaceSpace Project, a novel sexual health promotion project delivered through social networking sites that targeted young people aged 16-29 years. Multiple methods were used to evaluate project reach and engagement. The evaluation focussed on quantitative data (online usage statistics, online surveys), complemented by available qualitative data (project team meeting notes). The project reached 900 fans who were mostly between 18 and 34 years of age. The most successful ways of increasing audience reach were via Facebook advertisements and tagging photos of young people attending a music festival on the project Facebook page. Peaks in Facebook page interactions (comments and "likes") coincided with recruitment peaks and when videos were posted. However, video views varied greatly between postings. Feedback from the project team for increasing engagement in future social networking site interventions included having one centralized Facebook page and using episodic videos. This evaluation is among the first to assess the use of social networking sites for sexual health promotion and provides information to inform the implementation and evaluation of future projects using new media. Social networking sites offer great potential to reach and engage young people for sexual health promotion. However, further work is required to improve implementation and promote audience reach and engagement as well as to determine effectiveness of social networking sites in changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Krachtvoer: Process evaluation of a Dutch programme for lower vocational schools to promote healthful diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.; Assema, P. van; Paulussen, T.; Schaalma, H.; Brug, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the fidelity and completeness of the implementation of a school-based healthful diet promotion programme called 'Krachtvoer' (we use the Dutch title of the programme throughout this article. A possible translation is Power Food, but this does not reflect the play

  4. Professional development programs in health promotion: tools and processes to favor new practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sara; Richard, Lucie; Guichard, Anne; Chiocchio, François; Litvak, Eric; Beaudet, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Developing innovative interventions that are in sync with a health promotion paradigm often represents a challenge for professionals working in local public health organizations. Thus, it is critical to have both professional development programs that favor new practices and tools to examine these practices. In this case study, we analyze the health promotion approach used in a pilot intervention addressing children's vulnerability that was developed and carried out by participants enrolled in a public health professional development program. More specifically, we use a modified version of Guichard and Ridde's (Une grille d'analyse des actions pour lutter contre les inégalités sociales de santé. In Potvin, L., Moquet, M.-J. and Jones, C. M. (eds), Réduire les Inégalités Sociales en Santé. INPES, Saint-Denis Cedex, pp. 297-312, 2010) analytical grid to assess deductively the program participants' use of health promotion practices in the analysis and planning, implementation, evaluation, sustainability and empowerment phases of the pilot intervention. We also seek evidence of practices involving (empowerment, participation, equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability) in the intervention. The results are mixed: our findings reveal evidence of the application of several dimensions of health promotion (equity, holism, an ecological approach, intersectorality and sustainability), but also a lack of integration of two key dimensions; that is, empowerment and participation, during various phases of the pilot intervention. These results show that the professional development program is associated with the adoption of a pilot intervention integrating multiple but not all dimensions of health promotion. We make recommendations to facilitate a more complete integration. This research also shows that the Guichard and Ridde grid proves to be a thorough instrument to document the practices of participants. © The Author 2015. Published by

  5. Biological processes in prevention and intervention: the promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Diamond, Adele

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interrelations between biological and social influences on the development of self-regulation in young children and considers implications of these interrelations for the promotion of self-regulation and positive adaptation to school. Emotional development and processes of emotion regulation are seen as influencing and being influenced by the development of executive cognitive functions, including working memory, inhibitory control, and mental flexibility important for the effortful regulation of attention and behavior. Developing self-regulation is further understood to reflect an emerging balance between processes of emotional arousal and cognitive regulation. Early childhood educational programs that effectively link emotional and motivational arousal with activities designed to exercise and promote executive functions can be effective in enhancing self-regulation, school readiness, and school success.

  6. The Process of Acetonitrile Synthesis over γ-Al2O3 Promoted by Phosphoric Acid Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Galanov, Sergey I.; Sidorova, Olga I.; Gavrilenko, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of principal parameters (reaction temperature, ratio of acetic acid and ammonia, composition of reactionary mixture and promotion of catalysts) on the selectivity and yield of the desired product was studied in the reaction of catalytic acetonitrile synthesis by ammonolysis of acetic acid. The processing of [gamma]-Al[2]O[3] by phosphoric acid increases amount of the centers, on which carries out reaction of acetamide dehydration. The kinetic model of a limiting stage of reactio...

  7. Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Clancy; Diamond, Adele

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interrelations between biological and social influences on the development of self-regulation in young children and considers implications of these interrelations for the promotion of self-regulation and positive adaptation to school. Emotional development and processes of emotion regulation are seen as influencing and being influenced by the development of executive cognitive functions, including working memory, inhibitory control, and mental flexibility important for the...

  8. Transforming followers' value internalization and role self-efficacy: Dual processes promoting performance and peer norm-enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Sean T; Schaubroeck, John M; Peng, Ann C

    2016-02-01

    We develop a model in which transformational leadership bolsters followers' internalization of core organizational values, which in turn influences their performance and willingness to report peers' transgressions. The model also specifies a distinct process wherein transformational leadership enhances follower performance by promoting followers' role self-efficacy. We tested the model on 2 large units (i.e., companies) of soldiers undergoing training and socialization. The study bracketed changes in soldiers' internalization of the organizational values and role self-efficacy over a 14-week period. The results support the widely held but empirically unestablished views that transformational leadership promotes change in value internalization and that this partially explains its influence on follower performance. Findings also indicate a distinct intervening process through which transformational leadership promotes performance by enhancing followers' beliefs in their own capabilities (i.e., self-efficacy). This research thus shows that 2 key processes both contribute to the understanding of how transformational leadership transforms followers and influences their behavior. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Promoting cross-sector partnerships in child welfare: qualitative results from a five-state strategic planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Armstrong, Mary I; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effective strategic planning for public and private child welfare agencies working together to serve families. During a professionally facilitated, strategic planning event, public and private child welfare administrators from five states explored partnership challenges and strengths with a goal of improving collaborative interactions in order to improve outcomes for children and families. Summarizing thematic results of session notes from the planning event, this article describes effective strategies for facilitation of such processes as well as factors that challenge or promote group processes. Implications for conducting strategic planning in jurisdictions seeking to improve public/private partnerships are discussed.

  10. Wikipedia usage estimates prevalence of influenza-like illness in the United States in near real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, David J; Brownstein, John S

    2014-04-01

    Circulating levels of both seasonal and pandemic influenza require constant surveillance to ensure the health and safety of the population. While up-to-date information is critical, traditional surveillance systems can have data availability lags of up to two weeks. We introduce a novel method of estimating, in near-real time, the level of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States (US) by monitoring the rate of particular Wikipedia article views on a daily basis. We calculated the number of times certain influenza- or health-related Wikipedia articles were accessed each day between December 2007 and August 2013 and compared these data to official ILI activity levels provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We developed a Poisson model that accurately estimates the level of ILI activity in the American population, up to two weeks ahead of the CDC, with an absolute average difference between the two estimates of just 0.27% over 294 weeks of data. Wikipedia-derived ILI models performed well through both abnormally high media coverage events (such as during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic) as well as unusually severe influenza seasons (such as the 2012-2013 influenza season). Wikipedia usage accurately estimated the week of peak ILI activity 17% more often than Google Flu Trends data and was often more accurate in its measure of ILI intensity. With further study, this method could potentially be implemented for continuous monitoring of ILI activity in the US and to provide support for traditional influenza surveillance tools.

  11. Disaster Monitoring with Wikipedia and Online Social Networking Sites: Structured Data and Linked Data Fragments to the Rescue?

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Thomas; Verborgh, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results of our ongoing early-stage research on a realtime disaster detection and monitoring tool. Based on Wikipedia, it is language-agnostic and leverages user-generated multimedia content shared on online social networking sites to help disaster responders prioritize their efforts. We make the tool and its source code publicly available as we make progress on it. Furthermore, we strive to publish detected disasters and accompanying multimedia content foll...

  12. An overview of health-promoting compounds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and the effect of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Andrea; Reyes, Alejandro

    2012-12-01

    Broccoli offers many heath-promoting properties owing to its content of antioxidant and anticarcinogenic compounds. The concentration and bioavailability of polyphenols, glucosinolates, sulforaphane and selenium depend on plant biochemistry, cultivation strategy and type of processing. In this article, the main biochemical properties of broccoli are reviewed regarding their health-promoting effects. Additionally, the way these properties are affected by processing is discussed. Steaming and drying result in an apparent increment of sulforaphane content as well as antioxidant activity, most likely due to an increase of the extractability of antioxidants and sulforaphane. Freezing and boiling diminish polyphenols concentration, mainly due to volatilization and leaching into the cooking water. In view of these results, the optimization of broccoli processing in order to maximize the content of bioactive compounds should be possible. The effect of processing on selenium compounds has been poorly studied so far, and therefore this topic should be investigated in the future. Finally, the effect of operating conditions in different drying processes on the content of bioactive compounds in broccoli should be investigated in a greater depth.

  13. Public anxiety and information seeking following the H1N1 outbreak: blogs, newspaper articles, and Wikipedia visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausczik, Yla; Faasse, Kate; Pennebaker, James W; Petrie, Keith J

    2012-01-01

    Web-based methodologies may provide a new and unique insight into public response to an infectious disease outbreak. This naturalistic study investigates the effectiveness of new web-based methodologies in assessing anxiety and information seeking in response to the 2009 H1N1 outbreak by examining language use in weblogs ("blogs"), newspaper articles, and web-based information seeking. Language use in blogs and newspaper articles was assessed using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, and information seeking was examined using the number of daily visits to H1N1-relevant Wikipedia articles. The results show that blogs mentioning "swine flu" used significantly higher levels of anxiety, health, and death words and lower levels of positive emotion words than control blogs. Change in language use on blogs was strongly related to change in language use in newspaper coverage for the same day. Both the measure of anxiety in blogs mentioning "swine flu" and the number of Wikipedia visits followed similar trajectories, peaking shortly after the announcement of H1N1 and then declining rapidly. Anxiety measured in blogs preceded information seeking on Wikipedia. These results show that the public reaction to H1N1 was rapid and short-lived. This research suggests that analysis of web behavior can provide a source of naturalistic data on the level and changing pattern of public anxiety and information seeking following the outbreak of a public health emergency.

  14. More challenges since Wikipedia: the effects of exposure to internet information about the Rorschach on selected comprehensive system variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas S; Brabender, Virginia M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of reading the Wikipedia article on the Rorschach on Comprehensive System variables, participants in this study (recruited from parent-teacher associations, online message boards, and graduate schools; N = 50) were provided with either a copy of the Wikipedia article on the Rorschach (from April 2010) or an irrelevant article, then administered the Rorschach and instructed to "fake good." Monetary incentives were used to increase motivation to dissimulate. Initial results indicated that participants given the Wikipedia article produced a lower number of responses (R) and had higher scores on Populars, X+%, XA%, and WDA% as compared to controls. However, post-hoc analyses revealed that when the influence of Populars was controlled, significant differences for X+%, XA%, and WDA% disappeared. No significant differences were found for Form%, Zf, Blends, or PER, although post-hoc analyses controlling for differences in R revealed a significant difference between groups on Zf%. Limitations of the study and implications for clinical and forensic practice are discussed.

  15. Exploring Wikipedia and DMoz as Knowledge Bases for Engineering a User Interests Hierarchy for Social Network Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridas, Mandar; Caragea, Doina

    The outgrowth of social networks in the recent years has resulted in opportunities for interesting data mining problems, such as interest or friendship recommendations. A global ontology over the interests specified by the users of a social network is essential for accurate recommendations. We propose, evaluate and compare three approaches to engineering a hierarchical ontology over user interests. The proposed approaches make use of two popular knowledge bases, Wikipedia and Directory Mozilla, to extract interest definitions and/or relationships between interests. More precisely, the first approach uses Wikipedia to find interest definitions, the latent semantic analysis technique to measure the similarity between interests based on their definitions, and an agglomerative clustering algorithm to group similar interests into higher level concepts. The second approach uses the Wikipedia Category Graph to extract relationships between interests, while the third approach uses Directory Mozilla to extract relationships between interests. Our results show that the third approach, although the simplest, is the most effective for building a hierarchy over user interests.

  16. Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animal’s metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered either in the feed or in the drinking water. Other active hormones are applied in the form of small implants into the subcutaneous tissue of the ears. These are slow release (several weeks or months) devices and the ears are discarded at the slaughter. Growth promoters allow a better efficiency in the feed conversion rate. The net effect is an increased protein deposition, partly due to muscle proteases inhibition (Fiems, Buts, Boucque, Demeyer, & Cottyn, 1990), usually linked to fat utilization (Brockman & Laarveld, 1986). The result is a leaner meat (Lone, 1997) with some toughness derived from the production of connective tissue and collagen crosslinking (Miller, Judge, Diekman, Hudgens, & Aberle, 1989; Miller, Judge, & Schanbacher, 1990). Some recent fraudulent practices, consisting of the use of a kind of “cocktails” or mixtures of several substances like β-agonists and corticosteroids at very low amounts (Monsón et al., 2007), are difficult to detect with modern analytical instrumentation. They try to obtain a synergistic effect for a similar growth promotion with lower probability of detection by official control laboratories (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

  17. Impact of schoolchildren's involvement in the design process on the effectiveness of healthy food promotion materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Christopher R; Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A

    2017-06-01

    Marketing techniques may improve children's vegetable consumption. However, student participation in the design of marketing materials may increase the material's salience, while also improving children's commitment and attitudes towards healthy eating. The impact of student-led design of vegetable promotional materials on choice and consumption was investigated using 1614 observations of students' vegetable choice and plate waste in four public elementary schools in Kearney, Nebraska. Data were collected on children's vegetable choice and consumption in four comparison groups: 1) control; 2) students designed materials only; 3) students were exposed to promotional materials only; and 4) students designed materials that were then posted in the lunchroom. Vegetable choice and consumption data were collected through a validated digital photography-based plate-waste method. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate average treatment effects of the conditions at various time periods. Dependent variables were vegetable choice and consumption, and independent variables included the condition, time period, and interaction terms, as well as controls for gender and grade. Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption ( p  < 0.001) when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2-3 months later ( p  < 0.05). Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected ( p  < 0.05), but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption ( p  < 0.01). Involving elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.

  18. An organizational process for promoting home fire safety in two community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehna, Carlee; Twyman, Stephanie; Fahey, Erin; Coty, Mary-Beth; Williams, Joe; Scrivener, Drane; Wishnia, Gracie; Myers, John

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the home fire safety quality improvement model designed to aid organizations in achieving institutional program goals. The home fire safety model was developed from community-based participatory research (CBPR) applying training-the-trainer methods and is illustrated by an institutional case study. The model is applicable to other types of organizations to improve home fire safety in vulnerable populations. Utilizing the education model leaves trained employees with guided experience to build upon, adapt, and modify the home fire safety intervention to more effectively serve their clientele, promote safety, and meet organizational objectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive and Social Factors Affecting the Use of Wikipedia and Information Seeking / Les facteurs cognitifs et sociaux déterminant l'utilisation de Wikipedia et la recherche d'information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyoung Chung

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia, the free online encyclopedia, is the preferred choice among resources used by college students to meet their research needs. However, Wikipedia has been criticized for its low information quality, lack of accountability, inconsistency, and vulnerability to vandalism. Despite the warnings and concerns voiced by academia, online learning tools such as Wikipedia will continue their rise as major learning resource in today's classroom. Using a sample of 184 college students, the study proposed theoretical models to test the effects of internal beliefs, motivations, and social influences on Wikipedia use and information-seeking, and further empirically tested those models. The findings of this study suggested that Wikipedia use is driven by internal belief and peer pressure, whereas information-seeking is influenced by belief, motivation, and subjective norms. The implications of the findings for the research and practice are discussed. Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie gratuite en ligne, est le choix préféré des étudiants ayant besoin de faire une recherche. Cependant, Wikipédia a été critiqué pour la faible qualité de ses informations, son manque d’imputabilité, son incohérence et sa vulnérabilité au vandalisme. En dépit des mises en garde et des inquiétudes exprimées par le milieu universitaire, l’importance en salle de classe des outils d'apprentissage en ligne tels que Wikipédia continuera de croître. Sur la base d’un échantillon de 184 étudiants de niveau collégial, l'étude a proposé des modèles théoriques pour tester les effets des croyances personnelles, des motivations et des influences sociales sur l'utilisation de Wikipédia et sur la recherche d'information. Ces modèles ont ensuite été testés empiriquement. Les résultats de cette étude suggèrent que l'utilisation de Wikipédia est motivée par les croyances personnelles et la pression exercée par les camarades, alors que la recherche d

  20. The Impact of Harvesting, Storage and Processing Factors on Health-Promoting Phytochemicals in Berries and Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kårlund

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing epidemiological and experimental data now emphasize that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits confers many health benefits. Functional products containing elevated levels of bioactive compounds are attracting considerable attention due to their potential to lower the risk of chronic diseases and their associated huge healthcare costs. On a global scale, there is an increasing demand for berries and fruits, since they are natural polyphenol-rich raw material to be incorporated into functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This is a major challenge for both industry and horticultural experts, because the content of health-promoting compounds in plants varies widely not only in different plant species, but also between cultivars. The content is also significantly affected by harvesting, storage and processing factors. This review summarizes the recent data and clarifies the main contributors of harvesting time, various storage conditions and post-harvest procedures, such as temperature management, controlled atmosphere, 1-MCP, calcium and plant activators, as ways to influence health-promoting compounds in fruits. Furthermore, the ways processing factors, e.g., enzymatic treatment, pressing, clarification, temperature, pressure and fermentation, can influence the levels of polyphenols and vitamins in berries and soft fruits will be discussed. Finally, strategies for preventing the decline of health-promoting compounds in fruits during long-term storage will be assessed in light of recent scientific progress and modern methods, which preserve the levels of polyphenols, will be highlighted.

  1. Interrogating History: Promoting Student Activism Using Children's Literature and the Full Circling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Trisha Wies

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are often disengaged in the learning process, being more focused on social media and self-interest than classroom content. Full circling is a process that can be used to help students collaboratively engage in learning and actively reflect on historical events--especially those that are under reported in history books. In the present…

  2. Feasibility of an implementation strategy for the integration of health promotion in routine primary care: a quantitative process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Grandes, Gonzalo; Cortada, Josep M; Pombo, Haizea; Martinez, Catalina; Corrales, Mary Helen; de la Peña, Enrique; Mugica, Justo; Gorostiza, Esther

    2017-02-17

    Process evaluation is recommended to improve the understanding of underlying mechanisms related to clinicians, patients, context and intervention delivery that may impact on trial or program results, feasibility and transferability to practice. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Prescribe Healthy Life (PVS from the Spanish "Prescribe Vida Saludable") implementation strategy for enhancing the adoption and implementation of an evidence-based health promotion intervention in primary health care. A descriptive study of 2-year implementation indicators for the PVS clinical intervention was conducted in four primary health care centers. A multifaceted collaborative modeling implementation strategy was developed to enhance the integration of a clinical intervention to promote healthy lifestyles into clinical practice. Process indicators were assessed for intervention reach, adoption, implementation, sustainability and their variability at center, practice, and patient levels. Mean rates of adoption by means of active collaboration among the three main professional categories (family physicians, nurses and administrative personnel) were 75% in all centers. Just over half of the patients that attended (n = 11650; 51.9%) were reached in terms of having their lifestyle habits assessed, while more than a third (33.7%; n = 7433) and almost 10% (n = 2175) received advice or a printed prescription for at least one lifestyle change, respectively. Only 3.7% of the target population received a repeat prescription. These process indicators significantly (p < 0.001) varied by center, lifestyle habit and patient characteristics. Sustainability of intervention components changed thorough the implementation period within centers. The implementation strategy used showed moderate-to-good performance on process indicators related to adoption, reach, and implementation of the evidence-based healthy lifestyle promotion intervention in the context of

  3. Evaluation of gastroenterology and hepatology articles on Wikipedia: are they suitable as learning resources for medical students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2014-02-01

    With the changes introduced to medical curricula, medical students use learning resources on the Internet such as Wikipedia. However, the credibility of the medical content of Wikipedia has been questioned and there is no evidence to respond to these concerns. The aim of this paper was to critically evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the gastroenterology and hepatology information that medical students retrieve from Wikipedia. The Wikipedia website was searched for articles on gastroenterology and hepatology on 28 May 2013. Copies of these articles were evaluated by three assessors independently using an appraisal form modified from the DISCERN instrument. The articles were scored for accuracy of content, readability, frequency of updating, and quality of references. A total of 39 articles were evaluated. Although the articles appeared to be well cited and reviewed regularly, several problems were identified with regard to depth of discussion of mechanisms and pathogenesis of diseases, as well as poor elaboration on different investigations. Analysis of the content showed a score ranging from 15.6±0.6 to 43.6±3.2 (mean±SD). The total number of references in all articles was 1233, and the number of references varied from 4 to 144 (mean±SD, 31.6±27.3). The number of citations from peer-reviewed journals published in the last 5 years was 242 (28%); however, several problems were identified in the list of references and citations made. The readability of articles was in the range of -8.0±55.7 to 44.4±1.4; for all articles the readability was 26±9.0 (mean±SD). The concordance between the assessors on applying the criteria had mean κ scores in the range of 0.61 to 0.79. Wikipedia is not a reliable source of information for medical students searching for gastroenterology and hepatology articles. Several limitations, deficiencies, and scientific errors have been identified in the articles examined.

  4. Impact of schoolchildren's involvement in the design process on the effectiveness of healthy food promotion materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Gustafson

    2017-06-01

    Relative to baseline, students in group 4 doubled their vegetable consumption (p < 0.001 when materials were posted. Vegetable consumption remained elevated at a follow-up 2–3 months later (p < 0.05. Students in group 3 initially increased the quantity of vegetables selected (p < 0.05, but did not increase consumption. In the follow-up period, however, students in group 3 increased their vegetable consumption (p < 0.01. Involving elementary-aged students in the design of vegetable promotional materials that were posted in the lunchroom increased the amount of vegetables students consumed.

  5. Caffeine Promotes Global Spatial Processing in Habitual and Non-Habitual Caffeine Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Grace E.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Brunyé, Tad T.; Taylor, Holly A.; Kanarek, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task, and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval...

  6. FOXO3 Promotes Quiescence in Adult Muscle Stem Cells during the Process of Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra D. Gopinath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle stem cells, or “satellite cells” (SCs, are required for the regeneration of damaged muscle tissue. Although SCs self-renew during regeneration, the mechanisms that govern SC re-entry into quiescence remain elusive. We show that FOXO3, a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors, is expressed in quiescent SCs (QSCs. Conditional deletion of Foxo3 in QSCs impairs self-renewal and increases the propensity of SCs to adopt a differentiated fate. Transcriptional analysis of SCs lacking FOXO3 revealed a downregulation of Notch signaling, a key regulator of SC quiescence. Conversely, overexpression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD rescued the self-renewal deficit of FOXO3-deficient SCs. We show that FOXO3 regulates NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptor expression and that decreasing expression of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptors phenocopies the effect of FOXO3 deficiency in SCs. We demonstrate that FOXO3, perhaps by activating Notch signaling, promotes the quiescent state during SC self-renewal in adult muscle regeneration.

  7. FOXO3 promotes quiescence in adult muscle stem cells during the process of self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Suchitra D; Webb, Ashley E; Brunet, Anne; Rando, Thomas A

    2014-04-08

    Skeletal muscle stem cells, or "satellite cells" (SCs), are required for the regeneration of damaged muscle tissue. Although SCs self-renew during regeneration, the mechanisms that govern SC re-entry into quiescence remain elusive. We show that FOXO3, a member of the forkhead family of transcription factors, is expressed in quiescent SCs (QSCs). Conditional deletion of Foxo3 in QSCs impairs self-renewal and increases the propensity of SCs to adopt a differentiated fate. Transcriptional analysis of SCs lacking FOXO3 revealed a downregulation of Notch signaling, a key regulator of SC quiescence. Conversely, overexpression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) rescued the self-renewal deficit of FOXO3-deficient SCs. We show that FOXO3 regulates NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptor expression and that decreasing expression of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 receptors phenocopies the effect of FOXO3 deficiency in SCs. We demonstrate that FOXO3, perhaps by activating Notch signaling, promotes the quiescent state during SC self-renewal in adult muscle regeneration.

  8. Effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning process on emotional intelligence among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Yimklib, Somkid; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Apinanthavech, Suporn

    2009-12-01

    To study the effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning program on emotional intelligence among early adolescents. The quasi-experimental study was conducted in grade 9 students from two schools in Bangbuathong district, Nonthaburi province. Each experimental and comparative group consisted of 34 students with the lowest score of emotional intelligence. The instruments were questionnaires, Program to Develop Emotional Intelligence and Handbook of Emotional Intelligence Development. The experimental group attended 8 participatory learning activities in 4 weeks to Develop Emotional Intelligence while the comparative group received the handbook for self study. Assessment the effectiveness of program was done by pre-test and post-test immediately and 4 weeks apart concerning the emotional intelligence. Implementation and evaluation was done during May 24-August 12, 2005. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square, independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Before program implementation, both groups had no statistical difference in mean score of emotional intelligence. After intervention, the experimental group had higher mean score of emotional intelligence both immediately and 4 weeks later with statistical significant (p = 0.001 and emotional intelligence in early-adolescent. This program could be modified and implemented for early adolescent in the community.

  9. Promoting inter-/intra- cellular process of nanomedicine through its physicochemical properties optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Wang, Jie; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Fulei; Dong, Xia; Dai, Jianxin; Jiang, Lingong; Tang, Yin; Zhang, Huojun; Li, Wei

    2017-12-21

    Nanomedicine, which is defined as application of nanoparticles in medicine, has offered new hopes for overcoming the drawbacks appeared in traditional chemotherapy. The size of nanomedicine normally in the range from 1 to 200 nm endows its potential applications in cancer therapy. But in clinics, there is still a gap between the in vitro physicochemical properties and the cellular level performance. The physicochemical properties include size, shape, surface chemistry, surface topology, and surface properties strongly affect nanomedicine inter-/intra-cellular efficiency. Herein, this article reviews effects of physicochemical properties of nanomedicine on the cellular endocytosis and intracellular route. On the one hand, not as that of the traditional small molecular agents, the cellular endocytosis pathway and efficiency of nanomedicine is related to its size, structure and surface properties. On the other hand, the intracellular conditions also affects the intracellular route of nanomedicine. Both the properties of nanomedicine and the intracellular conditions are systemically discussed. We further give an explanation why finely engineered nanocarriers can also provide practical solution to the problems appeared in cellular level for promoting traditional cancer therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Psychological Processes Promoting the Relation Between Exposure to Media Violence and Aggressive Behavior by the Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the effect of media violence on individual differences in aggression is primarily the result of a cumulative learning process during childhood. Presents a developmental theory holding that a child's repeated viewing of media violence, in combination with other factors, can culminate in aggressive behavior patterns (including…

  11. Embedded Formative Assessment and Classroom Process Quality: How Do They Interact in Promoting Science Understanding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, A. Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment--a well-known teaching practice--and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of…

  12. Process for the manufacture of a fermented health-promoting product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Koops, B.C.; Laere, van K.M.J.; Wissing, E.; Hagemann, R.J.J.; Meulen, van der J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process that yields a product that can suitably be used in the treatment and prevention of diarrhea without giving rise to any undesirable side-effects. The invention is based on the discovery that aqueous fractions obtained from the fermentation of certain plant

  13. An exploration of decision aid effectiveness: the impact of promoting affective vs. deliberative processing on a health-related decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esther L; McCaffery, Kirsten; Mullan, Barbara; Juraskova, Ilona

    2015-12-01

    Decision aids (DAs) are non-directive communication tools that help patients make value-consistent health-care decisions. However, most DAs have been developed without an explicit theoretical framework, resulting in a lack of understanding of how DAs achieve outcomes. To investigate the effect of promoting affective vs. deliberative processing on DA effectiveness based on dual-process theory. One hundred and forty-eight female university students participated in a randomized controlled experiment with three conditions: emotion-focused, information-focused and control. Preference-value consistency, knowledge, decisional conflict and satisfaction were compared across the conditions using planned contrast analyses. The intervention comprised two different DAs and instructional manipulations. The emotion-focused condition received a modified DA with affective content and instructions to induce an affective reaction. The information-focused and control conditions received the same DA without the affective content. The information-focused condition received additional instructions to induce deliberative processing. Controlling for the experiment-wise error rate at P affective processing may hinder value-consistent decision making, while deliberative processing may enhance decisional satisfaction. This investigation of the effect of affective and deliberative processes in DA-supported decision making has implications for the design and use of DAs. DA effectiveness may be enhanced by incorporating a simple instruction to focus on the details of the information. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Analysis of world terror networks from the reduced Google matrix of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zant, Samer; Frahm, Klaus M.; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2018-01-01

    We apply the reduced Google matrix method to analyze interactions between 95 terrorist groups and determine their relationships and influence on 64 world countries. This is done on the basis of the Google matrix of the English Wikipedia (2017) composed of 5 416 537 articles which accumulate a great part of global human knowledge. The reduced Google matrix takes into account the direct and hidden links between a selection of 159 nodes (articles) appearing due to all paths of a random surfer moving over the whole network. As a result we obtain the network structure of terrorist groups and their relations with selected countries including hidden indirect links. Using the sensitivity of PageRank to a weight variation of specific links we determine the geopolitical sensitivity and influence of specific terrorist groups on world countries. The world maps of the sensitivity of various countries to influence of specific terrorist groups are obtained. We argue that this approach can find useful application for more extensive and detailed data bases analysis.

  15. Sucrose promotes axillary bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida and plays a signal role during this process

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier, François; Bertheloot, Jessica; Peron, Thomas; Perez-Garcia, Maria Dolores; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2013-01-01

    Shoot branching is a developmental process by which axillary buds are released from dormancy and develop into new axes. Bud outgrowth is largely affected by a number of environmental factors such as temperature, air and soil humidity, gravitropism and light, confering thus plasticity to the plant development. Control of bud outgrowth is thereby a key mechanism in the establishment of plant architecture in response to environment. Sugars, whose levels in plant are also highly dependent on the ...

  16. Digital Storytelling as a Narrative Health Promotion Process: Evaluation of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFulvio, Gloria T; Gubrium, Aline C; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Lowe, Sarah E; Del Toro-Mejias, Lizbeth Marie

    2016-04-01

    Digital storytelling (DST) engages participants in a group-based process to create and share narrative accounts of life events. The process of individuals telling their own stories has not been well assessed as a mechanism of health behavior change. This study looks at outcomes associated with engaging in the DST process for vulnerable youth. The project focused on the experiences of Puerto Rican Latinas between the ages of 15 to 21. A total of 30 participants enrolled in a 4-day DST workshops, with 29 completing a 1 to 3-minute digital story. Self-reported data on several scales (self-esteem, social support, empowerment, and sexual attitudes and behaviors) were collected and analyzed. Participants showed an increase in positive social interactions from baseline to 3-month post workshop. Participants also demonstrated increases in optimism and control over the future immediately after the workshop, but this change was not sustained at 3 months. Analysis of qualitative results and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Stimulating utilities to promote energy efficiency: Process evaluation of Madison Gas and Electric's Competition Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E.; De Buen, O.; Goldfman, C.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the process evaluation of the design and implementation of the Energy Conservation Competition Pilot (hereafter referred to as the Competition), ordered by the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (PSCW) with a conceptual framework defined by PSCW staff for the Madison Gas and Electric (MGE) Company. This process evaluation documents the history of the Competition, describing the marketing strategies adopted by MGE and its competitors, customer service and satisfaction, administrative issues, the distribution of installed measures, free riders, and the impact of the Competition on MGE, its competitors, and other Wisconsin utilities. We also suggest recommendations for a future Competition, compare the Competition with other approaches that public utility commissions (PUCs) have used to motivate utilities to promote energy efficiency, and discuss its transferability to other utilities. 48 refs., 8 figs., 40 tabs.

  18. The Significance of Degenerate Processes to Enantioselective Olefin Metathesis Reactions Promoted by Stereogenic-at-Mo Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Simon J.; Malcolmson, Steven J.; Li, Bo; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides spectroscopic and experimental evidence demonstrating that degenerate metathesis is critical to the effectiveness of this emerging class of chiral catalysts. Isolation and characterization (X-ray) of both diastereomeric complexes, as well as examination of the reactivity and enantioselectivity patterns exhibited by such initiating neophylidenes in promoting RCM processes, are disclosed. Only when sufficient amounts of ethylene are generated and inversion at Mo through degenerate processes occurs at a sufficiently rapid rate, is high enantioselectivity achieved, irrespective of the stereochemical identity of the initiating alkylidene (Curtin-Hammett kinetics). With diastereomeric metal complexes that undergo rapid interconversion, stereomutation at the metal center becomes inconsequential and stereoselective synthesis of a chiral catalyst is not required. PMID:19842640

  19. Caffeine promotes global spatial processing in habitual and non-habitual caffeine consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E. Giles

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information processing is generally biased toward global cues, often at the expense of local information. Equivocal extant data suggests that arousal states may accentuate either a local or global processing bias, at least partially dependent on the nature of the manipulation, task and stimuli. To further differentiate the conditions responsible for such equivocal results we varied caffeine doses to alter physiological arousal states and measured their effect on tasks requiring the retrieval of local versus global spatial knowledge. In a double-blind, repeated-measures design, non-habitual (Exp. 1; N=36, M=42.5±29 mg/day caffeine and habitual (Exp. 2; N=34, M=579.5±311.5 mg/day caffeine caffeine consumers completed four test sessions corresponding to each of four caffeine doses (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg. During each test session, participants consumed a capsule containing one of the three doses of caffeine or placebo, waited sixty minutes, and then completed two spatial tasks, one involving memorizing maps and one spatial descriptions. A spatial statement verification task tested local versus global spatial knowledge by differentially probing memory for proximal versus distal landmark relationships. On the map learning task, results indicated that caffeine enhanced memory for distal (i.e. global compared to proximal (i.e. local comparisons at 100 (marginal, 200, and 400 mg caffeine in non-habitual consumers, and marginally beginning at 200 mg caffeine in habitual consumers. On the spatial descriptions task, caffeine enhanced memory for distal compared to proximal comparisons beginning at 100 mg in non-habitual but not habitual consumers. We thus provide evidence that caffeine-induced physiological arousal amplifies global spatial processing biases, and these effects are at least partially driven by habitual caffeine consumption.

  20. Impaired Albumin Uptake and Processing Promote Albuminuria in OVE26 Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Y S; Zheng, S; Kralik, P M; Benz, F W; Epstein, P N

    2016-01-01

    The importance of proximal tubules dysfunction to diabetic albuminuria is uncertain. OVE26 mice have the most severe albuminuria of all diabetic mouse models but it is not known if impaired tubule uptake and processing are contributing factors. In the current study fluorescent albumin was used to follow the fate of albumin in OVE26 and normal mice. Compared to normal urine, OVE26 urine contained at least 23 times more intact fluorescent albumin but only 3-fold more 70 kD fluorescent dextran. This indicated that a function other than size selective glomerular sieving contributed to OVE26 albuminuria. Imaging of albumin was similar in normal and diabetic tubules for 3 hrs after injection. However 3 days after injection a subset of OVE26 tubules retained strong albumin fluorescence, which was never observed in normal mice. OVE26 tubules with prolonged retention of injected albumin lost the capacity to take up albumin and there was a significant correlation between tubules unable to eliminate fluorescent albumin and total albuminuria. TUNEL staining revealed a 76-fold increase in cell death in OVE26 tubules that retained fluorescent albumin. These results indicate that failure to process and dispose of internalized albumin leads to impaired albumin uptake, increased albuminuria, and tubule cell apoptosis.

  1. Exploring how the tobacco industry presents and promotes itself in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-21

    The commercial potential of social media is utilized by tobacco manufacturers and vendors for tobacco promotion online. However, the prevalence and promotional strategies of pro-tobacco content in social media are still not widely understood. The goal of this study was to reveal what is presented by the tobacco industry, and how it promotes itself, on social media sites. The top 70 popular cigarette brands are divided into two groups according to their retail prices: group H (brands with high retail prices) and group L (brands with low retail prices). Three comprehensive searches were conducted on Facebook, Wikipedia, and YouTube respectively using the top 70 popular cigarette brands as keywords. We identified tobacco-related content including history and culture, product features, health warnings, home page of cigarette brands, and Web-based tobacco shops. Furthermore, we examined the promotional strategies utilized in social media. According to the data collected from March 3, 2014 to March 10, 2014, 43 of the 70 representative cigarette brands had created 238 Facebook fan pages, 46 cigarette brands were identified in Wikipedia, and there were over 120,000 pro-tobacco videos on YouTube, associated with 61 cigarette brands. The main content presented on the three social media websites differs significantly. Wikipedia focuses on history and culture (67%, 32/48; Psales promotions exist extensively in social media. Sales promotion is more prevalent on YouTube than on the other two sites (64%, 39/61 vs 35%, 15/43; P=.004). Generally, the sale promotions of higher-cost brands in social media are more prevalent than those of lower-cost brands (55%, 16/29 vs 7%, 1/14; Psocial media allows more pro-tobacco information to be accessed by online users. This dilemma indicates that corresponding regulations should be established to prevent tobacco promotion in social media.

  2. Modelling of cyclopentane promoted gas hydrate systems for carbon dioxide capture processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    A thermodynamic model based on the Cubic-Plus-Association equation of state and the van der Waals-Platteeuw hydrate model is applied to perform a thermodynamic evaluation of gas hydrate forming systems relevant for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.A modelling study of both fluid phase...... behaviour and hydrate phase behaviour is presented. Cycloalkanes ranging from cyclopropane to cyclohexane, represents a challenge for CPA, both in the description of the pure component densities and for liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) in the binary systems with water. It is concluded that an insufficient...... amount of reliable LLE data exist for the binary system of water and cyclopentane. Additional water-in-oil data in particular are desired for this system.An unpromoted hydrate-based capture process, operating isothermally at a temperature of 280. K is simulated. The minimum pressure requirement...

  3. Inward Processing Regime Promotion System in Vegetable Oil Industry: A Case Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Duru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine applicability of the Inward Processing Regime (IPR in enterprises which are vegetable oil producers and exporters. The data was obtained from 26 vegetable oil producer and exporter enterprises by using survey method. Frequency tables, indices, and percentage calculating were used to analyse Data. Also, SWOT analysis was used to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the sector, and relationship among some variables were examined with correlation coefficient. According to research findings, 25 of the enterprises (96% utilised the IPR. Since the enterprises started to use that system; availability of cheap raw material, rate of capacity utilisation, market share, and export value all have increased. In addition, raw material was found as an important expense item, and the most important problems were qualified as raw material inadequacy and high input prices.

  4. Development, Implementation, and Use of a Process to Promote Knowledge Translation in Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer L; Carpenter, Julia; Doyle, Anne Marie; Doyle, Laura; Hansen, Piper; Hahn, Bridget; Hornby, T George; Roth, Heidi R; Spoeri, Susan; Tappan, Rachel; Van Der Laan, Krista

    2018-01-01

    To examine the use and effect of the Battery of Rehabilitation Assessments and Interventions on evidence-based practice (EBP) over 6 years. Successive independent samples study. Large rehabilitation system. Successive samples of allied health clinicians (N=372) in 2009 (n=136), 2012 (n=115), and 2015 (n=121). The Battery of Rehabilitation Assessments and Interventions includes 2 components: (1) a process to synthesize, adapt, and make recommendations about the application of evidence; and (2) a process to implement the recommended practices in 3 levels of care. To assess the effect of the project, surveys on EBP perspectives, use, and barriers were conducted before Battery of Rehabilitation Assessments and Interventions implementation and 3 and 6 years after implementation. Questions about effect of the project on clinical practice were included 3 and 6 years postimplementation. Survey data indicate the Battery of Rehabilitation Assessments and Interventions resulted in a significant increase in use of EBPs to make clinical decisions and justify care. As a result of the project, survey participants reported a substantial increase in use of outcome measures in 2012 (74%) and 2015 (91%) and evidence-based interventions in 2012 (62%) and 2015 (82%). In 2012, significant differences (P≤.01) in effect of the Battery of Rehabilitation Assessments and Interventions on practice were identified between therapists who were directly involved in the project and Interventions compared with uninvolved therapists. In 2015, no significant differences existed between involved and uninvolved therapists. After 6 years of sustained implementation efforts, the Battery of Rehabilitation Assessments and Interventions expedited the adoption of EBPs throughout a large system of care in rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring How the Tobacco Industry Presents and Promotes Itself in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yunji; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xingshe; Leischow, Scott James; Chung, Wingyan

    2015-01-01

    Background The commercial potential of social media is utilized by tobacco manufacturers and vendors for tobacco promotion online. However, the prevalence and promotional strategies of pro-tobacco content in social media are still not widely understood. Objective The goal of this study was to reveal what is presented by the tobacco industry, and how it promotes itself, on social media sites. Methods The top 70 popular cigarette brands are divided into two groups according to their retail prices: group H (brands with high retail prices) and group L (brands with low retail prices). Three comprehensive searches were conducted on Facebook, Wikipedia, and YouTube respectively using the top 70 popular cigarette brands as keywords. We identified tobacco-related content including history and culture, product features, health warnings, home page of cigarette brands, and Web-based tobacco shops. Furthermore, we examined the promotional strategies utilized in social media. Results According to the data collected from March 3, 2014 to March 10, 2014, 43 of the 70 representative cigarette brands had created 238 Facebook fan pages, 46 cigarette brands were identified in Wikipedia, and there were over 120,000 pro-tobacco videos on YouTube, associated with 61 cigarette brands. The main content presented on the three social media websites differs significantly. Wikipedia focuses on history and culture (67%, 32/48; Psocial media. Sales promotion is more prevalent on YouTube than on the other two sites (64%, 39/61 vs 35%, 15/43; P=.004). Generally, the sale promotions of higher-cost brands in social media are more prevalent than those of lower-cost brands (55%, 16/29 vs 7%, 1/14; Psocial media allows more pro-tobacco information to be accessed by online users. This dilemma indicates that corresponding regulations should be established to prevent tobacco promotion in social media. PMID:25608524

  6. Interleukin-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the osteoclastogenic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Huixian [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Shi, Zhenqi [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Qiao, Ping [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Norman Bethune Medical College, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); McCoy, Erin M. [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Mao, Ping [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China); Xu, Hui [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Feng, Xu [Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Wang, Shunqing, E-mail: shqwang_cn@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510180 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generates a population of hematopoietic cells. •IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. •Osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are functional. •IL-3 promotes the development of osteoclast progenitors. •IL-3 inhibits the osteoclastogenic process. -- Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-3, a multilineage hematopoietic growth factor, is implicated in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. However, the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis remains controversial; whereas early studies showed that IL-3 stimulates osteoclastogenesis, recent investigations demonstrated that IL-3 inhibits osteoclast formation. The objective of this work is to further address the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis. We found that IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generated a population of cells capable of differentiating into osteoclasts in tissue culture dishes in response to the stimulation of the monocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). The IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were able to further proliferate and differentiate in response to M-CSF stimulation and the resulting cells were also capable of forming osteoclasts with M-CSF and RANKL treatment. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits M-CSF-/RANKL-induced differentiation of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells into osteoclasts. The flow cytometry analysis indicates that while IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells slightly affected the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the surviving populations, it considerably increased the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the populations after subsequent M-CSF treatment. Moreover, osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were fully functional. Thus, we conclude that IL-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the

  7. Loss of promoter IV-driven BDNF expression impacts oscillatory activity during sleep, sensory information processing and fear regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J L; Hardy, N F; Jimenez, D V; Maynard, K R; Kardian, A S; Pollock, C J; Schloesser, R J; Martinowich, K

    2016-08-23

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is characterized by hyperarousal, sensory processing impairments, sleep disturbances and altered fear regulation; phenotypes associated with changes in brain oscillatory activity. Molecules associated with activity-dependent plasticity, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), may regulate neural oscillations by controlling synaptic activity. BDNF synthesis includes production of multiple Bdnf transcripts, which contain distinct 5' noncoding exons. We assessed arousal, sensory processing, fear regulation and sleep in animals where BDNF expression from activity-dependent promoter IV is disrupted (Bdnf-e4 mice). Bdnf-e4 mice display sensory hyper-reactivity and impaired electrophysiological correlates of sensory information processing as measured by event-related potentials (ERP). Utilizing electroencephalogram, we identified a decrease in slow-wave activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep, suggesting impaired sleep homeostasis. Fear extinction is controlled by hippocampal-prefrontal cortical BDNF signaling, and neurophysiological communication patterns between the hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) correlate with behavioral performance during extinction. Impaired fear extinction in Bdnf-e4 mice is accompanied by increased HPC activation and decreased HPC-mPFC theta phase synchrony during early extinction, as well as increased mPFC activation during extinction recall. These results suggest that activity-dependent BDNF signaling is critical for regulating oscillatory activity, which may contribute to altered behavior.

  8. Using writing as a vehicle to promote and develop scientific concepts and process skills in fourth-grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disimoni, Katherine Cecilia

    The development of conceptual knowledge, particularly at the elementary level, is one area in which researchers and educators have noted remarkable deficiencies. The purpose of this descriptive study was to observe the impact of the use of writing as a thinking tool on the promotion and development of scientific concepts and science process skills in elementary students in the discipline of science. Reports from some of the publications for science research and educational progress cited the direct links of writing effectiveness to the development of skills in critical thinking. The study consisted of 12 fourth-grade students in the control group and their 12 fourth-grade counterparts in the experimental group. The treatment for the study was the use of learning logs by the experimental group to record their written responses to predesigned prompts related to hands-on science experiences during the intervention period. Their counterparts did no writing. Statistical measures used were Student's t tests to determine if significance was present. A pretest and posttest were given that involved written responses to the same prompt. Three judges used a specially designed rubric to evaluate and score the writing. Significant differences were found when the scores of the experimental group were analyzed between pretest and posttest. Also, a standardized test to assess basic process skills was administered prior to and after the intervention. There were no statistical differences found in either group to demonstrate that writing effected the development of process skills. The researcher determined that perhaps writing is not the best way to promote process skills. Rather, engaging in science is the best way. These skills are built separately but used in tandem, particularly when learning about science and mathematics. The implications of this study impact upon several areas of education which make up paradigms leading to good practice based on sound theory. These components

  9. Guide to a Student-Family-School-Community Partnership: Using a Student & Data Driven Process to Improve School Environments & Promote Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoa, Carol; Izu, Jo Ann

    2010-01-01

    This guide presents a data-driven, research-based process--referred to as the "school-community forum process"--for increasing youth voice, promoting resilience, strengthening adult-youth connections, and ultimately, for improving schools. It uses a "student listening circle"--a special type of focus group involving eight to…

  10. Promoting health workers' ownership of infection prevention and control: using Normalization Process Theory as an interpretive framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, D J; Hale, R; Waters, E; Allen, D

    2016-12-01

    All health workers should take responsibility for infection prevention and control (IPC). Recent reduction in key reported healthcare-associated infections in the UK is impressive, but the determinants of success are unknown. It is imperative to understand how IPC strategies operate as new challenges arise and threats of antimicrobial resistance increase. The authors undertook a retrospective, independent evaluation of an action plan to enhance IPC and 'ownership' (individual accountability) for IPC introduced throughout a healthcare organization. Twenty purposively selected informants were interviewed. Data were analysed inductively. Normalization Process Theory (NPT) was applied to interpret the findings and explain how the action plan was operating. Six themes emerged through inductive analysis. Theme 1: 'Ability to make sense of ownership' provided evidence of the first element of NPT (coherence). Regardless of occupational group or seniority, informants understood the importance of IPC ownership and described what it entailed. They identified three prerequisites: 'Always being vigilant' (Theme 2), 'Importance of access to information' (Theme 3) and 'Being able to learn together in a no-blame culture' (Theme 4). Data relating to each theme provided evidence of the other elements of NPT that are required to embed change: planning implementation (cognitive participation), undertaking the work necessary to achieve change (collective action), and reflection on what else is needed to promote change as part of continuous quality improvement (reflexive monitoring). Informants identified barriers (e.g. workload) and facilitators (clear lines of communication and expectations for IPC). Eighteen months after implementing the action plan incorporating IPC ownership, there was evidence of continuous service improvement and significant reduction in infection rates. Applying a theory that identifies factors that promote/inhibit routine incorporation ('normalization') of IPC

  11. Scanning and Deep Processing of Information in Hypertext: An Eye Tracking and Cued Retrospective Think-Aloud Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, L.; Naumann, J.; García, V.; Fajardo, I.

    2017-01-01

    When students solve problems on the Internet, they have to find a balance between quickly scanning large sections of information in web pages and deeply processing those that are relevant for the task. We studied how high school students articulate scanning and deeper processing of information while answering questions using a Wikipedia document,…

  12. Inducing a health-promoting change process within an organization: the effectiveness of a large-scale intervention on social capital, openness, and autonomous motivation toward health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Scheppingen, Arjella R; de Vroome, Ernest M M; Ten Have, Kristin C J M; Bos, Ellen H; Zwetsloot, Gerard I J M; van Mechelen, W

    2014-11-01

    To examine the effectiveness of an organizational large-scale intervention applied to induce a health-promoting organizational change process. A quasi-experimental, "as-treated" design was used. Regression analyses on data of employees of a Dutch dairy company (n = 324) were used to examine the effects on bonding social capital, openness, and autonomous motivation toward health and on employees' lifestyle, health, vitality, and sustainable employability. Also, the sensitivity of the intervention components was examined. Intervention effects were found for bonding social capital, openness toward health, smoking, healthy eating, and sustainable employability. The effects were primarily attributable to the intervention's dialogue component. The change process initiated by the large-scale intervention contributed to a social climate in the workplace that promoted health and ownership toward health. The study confirms the relevance of collective change processes for health promotion.

  13. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Jenkins, Marion W; Clasen, Thomas; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2017-05-16

    Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA - "Clean India Campaign"), the successor of India's Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. NBA's community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme's theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80) and focus group discussions (n = 26) with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government's cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50 villages, a marginal increase of 7 percentage points over baseline. In

  14. Processes and challenges of community mobilisation for latrine promotion under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in rural Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimita Routray

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite efforts to eradicate it, open defecation remains widely practiced in India, especially in rural areas. Between 2013 and 2014, 50 villages in one district of Odisha, India, received a sanitation programme under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA – “Clean India Campaign”, the successor of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign. This paper documents the strategies and processes of NBA community mobilisation for latrine promotion in these villages and assesses the strengths and limitations of the mobilisation activities. Methods NBA’s community mobilisation activities were observed and assessed against the programme’s theory of change in 10 randomly selected programme villages from start to finish. Additional data was collected through review of documents, individual interviews (n = 80 and focus group discussions (n = 26 with staff of the implementing NGOs and community members. Results Our study revealed the lack of a consistent implementation strategy, lack of capacities and facilitation skills of NGO staff to implement sanitation programmes, political interference, challenges in accessing government financial incentives for latrine construction, and lack of clarity on the roles and responsibilities among government and NGO staff, leading to failure in translating government policies into sustainable actions. Social divisions and village dynamics related to gender and caste further constrained the effectiveness of mobilisation activities. Meetings were often dominated by male members of upper caste households, and excluded low caste community members and views of women. Community discussions revolved largely around the government’s cash incentive for latrines. Activities aimed at creating demand for sanitation and use of latrines often resonated poorly with community members. An assessment by the implementers, 1 year after community mobilisation found 19% of households had a completed latrine across the 50

  15. Health promotion viewed as processes of subjectification in the education of Danish social and health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    2011-01-01

    problems of both a social and moral character. It is shown how health promotion has a thorough impact on the students’ possibilities of coming into being as (professional) subjects. The article points to the conclusion that in this particular educational setting, health promotion constitutes......This article explores how health promotion is practiced within a specific educational setting: the Danish Social and Health Education Programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a strategy aimed at citizens - not at the students themselves. However, the students are generally...... perceived as being incapable of taking care of their own health and therefore also as being too far from the role model figure inherent in the discourse of professional health promotion work. Practices targeting students’ physical health are induced both in- and outside the curriculum. Based on empirical...

  16. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar non nitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar non oxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make non promoting processed meat. PMID:20530708

  17. Comparison of the Impact of Wikipedia, UpToDate, and a Digital Textbook on Short-Term Knowledge Acquisition Among Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial of Three Web-Based Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Scaffidi, Michael A.; Khan, Rishad; Wang, Christopher; Keren, Daniela; Tsui, Cindy; Garg, Ankit; Brar, Simarjeet; Valoo, Kamesha; Bonert, Michael; de Wolff, Jacob F; Heilman, James M.; Samir C Grover

    2017-01-01

    Background Web-based resources are commonly used by medical students to supplement curricular material. Three commonly used resources are UpToDate (Wolters Kluwer Inc), digital textbooks, and Wikipedia; there are concerns, however, regarding Wikipedia’s reliability and accuracy. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Wikipedia use on medical students’ short-term knowledge acquisition compared with UpToDate and a digital textbook. Methods This was a prospective, nonblind...

  18. BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: Quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-12-01

    Digital currencies have emerged as a new fascinating phenomenon in the financial markets. Recent events on the most popular of the digital currencies - BitCoin - have risen crucial questions about behavior of its exchange rates and they offer a field to study dynamics of the market which consists practically only of speculative traders with no fundamentalists as there is no fundamental value to the currency. In the paper, we connect two phenomena of the latest years - digital currencies, namely BitCoin, and search queries on Google Trends and Wikipedia - and study their relationship. We show that not only are the search queries and the prices connected but there also exists a pronounced asymmetry between the effect of an increased interest in the currency while being above or below its trend value.

  19. Enhanced GSH synthesis by Bisphenol A exposure promoted DNA methylation process in the testes of adult rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cong; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-09-01

    DNA methylation is a commonly studied epigenetic modification. The mechanism of BPA on DNA methylation is poorly understood. The present study aims to explore whether GSH synthesis affects DNA methylation in the testes of adult male rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus in response to Bisphenol A (BPA). Male G. rarus was exposed to 1, 15 and 225μgL(-1) BPA for 7 days. The levels of global DNA methylation, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glutathione (GSH) in the testes were analyzed. Meanwhile, the levels of enzymes involved in DNA methylation and de novo GSH synthesis, and the substrate contents for GSH production were measured. Furthermore, gene expression profiles of the corresponding genes of all studied enzymes were analyzed. Results indicated that BPA at 15 and 225μgL(-1) caused hypermethylation of global DNA in the testes. The 15μgL(-1) BPA resulted in significant decrease of ten-eleven translocation proteins (TETs) while 225μgL(-1) BPA caused significant increase of DNA methyltransferase proteins (DNMTs). Moreover, 225μgL(-1) BPA caused significant increase of H2O2 and GSH levels, and the de novo GSH synthesis was enhanced. These results indicated that the significant decrease of the level of TETs may be sufficient to cause the DNA hypermethylation by 15μgL(-1) BPA. However, the significantly increased of DNMTs contributed to the significant increase of DNA methylation levels by 225μgL(-1) BPA. Moreover, the elevated de novo GSH synthesis may promote the DNA methylation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sinatra, He3nry und andere moderne Enzyklopädisten. Synchron und diachron vergleichende Anmerkungen zur Eigen- und Fremdbenennung von Wikipedia-Autoren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzega, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the formation of authors' pseudonyms in the English, German, French, Italian and Spanish versions of the Internet encyclopedia Wikipedia. 694 semi-randomly collected Wikipedia usernames ("nicknames" are checked against traditional classifications of pseudonyms and compared to a semi-randomly collected corpus of 607 pseudonyms of English, German, French, Italian and Spanish writers of the 18th and 19th centuries (who published, at least in part, non-fictional works. The main results of the diachronic comparison are the following: (1 Qualitatively, typical modern phenomena are the replacement of letters by similar-looking special characters (called leetspeak, e. g. Serg!o for Sergio, the use of abstract nouns, the use of non-standard forms, deacronymization (e. g. when a Spanish Wikipedian's initials FG become Efegé, and the formation of nicknames from Wikipedia pseudonyms on users' discussion pages ("nick-nicknames". (2 Qualitatively, typical historical phenomena are the use of symbols not easily representable on modern (Latin keyboards (e. g. musical notes and Greek letters. (3 Quantitatively, there is a clear decrease in the use of Latin elements in pseudonyms. A cross-linguistic comparison of Wikipedia nicknames leads to the following characteristic features of the different Wikipedia communities: (a English Wikipedia nicknames show the highest amount of non-onymic elements and numbers and the lowest amount of nicknames with foreign elements. (b French-speaking Wikipedians use the lowest amount of numbers in their nicknames and are the least informative as regards telling the motivation behind their usernames. (c Italian-speaking Wikipedians are the most open to tell about the motivation behind their usernames, use relatively few non-onymic elements in their nicknames, but are very productive as to forming nicknicknames. (d Spanish-speaking Wikipedians use relatively few appellative lexemes, are the most reserved as to

  1. What can Google and Wikipedia can tell us about a disease? Big Data trends analysis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Savino; Radin, Massimo

    2017-11-01

    To investigate trends of Internet search volumes linked to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), on-going clinical trials and research developments associated to the disease, using Big Data monitoring and data mining. We performed a longitudinal analysis based on the large amount of data generated by Google Trends, scientific search tools (SCOPUS, Medline/Pubmed/ClinicalTrails.gov) considering 'SLE', and 'lupus' in a 5-year web-based research. Wikipedia page views were also analysed using WikiTrends and the results were compared with the search volumes generated by Google Trends. We observed an overall higher distribution of search volumes from Google Trends in United States, South America, Canada, South Africa, Australia and Europe (mainly Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, France, Germany), showing a geographically heterogeneity in insight into health-related behaviour of the different populations towards SLE. By comparing the search volumes analysing the Wikipedia page views of both SLE and belimumab, we found a close peak trend, reflecting the knowledge translation after the approval of belimumab for the treatment of SLE. When focusing on search volumes of Google Trends, we noticed that the highest peaks were related to news headlines that involved celebrities affected by SLE, also when comparing to the peak generated by the approval of belimumab. This new approach, able to investigate health information seeking, might give an estimate of the health-related demand and even of the health-related behaviour of SLE, bringing new light to unanswered questions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inducing a health-promoting change process within an organization the Effectiveness of a Large-Scale Intervention on Social Capital, Openness, and Autonomous Motivation Toward Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheppingen, A.R. van; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Have, K.C.J.M. ten; Bos, E.H.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effectiveness of an organizational large-scale intervention applied to induce a health-promoting organizational change process. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental, "as-treated" design was used. Regression analyses on data of employees of a Dutch dairy company (n =324)

  3. Using Process Data to Understand Outcomes in Sexual Health Promotion: An Example from a Review of School-Based Programmes to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Barnett-Page, E.; Kavanagh, J.; Picot, J.; Frampton, G. K.; Cooper, K.; Hartwell, D.; Clegg, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how process indicators can complement outcomes as part of a comprehensive explanatory evaluation framework, using the example of skills-based behavioural interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections and promote sexual health among young people in schools. A systematic review was conducted, yielding 12 eligible…

  4. A mixed methods process evaluation of the implementation of JUMP-in, a multilevel school-based intervention aimed at physical activity promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meij, J.; van der Wal, M.F.; van Mechelen, W.; Chinapaw, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors influencing the adoption, implementation, and institutionalization process of JUMP-in-a multilevel school-based physical activity promotion program-to optimize the dissemination of the intervention and improve its effectiveness. The

  5. Effective use of Social Media/Networks Tools for Marketing of Library and Information Products and Services: Facebook, Twitter and Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Navik, Viral; Amin, Jignesh

    2011-01-01

    Now, Social media is a part of our life cycle and has become a very effective tool for communication and marketing. The authors try to explore how librarians and information professionals use these social media/networks for marketing library services and information products. Facebook, Twitter and Wikipedia are very popular social media among all and they can reach out to remote students and build long term relationship that are beneficial to both students and librarians. This paper also expl...

  6. Wikipedia en la Universidad: cambios en la percepción de valor con la creación de contenidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wikipedia es un recurso muy utilizado por estudiantes universitarios, pero no está necesariamente bien valorado en términos de fiabilidad, ni tampoco es visto como un entorno en el que hacer aportaciones de contenido. Este artículo presenta un proyecto de docencia e investigación que consiste en proponer que los estudiantes editen o creen artículos para la Wikipedia, y en comprobar si la experiencia modifica su valoración de la misma. Se realizó la experiencia en la Universidad Pompeu Fabra (España y la Universidad de Niš (Serbia con un total de 240 alumnos. Editaron artículos y respondieron dos cuestionarios, uno antes y otro después de la experiencia. Se compararon las respuestas mediante una serie de pruebas T para muestras emparejadas, a partir de las cuales pudimos comprobar que los datos mostraban un cambio significativo en su percepción sobre la fiabilidad y la utilidad de la Wikipedia y sobre la probabilidad de encontrar información falsa en ella. También cambió su apreciación de la tarea de editar artículos, que se valoró como interesante y representó un reto. En cambio, su valoración del prestigio social de la Wikipedia, tanto en el contexto universitario como el general, no varió significativamente. Adicionalmente, las preguntas abiertas y el feedback informal permitieron recoger informaciones muy valiosas respecto a la valoración del conjunto de la experiencia

  7. Growth phase-dependent regulation and stringent control of fis are conserved processes in enteric bacteria and involve a single promoter (fis P) in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Prabhat; Pratt, Timothy S; Beach, Michael B; Bradley, Meranda D; Undamatla, Jayanthi; Osuna, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The intracellular concentration of the Escherichia coli factor for inversion stimulation (Fis), a global regulator of transcription and a facilitator of certain site-specific DNA recombination events, varies substantially in response to changes in the nutritional environment and growth phase. Under conditions of nutritional upshift, fis is transiently expressed at very high levels, whereas under induced starvation conditions, fis is repressed by stringent control. We show that both of these regulatory processes operate on the chromosomal fis genes of the enterobacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Proteus vulgaris, strongly suggesting that the physiological role of Fis is closely tied to its transcriptional regulation in response to the nutritional environment. These transcriptional regulatory processes were previously shown to involve a single promoter (fis P) preceding the fis operon in E. coli. Recent work challenged this notion by presenting evidence from primer extension assays which appeared to indicate that there are multiple promoters upstream of fis P that contribute significantly to the expression and regulation of fis in E. coli. Thus, a rigorous analysis of the fis promoter region was conducted to assess the contribution of such additional promoters. However, our data from primer extension analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, beta-galactosidase assays, and in vitro transcription analysis all indicate that fis P is the sole E. coli fis promoter in vivo and in vitro. We further show how certain conditions used in the primer extension reactions can generate artifacts resulting from secondary annealing events that are the likely source of incorrect assignment of additional fis promoters.

  8. Social processes promoting the adaptive capacity of rangeland managers to achieve resilience in the Karoo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carien de Villiers, Ancois; Esler, Karen J; Knight, Andrew T

    2014-12-15

    There is a recognized need to find working examples of structures that transfer the abstract concept of resilience to practical action for land management. Holistic Management™ is a decision-making framework promoting an adaptive land management across semi-arid and arid rangelands. We determined if Holistic Management™ promoted adaptive capacity among land managers in comparison to conventional management approaches within the context of the Karoo rangeland, South Africa. An Adaptive Capacity Index was developed which quantified the extent to which practices of land managers were aligned with six key traits of adaptive capacity. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 20 self-defined Holistic Management™ land managers and 20 self-defined non-Holistic Management™ land managers. Social capital amongst land managers was explored using a social network analysis. Holistic Management™ land managers demonstrated higher adaptive capacity and greater participation in study groups. Holistic Management™ therefore appears to be a working example of a land management framework that promotes adaptive capacity of land managers in semi-arid to arid rangelands. Holistic Management™ may connect individual decision-makers to collective decision-making through social learning networks in the form of study groups. These study groups are thought to promote learning and innovation, which is key for implementing adaptive management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Age-Related Mechanism of Emotion Regulation: Regulating Sadness Promotes Children's Learning by Broadening Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation predicts positive academic outcomes like learning, but little is known about "why". Effective emotion regulation likely promotes learning by broadening the scope of what may be attended to after an emotional event. One hundred twenty-six 6- to 13-year-olds' (54% boys) regulation of sadness was examined for changes in…

  10. D-Cycloserine Does Not Facilitate Fear Extinction by Reducing Conditioned Stimulus Processing or Promoting Conditioned Inhibition to Contextual Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D.; McNally, Gavan P.; Richardson, Rick

    2012-01-01

    The NMDA receptor partial agonist d-cycloserine (DCS) enhances the extinction of learned fear in rats and exposure therapy in humans with anxiety disorders. Despite these benefits, little is known about the mechanisms by which DCS promotes the loss of fear. The present study examined whether DCS augments extinction retention (1) through reductions…

  11. Basic Gene Grammars and DNA-ChartParser for language processing of Escherichia coli promoter DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S; Mellish, C; Robertson, D

    2001-03-01

    The field of 'DNA linguistics' has emerged from pioneering work in computational linguistics and molecular biology. Most formal grammars in this field are expressed using Definite Clause Grammars but these have computational limitations which must be overcome. The present study provides a new DNA parsing system, comprising a logic grammar formalism called Basic Gene Grammars and a bidirectional chart parser DNA-ChartParser. The use of Basic Gene Grammars is demonstrated in representing many formulations of the knowledge of Escherichia coli promoters, including knowledge acquired from human experts, consensus sequences, statistics (weight matrices), symbolic learning, and neural network learning. The DNA-ChartParser provides bidirectional parsing facilities for BGGs in handling overlapping categories, gap categories, approximate pattern matching, and constraints. Basic Gene Grammars and the DNA-ChartParser allowed different sources of knowledge for recognizing E.coli promoters to be combined to achieve better accuracy as assessed by parsing these DNA sequences in real-world data sets.

  12. Phage phi 29 regulatory protein p4 stabilizes the binding of the RNA polymerase to the late promoter in a process involving direct protein-protein contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuez, B; Rojo, F; Salas, M

    1992-12-01

    Transcription from the late promoter, PA3, of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 is activated by the viral regulatory protein p4. A kinetic analysis of the activation process has revealed that the role of protein p4 is to stabilize the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter as a closed complex without significantly affecting further steps of the initiation process. Electrophoretic band-shift assays performed with a DNA fragment spanning only the protein p4 binding site showed that RNA polymerase could efficiently retard the complex formed by protein p4 bound to the DNA. Similarly, when a DNA fragment containing only the RNA polymerase-binding region of PA3 was used, p4 greatly stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA. These results strongly suggest that p4 and RNA polymerase contact each other at the PA3 promoter. In the light of current knowledge of the p4 activation mechanism, we propose that direct contacts between the two proteins participate in the activation process.

  13. Implications of participation and equality in the research process for health promotion practice: domestic violence as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Colleen

    2011-08-01

    Contemporary health promotion is underpinned by a philosophy of participation and working with communities to build strength and capacity. This article adds to literature, describing how this is operationalised in health promotion research. The operationalisation of participation and equality in a participatory action research (PAR) project examining domestic violence in five communities from an African refugee background, post settlement in Perth (Ethiopia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Sudan) is described. The qualitative research undertaken included 78 participants: 54 from the five communities and 24 from health and support agency staff who provide services to them and utilised in-depth interviews and focus groups. Ongoing participation by community members and equality within stakeholder relationships was facilitated by the project being community-initiated, the crystallisation of strong stakeholder relationships, data collection by trained bicultural, bilingual interviewers from the five communities, and ongoing involvement of the communities through data analysis and report-writing phases. All stakeholders are able to learn from the perspectives and knowledge of others. Equality can supplant a subject-object relationship typical of much research and evident in some practice, with a subject-subject relationship. It can also transpose community members from the margins to the centre of research and practice. How community strength and capacity can be built through research is instructive for health promotion practice.

  14. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention promoting multiple maternal and neonatal care practices in rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwal Ram C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The challenge of delivering multiple, complex messages to promote maternal and newborn health in the terai region of Nepal was addressed through training Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs to counsel pregnant women and their families using a flipchart and a pictorial booklet that was distributed to clients. The booklet consists of illustrated messages presented on postcard-sized laminated cards that are joined by a ring. Pregnant women were encouraged to discuss booklet content with their families. Methods We examined use of the booklet and factors affecting adoption of practices through semi-structured interviews with district and community-level government health personnel, staff from the Nepal Family Health Program, FCHVs, recently delivered women and their husbands and mothers-in-law. Results The booklet is shared among household members, promotes discussion, and is referred to when questions arise or during emergencies. Booklet cards on danger signs and nutritious foods are particularly well-received. Cards on family planning and certain aspects of birth preparedness generate less interest. Husbands and mothers-in-law control decision-making for maternal and newborn care-seeking and related household-level behaviors. Conclusions Interpersonal peer communication through trusted community-level volunteers is an acceptable primary strategy in Nepal for promotion of household-level behaviors. The content and number of messages should be simplified or streamlined before being scaled-up to minimize intervention complexity and redundant communication.

  15. I will speak up if my voice is socially desirable: A moderated mediating process of promotive versus prohibitive voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Employees are likely to speak up if they perceive high efficacy and low risk associated with such behavior, that is, if they perceive voice is socially desirable. Drawing on socially desirable responding (SDR) theory, we reason that individual value on power distance and supervisory delegation are related to the agentic motive for SDR, and that these 2 factors interact to influence employees' perceived efficacy of voice. We also identify individual value on superficial harmony and group voice climate, which are both relevant to the communal motive for SDR, jointly affect perceived risk of voice. Furthermore, by influencing perceived efficacy and perceived risk, these interactive forces would be differentially related to promotive versus prohibitive voice. Data from 66 middle managers and 262 of their direct reports in 5 high-tech firms provide considerable support for our hypothesized moderated mediation model. Supervisory delegation weakens the negative relationship between power distance and perceived efficacy of promotive voice, and the indirect relationship between power distance and promotive voice via perceived efficacy. In contrast, group voice climate weakens the positive relationship between superficial harmony and perceived risk of prohibitive voice, which mediates the indirect relationship between superficial harmony and prohibitive voice. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our findings in organizational settings. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Is There a Weekly Pattern for Health Searches on Wikipedia and Is the Pattern Unique to Health Topics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Lau, Annie Y S; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-12-22

    Online health information-seeking behaviors have been reported to be more common at the beginning of the workweek. This behavior pattern has been interpreted as a kind of "healthy new start" or "fresh start" due to regrets or attempts to compensate for unhealthy behavior or poor choices made during the weekend. However, the observations regarding the most common health information-seeking day were based only on the analyses of users' behaviors with websites on health or on online health-related searches. We wanted to confirm if this pattern could be found in searches of Wikipedia on health-related topics and also if this search pattern was unique to health-related topics or if it could represent a more general pattern of online information searching--which could be of relevance even beyond the health sector. The aim was to examine the degree to which the search pattern described previously was specific to health-related information seeking or whether similar patterns could be found in other types of information-seeking behavior. We extracted the number of searches performed on Wikipedia in the Norwegian language for 911 days for the most common sexually transmitted diseases (chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]), other health-related topics (influenza, diabetes, and menopause), and 2 nonhealth-related topics (footballer Lionel Messi and pop singer Justin Bieber). The search dates were classified according to the day of the week and ANOVA tests were used to compare the average number of hits per day of the week. The ANOVA tests showed that the sexually transmitted disease queries had their highest peaks on Tuesdays (P<.001) and the fewest searches on Saturdays. The other health topics also showed a weekly pattern, with the highest peaks early in the week and lower numbers on Saturdays (P<.001). Footballer Lionel Messi had the highest mean number of hits on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, whereas

  17. Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wolniewicz-Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia The goal of this article is to examine how different events and phenomena related to the Second World War and the Holocaust are framed via Wikipedia articles written in Polish, Hebrew and English. Departing from the pillars of the theory of framing in mass media, the article conducts a content analysis of three articles, in three different languages. The articles under analysis are the following: “Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp”, “The Pogrom in Jedwabne”, and “Righteous Among the Nations”. The analysis will use the four roles of frames as categories, determined by Entman: definition of the problem/phenomenon, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and treatment recommendation. Analyzing how the articles fulfill each of the roles in the different languages, the research hypothesis is that the framing of the phenomena will differ between the versions, and each version will follow pillars of the collective memory of the Holocaust in its respective country. Findings, however, are not in complete compliance with this hypothesis.   Kształtowanie popularnej wiedzy o Holocauście na przykładzie trzech artykułów z polskiej, hebrajskiej i angielskiej Wikipedii Celem artykułu jest zbadanie, jak przedstawiane są wybrane wydarzenia i zjawiska, związane z historią II wojny światowej oraz Holokaustem, w internetowej encyklopedii „Wikipedia” w różnych językach. Prezentowana analiza treści opiera się na teorii framingu w mass mediach i obejmuje trzy artykuły: „Auschwitz-Birkenau”, „Pogrom w Jedwabnem” oraz „Sprawiedliwy wśród Narodów Świata”, opublikowane w językach polskim, angielskim oraz hebrajskim. W analizie wykorzystano cztery role „ram” (frames, sformułowane przez Entmana: definicja problemu/zjawiska, interpretacja przyczyn, ewaluacja moralna oraz propozycja rozwiązań. Autor, badając to, jak

  18. Principles and processes behind promoting awareness of rights for quality maternal care services: a synthesis of stakeholder experiences and implementation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Asha S; Branchini, Casey

    2017-08-31

    Promoting awareness of rights is a value-based process that entails a different way of thinking and acting, which is at times misunderstood or deemed as aspirational. Guided by the SURE framework, we undertook a secondary analysis of 26 documents identified by an earlier systematic review on promoting awareness of rights to increase use of maternity care services. We thematically analysed stakeholder experiences and implementation factors across the diverse initiatives to derive common elements to guide future efforts. Interventions that promote awareness of rights for maternal health varied in nature, methodological orientation, depth and quality. Materials included booklets, posters, pamphlets/ briefs and service standards/charters. Target populations included women, family members, communities, community structures, community-based and non governmental organizations, health providers and administrators, as well as elected representatives. While one initiative only focused on raising awareness, most were embedded within larger efforts to improve the accountability and responsiveness of service delivery through community monitoring and advocacy, with a few aiming to change policies and contest elections. Underlying these action oriented forms of promoting awareness of rights, was a critical consciousness and attitudinal change gained through iterative capacity-building for all stakeholders; materials and processes that supported group discussion and interaction; the formation or strengthening of community groups; situational analysis to ensure adaptation to local context; facilitation to ensure common ground and language across stakeholders; and strategic networking and alliance building across health system levels. While many positive experiences are discussed, few challenges or barriers to implementation are documented. The limited documentation and poor quality of information found indicate that while various examples of promoting awareness of rights for

  19. ANCA-stimulated neutrophils release BLyS and promote B cell survival: a clinically relevant cellular process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, N J; Williams, J M; Morgan, M D; Challa, A; Gordon, J; Pepper, R J; Salama, A D; Harper, L; Savage, C O S

    2011-12-01

    To determine a role for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-activated neutrophils in promoting B cell survival through the release of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS). Neutrophil BLyS expression was measured by flow cytometry. Concentrations of BLyS in cell supernatants and donor serum samples were measured by ELISA. Cell survival assays were carried out using an L3055 cell line and viability measured by flow cytometry. Tumour necrosis factor α and formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) treatment of non-primed neutrophils and treatment of primed neutrophils with anti-PR3 ANCA IgG resulted in a significant increase in surface expression of BLyS within 30 min which returned to basal levels by 2 h. Supernatants from ANCA-stimulated neutrophils were shown to contain increased levels of BLyS and to promote the survival of the centroblast cell line L3055. Serum BLyS concentrations are increased in patients with active ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis and these levels are increased further following 1-3 months of treatment with rituximab. ANCA specifically causes the release of BLyS from activated neutrophils which can support B cell survival in vitro. The presence of serum BLyS in active disease and its increase following B cell depletion suggest it is an important factor in disease pathogenesis and may facilitate disease relapse.

  20. Reading about explanations enhances perceptions of inevitability and foreseeability: a cross-cultural study with Wikipedia articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeberst, Aileen; von der Beck, Ina; Nestler, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    In hindsight, people often perceive events to be more inevitable and foreseeable than in foresight. According to Causal Model Theory (Nestler et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 34: 1043-1054, 2008), causal explanations are crucial for such hindsight distortions to occur. The present study provides further empirical support for this notion but extends previous findings in several ways. First, ecologically valid materials were used. Second, the effect of causal information on hindsight distortions was investigated in the realm of previously known events. Third, cross-cultural differences in reasoning (analytic vs. holistic) were taken into account. Specifically, German and Vietnamese participants in our study were presented with Wikipedia articles about the nuclear power plant in Fukushima Daiichi, Japan. They read either the version that existed before the nuclear disaster unfolded (Version 1) or the article that existed 8 weeks after the catastrophe commenced (Version 2). Only the latter contained elaborations on causal antecedents and therefore provided an explanation for the disaster. Reading that version led participants to perceive the nuclear disaster to be more likely inevitable and foreseeable when compared to reading Version 1. Cultural background did not exert a significant effect on these perceptions. Hence, hindsight distortions were obtained for ecologically valid materials even if the event was already known. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Promoting evidence informed policy making in Nigeria: a review of the maternal, newborn and child health policy development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition worldwide that health policymaking process should be informed by best available evidence. The purpose of this study was to review the policy documents on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) in Nigeria to assess the extent evidence informed policymaking mechanism was employed in the policy formulation process. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of websites of the Federal Ministry of Health(FMOH) Nigeria and other related ministries and agencies for relevant health policy documents related to MNCH from year 2000 to 2015 was undertaken. The following terms were used interchangeably for the literature search: maternal, child, newborn, health, policy, strategy,framework, guidelines, Nigeria. Results: Of the 108 policy documents found, 19 (17.6%) of them fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. The policy documents focused on the major aspects of maternal health improvements in Nigeria such as reproductive health, anti-malaria treatment, development of adolescent and young people health, mid wives service scheme, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and family planning. All the policy documents indicated that a consultative process of collection of input involving multiple stakeholders was employed, but there was no rigorous scientific process of assessing, adapting, synthesizing and application of scientific evidence reported in the policy development process. Conclusion: It is recommended that future health policy development process on MNCH should follow evidence informed policy making process and clearly document the process of incorporating evidence in the policy development.

  2. Dynamics of carbide formation in iron-supported catalysts of the Fischer-Tropsch process promoted by copper and potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, V. O.; Pankina, G. V.; Chernavskii, P. A.; Lunin, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The kinetics of the formation of iron carbides during the activation of iron-coated catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis promoted by copper and potassium, and by carbon monoxide and syngas, is studied. It is established that the presence of copper lowers the initial temperature of hematite reduction to magnetite and leads to the formation of carbide in both CO and CO/H2. Potassium slows the rate of magnetite formation, but it accelerates the formation of iron oxide. It is shown that the rate of carbide formation during magnetite reduction for catalysts is half that in the reaction of hematite reduction to magnetite in both CO and CO/H2.

  3. [Strengthening innovation in clinical research methodology of acupuncture and moxibustion to promote internationalization process of acupuncture-moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Zou, Wei; Chi, Qing-bin

    2009-06-01

    In order to explore the problems and countermeasure in the methodology of acupuncture and moxibustion clinical researches at present, clinical research literatures about acupuncture and moxibustion (Acup-Mox) published in recent years in our country were reviewed. For the urgent need of the current internationalization of Acup-Mox, the authors proposed the model of clinical research on Acup-Mox, which should strictly stick to the international standard and fully embody traditional Chinese medicine characteristics in the intervention measures of acupuncture. It is indicated that innovation of the methodology about clinical researches of Acup-Mox has great significance in improving the quality of clinical research on Acup-Mox in our country and promoting internationalization of Acup-Mox.

  4. Aesthetic function of artistic signs to promote discursive processes in the classroom: an application for teaching mechanical energy concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the use of an artistic work as mediator to trigger and sustain discursive participation of high school students in the classroom. Since the discursive dimension is an essential factor in constructivist teaching orientation, the general idea behind the work seeks to make use of the aesthetic function of signs to enhance the participation of learners discourse. With this goal in mind, the artistic sign painting Water Fall of the artist Maurits Cornelis Escher is employed for teaching physics concept of conservation of mechanical energy. The study compares two methods of a teacher who tries to promote students interactivity discursive. One methodology is guided only by formulating questions and other uses also an artistic sign along with the questions. The work shows that the teacher gets more successfully discursive participation of their students using the second methodology.

  5. Acute granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor treatment modulates neuroinflammatory processes and promotes tactile recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaty, Sandie; Pezard, Laurent; Xerri, Christian; Brezun, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-04

    Neuroinflammation is known to play a key role in the prognosis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The involvement of microglial and mast cells in early and late stages of inflammation has been receiving increasing attention. This study was aimed at determining the influence of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, the granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on microglia and mast cell activation, glial scar formation and functional recovery following SCI. Rats were randomly injected with saline or GM-CSF one hour after a C4-C5 medio-lateral hemisection. To assess functional impairment and recovery, the rats were subjected to sensorimotor tasks for one month. Then, responses evoked by forepaw stimulation in the primary somatosensory cortex were recorded. We also quantified the changes in GM-CSF, IL-1β, IL-6 and BDNF levels, the gliosis and lesion volume as well as microglial and mast cell density, and mast cell surface. Our findings show that GM-CSF promotes cortical reactivation and recovery of tactile abilities, whereas it does not influence motor performances. A transient decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines after GM-CSF treatment was also observed, whereas the endogenous GM-CSF level was unchanged. While the beneficial role of GM-CSF in reducing glial scar is confirmed, our findings reveal that neuroinflammatory events mediated by microglial and mast cells as well as the alteration of IL-1β and IL-6 levels are paralleled with an improvement in tactile recovery. These mechanisms could limit the duration and intensity of homeostatic imbalance and promote the plasticity of spared tissues. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Process Evaluation of the Project SHINE Intervention for African American Families: An Integrated Positive Parenting and Peer Monitoring Approach to Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Sara M; Wilson, Dawn K; McDaniel, Tyler; Alia, Kassandra A

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the process evaluation of Project SHINE, a randomized family-based health promotion intervention that integrated parenting and peer monitoring for improving sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet in African American families. Adolescent-parent dyads (n = 89) were randomized to a 6-week behavioral, positive parenting, and peer monitoring skills intervention or a general health education comparison condition. Process evaluation included observational ratings of fidelity, attendance records, psychosocial measures, and qualitative interviews. Results indicated that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity based on facilitator adherence (>98% of content delivered) and competent use of theoretically based behavior change and positive parenting skills (100% of ratings >3 on a 1-4 scale). Although only 43% of peers attended the "bring a friend" session, overall attendance was high (4.39 ± 1.51 sessions) as was the retention rate (88%). Parents in the intervention condition reported significant improvements in communication related to adolescents' engagement in health behaviors both on their own and with peers. These findings were supported by qualitative themes related to improvements in family communication and connectedness. This study provides an innovative example of how future family-based health promotion trials can expand their process evaluation approaches by assessing theoretically relevant positive parenting variables as part of ongoing monitoring. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Promoting Writing in Mathematics: Prospective Teachers’ Experiences and Perspectives on the Process of Writing When Doing Mathematics as Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kuzle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a great deal of research on the benefits of writing in mathematics, writing plays a minimal role, if any, in secondary and tertiary mathematics education. In order for teachers to use writing in their classrooms, they themselves have to experience writing mathematics within the teacher education programme. The present paper reports on a study aimed at addressing this gap. In a problem-solving seminar, preservice teachers had an opportunity to experience writing in mathematics and report how this affected their problem-solving processes and shaped their attitudes towards incorporating writing in their classrooms. In order to provide a more detailed description of the phenomenon, four participants were chosen based on their beliefs about mathematics. All of the participants struggled with writing their explanations. Those who used writing as a method to support metacognitive processes while exploring mathematics tended to respond positively to the writing process. The others used writing merely as a method to produce a formal document to be evaluated by the instructor. Consequently, those who viewed writing and doing mathematics as an intertwined process expressed a positive attitude towards using writing in their mathematics classroom. This was, unfortunately, not the case when writing and doing mathematics were seen as two separate processes. Implications for teacher education programmes are presented at the end of the report.

  8. Wastewater sludges pretreated by different oxidation systems at mild conditions to promote the biogas formation in anaerobic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Y; Puyol, D; Ballesteros, L; Martínez, F; Melero, J A

    2016-12-01

    The effect of different oxidation processes at mild conditions including the coupled-Fenton (sono-Fenton, photo-Fenton, and sono-photo-Fenton) and their blank systems (ultrasound, ultraviolet, zero valent iron, and Fenton) on anaerobic digestion of the sludge for biogas production was investigated. Ultrasounds led to the highest organic matter solubilization (3.8 up to 5.2 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L, for the raw and treated sludge, respectively), while for the rest, organic matter transformation was observed resulting in an almost soluble COD net balance. Results indicated that for the most oxidative processes, the released organic matter was probably mineralized by the hydroxyl radicals produced during the treatments. It is interesting to remark that even if the biochemical methane potential was barely enhanced by the different methods applied, all the methods demonstrated to enhance the overall kinetics of the biomethanation processes, increasing the rapidly biodegradable fraction of the sludge.

  9. A productive clash of perspectives? The interplay between articles’ and authors’ perspectives and their impact on Wikipedia edits in a controversial domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Halatchliyski, Iassen; Hancke, Julia; Meurers, Detmar; Cress, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    This study examined predictors of the development of Wikipedia articles that deal with controversial issues. We chose a corpus of articles in the German-language version of Wikipedia about alternative medicine as a representative controversial issue. We extracted edits made until March 2013 and categorized them using a supervised machine learning setup as either being pro conventional medicine, pro alternative medicine, or neutral. Based on these categories, we established relevant variables, such as the perspectives of articles and of authors at certain points in time, the (im)balance of an article’s perspective, the number of non-neutral edits per article, the number of authors per article, authors’ heterogeneity per article, and incongruity between authors’ and articles’ perspectives. The underlying objective was to predict the development of articles’ perspectives with regard to the controversial topic. The empirical part of the study is embedded in theoretical considerations about editorial biases and the effectiveness of norms and rules in Wikipedia, such as the neutral point of view policy. Our findings revealed a selection bias where authors edited mainly articles with perspectives similar to their own viewpoint. Regression analyses showed that an author’s perspective as well as the article’s previous perspectives predicted the perspective of the resulting edits, albeit both predictors interact with each other. Further analyses indicated that articles with more non-neutral edits were altogether more balanced. We also found a positive effect of the number of authors and of the authors’ heterogeneity on articles’ balance. However, while the effect of the number of authors was reserved to pro-conventional medicine articles, the authors’ heterogenity effect was restricted to pro-alternative medicine articles. Finally, we found a negative effect of incongruity between authors’ and articles’ perspectives that was pronounced for the pro

  10. A productive clash of perspectives? The interplay between articles' and authors' perspectives and their impact on Wikipedia edits in a controversial domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirschitzka, Jens; Kimmerle, Joachim; Halatchliyski, Iassen; Hancke, Julia; Meurers, Detmar; Cress, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    This study examined predictors of the development of Wikipedia articles that deal with controversial issues. We chose a corpus of articles in the German-language version of Wikipedia about alternative medicine as a representative controversial issue. We extracted edits made until March 2013 and categorized them using a supervised machine learning setup as either being pro conventional medicine, pro alternative medicine, or neutral. Based on these categories, we established relevant variables, such as the perspectives of articles and of authors at certain points in time, the (im)balance of an article's perspective, the number of non-neutral edits per article, the number of authors per article, authors' heterogeneity per article, and incongruity between authors' and articles' perspectives. The underlying objective was to predict the development of articles' perspectives with regard to the controversial topic. The empirical part of the study is embedded in theoretical considerations about editorial biases and the effectiveness of norms and rules in Wikipedia, such as the neutral point of view policy. Our findings revealed a selection bias where authors edited mainly articles with perspectives similar to their own viewpoint. Regression analyses showed that an author's perspective as well as the article's previous perspectives predicted the perspective of the resulting edits, albeit both predictors interact with each other. Further analyses indicated that articles with more non-neutral edits were altogether more balanced. We also found a positive effect of the number of authors and of the authors' heterogeneity on articles' balance. However, while the effect of the number of authors was reserved to pro-conventional medicine articles, the authors' heterogenity effect was restricted to pro-alternative medicine articles. Finally, we found a negative effect of incongruity between authors' and articles' perspectives that was pronounced for the pro-alternative medicine

  11. Enhancing Promotion, Tenure and Beyond: Faculty Socialization as a Cultural Process. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Rhoads, Robert A.

    This monograph examines the importance of understanding faculty socialization as a cultural process in the context of the current changes urged on higher education. An opening section explores the links between culture and commitment and the importance of understanding such links in light of faculty diversity and other challenges. A second section…

  12. In the mood to face the facts : When a positive mood promotes systematic processing of self-threatening information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Enny; Fennis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that a positive mood can increase attendance to, and systematic processing of, threatening health information, particularly when the information is self-relevant. In Study 1, a positive mood increased differentiation between strong and weak arguments in a

  13. Diseño de un sistema de extracción de información de artículos de Wikipedia

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Guerrero, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo del presente proyecto es el diseño de un sistema de extracción automática de información a partir de grandes corpus de textos. Más concretamente, el desarrollo del proyecto se ha centrado en la búsqueda de información específica dentro de artículos de personajes contenidos en Wikipedia. El sistema diseñado tratará de establecer todas las relaciones posibles entre el artículo analizado y una serie de conceptos contenidos dentro del mismo (enlaces a otros artículos). Estas relacione...

  14. Web 2.0: Wikipedia como fuente de información sobre las ciencias de la alimentación y de la nutrición

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Hernández, Laura María

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la presencia y analizar la pertinencia de la información sobre las ciencias de la alimentación y de la nutrición en las ediciones española e inglesa de la Wikipedia. Así como su utilidad para la educación y formación al comparar la terminología, presencia y adecuación del contenido, con una enciclopedia de ámbito general ampliamente utilizada por estudiantes (Enciclopedia Mini Larousse). Método: La terminología especializada sobre nutrición se obtuvo del Diccionario LID d...

  15. Ginsenoside Rd promotes non-amyloidogenic pathway of amyloid precursor protein processing by regulating phosphorylation of estrogen receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Hu, Gengyao; Yan, Weiming; Chen, Tao; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Juanfang

    2017-01-01

    Previous study demonstrated that Ginsenoside Rd. (GS-Rd) could improve cognitive and memory function in animal model of Alzheimer's disease. This study was aimed to investigate whether GS-Rd could improve non-amyloidogenic pathway by activating estrogen receptor (ER). 10mg/kg GS-Rd in ovariectomy (OVX)+GS-Rd group and equivalent volume of saline in sham operated group and OVX group were administrated intraperitoneally for two months, respectively. The Morris Water Maze was used to examine cognitive function of rats, with sAPPα and Aβ levels in the hippocampi measured. The culture medium of HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells were incubated with GS-Rd, ER antagonist ICI182.780, MAPK inhibitor PD98059, or PI3Kinhibitor LY294002, respectively. sAPPα levels was measured, and expression of α-secretase, sAPPα, β-secretase, Aβ, phosphorylation form of AKT (p-AKT), total AKT, p-ERK, total ERK, p-ERα, total ERα, p-ERβ and total ERβ were examined by Western blot to explore the estrogenic-like activity of GS-Rd. GS-Rd attenuate cognitive and memory impairment, increased levels of sAPPα and reduced extracellular Aβ of OVX rats. In HT22, GS-Rd could upregulate sAPPα level, which can be inhibited by inhibitor of MAPK and PI3K pathway. In addition, inhibitor of estrogen receptor prevented GS-Rd triggered release of sAPPα and activation of MAPK and PI3K pathways. GS-Rd could increase expression of α-secretase and sAPPα, while decrease expression of β-secretase and Aβ. Besides, GS-Rd promoted phosphorylation of estrogen receptor alpha at Ser118 residue. Our findings show that GS-Rd enhances learning and memory function of OVX rats by activating estrogen-like activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Apocynin suppression of NADPH oxidase reverses the aging process in mesenchymal stem cells to promote osteogenesis and increase bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinlong; Ming, Leiguo; Shang, Fengqing; Shen, Lijuan; Chen, Jihua; Jin, Yan

    2015-12-21

    Because of the reduced potential for osteogenesis in aging bone marrow stromal cells, the balance of bone metabolism becomes disrupted, leading to various bone diseases. An increase in reactive oxygen species has been determined to be one of the key factors that accelerates the aging process in BMSCs. In these cells, increased expression of NADPH oxidases is the major source of ROS. In the current study, we suppressed the expression of NOX using apocynin, an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger, and the results showed that aging BMSCs exhibited an enhanced potential for osteogenesis. The expression of potential key targets influencing this reversal was evaluated using qRT-PCR, and the expression of p53 was shown to be reduced with the suppression of NOX. We speculate that this may be one of the major reasons for the reversal of the aging process. We also examined the effect of apocynin in vivo, and the results showed that in SAMP6 mice, bone mineral density and total bone volume were increased after 3 months of apocynin treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that in aging BMSCs, suppression of NADPH oxidase by apocynin partially reverses the aging process and enhances osteogenic potential.

  17. Comparison of the Impact of Wikipedia, UpToDate, and a Digital Textbook on Short-Term Knowledge Acquisition Among Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial of Three Web-Based Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffidi, Michael A; Khan, Rishad; Wang, Christopher; Keren, Daniela; Tsui, Cindy; Garg, Ankit; Brar, Simarjeet; Valoo, Kamesha; Bonert, Michael; de Wolff, Jacob F; Heilman, James; Grover, Samir C

    2017-10-31

    Web-based resources are commonly used by medical students to supplement curricular material. Three commonly used resources are UpToDate (Wolters Kluwer Inc), digital textbooks, and Wikipedia; there are concerns, however, regarding Wikipedia's reliability and accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Wikipedia use on medical students' short-term knowledge acquisition compared with UpToDate and a digital textbook. This was a prospective, nonblinded, three-arm randomized trial. The study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2016. Preclerkship medical students were recruited from four Canadian medical schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants through word of mouth, social media, and email. Participants must have been enrolled in their first or second year of medical school at a Canadian medical school. After recruitment, participants were randomized to one of the three Web-based resources: Wikipedia, UpToDate, or a digital textbook. During testing, participants first completed a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) of 25 questions emulating a Canadian medical licensing examination. During the MCQ, participants took notes on topics to research. Then, participants researched topics and took written notes using their assigned resource. They completed the same MCQ again while referencing their notes. Participants also rated the importance and availability of five factors pertinent to Web-based resources. The primary outcome measure was knowledge acquisition as measured by posttest scores. The secondary outcome measures were participants' perceptions of importance and availability of each resource factor. A total of 116 medical students were recruited. Analysis of variance of the MCQ scores demonstrated a significant interaction between time and group effects (P<.001, ηg2=0.03), with the Wikipedia group scoring higher on the MCQ posttest compared with the textbook group (P<.001, d=0.86). Access to hyperlinks, search functions

  18. Using fear appeals in warning labels to promote responsible gambling among VLT players: the key role of depth of information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Suissa, Jacob Amnon

    2010-12-01

    Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous. Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was used to test our model based on both Elaboration Likelihood Model and Protection Motivation Theory. 258 VLT adult players (58% males, 42% females) with various degrees of problem gambling were exposed to three threat levels (plus a control condition) from two different sources (i.e., either a medical source or a source related to the provider of VLT's). Our results show that both higher threat warnings and the medical source of warnings enhance Depth of Information Processing. It was also found that Depth of Information Processing affects positively attitude change and compliance intentions. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  19. Ex Situ and Operando Studies on the Role of Copper in Cu-Promoted SiO2-MgO Catalysts for the Lebedev Ethanol-to-Butadiene Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelici, Carlo; Meirer, Florian; van der Eerden, Ad M. J.; Schaink, Herrick L.; Goryachev, Andrey; Hofmann, Jan P.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenation promoters greatly enhance the performance of SiO2-MgO catalysts in the Lebedev process. Here, the effect of preparation method and order of addition of Cu on the structure and performance of Cu-promoted SiO2-MgO materials is detailed. Addition of Cu to MgO via incipient wetness

  20. Ferulic Acid, But Not All Hydroxycinnamic Acids, Is a Novel T3SS Inducer of Ralstonia solanacearum and Promotes Its Infection Process in Host Plants under Hydroponic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs are typical monocyclic phenylpropanoids, including cinnamic acid (Cin, coumaric acid (Cou, caffeic acid (Caf, ferulic acid (FA and their isomers, and involved in the interactions between pathogens and host plants. Here, we focused on the impact of HCAs on expression of type III secretion system (T3SS in Ralstonia solanacearum. FA significantly induced the expression of the T3SS and some type III effectors (T3Es genes in hrp-inducing medium, while did not the other HCAs. However, exogenously supplemented FA did not affect the T3SS expression in planta and the elicitation of the hypersensitive response (HR in tobacco leaves. Consistent with its central roles in pathogenicity, the FA-induced expression of the T3SS led to significant promotion on infection process of R. solanacearum in tomato plants under hydroponics cultivation. Moreover, the FA-induced expression of the T3SS was specifically mediated by the well-characterized signaling cascade PrhA-prhI/R-PrhJ-HrpG-HrpB, independent of the other known regulatory pathways. In summary, our results demonstrated that FA, a novel inducer of the T3SS in R. solanacearum, was able to promote its infection process in host plants under hydroponics condition.

  1. Promotion of Ca-Co Bifunctional Catalyst/Sorbent with Yttrium for Hydrogen Production in Modified Chemical Looping Steam Methane Reforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Akbari-Emadabadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application of a calcium-based bifunctional catalyst/sorbent is investigated in modified chemical looping steam methane reforming (CLSMR process for in situ CO2 sorption and H2 production. The yttrium promoted Ca-Co samples were synthesized and applied as bifunctional catalysts/sorbent. The influence of reduction temperature (500–750 °C, Ca/Co and Ca/Y ratios (1.5–∞ and 3–18, respectively and catalyst life time are determined in CLSMR process. The physicochemical transformation of fresh, used and regenerated samples after 16 redox cycles are determined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption–desorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. The effect of yttrium promoter on the structure of catalyst and regeneration step on the reversibility of bifunctional catalyst/sorbent was two important factors. The characterization results revealed that the presence of yttrium in the structure of Ca-9Co sample could improve the morphology and textural properties of catalyst/sorbents. The suitable reversibility of bifunctional catalyst/sorbents during the repeated cycles is confirmed by characterization of calcined samples. The Ca-9Co-4.5Y as optimal catalyst illustrated superior performance and stability. It showed about 95.8% methane conversion and 82.9% hydrogen yield at 700 °C and stable activity during 16 redox cycles.

  2. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Fujioka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography–tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  3. Promoting Local Ownership: Lessons Learned from Process of Transitioning Clinical Mentoring of HIV Care and Treatment in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet M. Kassie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFocus on improving access and quality of HIV care and treatment gained acceptance in Ethiopia through the work of the International Training and Education Center for Health. The initiative deployed mobile field-based teams and capacity building teams to mentor health care providers on clinical services and program delivery in three regions, namely Tigray, Amhara, and Afar. Transitioning of the clinical mentoring program (CMP began in 2012 through capacity building and transfer of skills and knowledge to local health care providers and management.ObjectiveThe initiative explored the process of transitioning a CMP on HIV care and treatment to local ownership and documented key lessons learned.MethodsA mixed qualitative design was used employing focus group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, and review of secondary data. The participants included regional focal persons, mentors, mentees, multidisciplinary team members, and International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH staff. Three facilities were selected in each region. Data were collected by trained research assistants using customized guides for interviews and with data extraction format. The interviews were recorded and fully transcribed. Open Code software was used for coding and categorizing the data.ResultsA total of 16 focus group discussions and 20 individual in-depth interviews were conducted. The critical processes for transitioning a project were: establishment of a mentoring transition task force, development of a roadmap to define steps and directions for implementing the transition, and signing of a memorandum of understanding (MOU between the respective regional health bureaus and I-TECH Ethiopia to formalize the transition. The elements of implementation included mentorship and capacity building, joint mentoring, supportive supervision, review meetings, and independent mentoring supported by facility-based mechanisms: multidisciplinary team

  4. Using Tracking Data to Promote Environmental Public Health Through Regulatory and Legislative Processes in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Wendy; Blank, Jeffrey; Kheirbek, Iyad; Torin, Beth

    Legislation and regulation are powerful tools for decreasing health risks from environmental hazards. Legislation is enacted by an elected body, and regulations are issued by an agency in the executive branch delegated authority by the legislature to carry out enacted laws. The New York City (NYC) Environmental Public Health Tracking Program makes data and analytic findings available to policy makers to inform development of sound and effective environmental health legislation and regulation. Tracking data and associated science create awareness of environmental hazards and health impacts, guide strategies for mitigating hazards, and sustain support for effective law by documenting beneficial impacts on the environment and health. We describe how environmental and health surveillance data and analytic findings have informed legislation and regulations related to restaurant food safety and air pollution control in NYC. Using data to guide legislative and regulatory processes helps ensure that policy decisions and directions are based on objective evidence.

  5. Iron promotion of the TiO{sub 2} photosensitization process towards the photocatalytic oxidation of azo dyes under solar-simulated light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Camilo A.; Centeno, Aristobulo [Centro de Investigaciones en Catalisis (CICAT), Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Giraldo, Sonia A., E-mail: sgiraldo@uis.edu.co [Centro de Investigaciones en Catalisis (CICAT), Escuela de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} Azo dye photooxidation occurs under strict combination of ultraviolet and visible irradiation of Fe-TiO{sub 2}. {yields} Fe{sup 3+} enhances the TiO{sub 2} photooxidation of azo dyes while decreases that of phenol. {yields} UV irradiation leads to a decrease in photooxidation activity of Fe-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts. - Abstract: The photocatalytic oxidation of the azo dye Orange-II (Or-II) using Fe loaded TiO{sub 2} (Fe-TiO{sub 2}) was studied under ultraviolet (UV), visible (vis) and simultaneous UV-vis irradiations using a solar light simulator. Photocatalysts were characterized by means of XRD, SEM-EDX, FTIR and DRS. Fe{sup 3+} species, identified in XPS analyses, were responsible of the increased absorption of visible light. Moreover, DRS analyses showed a decrease in the bandgap due to Fe{sup 3+} loading. Photocatalystic tests proved that Fe modification enhanced the TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic activity towards Or-II photodegradation under simultaneous UV-vis irradiation. Even so, the performance of the Fe-TiO{sub 2} samples towards the photodegradation of phenol, under UV irradiation, was lower than TiO{sub 2} suggesting the recombination of the UV photogenerated electron-hole pair. Therefore, results evidence a Fe{sup 3+} promotion of the electron caption in the photosensitization process of TiO{sub 2} by Or-II acting as a sensitizer. Such process leads to the Or-II photooxidation under UV-vis irradiation by losing energy in electron transferring processes to sensitize TiO{sub 2}, and, the formation of reactive oxygen species promoted by the injected electron to the TiO{sub 2} conduction band.

  6. Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT) Processes Promoted by the Quinolinimide-N-oxyl Radical. A Kinetic and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLabio, Gino A; Franchi, Paola; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Lucarini, Fiorella; Lucarini, Marco; Mazzonna, Marco; Prasad, Viki Kumar; Ticconi, Barbara

    2017-06-16

    A kinetic study of the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions from a series of organic compounds to the quinolinimide-N-oxyl radical (QINO) was performed in CH3CN. The HAT rate constants are significantly higher than those observed with the phthalimide-N-oxyl radical (PINO) as a result of enthalpic and polar effects due to the presence of the N-heteroaromatic ring in QINO. The relevance of polar effects is supported by theoretical calculations conducted for the reactions of the two N-oxyl radicals with toluene, which indicate that the HAT process is characterized by a significant degree of charge transfer permitted by the π-stacking that occurs between the toluene and the N-oxyl aromatic rings in the transition state structures. An increase in the HAT reactivity of QINO was observed in the presence of 0.15 M HClO4 and 0.15 M Mg(ClO4)2 due to the protonation or complexation with the Lewis acid of the pyridine nitrogen that leads to a further decrease in the electron density in the N-oxyl radical. These results fully support the use of N-hydroxyquinolinimide as a convenient substitute for N-hydroxyphthalimide in the catalytic aerobic oxidations of aliphatic hydrocarbons characterized by relatively high C-H bond dissociation energies.

  7. The mechanism for the promotion of tenderness in meat during the post-mortem process: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, A; Yeates, N T

    1978-01-01

    The post-mortem changes in the chemical composition and structure of striated muscle have been reviewed on the basis of various concepts that emerged from the studies of different investigators to explain the course of tenderization of meat during aging. These concepts include the changes in the sarcoplasmic proteins, myofibrillar proteins (such as complete dissociation of actomyosin, partial dissociation of actomyosin, cleavage of disulfide linkages, depolymerization of F-actin filaments, cleavage of myosin filaments, disorganization of Z-bands and the troponin-tropomyosin complex), sarcolemma, connective tissue elements (collagen fibrils, ground substance), and the protein-ion relationship of the muscle cells (more strictly, syncytia). The experimental evidence for and against each of the views is discussed critically in the light of certain fundamentals of biophysical chemistry and biochemistry. Finally, an alternative hypothesis has been presented based on the differential effect of the post-mortem formation of lactic acid (H+ ion concentration) on the intra- and extracellular components of muscle and the possible role of lysosomal cathepsins. Consequently, a series of biophysical, biochemical, and ultrastructural changes seem to account for the mechanism by which meat becomes tender during the aging process.

  8. Meaning-Making Process Related to Temporality During Breast Cancer Traumatic Experience: The Clinical Use of Narrative to Promote a New Continuity of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Martino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has agreed that meaning-making is a key element in the promotion of patients’ well-being during and after a traumatic event such as cancer. In this paper, we focus on an underestimated key element related to the crisis/rupture of this meaning-making process with respect to the time perspective. We consider 40 narratives of breast cancer patients at different times of treatment, undergoing chemotherapy and biological therapy. We collected data through writing technique. We performed an interpretative thematic analysis of the data and highlighted specific ways to signify time during the different treatment phases. Our central aspect “the time of illness, the illness of time” demonstrates that the time consumed by illness has the risk of becoming an illness of time, which transcends the end of the illness and absorbs a patient’s past, present, and future, thus saturating all space for thought and meaning. The study suggests that narrative can become a therapeutic and preventive tool for women with breast cancer in a crisis of temporality, and enable the promotion of new semiotic connections and a specific functional resynchronization with the continuity/discontinuity of life. This is useful during the illness and medical treatment and also after the treatment.

  9. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Christina J; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D

    2015-05-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her eight social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately affected by HIV. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: Process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Christina J.; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her 8 social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately impacted by HIV. PMID:25416309

  11. Meaning-Making Process Related to Temporality During Breast Cancer Traumatic Experience: The Clinical Use of Narrative to Promote a New Continuity of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Luisa; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has agreed that meaning-making is a key element in the promotion of patients’ well-being during and after a traumatic event such as cancer. In this paper, we focus on an underestimated key element related to the crisis/rupture of this meaning-making process with respect to the time perspective. We consider 40 narratives of breast cancer patients at different times of treatment, undergoing chemotherapy and biological therapy. We collected data through writing technique. We performed an interpretative thematic analysis of the data and highlighted specific ways to signify time during the different treatment phases. Our central aspect “the time of illness, the illness of time” demonstrates that the time consumed by illness has the risk of becoming an illness of time, which transcends the end of the illness and absorbs a patient’s past, present, and future, thus saturating all space for thought and meaning. The study suggests that narrative can become a therapeutic and preventive tool for women with breast cancer in a crisis of temporality, and enable the promotion of new semiotic connections and a specific functional resynchronization with the continuity/discontinuity of life. This is useful during the illness and medical treatment and also after the treatment. PMID:27872670

  12. The tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR interacts with promoters involved in numerous ripening processes in a COLORLESS NONRIPENING-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Catherine; Vrebalov, Julia; Tafelmeyer, Petra; Giovannoni, James J

    2011-11-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process responsible for the transformation of the seed-containing organ into a tissue attractive to seed dispersers and agricultural consumers. The coordinated regulation of the different biochemical pathways necessary to achieve this change receives considerable research attention. The MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN) is an essential regulator of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening but the exact mechanism by which it influences the expression of ripening-related genes remains unclear. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation approach, we provide evidence that RIN interacts with the promoters of genes involved in the major pathways associated with observed and well-studied ripening phenotypes and phenomena, including the transcriptional control network involved in overall ripening regulation, ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene perception, downstream ethylene response, cell wall metabolism, and carotenoid biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the cases of ethylene and carotenoid biosynthesis, RIN interacts with the promoters of genes encoding rate-limiting activities. We also show that RIN recruitment to target loci is dependent on a normally functioning allele at the ripening-specific transcription factor COLORLESS NONRIPENING gene locus, further clarifying the relationship between these two ripening regulators.

  13. Development of a carbonate absorption-based process for post-combustion CO2 capture: The role of biocatalyst to promote CO2 absorption rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Ye, X.; Zhang, Z.; Khodayari, A.; Djukadi, T.

    2011-01-01

    An Integrated Vacuum Carbonate Absorption Process (IVCAP) for post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture is described. IVCAP employs potassium carbonate (PC) as a solvent, uses waste or low quality steam from the power plant for CO2 stripping, and employs a biocatalyst, carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme, for promoting the CO2 absorption into PC solution. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the activity of CA enzyme mixed in PC solutions in a stirred tank reactor system under various temperatures, CA dosages, CO2 loadings, CO2 partial pressures, and the presence of major flue gas contaminants. It was demonstrated that CA enzyme is an effective biocatalyst for CO2 absorption under IVCAP conditions. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Electron Transfer Mechanism in the Oxidation of Aryl 1-Methyl-1-phenylethyl Sulfides Promoted by Nonheme Iron(IV)-Oxo Complexes: The Rate of the Oxygen Rebound Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Alessia; Del Giacco, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Stefano; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Mazzonna, Marco; Olivo, Giorgio

    2016-12-16

    The oxidation of aryl 1-methyl-1-phenylethyl sulfides promoted by the nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes [(N4Py)FeIV═O]2+ and [(Bn-TPEN)FeIV═O]2+ occurs by an electron transfer-oxygen rebound (ET-OT) mechanism leading to aryl 1-methyl-1-phenylethyl sulfoxides accompanied by products derived from Cα-S fragmentation of sulfide radical cations (2-phenyl-2-propanol and diaryl disulfides). For the first time, the rate constants for the oxygen rebound process (kOT), which are in the range of <0.8 × 104 to 3.5 × 104 s-1, were determined from the fragmentation rate constants of the radical cations (kf) and the S oxidation/fragmentation product ratios.

  15. A novel approach to enhance biological nutrient removal using a culture supernatant from Micrococcus luteus containing resuscitation-promoting factor (Rpf) in SBR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yindong; Su, Xiaomei; Lu, Lian; Ding, Linxian; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-03-01

    A culture supernatant from Micrococcus luteus containing resuscitation-promoting factor (SRpf) was used to enhance the biological nutrient removal of potentially functional bacteria. The obtained results suggest that SRpf accelerated the start-up process and significantly enhanced the biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). PO4 (3-)-P removal efficiency increased by over 12 % and total nitrogen removal efficiency increased by over 8 % in treatment reactor acclimated by SRpf compared with those without SRpf addition. The Illumina high-throughput sequencing analysis showed that SRpf played an essential role in shifts in the composition and diversity of bacterial community. The phyla of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which were closely related to biological nutrient removal, were greatly abundant after SRpf addition. This study demonstrates that SRpf acclimation or addition might hold great potential as an efficient and cost-effective alternative for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to meet more stringent operation conditions and legislations.

  16. Tandem processes promoted by a hydrogen shift in 6-arylfulvenes bearing acetalic units at ortho position: a combined experimental and computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Alajarin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 6-Phenylfulvenes bearing (1,3-dioxolan or dioxan-2-yl substituents at ortho position convert into mixtures of 4- and 9-(hydroxyalkoxy-substituted benz[f]indenes as result of cascade processes initiated by a thermally activated hydrogen shift. Structurally related fulvenes with non-cyclic acetalic units afforded mixtures of 4- and 9-alkoxybenz[f]indenes under similar thermal conditions. Mechanistic paths promoted by an initial [1,4]-, [1,5]-, [1,7]- or [1,9]-H shift are conceivable for explaining these conversions. Deuterium labelling experiments exclude the [1,4]-hydride shift as the first step. A computational study scrutinized the reaction channels of these tandem conversions starting by [1,5]-, [1,7]- and [1,9]-H shifts, revealing that this first step is the rate-determining one and that the [1,9]-H shift is the one with the lowest energy barrier.

  17. Changes of soil prokaryotic communities after clear-cutting in a karst forest: evidences for cutting-based disturbance promoting deterministic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Shirong; Li, Xiangzhen; Wang, Jingxin; Ding, Qiong; Wang, Hui; Tian, Chao; Yao, Minjie; An, Jiaxing; Huang, Yongtao

    2016-03-01

    To understand the temporal responses of soil prokaryotic communities to clear-cutting disturbance, we examined the changes in soil bacterial and archaeal community composition, structure and diversity along a chronosequence of forest successional restoration using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Our results demonstrated that clear-cutting significantly altered soil bacterial community structure, while no significant shifts of soil archaeal communities were observed. The hypothesis that soil bacterial communities would become similar to those of surrounding intact primary forest with natural regeneration was supported by the shifts in the bacterial community composition and structure. Bacterial community diversity patterns induced by clear-cutting were consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Dynamics of bacterial communities was mostly driven by soil properties, which collectively explained more than 70% of the variation in bacterial community composition. Community assembly data revealed that clear-cutting promoted the importance of the deterministic processes in shaping bacterial communities, coinciding with the resultant low resource environments. But assembly processes in the secondary forest returned a similar level compared to the intact primary forest. These findings suggest that bacterial community dynamics may be predictable during the natural recovery process. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Fluctuations in Wikipedia access-rate and edit-event data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Mirko; Tismer, Sebastian; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Muchnik, Lev

    2012-12-01

    Internet-based social networks often reflect extreme events in nature and society by drastic increases in user activity. We study and compare the dynamics of the two major complex processes necessary for information spread via the online encyclopedia ‘Wikipedia’, i.e., article editing (information upload) and article access (information viewing) based on article edit-event time series and (hourly) user access-rate time series for all articles. Daily and weekly activity patterns occur in addition to fluctuations and bursting activity. The bursts (i.e., significant increases in activity for an extended period of time) are characterized by a power-law distribution of durations of increases and decreases. For describing the recurrence and clustering of bursts we investigate the statistics of the return intervals between them. We find stretched exponential distributions of return intervals in access-rate time series, while edit-event time series yield simple exponential distributions. To characterize the fluctuation behavior we apply detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), finding that most article access-rate time series are characterized by strong long-term correlations with fluctuation exponents α≈0.9. The results indicate significant differences in the dynamics of information upload and access and help in understanding the complex process of collecting, processing, validating, and distributing information in self-organized social networks.

  19. Implementing a Mentally Healthy Schools Framework Based on the Population Wide Act-Belong-Commit Mental Health Promotion Campaign: A Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert John; Nicholas, Amberlee; Kerrigan, Simone; Francas, Stephanie; Phan, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mentally Healthy WA developed and implemented the Mentally Healthy Schools Framework in 2010 in response to demand from schools wanting to promote the community-based Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion message within a school setting. Schools are an important setting for mental health promotion, therefore, the Framework encourages…

  20. What do health-promoting schools promote?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer......-promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence...

  1. An evaluation of a geographic information system software and its utility in promoting the use of integrated process skills in secondary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Thomas Diamond

    2001-07-01

    As technology continues to become an integral part of our educational system, research that clarifies how various technologies affect learning should be available to educators prior to the large scale introduction of any new technology into the classroom. This study will assess the degree to which a relatively new Geographic Information System Software (ArcView 3.1), when utilized by high school freshman in earth science and geography courses, can be used to (a) promote and develop integrated process skills in these students, and (b) improve their awareness and appraisal of their problem solving abilities. Two research questions will be addressed in this research: (1) Will the use of a GIS to solve problems with authentic contexts enhance the learning and refinement of integrated process skills over more conventional means of classroom instruction? and (2) Will students' perceptions of competence to solve problems within authentic contexts be greater for those who learned to use and implement a GIS when compared to those who have learned by more conventional means of classroom instruction? Research Question 1 will be assessed by using the Test of Integrated Process Skills II (or TIPS II) and Research Question 2 will be addressed by using the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The research will last thirteen weeks. The TIPS II and the PSI will be administered after the intervention of GIS to the experimental group, at which point an Analysis of Covariance and the Mann-Whitney U-test will be utilized to measure the affects of intervention by the independent variable. Teacher/researcher journals and teacher/student questionnaires will be used to compliment the statistical analysis. It is hoped that this study will help in the creation of future instructional models that enable educators to utilize modern technologies appropriately in their classrooms.

  2. Simvastatin attenuates intestinal fibrosis independent of the anti-inflammatory effect by promoting fibroblast/myofibroblast apoptosis in the regeneration/healing process from TNBS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yosuke; Murano, Mitsuyuki; Murano, Naoko; Morita, Eijiro; Inoue, Takuya; Kawakami, Ken; Ishida, Kumi; Kuramoto, Takanori; Kakimoto, Kazuki; Okada, Toshihiko; Narabayashi, Ken; Umegaki, Eiji; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal deformity and stenosis are induced by fibrosis during the process healing of intestinal chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Potent anti-inflammatory treatment of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) may induce fibrous stenosis, and this is often difficult to treat in clinical practice. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a treatment strategy that concomitantly exhibits repair/regenerative and anti-fibrotic effects, in addition to the current anti-inflammatory effect, for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the relationship between the course of inflammatory activity and the healing process and fibrogenesis has not been elucidated; although the complex involvement of various factors in the mechanism of biological fibrosis has been investigated. Simvastatin (SIMV), an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The current study established a model of the regeneration/healing process from TNBS-induced colitis and investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of SIMV. Four groups of TNBS-induced colitis model were prepared using male SJL/J mice: A: Normal control group, B: control group, and C and D: treatment groups. The mucosal healing process was classified into three phases (an early phase: inflammation period, a mid-phase: regeneration promoting period, and a late phase: regeneration-converging period), and inflammation, the expression of fibrosis-related growth factors, and induction of apoptosis of fibrosis-related cells were compared in each period. (1) The clinical findings showed that SIMV showed anti-inflammatory effects with body weight gain and improvement of epithelial injury in the late phase. Histological (macroscopic/microscopic) improvement was noted in the mid- and late phases. The inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) level significantly decreased in the mid- and late phases in the high-dose treatment group. (2) SIMV also had anti-fibrotic effects

  3. A snapshot of how latino heterosexual men promote sexual health within their social networks: process evaluation findings from an efficacious community-level intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Vissman, Aaron T; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Gilbert, Paul A

    2012-12-01

    Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (HoMBReS) was a community-level social network intervention designed to increase sexual health among Latino heterosexual men who were members of a multicounty soccer league. Process data were collected each month during 18 months of intervention implementation from each of 15 trained Latino male lay health advisors (known as Navegantes) to explore the activities that Navegantes conducted to increase condom and HIV testing among their social network members. The Navegantes reported conducting 2,364 activities, for a mean of 8.8 activities per Navegante per month. The most common activity was condom distribution. Most activities were conducted with men; about 2% were conducted with women. Among activities conducted with men, half were conducted with soccer teammates and half with nonteammates. Results suggest that Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community. Innovative methods that reach large numbers of community members are needed given the lack of prevention resources for populations disproportionately impacted by HIV and STDs.

  4. Cinema e territorio. Processi di valorizzazione e promozione (cineturistica delle destinazioni minori / Cinema and territory. Processes of enhancement and (cinetouristic promotion of minor destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cresta

    2016-05-01

    Il contributo, a partire da un’analisi delle più celebri pellicole girate in Irpinia, rilegge dunque il legame tra Cinema e territorio alla luce delle esperienze di progettualità in corso che vedono nel cine-turismo una possibile forme di sviluppo locale da valorizzare. The objective of the paper is to make a reflection on the relationship between cinema, creativity and practical tourism in the processes of development and promotion of cinetourism which affect, in particular, the minor destinations. To this end, the experience of Irpinia is presented, where the authenticity of the places and the aspirations of a few enlightened by love for the “Seventh Art” has, since the early twentieth century, inspired several film projects, mixing suggestions real with virtual effects film, have proposed a transposition of the culture and customs, traditions and ways of life of Irpinia. A combination between the cinema and Irpinia which transforms Avellino, at the time one of the poorest and remotest provincial of Italy, the world capital of cinema neorealist; able to influence actively on backwardness typical of southern reality. The contribution, through an analysis of the most famous films shot in Irpinia, reads the link between cinema and territory based on the experience of existing projects that see in cine-tourism possible forms of local development to be enhanced.

  5. Small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis through negatively regulating pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a regulated cellular suicide program that is critical for the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Previous studies have shown that small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP cooperates with kinetochore and mitotic spindle proteins to regulate mitosis. However, the role of SKAP in apoptosis has not been investigated. We have identified a new interaction involving SKAP, and we propose a mechanism through which SKAP regulates cell apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrate that both overexpression and knockdown of SKAP sensitize cells to UV-induced apoptosis. Further study has revealed that SKAP interacts with Pre-mRNA processing Factor 19 (Prp19. We find that UV-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by ectopic expression of Prp19, whereas silencing Prp19 has the opposite effect. Additionally, SKAP negatively regulates the protein levels of Prp19, whereas Prp19 does not alter SKAP expression. Finally, rescue experiments demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic role of SKAP is executed through Prp19. Taken together, these findings suggest that SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis by negatively regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Prp19.

  6. Knockdown of menin affects pre-mRNA processing and promoter fidelity at the interferon-gamma inducible IRF1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auriemma Lauren B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tumor suppressor menin (MEN1 is mutated in the inherited disease multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, and has several documented cellular roles, including the activation and repression of transcription effected by several transcription factors. As an activator, MEN1 is a component of the Set1-like mixed lineage leukemia (MLL MLL1/MLL2 methyltransferase complex that methylates histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4. MEN1 is localized to the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1-dependent gene, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1, and is further recruited when IRF1 transcription is triggered by interferon-γ signaling. Results RNAi-mediated knockdown of MEN1 alters the H3K4 dimethylation and H3 acetylation profiles, and the localization of histone deacetylase 3, at IRF1. While MEN1 knockdown does not impact the rate of transcription, IRF1 heteronuclear transcripts become enriched in MEN1-depleted cells. The processed mRNA and translated protein product are concomitantly reduced, and the antiviral state is attenuated. Additionally, the transcription start site at the IRF1 promoter is disrupted in the MEN1-depleted cells. The H3K4 demethylase, lysine specific demethylase 1, is also associated with IRF1, and its inhibition alters H3K4 methylation and disrupts the transcription start site as well. Conclusions Taken together, the data indicate that MEN1 contributes to STAT1-activated gene expression in a novel manner that includes defining the transcription start site and RNA processing.

  7. Process evaluation of the Living Green, Healthy and Thrifty (LiGHT) web-based child obesity management program: combining health promotion with ecology and economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogova, Maria; Song, Joshua Eun-Soo; Campbell, Audrey Clare; Warbuton, Darren; Warshawski, Tom; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    To conduct a process evaluation of the Living Green, Healthy and Thrifty (LiGHT) program, a novel virtual child obesity management program that combines health promotion with ecology and economy (Phase 1). We carried out a mixed methods process evaluation involving qualitative and quantitative data collection in 3 phases: among 3 child-parent units, (group 1) that informed program development; 9 child-parent units (group 2) that tested the draft program and further aided program refinement; and 17 child-parent units (group 3) for a 4-week pilot of the program. In the program pilot, we assessed participants' knowledge and readiness to change pre- and postintervention and explored perceptions of the program. Participants generally felt that the online format for program delivery was convenient and accessible, the content was practical, and the integration of health-environment-economy was well received. Many parents also appreciated the involvement of the family. However, the lack of visual appeal and overabundance of text was identified as a challenge, and children/youth in particular requested assurance that their personal information (e.g. weight) was not seen by their parents. The online method of program delivery holds the unique challenge of requiring special efforts to create a sense of personal connection and community. The presence of a "Way-finder" to assist participants and discussion boards/forums are potential solutions. The LiGHT online weight management program offers an accessible, convenient weight management resource that children and families appreciate for its availability, broader educational scope, and practicality. Outcome evaluation of LiGHT will be carried out in Phase 2 of the project. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an

  9. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Promoters are crucial for gene regulation. They vary greatly in terms of associated regulatory elements, sequence motifs, the choice of transcription start sites and other features. Several technologies that harness next-generation sequencing have enabled recent advances in identifying promoters ...

  10. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...... - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as Empowerment for Child...

  11. El paper de la Wikipedia en la gestió de la reputació: una anàlisi de les millors i les pitjors companyies dels Estats Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia W. DiStaso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ser considerada una de las mejores compañías de Estados Unidos es un gran honor, pero la buena reputación no exime a estas empresas de encontrar aspectos negativos en la Wikipedia, la enciclopedia en línea editada en colaboración. Mediante un análisis de contenido de las compañías que tienen mejor y peor reputación de Estados Unidos, este estudio demuestra que el contenido negativo de los artículos corporativos que se publican en la Wikipedia supera el contenido positivo con independencia de la reputación de la empresa. Se ha comprobado que tanto las mejores como las peores compañías contienen más contenidos negativos que positivos. Es una cuestión importante, puesto que la Wikipedia no es solo uno de los lugares web más populares del mundo, sino que se ha convertido en uno de los primeros lugares para buscar información corporativa. A pesar de que se han encontrado más contenidos relacionados con la responsabilidad social corporativa en las entradas de las diez compañías con mejor reputación, estos quedaban eclipsados por cuestiones vinculadas con escándalos o asuntos legales. La conclusión es que los profesionales de las relaciones públicas tendrían que supervisar y actualizar periódicamente sus artículos corporativos en la Wikipedia con independencia de la compañía para la que trabajen. 

  12. Recruitment and retention in a 10-month social network-based intervention promoting diabetes self-management in socioeconomically deprived patients: a qualitative process evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; Uitewaal, Paul J M; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Stronks, Karien

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Socioeconomically deprived patients with type 2 diabetes often face challenges with self-management, resulting in more diabetes-related complications. However, these groups are often under-represented in self-management interventions. Evidence on effective recruitment and retention strategies is growing, but lacking for intensive self-management interventions. This study aims to explore recruitment, retention and effective intervention strategies in a 10-month group-based intervention among Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish and Surinamese patients from socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods. Methods Participants were recruited through general practitioners (GPs) and participated in a 10-month social network-based intervention (10 groups, n=69): Powerful Together with Diabetes. This intervention also targeted the significant others of participants and aimed to increase social support for self-management and to decrease social influences hindering self-management. A qualitative process evaluation was conducted. Retention was measured using log books kept by group leaders. Further, we conducted 17 in-depth interviews with participants (multiethnic sample) and 18 with group leaders. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed using framework analyses. Results The GP's letter and reminder calls, an informational meeting and the intervention's informal nature facilitated recruitment. During the first months, positive group atmosphere, the intervention's perceived usefulness, opportunities to socialise and a reduction in practical barriers facilitated retention. After the first months, conflicting responsibilities and changes in the intervention's nature and planning hindered retention. Calls from group leaders and the prospect of a diploma helped participants overcome these barriers. Conclusion To promote retention in lengthy self-management interventions, it seems important that patients feel they are going on an outing to a social gathering that is enjoyable

  13. Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Hänggi, Jürgen; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    Until now, considerable effort has been made to determine structural brain characteristics related to exceptional multilingual skills. However, at least one important question has not yet been satisfactorily addressed in the previous literature, namely whether and to which extent the processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions may promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain. Based on the premise that simultaneous interpretation is a highly demanding linguistic task that places strong demands on executive and articulatory functions, here we compared grey matter volumes between professional simultaneous interpreters (SI) and multilingual control subjects. Thereby, we focused on a specific set of a-priori defined bilateral brain regions that have previously been shown to support neurocognitional aspects of language control and linguistic functions in the multilingual brain. These regions are the cingulate gyrus, caudate nucleus, frontal operculum (pars triangularis and opercularis), inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (supramarginal and angular gyrus), and the insula. As a main result, we found reduced grey matter volumes in professional SI, compared to multilingual controls, in the left middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, bilateral middle part of the insula, and in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Interestingly, grey matter volume in left pars triangularis, right pars opercularis, middle-anterior cingulate gyrus, and in the bilateral caudate nucleus was negatively correlated with the cumulative number of interpreting hours. Hence, we provide first evidence for an expertise-related grey matter architecture that may reflect a composite of brain characteristics that were still present before interpreting training and training-related changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relevance of First-Tier, Peer-Reviewed Journals in the Tenure and Promotion Process at Non-Doctoral Granting Engineering Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda S. Florio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE (formerly the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is the world's largest professional society dedicated to the advancement of technology. While it is indeed growing into multiple technology areas, the IEEE is still first an organization of electrical, electronics, and computer engineering professionals. It has over 400,000 members and publishes nearly 100, first-tier, peer-reviewed journals. As such a large purveyor of scholarly works, engineering faculty at almost all academic institutions (doctoral granting and non-doctoral granting are familiar with the IEEE. For this reason, the IEEE makes an excellent case study for the relevance of first-tier, peer-reviewed journals in the tenure and promotion process at non-doctoral granting engineering institutions. In our work, we surveyed editors of the 97 IEEE journals. 93% of respondents indicated that 10% or less of their submissions were from non-academic institutions. None (0% of the respondents believed that the number of non-doctoral granting institution submissions would be increasing over the next three years. In fact, a majority of the respondents (55% see the number of non-doctoral granting institution submissions decreasing in the same time frame. To correlate this data, we examined a sample of 2,099 articles published in the first issue of each IEEE journal in 2009. 357 (17% of these 2,099 articles were authored by individuals from academic institutions in the United States. Of the 357, only 35 were published by individuals from non-doctoral granting institutions (1.7%, with only 8 (0.38% from institutions where a bachelor degree is the highest offered.

  15. Developing Mechanisms to Promote

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review, 5(1) 2001, pp.l7-35. Michael J. Kahn. Developing Mechanisms to ... Arguably this is a suite of thrusts that promote knowledge development and transfer, but the historical .... is at the level of feasibility studies into mining, ore processing, instrumentation and process control, and recovery of metals ...

  16. Sludge from mining and processing stone: strategies to improve resource efficiency and promote recycling according to the pillars of the European Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Zichella, Lorena; Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The world increasingly need of greater varieties of raw materials and minerals, this leads to take action to promote the recovery of Critical Raw Materials (CRMs). According to the new European mining management vision and with the EU pillars, the European Raw Materials strategy must lay the foundations for a European policy of production of strategic raw materials that raises extraction mining option, promoting recovery of CRM from recycling, provide incentives for study and research at Euro...

  17. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  18. Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.

    1989-04-04

    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  19. Health Professionals' Perspectives on Exercise Referral and Physical Activity Promotion in Primary Care: Findings from a Process Evaluation of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Nafees U.; Moore, Graham F.; Murphy, Simon; Wilkinson, Clare; Williams, Nefyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Referring clinicians' experiences of exercise referral schemes (ERS) can provide valuable insights into their uptake. However, most qualitative studies focus on patient views only. This paper explores health professionals' perceptions of their role in promoting physical activity and experiences of a National Exercise…

  20. The Adaptation of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme for Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Community-Engaged Research Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Kristie L.; Bandini, Linda G.; Folta, Sara C.; Wansink, Brian; Must, Aviva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidenced-based health promotion programmes for youth with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are notably absent. Barriers include a lack of understanding of how to adapt existing evidence-based programmes to their needs, maximize inclusion and support mutual goals of health and autonomy. Methods: We undertook a…